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Sample records for black sea region

  1. REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia GAVUIK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is situated in a very important geopolitical manner. Consequently, a large-scale regional collaboration becomes possible within the Black Sea zone and countries get appropriate conditions to launch their activity in this context. Aim: The body of the article is going to analyze the BSEC as one of the most successful regional organizations in the Black Sea area. The paper aims to provide an overview of the regional players’ activity in the framework of the BSEC which are involved in sustaining and strengthening of this organization and also in continuing the reform process in it, developing in the same time relations of cooperation with the EU and other regional initiatives. Methods. This article embraces a row of different scientific methods of data analysis, predictive analytics, historical and statistical overview, descriptive method, case study etc. Results. The countries from the Black Sea basin are the most vulnerable to potential risks and shocks due to the instability of the region. This requires the interstate cooperation in the Black Sea area with no tradition in this field several decades ago. In the same time, countries like Turkey, Romania or Russia aspire to play the role of the regional leader, which can cause regional rivalries. With the help of the regional cooperation and the BSEC in particular, regional countries could learn how to work together for the common benefit. The creation of stable markets, interconnected and transparent regional organizations and initiatives would largely contribute to the security and stability of the Black Sea region.

  2. Variscan orogeny in the Black Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Aral I.; Topuz, Gültekin

    2016-09-01

    Two Gondwana-derived Paleozoic belts rim the Archean/Paleoproterozoic nucleus of the East European Platform in the Black Sea region. In the north is a belt of Paleozoic passive-margin-type sedimentary rocks, which extends from Moesia to the Istanbul Zone and to parts of the Scythian Platform (the MOIS Block). This belt constituted the south-facing continental margin of the Laurussia during the Late Paleozoic. This margin was deformed during the Carboniferous by folding and thrusting and forms the Variscan foreland. In the south is a belt of metamorphic and granitic rocks, which extends from the Balkanides through Strandja, Sakarya to the Caucasus (BASSAC Block). The protoliths of the metamorphic rocks are predominantly late Neoproterozoic granites and Paleozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks, which were deformed and metamorphosed during the Early Carboniferous. There are also minor eclogites and serpentinites, mostly confined to the northern margin of the BASSAC Block. Typical metamorphism is of low pressure-high temperature type and occurred during the Early Carboniferous (Visean, 340-330 Ma) coevally with that observed in the Central Europe. Volumetrically, more than half of the crystalline belt is made up of Carboniferous-earliest Permian (335-294 Ma) granites. The type of metamorphism, its concurrent nature over 1800 km length of the BASSAC Block and voluminous acidic magmatism suggest that the thermal event probably occurred in the deep levels of a continental magmatic arc. The BASSAC arc collided with Laurussia in the mid-Carboniferous leading to the foreland deformation. The ensuing uplift in the Permian resulted in the deposition of continental red beds, which are associated with acidic magmatic rocks observed over the foreland as well as over the BASSAC Block. In the Black Sea region, there was no terminal collision of Laurussia with Gondwana during the Late Paleozoic and the Laurussia margin continued to face the Paleo-Tethyan ocean in the south.

  3. The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Göktepe, B. Gül

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since the Bucharest Convention signed in 1992.The Black Sea Region has became a challenging intemational arena for political, scientific and socioeconomic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic ...

  4. The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since Bucharest Convention signed in 1992. The Black Sea Region has became a challenging international arena for political scientific and socio-economic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Black Sea Environmental Programme(BSEP), Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin, Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region Technical Cooperation Programme by the IAEA and establishment of the Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat are some of the major international efforts of the past decade that emphasizes the multi-nationality and large dimension of the Black Sea environmental management issues. The environmental degradation of the Black Sea is briefly reviewed based on the BSEP reports and data available for land based pollution sources. The environmental risk of marine vessel accidents are indicated and environmental safety concern is emphasized under the current conditions of intense energy transportation projects in the Black Sea and Caspian regions. The international policy actions, co-operation issues and scientific programmes of the past decade are overviewed with emphasis on the international achievements. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of continuation of the international commitments and sharing the political, scientific and socio-economic responsibility on the transboundary environmental pollution, rehabilitation and the safety issues of the Black Sea

  5. Potential and challenges for the Black Sea regional cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galya VLADOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early nineties, the Black Sea region has witnessed fundamental geopolitical changes and significant shifts in its regional context and dynamics. In an attempt to react to the altered circumstances after the collapse of the Soviet Union and to address an increasing number of common challenges, the Black Sea states have jointed efforts in various regional cooperation activities. Throughout the years, the Black Sea cooperation has evolved with different speed and success, reflecting the difficult regional circumstances and attracting increasing external involvement. Today, more than twenty years after the first cooperation activities have been launched, the Black Sea cooperation is still shadowed by persisting historical rivalries, unrecognized territorial entities, ‘frozen conflicts’ and security threats. As a result, despite the many pressing problems of regional character, the cooperation efforts are currently showing rather limited outcomes. Seen against this background, the current paper presents a study of the main challenges and the existing potential for further development of the Black Sea regional cooperation.

  6. Droughts in the Miocene of the Black Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Iuliana; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Grothe, Arjen; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    Since Miocene the Black Sea has been highly sensitive to fluctuations in the hydrological cycle. These fluctuations were principally determined by Black Sea's recurrently restricted connections to the Open Ocean and by its specific paleogeographic location between the dry Mediterranean domain and more humid higher northern latitudes. To determine the nature of changes in the hydrological budget of the Black Sea occurring during the late Miocene we use compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios on terrestrial and aquatic biomarkers extracted from two different locations: 1) the sedimentary succession of Zhelezniy Rog land based section of Taman in Russia and 2) the deep sea sedimentary succession recovered in 1975 from the Black Sea (DSDP 42B, Hole 380A). The carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of n-alkanes as well as alkenones and palynology indicate large environmental changes in the Black Sea and/or in the sources of the water entering the Black Sea during the late Miocene. The hydrogen isotopes of alkenones, showing an enrichment of more than 80 ‰ at the end of the Miocene, imply a major shift in basin hydrology, possibly resulting in severely increased salinity. These changes in hydrogen isotopic composition of the alkenones concur both with sharp shifts in reconstructed sea surface temperature and palynological assemblages. Two intervals with negative water budget were identified, most likely caused by enhanced evaporation. The older and longer dry/evaporative phase predates the Maeotian/Pontian boundary (regional stages) at ~6.1 Ma. The younger negative water budget phase is partly coeval to the Messinian salinity crisis of Mediterranean. Both shifts to highly evaporative conditions are recorded in both Taman Peninsula (Russia) and DSDP 42B 380A locations. These recurrent dryer phases were, most likely, the result of important hydrological changes over a significantly larger area around the Black Sea area during the upper Miocene.

  7. Regional higher education co-operation: a research proposal to compare the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea regions

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    Stefan Ewert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the Baltic Sea Region is considered to be a pioneer region in the development of regional integration and identity, the Black Sea Region is regarded to be a laggard in terms of regionali¬zation and region building. My paper summarizes the role of regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea regionalization process in theory and analyzes the empirical background of these assumptions. Yet, inasmuch an evaluation of the regions` status as a pioneer is possible only in a comparative perspective, I propose to compare the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea Region regarding their higher education networks systematically. My paper asks for the transferability of arguments in favor of a strong regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region since the 1990s to today’s situation of the Black Sea Region. It concludes with some fundamental considerations on a comparative research project.

  8. Sea surface temperature anomalies along the Black Sea Region coast of Turkey (1971-2010 period)

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel Güçlü

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is finding an answer to a question how the development and change of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies were at the Black Sea Region in Turkey between 1971 and 2010. For that purpose, SST data of Amasra, Inebolu, Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun and Hopa stations were used. Air temperature is meteorological element having a clearest effect on annual and seasonal SST anomalies. Also in winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and North Sea Hazar Pattern (NCP) and in sprin...

  9. Sea surface temperature anomalies along the Black Sea Region coast of Turkey (1971-2010 period

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    Yüksel Güçlü

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is finding an answer to a question how the development and change of sea surface temperature (SST anomalies were at the Black Sea Region in Turkey between 1971 and 2010. For that purpose, SST data of Amasra, Inebolu, Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun and Hopa stations were used. Air temperature is meteorological element having a clearest effect on annual and seasonal SST anomalies. Also in winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and North Sea Hazar Pattern (NCP and in spring North Sea Hazar Pattern (NCP are noticeably influential. In the study area, SST anomalies showed important annual and seasonal variations. It is designated that annual average SST anomaly showed asymmetric diffusion from its values average variation aspect in all stations, form standard variation aspect it showed symmetrical in Hopa and in the others it showed asymmetric diffusion. In 1971-2010 generally SST anomalies showed decrease in Ordu and Hopa, however, it showed an increasing tendency in the other stations. The values of anomaly showed decrease in Black Sea coasts between Sinop and Hopa in spring and summer, they showed an increasing tendency in the whole Black Sea coast zone in winter and autumn. SST and the anomaly values generally showed decrease in Black Sea coasts in 1971-2000, they showed increase between 2001 and 2010. The lowest anomaly values were designated in the period 1981-2000 and the highest anomaly values were generally designated in the period 2001-2010.

  10. REGIONAL BLACK SEA ARCHITECTURE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK

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    Alina Homorozean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes considered an asset, other times a liability, the Black Sea started recently to be regarded as a region. However, the Black Sea Region lacks a common vision, often due to the complicated and often inefficient nexus of regional cooperation initiatives. Following the logic of finding regional solutions for regional problems, this paper aims to assess existing institutional and regional initiatives, reflecting on the implications for the success of Black Sea regionalism in creating patterns of sustained and sustainable development and a high degree of actors' involvement.This paper concentrates on two complementary research questions: What is the regional order in the BSR and what does it imply for its future? What is the current contribution of the most significant cooperation initiatives and what are the consequences for regional institutionalism? For the purpose of this paper, I draw on best-practices from other two regions: the Northern Dimension and South- East Asia. Through a comparative perspective, I suggest an analysis of the most important initiatives: BSEC, CDC, Black Sea Synergy, Eastern Partnership, Baku Initiative and the BSF. This paper argues that a possible strategic solution for successful policy development lies in the creation of an integrated regional cooperation package, functioning on the principles of multi-speed and multi-dimensional cooperation in several policy fields, in a context in which the BSR seems to be caught between two paradigms: a European and a Russian-oriented one.

  11. Introduction: The Black Sea as region and horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphrey, Caroline; Skvirskaja, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The introduction first outlines different perspectives on the Black Sea: in history, as a site of imperial conflicts and a buffer zone; in area studies, as a “region”; and in anthropology, as a sea crisscrossed by migration, cultural influences, alternative visions, and often a mutual turning...... of backs. We then discuss the Black Sea in the context of maritime ethnography and the study of ports, “hero cities”, pipelines, and political crises. The following sections consider Smith's notion of the “territorialization of memory” in relation to histories of exile and the more recent interactions...

  12. Prerequisites and factors of cooperation of Ukraine in the Black sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Копачинська, Галина; Козяр, Олена

    2016-01-01

    The main factors and prerequisites ofUkraine’s cooperation are enlightened; the role of Black sea region forUkraineand other international actors is reviewed. Therefore, the importance ofBlack seacoastal area is growing nowadays because of its natural resource potential and transit position. There are lots of factors and prerequisites forUkraine’s cooperation with countries of Black sea region, among them historical, social-economic, political, cultural and religious factors, conflict situati...

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP EUROPEAN UNION - BLACK SEA REGION FOLLOWING THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

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    Rusu Livia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the possible interaction between the European Union and the Black Sea region, following the consequences the international and financial crisis placed upon the Eastern neighbourhood of the Union. It provides a comprehensive picture on the economic situation in the Black Sea area, correlating the economic realities from the field with the required domains of policy actions. \\r\

  14. Romanian contribution to the regional study of Black Sea radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Black Sea area, polluting mineral exploitation, abusive fishing, unrestricted shipping activities and dumping of toxic wastes were done. Pollutant load carried by the Danube and other northern rivers, such as: Dnieper, Dniester, Bug, etc to the Black Sea, industrial and municipal discharges of air and water pollutants, pollution from ship traffic (particularly in the Constanta harbour area) contributed to the ecological degradation of the sea. Radioactivity monitoring as well as radioecological research are part of environmental assessments and protection strategies in Romania. The Romanian contribution consisted in participation in research contracts and coordinated research programs with IAEA-Vienna/Marine Environment Laboratory-Monaco between 1987-1992, in the program 'Global Inventory of Radioactivity in the Mediterranean Sea' (GIRMED) launched by IAEA after the XXXIst Congress and General assembly of the International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea by the Committee of Marine Radioactivity in 1988 and in the Co-operative Marine Science Program for the Black Sea (CoMSBlack) trough its Working group on radiochemistry and radioecology. This group includes Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Natural and artificial radionuclide (K-40, Ac-228, Ra-226, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Cs-137 and, starting in 1992, Sr-90) space and time distribution data were used for computation of in situ distribution coefficients and concentration factors (CFs) as well as for external and internal dose assessments in the Romanian sector. CFs of marine sediments, seaweeds and molluscs were measured in laboratory conditions. (author)

  15. Rivals or Partners? Turkish-Russian Relations in the Greater Black Sea Region Since 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Karayel, Gülperi

    2006-01-01

    161 pages This work aims to demonstrate the basic characteristics of Turkish-Russianrelations in The Greater Black Sea Region after 1999. Political, Military and Economic relations are analyzed separately since in Turkish-Russian case, it ishard to draw a general picture for all spheres. The Greater Black Sea Region ischosen as the hub of this paper since this study also argues that the region is anindispensable part of Turkish- Russian economic, political, and security policies.The end of...

  16. Incidence of mandibular fractures in black sea region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, İsmail; Şenel, Erman; Özkan, Nilüfer; Yilmaz, Nergiz

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to review the incidence of mandibular fractures in the Black Sea Region of Turkey and to present our treatment protocol. Material and Methods Data were collected regarding age, sex, etiology, time distribution, site of the fracture and the associated injuries and evaluated. These patients were treated at Ondokuz Mayıs University Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery between 2003 and 2010. Data were collected from patient files in the archive and were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. Results A total of 82 patients with 133 mandibular fractures were included in this study. After the follow up period of the patients, the results were achieved from 58 (70.7%) males and 24 (29.3%) females, whose ages ranged from 5 to 72 years and the mean age was 29. Fractures were most seen in 2008 and the busiest month was August. Falls (40.2%) were the major causes of mandibular fractures followed by traffic accidents and violence. The mandibular anatomical sites of higher fracture incidence were: condyle (34.6%), body and symphysis. The number of the fractures and injuries which were seen in other places such as zygomatic arch, alveolar process, tongue, upper and lower lips, orbita, arms was 14. 53 (64.6%) patients were treated by closed reduction, whereas 13 (15.8%) patients were treated by open reduction. Conclusions We concluded that our results were widely similar with the studies in developing countries. Socio-economic factors, cultures, geographic conditions and education could affect the etiology of the mandibular fractures and cause different results between the studies conducted in different countries. Key words:Mandibular fractures, etiology, trauma, treatment, complication. PMID:26330940

  17. Chicago NATO Summit and the New Dynamic of Military Security in the Black Sea Region

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    Eugen Lungu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At Chicago NATO Summit, held on the 20th –the 21st of May 2012, it was declared the end of the first operational phase of the NATO missile shield in Europe. There are two NATO countries, Romania and Turkey, countries located in the Black Sea region which will host the NATO missile shield elements, this project is to be operationalized by 2020. The Russian Federation did not sign an agreement with the U.S. about the missile shield and I consider that the NATO missile shield affects its strategic and security interests. The existence of several frozen conflicts in the Black Sea region, the U.S., NATO, EU and the Russian Federation interests at the regional level, plus the arrival of the first military capabilities of the missile shield, will generate a new dynamics of the military security in Black Sea Region.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE BLACK SEA ECOSYSTEM POLLUTION WITH COPPER AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED BAYS OF SEVASTOPOL REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Niemiec; Barbara Wiśniowska-Kielian; Monika Arasimowicz; Natalya Kuzminowa

    2015-01-01

    A high level of anthropopressure has been registered in Sevastopol region, connected with its strategic role as the main city in the region, but also due to Russian Black Sea Fleet stationing there for many years. A significant source of the Black Sea contamination in Sevastopol area is the industry located in this city, municipal waste and agriculture. Implementing measures aimed at protection of the Black Sea and the evolution of their results requires monitoring conducted in the regions wi...

  19. The levels of indicator bacteria transported to the Black Sea by the Sakarya River (Karasu Region)

    OpenAIRE

    Çiftçi, Pelin S.; Çardak, Mine; Altuğ, Gülşen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the counts of indicator bacteria were investigated with the aim of detecting the level of bacteria were carried via the Sakarya River into the Black Sea. The analyses were carried out in the samples of the surface water which were taken from depths between 0-30 cm and 1-3 meters in the Karasu region of the Sakarya River and at the discharge point to Black Sea during the period between March 2008 to January 2009. The samples were analyzed using m-FC NKS and m-Endo NKS b...

  20. The Bats of the Eastern Black Sea Region in Turkey (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    ALBAYRAK, İrfan

    2003-01-01

    The study was carried out on 89 specimens representing 11 bat species, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, Myotis brandtii, M. bechsteinii, M. myotis, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Nyctalus leisleri, Plecotus auritus and Miniopterus schreibersii. The specimens were collected from the eastern Black Sea region between the 1992 and 1994. Some ecological features of the species and their localities are presented in this study.

  1. Effects of and use on biodiversity in the eastern black sea region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tüfekçioğlu, Aydın; Terzioğlu, Salih; Fahrettin TILKI

    2006-01-01

    The biodiversity of Turkey is deteriorating due to rapid human population growth and associated intensive or unwise utilization of natural resources and habitats. Cultivation, forestry practices and heavy grazing are some of the main reasons of decreasing biodiversity in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey. Endemism is high in this region and 386 plants are endemic to the region. Eight of the endemics are in critically endangered list of IUCN while 55 are in endangered list. Most of these cri...

  2. Effect of climate factors on wood veneers exposed to outdoor conditions in black sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Köse, Gaye; Temiz, Ali; Akbaş, Selçuk; Özkan, Emre

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 2×100×200 mm wood veneers obtained from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), European black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) and beech (Fagus orientalis L.) wood were exposed to outdoor climate conditions at three different cities (Trabzon, Artvin, and Kastamonu) of Black Sea region in Turkey for totally 4 months from May to August, 2012. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of climate factors on the changes occurred on different types of wood veneers that were subjected to ...

  3. Spatial data processing tools and applications for Black Sea catchment region

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgan, Dorian; Bacu, Victor; Mihon, Danut; Rodila, Denisa; Stefanut, Teodor; Abbaspour, Karim; Cau, Pierluigi; Giuliani, Gregory; Ray, Nicolas; Lehmann, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The enviroGRIDS project has developed and provides through the BSC-OS portal a set of tools, applications and platforms concerning with the processing of huge spatial data for the Black Sea catchment region. The presentation highlights the main issues of interoperability between Geospatial and Grid infrastructures, and between different platforms supporting the Earth Science oriented tools and applications. The BSC-OS portal provides end user applications for spatial data management, hydrolog...

  4. Antioxidant activities of Sarcodon imbricatum wildly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özen, Tevfik; TÜRKEKUL, İbrahim

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of Sarcodon imbricatum wildly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated in this study. Antioxidant activities were evaluated in terms of total antioxidant activity, reducing power, metal chelating ability, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, superoxide, peroxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effects. Various antioxidant activities were compared to references antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole ...

  5. Antioxidant activities of Sarcodon imbricatum wildly grown in the black sea region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tevfik Ozen; Ibrahim Turkekul

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of Sarcodon imbricatum wildly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated in this study. Antioxidant activities were evaluated in terms of total antioxidant activity, reducing power, metal chelating ability, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, superoxide, peroxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effects. Various antioxidant activities were compared to references antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole ...

  6. A success story of regional projects implemented for the management of marine environment. Turkish experience related to the black sea and the mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001. This project was initiated in response to the needs of participating Member States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey) to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer techniques to marine pollution studies The project has various important aspects: Scientifically; one of the major environmental issue radioactivity pollution is addressed. Technically; laboratory capability for transuranic analysis is being developed. Economically; the reversing the ecological deterioration and developing sustainable uses of the Black Sea and its natural resources is one of the major interests. Politically; responsibility of pollution control and rehabilitation plans of six Black Sea countries are addressed through various convention and declarations. Socio-economically, fisheries and tourism sectors are expected to benefit. Highlights from the joint radioactivity-monitoring program of the project among six Black Sea countries are outlined. Examples from the Turkish monitoring work consist of the routine sampling of seawater, algae, mussels, fish samples and beach sand from the selected stations along the Black Sea coast are presented for illustration. The success of the Black Sea regional project has given rise to a new regional project 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Mediterranean Region' based on the request of the member countries, which will be initiated in 2005 by the IAEA. The initial phase the project, its objectives and the schedule will be summarized. Key words: marine radioactivity, environmental management, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, regional cooperation

  7. Conversion of actual structure to optimal structure in fir stands of Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Aylak Özdemir, Gafura

    2014-01-01

    Conversion of actual structure to optimal structure in fir stands of Black Sea regionAbstract : In this study, it has been tried to develop an iteration method using natural relationships in order that the spoilt actual structures, that Karadeniz region fir stands have, be taken to the optimal structure. For this purpose, a computer program named as GOKOP has been written using the Visual Basic Application (VBA) Macro programming language of Ms Excel 2000.Keywords: Actual and optimum structur...

  8. Romania – an International Actor in the Context of the Extensive Region of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world of the 21st century, the international relations are presented as a mandatory element for maintaining the balance of world power and peace. Although the international actors, such as states or international organizations, are trying to establish as many relationships as possible of various kinds (economic, political, military through diplomacy, all over the world, at macro level, the international actors should first achieve a harmony or a general state of good understanding at the micro level, i.e. in a certain geographic region to which they belong. Romania, as an actor of international relations, has as own purpose, and also imposed upon accession to the European Union, maintaining the diplomatic relations in the region of Central-Eastern Europe, both with its neighbors and with the states in the proximity of the Black Sea region. The article aims at outlining better the role that they have, in the geopolitical context, the countries from the extensive region of the Black Sea, in the consolidation of economic and political cooperation relationships, which would lead to stability in the region.

  9. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  10. Assessment of trace element levels in Rhododendron honeys of Black Sea Region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhododendron and multi-flower honeys obtained from Black Sea Region of Turkey (12 Rhododendron and 8 multi-flower honeys) were studied to determine the presence of the 14 trace elements such as Cu, Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, Ni, Al, Se, Zn, Mn, Fe, K, Ca and Mg. Trace element determination was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after microwave digestion. The results revealed that Rhododendron honeys exhibited higher concentrations of Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Se, Zn, Ca and Mg but lower concentrations of Al, Mn, Fe and K than in the multi-flower honeys. Trace element levels in analyzed honey samples were generally lower than literature values

  11. Trace Metal Levels in Lichen Samples From Roadsides in East Black Sea Region, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OZGUR DOGAN ULUOZLU; KADIR KINALIOGLU; MUSTAFA TUZEN; MUSTAFA SOYLAK

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the metal contents of lichen species from East Black Sea region of Turkey for investigation of trace metal pollution sourced traffic.Methods The levels of copper,cadmium,lead,zinc,manganese,iron,chromium,nickel,cobalt,palladium in lichen samples collected from East Black Sea region of Turkey were determined by flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion method.The accuracy of the method was corrected by standard reference material(NIST SRM IAEA-336 Lichen). Results The contents of investigated trace metals in lichen samples were 7.19-22.4 μg/g for copper,0.10-0.64 μg/g for cadmium,4.03-44.6 μg/g for lead,14.5-41.8 1.μg/g for zinc,25.8-208 μg/g for manganese,331-436 μg/g for iron,1.20-3.01 μg/g for chromium,1.48-3.90 μg/g for nickel,0.20-3.55 μg/g for cobalt.0.11-0.64 μg/g for palladium.The results were compared with the literature values.Conclusion Some lichen species such as Xanthoparmelia conspersa,Xanthoria calcicola,Peltigera membranacea,and Physcia adscendens are accumulated trace metals at a high ratio.

  12. Toxic and essential elements in butter from the Black Sea region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Guvenc, Dilek; Atmaca, Enes; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 88 randomly selected samples of butter produced in the Black Sea region of Turkey were purchased from different retail markets during different periods and investigated for toxic and essential elements content. Quantitative analyses of elements in the samples were performed using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Mean concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn in the butter samples were 18.93, 100.32, 384.66, 4199.1, 887.47, 168.64, 56.13, 16.34 and 384.66 µg kg(-1), respectively. Cd and Co were detected in 19 (mean content 0.29 µg kg(-1)) and 81 (mean content 3.81 µg kg(-1)) samples of 88 butter samples, respectively. However, the dietary intake of these elements by the population of the Black Sea region is currently well below the dietary reference intake (DRI) and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) levels of essential and toxic elements.

  13. The Factors Affecting Information Technology Usage Behavior of Tax Office Employees in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Emine; Aktaş, Sonnur; ÖZER, Gökhan; Özcan, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting information technology usage behavior of tax office employees in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. To accomplish this purpose, the data is gathered from 133 tax office employees who work in Black Sea Region of Turkey through a questionnaire that is formed with 5-point Likert-type scale. Research model is developed in the light of Theory of Reasoned Action, and a series of analyses is conducted. The predicted hypotheses are tested...

  14. [Hantavirus infection: two case reports from a province in the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Selçuk; Yılmaz, Gürdal; Erensoy, Sükrü; Yağçı Çağlayık, Dilek; Uyar, Yavuz; Köksal, Iftihar

    2010-07-01

    Hantaviruses which are the members of Bunyaviridae, differ from other members of this family since they are transmitted to humans by rodents. More than 200.000 cases of hantavirus infections are reported annually worldwide. Hantaviruses can lead to two different types of infection in humans, namely, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HFRS is the most common type of hantavirus infection in Europe and Asia and the most common virus types are Dobrava, Puumala, Hantaan and Seoul. A total of 25 hantavirus suspected cases have been reported from the Western Black Sea region of Turkey and 12 of these were confirmed serologically as "Puumala" subtype. Serological tests such as indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), are used for diagnosis and typing of the hantaviruses, however, since cross-reactions are common between the subtypes, the results of these tests should be confirmed by other methods. In this report two cases with hantavirus infection defined serologically were presented. Two male patients, 55 and 50 years old, respectively, living in Giresun province of Eastern Black Sea region, Turkey, were admitted to the State Hospital with the complaints of fever, sweating and diarrhoea without blood or mucus. Since thrombocytopenia and renal failure were detected in these two cases, they were transferred to the University Hospital. Presence of fever, thrombocytopenia and renal failure, with no laboratory findings of a bacterial infection and no growth of microoorganisms in the clinical specimens, admittance of the patients during summer and history of being present in the fields, necessitated to rule out leptospirosis, Crimean Kongo hemorrhagic fever and hantavirus infection which were all endemic in our area. Further investigation of the serum samples at the National Reference Virology Laboratory by IFA (Hantavirus Mosaic-1, Euroimmun, Germany) revealed hantavirus IgM and IgG antibodies ≥ 1:100 titer and the results

  15. Landslide susceptibility assessment of SE Bartin (West Black Sea region, Turkey by artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ercanoglu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are significant natural hazards in Turkey, second only to earthquakes with respect to economic losses and casualties. The West Black Sea region of Turkey is known as one of the most landslide-prone regions in the country. The work presented in this paper is aimed at evaluating landslide susceptibility in a selected area in the West Black Sea region using Artificial Neural Network (ANN method. A total of 317 landslides were identified and mapped in the area by extensive field work and by use of air photo interpretations to build a landslide inventory map. A landslide database was then derived automatically from the landslide inventory map. To evaluate landslide susceptibility, six input parameters (slope angle, slope aspect, topographical elevation, topographical shape, wetness index, and vegetation index were used. To obtain maps of these parameters, Digital Elevation Model (DEM and ASTER satellite imagery of the study area were used. At the first stage, all data were normalized in [0, 1] interval, and parameter effects on landslide occurrence were expressed using Statistical Index values (Wi. Then, landslide susceptibility analyses were performed using an ANN. Finally, performance of the resulting map and the applied methodology is discussed relative to performance indicators, such as predicted areal extent of landslides and the strength of relation (rij value. Much of the areal extents of the landslides (87.2% were classified as susceptible to landsliding, and rij value of 0.85 showed a high degree of similarity. In addition to these, at the final stage, an independent validation strategy was followed by dividing the landslide data set into two parts and 82.5% of the validation data set was found to be correctly classified as landslide susceptible areas. According to these results, it is concluded that the map produced by the ANN is reliable and methodology applied in the study produced high performance, and satisfactory results.

  16. Antioxidant activities of Sarcodon imbricatum wildly grown in the black sea region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Ozen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of Sarcodon imbricatum wildly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated in this study. Antioxidant activities were evaluated in terms of total antioxidant activity, reducing power, metal chelating ability, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, superoxide, peroxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effects. Various antioxidant activities were compared to references antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, and trolox. In total antioxidant (12674.45 ΅mol α-tocopherol/g of extract, superoxide scavenging (53.74% and peroxide scavenging activity (45.73%, the methanol extract of Sarcodon imbricatum showed stronger activity patterns than that of references antioxidants. Reducing power, metal chelating activity and free radical (DPPH· scavenging activity was increased with the increasing concentration. The contents of total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene of Sarcodon imbricatum were determined and found to be noteworthy.

  17. AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL IN WESTERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas UYGUR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main energy sources which are natural, clean, environmentally friendly, and renewable are wind power, solar energy, biomass energy, hydro energy, and wave energy. The wave energy has no cost except for the first investment and maintenance. There is also no cost for input energy. Besides these, it has no pollution effect on the environment, it is cheap and there is a huge potential all around the world. Wave energy is a good opportunity to solve the energy problem for Turkey which is surrounded by seas. Concerning all these facts, it has been conducted some studies which included five years of observation in the Western Black Sea Region (Akçakoca. The wave energy potential has also been calculated. From this sutdy results, it can be concluded that the wave energy potential of this region is inefficient. It is believed that by the improvement of the new energy converter devices in future, this low potential can be used more efficiently and as a result this study might be used as a basis for the future researches.

  18. Regional forecasting system of marine state and variability of dynamical processes in the easternmost part of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordzadze, Avtandil; Demetrashvili, Demuri

    2014-05-01

    The regional forecasting system for the easternmost part of the Black Sea developed at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics of I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University under the EU framework projects ARENA and ECOOP is a part of the Black Sea basin-scale Nowcasting/Forecasting System. A core of the regional forecasting system is a baroclinic regional model of Black Sea dynamics with 1 km spacing based on hydrostatic primitive equations of ocean hydrothermodynamics, which are written in z-coordinates for deviations of thermodynamic values from their standard vertical distributions. To solve the problem the two-cycle method of splitting the model equation system with respect to both physical processes and coordinate planes and lines is used. The regional model of M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics is nested in the basin-scale model of Black Sea dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute (Sevastopol/Ukraine). The regional forecasting system provides 3 days' forecasts of current, temperature and salinity for the easternmost part of the Black Sea, which is limited to the Caucasian and Turkish coastal lines and the western liquid boundary coinciding with the meridian 39.080E. Data needed on liquid and upper boundaries, also the 3-D initial hydrophysical fields for the easternmost regional area are provided in near operative mode from Marine hydrophysical Institute via Internet. These data on the liquid boundary are values of velocity components, temperature and salinity predicted by the basin-scale model of Black Sea dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute and on the sea surface 2-D meteorological boundary fields - wind stress, heat fluxes, evaporation and precipitation rates predicted by the regional atmospheric model ALADIN are used. The analysis of the results of modeling and forecast of dynamic processes developed for 2010-2014 showed that the easternmost water area of the Black Sea is a dynamically very active zone, where continuously there are processes of generation

  19. Determining Suitable Investment Areas for the Forest Products Industry: an Example from the Black Sea Region in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akyüz, Kadri Cemil; Akyüz, İlker; SERİN, Hasan; CINDIK, Hicabi

    2004-01-01

    Investment decisions and regional development are significant for economic development and the welfare of society. The most suitable decision should be made by using multivariable statistical techniques in both public and private sector investments, because various factors may affect such investments. In this study the aim was to direct the preferences of private sector investments in the forest products industry in the Black Sea region, which lags behind the other regions from the point of v...

  20. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  1. THE LEGAL REGULATION ON MARINE STRATEGY. CASE STUDY: THE BLACK SEA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Mari-Isabella STAN

    2013-01-01

    Marine environmental degradation became apparent in European waters, particularly in the Black Sea, so it is opportune a coherent policy, coordinated and comprehensive for protection, improvement and sustainable use of degraded seas in Europe. Problems and threats to the sustainability of the marine environment resulting from the use of marine waters (eg: climate change, resource exploitation activities such as oil and gas, pollution by introducing dangerous substance from shipping, oil spill...

  2. Radioactivity monitoring of the Turkish Black Sea coast as a part of the IAEA model project 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' and nuclear techniques for the environmental management of water resources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001. This project is initiated in response to the needs of participating Member-States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey) to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer technique to marine pollution studies. The project has various important aspects: Scientifically; one of the major environmental issue radioactivity pollution is addressed. Technically; laboratory capability for transuranic analysis is being developed. Economically; the reversing the ecological deterioration and developing sustainable uses of the Black Sea and its natural resources is one of the major interest. Politically; responsibility of pollution control and rehabilitation plans of six Black Sea countries are addressed thought various conventions and declarations. Socio-economically; fisheries and tourism sectors are expected to benefit. Highlights from the joint radioactivity monitoring program of the project among six Black Sea countries are outlined. Examples from Turkish monitoring work consists of the routine sampling of sea water, algae, mussels, fish samples and beach sand from the selected stations along the Black Sea coast are presented for illustration. Insights gained from the application of nuclear techniques for the 'Pollution Investigation of the Kucukcekmece Lake' and the 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' Model Technical Co-operation Project carried out at the Cekmece Nuclear Research Center supporting by the IAEA are presented. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of protection of the water resources within Eurasian countries and the need for strong cooperation among nuclear research centers

  3. Natural radioactivity in tap waters of Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the activity concentrations of some radionuclides in tap water samples of the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey were measured. The activity concentrations of radionuclides 214Pb, 214Bi, 40K, 226Ra and 137Cs were determined using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Furthermore, 222Rn activity concentrations in tap water samples were measured using Liquid Scintillation Counting. The mean specific activities of 214Pb, 214Bi, 226Ra, 40K, 137Cs and 222Rn in tap water samples were 6.73, 6, 19.16, 168.57, 5.45 mBq I-1 and 10.82 Bq I-1, respectively. These values are comparable with concentrations reported for other countries. The effective doses were determined due to intake of these radionuclides as a consequence of direct consumption of tap water samples. The estimated effective doses were 6.878 x 10-4 μSv y-1 for 214Pb, 4.800 x 10-4 μSv y -4 for 214Bi, 3.916 μSv y-1 for 226Ra, 0.763 μSv y-1 for 40K, 0.052 μSv y-1 for 137Cs and 5.848 μSv y-1 for 222Rn. (authors)

  4. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysen Koc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66, while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84 in terms of morphology.

  5. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  6. Hydro-engineering and environmental problems in Poti Black Sea region and ways of their solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana; Kodua, Manoni; Gagoshidze, Shalva

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation) Work is dedicated to the development of hydro-engineering and environmental protection measures in the Black Sea regions, the main Georgian port of Poti at the mouth of the Rioni, which will minimize the region geomorphological changes caused by the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors, and will over a long period protect coastal areas of these regions from washouts and large scale silting processes. The research objects are: 1. Poti seashore, which has retreated for hundreds of meters, promoted with the existence of underwater canyon along the southern pier of the port; 2. The Rioni river watershed dam, the tail race of which in time was subjected to destruction and substantial washout. Currently the stability of the dam is endangered; 3. "City Canal" - the Rioni river old bed, which is greatly silted up and is virtually unable to perform its function - to feed Poti seashore with solid matter. The work for the hydrodynamics solutions using high-precision mathematical methods. In particular, for the establishment of coastal longshore migrations of sediment and deformations of the coastal zone is used finite element method, Crank-Nicolson scheme and method of upper relaxation in the calculation of wave propagation in the estuarine areas of the Rioni River uses direct and asymptotic (particularly WKB) Methods of mathematical analysis. The results obtained using these models will be put as a base of development of such engineering measures and design proposals which: a) will provide sustained increase of Poti coastal line on the basis of working out of exploitation regimes of the Rioni watershed hydro complex and as a result of performing additional engineering measures in "City Canal"; b) will thoroughly protect the Rioni watershed hydro complex dam tail-water from destruction and washouts. The packets of mathematical programs and analytical methods of calculation

  7. Climate change and biodiversity relations in the eastern Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Tüfekçioğlu, Aydın; Altun, Lokman; Özbayram, A. Kemal

    2008-01-01

    Turkey contains a great variety of natural habitats, ranging from Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Sea beaches to towering coastal and interior mountains, from deeply incised valleys to expensive steppes, from fertile alluvial plains to arid, rocky hillslopes. The richness in the diversity of habitats translates into richness in the biodiversity in Turkey. But, because of rapid human population growth (about 2.5% per year) and associated intensive or unwise utilization of natural resources an...

  8. The Factors Affecting Information Technology Usage Behavior of Tax Office Employees in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Yilmaz,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting information technology usage behavior of tax office employees in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. To accomplish this purpose, the data is gathered from 133 tax office employees who work in Black Sea Region of Turkey through a questionnaire that is formed with 5-point Likert-type scale. Research model is developed in the light of Theory of Reasoned Action, and a series of analyses is conducted. The predicted hypotheses are tested thought regression analyses. According to results, intention of tax office employees has the high predictive power on information technology usage. Additionally, attitude and subjective norms of tax office employees have an impact on their intention towards information technology usage. However, their attitude has the more predictive power than their subjective norms on their intentions towards information technology usage.

  9. Radiological significance of coal, slag and fly ash samples from the Eastern Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a study of natural radioactivity levels in coal and its combustion residues (fly ash and slag) used in the houses in Black Sea Region, Turkey. Coal, fly ash and slag samples were provided from different locations of the region and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Also, chemical analyses of these samples were carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The mean 226Ra activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 83, 99 and 38 Bq kg-1, respectively. The mean 232Th activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 108, 113 and 50 Bq kg-1, respectively. The mean 40K activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were found to be 366, 381 and 204 Bq kg-1, respectively. The potential radiological hazards associated to these materials were evaluated by calculating the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the air absorbed gamma dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (AED), the external hazard index (Hex) and internal hazard index (Hin) and compared with the internationally accepted or reference values. The mean Raeq values of the coal, fly ash and slag samples were lower than the recommended maximum values 370 Bq kg-1 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The overall mean outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate in coal, fly ash and slag samples are 119, 129 and 62 nGy h-1 and the corresponding outdoor annual effective doses are 0.60, 0.32 and 0.64 mSv y-1, which is higher than the worldwide average (0.07 mSv y-1), respectively. Moreover, the enrichment factors relative to the input coal are calculated for the radionuclide contents observed. Calculated enrichment factor values for 226Ra and 232Th were found 1.14 and 1.01, respectively. (orig.)

  10. A basin-wide Black Sea Mnemiopsis leidyi database

    OpenAIRE

    Vladymyrov, Volodymyr; Kideys, Ahmet E.; Myroshnychenko, Volodymyr; SLIPETSKY Denis; Shiganova, Tamara; Abolmasova, Galina; Bingel, Ferit; TEZCAN Devrim; Ak, Yesim; ANNINSKY Boris; BAT, Levent; FINENKO Galina; GORBUNOV Vladimir; Isinibilir, Melek; KAMBURSKA Lyudmila

    2011-01-01

    A specific marine biological data management tool, the Black Sea Mnemiopsis leidyi database system was created within the European Commission 6th framework Black Sea SCENE project for the Black Sea region and is now being supported by the Permanent Secretariat of the Black Sea Commission. The core team of scientists studying M. leidyi in the Black Sea was brought together and all their available M. leidyi data and metadata were loaded into the common database. This works on the Internet and h...

  11. The relative frequency of odontogenic tumors in the Black Sea region of Turkey: an analysis of 86 cases

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENEL, Figen ÇİZMECİ; DAYISOYLU, Ezher Hamza; ERSÖZ, Şafak; ALTINTAŞ, Nuray YILMAZ; TOSUN, Emre; Üngör, Cem; Taşkesen, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relative frequency and distribution of different types of odontogenic tumors in southeastern Europe, focusing on the Black Sea region of Turkey. Materials and methods: In total 1165 oromaxillofacial biopsy records were evaluated for histologic diagnosis of odontogenic tumors over a 7-year period from patients referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Department of Pathology, Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry and Medicine, Trabzon, T...

  12. STRATEGY MAKING WITH QUANTIFIED SWOT APPROACH: A CASE ANALYSIS ON TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BLACK SEA REGION OF TURKEY Nermin Celik

    OpenAIRE

    Nermin Celik

    2007-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand, service competitiveness requirements, and customer expectations in tourism sector in Turkey, satisfactorily solutions and development strategies are required for the ongoing problems to keep the business performance in desired level. Recent researches indicate that the popularity of Black Sea Region, located in the north side of Turkey, has been raised, however, the enterprises and infrastructural quality of service facilities are dramatically seemed to be insuff...

  13. STRATEGY MAKING WITH QUANTIFIED SWOT APPROACH: A CASE ANALYSIS ON TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BLACK SEA REGION OF TURKEY Nermin Celik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Celik

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing demand, service competitiveness requirements, and customer expectations in tourism sector in Turkey, satisfactorily solutions and development strategies are required for the ongoing problems to keep the business performance in desired level. Recent researches indicate that the popularity of Black Sea Region, located in the north side of Turkey, has been raised, however, the enterprises and infrastructural quality of service facilities are dramatically seemed to be insufficient. Hence, this paper proposes development strategies on tourism industry by utilizing the Quantified SWOT Analysis. The outcomes of this paper originally contribute strategic vision of Turkish tourism industry subsequently. The extension of this research can be performed to cover the collaborative research programs towards tourism sector under unique implementation plan of Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC.

  14. Paleoenvironmental changes in the Black Sea region during the last 26,000 years : a multi-proxy study of lacustrine sediments from the western Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiecien, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Paleoenvironmental records provide ample information on the Late Quaternary climatic evolution. Due to the great diversity of continental mid-latitude environments the synthetic picture of the past mid-latitudinal climate changes is, however, far from being complete. Owing to its significant size and landlocked setting the Black Sea constitutes a perfect location to study patterns and mechanisms of climate change along the continental interior of Central and Eastern Europe and Asia Minor. Pre...

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE BLACK SEA ECOSYSTEM POLLUTION WITH COPPER AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED BAYS OF SEVASTOPOL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Niemiec

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A high level of anthropopressure has been registered in Sevastopol region, connected with its strategic role as the main city in the region, but also due to Russian Black Sea Fleet stationing there for many years. A significant source of the Black Sea contamination in Sevastopol area is the industry located in this city, municipal waste and agriculture. Implementing measures aimed at protection of the Black Sea and the evolution of their results requires monitoring conducted in the regions with various levels of anthropopressure. The work was aimed at the assessment of copper and cadmium content in water and algae in selected bays of the Black Sea in the vicinity of Sevastopol. Samples of water and algae were collected in August 2012 from eight Sevastopol bays (Galubaja, Kozacha, Kamyshova, Kruhla, Strieletska, Pishchana, Pivdenna and Sevastopolska and from the open sea in the vicinity of Fiolent. Algae (Cystoseira barbata and Ulva rigida were collected from the same places. Collected water was preserved on the sampling place and brought to the laboratory where its copper and cadmium concentrations were assessed. Collected algae were rinsed in distilled water, dried, then homogenised and mineralised. Copper and cadmium content were determined in the mineralizates using ASA method with electrothermal atomisation. Cadmium concentration in water ranged from 0.13 to 1.74 µg Cd∙dm-3, and copper from 7.07 to 22.56 µg Cd∙dm-3. Considerable differences in the content of the analysed elements were registered in individual bays. The highest content was assessed in Galubaja and Sevastopolska bays, whereas the lowest one in the water collected in the open sea and in Pivdenna bay. Copper concentrations in the analysed algae fluctuated from 3.375 to 14.96 mg Cu∙kg-1 d.m. No differences were noted in this element content between the algae species. Cadmium content in the algae ranged from 0.133 to 1.133 mg Cd∙kg-1 d.m. Higher accumulation of cadmium

  16. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  17. Climate and land-use change impacts on potential solar photovoltaic power generation in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The solar resource is sufficient to provide PV power at suitable locations within the Black Sea catchment. • Climate change will not significantly impact the solar resource, although uncertainty exists. • Land-use change will significantly impact potential PV power, although socio-economic factors will have more importance. • It is important to strengthen regional cooperation for the integration of renewable energy resources. - Abstract: Climate change is a naturally occurring phenomenon that has recently been greatly impacted by anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of the main contributing sectors to GHG emissions is the energy sector, due to its high dependency on fossil fuels. Renewable energy systems, notably solar energy, can be an effective climate change mitigation alternative. Photovoltaic (PV) technology provides an interesting method to produce electricity through a virtually infinite renewable resource at the human time scale: solar radiation. This study evaluates the current and future solar energy potential through the use of grid-connected PV power plants at the scale of countries within the Black Sea catchment. Simulated data are used to determine potential change in climate and land-use according to two different development scenarios. Incident solar radiation flux from re-analyses, spatial interpolation, and the application of the Delta change method are used to assess the current and future solar resource potential within this catchment. Potential sites suitable for PV power plants are selected following a Fuzzy logic approach, and thus the total potential solar energy through PV power generation can be determined. Results show that climate change will have little impact on the solar radiation resource, while land-use change induces more variability. However, regardless of the scenario followed, the solar energy potential is sufficient to provide an interesting contribution to the electricity generation mix of

  18. The Demographic Characteristics of the Tribes of the Black Sea Region in the first half of the XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The social class structure of the Black sea tribes, the resettlement area which was the territory from Anapa to the river Bzyb, has not yet become a subject of research in the historiography. Natukhaitsy and shapsugs of Adygeyan tribe, ubykhs, and also jikis of Abaza tribe lived in the territory during the first half of the XIX century. The data sources on the population in this territory at a specified time are contradictory, thus practically does not reflect the proportion of estates. The authors attracted as sources the statistical materials of 1800-1860-ies, including those published in the modern period on the Abkhazia (Abaza tribe and the Kuban. By the comparison of the different sources there was made an attempt to calculate the proportion of the population on the estates, namely: the proportion of princes, nobles, free inhabitants, dependent inhabitants, slaves separately for coastal and mountain societies. In addition there were attracted the sources of personal origin – diaries and memoirs, the works of Abkhazians who lived among travelers, and, of course, the scientific literature. The authors used the methods of demographic statistics for reconstruction of the population of the tribes of the Black sea region due to the presence of incomplete data on the number of classes. In conclusion the research provides with the accumulated statistical data on total population, population class and gender.

  19. Isotopic composition of carbon-13 and oxygen-18 from authigenic carbonates, Black Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvina, E.; Mazurenko, L.; Prasolov, E.

    2004-05-01

    Several types of authigenic carbonates related to the fluid discharge zones were sampled during the international expeditions onboard R/V "Professor Vodyanitskiy" (56th cruise) and R/V "Professor Logachev" (11th cruise of UNESCO-TTR) in the northwest part of the Black sea. These carbonates are represented as mounds, build-ups and chimney-like structures, cemented sediments, crusts and concretions. The isotope analyses of carbonates were conducted using mass-spectrometer MS-20 in the Laboratory of Isotope Geology (St.Petersburg State University). The obtained values of oxygen-18 varied from +0,6 to -1,9 per mille (up to C0.8 per mille on average). This value is corresponding to normal seawater oxygen-18 value (about 0 per mille); we suspect, that the source of oxygen for carbonate formation is the seawater. The carbonates are characterized by low carbon-13 (from -35,4 to -42,6 per mille) in comparison with normal marine carbonates (about 0 per mille). We have reason to suppose that carbonates associated with fluid venting were formed by light isotopic composition of carbon dioxide (carbon-13 -45 to -52 per mille), which forming under methane microbiologic oxidation with such isotopic composition. This is because of crossing fluid process of carbon dioxide to carbonate with 8~10 degrees temperature carbon became heaver to 10- 11 per mille. The isotopic composition study of carbonate build-ups is of interest because its association with the gas hydrate accumulations is quite often in the gas seeps. This work is financially supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant 02-05-64346.

  20. A study on ovine tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir; Aktas, Munir

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the frequency of Theileria and Babesia species was assessed via reverse line blotting and blood smear-based diagnostic methods in small ruminants. A total of 201 apparently healthy animals from 26 randomly selected herds located in 4 locations (Artvin, Giresun, Gumushane, and Tokat) of East Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated for the blood protozoans. In a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified with a set of general primers specific for all Theileria and Babesia species. The PCR products were hybridized against catchall and species-specific (Theileria spp., Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria ovis, Theileria sp. OT1, Theileria sp., OT3, Theileria sp., MK, Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Babesia spp., Babesia ovis, Babesia motasi, and Babesia crassa) probes. Theileria piroplasms were identified in nine (4.47%) samples by microscopic examination. Reverse line blotting (RLB) detected the infection in 19.90% of the samples. The infection rate of sheep (28.90%) was higher than goats (4.10%). T. ovis, Theileria sp., MK, and Theileria sp. OT3 were detected by RLB. The most prevalent Theileria species was T. ovis (18.90%) followed by Theileria sp. MK (0.99%). Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in one sample (0.43%). A single animal was infected as mix with T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK. The other Theileria (T. lestoquardi, Theileria sp. OT1, T. luwenshuni, and T. uilenbergi) and Babesia (B. ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa) species were not detected. This study is the first molecular survey on ovine tick-borne protozoans in East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  1. Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in sheep and goats in the Black Sea Region in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2013-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate presence and distribution of Theileria and Babesia species via microscopic examination and reverse line blotting (RLB) techniques in sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey. For this purpose, 1,128 blood samples (869 sheep and 259 goats) were collected by active surveillance from sheep and goats in different provinces of various cities in the region in the years 2010 and 2011. Smears were prepared from the blood samples, stained with Giemsa, and examined under the light microscope for Theileria and Babesia piroplasms. The genomic DNAs were extracted from blood samples. The length of 360-430-bp fragment in the variable V4 region of 18S SSU rRNA gene of Theileria and Babesia species was amplified using the gDNAs. The polymerase chain reaction products were hybridized to the membrane-connected species-specific probes. A total of 38 animals (3.37%) including 34 sheep (3.91%) and 4 goats (1.54%) were found to be positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in microscopic examination of smears while Babesia spp. piroplasm could not detected. Infection rates were 34.64% in sheep, 10.04% in goats, and totally 28.99% for Theileria ovis while 0.58% in sheep and totally 0.44% for Babesia ovis. However, Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in 2.65% of sheep and 2.04% of all animals; besides Theileria sp., MK had 0.58% prevalence in sheep and 0.77% in goats, with a total 0.62% with RLB. Although T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK were determined in both sheep and goats, B. ovis and Theileria sp. OT3 were observed only in the sheep. These results provide the first detailed molecular data for sheep and goat theileriosis and babesiosis in the region.

  2. Environmental changes of Northern Anatolia/Black Sea region during the Eemian and the Holocene: pollen and dinocyst records from sediment cores 22-GC3/8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila; Arz, Helge; Fleitmann, Dominik; Behling, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    In order to improve the knowledge about regional climate development in the Eastern Mediterranean, the DFG-Project "Dynamics of Mid-latitude / Mediterranean climate during the last 150 ka: Black Sea / Northern Anatolian Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions" (DynNAP) was established. For this goal, marine cores 22-GC3 and 22-GC8 from SE Black Sea cover the last 140 kyr BP and were studied by high resolution analysis of pollen and dinoflagellate cysts. These records were used to reconstruct vegetation of Northern Anatolia and hydrological changes of the SE Black Sea during the Holocene and the last interglacial. Age-control of the time series is based on shell oxygen isotopes (ostracods, bivalve) correlated to the isotope records of Uranium series dated stalagmites from Solufar Cave, NW Anatolia. The results show a dominance of steppe vegetation during glacial periods and the spreading of oak steppe forest during the deglaciation periods. The interglacial periods are characterized by the development of more humid forest vegetation (Fagus, Carpinus, Corylus, Ulmus/Zelkova, Ostrya). During both interglacial periods, the Holocene and the Eemian, a Mediterranean - Black Sea reconnection took place, inducing transition from freshwater/brackish to more marine conditions. Patterns of vegetation and hydrological changes during interglacials were not identical during both interglacials. During the Eemian, the submediterranean Ostrya-type dominated during the first half of the interglacial, indicating warm summers, whereas more humid Fagus-Carpinus forests dominated in the second half. During the Holocene, the dominance of Pinus in pollen record indicates generally cooler conditions than in the Eemian. An increase of anthropogenic indicators such as Plantago lanceolata-type, Rumex, Juglans in the late Holocene suggests elevated human activities in Northern Anatolia. Sea-surface temperature and salinity of the Black Sea achieved significant higher values in the Eemian compared to

  3. THE EFFECT OF BUSINESS FIRMS’ INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES ON THE FIRM PERFORMANCE: A CENTRAL BLACK SEA REGION CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkut ALTINDAG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of business firms carrying on business in Central Black Sea Region of Turkey on the performance of these firms. Especially how it affected SMEs (Small and Medium Sized Enterprises was analyzed. When particularly considering the effects of business that have SME quality on economy of Turkey, such kind of researches are noticed to have a basis in recent years. The research depended upon the data obtained from enterprises through original qualified questionnaire. The questionnaire question forms were scaled benefiting from the studies in the literature based upon international activities and business performance measurement. For all variables, the scales in the literature were taken and included into research questionnaire. The questionnaires were performed to SMEs and large-scale enterprises. In the research factor analysis, correlation and regression analysis were included as analysis methods. According to the obtained results, it was determined that international activities had a positive effect on the performance of enterprises. The results were interpreted, and various suggestions were offered to academicians, and administrators.

  4. Black Sea Energy Security - Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We chose this theme to highlight the need for continuous and sustained human society to secure energy resources needed to survive, needs reflected in an increasingly in recent years in the strategies adopted at both states, as at the level of international organizations. Achieving security and stability in the wider Black Sea area has been among the priorities of each country's interests in this region. In this context, state and non-state actors were being called to come up with new solutions to achieve those interests. Certainly not in all cases the negotiations were completed or not yet found a generally accepted formula for others to apply, but most of them show off their values. The main environmental threats to security environment in the Black Sea region are represented by ethnic conflicts and territorial secessionism. A significant contribution to the security environment of the Black Sea region has the phenomenon of globalization, which in this region is manifested by a steady increase in traffic and volume of shipping passage of communication, which largely affects the security in the region. Globalization and the need for energy resources in the Black Sea was an important area not only as energy transport route, but as a potential supplier of material energy (oil and natural gas. Black Sea Basin can be stabilized and secured only by the will and input from all States and interested international organizations in pragmatic and effective institutional frameworks, meant to promote and protect the common interests of countries decided to participate in actions aimed at ensuring a stable environment security.

  5. Drowning and near-drowning: experience of a university hospital in the Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Ahmet; Duran, Latif; Paksu, Sule; Akdemir, Hızır Ufuk; Paksu, Muhammet Şükrü; Katı, Celal; Başol, Nurşah; Yılman, Metehan; Özsevik, Sevinç Nursev; Murat, Naci

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of patients who applied to the Emergency Department (ED) due to submersion injury; to recognize the risk factors, complications, causes of death, and the educational needs of families and caregivers about unsafe environments for submersion; and to develop preventive strategies. All patients were analyzed retrospectively according to demographic features, clinical and laboratory findings, association between clinical variables and submersion injuries, and patient outcomes. Fifty-five patients with submersion injury were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 10.9 ± 4.7 years. The most common Szpilman clinical scores were Grade 1 (24 patients, 43.8%), Grade 2 (15 patients, 27.3%), and Grade 5 (10 patients, 18.2%). The common location of the submersion injuries included the sea (74.5%), pool (18.4%), bathtub (7.3%), river (3.6%), and lake (3.6%). A limited swimming ability or exhaustion and suffocation (49.1%) due to unknown reasons were the most common causes of submersion injury among all patients. Most complications were due to aspiration pneumonia and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Thirty-nine patients (70.9%) were followed in the ED, while 16 patients (29.1%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU); 11 patients (20.0%) died. All of the risk factors of drowning should be taken into account when designing preventive measures and family education. In addition, all pediatricians should be trained periodically about the complications of submersion and the treatment strategies, particularly in coastal cities and areas where drownings occur frequently.

  6. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length

    OpenAIRE

    K. N. Mertens; Bradley, L.R.; Y. Takano; Mudie, P.J.; Marret, F.; Aksu, A. E.; Hiscott, R. N.; Verleye, T.J.; Mousing, E.A.; Smyrnova, L.L.; Bagheri, S.; Mansor, M.; Pospelova , V.; K. Matsuoka

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of salinity in the Holocene Black Sea has been an ongoing debate over the past four decades. Here we calibrate summer surface water salinity in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea with the process length of the dinoflagellate cyst Lingulodinium machaerophorum. We then apply this calibration to make a regional reconstruction of paleosalinity in the Black Sea, calculated by averaging out process length variation observed at four core sites from the Black Sea with high sedi...

  7. Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in ticks collected from sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2015-01-01

    A molecular survey was undertaken in the Black Sea region of Turkey to determine the presence of Theileria and Babesia species of medical and veterinary importance. The ticks were removed from sheep and goats, pooled according to species and locations, and analyzed by PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing. A total of 2241 ixodid ticks belonging to 5 genus and 12 species were collected and divided into 310 pools. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 310 pools tested, 46 (14.83%) were found to be infected with Theileria or Babesia species, and the overall MLE of the infection rate was calculated as 2.27% (CI 1.67-2.99). The MLE of the infection rates were calculated as 0.691% (CI 0.171-1.78) in Haemaphysalis parva, 1.47% (CI 0.081-6.37) in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 1.84% (CI 0.101-7.87) in Ixodes ricinus, 2.86% (CI 1.68-4.48) in Rhipicephalus turanicus, 5.57% (CI 0.941-16.3) in Hyalomma marginatum, and 6.2% (CI 4.02-9.02) in Rhipicephalus bursa. Pathogens identified in ticks included Theileria ovis, Babesia ovis, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia microti. Most tick pools were infected with a single pathogen. However, five pools displayed mixed infections with T. ovis and B. ovis. This study provides the first molecular evidence for the presence of B. microti in ticks in Turkey.

  8. An Analysis of Strain Accumulation in the Western Part of Black Sea Region in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, I.; Avsar, N. B.; Deniz, R.; Mekik, C.; Kutoglu, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkish National Horizontal Control Network (TNHCN) based on the European Datum 1950 (ED50) was used as the principal geodetic network until 2005 in Turkey. Since 2005, Turkish Large Scale Map and Map Information Production Regulation have required that that all the densification points have been produced within the same datum of Turkish National Fundamental GPS Network (TNFGN) put into practise in 2002 and based on International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Hence, the common points were produced in both European Datum 1950 (ED50), and TNFGN.It is known that the geological and geophysical information about the network area can be obtained by the evaluation of the coordinate and scale variations in a geodetic network. For one such evaluation, the coordinate variations and velocities of network points, and also the strains are investigated. However, the principal problem in derivation of velocities arises from two different datums. In this context, the computation of velocities using the coordinate data of the ED50 and TNFGN is not accurate and reliable. Likewise, the analysis of strain from the coordinate differences is not reliable. However, due to the fact that the scale of a geodetic network is independent from datum, the strains can be derived from scale variations accurately and reliably.In this study, a test area limited 39.5°-42.0° northern latitudes and 31.0°-37.0° eastern longitudes was chosen. The benchmarks in this test area are composed of 30 geodetic control points derived with the aim of cadastral and engineering applications. We used data mining to investigate the common benchmarks in both reference systems for this area. Accordingly, the ED50 and TNFGN coordinates refer 1954 and 2005, respectively. Thus, it has been investigated the strain accumulation of 51 years in this region. It should be also noted that since 1954, the earthquakes have not registered greater than magnitude 6.0 in the test area. It is a considerable situation for this

  9. [Cutaneous larva migrans: report of three cases from the Western Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Emel; Uslu, Esma; Turan, Hakan; Başkan, Elife; Kılıç, Nida

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a parasitosis frequently seen in persons who have travelled to tropical or subtropical regions and in those who have worked in contact with soil. The disease frequently develops due to Ancylostoma braziliensis and Ancylostoma caninum species. After penetrating the skin and entering the body, the hookworm larva proceeds to bore tunnels through the epidermis, creating pruritic, erythematous, serpiginous lesions. Secondary bacterial infections of the lesions can often be seen, especially on the legs and buttocks. In this article we presented three atypical local cases which have not been declared previously in our country. The first case, a 54-year-old male who was admitted to hospital in August with complaints of an obverse body rash and itching lasting for a week. Eruptions were observed over a small area on the right side of the abdomen, consisting of itchy, raised, erythematous, curvilinear string-like lesions. Moreover, no eosinophilia was detected in the patient, whose culture showed a growth of Streptococcus pyogenes. The patient was clinically diagnosed with CLM accompanied by secondary bacterial infection and treated for three days with 1 g of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, mupirocin cream and albendazole 400 mg/d. Under this regime, the lesions were seen to decline. The second case, a 38-year-old male was also admitted in August, complaining of itching and redness on his body. The patient, whose blood count values were normal, exhibited itchy, raised, serpiginous string-like lesions located on the left side of his body. The patient, whose bacterial culture was negative, was clinically diagnosed as CLM and treated for three days with albendazole 400 mg/d and the lesions were seen to improve. The third case, a 23-year old male was admitted in September complaining of itching and redness on his neck. An itchy, crescent-shaped erythematous lesion was detected on his neck; bacteriological cultures and blood count were normal. The

  10. On The Black Sea Surozhian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Corneliu, Cerchia

    2016-04-01

    Some Black Sea researchers still support the idea of no other connection to the Mediterranean Sea between LGM and Karangatian Stage (Riss - Wurm). We try to clarify the source of these disagreements. C14 AMS age data (HERAS Project) made on undisturbed samples from a new Mamaia drilling hole where compared with the classical Black Sea stratigraphic schemes. A first transgressive event (Zone D) is found between 38.00 - 20.20 m depth. Zone D4 shows a fairly rapid rise of sea level, about 10 m below the present one indicating an inner shelf marine polyhaline environment. AMS age data show 14C ages between 53690 - 47359 y (MIS 1), corresponding to the "Surozhian Beds" of Popov. The "beach rock" from Zone E marks the decrease of the sea level after the maximum reached in Zone D4. Zone E mollusc shells AMS data, indicate 14C ages of 48724 - 44604 y, suggesting a long-time reworked material from the previous D4 zone sediments, and represents the beginning of the "regressive Tarkankutian" sequence.The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) led to the retreat of the sea level down to about 100 m below the current one (27-17 ky BP), followed by an retreat of the shoreline to the present position. At the beginning of the Holocene - MIS 1 (8408-8132 cal. y BP), Black Sea brackish water level grew rapidly, up to -14 m below the present one (Zone F: 22, 57-20, 20 m). Zone F deposits could be correlated with the Bugazian strata. Then, a continuous rising of the Black Sea level is recorded up to a maximum of -2 m under the present one, about 6789 - 7063 cal. y BP, when a transgressive spurt ("Neolithic transgression") may have taken place. After that, given a weak Danubian sedimentary input, coastal erosion intensified. The coarse sandy sediments were reworked and pushed over the previous peat deposits, and suggest a classical "sedimentary regression", not a sea-level decrease. During the last 1.5 ky, sea level has risen towards the current one. Previous C14 dates from "Karangatian

  11. Crustal seismicity of the Black Sea areal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, Mihail; Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Petruta Constantin, Angela

    2014-05-01

    ), concerning international practice and IAEA recommendation, (ii) applying the observed maximum magnitude or intensity and (iii) using statistical distributions (Cornell and extreme values Gumbel I) to model the seismogenic process for all the earthquake sources from the Black Sea region. The advantage of the statistical method is the possibility to compute all the quantities used in probabilistic hazard assessment, including recurrence times for different magnitudes. Another important issue is to evaluate the seismic hazard for the Black Sea using a probabilistic approach. The major contribution to the total sesimic hazard in the western part of the Black Sea is given by the Shabla crustal source that has a maximum epicentral intensity equal with VIII ½.

  12. Messinian events in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baak, Christiaan G C; Radionova, Eleanora P.; Golovina, Larisa A.; Raffi, Isabella; Kuiper, Klaudia F.; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Krijgsman, Wout

    2015-01-01

    Past hydrological interactions between the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea are poorly resolved due to complications in establishing a high-resolution time frame for the Black Sea. We present a new greigite-based magnetostratigraphic age model for the Mio-Pliocene deposits of DSDP Hole 380/380A, dril

  13. Determination and mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity of natural spring water in the Eastern Black Sea Region by using artificial neural network method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilkanat, Cafer Mert; Kobya, Yaşar

    2015-09-01

    In this study, radiological distribution of gross alpha, gross beta, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs for a total of 40 natural spring water samples obtained from seven cities of the Eastern Black Sea Region was determined by artificial neural network (ANN) method. In the ANN method employed, the backpropagation algorithm, which estimates the backpropagation of the errors and results, was used. In the structure of ANN, five input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, major soil groups, and rainfall) were used for natural radionuclides and four input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, and rainfall) were used for artificial radionuclides, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the total data were used as the data of training and 25 % of them were used as test data in order to reveal the structure of each radionuclide. It has been seen that the results obtained explain the radiographic structure of the region very well. Spatial interpolation maps covering the whole region were created for each radionuclide including spots not measured by using these results. It has been determined that artificial neural network method can be used for mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity with this study, which is conducted for the first time for the Black Sea Region. PMID:26307690

  14. Seasonal anomalies of water salinity in the Gelendzhik region of the Black Sea according to shipborne monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podymov, O. I.; Zatsepin, A. G.

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents results of analyzing the data on the variability of salinity in the upper layer of the coastal zone (including the seasonal thermocline) of the Black Sea during the 2010-2013 warm seasons (April-November). The data for the analysis were obtained from the regularly conducted CTD probing the by R/V Ashamba on a cross section abeam the Golubaya Bay (Gelendzhik). The relationship between salinity anomalies, coastal precipitation, and wind forcing is analyzed. It is shown that the contribution of thermal stratification to the density stratification in the seasonal thermocline is almost always greater than the contribution of salinity stratification, and the ratio of the former to the latter increases from April to November.

  15. High prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroiditis in adolescents after elimination of iodine deficiency in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastemir, Mehmet; Emral, Rifat; Erdogan, Gurbuz; Gullu, Sevim

    2006-12-01

    In the present study we evaluated the effects of iodine intake on the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction, autoimmunity, and goiter in two regions with different iodine status after two years of iodization in Turkey. In total 1733 adolescent subjects were enrolled into the study (993 from an iodine-sufficient area--the Eastern Black Sea Region (group 1) and 740 from an iodine-deficient area--Middle Anatolia (group 2)). We measured free thyroxine (FT(4)), thyrotropin (TSH), antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (Anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin antibodies (Anti-Tg), and urinary iodine (UI), and examined the thyroid gland by ultrasound. Median urinary iodine excretion was found to be significantly different in group 1 and group 2 (139 micro/l vs 61micro/l, p 0.05). The percentage of anti-Tg positive subjects was found to be 17.6% in group 1 and 6.4% in group 2; that of anti-TPO positive subjects was 4.3% in group 1 and 1.5% in group 2. The prevalence of antithyroid antibody (anti-Tg and/or anti-TPO) positivity was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (18.52% vs 6.62%; p iodine supplementation in Turkey has resulted in the elimination of iodine deficiency in the Eastern Black Sea Region, and this has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid dysfunction.

  16. Cesium and strontium in Black Sea macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace level of metals and particularly radioactive ones should be monitored to evaluate the transfer along the trophic chain, assess the risk for biota and can be used for global changes assessment. Plants respond rapidly to all changes in the ecosystem conditions and are widely used as indicators and predictors for changes in hydrology and geology. In this work we represent our successful development and applications of a methodology for monitoring of stable and radioactive strontium and cesium in marine biota (Black Sea algae's). In case of radioactive release they are of high interest. We use ED-XRF, gamma spectrometers and LSC instrumentation and only 0.25 g sample. Obtained results are compared with those of other authors in same regions. The novelty is the connection between the radioactive isotopes and their stable elements in algae in time and space scale. All our samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. - Highlights: • An extraction chromatography method for radiochemical separation of Sr and Cs. • Assessment of Sr and Cs accumulation capacity of six Black Sea macroalgae species. • Connection between the isotopes and their stable elements content in algae. • Assessment of Sr and Cs content in ecosystems along the Bulgarian coast

  17. A review of fish fauna in the Turkish Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Keskin, Çetin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This review showed that a total of 161 fish species inhabit in the Turkish Black Sea according to previous studies. Atlanto-Mediterranean species consisted 62.73% of total fish fauna, 6.83% cosmopolitan, 28.57% endemics and 1.86% introduced species such as, Liza haematocheila, Sphraena obtusata and Salmo salar. For the protection of the fish diversity in the Black Sea needs to establish marine protected areas, get under control of illegal, unreported and unregulated fisheries, region...

  18. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Smith, Diane; Rula, Oleksandr; Muzyka, Nataliia; Stegniy, Borys

    2016-05-01

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and eight orders for virus isolation. From these samples, 69 AIVs belonging to 15 of the 16 known hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and seven of nine known neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were isolated. No H14, N5, or N9 subtypes were identified. In total, nine H6, eight H1, nine H5, seven H7, six H11, six H4, five H3, five H10, four H8, three H2, three H9, one H12, one H13, one H15, and one H16 HA subtypes were isolated. As for the NA subtypes, twelve N2, nine N6, eight N8, seven N7, six N3, four N4, and one undetermined were isolated. There were 27 HA and NA antigen combinations. All isolates were low pathogenic AIV except for eight highly pathogenic (HP) AIVs that were isolated during the H5N1 HPAI outbreaks of 2006-08. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes revealed epidemiological connections between the Azov-Black Sea regions and Europe, Russia, Mongolia, and Southeast Asia. H1, H2, H3, H7, H8, H6, H9, and H13 AIV subtypes were closely related to European, Russian, Mongolian, and Georgian AIV isolates. H10, H11, and H12 AIV subtypes were epidemiologically linked to viruses from Europe and Southeast Asia. Serology conducted on serum and egg yolk samples also demonstrated previous exposure of many wild bird species to different AIVs. Our results demonstrate the great genetic diversity of AIVs in wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region as well as the importance of this region for monitoring and studying the ecology of influenza viruses. This information furthers our understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild bird species. PMID:27309081

  19. Radiation background of Black Sea coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the project is to establish the level of radiation background and its sources in the Black Sea coastal environment. Marine samples will be collected in the Black Sea Coast area. The content of different radionuclides will be analyzed and the results will be used in a GIS application. The gamma emitting radionuclides will be measured in ultralow radiation background in the Romanian underground laboratory in salt mine in Slanic-Prahova. The main expected results is an up to date quantification of the radiation sources of the background of the Black Sea coastal environment. (authors)

  20. Subcrustal structure of the black sea basin from seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovskaya, T. B.; Gobarenko, V. S.; Yegorova, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    The P-wave travel time data from the earthquakes offshore and onshore around the Black Sea are used for the tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) velocity distribution in the lithosphere of the region. The preliminary refinement of the foci parameters (the coordinates and origin time) has reduced the random errors in the travel-time data. The earthquake data were supplemented by the previous deep seismic sounding (DSS) data on the profiles in Crimea and offshore off the Black Sea. The dataset included more than 4000 travel times overall. In order to eliminate the crustal effect, the travel times were reduced to a surface at a depth of 35 km corresponding to the mean Moho depth in the region. The improved crustal model was used for removing the contribution of the crust from the initial data. The new tomography method, which was recently developed by one of the authors and which relies on the assumption of smoothness of the lateral velocity variations, was applied for reconstructing the velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Black Sea up to a depth of 95 km. The lateral velocity variation maps at different depths and the vertical velocity distributions along the meridional and sublatitudinal cross sections across the Black Sea were constructed. High velocities were revealed in the subcrustal lithosphere, and the structural difference below two subbasins—the West Black Sea (WBS) and the East Black Sea (EBS) ones—was established. It shows that the high-velocity body below the WBS is located deeper than below the EBS and is distinguished by higher velocities. Based on these results, it is concluded that the lithosphere beneath the Black Sea has a continental origin.

  1. Assessing future scenarios for health care waste management using a multi-criteria decision analysis tool: A case study in the Turkish West Black Sea Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciplak, Nesli

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the best possible health care waste management option in the West Black Sea Region by taking into account economic, social, environmental, and technical aspects in the concept of multi-criteria decision analysis. In the scope of this research, three different health care waste management scenarios that consist of different technology alternatives were developed and compared using a decision-making computer software, called Right Choice, by identifying various criteria, measuring them, and ranking their relative importance from the point of key stakeholders. The results of the study show that the decentralized autoclave technology option coupled with the disposal through land-filling with energy recovery has potential to be an optimum option for health care waste management system, and an efficient health care waste segregation scheme should be given more attention by the authorities in the region. Furthermore, the discussion of the results points out multidisciplinary approach and the equilibrium between social, environmental, economic, and technical criteria. The methodology used in this research was developed in order to enable the decision makers to gain an increased perception of a decision problem. In general, the results and remarks of this study can be used as a basis of future planning and anticipation of needs for investment in the area of health care waste management in the region and also in developing countries that are dealing with the similar waste management problems.

  2. Decline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, Arthur; Stanev, Emil V.; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Murray, James W.; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2016-03-01

    We show that from 1955 to 2015, the inventory of oxygen in the Black Sea has decreased by 44 % and the basin-averaged oxygen penetration depth has decreased from 140 m in 1955 to 90 m in 2015, which is the shallowest annual value recorded during that period. The oxygenated Black Sea surface layer separates the world's largest reservoir of toxic hydrogen sulfide from the atmosphere. The threat of chemocline excursion events led to hot debates in the past decades arguing on the vertical stability of the Black Sea oxic/suboxic interface. In the 1970s and 1980s, when the Black Sea faced severe eutrophication, enhanced respiration rates reduced the thickness of the oxygenated layer. Re-increasing oxygen inventory in 1985-1995 supported arguments in favor of the stability of the oxic layer. Concomitant with a reduction of nutrient loads, it also supported the perception of a Black Sea recovering from eutrophication. More recently, atmospheric warming was shown to reduce the ventilation of the lower oxic layer by lowering cold intermediate layer (CIL) formation rates. The debate on the vertical migration of the oxic interface also addressed the natural spatial variability affecting Black Sea properties when expressed in terms of depth. Here we show that using isopycnal coordinates does not overcome the significant spatial variability of oxygen penetration depth. By considering this spatial variability, the analysis of a composite historical set of oxygen profiles evidenced a significant shoaling of the oxic layer, and showed that the transient "recovery" of the 1990s was mainly a result of increased CIL formation rates during that period. As both atmospheric warming and eutrophication are expected to increase in the near future, monitoring the dynamics of the Black Sea oxic layer is urgently required to assess the threat of further shoaling.

  3. Achieving good environmental status in the Black Sea: scale mismatches in environmental management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim O'Higgins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea has suffered severe environmental degradation. Governance of the Black Sea region is complex and results in a series of scale mismatches which constrain management. This paper develops a simple classification of spatial scale mismatches incorporating the driver, pressure, state, welfare, response (DPSWR framework. The scale mismatch classification is applied to two major environmental problems of the Black Sea, eutrophication and small pelagic fisheries. A number of scale mismatches are described and classified and potential solutions are identified.

  4. On the wave energy potential of Western Black Sea shelf

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we evaluate the approaches to estimate the wave energy potential of the western Black Sea shelf with numerical models. For the purpose of our evaluation and due to the lack of long time series of measurements in the selected area of the Black Sea, we compare the modeled mean wave power flux output from the SWAN wave model with the only available long term measurements from the buoy of Gelendzhik for the period 1997-2003 (with gaps). The forcing meteorological data for the numerical wave models for the selected years is extracted from the ERA Interim reanalysis of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium range Forecasts). For the year 2003 we also compare the estimated wave power with the modeled by SWAN, using ALADIN regional atmospheric model winds. We try to identify the shortcomings and limitations of the numerical modeling approach to the evaluation of the wave energy potential in Black Sea.

  5. Storm surges in the Western Black Sea. Operational forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. MUNGOV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of the storm surges in the Black Sea is lower than that in other regions of the World Ocean but they cause significant damages as the magnitude of the sea level set-up is up to 7-8 times greater than that of other sea level variations. New methods and systems for storm surge forecasting and studying their statistical characteristics are absolutely necessary for the purposes of the coastal zone management. The operational forecasting storm surge model of Meteo-France was adopted for the Black Sea in accordance with the bilateral agreement between Meteo-France and NINMH. The model was verified using tide-gauge observations for the strongest storms observed along the Bulgarian coast over the last 10 years.

  6. Magnetite in Black Sea Turtles (Chelonia agassizi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Garduño, V.; Sanchez, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have reported experimental evidence for magnetoreception in marine turtles. In order to increase our knowledge about magnetoreception and biogenic mineralization, we have isolated magnetite particles from the brain of specimens of black sea turtles Chelonia agassizi. Our samples come from natural deceased organisms collected the reserve area of Colola Maruata in southern Mexico. The occurrence of magnetite particles in brain tissue of black sea turtles offers the opportunity for further studies to investigate possible function of ferrimagnetic material, its mineralogical composition, grain size, texture and its location and structural arrangement within the host tissue. After sample preparation and microscopic examination, we localized and identified the ultrafine unidimensional particles of magnetite by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Particles present grain sizes between 10.0 to 40.0Mm. Our study provides, for the first time, evidence for biogenic formation of this material in the black sea turtles. The ultrafine particles are apparently superparamagnetic. Preliminary results from rock magnetic measurements are also reported and correlated to the SEM observations. The black turtle story on the Michoacan coast is an example of formerly abundant resource which was utilized as a subsistence level by Nahuatl indigenous group for centuries, but which is collapsing because of intensive illegal commercial exploitation. The most important nesting and breeding grounds for the black sea turtle on any mainland shore are the eastern Pacific coastal areas of Maruata and Colola, in Michoacan. These beaches are characterized by important amounts of magnetic mineral (magnetites and titanomagnetites) mixed in their sediments.

  7. ONE OF THE LIMITROPHE TERRITORIES OF THE GLOBAL WORLD(TRANSFORMATION OF THE STATES OF THE BALTIC-BLACK SEA REGION IN THE 21ST CENTURY)

    OpenAIRE

    Zazhigaev, Boris

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the academic community has become increasingly engrossed in the conceptions of the Baltic-Black Sea system (BBSS) of international relations. Closer inspection reveals three major approaches. The first approach envisages the conceptual mapping of Europe (an idea suggested by Stein Rokkan) 1 and its application in the Vienna-Moscow-Istanbul triangle. The second approach relies on the Cold War logic best described as conflicting interaction; it rests on the agency interpretation...

  8. A STUDY ON THE HENDIADYOINS IN THE EASTERN BLACK-SEA REGION DIALECTS / ORTA VE DOĞU KARADENIZ AĞIZLARINDA GÖRÜLEN IKILEMELER ÜZERINE BIR DEĞERLENDIRME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ercan ALKAYA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hendiadyoins of the dialects of the Central andEastern Black-Sea Region such as Ordu, Giresun, Rize and Trabzon whichcan be observed as non-literary usages are dealt with. The hendiadyoins takenfrom the dialect studies on the afore-mentioned dialects and from theDerleme Sözlüğü are assessed in respect with their origins, structures andmeanings.

  9. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  10. A training network for introducing telemedicine, telecare and hospital informatics in the Adriatic-Danube-Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anogeianaki, Antonia; Ilonidis, George; Anogianakis, George; Lianguris, John; Katsaros, Kyriakos; Pseftogianni, Dimitra; Klisarova, Anelia; Negrev, Negrin

    2004-01-01

    DIMNET is a training mechanism for a region of central Europe. The aim is to upgrade the information technology skills of local hospital personnel and preserve their employability following the introduction of medical informatics. DIMNET uses Internet-based virtual classrooms to provide a 200-hour training course in medical informatics. Training takes place in the cities of Drama, Kavala, Xanthi and Varna. So far, more than 600 people have benefited from the programme. Initial results are encouraging. DIMNET promotes a new vocational training culture in the Balkans and is supported by local governments that perceive health-care as a fulcrum for economic development. PMID:15603593

  11. A training network for introducing telemedicine, telecare and hospital informatics in the Adriatic-Danube-Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anogeianaki, Antonia; Ilonidis, George; Anogianakis, George; Lianguris, John; Katsaros, Kyriakos; Pseftogianni, Dimitra; Klisarova, Anelia; Negrev, Negrin

    2004-01-01

    DIMNET is a training mechanism for a region of central Europe. The aim is to upgrade the information technology skills of local hospital personnel and preserve their employability following the introduction of medical informatics. DIMNET uses Internet-based virtual classrooms to provide a 200-hour training course in medical informatics. Training takes place in the cities of Drama, Kavala, Xanthi and Varna. So far, more than 600 people have benefited from the programme. Initial results are encouraging. DIMNET promotes a new vocational training culture in the Balkans and is supported by local governments that perceive health-care as a fulcrum for economic development.

  12. Ctenophores-invaders and their role in the trophic dynamics of the planktonic community in the coastal regions off the Crimean coasts of the Black Sea (Sevastopol Bay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finenko, G. A.; Romanova, Z. A.; Abolmasova, G. I.; Anninsky, B. E.; Pavlovskaya, T. V.; Bat, L.; Kideys, A.

    2006-07-01

    The abundances, biomasses, and population structures of two introduced ctenophore species— Mnemiopsis leidyi and Beroe ovata—were monitored along with mesoplankton in the near-shore waters of the northern Black Sea (Sevastopol Bay and adjacent regions) over a period of four years (2000-2003), after the B. ovata invasion. The annual dynamics of the M. leidyi population were similar in these years: very low abundances and biomass values were observed during the major part of the year (unlike previous years) with a shortterm peak in the summer-early autumn. B. ovata development during the growth in the M. leidyi biomass resulted in a sharp fall in the M. leidyi biomass down to extremely low values. The interannual differences in the populations of both ctenophore species were reflected by their quantitative parameters: the maximum biomass of M. leidyi varied from 790 g/m2 in 2001 to 211-266 g/m2 in other years. The maximum biomass values of B. ovata (38.9 and 32.5 g/m2) were observed in 2001 and 2003, respectively. In 2000-2003, from July to September, during the peak in mnemiopsis development, the population consumed from 1.9 ± 0.4 to 13.4 ± 5.7% of the mesoplankton biomass per day, while in the years of B. ovata absence, these values were as high as 30-40%. For the first time, the grazing rate of microzooplankton by M. leidi larvae was estimated. In August 2003, the maximum daily consumption rate was as great as 23-25% of the microzooplankton biomass. The daily rations of the mnemiopsis larvae on microzooplankton were close or even higher than those on mesoplankton.

  13. Impact of deforestation on soil carbon stock and its spatial distribution in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuker, Mehmet Ali; Guney, Mert; Oral, H Volkan; Copty, Nadim K; Onay, Turgut T

    2015-01-01

    Land use management is one of the most critical factors influencing soil carbon storage and the global carbon cycle. This study evaluates the impact of land use change on the soil carbon stock in the Karasu region of Turkey which in the last two decades has undergone substantial deforestation to expand hazelnut plantations. Analysis of seasonal soil data indicated that the carbon content decreased rapidly with depth for both land uses. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between the surface carbon stock (defined over 0-5 cm depth) in agricultural and forested areas is statistically significant (Agricultural = 1.74 kg/m(2), Forested = 2.09 kg/m(2), p = 0.014). On the other hand, the average carbon stocks estimated over the 0-1 m depth were 12.36 and 12.12 kg/m(2) in forested and agricultural soils, respectively. The carbon stock (defined over 1 m depth) in the two land uses were not significantly different which is attributed in part to the negative correlation between carbon stock and bulk density (-0.353, p < 0.01). The soil carbon stock over the entire study area was mapped using a conditional kriging approach which jointly uses the collected soil carbon data and satellite-based land use images. Based on the kriging map, the spatially soil carbon stock (0-1 m dept) ranged about 2 kg/m(2) in highly developed areas to more than 23 kg/m(2) in intensively cultivated areas as well as the averaged soil carbon stock (0-1 m depth) was estimated as 10.4 kg/m(2).

  14. A preliminary report of relationship between abortion and Q fever in Central Black Sea Region Turkish woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Günal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Q fever, which is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, may result in abortions in infected animals and pregnant women. In our study, we searched the association between Q fever serology and abortion in a region where Q fever is endemic. Method. This study was conducted in Gaziosmanpaşa University Hospital between March and May 2012. A total of 100 women, from these, 64 had a history of spontaneus abortion (cases and 36 had live births with no complicated obstetrics history or complicated partum (controls, enrolled in the study. Both groups were compared according to where they live, underlying diseases, contact with farm animals or pets and village connectivity. Results. IgG seroprevalence of Coxiella in our study group with the history of abortion was 15.6%, and 11.1% in the control group (p>0.05. When case and control groups were compared, the frequency of inhabitants of the village (p=0.012, subjects who had contact with farm animals [p=0.026, especially cattle (p=0.013] or domestic animals (p=0.018 in case group were more common than the control group. When all the samples were analyzed, it was seen that the only significant variable affecting Coxiella IgG seropositivity was residency in rural area or visiting rural area (p=0.018. Conclusions. We have found that the relation between abortion and Q fever infection was not statistically significant. On this issue, multicenter studies which have the higher number of samples are needed in our country.

  15. The European Eel Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Anguillidae. Native or Alien in the Black Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos I. Apostolou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STEFC of EU suggested the Black Sea region should be excluded from the list of natural areas, where the European eel (Anguilla anguilla is distributed. The basic conception of this idea was that the eels caught in the Black Sea region represent escaped specimens from fish farming in some Danubian countries. This article illustrates an effort to be given an indirect answer on the question if Black Sea is the end of natural distribution of European eel. The species is present but never been abundant in the region and do not represent an object of commercial fishing.

  16. Black Sea GIS developed in MHI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, E.; Khaliulin, A.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Isaeva, E.

    2016-08-01

    The work aims at creating the Black Sea geoinformation system (GIS) and complementing it with a model bank. The software for data access and visualization was developed using client server architecture. A map service based on MapServer and MySQL data management system were chosen for the Black Sea GIS. Php-modules and python-scripts are used to provide data access, processing, and exchange between the client application and the server. According to the basic data types, the module structure of GIS was developed. Each type of data is matched to a module which allows selection and visualization of the data. At present, a GIS complement with a model bank (the models build in to the GIS) and users' models (programs launched on users' PCs but receiving and displaying data via GIS) is developed.

  17. Marine Flora of Kastamonu (Black Sea, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erdugan, H.; Dural-Tarakçi, B.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In this research, marine algae and seagrasses in the upper infralittoral zone of the Black Sea, coast of Kastamonu, was investigated. A total of 259 algae and 3 seagrasses taxa were determined. These are the blue-green bacteria (22 taxa), red algae (133 taxa), the brown algae (56 taxa), the green algae (48 taxa) and the flowering plants (3 taxa). Eupogodon planus, Spermothamnion repens (Rhodophyceae), Planophila microcystis and Stromatella monostromatica (Fucophyceae) are new records...

  18. On the Bioeconomic potential of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian

    2015-04-01

    The paper is a plea for the need to engage in more intensive researches on the Black Sea region bioeconomy so that they should keep pace with the researches taking place in other European seas. Bioeconomy offers Europe a unique opportunity to address complex inter-connected challenges, while achieving economic growth. Bioeconomy refers to the set of economic activities relating to the invention, development, production and use of biological products and processes. According to the European Commission, bioeconomy can be found in societal challenge category entitled "Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine, maritime and inland water research, and the Bioeconomy" (http://ec.europa.eu/research/bioeconomy/h2020/index_en.htm); a transition is needed towards an optimal and renewable use of biological resources and towards sustainable primary production and processing systems. The author makes a brief overview of the European preoccupations concerning scientific research into bioeconomy and, equally, presents Romanian thinking in the field, launched several decades ago, but never applied and developed in practice. In 1933 Dr. Gr. Antipa, former outstanding student of Ernst Haeckel at Jena, expounded his conception of general biology and the biological structure of the Black Sea introducing the concepts of "biosociology" and "bioeconomy", drawing conclusions on the natural mechanism of fish production in this sea and specifying the determining factors in functioning. Antipa notes the lack of uniformity of the living conditions in the Black Sea and draws conclusions based on indices and faunal aspects found in different areas and at different depths: 1. The Black Sea, to an even greater extent than the Baltic Sea, with which it has some similarity both of them having a continuous surface and homogeneous appearance, is divided into more zones or biotypes, bounded horizontally and vertically - i.e. depending on areas and depths - each with distinct and well

  19. AN EVALUATION ABOUT THE IDIOMS OF THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN BLACK SEA REGION DIALECTS / ORTA VE DOĞU KARADENIZ AĞIZLARINDA GÖRÜLEN DEYIMLER ÜZERINE BIR DEĞERLENDIRME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Kaan YALÇIN (M.A.H.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Idioms play an important role in the vocabulary of a language interms of the briskness, fluency and the richness that they add to theexpressions. In this study, the non-literary idioms of Ordu, Giresun, Rize andTrabzon dialects of the Central and Eastern Black-Sea Region Dialects aredealt with. The idioms which are taken from the texts of the dialect-studieson the afore-mentioned regional dialects and from Derleme Sözlüğü areevaluated with respect to origion, structure, meaning and syntax.

  20. ENAA studies of pollution in anoxic Black Sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Octavian G; Cristache, Carmen; Oaie, Gheorghe; Culicov, Otilia A; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Toma, Magdalena

    2009-06-01

    The vertical distributions of five potential pollutants - Zn, As, Br, Sn, and Sb - were determined via epithermal neutron activation in the upper 50cm of unconsolidated sediments from the Black Sea, which were collected 600m below sea surface. This analysis demonstrated increasing concentrations towards the upper limits of sediments, which were greater than alert concentrations in the case of As and Br, and in accordance with Romanian Environment Regulations. The utilization of Chernobyl (137)Cs as a time marker allowed for dating of this region to the last 100 years. PMID:19261305

  1. ENAA Studies of pollution in anoxic Black Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical distributions of five potential pollutants - Zn, As, Br, Sn, and Sb - were determined via epithermal neutron activation in the upper 50 cm of unconsolidated sediments from the Black Sea, which were collected 600 m below sea surface. This analysis demonstrated increasing concentrations towards the upper limits of sediments, which were greater than alert concentrations in the case of As and Br, and in accordance with Romanian Environment Regulations. The utilization of Chernobyl 137Cs as a time marker allowed for dating of this region to the last 100 years.

  2. International Cooperation For Saving The Black Sea and The Coordinated Parallel Audit by SAIs of The Region(Karadeniz'in Korunmasına Yönelik Uluslararası İşbirliği ve Bölge Sayıştaylarının Koordineli Paralel Denetim Çalışması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ömer KÖSE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most isolated sea in the world, the Black Sea is under great threats stemming from human activities in the region and it is clear that the effects of great deal of polluters from lots of sources on the Black Sea environment could be devastating if they are not managed properly. Considering the fact that international collaboration is crucial to save the Black Sea, SAIs of coastal countries carried out a coordinated parallel audit to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation results of the Bucharest Convention. Comprehensive evaluations and recommendations in both the Joint Report and more detailed national audit reports provide a strong basis for implementing the necessary strategy and policies effectively and enhancing these efforts. Taking notice of these reports, responsible actors at each level of environmental governance should take appropriate steps to protect and rehabilitate the Black Sea before its being too late.

  3. Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea interaction: influence of the North Aegean dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulidakis, Yannis; Krestenitis, Yannis; Kourafalou, Vassiliki

    2013-04-01

    The brackish Black Sea Waters outflow to the Aegean Sea, through the Dardanelles Straits, affects and determines significantly the hydrodynamic and physical characteristics of the Aegean Sea. At the same time, it affects several biological parameters, like chl-a concentrations, and, therefore, the general quality of the marine environment. The investigation and mathematical simulation of the North Aegean's physical oceanography contributes to the knowledge and understanding of the buoyant waters' circulation initial conditions in the wider East Mediterranean region. The implementation and adaptation of the 3-d hydrodynamic mathematical model HYCOM (Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model) in the North Aegean Sea (1/50οx1/50o), significantly contributes to the investigation of the area's hydrodynamic circulation. HYCOM, due to its hybrid coordinate operation, can describe at a satisfactory level, all the different topography and mixing cases of the complicated N. Aegean region. In addition, the high resolution atmospheric forcing and the nesting with a data assimilated broader Mediterranean HYCOM model along the southern open boundary of the North Aegean model, benefit the quality of the results and constitutes an important tool on the description and understanding of the Black Sea influence to the region's dynamics. A fundamental objective is the application and comparison of different Dardanelles outflow parameterizations based a) on the Black Sea water budget, b) on current measurements from a telemetric station in Limnos Island, and c) on historical time series. The Black Sea Waters plume evolution and the circulation patterns are dependant on the outflow rate magnitude, the flow distribution inside the straits and the prevailing winds. The long-term simulation covers the period of the last 20 years (1990-2010), investigating several physical characteristics of the North Aegean Sea, such as the deep water masses evolution, the major Black Sea waters circulation patterns

  4. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Bradley, Lee R.; Takano, Yoshihito;

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of salinity in the Holocene Black Sea has been an ongoing debate over the past four decades. Here we calibrate summer surface water salinity in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea with the process length of the dinoflagellate cyst Lingulodinium machaerophorum. We then apply...... researchers. The dinoflagellate cyst salinity-proxy does not record large Holocene salinity fluctuations, and after early Holocene freshening, it shows correspondence to the regional sea-level curve of Brückner et al. (2010) derived from Balabanov (2007)....

  5. [A study of dissolved oxygen flux across the water-bottom interface in the northeastern Black Sea (in the region of Dzhubga village)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershinin, A V; Korneeva, G A; Pautova, L N; Sapozhnikov, F V

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen exchange at the water-bottom interface in the northeastern Black Sea was studied using bottom tanks (fluxes and oxygen consumption for organic matter mineralization and for respiration of soil and water organisms). The relationship of biogenic fluxes and patterns of biochemical (enzyme) destruction of organic matter by the components of the bacterial and microproducer community was established. The prevalence of microbial oxidation of organic matter correlated with high proteolytic activity in near-bottom water. The principal significance of organic matter oxidation in near-bottom water for the phytoplankton and its respiratory expenditures was demonstrated both in the open system of the near-bottom layer and in the closed tank system. A similar trend was demonstrated for benthic organisms. PMID:18491566

  6. Simulations of The Extreme Precipitation Event Enhanced by Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly over the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakan Doǧan, Onur; Önol, Barış

    2016-04-01

    Istanbul Technical University, Aeronautics and Astronautics Faculty, Meteorological Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey In this study, we examined the extreme precipitation case over the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey by using regional climate model, RegCM4. The flood caused by excessive rain in August 26, 2010 killed 12 people and the landslides in Rize province have damaged many buildings. The station based two days total precipitation exceeds 200 mm. One of the usual suspects for this extreme event is positive anomaly of sea surface temperature (SST) over the Black Sea where the significant warming trend is clear in the last three decades. In August 2010, the monthly mean SST is higher than 3 °C with respect to the period of 1981-2010. We designed three sensitivity simulations with RegCM4 to define the effects of the Black Sea as a moisture source. The simulation domain with 10-km horizontal resolution covers all the countries bordering the Black Sea and simulation period is defined for entire August 2010. It is also noted that the spatial variability of the precipitation produced by the reference simulation (Sim-0) is consistent with the TRMM data. In terms of analysis of the sensitivity to SST, we forced the simulations by subtracting 1 °C (Sim-1), 2 °C (Sim-2) and 3 °C (Sim-3) from the ERA-Interim 6-hourly SST data (considering only the Black Sea). The sensitivity simulations indicate that daily total precipitation for all these simulations gradually decreased based on the reference simulation (Sim-0). 3-hourly maximum precipitation rates for Sim-0, Sim-1, Sim-2 and Sim-3 are 32, 25, 13 and 10.5 mm respectively over the hotspot region. Despite the fact that the simulations signal points out the same direction, degradation of the precipitation intensity does not indicate the same magnitude for all simulations. It is revealed that 2 °C (Sim-2) threshold is critical for SST sensitivity. We also calculated the humidity differences from the simulation and these

  7. Modeling mesoscale circulation of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotenko, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    An eddy-resolving (1/30)° version of the DieCAST low-dissipative model, adapted to the Black Sea circulation, is presented. Under mean climatological forcing, the model realistically reproduces major dominant large-scale and mesoscale structures of seasonal sea circulation, including the Rim Current, coastal anticyclonic eddies, mushroom currents, etc. Due to its extremely low dissipation and high resolution, the model makes it possible to trace the development of the baroclinic instability along the Turkish and Caucasian coasts, reproduce mesoscale structures generated by this mechanism, and assess the scales of these structures. The model also realistically reproduces short-term effects of bora winds on the evolution of subsurface layer structures.

  8. RETHINKING THE BLACK SEA: BETWEEN THE TRANS-ATLANTIC AND THE EURASIAN PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerban Filip Cioculescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea region as a buffer between great powers and cordon sanitaire was and still is important in European history. After the 18th century, the Russian empire began a gradual but unstoppable move towards the conquest of the region, leading to a setback for Turkish influence. The Crimean War enabled Western powers to contain Russian expansion for some decades. For small and medium-sized countries like Romania, it is difficult to erase historic experiences from their collective memory. During the Cold War, the Black Sea was a virtual “Soviet lake” from a military point of view. The West controlled only the straits “owned” by Turkey following the Montreux Convention. After the implosion of the USSR, this strategic area was neglected by the Western powers and viewed by the Russian Federation as a traditional sphere of influence. Since 1991, Ukraine holds about 30% of the northern shore of the Black Sea, Georgia controls roughly 12% of the maritime littoral (including the separatist territories while Russia owns about 13% of the Black Sea shores. Turkey and Ukraine hold the biggest share of the Black Sea shore. Generally speaking, during the two last decades, there have been two competing visions about the future: the Euro-Atlantic one, which insists on opening and internationalising the sea, and the Eurasian vision, which wants the Black Sea to remain closed and impenetrable to foreign interferences. This article deals with these issues.doi: 10.5787/41-1-1051

  9. Kinetics of Ce and Nd scavenging in Black Sea waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Millero, Frank J.

    1994-01-01

    Mixing experiments were performed during Leg 5 of the 1988 Black Sea Expedition in order to learn more about the mechanism and kinetics of rare earth element (REE) scavenging at the oxic-anoxic interface of anoxic basins and, more specifically, in the suboxic zone of the Black Sea. Water from the de

  10. Light Absorption in Arctic Sea Ice - Black Carbon vs Chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunro, O. O.; Wingenter, O. W.; Elliott, S.; Hunke, E. C.; Flanner, M.; Wang, H.; Dubey, M. K.; Jeffery, N.

    2015-12-01

    The fingerprint of climate change is more obvious in the Arctic than any other place on Earth. This is not only because the surface temperature there has increased at twice the rate of global mean temperature but also because Arctic sea ice extent has reached a record low of 49% reduction relative to the 1979-2000 climatology. Radiation absorption through black carbon (BC) deposited on Arctic snow and sea ice surface is one of the major hypothesized contributors to the decline. However, we note that chlorophyll-a absorption owing to increasing biology activity in this region could be a major competitor during boreal spring. Modeling of sea-ice physical and biological processes together with experiments and field observations promise rapid progress in the quality of Arctic ice predictions. Here we develop a dynamic ice system module to investigate discrete absorption of both BC and chlorophyll in the Arctic, using BC deposition fields from version 5 of Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and vertically distributed layers of chlorophyll concentrations from Sea Ice Model (CICE). To this point, our black carbon mixing ratios compare well with available in situ data. Both results are in the same order of magnitude. Estimates from our calculations show that sea ice and snow around the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay has the least black carbon absorption while values at the ice-ocean perimeter in the region of the Barents Sea peak significantly. With regard to pigment concentrations, high amounts of chlorophyll are produced in Arctic sea ice by the bottom microbial community, and also within the columnar pack wherever substantial biological activity takes place in the presence of moderate light. We show that the percentage of photons absorbed by chlorophyll in the spring is comparable to the amount attributed to BC, especially in areas where the total deposition rates are decreasing with time on interannual timescale. We expect a continuous increase in

  11. Need Of Intercultural Dialogue Between Black Sea Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ahmet SALGÜR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In human history, living together in peace without violence and problem has been a challenge for all humanity. Sometimes it has achieved, but it has just as frequently failed. It means that human beings prefer living together with people who are like them rather than with people who are different in appearance, speaking, eating, dressing, behaviour and beliefs, i.e. people from different cultures. However, cultural diversity and difference is a standard characteristic of modern societies. In these societies, individuals have to live with the people from different nations, colors, religions, languages and cultures. Black Sea Region is one of the most diverse regions in the world in terms of all these differences. Ethnic and religious diversity is an historical reality in this part of the world. There are Christians, Muslims and Jewish populations living together over centuries in a peaceful atmosphere. The States in Black Sea Region should develop cultural, educational and social policies to maintain this coexistence for the future generations.

  12. Oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rank, D. [Bundesforshungs und Pruefzentrum Arsenal, Geotechnisches Institut, Postfach 8, A-1031 Vienna (Austria); Oezsoy, E.; Salihoglu, I. [Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, P. O. Box 28, Erdemli, Icel (Turkey)

    1999-04-01

    The stable isotopes {sup 18}O and {sup 2}H, together with the transient tracer {sup 3}H can be used to identify origins and characteristics of distinct water masses in the Black Sea, and in its smaller neighbour, the Marmara Sea, connected between them and to the Mediterranean Sea through the Straits of Bosphorus and Dardanelles, respectively. Exchange through the system and the water mass formation and evolution are characterised, based on the isotope measurements. Spatial coverage including the shelf and deep regions, with improved accuracy and reduced noise provide-definitive assessments of pycnocline and deep mixing in the system. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Recent Extreme Marine Events at Southern Coast of Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kirezci, Cagil; Baykal, Cuneyt; Gokhan Guler, Hasan; Erol, Onur; Zaytsev, Andrey; Kurkin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The utilization at the coastal areas of Black Sea basin has increased in the recent years with the projects such as large commercial ports, international transportation hubs, gas and petrol pipelines, touristic and recreational infrastructures both along surrounding shoreline. Although Black Sea is a closed basin, extreme storms and storm surges have also been observed with an increasing frequency in the recent years. Among those events, February 1999, March 2013 and September 2014 storms impacted Southern coast of Black sea have clearly shown that the increasing economic value at the coastal areas caused the increasing cost of damages and loss of property by natural hazards. The storm occurred on February 19-20, 1999 is one of the most destructive storm in the last decades. The 1999 event (1999 Southern Black sea storm) caused destruction at all harbors and coastal protection structures along the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The complete damage of the breakwater of Giresun Harbor and damage on the harbor structures and cargo handling equipment were the major impacts of the 1999 Southern Black sea storm. Similar coastal impact have also been observed during the September 24, 2014 storm at 500m East of Giresun harbor. Although there are considerable number of destructive storms observed at southern coast of Black sea recently, data on these events are limited and vastly scattered. In this study the list of recent extreme marine events at South coast of the Black sea compiled and related data such as wind speed, wave height, period, and type of damages are cataloged. Particular attention is focused on the 1999 and 2014 storm events. The meteorological and morphological characteristics which may be considered as the reasons of the generation and coastal amplification of these storms are discussed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This study is partly supported by Turkish Russian Joint Research Grant Program by TUBITAK (Turkey) and RFBR (Russia), and TUBITAK 213M534 Research Project.

  14. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTEMENTS FLOWS IN BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU-MARCEL JOIA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We live in a time when the world’s economy is in a constantly change. Foreign direct investments flows are in actual economy one of the most dynamic and prospective part of the world’s economy being in a continuous globalization. These international financial flows determine the traders who take part at the world’s economy to know to adopt a specific management in the international affairs field. We are viewers of an unprecedented expansion of foreign direct investments. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the foreign direct investments flows in Black Sea Economic Cooperation. This study is based on UNCTAD reports and on an econometrical model which gives us the possibility to create different analysis concerning FDI flow in this cooperation. So we defined a simple regression model, in which the dependent variable is represented by Nominal and real GDP, total and per capita, variable explicated by FDI flows, using as method the Least Squared, including 19 observations. Through this paper, we tried to illustrate the relation between the FDI flows and the economic growth rate in the past years inRomania, member of Black Sea Economic region. In line with a general upward trend in FDI to Central and Eastern Europe, inward FDI to the Russian Federation held steady between 1998 and 2001, at an annual average of $2.8 billion. In Black Sea Economic region, Russian average is the biggest one, Russia being a leader country in warding FDI. The Russian Federation is by far the leading investor country in the region, accounting for more than 75% of its annual outflows. Inward and outward direct investments flows in Russia have reached in 2009 an amount of $38,722 billion. In Romania, following years of stagnation at very low levels, 1991 to 1997, FDI flows reached $1.1 billion in 2002. Inflows to Bulgaria peaked at $1 billion in 2000; the surge is largely due to flows from developed countries. Inward and outward direct investments flows in

  15. Tsunami early warning system for the western coast of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Partheniu, Raluca; Cioflan, Carmen; Constantin, Angela; Danet, Anton; Diaconescu, Mihai; Ghica, Daniela; Grecu, Bogdan; Manea, Liviu; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Moldovan, Iren; Neagoe, Cristian; Radulian, Mircea; Raileanu, Victor; Verdes, Ioan

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea area is liable to tsunamis generation and the statistics show that more than twenty tsunamis have been observed in the past. The last tsunami was observed on 31st of March 1901 in the western part of the Black Sea, in the Shabla area. An earthquake of magnitude generated at a depth of 15 km below the sea level , triggered tsunami waves of 5 m height and material losses as well. The oldest tsunami ever recorded close to the Romanian shore-line dates from year 104. This paper emphasises the participation of The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) to the development of a tsunami warning system for the western cost of the Black Sea. In collaboration with the National Institute for Marine Geology and Geoecology (GeoEcoMar), the Institute of Oceanology and the Geological Institute, the last two belonging to the Bulgarian Academy of Science, NIEP has participated as partner, to the cross-border project "Set-up and implementation of key core components of a regional early-warning system for marine geohazards of risk to the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea coastal area - MARINEGEOHAZARDS", coordinated by GeoEcoMar. The main purpose of the project was the implementation of an integrated early-warning system accompanied by a common decision-support tool, and enhancement of regional technical capability, for the adequate detection, assessment, forecasting and rapid notification of natural marine geohazards for the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea cross-border area. In the last years, NIEP has increased its interest on the marine related hazards, such as tsunamis and, in collaboration with other institutions of Romania, is acting to strengthen the cooperation and data exchanges with institutions from the Black Sea surrounding countries which already have tsunami monitoring infrastructures. In this respect, NIEP has developed a coastal network for marine seismicity, by installing three new seismic stations in the coastal area of the Black Sea, Sea Level Sensors

  16. Alien fish species in the Mediterranean – Black Sea Basin

    OpenAIRE

    ORAL, Muammer

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Alien Fish (Synonyms: non-native, non-indigenous, allochthonous, and exotic) species have been introduced to the Mediterranean-Black Sea Basin via the Suez Canal, Gibraltar or in ballast water. The number of alien fish species increased recently in the Black Sea-Mediterranean Basin because of the opening of the Suez Canal, climate change and international shipping activities. The aim of this review is to compile all relevant data for the alien fish species in both the Black and the M...

  17. Potential economic impacts of achieving good environmental status in Black Sea fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C. Goulding

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD mandates that European Union (EU member states achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS based on an ecosystem-based approach to management. For commercial fisheries, the primary target under the MSFD is one of maximum sustainable yield. Of Black Sea riparian nations, only Romania and Bulgaria are EU member states. Focusing at the supranational level, we review institutions and instruments relevant to management of the Black Sea. The economic values of current fish catches are assessed, and the results of a recent analytical assessment of fish stocks are used to estimate potential future values based on maximum sustainable yields. In the Black Sea region, despite long-standing attempts to improve fisheries management, there remains a lack of effective regional cooperation. Evidence from the scenario analysis suggests that achieving GEnS would not have an undue negative impact on overall fishery sector incomes, and could, with appropriate investments in processing and marketing, deliver increased economic benefits for Black Sea countries. The ongoing policy debate between and within Black Sea coastal states needs to be extended to include recognition of the potential economic and social benefits of effective fisheries management. More work is required to assess returns on investment in interim management measures to deliver GEnS.

  18. Geoid undulations and gravity anomalies over the Aral Sea, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea from a combined GEOS-3/SEASAT/GEOSAT altimeter data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Andrew Y.; Brown, Richard D.; Welker, Jean E.

    1991-01-01

    Satellite-based altimetric data taken by GOES-3, SEASAT, and GEOSAT over the Aral Sea, the Black Sea, and the Caspian Sea are analyzed and a least squares collocation technique is used to predict the geoid undulations on a 0.25x0.25 deg. grid and to transform these geoid undulations to free air gravity anomalies. Rapp's 180x180 geopotential model is used as the reference surface for the collocation procedure. The result of geoid to gravity transformation is, however, sensitive to the information content of the reference geopotential model used. For example, considerable detailed surface gravity data were incorporated into the reference model over the Black Sea, resulting in a reference model with significant information content at short wavelengths. Thus, estimation of short wavelength gravity anomalies from gridded geoid heights is generally reliable over regions such as the Black Sea, using the conventional collocation technique with local empirical covariance functions. Over regions such as the Caspian Sea, where detailed surface data are generally not incorporated into the reference model, unconventional techniques are needed to obtain reliable gravity anomalies. Based on the predicted gravity anomalies over these inland seas, speculative tectonic structures are identified and geophysical processes are inferred.

  19. Recent decline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that from 1955 to 2013, the inventory of oxygen in the Black Sea has decreased by 36 % and the basin-averaged oxygen penetration depth has decreased from 140 m in 1955 to 90 m in 2013, which is the shallowest annual value recorded during that period. The oxygenated Black Sea surface layer separates the world's largest reservoir of toxic hydrogen sulphide from the atmosphere. The threat of chemocline excursion events led to hot debates in the past decades arguing on the vertical stability of the Black Sea oxic/suboxic interface. In the 1970s and 1980s the Black Sea faced severe eutrophication. Enhanced respiration rates reduced the thickness of the oxygenated layer. The consecutive increase of oxygen inventory in 1985–1995 supported arguments in favor of the stability of the oxic layer. Concomitant with a reduction of nutrient loads, this increase also supported the perception of a Black Sea recovering from eutrophication. More recently, atmospheric warming was shown to reduce the ventilation of the lower oxic layer by lowering Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL formation rates. The debate on the vertical migration of the oxic interface also addressed the natural spatial variability affecting Black Sea properties when expressed in terms of depth. Here we show that using isopycnal coordinates does not free from a significant spatial variability of oxygen penetration depths. Considering this spatial variability, the analysis of a composite historical set of oxygen profiles evidenced a significant shoaling of the oxic layer, and showed that the transient "recovery" of the 1990s was mainly a result of increased CIL formation rates during that period. As both atmospheric warming and eutrophication are expected to increase in the near future, monitoring the dynamics of the Black Sea oxic layer is required to assess the threat of further shoaling.

  20. Recent decline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, A.; Stanev, E. V.; Beckers, J.-M.; Murray, J. W.; Grégoire, M.

    2015-10-01

    We show that from 1955 to 2013, the inventory of oxygen in the Black Sea has decreased by 36 % and the basin-averaged oxygen penetration depth has decreased from 140 m in 1955 to 90 m in 2013, which is the shallowest annual value recorded during that period. The oxygenated Black Sea surface layer separates the world's largest reservoir of toxic hydrogen sulphide from the atmosphere. The threat of chemocline excursion events led to hot debates in the past decades arguing on the vertical stability of the Black Sea oxic/suboxic interface. In the 1970s and 1980s the Black Sea faced severe eutrophication. Enhanced respiration rates reduced the thickness of the oxygenated layer. The consecutive increase of oxygen inventory in 1985-1995 supported arguments in favor of the stability of the oxic layer. Concomitant with a reduction of nutrient loads, this increase also supported the perception of a Black Sea recovering from eutrophication. More recently, atmospheric warming was shown to reduce the ventilation of the lower oxic layer by lowering Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) formation rates. The debate on the vertical migration of the oxic interface also addressed the natural spatial variability affecting Black Sea properties when expressed in terms of depth. Here we show that using isopycnal coordinates does not free from a significant spatial variability of oxygen penetration depths. Considering this spatial variability, the analysis of a composite historical set of oxygen profiles evidenced a significant shoaling of the oxic layer, and showed that the transient "recovery" of the 1990s was mainly a result of increased CIL formation rates during that period. As both atmospheric warming and eutrophication are expected to increase in the near future, monitoring the dynamics of the Black Sea oxic layer is required to assess the threat of further shoaling.

  1. Defining Mediterranean and Black Sea biogeochemical subprovinces and synthetic ocean indicators using mesoscale oceanographic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieblas, Anne-Elise; Drushka, Kyla; Reygondeau, Gabriel;

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are semi-enclosed basins characterized by high environmental variability and growing anthropogenic pressure. This has led to an increasing need for a bioregionalization of the oceanic environment at local and regional scales that can be used for managerial applica...

  2. Fluctuation of dominant mesozooplankton species in the Black Sea, North Sea and the Baltic Sea: Is a general trend recognisable?

    OpenAIRE

    NIERMANN, Ulrich; BİNGEL, Ferit; ERGÜN, Güner

    1998-01-01

    The distribution and fluctation of dominant pelagic species>300µ(Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Scyhozoa, Ctenophora and ichthyoplankton) of the southern Black Sea were compared with that of dominant species of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in relation to oceanographic and environmental features. In all three seas, similar changes in the zooplankton composition took place at the end of the 1980's, and the beginning of the 1990's. - decreasing or increasing abundances of certain s...

  3. Spatial patterns of biodiversity in the Black Sea: An assessment using benthic polychaetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surugiu, Victor; Revkov, Nikolai; Todorova, Valentina; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Valavanis, Vasilis; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2010-06-01

    The current study broadens the biodiversity information available for the Black Sea and neighbouring regions and improves our knowledge about the polychaete biogeographic patterns to be discerned in them. There appears to be a well-defined zoogeocline from the Marmara Sea and Bosphorus Strait to the inner parts of the region (Azov Sea), depicted both as a multivariate pattern and in terms of species (or taxa) numbers. The emergent multivariate pattern complies, to a certain extent, with Jakubova's (1935) views: three main sectors can be defined in the basin: (a) Prebosphoric, (b) the Black Sea and, (c) the Azov Sea, whereas the Bosphorus Strait and Marmara Sea show less faunal affinities with the afore-mentioned sectors. Patterns derived both from the cosmopolitan and Atlanto-Mediterranean species closely follow the one coming from the polychaete species and genera inventories. As a general trend, species numbers decrease along with the decrease in salinity towards the inner parts of the region. The trend is homologous to that seen in the benthic invertebrate inventories of all the major European semi-enclosed regional seas. Salinity and food availability appear to be the dominant abiotic factors correlated, though weakly, with the various patterns deriving from the taxonomic/zoogeographic categories. With the exception of the Anatolia, polychaete inventories from all sectors appear to be random samples of the total inventory of the region, in terms of taxonomic distinctness values. Therefore, these sectoral inventories can be used for future biodiversity/environmental impact assessment studies. A massive invasion of Mediterranean species after the opening of the Black Sea, in the lower Quaternary period, appears to be the likely biogeographic mechanism through which the old Sarmatic fauna was almost completely replaced by species of marine origin.

  4. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  5. Collision processes at the northern margin of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobarenko, V. S.; Murovskaya, A. V.; Yegorova, T. P.; Sheremet, E. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extended along the Crimea-Caucasus coast of the Black Sea, the Crimean Seismic Zone (CSZ) is an evidence of active tectonic processes at the junction of the Scythian Plate and Black Sea Microplate. A relocation procedure applied to weak earthquakes (mb ≤ 3) recorded by ten local stations during 1970-2013 helped to determine more accurately the parameters of hypocenters in the CSZ. The Kerch-Taman, Sudak, Yuzhnoberezhnaya (South Coast), and Sevastopol subzones have also been recognized. Generalization of the focal mechanisms of 31 strong earthquakes during 1927-2013 has demonstrated the predominance of reverse and reverse-normal-faulting deformation regimes. This ongoing tectonic process occurs under the settings of compression and transpression. The earthquake foci with strike-slip component mechanisms concentrate in the west of the CSZ. Comparison of deformation modes in the western and eastern Crimean Mountains according to tectonophysical data has demonstrated that the western part is dominated by strike-slip and normal- faulting, while in the eastern part, reverse-fault and strike-slip deformation regimes prevail. Comparison of the seismicity and gravity field and modes of deformation suggests underthusting of the East Black Sea Microplate with thin suboceanic crust under the Scythian Plate. In the Yuzhnoberezhnaya Subzone, this process is complicated by the East Black Sea Microplate frontal part wedging into the marginal part of the Scythian Plate crust. The indentation mechanism explains the strong gravity anomaly in the Crimean Mountains and their uplift.

  6. Dissolved rare earth elements in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Landing, William M.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of rare earths in the deep anoxic Black Sea are about one order of magnitude higher than in normal open ocean waters. From a minimum at the suboxic-anoxic interface at about 107 m depth, concentrations increase strongly to a maximum at about 300–400 m depth. Concentrations of Ce range

  7. How Changing Human Lifestyles are Shaping Europe's Regional Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, L. D.; Lowe, C. D.; Langmead, O.; McQuatters-Gollop, A.; Attrill, M.; Cooper, P.; Gilbert, A.; Knudsen, S.; Garnacho, E.

    2007-05-01

    European society is experiencing unprecedented changes triggered by expansion of the European Union, the fall of Communism, economic growth and the onset of globalisation. Europe's regional seas, the Baltic, Black Sea, Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (including the North Sea), provide key goods and services to the human population but have suffered from severe degradation in past decades. Their integrity as coupled social and ecological systems depends on how humanity will anticipate potential problems and deal with its ecological footprint in the future. We report the outcome of an EU-funded 15-country, 28 institution project entitled European Lifestyles and Marine Ecosystems (ELME). Our studies were designed to inform new EU policy and legislation that incorporates Ecosystem-Based Management. ELME has modelled the key relationships between economic and social drivers (D), environmental pressures (P) and changes in the state of the environment (S) in Europe's regional seas. We examined four key issues in each sea: habitat change, eutrophication, chemical pollution and fisheries. We developed conceptual models for each regional sea and employed a novel stochastic modelling technique to examine the interrelationship between key components of the conceptual models. We used the models to examine 2-3 decade projections of current trends in D, P and S and how a number of alternative development scenarios might modify these trends. These simulations demonstrate the vulnerability of Europe's seas to human pressure. As affluence increases in countries acceding to the EU, so does the demand for marine goods and services. There are `winners' and `losers' amongst marine species; the winners are often species that are opportunistic invaders or those with low economic value. In the case of eutrophication, semi-enclosed seas such as the Baltic or Black Sea are already affected by the `legacy of the past'; nutrients that have accumulated in soils, ground waters and

  8. Contemporary genetic structure and postglacial demographic history of the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus, in the Mediterranean and the Black Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissin, E; Micu, D; Janczyszyn-Le Goff, M; Neglia, V; Bat, L; Todorova, V; Panayotova, M; Kruschel, C; Macic, V; Milchakova, N; Keskin, Ç; Anastasopoulou, A; Nasto, I; Zane, L; Planes, S

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the distribution of genetic diversity in the light of past demographic events linked with climatic shifts will help to forecast evolutionary trajectories of ecosystems within the current context of climate change. In this study, mitochondrial sequences and microsatellite loci were analysed using traditional population genetic approaches together with Bayesian dating and the more recent approximate Bayesian computation scenario testing. The genetic structure and demographic history of a commercial fish, the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus, was investigated throughout the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The results suggest that the species recently underwent population expansions, in both seas, likely concomitant with the warming period following the Last Glacial Maximum, 20 000 years ago. A weak contemporaneous genetic differentiation was identified between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. However, the genetic diversity was similar for populations of the two seas, suggesting a high number of colonizers entered the Black Sea during the interglacial period and/or the presence of a refugial population in the Black Sea during the glacial period. Finally, within seas, an east/west genetic differentiation in the Adriatic seems to prevail, whereas the Black Sea does not show any structured spatial genetic pattern of its population. Overall, these results suggest that the Black Sea is not that isolated from the Mediterranean, and both seas revealed similar evolutionary patterns related to climate change and changes in sea level. PMID:26989881

  9. Damages to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea by the invader comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Eker Develi; Aydın Sellioğ; Nuray Öner

    2011-01-01

    In the present study changes in ecosystems of the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea after the invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were investigated. Excessive increase in plant plankton as a result of antrophogenic eutrophication leads to a shift in mesozooplankton com¬position, which is the main food item of these comb jellies. For instance, while some mesozoo¬plankton species disappeared from the environment or substantially decreased in number, some others increased in quantity. T...

  10. Chandler wobble excitation by catastrophic flooding of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boschi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that during the late Quaternary glaciation the Black Sea formed an isolated inland lake (Ross et al., 1970. New geological data and the recognition of sudden population movements away from the Black Sea coasts suggest that the basin was rapidly flooded through the Bosphorus sill 7150 years bp, causing a sea level rise of ~ 135 m in a few years (Ryan et al., 1997. As shown here, such a catastrophic redistribution of mass has significantly altered the amplitude of the Chandler wobble, the free motion of the pole of rotation around the main inertia axis of the Earth (Lambeck, 1980. We also estimate that during the flooding the pole of rotation was diverted from its secular path and shifted by ~ 30 m, at a rate of several meters per year. These rotational variations are found to be orders of magnitude larger than those produced by other short-term geophysical processes, such as earthquakes seismic moment release (O'Connell and Dziewonski, 1979; Chao et al.,1996, anthropogenic water impoundment (Chao, 1995, and tectonic mass movements (Alfonsi and Spada, 1998. The Black Sea flooding may thus be responsible for the most drastic change in the rotational parameters of the Earth in the recent history of our planet.

  11. Potential impacts of climate change on the primary production of regional seas: A comparative analysis of five European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jason; Schrum, Corinna; Cannaby, Heather; Daewel, Ute; Allen, Icarus; Artioli, Yuri; Bopp, Laurent; Butenschon, Momme; Fach, Bettina A.; Harle, James; Pushpadas, Dhanya; Salihoglu, Baris; Wakelin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Regional seas are potentially highly vulnerable to climate change, yet are the most directly societally important regions of the marine environment. The combination of widely varying conditions of mixing, forcing, geography (coastline and bathymetry) and exposure to the open-ocean makes these seas subject to a wide range of physical processes that mediates how large scale climate change impacts on these seas' ecosystems. In this paper we explore the response of five regional sea areas to potential future climate change, acting via atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial vectors. These include the Barents Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Celtic Seas, and are contrasted with a region of the Northeast Atlantic. Our aim is to elucidate the controlling dynamical processes and how these vary between and within these seas. We focus on primary production and consider the potential climatic impacts on: long term changes in elemental budgets, seasonal and mesoscale processes that control phytoplankton's exposure to light and nutrients, and briefly direct temperature response. We draw examples from the MEECE FP7 project and five regional model systems each using a common global Earth System Model as forcing. We consider a common analysis approach, and additional sensitivity experiments. Comparing projections for the end of the 21st century with mean present day conditions, these simulations generally show an increase in seasonal and permanent stratification (where present). However, the first order (low- and mid-latitude) effect in the open ocean projections of increased permanent stratification leading to reduced nutrient levels, and so to reduced primary production, is largely absent, except in the NE Atlantic. Even in the two highly stratified, deep water seas we consider (Black and Baltic Seas) the increase in stratification is not seen as a first order control on primary production. Instead, results show a highly heterogeneous picture of positive and negative change

  12. First evaluation of neustonic microplastics in Black Sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytan, Ulgen; Valente, Andre; Senturk, Yasemen; Usta, Riza; Esensoy Sahin, Fatma Basak; Mazlum, Rahsan Evren; Agirbas, Ertugrul

    2016-08-01

    The Black Sea has a high risk of plastic pollution given the high river discharge of several industrialized countries into this semi-enclosed sea. Here, for the first time, the occurrence and distribution of microplastics are reported for the Black Sea. Microplastics were assessed from zooplankton samples taken during two cruises along the south eastern coast of the Black Sea in the November of 2014 and February of 2015. In each cruise neuston samples were collected at 12 stations using a WP2 net with 200 μm mesh. Microplastics (0.2-5 mm) were found in 92% of the samples. The primary shapes were fibres (49.4%) followed by plastic films (30.6%) and fragments (20%), and no micro beads were found. Average microplastic concentration in November (1.2 ± 1.1 × 10(3) par. m(-3)) was higher than in February (0.6 ± 0.55 × 10(3) par. m(-3)). Reduced concentrations in February were possibly caused by increased mixing. The highest concentrations of microplastics were observed in offshore stations during November sampling. The heterogeneous spatial distribution (0.2 × 10(3)-3.3 × 10(3) par. m(-3) for all samples) and accumulation in some stations could be associated to transport and retention mechanisms linked with wind and the dynamics of the rim current, as well by different sources of plastic. There were no statistically significant differences in MP concentration between sampling stations and sampling periods (t-test, p microplastic concentrations suggest that Black Sea is a hotspot for microplastic pollution and there is an urgency to understand their origins, transportation and effects on marine life. PMID:27187153

  13. Sea level changes along the Turkish coasts of the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ALPAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Short, tidal, subtidal, seasonal, secular sea-level variations, sea-level differences and interactions between the basins have been studied, based on the data collected at some permanent and temporary tide gauges located along the Turkish coasts, mostly along the Straits connecting the Marmara Sea to outer seas. Even though the deficiency of sufficient information prevented us to reach the desired results, many pre-existed studies have been improved. Short-period oscillations were clearly identified along the Turkish Strait System and related to their natu-ral periods. The tidal amplitudes are low along the Turkish coasts, except northern Aegean and eastern Mediterranean. The stability of harmonic constants of Samsun and Antalya were examined and most of the long period constituents were found to be unstable. Even the Marmara Sea is not affected from the tidal oscillations of Black and Aegean Seas, some interactions in low frequency band have been detected. Subtidal sea level fluctuations (3-14 day have relations with the large-scale cyclic atmospheric patterns passing over the Turkish Straits System. Short-term effects of wind on sea level are evident.Seasonal sea-level fluctuations along the Turkish Straits System are in accord with Black Sea's hydrological cycle. The differential range of the monthly mean sea levels between the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea is highly variable; high during spring and early summer and low during fall and winter.On the average, there is a pronounced sea-level difference (55 cm along the Turkish Straits System. However, the slope is nonlinear, being much steeper in the Strait of Istanbul. This barotrophic pressure difference is one of the most important factors causing the two-layer flow through the system. The topography and hydrodynamics of the straits, the dominant wind systems and their seasonal variations make this flow more complicated. For secular sea level changes, a rise of 3.2 mm/a was computed for

  14. INCOTERMS and the legal regime of loading and unloading particular study of traffic in the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Mihailovici, Cristina Steliana

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this thesis is to searching the potential ofthe maritime traffic in the Black Sea, the good application of the INCOTERMS in this region and the opportunities of maritime transport with the others seas. The research project conducted in this thesis uses qualitative methods: interviews with people that working in the maritime transport in the Black Sea that were made through e-mail to get a practical view on the topic, statistics and studies makes by me in the practice. The resu...

  15. Operative forecast of hydrophysical fields in the Georgian Black Sea coastal zone within the ECOOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kordzadze

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the part of the Black Sea Nowcasting/Forecasting System is the regional forecasting system for the Easternmost part of the Black Sea (including the Georgian water area, which have been developed within the context of the EU International projects ARENA and ECOOP. A core of the regional system is a high-resolution baroclinic regional model of the Black Sea dynamics developed at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics (RM-IG. This model is nested in the basin-scale model (BSM of Marine Hydrophysical Institute (MHI, Sevastopol/Ukraine. The regional area is limited to the Caucasian and Turkish coastal lines and the western liquid boundary coinciding with a meridian 39.36° E. Since June 2010 we regularly compute 3 days' forecasts of current, temperature and salinity for the Easternmost part of the Black Sea with 1 km spacing. In this study results of two forecasts are presented. The first forecast corresponds to Summer season and covers the prognostic interval from 00:00 h, 6 August to 00:00 h, 9 August 2010. The second one corresponds to Autumn season and covers the prognostic interval from 00:00 h, 26 October to 00:00 h, 29 October 2010. Data needed for the forecasts – the 3-D initial and prognostic hydrophysical fields, also 2-D prognostic meteorological fields at the sea surface, wind stress, heat fluxes, evaporation and precipitation rates for the our regional area are placing on the MHI server every day and we are available to use these data operatively. Prognostic hydrophysical fields are results of forecast by BSM of MHI and 2-D meteorological boundary fields represent results of forecast by regional atmospheric model ALADIN. All these fields are given on the grid of BSM with 5 km spacing and with one-hour time step frequency for the integration period. The analysis of predicted fields shows that to use the model with high resolution is very important factor for identification of nearshore eddies of small sizes. It should be noted very

  16. Patch Test Results in Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis in the Western Black Sea Region: A Five-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: In this retrospective study, patch test results of 304 patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD, who were tested with the European Standard Series, were evaluated. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of positive reactions to different sensitizers in patients with ACD and to identify sex and age differences.Material and Method: We evaluated a total of 304 patients (195 (64.1% female and 109 (35.9% male who applied to our clinic between the period of January 2003 and December 2008 and who were tested with patch test with the consideration of ACD. Patch test results were assessed according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group at 48 and 72 hours after initial application.Results: Lesions of ACD were found to be most frequent on the hands (65.5%. A total of 95 (31.3% patients had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (14.8% followed by cobalt chloride (9.2%, potassium dichromate (6.6%, balsam of Peru (3.6%, fragrance mix (3.3%, mercaptobenzothiazole (3% and colophonium (2.3%. Positive reactions to nickel sulfate were more common among women, especially those in younger group. Frequency of contact allergy to lanolin, mercapto mix, epoxy resin, paraben mix and quaternium-15 were relatively low, while no positive reaction was obtained to formaldehyde in any case. In 51.6% of patients with positive reaction, the responsible allergen was detected by testing with the European Standard Series.Conclusion: Although this study shows that sensitization rate to metals and fragrance are still high in our region, as well as in our country, and are more frequent in females than in males, future prospective multicenter studies with large number of patients would point out the adequacy of the European Standard Series in our country. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 198-202

  17. Palaeoseismic Events in Karst Terrains along the Northern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The study of the palaoseismic events in the karst terrains of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast is a very important up-to-date problem. The investigated region is one of the highest-energy regions in Bulgaria with established and recorded catastrophic historic and contemporary earthquakes. The terrain is subjected to the influence not only of its own earthquake foci but also of those in Romania and Russia. The palaeoearthquakes that caused considerable disturbances in the karst terrains along the Northern Bulgarian Black Sea coast have left significant traces. They caused disturbances in the environment and the relief (rearrangement of the surface and ground water karst basins, partially or entirely collapsed caves, deformed caves, oil, gas and salt intrusions and gravitationally formed caves). The ecological consequences in historic and contemporary aspects were catastrophic. The palaeoseismic dislocations were formed as a result of global,regional and local geodynamic events related with the destruction of the Moezian platform and the regional extension of the Black Sea basin. The time of their display and their spatial interrelations were established as a result of complex investigations accompanied by original documents.``

  18. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19 by multiple Soviet Union institutes (NODC Accession 0077413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to...

  19. Sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation in Black Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, BB; Weber, A.; Zopfi, J.

    2001-01-01

    Beyond the shelf break at ca. 150 m water depth, sulfate reduction is the only important process of organic matter oxidation in Black Sea sediments from the surface down to the sulfate-methane transition at 2-4 m depth. Sulfate reduction rates were measured experimentally with (SO42-)-S-35...... the process was very sluggish with turnover times of methane within the sulfate-methane transition zone of 20 yr or more. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.Beyond the shelf break at ca. 150 m water depth, sulfate reduction is the only important process of organic matter oxidation in Black Sea...... sediments from the surface down to the sulfate-methane transition at 2-4 m depth. Sulfate reduction rates were measured experimentally with (SO42-)-S-35, and the rates were compared with results of two diffusion-reaction models. The results showed that, even in these non-bioirrigated sediments without...

  20. Eco-tourism on the Black Sea Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Muhcinã Silvia; ªerban Comãnescu Adrian; Gruescu Ramona

    2011-01-01

    As a modern shape of tourism, the ecotourism fallows to observe and admire the natural environmental elements, in such a manner that assures the conditions of protection and preservation of nature. On the Black Sea Coast, the marine ecotourism can involves activities like: watching animals and birds from marine environment, trips by boats or submarines, scuba-diving etc., activities that can be the answer to some needs of a market niche.

  1. Marine algae and seagrasses of Tekirdag (Black Sea,Turkey)*

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; Erdugan, Hüseyin; DURAL, Berrin; SükranOkudan, E.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this study, marine algae and seagrasses in the upper infralittoral zone of the Black Sea coast of Tekirdag (Turkey) were investigated. A total 156 taxon (153 algae and 3 seagrasses) in species or inferior to the species category were determined. 15 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 84 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 26 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 28 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 3 to marineflowering plants (Magnoliophyta).

  2. Marine algae and seagrasses of Samsun (Black Sea, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; DURAL, Berrin; Şenkardeşler, Ayhan; Aysel, Hüseyin Erduğan and Fulya

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this investigation, the presence and the distribution of the blue-green algae; Cyanophyeae, 20 taxa, red algae; Rhodophyceae, 106 taxa, one of them is new record for the Blacksea shore of Turkey, Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis var. pusillum brown algae; Fucophyceae, 27 taxa, green algae; Chlorophyceae, 21 taxa, and seagrasses, 2 taxa were identified in the upper infralittoral zone of Samsun (Black Sea) shore of Turkey. A total 176 taxon was determined.

  3. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C Tsikliras

    Full Text Available The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W, central (C and eastern (E Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS, with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.

  4. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C; Dinouli, Anny; Tsiros, Vasileios-Zikos; Tsalkou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W), central (C) and eastern (E) Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS), with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures. PMID:25793975

  5. Risk Assessment in the Istanbul Strait Using Black Sea MOU Port State Control Inspections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Gül Emecen Kara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Istanbul Strait has intense maritime traffic while, at the same time, it poses significant navigational challenges. Due to these properties, there is always a high risk arising from maritime shipping in this region. Especially, substandard ships threaten life, as well as the marine environment. In this aspect, Black Sea Memorandum of Understanding (MOU Port State Control Inspections are important for maritime safety in the Istanbul Strait, because they directly reflect the performance of ships passing through the Istanbul Strait. Stringent and effective inspections assist in the enhancement of navigation safety and help to develop sustainable environment management. In this context, this study aims to assess maritime safety for the Strait region concerning passing flag states. Firstly, to assess the performance of flag states in general, the Black Sea MOU Black-Grey-White lists were generated for the period 2004–2014 and the change in the performance of these flags was examined. Secondly, the risk level of each flag state passing from the Strait region was determined using the method of weighted points based on the Black-Grey-White List, deficiency index level, casualty index level, and passing index level.

  6. Regional sea level change in the Thailand-Indonesia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Becker, M. H.; Buchhaupt, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is expected that the regional sea level rise will strongly affect particular regions with direct impacts including submergence of coastal zones, rising water tables and salt intrusion into groundwaters. It can possibly also exacerbate other factors as floodings, associated to storms and hurricanes, as well as ground subsidence of anthropogenic nature. The Thailand-Vietnam-Indonesian region is one of those zones. On land, the Chao-Praya and Mekong Delta are fertile alluvial zones. The potential for sea level increases and extreme floodings due to global warming makes the Deltas a place where local, regional, and global environmental changes are converging. We investigate the relative roles of regional and global mechanisms resulting in multidecadal variations and inflections in the rate of sea level change. Altimetry and GRACE data are used to investigate the variation of land floodings. The land surface water extent is evaluated at 25 km sampling intervals over fifteen years (1993-2007) using a multisatellite methodology which captures the extent of episodic and seasonal inundations, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and irrigated agriculture, using passive and active (microwaves and visible observations. The regional sea level change is analysed during the period 1993-2012 using satellite altimetry, wind and ocean model data, tide gauge data and GPS. The rates of absolute eustatic sea level rise derived from satellite altimetry through 19-year long precise altimeter observations are in average higher than the global mean rate. Several tide gauge records indicate an even higher sea level rise relative to land. We show that the sea level change is closely linked to the ENSO mode of variability and strongly affected by changes in wind forcing and ocean circulation. We have determined the vertical crustal motion at a given tide gauge location by differencing the tide gauge sea level time-series with an equivalent time-series derived from satellite altimetry and by computing

  7. Impact of winter cooling on the northern part of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Anatolii

    2016-07-01

    Climate change in the future may have a negative impact on many countries due to the increasing surface temperature and sea level rise. Probably, unprecedented largest positive trend of surface temperature, which observed since the mid XX century, has associated with increasing human activities around the world. Moreover, this warming will continue in this century, and at the end of the XXI century will be 2 - 5 ºC. Thus, investigation and monitoring of current climate are very important and necessary tasks. Regional model data (downscaling) and satellite data are used, because of underdeveloped network of meteorological stations in the northern part of the Black Sea region. Experiment of downscaling was carried out for the Black Sea region with a high spatial resolution of 0.22° x 0.22° for 1958 - 2007(daily values). For the Black Sea were also used satellite data of sea surface temperature(SST) from MyOcean-2 Project, which CNR(Rome) has reprocessed Pathfinder V5.2 (PFV52) AVHRR data over period 1981 - 2012 with daily gap-free maps (L4) at the original PFV52 resolution at 0.04° x 0.04°. Correlation between satellite SST and surface temperature from regional model climate are amounted 0,99. Thus, surface temperature of model and satellite data for the Black Sea is much correlated between yourself. The following integral characteristics of the Black Sea are referred to the area of sea limited by the 44 - 47º N and 28 - 34º E. Maximum cooling of the north-western part of the Black Sea in winter is occurs after invasion of cold air across the northern border of the basin. In addition, this water area is also interesting in the presence of her huge oil and gas reserves, as well as the construction of liquefied gas (crude oil) terminals. The maximum values of total heat flux (sensible + latent heat fluxes= Q) corresponding to the minimum values of SST are observed during the periods of the negative phase of the NAO. Besides, fluxes with extreme days P (Q) = 95

  8. Exchanges between the open Black Sea and its North West shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zhou, Feng

    2014-05-01

    and North Sea. NATO ASI Series, Vol. 27, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 253-264. Shapiro, G.I. , S.V. Stanichny, R.R. Stanychna, 2010. Anatomy of shelf-deep sea exchanges by a mesoscale eddy in the North West Black Sea as derived from remotely sensed data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 114 , 867-875. Shapiro, G., Luneva, M., Pickering, J., and Storkey, D., 2013. The effect of various vertical discretization schemes and horizontal diffusion parameterization on the performance of a 3-D ocean model: the Black Sea case study, Ocean Science, 9, 377-390. Staneva, J. V. and E. V. Stanev, 1997. Cold water mass formation in the Black Sea. Analysis on numerical model simulations. In: E. Ozsoy and A. Mikaelyan (eds.), Sensitivity to change: Black Sea, Baltic Sea and North Sea. NATO ASI Series, Vol. 27, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 375-393. Zaitsev Yu.P., B.G. Alexandrov, N.A. Berlinsky, A. Zenetos, 2001. Europe's biodiversity - biogeographical regions and seas. The Black Sea. European Environment Agency.

  9. Nutritional evaluation of aquaculture mussels (M. galloprovincialis from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merdzhanova Albena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years black mussels are one of the most commercially important species from the Bulgarian Black Sea. The marine mollusks are valuable healthy food, low in calories and fats and high in proteins. They are a major dietary source of fat soluble pigments - astaxanthin, carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. To our knowledge the information about the nutritional quality of mussels from the Bulgarian Black Sea waters, based on chemical composition, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and PUFA content is very limited. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy values, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and fatty acid composition in farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Bulgarian northern and southern parts of the Black Sea coast. The mussel samples were analyzed for lipids (Bligh & Dyer method, crude proteins (Kjeldahl method, carbohydrates and moistures according to the AOAC (1990 methods. Fatty acids were analyzed by the GC-MS system. Fat soluble pigments and cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously by the RP-HPLC system. Lipid and protein content were found to be higher in mussels from the northern region. In accordance with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 116/2010 all analyzed mussel samples can be classified as high in protein and low in fats and carbohydrates. The amount of cholesterol, contained in all mussel populations is significantly low, while the omega-3 (n-3 is significantly higher than the omega-6 PUFA. A portion of 100 g edible tissue provides 0.500 g more of the required amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3 PUFA according to EFSA (2012. It can be concluded that the studied mussel aquaculture in the Black Sea is beneficial food for the human health and it is advisable to be part of a proper or a preventive diet of Bulgarian consumers.

  10. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  11. Black Sea desiccation during the Messinian Salinity Crisis: Fact or fiction?

    OpenAIRE

    Grothe, A.; Sangiorgi, F.; Mulders, Y.; Vasiliev, I.; Brinkhuis, H.; Stoica, M.; Krijgsman, W.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The late Miocene Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) was an extraordinary geologic event inthe Mediterranean Basin marked by massive salt accumulation and presumably basin desiccationas a consequence of the reduced water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean. The discoveryof a desiccation deposit in the Black Sea, the so-called Pebbly Breccia unit, was used to claimthat the Black Sea also became desiccated during the MSC. Erosional features interpretedfrom seismic profi les of the Black Sea margin, co...

  12. A wave prediction system for real time sea state forecasting in Black Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Kortcheva, Anna; Galabov, Vasko

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the existing operational system for wind waves forecasting in the Black Sea. It is a system of coupled atmospheric and wave numerical models aiming at a detailed and accurate sea state forecast on an operational level. The system was created at the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH-BAS) in collaboration with the Meteorological Office of France - Meteo-France. The present work introduces the use of wave models at NIMH-BAS and shows the model results, as well as an intercomparison. The numerical wave models VAG, WAVEWATCH III and WAM, developed by the research groups of Meteo-France, NCEP and WAMDI, have been adopted for the Black Sea area and implemented at the NIMH-BAS to allow real-time forecasts and hindcasts of the waves in the Black Sea. The coupling of two atmospherics models ARPEGE and ALADIN has been used to force the wave models. The operational use has indicated that the system is suitable for general purposes and the resu...

  13. Differences In Skull Size Of Harbour Porpoises, Phocoena phocoena (Cetacea, In The Sea Of Azov And The Black Sea: Evidence For Different Morphotypes And Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldin P. E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two porpoise stocks in the northern Black Sea: the north-western (Odessa Gulf and northeastern (Crimean and Caucasian waters; in addition, another stock is in the Sea of Azov. The Azov porpoises are distinct in their body size and biology. This research was conducted on the skulls of stranded sexually mature porpoises from the north-eastern Black Sea, north-western Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. In the north-eastern Black Sea samples, both present-day and old-time, the sexual dimorphism of the skull size was not significant, whereas in the Sea of Azov the females were significantly larger than males. The Azov skulls were strongly different from those from the Black Sea: they were larger, proportionally wider and had the wider rostra; also, there was no significant chronological variation within the Black Sea. The Azov and Black Sea samples were classified with the 100 % success with four variables. The northwestern Black Sea skulls were somewhat intermediate in their characteristics between the Azov and northeastern Black Sea samples, but they were classify ed together with other Black Sea specimens. The difference between the Azov and Black Sea skulls was greater than between many North Atlantic populations, despite the extreme geographical proximity of the two stocks. The low variation within the Black Sea supports the earlier conclusions on the lack of genetic variation: all the Black Sea stocks are expected to be genetically similar sub-populations, whereas the Azov and Marmara stocks possibly represent the genetically distant populations. The porpoises from the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov equally show the traits which characterize the subspecies Phocoena phocoena relicta, but the Black Sea porpoises appear to be more paedomorphic in terms of ontogenetic trajectories.

  14. Recently Discovered New Biospheric Pelocontour Function in the Black Sea Reductive Bathyal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Polikarpov, Yuvenaly P. Zaitsev and Gennady G.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Two remarkable scientific events happened recently (Zaitsev, Polikarpov, Egorov et aL., 2007, 2008) in the field of the newly developed deep-sea ecology and molismology of the hydrogen sulphide pelocontour in the Black Sea bathyal zone:

  15. Bioecology of tulip trees at the Ajara Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Tskhoidze

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tulip trees (Liriodendron tulipifera L. andLiriodendron chinense(Hemsl. Sarg. grow well along the Batumi coastline, develop, bloom, produce fruit, give natural revival. There they already have blooming and fruiting self-seeds. Chinese tulip poplar sometimes reaches here bigger sizes than in natural habitat. It resists winter temperatures very well. Both species can be jointly used along the Caucasian Black Sea coast as ornamental trees because there are the most favorable conditions for their vegetation. Due the great resistance American tulip trees can grow along the coastline as well as inland of Ajara.

  16. The water mass variability on the Romanian Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, Luminita; Mihailov, Maria-Emanuela; Malciu, Viorel; Stefan, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    The long-term trends in the water mass thermohaline structure and the effect of Danube River freshwater discharge into the western Black Sea during the last four decades (1971 - 2010) are analyzed using the data collected on the Romanian shelf (NIMRD data base). The variations of the temperature and salinity over the studied period are relatively small. The temperature data reveal a slightly warming trend for the upper mixed layer (UML) while for the shelf cold water (SCW) - identified by the 8˚C upper isotherm depth - thermohaline structure remains practically constant. At the same time the salinity exhibits a decreasing trend in the entire water column.

  17. Vertical distribution of marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. in the Black, Marmara, Aegean, and eastern Mediterranean seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Zahit

    2006-08-01

    The vertical distributions of the unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus were studied in several highly contrasting seas: the Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea. Cell abundances varied significantly on both vertical and horizontal scales in all physically and spatially discrete water masses. Epifluorescence microscope cell counts from all seas clearly showed that majority of the population remains suspended in the surface-mixed layer and decreases gradually towards the base of the euphotic zone. Surface spatial distributions in the Black Sea were heterogeneous. Salinity, rather than temperature, seemed to have the greatest impact on the surface distribution of cells in this highly eutrophic sea. Changes in abundance in the mixed layer were small compared to the abrupt changes below the halocline, especially in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. In contrast to the Black Sea, the major population remains suspended above the depth of fluorescence maximum in the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean seas. Significant correlations ( r>P0.01) were observed between cell counts and physical and chemical parameters with depth in the Black Sea. In all seas, cells at subsurface chlorophyll- a maximum layer (SCML) reflected brighter and longer fluorescence than those present at the surface and below. Cell size derived from flow cytometry indicated the presence of larger cells at the surface mixed layer compared to those at depth.

  18. Sea surface temperature anomalies along the Black Sea Region coast of Turkey (1971-2010 periodTürkiye’nin Karadeniz Bölgesi kıyısı boyunca deniz suyu yüzey sıcaklığı anomalileri (1971-2010 dönemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Güçlü

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is finding an answer to a question how the development and change of sea surface temperature (SST anomalies were at the Black Sea Region in Turkey between 1971 and 2010. For that purpose, SST data of Amasra, Inebolu, Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun and Hopa stations were used. Air temperature is meteorological element having a clearest effect on annual and seasonal SST anomalies. Also in winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and North Sea Hazar Pattern (NCP and in spring North Sea Hazar Pattern (NCP are noticeably influential.In the study area, SST anomalies showed important annual and seasonal variations. It is designated that annual average SST anomaly showed asymmetric diffusion from its values average variation aspect in all stations, form standard variation aspect it showed symmetrical in Hopa and in the others it showed asymmetric diffusion. In 1971-2010 generally SST anomalies showed decrease in Ordu and Hopa, however, it showed an increasing tendency in the other stations. The values of anomaly showed decrease in Black Sea coasts between Sinop and Hopa in spring and summer, they showed an increasing tendency in the whole Black Sea coast zone in winter and autumn. SST and the anomaly values generally showed decrease in Black Sea coasts in 1971-2000, they showed increase between 2001 and 2010. The lowest anomaly values were designated in the period 1981-2000 and the highest anomaly values were generally designated in the period 2001-2010. ÖzetBu çalışmanın amacı Türkiye’nin Karadeniz Bölgesi kıyılarında deniz suyu yüzey sıcaklığı (DSYS anomalilerinin 1971-2010 dönemindeki gelişiminin ve değişiminin nasıl olduğu sorusuna cevap bulunmasıdır Bu amaçla Amasra, İnebolu, Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun ve Hopa meteoroloji istasyonlarının DSYS verileri kullanılmıştır. Buna göre DSYS anomalileri üzerinde yıllık ve mevsimlik olarak en belirgin etkiyi oluşturan meteorolojik unsur hava s

  19. Spawning of bluefin tuna in the black sea: historical evidence, environmental constraints and population plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    species of fish. We conclude that these adaptations would have been necessary for successful local reproduction by bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, and that a locally-adapted reproducing population may have disappeared. Recovery of bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, either for spawning or foraging, will occur......The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity......, but its biogeographic range has contracted since the 1950s. Most recently, the species disappeared from the Black Sea in the late 1980s and has not yet recovered. Reasons for the Black Sea disappearance, and the species-wide range contraction, are unclear. However bluefin tuna formerly foraged...

  20. Difference of mercury bioaccumulation in red mullets from the north-western Mediterranean and Black seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships between total mercury (Hg) concentration and stable nitrogen isotope ratio (δ15N) were evaluated in Mullus barbatus barbatus and M. surmuletus from the Mediterranean Sea and M. barbatus ponticus from the Black Sea. Mercury concentration in fish muscle was six times higher in the two Mediterranean species than in the Black Sea one for similar sized animals. A positive correlation between Hg concentration and δ15N occurred in all species. Increase in Hg concentration with δ15N was high and similar in the two Mediterranean fishes and much lower in the Black Sea species. Since this was neither related to trophic level difference between species nor to methylmercury (MeHg) concentration differences between the north-western Mediterranean and the Black Sea waters, we suggested that the higher primary production of the Black Sea induced a dilution of MeHg concentration at the base of the food webs.

  1. Stimulation of autotrophic denitrification by intrusions of the Bosporus Plume into the anoxic Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara A. Fuchsman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Autotrophic denitrification was measured in the southwestern coastal Black Sea, where the Bosporus Plume injects oxidized chemical species (especially O2 and NO3- into the oxic, suboxic and anoxic layers. Prominent oxygen intrusions caused an overlap of NOx- and sulfide at the same station where autotrophic denitrification activity was detected with incubation experiments. Several bacteria that have been proposed to oxidize sulfide in other low oxygen environments were found in the Black Sea including SUP05, Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter, and BS-GSO2. Comparison of TRFLP profiles from this mixing zone station and the Western Gyre (a station not affected by the Bosporus Plume indicate the greatest relative abundance of Sulfurimonas and Arcobacter at the appropriate depths at the mixing zone station. The autotrophic gammaproteobacterium BS-GSO2 correlated with ammonium fluxes rather than with sulfide fluxes and the maximum in SUP05 peak height was shallower than the depths where autotrophic denitrification was detected. Notably, anammox activity was not detected at the mixing zone station, though low levels of DNA from the anammox bacteria Candidatus Scalindua were present. These results provide evidence for a modified ecosystem with different N2 production pathways in the southwest coastal region compared to that found in the rest of the Black Sea. Moreover, the same Sulfurimonas phylotype (BS139 was previously detected on >30 μm particles in the suboxic zone of the Western Gyre along with DNA of potential sulfate reducers, so it is possible that particle-attached autotrophic denitrification may be an overlooked N2 production pathway in the central Black Sea as well.

  2. To the Issue of Gendarme Activities on the Territory of Black Sea Province During the First World War (1914–1917 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article on the basis of first introduced into the scientific circulation documents of the State archive of the Krasnodar region covers the activities of the gendarmerie staff management in the Black Sea province during the First World War. The author comes to the conclusion that the activities of the gendarmerie were conducted professionally during the 1914-1917 years in the Black Sea province. The expulsion of the prominent representatives of the revolutionary movement from the border area, which was the Black Sea province, led to political stability in the region. Further the tasks of the gendarmerie included only the maintaining of order and the prevention of the penetration of anti-social element in the Black Sea province.

  3. Palaeoceanography & Palaeoclimate during the penultimate Glacial-Interglacial transition in the Black Sea - Termination II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwerth, Antje; Dellwig, Olaf; Kaiser, Jérôme; Bard, Edouard; Ménot, Guillemette; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Plessen, Birgit; Schnetger, Bernhard; Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila; Arz, Helge

    2013-04-01

    The epicontinental Black Sea is very sensitive to environmental changes thus forming an ideal archive of regional climate change and teleconnective responses to the coupled North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere system. Here we focus on the climatic and hydrological evolution of the SE Black Sea during the glacial-interglacial transition of Termination II to the Eemian (~134-122 ka BP) by using different geochemical and sedimentological proxies. Long-term cold conditions during the ending penultimate glacial are provided by TEX86 derived summer sea-surface temperatures (SST) of around 9°C and are thus considerable lower than present values of about 23°C. Coastal ice formation during extreme winters accounted for huge discharge of ice rafted debris (IRD) until 130.5 ka BP. Milder more humid conditions during this period are indicated for instance by elevated Cr/Al values typical for an ultramafic Pontic Mountain source (Piper and Calvert, 2011) thereby suggesting an increased sediment load mainly from the east-Anatolian rivers Kizilirmak and Yesilirmak. The abrupt disappearance of IRD along with increasing δ18O, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca of benthic ostracods (Candona spp.) resulted from slightly rising temperatures (SST 11°C) until 128.8 ka BP. Thereafter, SST rapidly increased within less than 500 years to about 25°C revealing a dramatic change from glacial to interglacial conditions. First analyses of U/Ca-ratios of ostracods show sharply increasing values not before ~128.3 ka BP, synchronous to the appearance of larval Mytilus galloprovincialis shells, due to the Mediterranean transgression into the Black Sea. The simultaneous increase of TOC and Mo/Al of the bulk sediment indicates the development of oxygen-deficient bottom waters and Eemian sapropel formation favoured by the establishment of a halocline shortly after the Mediterranean-Black Sea reconnection. About 500 years after the temperature maximum, the continental environment responded to the warming by elevated

  4. NW Black Sea ecosystems recovery from former severe seasonal hypoxia and effect on macrofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian; Begun, Tatiana; Teaca, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    regeneration of macrophytobenthos and macrozoobenthos is suggested by the available data. The process of recovery of the Black Sea will take a long time and will require the implementation of all measures envisaged by the Black Sea Strategic Action Plan as well as some future provisions. The process will be further complicated by the fact that scientific knowledge and information on many processes and phenomena, which are needed for policy and decision making, are missing. The opinion of authors concerning the future conservation of the Black Sea biodiversity in the context of climate change and the actual state of socio-economic system of the Black Sea Region (environment-related science and policy) is that to have in mind the following key aspects: • facts are uncertain (lack of knowledge of the impacts of some mitigation and adaptation measures on biodiversity as a whole and some habitats or taxa in particular and the transfer of "best practices" should be undertaken with caution in order to ensure their applicability to a new situation); • natural and economic values in dispute, • stakes high and decisions urgent. Keywords: Black Sea, benthos, ecological state.

  5. Damages to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea by the invader comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eker Develi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study changes in ecosystems of the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea after the invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were investigated. Excessive increase in plant plankton as a result of antrophogenic eutrophication leads to a shift in mesozooplankton com¬position, which is the main food item of these comb jellies. For instance, while some mesozoo¬plankton species disappeared from the environment or substantially decreased in number, some others increased in quantity. These changes in food chain may promote the rise of jellyfishes rather than fish in the environment. In addition, decrease in planktivorous fish abundance as a consequence of overfishing also triggers the increase of newly introduced comb jellies, which were possibly introduced via ballast waters of ships, in the ecosystem. Increase in abundance of M. leidyi, which compete with planktivorous fishes (anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus in the Black Sea, kilka, Clupeonella spp. in the Caspian Sea for their food, causes to decrease of planktivorous fish stocks which have already been vulnerable due to overfishing. Another reason for successfully adaption of M. leidyi to its new ecosystems could be linked to global warming which provides favourable temperature ranges for reproduction and growth of this ctenophore. Although there are still many debates related to possible negative effects, one of the ways to reduce harmful impacts of invaders might be the transport of natural predators of these invaders to the new ecosystems of invaders. For example, it was reported that the abun¬dance of Mnemiopsis leidyi decreased to very low levels during 1999-2004 in the Black Sea following the introduction of another comb jelly, Beroe ovata, which feed on this ctenophore.

  6. Assessment of free-living marine nematodes community from the NW Romanian Black Sea shelf..

    OpenAIRE

    Mureşan, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Diversity and distribution of abundance data for the free-living marine nematodes inhabiting the NW Black Sea shelf were assessed based on 30 samples collected from the NW Black Sea shelf in 2010. Trophic structure of nematodes populations was established in order to determine whether they form specific associations in the area influenced by the Danube input.

  7. Comprehensive studies in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov in the Summer of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, G. G.; Nabozhenko, M. V.; Shokhin, I. V.; Zolotareva, A. E.; Bulysheva, N. I.; Semin, V. L.; Polshin, V. V.; Povazhnyi, V. V.; Verbitskyi, R. E.; Verbitskyi, E. V.; Sapozhnikov, F. V.; Spiridonov, V. A.; Zalota, A. K.

    2013-05-01

    The shelf zones of the Black Sea, Taman Bay, and the Sea of Azov are currently subjected to gross load related to the impact of invasive species, large-scale construction activities near the coast, intensive recreation activity, water pollution in large cities and ports, active navigation, unreasonable coastal arrangement, and dam construction. Another factor substantially affecting the composition of bottom sediments and, thus, the benthos environment is the terrigenous material carried by rivers in the course of catastrophic overflows. An example is the Kubansk flood in 2012, which significantly affected the sea coast near Novorossiysk, Gelendzhik, and Divnomorsk. The intensive onshore dumping results in the delivery of abundant allochthonous material, bottom silting causing changes in the dominants in the benthos associations, a decrease in the photic layer and the death of the phytobenthos, and also debris formation at the bottom. Debris can play the role of artificial reefs contributory for the formation of periphytic biocoenoses.

  8. Comparing satellite and meteorological data on wind velocity over the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmashov, A. V.; Kubryakov, A. A.; Shokurov, M. V.; Stanichny, S. V.; Toloknov, Yu. N.; Korovushkin, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    Wind-velocity data obtained from in situ measurements at the Golitsyno-4 marine stationary platform have been compared with QuikSCAT scatterometer data; NCEP, MERRA, and ERA-Interim global reanalyses and MM5 regional atmospheric reanalysis. In order to adjust wind velocity measured at a height of 37 m above the sea surface to a standard height of 10 m with stratification taken into account, the Monin-Obukhov theory and regional atmospheric reanalysis data are used. Data obtained with the QuikSCAT scatterometer most adequately describe the real variability of wind over the Black Sea. Errors in reanalysis data are not high either: the regression coefficient varies from 0.98 to 1.06, the rms deviation of the velocity amplitude varies from 1.90 to 2.24 m/s, and the rms deviation of the direction angle varies from 26° to 36°. Errors in determining the velocity and direction of wind depend on its amplitude: under weak winds (12 m/s), its velocity is underestimated. The influence of these errors on both spatial and temporal estimates of the characteristics of wind over the Black Sea is briefly considered.

  9. Adriatic and Black Sea level in the 20th century and projection to the end of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Adriatic and Black Sea are semi-enclosed basins characterized by densely populated coasts, industrial compounds and a rich cultural and historical heritage. It appears to be crucial, for the management and the protection of their coastlines, to understand how much they will be impacted by the global sea level (SL) rise, projected by the end of this century. The aim of this work is to develop a method that allows to estimate to which extent the SL of the two basins will depart from the mean global level. The future evolution of global sea level is not a meaningful indicator at this regional scale and past deviations, due to local factors of the Adriatic and Black Sea levels from the global one, have been observed. The Adriatic Sea is the basin of the Mediterranean Sea best covered by past SL observations. In fact, for the Adriatic Sea is possible to obtain, by statistical method based on PCA and Least square Method, a seamless and long time series (from 1900 to 2009) using records of 7 mareographic stations located along the Italian and Croatian coasts (from PSMSL database). Satellite data of SL are available for the whole Mediterranean from 1993 to 2012 and they show a very high correlation (rho > 0.9) with Adriatic time series based on mareographic records. The SL time series of the 20th century in the Black Sea is computed using data of 4 stations, which are available in the PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) archive, located on the north-east coast. This time series shows a lower correlation (rho about 0.5) with satellite data than in the case of Adriatic Sea. Further it shows a higher interannual variability. All the time series are considered after the subtraction of the Inverse Barometer (IB) effect. A statistical approach, based on a multivariate linear regression model, is used to investigate the link between SL anomaly, computed as the difference between the regional SL and global SL, and three large scale climate variables (sea level pressure

  10. AoA Region: South Asian Seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    the North Indian Ocean account for roughly one quarter of the world’s population, which makes the region’s coastal environment and resources especially vulnerable to human infl uences. AoA Region: South Asian Seas Wajih Naqvi © Wajih Naqvi Mandovi Estuary... important coastal fi sheries and provides direct sustenance to coastal communities from timber and other products. It is endowed also with rich biodiversity and wildlife. The most extensive mangrove forest in the region and the world’s second largest...

  11. Messinian event in the black sea: Evidence of a Messinian erosional surface

    OpenAIRE

    GILLET, Hervé; Lericolais, Gilles; Réhault, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In 1975, sediment cores from leg DSDP 42b (sites 380A and 381) revealed a thin sediment layer in the Black Sea basin which points to a shallow water environment at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. With these facts and in the wake of hypothesis of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), it was proposed that the Black Sea, like the Mediterranean Sea, suffered a desiccation period at the end of the Messinian (Hsü, K.J. and Giovanoli, F., 1979. Messinian event in the Black Sea. Palaeogeography, Palaeo...

  12. Constraints on Black Sea outflow to the Sea of Marmara during the last glacial-interglacial transition

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Candace; Ryan, William; Lericolais, Gilles; Hajdas, Irka

    2002-01-01

    New cores from the upper continental slope off Romania in the western Black Sea provide a continuous, high-resolution record of sedimentation rates, clay mineralogy, calcium carbonate content, and stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon over the last 20000 yr in the western Black Sea. These records all indicate major changes occurring at 15 000, 12 800, 8400, and 7 100 yr before present. These results are interpreted to reflect an evolving balance between water supplied by melting glacial ice an...

  13. The energy independence of the European Union: the black Sea case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary of the round table held on 7 November 2007 by the French Foundation for Political Innovation on The EU energy requirements: the importance of the Black Sea region. Participants included Andreas Schockenhoff (Bundestag member and Vice-President of the CDUCSU group), Agnija Rasa (member of the cabinet of the European Commissioner for Energy) and Alexandre Vulic (Deputy Director of the Office of East European Affairs at the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Foundation for Political Innovation is an independent research and debating body that looks at political issues from new perspectives. (author)

  14. Differences In Skull Size Of Harbour Porpoises, Phocoena phocoena (Cetacea), In The Sea Of Azov And The Black Sea: Evidence For Different Morphotypes And Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Goldin P. E.; Vishnyakova K. A.

    2015-01-01

    There are two porpoise stocks in the northern Black Sea: the north-western (Odessa Gulf) and northeastern (Crimean and Caucasian waters); in addition, another stock is in the Sea of Azov. The Azov porpoises are distinct in their body size and biology. This research was conducted on the skulls of stranded sexually mature porpoises from the north-eastern Black Sea, north-western Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. In the north-eastern Black Sea samples, both present-day and old-time, the sexual dimo...

  15. Megafloods in Marginal Basins: New Data from the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, L.; Mart, Y.; McHugh, C. M.; Vachtman, D.; Cagatay, N. M.; Kadir, E. K.; Ryan, W. B.

    2005-12-01

    One of Jim Kennett's long-standing scientific interests has been the study of abrupt events ranging from destabilization of the gas hydrate reservoir, to volcanism, to megafloods. In appreciation to his contribution to the study of catastrophes in paleoceanography, we present new data on the Holocene reconnection of the Black Sea basin to the ocean, resulting from a July 2005 survey aboard the R/V Mediterranean Explorer of the EcoOcean Foundation. The survey included tightly-spaced Chirp subbottom profiling on the outer shelf northwest of the Bosporus outlet (Istanbul Bogazi), combined with precisely targeted gravity coring. Subbottom horizons are calibrated by radiocarbon and optical luminescence ages on cores. Chirp profiles reveal channels and ridges nearly transversal to the bathymetric contours. Ridges have grown on a seaward-dipping erosion surface that truncates the top of older prograding clinoforms. The ridges are up 12 m in height and have an asymmetrical cross-section, gentler on the west and steeper on the east. Sediment drifting is apparent on the gentler side. In the interiors of the ridges we found highly reflective mounds that are rooted directly on the erosion surface. The mounds organize in both elongated and circular to oval features. Shell-bearing marine mud drapes the mounds. Between the ridges and mounds the drape rests directly on the erosion surface that can be traced seaward to beyond -120 m. High abundance of exceptionally large shells of Mytilus sp. at the base of the drape suggests that bedforms were seeded by a colonization of mollusks building bioherms right on top of the erosion surface beginning at the time of the Mediterranean connection. The Black Sea lacustrine stage experienced an evaporative drawdown below its outlet and has only tracked the global sea level rise since 8.4 ky bp. The saltwater megaflood from the Mediterranean led to dramatic morphologic reorganization of the shelf sea-floor close to the Bosporus and exceptional

  16. Isotopic characterisation of the methane plumes in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU CRIMEA project aims at evaluating the contribution of high-intensity gas seeps in the Black Sea to methane emission to the atmosphere. This is achieved through the investigation of the physical and chemical interfaces (sediment-water, oxi-anoxic and water-atmosphere boundaries) that control mass transfer rates from one level to another through phase changes, chemical reactions or biological consumption/production pathways. In addition, work is also being conducted to quantify the flux of seep-produced methane to the atmosphere and to compare this amount with other sources in the area, such as upper-water column production and riverine run-off. In this framework, stable isotope analyses were conducted on pore water and water samples (18O and 2H), dissolved gases (13C and 2H in dissolved CH4 and CO2) and dissolved compounds (13C in DIC). (authors)

  17. GROWING DOMINANT SPECIES OF MICROALGAE IN NORTH EASTERN BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifanchuk A. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present data on the effect of addition of mineral nutrition elements in the structure of the phytoplankton community in the north-eastern part of the Black Sea in the different seasons. Experimental studies have shown that the increase in biomass of microalgae occurs at the simultaneous addition of nitrogen and phosphorus in the accumulative cultures. In the spring can get biomass Emiliania huxleyi, P.pseudodelicatissima, Chaetoceros curvisetus and Skeletonema costatum, in the summer – E. huxleyi, C. curvisetus, P.pseudodelicatissima, S.costatum, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Leptocylindrus danicus, Dactyliosolen fragilissimus, Proboscia alata, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, in the autumn - C. curvisetus, S.costatum, Th. nitzschioides, L. danicus, D. fragilissimus

  18. Participation of Poles in the public life of the Northern Black Sea Coast in the late XIX – early XX century

    OpenAIRE

    Ніколаєнко, Ольга Олександрівна

    2016-01-01

    The Polish population of Black Sea area participation in the regional public life. Thespecificity of the Polish population of the region, its role in the regional social life. On the basis of archival material, media and Poles’ narratives were characterised Polish organisations activity and defined their orientation, social composition and development program

  19. Tides in three enclosed basins: the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor P Medvedev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tides are the main type of sea level variability in the world ocean. However, oceanic tides penetrate weakly, or do not penetrate at all, into enclosed basins such as the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas. Consequently, only directly forced tides are formed in these basins. Long observation time series (up to 123 years in the Baltic Sea and 38 years in the Black and Caspian seas at numerous stations were used to precisely estimate tidal constituents. High-resolution spectra revealed fine structure of discrete peaks at tidal frequencies. The diurnal radiational constituent S1 (1 cpd, apparently associated with breeze winds, was found to play an important role in general tidal dynamics in these seas. Harmonic analysis of tides for individual yearly series with consecutive vector averaging over the entire observational period was applied to estimate mean amplitudes and phases of tidal constituents. Our findings indicate that the formation and predominance of diurnal or semidiurnal tides in these seas appears to depend on the frequency-selective properties of the basins. Thus, in the Baltic Sea with fundamental modal period of about 27 h, diurnal tides dominate in the major eastern gulfs. In the Black Sea resonant amplification of semidiurnal tides is observed in the northwestern part. The predominance of semidiurnal tides in the Caspian Sea has also probably a resonant nature. Maximum tidal heights estimated for a 100-year period are 23 cm in the Baltic Sea, 18 cm in the Black Sea and 21 cm in the southern Caspian Sea.

  20. Seasonal variation of the cold intermediate water in the Southwestern Black Sea and its interaction with the Sea of Marmara during the period of 1996-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ALTIOK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations of the cold intermediate water (CIW in the southwestern Black Sea and its entrance into the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus within the upper layer flow have been studied by using monthly oceanographic data sets collected in 1996-1998 period. In addition, the advection of the CIW via Strait Of Istanbul to the Sea of Marmara has been investigated.The CIW is a permanent and characteristic water mass of the Black Sea, markedly observed in the northwestern Black Sea. It is transported with the Rim Current along the boundary of the basin. The average temperature of the CIW is about 6o C. The 8oC isotherms defines its upper and lower boundaries. The upper boundary of CIW rises up to the 20 m depth in the shelf and coastal upwelling regions with a thickness of 40 m. On the other hand, the depth of the upper boundary may decrease down to 40 m with a thickness of 120 m in the anticyclonic regions.The CIW, located between 30 and 65m depths, was observed from April to September at the northern approaches of the Strait of Istanbul in the Black Sea. However, the CIW, within the Black Sea's upper layer flow, does not enter into the strait in the beginning (April, May and at the end (September of this period. The CIW between 20 and 50m water depths was observed in the northern entrance of the strait in summer (June, July and August and it was carried into the strait by the southbound surface current. Its temperature increases southwards along the strait, due to the mixing with the warmer surface and bottom layers. This increment ranges between 2 and 4oC depending on the rate of mixing. The physically altered waters enter the Sea of Marmara with temperature of 11-14oC.In the Sea of Marmara, a residual cold intermediate layer (CIL is observed in summer, it is just placed on top of the halocline. The average temperature of the upper layer increases from spring to autumn. In some months, however, there is a decrement in the average temperature of

  1. Zooplankton of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean: Similarities and dissimilarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. KOVALEV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of data on abundance and biomass of zooplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean (EMED and the Black Sea shows major differences in the composition and structure of pelagic communities in the two basins. Few Mediterranean planktonic animals have invaded and acclimatised in the Black Sea. The great bulk of Black Sea species is represented by coastal inhabitants that spread throughout the whole basin. This process has been called “neritization” of the Black Sea fauna. Peculiarities in zooplankton assemblages of the Black Sea have been further strengthened over the last few decades due to increasing eutrophication and the massive invasion of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. The relative contribution of copepods, cladocerans, chaetognaths, and appendicularians to total zooplankton biomass has notably decreased , whereas gelatinous groups (mainly represented by Mnemiopsis and Aurelia aurita contributed up to 99% of total wet weight in 1995 in the Black Sea.The basic features of planktonic fauna in the Black Sea are mainly due do the geo-morphological characters of the basin and the limited exchanges with the EMED, that are confined to the surface-subsurface layers in the Dardanelles and Bosphorus Straits. However, the dramatic changes that recently occurred in the structure of zooplankton assemblages seem to have been caused by heavy anthropogenic impact on the pelagic system.

  2. Late Miocene evolution of the Black Sea: insights from palynology and strontium isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Arjen; van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Stoica, Marius; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    During the late Miocene, the connection(s) between the Mediterranean Basin and the Atlantic Ocean deteriorated, which ultimately culminated in thick evaporite deposits and a water level drop in the Mediterranean Basin during the so-called Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97 - 5.33 Ma). It has been claimed that Black Sea, in response to the MSC, also desiccated but these claims have been proven incorrectly. Here we present palynological (dinoflagellate cysts and pollen) and strontium isotope ratios from two Black Sea records: the Zheleznyi Rog outcrop section and Deep Sea Drilling Project Hole 380A. Organic walled cyst-producing dinoflagellates are highly sensitive to even small changes in surface waters and strontium isotope ratios are excellent recorders of changing connectivity. Our records provide therefore more insights in the sensitivity of the Black Sea to Messinian Salinity Crisis and the general evolution of the late Miocene Black Sea.

  3. Modeling the buoyancy-driven Black Sea Water outflow into the North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kokkos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate the Black Sea Water (BSW outflux and spreading over the North Aegean Sea, and its impact on circulation and stratification–mixing dynamics. Model results were validated against satellite-derived sea surface temperature and in-situ temperature and salinity profiles. Further, the model results were post-processed in terms of the potential energy anomaly, ϕ, analyzing the factors contributing to its change. It occurs that BSW contributes significantly on the Thracian Sea water column stratification, but its signal reduces in the rest of the North Aegean Sea. The BSW buoyancy flux contributed to the change of ϕ in the Thracian Sea by 1.23 × 10−3 W m−3 in the winter and 7.9 × 10−4 W m−3 in the summer, significantly higher than the corresponding solar heat flux contribution (1.41 × 10−5 W m−3 and 7.4 × 10−5 W m−3, respectively. Quantification of the ϕ-advective term crossing the north-western BSW branch (to the north of Lemnos Island, depicted a strong non-linear relation to the relative vorticity of Samothraki Anticyclone. Similar analysis for the south-western branch illustrated a relationship between the ϕ-advective term sign and the relative vorticity in the Sporades system. The ϕ-mixing term increases its significance under strong winds (>15 m s−1, tending to destroy surface meso-scale eddies.

  4. Ecological state of the Romanian Black Sea littoral lacustrine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, M.-T.

    2009-04-01

    The author uses the results of his own researches as well as data from specialty literature to assess the ecological state of some typical lacustrine ecosystems considered, about 50 years ago, of major importance by their functions, services and researches, for the human populations in the settlements nearby. Based on this assessment the author recommends a few criteria which can be taken into account when programs of integrated management of these coastal ecosystems are initiated. The paper focuses on the study cases regarding the following major ecosystems: 1. Razelm-Sinoie Lagoon Complex - tightly linked to the Danube River and Delta systems, 2. Taşaul Lake - interfered in the last two decades by a branch of the DanubeRiver - Black Sea Canal and 3. Techirghiol Lake - for a long time under the sea level, a hyperhaline lake with therapeutic, sapropelic mud, disturbed by huge quantities of freshwaters infiltrated from the irrigation system. At present, the state of the lacustrine ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea Coast can be characterized, mainly, by the following aspects: · Increase in the quantities of nutrients and chemical toxicants; · Rise in the level and frequency of eutrophication and pollution phenomena; · Drastic reduction of specific diversity; · Simplification of communities' structure - biocoenosis homogeneity; · Decrease in numerical abundance and biomass of benthic populations and consequently, low biofilter power by the decrease of the filter-feeder populations; · Worsening of the qualitative and the quantitative state of the biological benthic resources; · Thriving opportunistic forms (e.g. the worms causing sediment bioturbation); · Invasion by some exotic species, with harmful, unexpected consequences; · All populations undergo quantitative fluctuations; · Decrease in the fish population and in the use values of lacustrine assets, with strong impact on the welfare of the human society. Almost all pressure forms associated with the

  5. The fate of long-lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: role of hydrophysical factors and tracer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    after the Chernobyl NPP accident the lower boundary of the gradient layer and the depth of maximum gradient reached the permanent Black Sea pycnocline. Subsequently, up to 1988-1990, these boundaries continued to sink into the Black Sea pycnocline with a velocity of 10-12 m per year in the Black Sea Central Basin, with a velocity of 30-35 m per year in the region of Main Black Sea Current and more slowly essentially in the subsequent years. On a base of the obtained velocities and 137Cs flux at the upper boundary of the gradient layer the vertical turbulent mixing coefficients in the permanent Black Sea pycnocline were calculated using the diffusive one-dimensional equation. In the upper strongly stratified part of the permanent Black Sea pycnocline calculated values ranged between 0.1-0.2 cm2 sec-1. The values obtained for Kz were similar to those based on physical oceanography evaluations The results of this study indicate that the Black Sea halocline is the main limiting factor of the intensity of vertical water exchange between surface waters and deeper layers. The obtained result, based on radiotracer studies, allows to evaluate the velocity of 'self-purification' of Black Sea surface waters from any dissolved pollutants and the velocity of ventilation of the deeper waters. Besides, the 90Sr signals from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers were used for estimations of Black Sea shelf water mixing processes with using 'salinity - 90Sr' mixing model. Using this approach mixing ratios and hence river transport values can be reliably derived which are of interest to more general questions of pollution transport in the NW Black Sea. (author)

  6. Southern Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black Sea level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Southern Dobrogea is a typical geologic platform unit, placed in the south-eastern part of Romania, with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. It is bordered to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault and by the Black Sea to the east. A regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system divides the Southern Dobrogea structure in several tectonic blocks. Four drinking water sources have been identified: surface water, phreatic water, medium depth Sarmatian aquifer, and deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer. Surface water sources are represented by several springs emerged from the base of the loess cliff, and a few small rivers, barred by coastal beaches. The phreatic aquifer develops at the base of the loess deposits, on the impervious red clay, overlapping the Sarmatian limestones. The medium depth aquifer is located in the altered and karstified Sarmatian limestones, and discharges into the Black Sea. The Sarmatian aquifer is unconfined where covered by silty loess deposits, and locally confined, where capped by clayey loess deposits. The aquifer is supplied from the Pre-Balkan Plateau. The Deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer, located in the limestone and dolomite deposits, is generally confined and affected by the regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system. In the south-eastern Dobrogea, the deep aquifer complex is separated from the Sarmatian aquifer by a Senonian aquitard (chalk and marls). The natural boundary of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault. The piezometric heads show that the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is supplied from the Bulgarian territory, where the Upper Jurassic deposits crop out. The aquifer discharges into the Black Sea to the east and into Lake Siutghiol to the northeast. The cyclic Upper Quaternary climate changes induced drastic remodeling of the Black Sea level and the corresponding shorelines. During the Last Glacial

  7. Application of allozyme markers for screening of turbot populations along Western Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENELIN NIKOLOV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Data for electrophoretic pattern of 26 loci, resolved for the 8 protein systems (7- enzyme and 1-non-enzyme assayed were used to investigate population structure of turbot along the Bulgarian and Romanian Black Sea coasts using genetic diversity measures. Seventeen loci were polymorphic in all populations and a total of 34 alleles were identified. Four types of tissue: muscle, retina, plasma and haemoglobin were analyzed. The percentage of polymorphic loci was high (65.38% within populations. A low level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected, based on the Shannon’s information index (0.446-0.448 and the coefficient of genetic differentiation between populations (FST =0.014. The overall mean of within-population inbreeding estimate (FIS was (-0.209 and demonstrated low level of inbreeding. The genetic distance (DNei between the populations was low and vary between 0.003 and 0.014. Genetic distances among turbot populations were positively correlated with geographic distances (r = 0.474, but the association was not significant according to the Mantel test (p=0.651 and showed a lack of correlation between genetic distance and the geographic location of populations. Results identified one genetic stock with sufficient gene flow between all the three sites to prevent genetic differentiation from occurring. Only 1.4% of the genetic variation was observed among populations. Results revealed that adopting a single stock model and regional shared management could probably be appropriate for sustainable long-term use of turbot along western Black Sea coast. Determination of the contemporary state of the population distribution will be the prerequisite for determination of adequate measures for exploitation and protection of the existing turbot populations along western Black Sea coast.

  8. Possibilities of Production and Storage of Hydrogen in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black Sea, a highly-isolated inland sea, is the largest anoxic zone in the world. Since the hydrogen sulphide zone was discovered in early 19. century in the Black Sea, it has been adopted that there is no life in the depths of the Black Sea and there are only bacteria live in the hydrogen sulphide layer. High content of organic matter, with maximum processes of bacterial sulfate reduction is the major source of this hydrogen sulphide zone. Hydrogen sulphide is one of the most poisonous gases in the world but it has great economic value to obtain hydrogen via dissociated into hydrogen and sulphur. Thus the Black Sea is not only has a serious environmental contamination but also has potential source of hydrogen energy, if a decomposition process can be developed. In this study, the sources of hydrogen sulphide, environmental impact of hydrogen sulphide in the Black Sea, the available techniques of hydrogen production from hydrogen sulphide and the possibilities of hydrogen storage by the natural sources in the Black Sea have been investigated. (authors)

  9. Multiscale wind cycles and current pulses at the Black Sea eastern boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Vasiliy; Moskalenko, Lidija; Piotoukh, Vladimir; Zatsepin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The goal of the research is to examine meteorological descriptive elements, sea-water properties, regional hydrodynamics and energy conversion fluxes in order to study sea responses to the local and far-field weather system. The Black Sea is situated in the chain of internal basins between the North Atlantic and Central Asia deserts in the marginal interaction zone and, accordingly, is under the influence of the Azores and Siberian anticyclones, Arctic cold-air surges and subtropical desert belt to the south. The analysis is based on the data of modern oceanographic measuring network "Hydro-physical Polygon" of the Institute of oceanology, using contact and remote sensing methods, weather stations around the Black Sea coasts, including long-term (1938-2014) measurements at the Gelendzhik weather station. Various satellite and Reanalysis databases are used. Currently, there are three long-time measuring moored stations (each contains ADCP and thermistor chain) and scanning profiling system "Akvalog". Hydrological sections and field surveys using towed ADCP and CTD are performed on a regular basis. The data are accumulated in the coastal archive which allows calibration of satellite measurements and testing results of numerical modeling. Data processing includes data sets preparation, editing, time series statistical calculations using histograms, progressive vector diagrams, traditional Fourier spectral analysis including auto- and cross spectra, auto and mutual wavelet diagrams, moving spectrograms, vector data methods using rotary components, spectral invariants, empirical modes, hodograph and pre-specified spectrum representations on the basis of stochastic models with imposed dynamical assumptions. Due to the intermittent nature of the time rows, spectral representation is misleading, often. In order to identify the individual evolving dynamical phenomenon, typical background (seasonal) three-dimensional structures of the hydrological field, as well as

  10. Black Sea Abyss: Chaos and Writing in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Prescott-Steed

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This discussion explores the intersection of chaos and writing in the context of the Eridu Genesis, a Sumerian cuneiform text dating back to the 18th century BC and containing three narratives : the Creation of humankind, the building of cities, and a flood myth. Researchers analyze the extent to which conceptions of chaos, found in this text, recount the Black Sea deluge that scientists agree occurred around 5500 BC. Having authored the world’s oldest known historical texts, Sumerian writings simultaneously mark the beginning of written literature and the birth pangs of chaos ‘in’ writing. Thus the Eridu Genesis, as the archetype for these narratives, deserves critical attention when affording ‘writing and chaos’ a historical context. The question of whether or not the Black Sea flood continues to underpin late modern notions of chaos remains open. However, this geo-cultural reading shows that writing about chaos can provide insight into the human condition, by giving expression to what it means for a civilization to exist in an unpredictable world.Esta discusión examina la intersección del caos y la escritura en el contexto del Eridu Genesis, un texto cuneiforme Sumerio que data del siglo XVlll AC y que contiene tres narraciones : la creación de la humanidad, la construcción de las ciudades, y un mito sobre una inundación. Los investigadores consideran hasta qué punto las concepciones sobre el caos halladas en este texto, hablan sobre el diluvio del Mar Negro, que los científicos están de acuerdo en afirmar que ocurrió aproximadamente 5500 AC. Las escrituras Sumerias son los más antiguos textos históricos conocidos del mundo, y marcan simultáneamente el principio de la literatura escrita y el nacimiento del caos en la escritura. Así, el Génesis de Eridu, como arquetipo de estas narrativas, merece una atención crítica cuando mencionamos ‘escritura y caos’, en un contexto histórico. La pregunta de si el diluvio

  11. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic...

  12. Sensitivity of the N. AEGEAN SEA ecosystem to Black Sea Water inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. PETIHAKIS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Black Sea Water (BSW inputs on the North Aegean Sea productivity and food web dynamics was investigated, by means of sensitivity simulations, investigating the effect of the inflowing BSW, in terms of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic matter. The model used has been successfully applied in the area in the past and extensively presented. Considering the importance of the microbial loop in the ecosystem functioning, the role of the dissolved organics and in order to achieve a more realistic representation of the Dissolved Organic Matter pool, the bacteria sub-model was appropriately revised. The importance of the microbial loop is highlighted by the carbon fluxes where almost 50% of carbon is channelled within it. The impact of dissolved organic matter (DOM (in the inflowing to the Aegean Sea, BSW appears to be stronger than the impact of dissolved inorganic nutrients, showing a more extended effect over the N Aegean. Bacterial production and biomass is more strongly affected in the simulations by modified DOM, unlike phytoplankton biomass and production, which are more dependent on the inflowing nutrients and particularly phosphorus (inorganic and dissolved organic. In the phytoplankton composition, the dinoflagellates appear to be mostly affected, being favoured by higher nutrient availability at the expense of all other groups, particularly picoplankton, indicating a shift to a more classical food chain.

  13. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of China's marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Yanju; WANG Xuchen; DAI Minhan; FENG Huan; LI Anchun; SONG Qian

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution of black carbon (BC) and its correlation with total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH) in the surface sediments of China's marginal seas. BC content ranges from <0.10 to 2.45 mg/g dw (grams dry weight) in the sediments studied, and varied among the different coastal regions. The Bohai Bay sediments had the highest BC contents (average 2.18 mg/g dw),which comprises a significant fraction (27%-41%) of the total organic carbon (TOC) preserved in the sediments. In comparison, BC in the surface sediments of the North Yellow Sea, Jiaozhou Bay, East China Sea and the South China Sea is less abundant and accounted for an average of 6%, 8%, 14% and 5%,respectively, of the sedimentary organic carbon pool. The concentration of ΣPAH in the surface sediments ranges from 41 to 3 667 ng/g dw and showed large spatial variations among the sampling sites of different costal regions. The Bohai Bay has the highest ΣPAH values, ranging from 79 to 3 667 ng/g dw. This reflects the high anthropogenically contaminated nature of the sediments in the bay. BC is positively correlated to TOC but a strong correlation is not found between BC and ΣPAH in the surface sediments studied, suggesting that BC and PAHs preserved in the sediments are derived from different sources and controlled by different biogeochemical processes. Our study suggests that the abundance of BC preserved in the sediments could represent a significant sink pool of carbon cycling in China's marginal seas.

  14. Preservation of black carbon in the shelf sediments of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations and carbon isotopic (14C, 13C) compositions of black carbon (BC) were measured for three sediment cores collected from the Changjiang River estuary and the shelf of the East China Sea. BC concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.14 mg/g (dry weight), and accounted for 5% to 26% of the sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) pool. Among the three sediment cores collected at each site, sediment from the Changjiang River estuary had relatively high BC contents compared with the sediments from the East China Sea shelf, suggesting that the Changjiang River discharge played an important role in the delivery of BC to the coastal region. Radiocarbon measurements indicate that the ages of BC are in the range of 6910 to 12250 years old B.P. (before present), that is in general, 3700 to 9000 years older than the 14C ages of TOC in the sediments. These variable radiocarbon ages suggest that the BC preserved in the sediments was derived from the products of both biomass fire and fossil fuel combustion, as well as from ancient rock weathering. Based on an isotopic mass balance model, we calculated that fossil fuel combustion contributed most (60%―80%) of the BC preserved in these sediments and varied with depth and locations. The deposition and burial of this "slow-cycling" BC in the sediments of the East China Sea shelf represent a significant pool of carbon sink and could greatly in-fluence carbon cycling in the region.

  15. Environmental policy in the north-eastern sector of the Black sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, Ruben; Godin, Evgenii; Kosyan, Alisa

    2015-04-01

    Active economic development of the Black Sea East coastal zone has started in the beginning of 20-th century. Those days the pebble taken from beaches was used for construction of buildings, rail and motor roads. Active consumption of pebble from the beaches and river banks had caused a sharp increase of sea shores abrasion and washout rate, number of landslides had also increased. Contemporary Caucasian shores of Black Sea are being developed under increasing man-caused load. Favorable natural conditions, their variety and uniqueness determine the exceptional role of these shores as very important recreational zone of Russian South. Waste urbanized areas, agricultural territories and National Parks are located in immediate neighborhood with the sea. Important industrial facilities and federal and international communi- cations, including major seaports are located in the shore zone. At present time major gas and oil transportation facilities are commissioned and being constructed in the area. Due to the change of geopolitical situation the Russian shoreline had significantly reduced in comparison with Soviet period, especially in most developed regions. Large resort complexes in Georgia, Crimea and Baltic area were lost. Russia had also lost many major seaports that, under conditions of structural change of economy and export growth, had caused the necessity of building new industrial facilities in the Black Sea coastal zone, and, consequently, had stimulated active human invasion into natural coastal processes. At the time being, a major part (three hundred nine kilometers) of Black Sea coast within Russian sector is subject to abrasion and landslide processes. Abrasion process and beaches wash-out, landslides cause destruction of industrial and transport facilities, living and public buildings, resort complexes and valuable agricultural areas. In this light, the challenge of estimation of effective methods of shores protection against wave-induced erosion

  16. Methanotrophic microbial communities associated with bubble plumes above gas seeps in the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten J Schubert; Durisch-Kaiser, Edith; Holzner, Christian P.; Klauser, Lucia; Wehrli, Bernhard; Schmale, Oliver; Greinert, Jens; McGinnis, Daniel Frank; De Batist, Marc; Kipfer, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    Bubbles evolving from active gas seeps can be traced by hydroacoustic imaging up to 1000 m high in the Black Sea water column. Although methane concentrations are not distinguishable between the water column above the deep seep and reference sites, atmospheric noble gas measurements clearly show the constant input of gases (mainly methane) via seepage into the Black Sea. Archaea (ANME-1, ANME-2) and methanotrophic bacteria detected with specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes are re...

  17. The Diel Vertical Distribution of Zooplankton in the Southeast Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    ERKAN, Funda; GÜCÜ, Ali Cemal

    2000-01-01

    The diel changes in the vertical distribution of zooplankton in the southeast Black Sea were described in this study. The zooplankton were sampled using two different sampling methods throughout one day in October 1996 and July 1997 at the same station. The zooplankton counts, the length measurements and biomass estimates showed that the zooplankton in the southeast Black Sea is dominated by small organisms, among which Noctiluca scintillans is the dominant species. In the vertical distributi...

  18. UP FROM THE MONTREUX: SUBMARINES FOR GEORGIA, AND NATO'S FUTURE IN THE BLACK SEA

    OpenAIRE

    Gusta, Kirk; Tchantouridze, Lasha

    2007-01-01

    In October 2006, Russia's Black Sea fleet conducted live fire maneuvers off Georgia's Black Sea coast. According to Georgian officials, Russian ships were as close as 16 miles from the Georgia's coastline. The live fire exercise disrupted civilian shipping in the area, as the Russian military vessels blocked the Georgian ports Poti, Supsa, and Batumi. The Russian government intended this exercise as a hostile act, as they declined to inform the Georgian counterparts of the movements of their ...

  19. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  20. A comparative study on the abundance and elemental composition of POM in three interconnected basins: the Black, the Marmara and the Mediterranean Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. COBAN-YILDIZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and elemental composition of suspended particulate organic matter in the upper layers of the interconnected Mediterranean, Marmara and Black Seas having different ecosystems were determined in 1990-1998. The aim was principally to compare the C:N:P ratio of seston and understand factors controlling the seston composition in near- and off-shore waters of these seas. In the Marmara Sea, euphotic zone average particulate concentrations varied regionally and seasonally between 10-35 ìM for POC, 0.4-4.5 ìM for PON and 0.05-0.45 ìM for PP. These concentrations are mostly above the off-shore Black Sea values but much greater than those measured in the open waters of the north-eastern Mediterranean whose near-shore data are comparable with the seston content of the deep Black Sea. Comparison of C:N:P ratios of seston reveals that atmospheric and land-based phosphorus input influences the C:P and N:P ratios in the near-shore waters. Apparent nutrient deficiencies observed in the water column were not as remarkable in the elemental composition of seston. Unexpectedly, in the NE Mediterranean, N:P ratios from regression analyses of particulate data are very low (7-9 in the coastal region but slightly increase to levels of 10-15 in the open sea. In the Sea of Marmara, the N:P ratios (7-12 of seston are as low as in the Mediterranean, being consistent with the particulate ratios of the Black Sea inflow and NO3:PO4 ratios of the Marmara sub-halocline water. The Black Sea seston is relatively rich in carbonaceous compounds with N:P ratio ranging merely between 15-17 in the open sea but 9-27 in coastal waters where riverine discharges markedly influence the stoichiometry of seston.

  1. Education and Raising Awareness of Seismic Risk in the Black Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Balan, Stefan; Alcaz, Vasile; Trifonova, Petya; Uker, Nalan; Tataru, Dragos

    2014-05-01

    The Project "Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work)" ESNET has the intention to educate and raise awareness of seismic risk in the Black Sea Basin in four countries: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. The project is financed through "The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme", an EU operational programmes under European Neighborhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The programme is financed by ENPI. The participation of Turkey is financed by Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. It is implemented during the period 2007 - 2013. The project wants to contribute to the prevention of natural disasters generated by earthquakes in Black Sea Basin by developing a joint monitoring and intervention concept. All the countries involved in the project have their own studies, strategies, prevention and intervention systems in case of earthquakes, but until now there has not been an integrated approach so far in the Black Sea Basin. Given the cross-border character of seismic activity, it is necessary to have a cross-border approach on prevention, monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes. Main objectives : 1. The assessment of the disaster potential, with accent on the seismic risk degree and the earthquakes effects in the intervention area. For achieving the main objective is to have an accurate and up-to-date assessment of the potential of disasters provoked by earthquakes in the project area/regions. This assessment will be carried out at national level and will be used in designing the common concept/approach for dealing with earthquakes at regional level, thus ensuring the cross-border character of the objective. 2.To develop an integrated seismic monitoring and intervention concept. This integrated concept, built on the basis of the previous objective, will have a cross-border relevance and is at the core of the action. The monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes will be coordinated among the participating countries based on this, thus a

  2. Chernobyl radionuclides in a Black Sea sediment trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesseler, K O; Livingston, H D; Honjo, S; Hay, B J; Manganini, S J; Degens, E; Ittekkot, V; Izdar, E; Konuk, T

    The Chernobyl nuclear power station accident released large quantities of vaporized radionuclides, and, to a lesser extent, mechanically released small (less than 1-10 micron) aerosol particles. The total release of radioactivity is estimated to be out of the order of 1-2 x 10(18) Bq (3-5 x 10(7) Ci) not allowing for releases of the xenon and krypton gases. The 137Cs releases of 3.8 x 10(16) Bq from Chernobyl can be compared to 1.3 x 10(18) Bq 137Cs released due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Chernobyl-derived radionuclides can be used as transient tracers to study physical and biogeochemical processes. Initial measurements of fallout Chernobyl radionuclides from a time-series sediment trap at 1,071 m during June-September 1986 in the southern Black Sea are presented. The specific activities of 137Cs, 144Ce and 106Ru in the trap samples (0.5-2, 4-12 and 6-13 Bq g-1) are independent of the particle flux while their relative activities reflect their rates of scavenging in the order Ce greater than Ru greater than Cs. PMID:3670387

  3. Fishing capacity of the southeastern Black Sea anchovy fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Espino, D.; García-del-Hoyo, J. J.; Metreveli, M.; Bilashvili, K.

    2014-07-01

    Georgian, Turkish and Ukrainian vessels have exploited the southeastern Black Sea anchovy fish stock in the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ) of Georgia since 1999. This exploitation has resulted in a significant decrease of the anchovy fish stock. The availability of reliable and accurate measures of the capacity and overcapacity of the fleet provides policymakers with useful tools to avoid rent dissipation of fishermen and/or the overexploitation of anchovy stocks. This paper is aimed at measuring the fishing capacity and the structural excess of fishing capacity over sustainable levels (overcapacity) of this fleet in the period 2005-2009. Two data envelopment analysis linear mathematical programs were run to attain the desired measures. This paper concludes that fishing capacity was 142.37 mT in the 2008-2009 season and that it increased since the implementation of a new management framework in 2006. This paper also concludes that there was a considerable overcapacity of the fleet in 2009, given that the measured fishing capacity exceeded almost 2 times the Total Allowable Catch set by policymakers, and the technical efficiency of the fleet was very low. These results suggest the necessity of international cooperative rights-based fisheries management to guarantee bio-economic sustainability.

  4. Sulfide Oxidation in the Anoxic Black-Sea Chemocline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; FOSSING, H.; WIRSEN, CO;

    1991-01-01

    that the measured H2S oxidation rates were 4-fold higher than could be explained by the downward flux of organic carbon and too high to balance the availability of electron acceptors such as oxidized iron or manganese. A nitrate maximum at the lower boundary of the O2 zone did not extend down to the sulfide zone.......The depth distributions of O2 and H2S and of the activity of chemical or bacterial sulfide oxidation were studied in the chemocline of the central Black Sea. Relative to measurements from earlier studies, the sulfide zone had moved upwards by 20-50 m and was now (May 1988) situated at a depth of 81......-99 m. Oxygen in the water column immediately overlying the sulfide zone was depleted to undetectable levels resulting in a 20-30-m deep intermediate layer of O2- and H2S-free water. Radiotracer studies with S-35-labelled H2S showed that high rates of sulfide oxidation, up to a few micromoles per liter...

  5. Acoustic Investigations of Gas and Gas Hydrate Formations, Offshore Southwestern Black Sea*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, H. M.; Dondurur, D.; Ozel, O.; Atgin, O.; Sinayuc, C.; Merey, S.; Parlaktuna, M.; Cifci, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Black Sea is a large intercontinental back-arc basin with relatively high sedimentation rate. The basin was formed as two different sub-basins divided by Mid-Black Sea Ridge. The ridge is completely buried today and the Black Sea became a single basin in the early Miocene that is currently anoxic. Recent acoustic investigations in the Black Sea indicate potential for gas hydrate formation and gas venting. A total of 2500 km multichannel seismic, Chirp sub-bottom profiler and multibeam bathymetry data were collected during three different expeditions in 2010 and 2012 along the southwestern margin of the Black Sea. Box core sediment samples were collected for gas cromatography analysis. Wide spread BSRs and multiple BSRs are observed in the seismic profiles and may be categorized into two different types: cross-cutting BSRs (transecting sedimentary strata) and amplitude BSRs (enhanced reflections). Both types mimic the seabed reflection with polarity reversal. Some undulations of the BSR are observed along seismic profiles probably caused by local pressure and/or temperature changes. Shallow gas sources and chimney vents are clearly indicated by bright reflection anomalies in the seismic data. Gas cromatography results indicate the presence of methane and various components of heavy hydrocarbons, including Hexane. These observations suggest that the gas forming hydrate in the southwestern Black Sea may originate from deeper thermogenic hydrocarbon sources. * This study is supported by 2214-A programme of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK).

  6. 137Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify 137Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured 137Cs levels were found to be very low (usually -1 wet wt) 137Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area

  7. {sup 137}Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve [IRSN, LERCM, Centre Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M. [International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (CIESM), 16 Blvd de Suisse, MC-98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Andral, Bruno [Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Barisic, Delko [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto [Inst. Espanol de Oceanografi' a (IEO), Centro Oceanografico de Murcia - Calle Varadero No. 1, 30740 San Pedro del Pinatar (Spain); Bologa, Alexandru S. [National Institute for Marine Research and Development ' Grigore Antipa' , RO-900581, Constantza (Romania); Boudjenoun, Redouane [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Delfanti, Roberta [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia, e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Egorov, Victor N. [Inst. of Biology of the Southern Seas (IBSS), National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 2 Porspekt Nakhimova, 99 011 Sevastopol, Crimea (Ukraine); El Khoukhi, Tahar [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CNESTEN), BP 1382 RP Rabat 10001 (Morocco); Florou, Heleni [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 153 10, P.O. Box 60228, Athens (Greece); Kniewald, Goran [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Noureddine, Abdelkader [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify {sup 137}Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured {sup 137}Cs levels were found to be very low (usually <1 Bq kg{sup -1} wet wt) {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area.

  8. A 6,000-year sedimentary molecular record of chemocline excursions in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Wakeham, S.G.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Hayes, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic basin; it is also a contemporary analogue of the environment in which carbonaceous shales and petroleum source beds formed. Recently, Repeta et al. reported that anoxygenic photosynthesis may be an important component of carbon cycling in the present Black

  9. Heavy Metal concentrations in the Sea Snail Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) from Sinop Coasts of the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    BAT, Levent; Gonlaigiir, Gamze; Andae, Miiberra; Öztürk, Meral; Oztürk, Mehmet

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, lead, nickel, manganese and cadmium in the living tissue of the sea snail Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) from the Sinop coasts of the Black Sea have been measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for monitoring metal pollution in the coastal water. A statistically significant difference in the concentrations of all metals was observed among three sampling stations. The results were compared to those of several bivalves and gast...

  10. Degassing of the Black Sea bottom: significance for geological exploration, ecology and navigation

    OpenAIRE

    ШНЮКОВ Е.Ф.; Янко, В. В.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a review of modern ideas about degassing (mainly methane) from the bottom of the Black Sea. The main goal is to describe methane emissions on the sea bottom, to delineate their spatial distribution, and to provide insight into their possible origin as well as their influence on ecosystems and navigation. It is shown that the Black Sea is the largest meromictic basin, waters of which are enriched with methane. As such, the basin holds great promise for new energy sourc...

  11. New records of five sponge species (Porifera) for the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcen, Alper; Çinar, Melih Ertan; Zengin, Mustafa; Süer, Serdar; Rüzgar, Melih

    2016-04-13

    The present study deals with five sponge species [Chalinula renieroides, Haliclona (Halichoclona) fulva, H. (Rhizoniera) rosea, Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) pansa and Ircinia variabilis] belonging to 3 families (Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, and Irciniidae) found at one locality (near the opening of Kızılırmak River) on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. All these species are new records for the Black Sea. Three species (Chalinula renieroides, H. (R.) rosea and H. (H.) pansa] are also new records for the marine fauna of Turkey. All these species were previously reported from Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The morphological and distributional features of these species are presented.

  12. New records of five sponge species (Porifera) for the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcen, Alper; Çinar, Melih Ertan; Zengin, Mustafa; Süer, Serdar; Rüzgar, Melih

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with five sponge species [Chalinula renieroides, Haliclona (Halichoclona) fulva, H. (Rhizoniera) rosea, Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) pansa and Ircinia variabilis] belonging to 3 families (Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, and Irciniidae) found at one locality (near the opening of Kızılırmak River) on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. All these species are new records for the Black Sea. Three species (Chalinula renieroides, H. (R.) rosea and H. (H.) pansa] are also new records for the marine fauna of Turkey. All these species were previously reported from Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The morphological and distributional features of these species are presented. PMID:27394733

  13. First observations on the abundance and composition of floating debris in the North-western Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Melinte-Dobrinescu, Mihaela C; Ion, Gabriel; Aliani, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence of marine litter in the Black Sea region is poorly known and even less data have been reported on the abundance of floating debris. Here we present results from a ship-based visual survey carried out in the North-Western part of the Black Sea, providing the first preliminary data on the characteristics of floating debris in Romanian waters. High litter densities peaking to 135.9 items/km(2) were found in the study area (mean 30.9 ± 7.4 items/km(2)). Probably due to the proximity of the Danube delta, natural debris were on average, much more abundant than anthropogenic litter in most surveyed locations (mean 141.4 ± 47.1 items/km(2), max 1131.3 items/km(2)). Most of the 225 objects we sighted consisted of pieces of wood and other riparian debris (75.5%), however plastic items remained undoubtedly the most abundant type of litter, representing 89.1% of all sighted man-made items. The Black Sea is not exempt from the global invasion of floating debris, however data are still lacking and a basin-wide survey is urgently needed to identify accumulation areas and develop regionally effective solutions to the problem of marine litter. PMID:25881011

  14. A nuclear-weapon-free zone from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995, at the Extension and Review Conference of the parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, Belarus introduced the new idea of establishing the nuclear-weapon-free zone 'in the center of Europe', as an alternative to a military and nuclear expansion eastwards by the Western military alliance NATO. The geographical scope of the zone from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea could encompass the former Warsaw pact territory west of Russian federation including: the three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), four Visegrad states (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary), newly independent states (Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova), Romania and Bulgaria. The success of nuclear-weapon-free zone is dependent on how it would be accepted by the nuclear-weapon powers and the surrounding world. There would be four measures of central importance for the achievement of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in general and in European case: non-possession of nuclear weapons by zonal states; non-stationing of nuclear weapons within the zone by any state; non-use or no-threat of use of nuclear weapons throughout the zone or against targets within the zone; and verification that parties comply with their treaty obligations

  15. Recent dramatic changes in the Black Sea ecosystem: The reason for the sharp decline in Turkish anchovy fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kideys, A. E.

    1994-07-01

    As a result of eutrophication caused by increased nutrient input via major rivers during the last few decades, the Black Sea ecosystem has been subject to extreme changes in recent years. These changes first became evident in the 1980's, with abnormal phytoplankton blooms and a large increase in medusae ( Aurelia aurita) biomass. Then, the introduction of a new species (a lobate ctenophore, Mnemiopsis sp.) into the Black Sea radically affected the whole ecosystem. This species competes with anchovy for the edible zooplankton as well as possibly consuming anchovy eggs and larvae in the Black Sea. The mass occurence of Mnemiopsis appears to be one of the most important reasons for the sharp decrease of anchovy and other pelagic fish stocks in the Black Sea. Although the future of the Black Sea ecosystem seems rather bleak, it is suggested that in addition to reducing anthropogenic impact, systematic studies are essential if the Black Sea fisheries are to recover.

  16. A tree of tree frogs around the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Darren E

    2016-09-01

    Speciation, the process by which one species evolves into two or more, is a major focus of ongoing debate, particularly regarding the geographic context in which it occurs. Geographic models of speciation tend to fall into discrete categories, typically referred to as allopatric, parapatric and sympatric speciation, according to whether two groups evolve reproductive isolation while geographically isolated, differentiated but connected by gene flow, or completely co-occurring. Yet molecular studies indicate that full development of reproductive isolation can take very long compared with the timescale at which climatic oscillations occur, such that the geographic context of differentiating forms might change often during the long process to full species. Studies of genetic relationships across the ranges of organisms with low-dispersal distances have the potential to reveal these complex histories. In a particularly elegant example in this issue, Dufresnes et al. () use genetic variation and ecological niche modelling to show that a ring of populations of the eastern tree frog (Hyla orientalis) surrounding the Black Sea had a complex history of geographic differentiation. Alternating phases of geographic fragmentation and phases of gene flow between neighbouring populations have produced a pattern of gradual genetic change connecting the western, southern and eastern sides of the ring, with the northwestern and northeastern forms being most differentiated. In the north, a population in Crimea appears to have been produced through mixture of the two extreme forms. The overall genetic relationships are reminiscent of those found in ring species, which have been used as prime demonstrations of the process of speciation. The difference, however, is that the terminal forms appear to have mixed rather than be reproductively isolated, although more research is needed to infer whether there might be some reproductive isolation on the northern side of the ring. PMID

  17. Seabed pockmarks in the southern Bulgarian Black Sea zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, L.I. (Laboratory of Marine Geophysics, Varna (Bulgaria)); Dontcheva, V.G. (Department of Marine Geology Institute of Oceanology, Varna (Bulgaria))

    1994-03-01

    Pockmarks were discovered for the first time in the SE of the Bulgarian Black Sea zone in 1988. Echo sounder and shallow seismic data analyses of investigations conducted before and after 1988, allow the main pockmark area to be enlarged and given more details. A total of 305 pockmarks have been located within an area of more than 100 km[sup 2] (2-5 km wide and 41 km long). The bottom of the area is covered with holocene soft silty clay. The following trends are defined when moving from the northern part of the pockmark area to the southern part: (1) increase in seabed sediments thickness from 2.5 m to more than 3.2 m and decrease in mean sediment grain size; (2) increase in general water depth from 160-300 m to 230-340 m in areas where pockmarks occur; (3) increase in average individual pockmark size from 86 to 132 m in diameter and from 2 to 4 m in depth; (4) decrease of pockmark density from 8-9 p.m./km[sup 2] to 3-4 p.m./km[sup 2]. Similar trends are observed seaward where the pockmark profile shape change from a smooth U-shaped to a sharp V-shaped form, with pockmark wall slope angle reaching more than 10 deg. A variety of acoustic anomalies such as acoustic turbidity, bright spots, enhanced reflections etc., are recorded in many places within the pockmark area, indicating the presence of gas in the sediments. Water column anomalies have also been recorded. The paper discusses the origin of the gas (most likely to be a mixture of thermogenic and biogenic gas) and the time of pockmark formation. (au) (21 refs.)

  18. 40K in the Black Sea: a proxy to estimate biogenic sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to estimate the rate of biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea using the naturally occurring radionuclide 40K has been considered. It allows assessment of the contribution of suspended matter of biological origin to the overall sediment accumulation in the Black Sea coastal, shelf and deep-water areas. Based upon this method, a relationship between the biogenic fraction of the seabed sediments and the water depth has been established with a view to differentiating the contributions of allochthonous and autochthonous suspended matter to the sedimentation rate. Overall, 40K can be considered as an easily applicable proxy to assess sedimentation rate of biogenic fraction of particulate matter in marine environments. - Highlights: • 40K-based approach was developed to assess biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea. • 40K-derived relationship between biogenic sedimentation and water depth was traced. • 40K is an easily applicable proxy to estimate rate of biogenic sedimentation in sea

  19. Analysis of ecological transitions in the Black Sea during the last four decades: A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoglu, Ekin; Salihoglu, Baris; Oguz, Temel

    2010-05-01

    This work investigates the Black Sea ecosystem and the changes it had undergone in the second half of the 20th century from a fisheries perspective using Ecopath, a widely adopted fisheries model. Different states of the Black Sea ecosystem were modeled using 5 simulation scenarios: Simulation 1, represents the quasi-pristine conditions of the Black Sea ecosystem during early 1960's; Simulation 2, represents the over-enrichment period of the ecosystem during early 1980's before the fisheries collapse and the outburst of alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi; Simulation 3, represents the changes in the ecosystem along with the outburst of Mnemiopsis in 1989; Simulation 4, represents the aftermath effects in the components of the Black Sea ecosystem just after the collapse of the fisheries; and Simulation 5, represents the recovery period of the fish stocks in the very beginning of the 1990's. According to the results of the model runs, it was found that the Black Sea ecosystem in its quasi-pristine conditions during early 1960's was top-down controlled. The piscivorous pelagic fish and dolphins exerted predation pressure on small pelagic fish species and suppressed their over-development. Our findings suggest that after the removal of these top predators from the ecosystem due to fishing and whaling, the small pelagic fish species had the opportunity to thrive themselves along with the over-enrichment of the Black Sea and reached high biomass levels in 1980's. Small pelagic fishes prevailed in the Black Sea ecosystem until the highly debated outburst of alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. In 1989, the biomass of small pelagic fish species declined drastically and their population did not recover until the very beginning of 1990's due to various ecological and anthropogenic effects put forward by the outcomes of the simulations.

  20. 210Po concentration in fish, algae, mussel and beach sand samples in Turkish coast of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radionuclide 210Po is the major contributor to the radiation dose received by humans from the sea food consumption. The main source of 210Po in the environment is the exhalation of 222Rn gas from the ground into the atmosphere. The radionuclides fall to the sea water and oceans together with aerosol particles by washout and sedimentation. The other source include burning of fossil fuel, uranium, phosphate and lead ore processing industries and tetraethyl lead used for car engines. The entrance of the radionuclides to the human body are via inhalation or ingestion. The major contribution for 210Po received via food consumption especially is originated from fish and shell fish by which it is strongly accumulated in relatively high concentration. This can lead to increase the radiation dose delivered to man by significant factor. In this study the concentration of 210Po were determined in algae, fish, mussel and beach sand samples collected from four different coastal zones of the Black Sea in Turkey from selected stations namely Sile, Trabzon, Sinop and Zonguldak during the period of 1998-2001. The sampling and analysis were carried out as a part of the 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' Technical Cooperation Project, RER/2/003 undertaken by the six Black Sea countries which is supported by IAEA. For the determination of 210Po in samples the standard techniques was used. Known activity of 209Po were added as an isotopic tracer. Samples were completely dissolved with mineral acids (HNO3, H2O2). When the solution was clear, concentrated HCl was added and the solution was gently evaporated to near dryness. After evaporation, polonium was plated onto silver disc in 0.5 M HCl in presence of ascorbic acid. Alpha counting of sample was performed using a silicon surface barrier detectors connected to a PC. The mean 210Po concentrations measured in mussel, algae, fish and beach sand samples from the four different locations on Turkish coast

  1. Comparative study of the hydrochemical regime in the Gelendzhik and Golubaya Bays, northeastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyleva, A.; Chasovnikov, V.; Chjoo, V.; Menshikova, N.; Kuprikova, N.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of this work was to study the hydrochemical regime in the coastal waters of the northeastern Black Sea. The observations were performed in influenced by significant anthropogenic stress Gelendzhik Bay and at the open coast region (Golubaya Bay). A sampling program has been initiated by the Southern Branch of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, (SB SIO RAS) on a weekly basis at the shore line area of «Chernomorets» beach (Gelendzhik Bay) and from the head of pier in the Golubaya Bay. Studies were carried out during a period from January 2001 to December 2008. List of measured parameters includes following: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), pH, alkalinity, phosphate, organic phosphorus, silicates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, urea, organic nitrogen, oil products. The Gelendzhik bay in its different parts is characterized with strong variability of concentrations of hydrochemical parameters. Above all, it relates to complex structure caused by wind impact. Parts of the bay filled with nearshore and sea waters are legibly differ from each other. The bay itself is rather isolated from the open sea, and its liability to man's impact leads to forming of next features of its seasonal variability of physical-chemical state: • On the base of Si/P and Si/N ratios analysis it was shown that the Gelendzhik Bay waters are significantly enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. • Unlike the Golubaya bay, phosphates are always present in the water of the Gelendzhik Bay and development of photosynthesis is not limited with nutrients. It may lead to processes of intensive eutrophication. • The oxygen saturation in the Gelendzhik Bay periodically descend lower than 80% during the summer period. That means, that even the Bay's surface layer formally corresponds to the hypoxic conditions that testify to the degradation of the ecosystem there. The conclusions obtained during our studies testify that the pollution from

  2. Mass evolution of Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas from GRACE and altimetry: accuracy assessment and solution calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, B. D.; Luthcke, S. B.

    2016-09-01

    We present new measurements of mass evolution for the Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas as determined by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) GRACE time-variable global gravity mascon solutions. These new solutions are compared to sea surface altimetry measurements of sea level anomalies with steric corrections applied. To assess their accuracy, the GRACE- and altimetry-derived solutions are applied to the set of forward models used by GSFC for processing the GRACE Level-1B datasets, with the resulting inter-satellite range-acceleration residuals providing a useful metric for analyzing solution quality. We also present a differential correction strategy to calibrate the time series of mass change for each of the seas by establishing the strong linear relationship between differences in the forward modeled mass and the corresponding range-acceleration residuals between the two solutions. These calibrated time series of mass change are directly determined from the range-acceleration residuals, effectively providing regionally-tuned GRACE solutions without the need to form and invert normal equations. Finally, the calibrated GRACE time series are discussed and combined with the steric-corrected sea level anomalies to provide new measurements of the unmodeled steric variability for each of the seas over the span of the GRACE observation record. We apply ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to adaptively sort the mass and steric components of sea level anomalies into seasonal, non-seasonal, and long-term temporal scales.

  3. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  4. Changes in the ecosystem structure of the Black Sea under predicted climatological and anthropogenic variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoglu, Ekin; Salihoglu, Baris; Fach Salihoglu, Bettina; Libralato, Simone; Cannaby, Heather; Oguz, Temel; Solidoro, Cosimo

    2014-05-01

    A dynamic Ecopath with Ecosim higher-trophic-level (HTL) model representation of the Black Sea ecosystem was coupled to the physical (BIMS-CIR) and biogeochemical (BIMS-ECO) models of the Black Sea in order to investigate historical anthropogenic and climatological interactions and feedbacks in the ecosystem. Further, the coupled models were used to assess the likely consequences of these interactions on the ecosystem's structure and functioning under predicted future climate (IPCC A1B) and fishing variability. Therefore, two model scenarios were used; i) a hindcast scenario (1980-1999) to evaluate and understand the impacts of the short-term climate and physical variability and the introduction of invasive species on the Black Sea ecosystem, and ii) a forecast scenario (2080-2099) to investigate the potential implications of climate change and anthropogenic exploitation on living resources of the Black Sea ecosystem by the end of the 21st century. According to the outcomes of the hindcast simulation, fisheries were found to be the main driver in determining the structure and functioning of the Black Sea ecosystem under changing environmental conditions. The coupled physical-biogeochemical forecast simulations predicted a slight but statistically significant basin-wide increase in the Black Sea's primary productivity by the end of the century due to increased stratification induced by basin-wide temperature increase and reduced Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) formation which increased the residence time of riverine nutrients within the euphotic zone. Despite this increased primary productivity, the HTL model forecast simulation predicted a significant decrease in the commercial fish stocks primarily due to fisheries exploitation if current catch rates are maintained into the future. Results further suggested that some economically important small pelagic fish species are likely to disappear from the ecosystem making the recovery of the already-collapsed piscivorous

  5. Sea surface Ka-band radar cross-section from field observations in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovsky, Yury; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Grodsky, Semyon; Chapron, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    An interest in Ka-band radar backscattering from the ocean surface is growing due to better spatial resolution and more accurate Doppler anomaly estimate. But, available empirical models of Ka-band cross-section are quite scarce and sometime controversial. Here we present multi-year (2009-2015) field measurements of Ka-band co-polarized (VV and HH) sea surface normalized radar cross-section (NRCS) from research platform in the Black sea collected in a wide range of observation and sea state conditions. The data are fitted by polynomial function of incidence angle, azimuth and wind speed with accounting for measured radar antenna pattern. This empirical NRCS is compared with published Ka- and Ku-band data. Our Ka-band NRCS is close to Ku-band, but is 5-7 dB higher than 'pioneer' measurements by Masuko et al. (1986). Following the two-scale Bragg paradigm, the NRCS is split into polarized (Bragg) and non-polarized components and analyzed in terms of polarization ratio (VV/HH) and polarization difference (VV-HH) to estimate wave spectra at the Bragg wave number. Non-polarized component dominates at low incidence angles 60°) NRCS azimuth dependency is unimodal (upwind peak) for HH and bimodal (with up- and downwind peaks) for VV polarization. This again can be attributed to different backscattering mechanisms for VV and HH polarizations. With decreasing of incidence angle, up- to downwind ratio tends to 1, and under light wind conditions (4-6 m/s) can be less than 1. The same situation is observed for polarization difference, which reflects Bragg backscattering properties only. This effect can be explained by enhanced roughness on upwind (windward) face of the tilting wave. Retrieval of Bragg roughness properties shows that omni-directional saturation spectra at ~1000 rad/m are 2-3 times higher (0.01 at 10 m/s wind speed) than the spectra obtained from optical measurements of regular sea surface without wave breaking. This suggests that observed difference can arise

  6. The Karangatian epoch in the Neopleistocene history of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko-Hombach, Valentina; Motnenko, Irena

    2016-04-01

    Black Sea Quaternary history shows an alternation of transgressive and regressive stages that are related to global climate change and pronounced due to semi-isolation from the World Ocean. In warm epochs, the Black Sea is connected to the Mediterranean Sea (i.e., World Ocean) via connecting seas and straits. In cold epochs, it becomes isolated or connects to the Caspian Sea via the Manych outlet. During transgressions, sea level rises as does salinity. During regressions, when it drops below the Bosphorus sill, the basin transforms into an isolated lake. During transgressions, organisms migrate into the Black Sea from either the Mediterranean or Caspian. Such migrations affect assemblage structure and increase the number of species, especially in case of Mediterranean transgressions. During regressive stages, the number of species drops, and only holeuryhaline Mediterranean species can survive the lowering of salinity (Yanko-Hombach, 2007). The most powerful Mediterranean transgression in the Black Sea occurred during the Mikulino (MIS 5e) interglacial, corresponding to the central European Eemian interglacial; it is usually compared with the Alpine Riss-Würm interglacial. Clear traces of this transgression are preserved in coastal outcrops exposed in tectonically elevated terraces of the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, and Caucasus. They are also found in numerous cores and drill holes recovered from the Black Sea bottom. These traces contain numerous Mediterranean organisms (molluscs, foraminifera, ostracoda, etc.), many of which do not live in the Black Sea today. These sediments were first described by N.I. Andrusov (1925) on Cape Karangat, Kerch peninsula, in the early XX century. He called them "Tyrrenean" as they were similar to those in the "Tyrrenean" beds that form a coastal terrace in the Mediterranean. This similarity enabled him to conclude that the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins were connected to each other. Later, the "Tyrrenian" beds were renamed

  7. Lead pollution and its sources along the Turkish coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. UNSAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution and its sources have been investigated in the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea. Surficial sediments and mussels were collected in different seasons of the year from the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea and analysed for their lead contents.In the south-eastern Black Sea sediments from the easternmost and from the central stations contained the highest lead concentrations. Sediments contained 8 to 10 times the lead concentrations of sediments from the south-west. Samples taken from rivers, streams and effluents had especially high lead concentrations. The highest lead concentrations were found in sediments collected in October and December.Lead concentrations in mussels from the south-eastern coast were comparatively lower compared to those from the south-western coast. The highest average values occurred in December and in October.In the south-western Black Sea, the highest lead concentrations in sediments were obtained in those from Inebolu, followed by those from around Zonguldak. The concentrations increased from the middle to the west of the southern Black Sea coast, possibly due to the effect of the Danube River. Sediments taken in September had the highest lead concentrations, followed by samples taken in December.Very high lead concentrations (> 10 μ g g-1 were observed in mussels from those stations where the sediments also contained high concentrations. Mussels had their highest lead concentrations in January and April.

  8. The effects of additional black carbon on the albedo of Arctic sea ice: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of the albedo of bare sea ice and snow-covered sea ice to the addition of black carbon is calculated. Visible light absorption and light-scattering cross-sections are derived for a typical first-year and multi-year sea ice with both "dry" and "wet" snow types. The cross-sections are derived using data from a 1970s field study that recorded both reflectivity and light penetration in Arctic sea ice and snow overlying sea ice. The variation of absorption cross-section over the visible wavelengths suggests black carbon is the dominating light-absorbing impurity. The response of first-year and multi-year sea ice albedo to increasing black carbon, from 1 to 1024 ng g−1, in a top 5 cm layer of a 155 cm-thick sea ice was calculated using a radiative-transfer model. The albedo of the first-year sea ice is more sensitive to additional loadings of black carbon than the multi-year sea ice. An addition of 8 ng g−1 of black carbon causes a decrease to 98.7% of the original albedo for first-year sea ice compared to a decrease to 99.7% for the albedo of multi-year sea ice, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The albedo of sea ice is surprisingly unresponsive to additional black carbon up to 100 ng g−1 . Snow layers on sea ice may mitigate the effects of black carbon in sea ice. Wet and dry snow layers of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth were added onto the sea ice surface. The albedo of the snow surface was calculated whilst the black carbon in the underlying sea ice was increased. A layer of snow 0.5 cm thick greatly diminishes the effect of black carbon in sea ice on the surface albedo. The albedo of a 2–5 cm snow layer (less than the e-folding depth of snow is still influenced by the underlying sea ice, but the effect of additional black carbon in the sea ice is masked.

  9. The changing Arctic Sea ice cover : regional and seasonal aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Steene, Rebekka Jastamin

    2015-01-01

    As global climate changes are becoming increasingly evident, increasing air temperatures, melting glaciers, rising sea levels, and decreasing biodiversity is observed at increasing rates worldwide. The Arctic sea ice cover has has become a key indicator of the ongoing global climate change through its substantial decline in both extent and thickness. In this study we show how the observed regression of the Northern Hemisphere sea ice is distributed over different regions of the...

  10. Progress of KOERI Tsunami Warning System for the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Yilmazer, Mehmet; Cokacar, Tulay; Comoglu, Mustafa; Pinar, Ali; Kekovali, Kivanc

    2016-04-01

    This presentation provides a progress report on the activities of the Bogazici University / Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute - Regional Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring Center (KOERI-RETMC) which provides services as a Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) of ICG/NEAMTWS in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas since 1 July 2012. KOERI continues to operate 178 BB and 97 strong motion and 6 short period sensors and the regional coverage includes 77 stations from GFZ and additional 16 stations through bilateral agreements. One radar-type tide-gauge has been installed in Fethiye within the framework of "Inexpensive Device for Sea-Level Measurement" (IDSL) initiative offered as donation by the EC/JRC and planning is in progress for the possible installation of three more IDSLs in selected locations in the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey. The capabilities and the limitations of HF Radar technology for the purpose of tsunami detection in the Eastern Mediterranean has been identified and the maturity and the applicability of these systems for the possible use under the Tsunami Warning System has been determined. The development of the TsuComp as a user-friendly interface to be used in the assessment of tsunamigenic potential and as a single-point entry for message dissemination has been finalized. The work towards the creation of Tsunami Inundation Maps at the Tsunami Forecast Points in Turkey is near finalization. This work is partially funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839. The authors would like to thank EC/JRC and Mr. Alessandro Annunziato for their continuous support in the operational activities of RETMC and IDSL initiative.

  11. Use of fish biomarker response in the evaluation of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov coastal ecosystem health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental stress in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov coastal zones resulted in very negative biological events of the ecosystem at various levels of its biological organization, from molecular to the community levels. The peculiarities of the polluted responses should be applied for the assessment of stress factors and their effects. Fish populations are the most sensitive to anthropogenic impacts. Within the past 40 years the number of fish species in the Sevastopol coastal zone has declined 2-fold, and their storage 100-fold. Thus fish responses to stressors could be used for evaluation of the entire ecosystem health. Highly distributed fish species Scorpaena porcus and Neogobius melanostomus were used as biomonitors for the evaluation of the status of coastal zones. Fish were collected from polluted and non-polluted bays in the Sevastopol region, and their study has included the analysis of various biological indicators (biomarkers). Biochemical studies of antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, SOD, peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase), transaminases and aldolase in blood serum of fish caught in both seas showed the differences between the N. melanostomus inhabited in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov coastal areas. The increase of the activity of the main antioxidant enzymes SOD and glutathione-S-transferase were demonstrated in fish blood collected in polluted areas, while the other parameters were not differed significantly. The integrated index of antioxidant enzyme activity of fish blood is presented in Table II. The highest values were detected in fish from high polluted areas, that demonstrated the induction of antioxidant system, as a response on environmental contamination. At the same time the lipid peroxidation level was higher in fish that inhabited contaminated areas, as compared with individuals from the non-contaminated bays. This was connected with oxidative stress induced by high concentrations of xenobiotics

  12. The SeaDataNet data products: regional temperature and salinity historical data collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncelli, Simona; Coatanoan, Christine; Bäck, Orjan; Sagen, Helge; Scoy, Serge; Myroshnychenko, Volodymyr; Schaap, Dick; Schlitzer, Reiner; Iona, Sissy; Fichaut, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Temperature and Salinity (TS) historical data collections covering the time period 1900-2013 were created for each European marginal sea (Arctic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, North Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea) within the framework of SeaDataNet2 (SDN) EU-Project and they are now available as ODV collections through the SeaDataNet web catalog at http://sextant.ifremer.fr/en/web/seadatanet/. Two versions have been published and they represent a snapshot of the SDN database content at two different times: V1.1 (January 2014) and V2 (March 2015). A Quality Control Strategy (QCS) has been developped and continuously refined in order to improve the quality of the SDN database content and to create the best product deriving from SDN data. The QCS was originally implemented in collaboration with MyOcean2 and MyOcean Follow On projects in order to develop a true synergy at regional level to serve operational oceanography and climate change communities. The QCS involved the Regional Coordinators, responsible of the scientific assessment, the National Oceanographic Data Centers (NODC) and the data providers that, on the base of the data quality assessment outcome, checked and eventually corrected anomalies in the original data. The QCS consists of four main phases: 1) data harvesting from the central CDI; 2) file and parameter aggregation; 3) quality check analysis at regional level; 4) analysis and correction of data anomalies. The approach is iterative to facilitate the upgrade of SDN database content and it allows also the versioning of data products with the release of new regional data collections at the end of each QCS loop. SDN data collections and the QCS will be presented and the results summarized.

  13. The Evolution of Public Views of the Black Sea Province During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the evolution of public views of the Black Sea province during the First World War. The materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals of the Black Sea province became the main source of work. This article employs the records of personal origins. As a result of study, the authors come to the conclusion the First World War began for Russian society with massive patriotic speeches, but at the end of 1916 year for both in Russia in general and in the Black Sea province comes a complex social process that can be described as war weariness. To the reasons for war weariness the authors referred: the protracted war, and as a consequence – the complexity of an economic nature.

  14. Coccolithophores and calcite saturation state in the Baltic and Black Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tyrrell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic and Black Seas are both brackish, that is to say both have salinities intermediate between freshwater and seawater. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is abundant in one, the Black Sea, but absent from the other, the Baltic Sea. Here we present summertime coccolithophore measurements confirming this difference, as well as data on the calcium carbonate saturation state of the Baltic Sea. We find that the Baltic Sea becomes undersaturated (or nearly so in winter, with respect to both the aragonite and calcite mineral forms of CaCO3. Data for the Black Sea are more limited, but it appears to remain strongly supersaturated year-round. The absence of E. huxleyi from the Baltic Sea could therefore potentially be explained by dissolution of their coccoliths in winter, suggesting that minimum annual (wintertime saturation states could be most important in determining future ocean acidification impacts. In addition to this potential importance of winter saturation state, alternative explanations are also possible, either related to differences in salinity or else to differences in silicate concentrations.

  15. Causes of seasonal sea level anomalies in the coastal region of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LIU Kexiu; QI Dongmei; GAO Zhigang; FAN Wenjing; ZHANG Zengjian; WANG Guosong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the analysis of sea level, air temperature, sea surface temperature (SST), air pressure and wind data during 1980-2013, the causes of seasonal sea level anomalies in the coastal region of the East China Sea (ECS) are investigated. The research results show: (1) sea level along the coastal region of the ECS takes on strong seasonal variation. The annual range is 30-45 cm, larger in the north than in the south. From north to south, the phase of sea level changes from 140° to 231°, with a difference of nearly 3 months. (2) Monthly mean sea level (MSL) anomalies often occur from August to next February along the coast region of the ECS. The number of sea level anomalies is at most from January to February and from August to October, showing a growing trend in recent years. (3) Anomalous wind field is an important factor to affect the sea level variation in the coastal region of the ECS. Monthly MSL anomaly is closely related to wind field anomaly and air pressure field anomaly. Wind-driven current is essentially consistent with sea surface height. In August 2012, the sea surface heights at the coastal stations driven by wind field have contributed 50%-80% of MSL anomalies. (4) The annual variations for sea level, SST and air temperature along the coastal region of the ECS are mainly caused by solar radiation with a period of 12 months. But the correlation coefficients of sea level anomalies with SST anomalies and air temperature anomalies are all less than 0.1. (5) Seasonal sea level variations contain the long-term trends and all kinds of periodic changes. Sea level oscillations vary in different seasons in the coastal region of the ECS. In winter and spring, the oscillation of 4-7 a related to El Ni?o is stronger and its amplitude exceeds 2 cm. In summer and autumn, the oscillations of 2-3 a and quasi 9 a are most significant, and their amplitudes also exceed 2 cm. The height of sea level is lifted up when the different oscillations superposed. On the

  16. Total antioxidant capacity in the black mussel ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Black Sea coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncheva, S.; Trakhtenberg, S.; Katrich, E.; Zemser, M.; Goshev, I.; Toledo, F.; Arancibia-Avila, P.; Doncheva, V.; Gorinstein, S.

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the total antioxidant radical scavenging capacity (TARSC) in tissue extracts for understanding biochemical adaptations involving the antioxidant defense system of a bivalve mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, sampled in polluted (Pol) and non-polluted (Npol) sites from Black Sea coasts. Antioxidant-rich polyphenol fractions were extracted from whole dry mussel tissue with methanol and water in different proportions. The extracts were screened for polyphenol content and their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ), β-carotene-linoleate (β-carotene) and nitric oxide (NO rad ). The total polyphenol extract of the whole mussel tissue from polluted site (TPMEPol) showed the highest antioxidant capacity among all of the extracts with the tested methods and was comparable with the antioxidant capacity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antioxidant capacities of this extract determined by DPPH rad , β-carotene and NO rad methods and polyphenol content showed the highest correlation coefficients ( R2) such as 0.9985, 0.9915 and 0.9895, respectively. The free polyphenol extracts (FPMEPol and FPMENPol) had lower antioxidant capacity than the two others of total polyphenols (TPMEPol and TPMENPol) with three scavenging methods. Responses were linear in all tested methods and the antioxidant capacity values of soluble antioxidants showed the following relative order: Trolox>BHA>TPMEPol>TPMENPol>FPMEPol>FPMENPol. Nutritional antioxidants, such as polyphenols, were probably the main antioxidant contribution to mussel antioxidants. The mussel extracts from the polluted site exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than from the non-polluted one. The results presented in this report indicate that the antioxidant capacity of the whole tissue of the mussel extract could possibly be a useful biomarker for aquatic environments.

  17. In situ autonomous optical radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zibordi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of primary satellite ocean color data products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on-board Aqua (MODIS-A and the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, is investigated in the Western Black Sea using in situ measurements from the Gloria site included in the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC. The analysis is also extended to an additional well-established AERONET-OC site in the northern Adriatic Sea characterized by optically complex coastal waters exhibiting similarities with those observed at the Gloria site. Results from the comparison of normalized-water leaving radiance LWN indicate biases of a few percent between satellite derived and in situ data at the center-wavelengths relevant for the determination of chlorophyll a concentration (443–547 nm, or equivalent. Remarkable is the consistency among the annual cycle determined with time series of satellite-derived and in situ LWN ratios at these center-wavelengths. Contrarily, the differences between in situ and satellite-derived LWN are pronounced at the blue (i.e., 412 nm and red (i.e., 667 nm, or equivalent center-wavelengths, suggesting difficulties in confidently applying satellite-derived radiometric data from these spectral regions for quantitative analysis in optically complex waters.

  18. Commercial Fishery Impact on the Modern Black Sea Ecosystem: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Eremeev(1), Valery N.; Zuyev*(2), German V.

    2007-01-01

    During the last 30 - 40 years the Black Sea ecosystem has been found subjected to diverse anthropogenic factors. Among one of it appears to be the fishing pressure. Up till recently no common viewpoint is available regarding its influence on the ecosystem. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the role of commercial fishery in structural and functional alterations of the Black Sea ecosystem on a basis of a data-series relative to long-term dynamics of fisheries statistics and biologi...

  19. Geodetic observation of sea-level change and crustal deformation in the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Groh, A.; Dietrich, R.

    Based on tide gauge observations spanning almost 200 years, homogeneous time series of the mean relative sea level were derived for nine sites at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Our regionally concentrated data were complemented by long-term relative sea-level records retrieved from the data base of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). From these records relative sea-level change rates were derived at 51 tide gauge stations for the period between 1908 and 2007. A minimum observation time of 60 years is required for the determination of reliable sea-level rates. At present, no anthropogenic acceleration in sea-level rise is detected in the tide gauge observations in the southern Baltic. The spatial variation of the relative sea-level rates reflects the fingerprint of GIA-induced crustal uplift. Time series of extreme sea levels were also inferred from the tide gauge records. They were complemented by water level information from historic storm surge marks preserved along the German Baltic coast. Based on this combined dataset the incidence and spatial variation of extreme sea levels induced by storm surges were analysed yielding important information for hazard assessments. Permanent GPS observations were used to determine recent crustal deformation rates for 44 stations in the Baltic Sea region. The GPS derived height change rates were applied to reduce the relative sea-level changes observed by tide gauges yielding an estimate for the eustatic sea-level change. For 13 tide gauge-GPS colocation sites a mean eustatic sea-level trend of 1.3 mm/a was derived for the last 100 years.

  20. What Can Sea Ice Reconstructions Tell Us About Recent Regional Trends in Sea Ice Around Antarctica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, N.; Mulvaney, R.; Murphy, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite observations of recent sea ice changes around Antarctica reveal regionally heterogeneous trends, but with an overall increasing trend in Antarctic-wide sea ice extent. Proposed mechanisms to account for increasing sea ice extent around Antarctica include freshening of the ocean surface due to melting of land ice and northward wind drift associated with strengthening of the Southern Ocean westerly winds. In this study we use extended, regional reconstructions of Antarctic sea ice changes from ice core chemistry and reanalysis of the South Orkney fast ice series to examine long-term relationships between Antarctic regional sea ice changes and surface winds. The formation and breakout of fast ice at the South Orkney islands (Murphy et al., 2014) indicates that westerly wind strength is an important factor in determining spring sea ice retreat in the Weddell Sea region. In contrast, autumn sea ice formation is more strongly influenced by long-lived ocean temperature anomalies and sea ice migration from the previous year, highlighting the multiple influences that act at different times of the year to determine the overall extent of winter sea ice. To assess the hypothesized role of westerly wind changes in driving opposing patterns of recent sea ice change between the Ross Sea and Bellingshausen Sea, we also present a comparison of ice core MSA evidence for sea ice changes derived from the James Ross Island (Mulvaney et al., 2012) and Erebus Saddle (Rhodes et al., 2012) ice cores, and view this in the context of trends in the Southern Annular Mode (Abram et al., 2014) over the last 200 years. References: Abram et al., 2014. Evolution of the Southern Annular Mode over the past millennium. Nature Climate Change. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2235 Mulvaney et al., 2012. Recent Antarctic Peninsula warming relative to Holocene temperature and ice-shelf history. Nature. doi: 10.1038/nature11391 Murphy et al., 2014. Variability of sea ice in the northern Weddell Sea during

  1. On experience in recording the voice of the sea in the water area of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelkin, V. G.; Kulichkov, S. N.; Chunchuzov, I. P.; Repina, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    Some data on a high-frequency infrasound recorded within a range of 2-16 Hz (voice of the sea) in the water area of the Black Sea are given. Different parameters of the recorded infrasonic signal—the direction and phase velocity of arriving infrasonic waves, spectral composition, and coherence—have been studied. In the course of measurements, both wind and wave conditions in the water area of the Black Sea have been studied in detail. The collision of two atmospheric vortices was observed a few hours before the first arrivals of infrasonic waves, and the collision of differently directed sea waves was observed during infrasound recording. The direction of the arrivals of infrasonic waves coincides with the direction between the zone of collision of sea waves and the point of infrasound recording. The assumption was made that, in order to explain the observed infrasonic waves, it is necessary to use the mechanism responsible for the emission of infrasound into the atmosphere by standing surface waves formed due to the nonlinear interaction of surface waves propagating in opposite directions and to take into account the frequency-filtering properties of both wind-velocity and temperature stratifications of the atmosphere itself along the path of infrasound propagation. This assumption calls for additional verification.

  2. Relating Regional Arctic Sea Ice and climate extremes over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scholz, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The potential increase of temperature extremes under climate change is a major threat to society, as temperature extremes have a deep impact on environment, hydrology, agriculture, society and economy. Hence, the analysis of the mechanisms underlying their occurrence, including their relationships with the large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea ice concentration, is of major importance. At the same time, the decline in Arctic sea ice cover during the last 30 years has been widely documented and it is clear that this change is having profound impacts at regional as well as planetary scale. As such, this study aims to investigate the relation between the autumn regional sea ice concentration variability and cold winters in Europe, as identified by the numbers of cold nights (TN10p), cold days (TX10p), ice days (ID) and consecutive frost days (CFD). We analyze the relationship between Arctic sea ice variation in autumn (September-October-November) averaged over eight different Arctic regions (Barents/Kara Seas, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi/Bering Seas, Central Arctic, Greenland Sea, Labrador Sea/Baffin Bay, Laptev/East Siberian Seas and Northern Hemisphere) and variations in atmospheric circulation and climate extreme indices in the following winter season over Europe using composite map analysis. Based on the composite map analysis it is shown that the response of the winter extreme temperatures over Europe is highly correlated/connected to changes in Arctic sea ice variability. However, this signal is not symmetrical for the case of high and low sea ice years. Moreover, the response of temperatures extreme over Europe to sea ice variability over the different Arctic regions differs substantially. The regions which have the strongest impact on the extreme winter temperature over Europe are: Barents/Kara Seas, Beaufort Sea, Central Arctic and the Northern Hemisphere. For the years of high sea ice concentration in the Barents/Kara Seas there is a reduction in the number

  3. Deviation of Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea level from the global mean during the 20th century: analysis of the main factors involved and a high-end projection to the end of 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to investigate which are the main factors determining interannual sea level variability of Baltic, Adriatic and Black seas, and to which extent the sea level of these three basins can deviate from the global mean. The three basins selected are semi-enclosed marginal seas connected with the adjacent seas by narrow straits. 13 sea level timeseries in Baltic Sea, 7 in Adriatic Sea and 5 in Black Sea provided by PSMSL, allowed us to compute a single seamless sea level timeseries representative for each basin from 1900 and for the entire 20th century, using statistical tools (PCA and Least Square method). Comparison with satellite data in the period 1993-2009, confirms that timeseries so computed are good representations of the observed sea level, with correlation values of 0.97, 0.87 and 0.72 for Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. At basin scale the sea level has been decomposed in various contributions that have been separately analyzed: local effect of pressure, steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation, boundary forcing, wind effect and river discharge. The annual cycles and their variability, show that the largest contribution is due to the wind for the Adriatic Sea and for the Baltic Sea. In these two basins the inverse Barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric factor is almost negligible. The wind seems to play a negligible role on Black Sea, where the Danube river discharge plays an important role. A linear regression model, built considering large scale sea level pressure distribution as predictor, is capable to explain a further percentage of sea level variability variability (about 20%) left after subtracting all the factors considered above. Sea level of the Baltic and Black Sea show a significant positive correlation (0.3 about) revealing the likely influence of an external common forcing. Past sea level variability shows no strong evidences of large deviation from the global mean sea level

  4. Phenotypic plasticity in the Idotea baltica basteri (Crustacea, Isopoda sex ratio in Odessa bay, Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Varigin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The degree of phenotypic plasticity in the Idotea baltica basteri Audouin, 1827 (Crustacea, Isopoda sex ratio of the fouling community in the Odessa bay of the Black Sea was determined. The ratio of males and females in three main phenotypes of I. baltica basteri, namely: uniformis, albafusca and lineata was found. Crustaceans were collected on the underwater surface of traverses, located in three sea districts with the different degrees of water exchange intensity with the open sea. Water depth at the wall of traverses ranged from 1 to2,5 m. In the first most opened district among the individuals of uniformis phenotype the ratio of males and females was equal to 1:4, that for albafusca – 1:1,3 and lineata – 1:1. In the second area with the release of drainage waters among the individuals of uniformis phenotype this ratio was equal to 1:4,5, while the albafusca and lineata figures were 1:1,5 and 1:1, accordingly. In the third region, with the most difficult water exchange, among the individuals of phenotypes the ratios of males and females were as follows: uniformis – 1:8, albafusca – 1:2, and lineata – 1:1. When moving from the opened to semi-enclosed area among the individuals of all phenotypes there was a gradual decline in the proportion of males and accordingly, increases of the proportion of females. The greatest number of males in all areas under study is observed among the individuals of lineata phenotype, and that of females – among the individuals of uniformis phenotype. It is found that monochromatic colored females prefer to stay in the shaded places among the seagrass beds and brightly colored males usually move actively along the outside of the substrata.

  5. Climate-physics-chemistry-biology: connected changes in the Black Sea regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, Svetlana; Silkin, Vladimir; Podymov, Oleg; Chasovnikov, Valery

    2016-04-01

    The ratio of nutrients in the water is a significant regulator of community structure. This control is very important, both in coastal waters that are exposed to river runoff and in the open Sea, where the development of the phytoplankton community depends on the intensity of the vertical exchange. This is valid also for the northeastern Black Sea. Since there are no big rivers in this region, vertical mixing becomes the main process that supplies nutrients from the nutrient-rich deep layers to the surface layer. Vertical mixing depends on winter cooling and is characterized by a cold intermediate layer (CIL) temperature. Since 1984, both the sea-surface and CIL temperatures have shown a tendency to increase, which leads to relatively weak winter mixing. The coldest winters during last two decades were observed in 2006 and 2012, when the CIL temperature decreased to 7.3oC and 6.8oC, respectively. According to the observed density dynamic, the maximum elevation of cold, high density water occurred in the second half of May. In 2012, the waters from the upper part of the CIL reached a depth of 20-30 m. All the other years were characterized by a weak winter mixing, with the CIL temperature varying from 7.8oC to 8.3oC, and CIL waters raised to the depths no shallow than 60 m. Elevation of CIL waters resulted in an increase in nutrient concentration in the surface layer from the end of March to the beginning of June, before the thermocline starts to form, with maxima in May. An increase in the nutrient concentrations is more pronounced for silicon and phosphorus and less for nitrogen. After a severe winter, the silicon concentration can reach 8 μM, whereas after warm ones, only 4 μM. For phosphorus, this amounts to 0.4 and 0.1 μM, respectively. This leads to decrease of N/P ratio below the Redfild theoretical value after a severe winter. It was found that variation in N/P ratio is the main regulator of phytoplankton community structure in the NE Black Sea. At low N

  6. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  7. Georgia’s NATO Membership within Context of the Black Sea Dimension of “the New Great Game”

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    Georgia’s NATO membership became a dispute between the NATO member countries and the Russian Federation. It is argued that Russia perceives Georgia’s NATO membership as a move that aims to take the control of critical energy infrastructure in the Caspian and Black Sea regions while NATO tries to be more influential on this geography strategic for the energy security of the US and the EU. This asymmetry of perceptions and interests between Russia and NATO is expected to complicate power dynami...

  8. Monitoring hypoxia: approaches to addressing a complex phenomenon in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jana; Janssen, Felix; He, Yunchang; Holtappels, Moritz; Konovalov, Sergey; Prien, Ralf; Rehder, Gregor; Stanev, Emil

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution we present an overview of results and share experiences from monitoring and assessing various hypoxia phenomena in the Black Sea. The focus is on approaches and technologies for monitoring of, e.g., mesoscale seasonal patterns in water column oxygenation, multi-decadal trends in oxycline boundary shifts, fast oxygen fluctuations at the pelagic redoxcline and the sediment-water interface, and seasonal changes in bottom-water oxygen. The various temporal scales (from hours to decades) and spatial patterns (from local to basin-scale) in water column oxygenation were addressed using state-of-the-art technologies, e.g., a free-falling pump CTD, a profiling instrumentation platform, ARGO floats equipped with oxygen optodes, static moorings equipped with oxygen optodes, and long-term monitoring programs based on standard CTD casts. Examples from four study sites in the Black Sea and one in the Baltic Sea are presented. Oxygen sensor equipped ARGO type profiling floats proved to be powerful tools to resolve seasonal changes in water column oxygenation and emphasize the importance of mesoscale processes for oxygen distribution in the Black Sea basin. Existing multi-decadal time-series monitoring data based on standard CTD measurements revealed the imprint of climate change and eutrophication on long-term oxygen distributions in the central Black Sea and hence, highlight the importance of maintaining long-term commitments to oxygen monitoring programs. Monitoring data from the last 90 years reflect the rising of the upper boundary of the suboxic zone in the 1970s and 1980s due to eutrophication, and again in the 1990s and 2000s due to NAO forcing, while eutrophication relaxed. Such long time series data allow separating out the effects that climatic forcing and eutrophication exert on oxygen depletion i.e., in the Black Sea. A free-falling pump-CTD provided high-resolution profiles of oxygen and reduced compounds in the Bosporus outflow to the Black Sea

  9. PS-InSAR Monitoring of Landslide Activity in the Black Sea Coast of the Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, E.; Mikhailov, V.; Smolyaninova, E.; Dmitriev, P.; Golubev, V.; Timoshkina, E.; Hooper, A.; Samiei-Esfahany, S.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    The landslide activity in the area of Bolshoy Sochi (Big Sochi) situated at the Black Sea coast of the Great Caucasus has been studied using the StaMPS PS-InSAR method. We incorporated three sets of radar images from the satellites with different wavelengths ALOS, Envisat and Terra-SAR-X from both a

  10. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: Sea otters and black abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter T.; Jurgens, Laura J.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  11. 77 FR 76942 - 2013-2014 Summer Flounder and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... 2013 ABC for black sea bass is the status quo ABC of 4.50 million lb (2,041 mt), and the 2013 ACTs... Management Plan, as well as to ensure compliance with the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. The intent of this action is to establish harvest levels and other management measures...

  12. Water-level fluctuations in the Black Sea since the Last Glacial Maximum

    OpenAIRE

    Lericolais, Gilles; Popescu, I; F. Guichard; Popescu, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    Two IFREMER oceanographic surveys carried out in the northwestern Black Sea in 1998 and 2002 complement previous seabed mapping and subsurface sampling by various international expeditions. They show that the lake level rose on the continental shelf to at least the -40 to -30 m isobath based on the landward limit of a Dreissena layer representative of very low salinity conditions (

  13. Radiotracers in the Black Sea: A Tool for Marine Environmental Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-Chernobyl trends of radioactive contamination of the Black Sea showed a relatively high rate of purification of its waters against soluble and particle reactive radionuclides. The apparent half-lives for the decrease of 137Cs and 90Sr concentrations in the central Black Sea waters was around 6 and 8 years, respectively, suggesting an additional 90Sr input by river runoff. These values, particularly for 137Cs, are considerably lower than in the adjacent Mediterranean basin (∼13 years), which is caused by faster dilution of 137Cs concentration in the upper Black Sea waters due to strong river discharge, and by loss of 137Cs via the Bosporus Strait. These factors, together with a higher rate of particle scavenging of plutonium in the mesotrophic Black Sea water, reflect its significant capability for self-cleaning against nuclear and non-nuclear pollutants, which was traced in this study using data on fluxes and time evolution of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity. (author)

  14. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations. PMID:27070027

  15. A model for early diagenetic processes in sediments of the continental shelf of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model for early diagenetic processes in the sediments of the north-western continental shelf of the Black Sea is presented. The north-western shelf area is influenced by nutrient, organic matter and reactive iron inputs from major rivers such as the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester. Low oxyg

  16. Sulfur and iron speciation in surface sediments along the northwestern margin of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Middelburg, J.J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Bottcher, M.E.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2001-01-01

    The speciation of sedimentary sulfur (pyrite, acid volatile sulfides (AVS), S-0 H2S, and sulfate) was analyzed in surface sediments recovered at different water depths from the northwestern margin of the Black Sea. Additionally, dissolved and dithionite-extractable iron were quantified, and the sulf

  17. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice anomalies in the Ross Sea Polynya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Ethan; McDonald, Adrian; Rack, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Despite warming trends in global temperatures, sea ice extent in the southern hemisphere has shown an increasing trend over recent decades. Wind-driven sea ice export from coastal polynyas is an important source of sea ice production. Areas of major polynyas in the Ross Sea, the region with largest increase in sea ice extent, have been suggested to produce the vast amount of the sea ice in the region. We investigate the impacts of strong wind events on polynyas and the subsequent sea ice production. We utilize Bootstrap sea ice concentration (SIC) measurements derived from satellite based, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature images. These are compared with surface wind measurements made by automatic weather stations of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Meteorology Program. Our analysis focusses on the winter period defined as 1st April to 1st November in this study. Wind data was used to classify each day into characteristic regimes based on the change of wind speed. For each regime, a composite of SIC anomaly was formed for the Ross Sea region. We found that persistent weak winds near the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf are generally associated with positive SIC anomalies in the Ross Sea polynya area (RSP). Conversely we found negative SIC anomalies in this area during persistent strong winds. By analyzing sea ice motion vectors derived from SSM/I brightness temperatures, we find significant sea ice motion anomalies throughout the Ross Sea during strong wind events. These anomalies persist for several days after the strong wing event. Strong, negative correlations are found between SIC within the RSP and wind speed indicating that strong winds cause significant advection of sea ice in the RSP. This rapid decrease in SIC is followed by a more gradual recovery in SIC. This increase occurs on a time scale greater than the average persistence of strong wind events and the resulting Sea ice motion anomalies, highlighting the production

  18. Cenozoic geodynamics of the Bering Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhovich, V. D.; Sukhov, A. N.; Sheremet, O. G.; Kononov, M. V.

    2012-05-01

    In the Early Cenozoic before origination of the Aleutian subduction zone 50-47 Ma ago, the northwestern (Asian) and northeastern (North American) parts of the continental framework of the Pacific Ocean were active continental margins. In the northwestern part, the island-arc situation, which arose in the Coniacian, remained with retention of the normal lateral series: continent-marginal sea-island arc-ocean. In the northeastern part, consumption of the oceanic crust beneath the southern margin of the continental Bering shelf also continued from the Late Cretaceous with the formation of the suprasubduction volcanic belt. The northwestern and northeastern parts of the Paleopacific were probably separated by a continuation of the Kula-Pacific Transform Fracture Zone. Change of the movement of the Pacific oceanic plates from the NNW to NW in the middle Eocene (50-47 Ma ago) was a cause of the origin of the Aleutian subduction zone and related Aleutian island arc. In the captured part of the Paleopacific (proto-Bering Sea), the ongoing displacement of North America relative to Eurasia in the middle-late Eocene gave rise to the formation of internal structural elements of the marginal sea: the imbricate nappe structure of the Shirshov Ridge and the island arc of the Bowers Ridge. The Late Cenozoic evolution was controlled by subduction beneath the Kamchatka margin and its convergence with the Kronotsky Terrane in the south. A similar convergence of the Koryak margin with the Goven Terrane occurred in the north. The Komandorsky minor oceanic basin opened in the back zone of this terrane. Paleotectonic reconstructions for 68-60, 56-52, 50-38, 30-15, and 15-6 Ma are presented.

  19. Numerical investigation of sensitivity of the Black Sea mixed layer to vertical turbulent diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaratskhelia, Diana; Demetrashvili, Demuri

    2015-04-01

    The upper mixed-layer of seas and oceans is one of the important water areas, the thermodynamic state of which defines many important physical, chemical or biological processes in the sea- atmosphere environment. The same can be note concerning the Black Sea turbulent mixed layer, which represents the object of our investigation. It is well known that the depth of the mixed layer is generaly determined by measurements of water properties: temperature and sigma-t (density) but here the depth of the mixed layer and its variability are investigated by using of the basin-scale numerical model of the Black Sea dynamics of M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics (BSM-IG, Tbilisi, Georgia). The main object of this study is to investigate the Black Sea upper mixed-layer generation and its evolution in connection with the nonstationarity atmospheric circulation and thermohaline action in the inner-annual time scale. Besides, how the temperature and salinity fields of the Black Sea upper layer are substantially reacted by the vertical diffusion coefficient are the centre of our attention. Therefore, the coefficient of vertical turbulent diffusion for heat and salt are tested as constant equal to 10 cm2s-1 and it was parameterized by modified Oboukhov's formula. The results of the numerical investigations show that: in wintertime for any choosing of this vertical diffusion coefficient the intense wind-driven turbulence promotes mixing aproximetly till 16-26 m in deep layers of the Black Sea. Except for that, cold fluxes through the surface and precipitation-evapuration system play aditionally role on the mixed layer forming as well. During the transitive spring season (in difference from the cold season), when the depth of the mixed layer is aproxometly 2-4 m., the role of vertical turbulent viscosity insignificantly grows. In the warm season (summer), when the mixed layer does not observe in the upper layer of the Black Sea, the role of the vertical diffusion coefficient is more

  20. Low levels of toxic elements in Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmad; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2009-08-01

    Natural muds used as or in cosmetics may expose consumers to toxic metals and elements via absorption through the skin, inhalation of the dried product, or ingestion (by children). Despite the extensive therapeutic and cosmetic use of the Dead Sea muds, there apparently has been no assessment of the levels of such toxic elements as Pb, As, or Cd in the mud and mud-based products. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of eight toxic elements in samples collected from three black mud deposits (Lisan Marl, Pleistocene age) on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea in Jordan revealed no special enrichment of toxic elements in the mud. A similar analysis of 16 different commercial Dead Sea mud cosmetics, including packaged mud, likewise revealed no toxic elements at elevated levels of concern. From a toxic element standpoint, the Dead Sea black muds and derivative products appear to be safe for the consumer. Whatever the therapeutic benefits of the mud, our comparison of the elemental fingerprints of the consumer products with those of the field samples revealed one disturbing aspect: Dead Sea black mud should not be a significant component of such items as hand creams, body lotions, shampoo, and moisturizer.

  1. The water clock of the Bronze Age (Northern Black Sea Coast)

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa N; Nevsky, Mikhail Yu

    2015-01-01

    In the article presents the results of the multidisciplinary study conducted with the help of archaeological, physical and astronomical methods. The aim of the study was to analyze and interpret marks and drawings applied to the surface of the vessel of the Bronze Age (Srubna culture) found near the Staropetrovsky village (Donetsk region, Ukraine) near the border between the Donetsk and Lugansk regions. The carried out calculations and measurements possible to prove that staropetrovsky vessel is the most ancient water clock, discovered on the territory of Europe, and have approximately the same age as the oldest known ancient Egyptian water clock. Such vessels - water clocks were needed for Srubna population to mark sundial, which had recently been discovered in the Northern Black Sea Coast. Based on the analysis of marks on the outside of the vessel, it was revealed that Staropetrovsky vessel is unique ancient complex device for measuring time and at the same time using a water clock, and with the help of a ...

  2. Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification, demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems.

  3. [Study of the new settler Beroe ovata in the Black sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiganova, T A; Bulgakova, Iu V; Sorokin, P Iu; Lukashev, Iu F

    2000-01-01

    Primary data on population, size, and distribution of a new settler--comb jelly Beroe ovata--in the Black Sea are presented. We studied certain aspects of its nutrition, consumed organisms, and digestion time. Comb jellies Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobachia pileus were established as the nutritional targets of B. ovata. Mnemiopsis proved to be more accessible and assimilable. Preliminary data on metabolic level and threshold oxygen content in B. ovata were obtained; proportions of dry and wet weight of B. ovata were determined. Population changes of new settler Mnemiopsis and other jellylike animals in the Northeast part of the sea induced by B. ovata were analyzed. We observed sharp decrease in population of Mnemiopsis, a species that induced degradation of the Black Sea ecosystem within the last decade. PMID:10780118

  4. STUDIES ON THE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SPECIES Mytilus galloprovincialis OF THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Sirbu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that, among the marine organisms, mollusks are highly appreciated in many European, Asian and North American countries. In the Romanian area of the Black Sea, mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis can be found in deep areas which form a belt around the sea on the continental platform. There are significant variations of the main environmental factors which directly influence the physiological behavior of the organisms and the accumulation of the biochemical components with nutritional value. This paper correlates the study of the dynamics of the main biochemical compounds with the environmental factors and the annual ontogenetic phases of the organisms. There are also presented comparative studies concerning the rock mollusks and mollusks of deep from the Black Sea. It was found variations in quantitative results for biochemical composition. Cases are due to seasonal variations of physical-chemical conditions of seawater.

  5. Modeling Black Sea circulation with high resolution in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesnyi, V. B.; Gusev, A. V.; Agoshkov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    We present a numerical model of Black Sea circulation based on primitive equations with improved spatial resolution in the coastal zone. The model equations are formulated in a two-pole orthogonal coordinate system with arbitrary locations of the poles and a vertical σ coordinate. Increased horizontal resolution is gained by displacing the pole into the vicinity of the separated subdomain. The problem is solved over a grid with a variable step. The northern coordinate pole is displaced to the vicinity of Gelendzhik; the grid step varies from 150 m in the coastal zone to 4.6 km in the main basin. We simulated the fields of currents, sea level, temperature, and salinity under the given atmospheric forcing in 2007. The model is capable of reproducing the large-scale Black Sea circulation and submesoscale variations in the coastal currents.

  6. Plate boundaries and evolution of the Solomon Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honza, E.; Davies, H. L.; Keene, J. B.; Tiffin, D. L.

    1987-09-01

    The Solomon Sea Plate was widely developed during late Oligocene, separating the proto-West Melanesian Arc from the proto-Trobriand Arc. Spreading in the Bismarck Sea and in the Woodlark Basin resulted from interaction between the Pacific and Australian Plates, specifically from the collision of the proto-West Melanesian Arc with north New Guinea, which occurred after arc reversal. This model explains the extensive Miocene, Pliocene, and Quaternary volcanism of the Papua New Guinea mainland as it related to southward subduction of the Trobriand Trough. Our interpreted plate motions are concordant with the geological evidence onshore and also with complex tectonic features in the Solomon Sea Basin Region.

  7. Regional dependence in the rapid loss of Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Sally; Houssais, Marie-Noëlle; Herbaut, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The accelerating rate of sea ice decline in the Arctic, particularly in the summer months, has been well documented by previous studies. However, the methods of analysis used to date have tended to employ pre-defined regions over which to determine sea ice loss, potentially masking regional variability within these regions. Similarly, evidence of acceleration has frequently been based on decade-to-decade comparisons that do not precisely quantify the timing of the increase in rate of decline. In this study, we address this issue by quantifying the onset time of rapid loss in sea ice concentration on a point-by-point basis, using an objective method applied to satellite passive microwave data. Seasonal maps of onset time are produced, and reveal strong regional dependency, with differences of up to 20 years in onset time between the various subregions of the Arctic. In certain cases, such as the Laptev Sea, strong spatial variability is found even at the regional scale, suggesting that caution should be employed in the use of geographically-based region definitions that may be misaligned with the physical response. The earliest onset times are found in the Pacific sector, where certain areas undergo a transition ca. 1992. In contrast, onset times in the Atlantic sector are much more recent. Rates of decline prior to and following the onset of rapid decline are calculated, and suggest that the post-onset rate of loss is weakest in the Pacific sector and greatest in the Barents Sea region. Coherency is noted in the season-to-season response, both at interannual and longer time scales. Our results describe a series of spatially self-consistent regional responses, and may be useful in understanding the primary drivers of recent sea ice loss.

  8. Natural Isotopic Fractionation of 238U/235U in the Water Column of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniello, S. J.; Brennecka, G.; Anbar, A. D.; Colman, A. S.

    2009-12-01

    The natural fractionation of long-lived uranium isotopes (238U, 235U) is being explored as a paleoredox proxy. While uranium behaves conservatively in oxic seawater, it is readily removed to sediments under reducing conditions. Measurements of δ238/235U in black shales and marine sediments deposited under sulfidic conditions suggest that uranium removed in such environments is isotopically heavy. However, this fractionation process has not been directly demonstrated in a present-day marine environment, nor is the specific mechanism of fractionation known. The euxinic water column of the Black Sea provides an ideal laboratory for studying uranium isotope fractionation. Uranium in Black Sea sediments is 0.35-0.84‰ heavy in δ238/235U relative to open ocean seawater (Weyer et al. 2008). We therefore expect that dissolved uranium in the Black Sea water column should be correspondingly light. Furthermore, direct measurements of δ238/235U versus depth could be used in combination with sediment δ238/235U to infer the dominant locations of U removal and constrain specific mechanisms of fractionation. Here we present the first δ238/235U depth profile from the water column of the Black Sea. The measurements were made on a Neptune MC-ICP-MS, using a 236U-233U double spike to correct for instrumental mass bias, following preconcentration and purification with UTEVA resin. With this method, we are able to measure δ238/235U with a 2σ precision of 0.07‰ on 100 ng samples. Our results show that δ238/235U decreases monotonically with depth (Fig. 1). At the surface, δ238/235U values are similar to those in the open ocean. At 2000m, δ238/235U is 0.28‰ lighter than open ocean seawater, while uranium concentrations are depleted by ~44% relative to conservative mixing. As expected, δ238/235U in the water column is always lighter than the underlying sediments, confirming that 238U is preferentially removed to marine sediments under sulfidic conditions. Fig 1. (left) Depth

  9. Wave modelling to assess the storm conditions in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Liliana; Raileanu, Alina

    2014-05-01

    The work proposed herewith presents the results of a ten-year wave hindcast performed in the Black Sea and focused on the storm conditions. A wave modelling system, SWAN based, was implemented in the basin of the Black Sea. Validations have been performed both against in situ and remotely sensed data for the entire ten-year period considered (1999-2008). The wind field provided by NCEP-CFSR (United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) with a spatial resolution of 0.312ºx0.312º and a temporal resolution of 3 hours was considered for forcing the wave model. In statistical terms, the results are in general in line with those provided by similar wave prediction systems implemented in enclosed or semi-enclosed seas, the most important factors in increasing the general system reliability being the accuracy and resolution of the wind fields considered. As regards the physical processes, the calibration tests performed show that whitecapping still represents the weak link in deep water wave modelling. The most relevant storm conditions encountered in this ten-year period considered were further analysed. This analysis was performed from the point of view of the intensity, location of occurrence, duration and propagation in the geographical space of the storms. Following the results of the work, the western side of the sea is more energetic and almost each year storms with significant wave heights of about eight meters are encountered in this part of the Black Sea, while in the case of the extreme storms significant wave heights even greater than eleven meters may occur. From this perspective, it can be concluded that the present work provides valuable information about the characteristics of the storm conditions and on their dynamics in the Black Sea. Moreover, this marine environment is currently subjected to high navigation traffic and to offshore operations and the strong storms that systematically occur may produce

  10. Monitoring the Dead Sea Region by Multi-Parameter Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Asch, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk. A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region. The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.

  11. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from ERNST KRENKEL, MUSSON and other platforms in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea from 1978-02-11 to 1979-12-20 (NCEI Accession 9000266)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Station data in this accession was collected in Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea as part of the International Council for the Exploration of Seas (ICES)...

  12. A lithosphere-scale structural model of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Klitzke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Barents Sea and Kara Sea region as part of the European Arctic shelf, is geologically situated between the Proterozoic East-European Craton in the south and early Cenozoic passive margins in the north and the west. Proven and inferred hydrocarbon resources encouraged numerous industrial and academic studies in the last decades which brought along a wide spectrum of geological and geophysical data. By evaluating all available interpreted seismic refraction and reflection data, geological maps and previously published 3-D-models, we were able to develop a new lithosphere-scale 3-D-structural model for the greater Barents Sea and Kara Sea region. The sedimentary part of the model resolves four major megasequence boundaries (earliest Eocene, mid-Cretaceous, mid-Jurassic and mid-Permian. Downwards, the 3-D-structural model is complemented by the top crystalline crust, the Moho and a newly calculated lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB. The thickness distribution of the main megasequences delineates five major subdomains differentiating the region (the northern Kara Sea, the southern Kara Sea, the eastern Barents Sea, the western Barents Sea and the oceanic domain comprising the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Eurasia Basin. The vertical resolution of five sedimentary megasequences allows comparing for the first time the subsidence history of these domains directly. Relating the sedimentary structures with the deeper crustal/lithospheric configuration sheds some light on possible causative basin forming mechanisms that we discuss. The newly calculated LAB deepens from the typically shallow oceanic domain in three major steps beneath the Barents and Kara shelves towards the West-Siberian Basin in the east. Thereby, we relate the shallow continental LAB and slow/hot mantle beneath the southwestern Barents Sea with the formation of deep Paleozoic/Mesozoic rift basins. Thinnest continental lithosphere is observed beneath Svalbard and the NW

  13. BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area

  14. DNA and lipid molecular stratigraphic records of haptophyte succession in the Black Sea during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Saenz, James P.; Giosan, Liviu; Trowbridge, Nan Y.; Dimitrov, Petko; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2009-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that the coccolithophorid haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi entered the Black Sea ~ 3400 yrs ago and since then a coccolith ooze defined as Unit I has developed. Unit I sediments contain long-chain alkenones derived from E. huxleyi whereas the alkenone distribution of the deeper coccolith-free sapropel (Unit II) is rather unusual. Alkenone-derived past sea surface temperature (SST) estimates suggest a large difference between Unit II and Unit I, which is likely a result of unusual biological precursors of the alkenones in Unit II. Here, we report a high-resolution stratigraphic analysis of ancient haptophyte DNA to establish the Holocene succession of haptophytes as sources of the alkenones in the Black Sea. Haptophytes related to brackish Isochrysis spp. were the initial sources of alkenones, and appeared immediately after the onset of sapropel deposition (~ 7550 yrs before present [a BP]). As salinity increased, Isochrysis-related haptophytes were slowly replaced by a complex suite of E. huxleyi strains as sources of alkenones. Our paleogenetic data showed that E. huxleyi colonized the Black Sea shortly after the onset of sapropel deposition, ~ 4000 yrs earlier than previously recognized based on their preserved coccoliths. E. huxleyi strains were the most likely source of the previously reported abundant and unusual C 36 di-unsaturated "Black Sea alkenone". Strong haptophyte species and strain-specific effects were observed on the level of unsaturation of alkenones which resulted in spurious alkenone-derived SST estimates before 5250 a BP. In contrast, from ~ 5250 a BP onwards a relatively stable haptophyte assemblage dominated by a different suite of E. huxleyi strains yielded robust alkenone-SST values and indicated a gradual cooling from 19 °C to ~ 15 °C at the top of the record (~ 450 a BP).

  15. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to Recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Palcu, Dan; Dekkers, Mark; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    In 1975, during DSDP Leg 42B to the Black Sea, three sites were drilled with a total of 2318 m cored and a recovery of 55%. While to modern scientific standards this may not be very impressive, these sites still represent the longest available records of sedimentation in the basinal part of the Black Sea. The main stratigraphic objectives of DSDP Leg 42B were to 1) obtain a complete Pleistocene litho- and biostratigraphic section and 2) study interactions between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, focusing on glacio-eustatic sea level change, periods of lacustrine sedimentation, periods of anoxia, and 3) to establish a paleoclimatic record. Major problems establishing a timescale emerged after drilling due to a) the general shortage of definitive paleontological age markers and b) the general lack of agreement on correlation and time zonation of sedimentary units. Magnetostratigraphic dating could have solved these timescale problems but was hindered by the presence of the little understood authigenic iron sulphide mineral greigite (Fe3S4) as main magnetic carrier. In recent years, the understanding of greigite has significantly improved and is considered a reliable magnetic carrier. Especially in the circum-Black Sea region, many Miocene to recent, land-based sections are magnetostratigraphically dated with greigite as magnetic carrier. We therefore resampled the cores of DSDP Leg 42B to see whether after 40 years of storage any of the original signal is preserved. Our results show these cores are still surprisingly useful for magnetostratigraphic dating. Complications arise due to the presence of hiatuses, especially in the near-Bosporus locations. Our age model gives important new insights into the response of the Black Sea to major paleoenvironmental and climatic changes related to the late Miocene Messinian salinity crisis and throughout the Pleistocene. More generally, our results show that for future deep-sea drilling expeditions to the Black Sea, the

  16. An analysis of interrelation between environment and socio-economic structure with special reference to water pollution in the Turkish Black Sea Basin : an integrated dynamic simulation modeling approach for water quality improvement policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ulger, Suleyman

    2004-01-01

    The Black Sea is recognized as one of regional seas, mostly damaged by human activities that inadequate and inappropriate planning has a significant role is destroying its biodiversity,habitats,fisheries,aesthetic and recreational value.Since long period,the Black Sea has been used for many purposes ranging from socioeconomic activities,as a transport route,and a place to dump solid/liquid waste.All of these uses have additional economic costs through their impacts on the environment.Largely ...

  17. Water resources of the Black Sea Basin at high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Srinivasan, Raghvan; Bacu, Victor; Lehmann, Anthony

    2014-07-01

    The pressure on water resources, deteriorating water quality, and uncertainties associated with the climate change create an environment of conflict in large and complex river system. The Black Sea Basin (BSB), in particular, suffers from ecological unsustainability and inadequate resource management leading to severe environmental, social, and economical problems. To better tackle the future challenges, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of the BSB coupling water quantity, water quality, and crop yield components. The hydrological model of the BSB was calibrated and validated considering sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. River discharges, nitrate loads, and crop yields were used to calibrate the model. Employing grid technology improved calibration computation time by more than an order of magnitude. We calculated components of water resources such as river discharge, infiltration, aquifer recharge, soil moisture, and actual and potential evapotranspiration. Furthermore, available water resources were calculated at subbasin spatial and monthly temporal levels. Within this framework, a comprehensive database of the BSB was created to fill the existing gaps in water resources data in the region. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of building a large-scale model in fine spatial and temporal detail. This study provides the basis for further research on the impacts of climate and land use change on water resources in the BSB.

  18. Modelling Sea Ice and Surface Wave Interactions in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosekova, L.; Aksenov, Y.; Coward, A.; Williams, T.; Bertino, L.; Nurser, A. J. G.

    2015-12-01

    seasonal variability. The study is part of the EU FP7 project 'Ships and Waves Reaching Polar Regions (SWARP)', aimed at developing techniques for sea ice and waves modelling and forecasting in the MIZ in the Arctic.

  19. Investigation Of The Hydro-Meteorological Hazards Along The Bulgarian Coast Of The Black Sea By Reconstructions Of Historical Storms

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko; Bogatchev, Andrey; Tsenova, Boryana

    2015-01-01

    Information about the hydro-meteorological parameters during the extreme sea storms is of significant importance for the sustainable development in the context of flood risk for the coastal areas. Usually there is a lack of sufficiently long history of instrumental measurements of the extreme winds, waves and storm surges. Simulation of historical storms is an important tool to evaluate the potential coastal hazards. In the absence of measured data hindcasts can satisfy the need for historical data. The wave and storm-surge regional numerical simulations have been carried out for the ten most severe storms over the Bulgarian coast of the Black Sea from the period 1972-2012. The ERA-Interim and ERA-40 reanalysis of wind at 10 m and mean sea level pressure have been downscaled with a high resolution atmospheric model ALADIN to the horizontal and time scales suitable for precise evaluation of hydro-meteorological parameters during the storms. The downscaled fields of wind and sea level pressure have been used as...

  20. Regional ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J.W.

    2015-05-18

    The Red Sea is a semi-enclosed tropical marine ecosystem that stretches from the Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba in the north, to the Gulf of Aden in the south. Despite its ecological and economic importance, its biological environment is relatively unexplored. Satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration (an index of phytoplankton biomass) offer an observational platform to monitor the health of the Red Sea. However, little is known about the optical properties of the region. In this paper, we investigate the optical properties of the Red Sea in the context of satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration. Making use of a new merged ocean-colour product, from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative, and in situ data in the region, we test the performance of a series of ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms. We find that standard algorithms systematically overestimate chlorophyll when compared with the in situ data. To investigate this bias we develop an ocean-colour model for the Red Sea, parameterised to data collected during the Tara Oceans expedition, that estimates remote-sensing reflectance as a function of chlorophyll concentration. We used the Red Sea model to tune the standard chlorophyll algorithms and the overestimation in chlorophyll originally observed was corrected. Results suggest that the overestimation was likely due to an excess of CDOM absorption per unit chlorophyll in the Red Sea when compared with average global conditions. However, we recognise that additional information is required to test the influence of other potential sources of the overestimation, such as aeolian dust, and we discuss uncertainties in the datasets used. We present a series of regional chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea, designed for a suite of ocean-colour sensors, that may be used for further testing.

  1. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  2. AoA Region: Red Sea And Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Programme (SAP) for the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, executed by PERSGA with support from the Global Environment Facility (GEF), was one of the most ambitious programmes undertaken in the region. The SAP was largely executed through a diverse set...

  3. Black sea annual and inter-annual water mass variations from space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Simav, M.;

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of two widely used GRACE solutions (CNES/GRGS RL02 and CSR RL04) in deriving annual and inter-annual water mass variations in the Black Sea for the period 2003–2007. It is demonstrated that the GRACE derived water mass variations in the Black Sea are heavily...... influenced by the leakage of hydrological signals from the surrounding land. After applying the corresponding correction, we found a good agreement with water mass variations derived from steric-corrected satellite altimetry observations. Both GRACE and altimetry show significant annual water mass variations...... of roughly 7 cm amplitude peaking in May and a semi-annual signal of roughly 3 cm peaking in June and in December. The amplitude of the annual water mass signal varies significantly from year to year and is significantly larger during 2004–2006 than in 2003 and 2007. This is also in agreement with...

  4. The Fight Against Emissaries across the Black Sea Coastline Area (1834–1847 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Karataev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article on the basis of archival sources examines the work of foreign emissaries on the Black Sea coastline in 1834-1847 years. The significant part of sources is introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The importance is given to the activities of foreign agents, their life among the hillmen, and methods of fighting of the Russian administration with foreign agents. The author comes to the conclusion that in the period of 1834-1847 years, on the Black Sea coastline the emissaries were carried out the diverse activities aimed against the Russian Empire. This activity was shown at the instigation of the hillmen for the war against Russia, the spread of false information, work as instructors, as well as to the personal involvement of emissaries in fighting.

  5. Ukraine’s trade and economic priorities in the Black sea economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Goncharuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of trade and economic priorities of Ukraine’s integration into the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC. The country’s integration options have been analyzed including the Western European vs. pro-Russian integration vector, the bidirectional gravity model, and an alte — native subregional cooperation direction. Ukraine’s sectoral priorities for deepening economic cooperation with the BSEC member countries in the context of implementation of the national interests have been identified, in particular in the field of goods, transport and tourism services, and energy trading. The ways of and instruments for improving Ukraine’s trade activities within the framework of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation have been offered for the various working groups of the Organization that are focused on such areas of cooperation as macroeconomics, policy and law, finance and economics, science and technology, culture and society, infrastructure, and institutional renewal.

  6. Numerical studies on the dynamics of the Northwestern Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. KOURAFALOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northwestern Black Sea shelf dynamics are studied with numerical simulations based on the Princeton Ocean Model. The study focus is on buoyancy and wind driven flows and on the transport and fate of low salinity waters that are introduced through riverine sources (the Danube, Dnestr and Dnepr Rivers, under the seasonal changes in atmospheric forcing. The study is part of the DANUBS project (NUtrient management in the DAnube basin and its impact on the Black Sea. The numerical simulations show that the coastal circulation is greatly influenced by river runoff and especially that of the Danube, which is dominant with monthly averaged values ranging from 5,000 m3 to 10,000 m3. The transport of low-salinity waters associated with the Danube runoff is greatly influenced by wind stress, topographic effects and basin-scale circulation patterns, such as changes in the position of the Rim Current.

  7. Terrigenous organic matter input to the Black Sea originating from different hinterland regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, S.; Rethemeyer, J.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Black Sea as the world's largest anoxic basin has been shown to be a significant sink of terrigenous and phytoplankton derived organic material. The north-western part is dominated by a large shelf area, while in the SW and E Black Sea, steep slopes plunge into the anoxic zone at short distances to the shore. Major rivers draining into the Black Sea include the Danube River, the Dniester River, the Kuban and the Don River. These rivers and their tributaries transport huge amounts of suspended load to the Black Sea, eroded from mountain ranges including the Alps, the Carpathian Mountains and the Caucasus Mountains. However, the size, climate and ecology of the respective drainage areas and the near-shore topography differ substantially between the rivers. We show geochemical proxy data, bulk radiocarbon (14C) ages and compound-specific 14C ages of terrigenous biomarkers from core-top samples collected along three sample transects in front of the Danube and the Dniester river mouths in the NW Black Sea off Rumania and Ukraine, draining the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, and just south of the Strait of Kerch, connecting the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov (drainage of the Caucasus Mountains). Two further core locations are situated in front of the Çoruh and Acharistsgali river mouths in the SE Black Sea off Georgia (Eastern Pontic Mountains) and north of the Gülüç and Çatalağci river mouths in the SW Black Sea off Turkey (Western Pontic Mountains), respectively. The samples range from the oxygenated surface waters to the anoxic deep basin and form transects along specific transport pathways. The Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether index (BIT) is used to trace the terrigenous organic matter in marine sediments, and it is thought to represent mainly soil-derived materials. BIT-values show the expected pattern of high terrigenous input in front of the river mouths and decreasing values further offshore along the sampled transport trajectories. Proxies

  8. Towards a system for sea state forecasts in the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone: the case of the storm of 07-08 february 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Galabov, Vasko; Kortcheva, Anna; Dimitrova, Marieta

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the existing operational sea state forecast system of NIMH- BAS for sea state in the Black Sea and our current progress on the implementation of an additional component for the forecasts of wind waves in the Bulgarian coastal zone. Wind Waves and especially the extreme ones, occurring during severe storms are a major hazard for the coastal zone, causing significant damages to the infrastructure, threat for the human lives and also causing significant damages to the protect...

  9. Mapping cold seeps with high-resolution deep water multibeam echosounders in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintersteller, P.; dos Santos Ferreira, C.; Klaucke, I.; Ivanov, M.; Sahling, H.; Bohrmann, G.

    2011-12-01

    Cold seeps are locations at the seafloor where gas and/or fluids are emitting. In contrast to mud volcanoes, which distinctly change the seafloor morphology, cold seeps often lack significant relief. However, in comparison with surrounding sediments seep locations on the sea floor are often characterized by high acoustic backscatter intensity. This was documented during several investigations with deep towed side-scan sonar (SSS) systems in recent years. Authigenic carbonates, free gas and gas hydrates, as evidenced by ground truthing, are responsible for the high backscatter values. Last year's upgrade of the 1°x2° KONGSBERG deep water echosounder EM120 to EM122 on RV Meteor enhanced the system to almost 4 times the previous resolution due to multi-ping and high density signal processing. Based on the physics of sound propagation in the water column, multibeam echosounders (MBES) for deep water use relatively low frequencies of about 12-15 kHz. Apparently highly water-saturated sediments are penetrated by these signals and can cause artificial offsets in bottom detection in comparison to high-frequency echosounders. Nevertheless the effect of the slightly penetrating signal has a useful side effect on the backscatter. Investigations on several seep sites in the Black Sea, carried out with both EM122 and EM710 during Meteror cruise M84-2, resulted in maps of remarkable bathymetric resolution but also showed multibeam backscatter information of a 12 kHz signal to be an excellent tool to map seep-influenced seafloor areas. New seep locations have been mapped in regions of the western Turkish continental margin close to Eregli and of the eastern Turkish margin off Samsun. In both areas high backscatter patches were mapped with nearly comparable resolution as achieved by deep-tow SSS systems. At Eregli the new data is compared with data from a deep-towed EdgeTech SSS system recorded with a frequency of 75 kHz. At Samsun the results are compared with data from a MAK-1

  10. Greigite-based magnetostratigraphic framework for the Late Miocene to recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea: A new time frame for old cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baak, C. V.; Vasiliev, I.; Grothe, A.; Kuiper, K.; Raffi, I.; Krijgsman, W.

    2014-12-01

    In 1975, DSDP Leg 42B to the Black Sea, three sites were drilled with a total of 2318 m cored and a recovery of 55%. While to modern standards this may not be very impressive, these sites still represent the best record of sedimentation in the basinal part of the Black Sea. The main stratigraphic objectives of DSDP Leg 42B were to 1) obtain a complete Pleistocene litho- and biostratigraphic section and 2) study interactions between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, focusing on glacio-eustatic sea level change, periods of lacustrine sedimentation, periods of stagnation, and to establish a paleoclimatic record. Major problems establishing a timescale emerged after drilling due to a) the general shortage of definitive paleontological age markers and b) the general lack of agreement on correlation and time zonation of sedimentary units. Magnetostratigraphic dating could have solved these timescale problems but was hindered by the presence of the little understood authigenic iron sulphide mineral greigite (Fe3S4) as main magnetic carrier. In recent years, the understanding of greigite has significantly improved and is considered a reliable magnetic carrier. Especially in the circum-Black Sea region, many Miocene to recent, land-based sections are magnetostratigraphically dated with greigite as magnetic carrier. We therefore resample the cores of DSDP Leg 42B to see whether after 40 years of storage any of the original signal is preserved. Our results show these cores are surprisingly useful for magnetostratigraphic dating. We create an integrated bio-magnetostratigraphic framework for the sites of Leg 42B, focusing on the Latest Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene. Ar/Ar dating of an ash-layer at site 380A gives additional age constraints. Our age model gives important new insights into the response of the Black Sea to major paleoenvironmental and climatic changes like e.g. the Messinian salinity crisis, the mid-Pliocene warm period and Pleistocene glaciations on the

  11. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  12. Heavy Minerals Discharged in the Black Sea Basin by the Danube Branches

    OpenAIRE

    FULGA, Constantina

    2004-01-01

    The terrigenous minerals discharged in the Black Sea basin by the Danube were investigated into the sediment of Tulcea, Sulina and Sf.Gheorghe branches. The discriminative studies of the fine sands in the superficial bottom sediments and in the saltation bed-load indicate that the velocity of the sediment movement is different on the branches. The transportation and sedimentation of the terrigenous material respect the general rule of sedimentology in branches, and meanders. However, the cut-...

  13. Red Tide Observations along the Eastern Black Sea Coast of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    FEYZİOĞLU, Ali Muzaffer; ÖĞÜT, Hamdi

    2006-01-01

    To determine the occurrence of dominant phytoplanktonic species causing red tides along the eastern Black Sea (Trabzon) coast of Turkey, multiple samples were collected periodically between 1991 and 2001. Red tide events were observed only during the periods between February and July. Six phytoplanktonic species causing 5 red tide events detected were Diplopsalis lenticula, Euglena acusformis, Eutreptia lanowii, Pyramimonas orientalis, Scrippsiella trochoidea, and Gymnodinium sanguineum. Nume...

  14. Numerical modeling of the central Black Sea ecosystem functioning during the eutrophication phase

    OpenAIRE

    Grégoire, M.; Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the central Black Sea at the end of the 1980s when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and dynamics of the system. The physical model is the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and the biogeochemical model describes the foodweb, from bacteria to gelatinous carnivores through 24 state variables including three groups of phytoplankton: diatom...

  15. THE PHENOTYPIC STRUCTURE OF A MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS LMK POPULATION FROM THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA SHORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona Novac

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available : Among the specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. from the Black Sea, function of the color of the ostracum (brown, dark blue or brown with blue stripes, one can differentiate several forms. These colors are genetically determined (Stolbova, Pirkova, Ladyghina, 1996; Scherban, 2000; Shurova, 2001. The present paper analyzes the situation of these phenotypic groups, using specimens sampled at different depths in the area of Agigea dike.

  16. A model for early diagenetic processes in sediments of the continental shelf of the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; P. M. J. Herman; Middelburg, J. J.; K. Soetaert

    2001-01-01

    A numerical model for early diagenetic processes in the sediments of the north-western continental shelf of the Black Sea is presented. The north-western shelf area is influenced by nutrient, organic matter and reactive iron inputs from major rivers such as the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester. Low oxygen concentrations in the bottom water and high carbon deposition rates have resulted in a dominance of anoxic mineralization processes including manganese, iron and sulphate reduction. The model in...

  17. The Analysis Regarding the Building of a Hydraulic Power Plant on the Black Sea Shore

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Samoilescu; Sergiu Nicolae; Florentiu Deliu; Raluca Apostol – Mateş

    2013-01-01

    The present paper represents the result of a research project regarding the construction of a wave driven hydraulic plant that is going to be installed on the Black Sea shore in the area of the city of Constanta. Several phases were analyzed: numerical simulations for the micro plant – wave energy theory; finite element simulation – results and conclusions; generating the blueprint for the construction of the plant.

  18. The Analysis Regarding the Building of a Hydraulic Power Plant on the Black Sea Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Samoilescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents the result of a research project regarding the construction of a wave driven hydraulic plant that is going to be installed on the Black Sea shore in the area of the city of Constanta. Several phases were analyzed: numerical simulations for the micro plant – wave energy theory; finite element simulation – results and conclusions; generating the blueprint for the construction of the plant.

  19. Investigating Potential Strategies for Increasing Tourism Competiveness at the Black Sea Shore

    OpenAIRE

    Adina-Roxana Munteanu; Raluca-Daniela Rizea; Anca Gabriela Ilie; Roxana Sârbu

    2014-01-01

    During 2009-2011 the tourism industry at the Black Sea shore experienced a significant downturn as a direct result of the global economic crisis and a shy growth in 2012-2013 period. In this context of difficult macroeconomic conditions and a hardly predictable number of tourists, the suppliers of tourism services need a constant revision of strategy in order to increase their competitiveness and adapt to external market conditions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the compe...

  20. Concretionary methane-seep carbonates and associated microbial communities in Black Sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Reitner, J.; Peckmann, J.; M. Blumenberg; W. Michaelis; Reimer, A; V. Thiel

    2005-01-01

    Gas seeps in the euxinic northwestern Black Sea provide an excellent opportunity to study anaerobic, methane-based ecosystems with minimum interference from oxygen-dependent processes. An integrated approach using fluorescence- and electron microscopy, fluorescence in situ hybridization, lipid biomarkers, stable isotopes (δ13C), and petrography revealed insight into the anatomy of concretionary methane-derived carbonates currently forming within the sediment around seeps. Some of the carbonat...

  1. Azov Cossack Host on the Territory of the Black Sea Coastline

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir B. Karataev; Igor А. Gordeev; Lyudmila G. Zimovets

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the history of using teams of Azov Cossack troops on the territory of the Black sea coastline. Among the materials are the archive documents, extracted from the archival department of Sochi administration (Sochi city, Russian Federation), the state archive of the Krasnodar Krai (Krasnodar city, Russian Federation), as well as the modern and pre-revolutionary studies on the history of the Caucasian war and Cossack troops. The study used the historical-situational method, ...

  2. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Shapiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of temperature as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the temperature anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May–November due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May–November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980–2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was

  3. The Black Sea Wave Energy: The Present State and the Twentieth century Changes

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of the present state of the Black Sea wave energy. The studies of other authors are based on the use of input data from atmospheric reanalysis or a downscaling of such reanalysis. Instead of reanalysis data, we use input data from the operational limited area numerical weather prediction model ALADIN. We showed that the estimations of the Black Sea wave energy based on reanalyses deviate significantly from the real potential. We showed also that the highest values of the mean annual wave power flux is between 4.5 and 5.0 kW/m2 and the near shore areas with the highest wave energy potential are the southernmost Bulgarian coast and the coast of Turkey north of Istanbul. While we showed that the wind data from the reanalysis are not useful for the estimation of the actual wave energy potential, we claimed that the reanalysis data is useful to study the long term changes of the wave energy of the Black Sea. We used the 10m winds from the recent ERA-20C reanalysis, which covers the...

  4. Estimation of phytoplankton biomass using HPLC pigment analysis in the southwestern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, D.; Soydemir, N.; Kideys, A. E.

    2006-08-01

    The phytoplankton population of the southwestern Black Sea in May 2001 was studied by taxonomic analysis using microscopic examination and by pigment analyses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pigment data, which identified phytoplankton assemblages dominated by dinoflagellates, diatoms and coccolithophores in May 2001, were compared to phytoplankton cell counts and biomass. There were significant ( pcell numbers during this sampling period. The ratios of chlorophyll- a to the dominant accessory pigments calculated by multiple linear regressions were 1.2 (chlorophyll- a: peridinin) in dinoflagellates, 1.8 (chlorophyll- a: fucoxanthin) in diatoms, and 2.66 (chlorophyll- a: 19'-hexonoyloxyfucoxanthin) in coccolithophores. HPLC-determined chlorophyll- a biomass correlated well with the sum of the group-specific pigment biomass ( p<0.001, r2=0.95). The phytoplankton assemblage as revealed by the microscopic and HPLC analyses was thus made up of common Black Sea groups showing that HPLC pigment analysis can be used to quantify phytoplankton assemblages in the Black Sea based on simple ratios.

  5. Temperature profile in apricot tree canopies under the soil and climate conditions of the Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Chitu, Emil

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the temperature profiles determined by thermal imagery in apricot tree canopies under the semi-arid conditions of the Black Sea Coast in a chernozem of Dobrogea Region, Romania. The study analyzes the thermal vertical profile of apricot orchards for three representative cultivars during summertime. Measurements were done when the soil water content (SWC) was at field capacity (FC) within the rooting depth, after intense sprinkler irrigation applications. Canopy temperature was measured during clear sky days at three heights for both sides of the apricot trees, sunlit (south), and shaded (north). For the SWC studied, i.e., FC, canopy height did not induce a significant difference between the temperature of apricot tree leaves (Tc) and the ambient air temperature (Ta) within the entire vertical tree profile, and temperature measurements by thermal imagery can therefore be taken at any height on the tree crown leaves. Differences between sunlit and shaded sides of the canopy were significant. Because of these differences for Tc-Ta among the apricot tree cultivars studied, lower base lines (LBLs) should be determined for each cultivar separately. The use of thermal imagery technique under the conditions of semi-arid coastal areas with low range of vapor pressure deficit could be useful in irrigation scheduling of apricot trees. The paper discusses the implications of the data obtained in the experiment under the conditions of the coastal area of the Black Sea, Romania, and neighboring countries with similar climate, such as Bulgaria and Turkey.

  6. Radionuclide impact on sediments and algae from Black sea marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide metals are the major part of anthropogenic fallout pollutants in the Black Sea marine ecosystems. The complex analysis of pollutant concentrations is a major concern for modern ecology in obtaining reliable information about the type and quantities of substances entering the marine environment. Marine macroalgae are important factor for nuclides accumulation in marine ecosystems. The ecological conditions at the Black Sea littoral zone vary depending on the location and depth. The seasonal change in macrophytic species is determined by the season, temperature and light regime. Some algae species are adaptive to contamination but some species react quickly to the environmental changes especially to the chemical contaminants. This paper deals with the problem of transboundary pollution in the Black Sea and the most significant pollution problem has been identified as the eutrophication phenomenon. Oxygen deficiency (hypoxia or anoxia) and mass mortality caused by eutrophication have become a permanent feature in the north-western shelf area where anoxic zones have expanded from covering 3500 km2 in 1973 to 40,000 km2 in 1990. The data for technogenic (mainly 137Cs) and natural radionuclides were determined in the sediment samples collected along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The measured levels correspond to those cited in the literature for background levels, showing no additional anthropogenic contamination. In sand and sandy sediments Cs content does not change greatly while the process of 137Cs accumulation is observed in slime and silt sediments. The data show that the 238U and 226Ra values are close at most of the locations. 226Ra /238U activity ratio (mean value) for sand and sandy sediments is in the range 0.55 - 0.85, meaning 226Ra deficit while the values for 226Ra /238U ratios in slime and silt sediments are close to the equilibrium. The obtained data show that radionuclide concentrations strongly depend on the sediment nature. Results for

  7. Terrigenous organic matter input to the Black Sea originating from different hinterland regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, S.; Rethemeyer, J.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Black Sea as the world's largest anoxic basin has been shown to be a significant sink of terrigenous and phytoplankton derived organic material. The north-western part is dominated by a large shelf area, while in the SW and E Black Sea, steep slopes plunge into the anoxic zone at short distances to the shore. Major rivers draining into the Black Sea include the Danube River, the Dniester River, the Kuban and the Don River. These rivers and their tributaries transport huge amounts of suspended load to the Black Sea, eroded from mountain ranges including the Alps, the Carpathian Mountains and the Caucasus Mountains. However, the size, climate and ecology of the respective drainage areas and the near-shore topography differ substantially between the rivers. We show geochemical proxy data, bulk radiocarbon (14C) ages and compound-specific 14C ages of terrigenous biomarkers from core-top samples collected along three sample transects in front of the Danube and the Dniester river mouths in the NW Black Sea off Rumania and Ukraine, draining the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, and just south of the Strait of Kerch, connecting the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov (drainage of the Caucasus Mountains). Two further core locations are situated in front of the Çoruh and Acharistsgali river mouths in the SE Black Sea off Georgia (Eastern Pontic Mountains) and north of the Gülüç and Çatalağci river mouths in the SW Black Sea off Turkey (Western Pontic Mountains), respectively. The samples range from the oxygenated surface waters to the anoxic deep basin and form transects along specific transport pathways. The Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether index (BIT) is used to trace the terrigenous organic matter in marine sediments, and it is thought to represent mainly soil-derived materials. BIT-values show the expected pattern of high terrigenous input in front of the river mouths and decreasing values further offshore along the sampled transport trajectories. Proxies

  8. Black shale deposition during Toarcian super-greenhouse driven by sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hermoso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most elusive aspects of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE is the paradox between carbon isotopes that indicate intense global primary productivity and organic carbon burial at a global scale, and the delayed expression of anoxia in Europe. During the earliest Toarcian, no black shales were deposited in the European epicontinental seaways, and most organic carbon enrichment of the sediments postdated the T-OAE (defined by the overarching positive trend in the carbon isotopes. In the present studied, we have attempted to establish a sequence stratigraphy framework for Early Toarcian deposits recovered from a core drilled in the Paris Basin using a combination of mineralogical (quartz and clay relative abundance and geochemical (Si, Zr, Ti and Al measurements. Combined with the evolution in redox sensitive elements (Fe, V and Mo, the data suggest that expression of anoxia was hampered in European epicontinental seas during most of the T-OAE due to insufficient water depth that prevented stratification of the water column. Only the first stratigraphic occurrence of black shales in Europe corresponds to the "global" event. This interval is characterised by > 10% Total Organic Carbon (TOC content that contains relatively low concentration of molybdenum compared to subsequent black shale horizons. Additionally, this first black shale occurrence is coeval with the record of the major negative Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE, likely corresponding to a period of transient greenhouse intensification likely due to massive injection of carbon into the Atmosphere–Ocean system. As a response to enhanced weathering and riverine run-off, increased fresh water supply to the basin may have promoted the development of full anoxic conditions through haline stratification of the water column. In contrast, post T-OAE black shales were restricted to epicontinental seas (higher Mo to TOC ratios during a period of relative high sea level, and carbon

  9. History of expansion and anthropogenic collapse in a top marine predator of the Black Sea estimated from genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, Michaël C; Snirc, Alodie; Frantzis, Alexandros; Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Oztürk, Bayram; Oztürk, Ayaka A; Austerlitz, Fréderic

    2012-01-01

    Two major ecological transitions marked the history of the Black Sea after the last Ice Age. The first was the postglacial transition from a brackish-water to a marine ecosystem dominated by porpoises and dolphins once this basin was reconnected back to the Mediterranean Sea (ca. 8,000 y B.P.). The

  10. Holocene Sea-Level Database For The Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. S.; Horton, B.; Engelhart, S. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.; Vane, C. H.; Liu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) records from far-field locations are important for understanding the driving mechanisms controlling the nature and timing of the mid-late Holocene reduction in global meltwaters and providing background rates of late Holocene RSL change with which to compare the magnitude of 20th century RSL rise. The Caribbean region has traditionally been considered far-field (i.e., with negligible glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) influence), although recent investigations indicate otherwise. Here, we consider the spatial variability in glacio-isostatic, tectonic and local contributions on RSL records from the circum-Caribbean region to infer a Holocene eustatic sea-level signal. We have constructed a database of quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive, Holocene RSL observations for the circum-Caribbean region. The database contains over 500 index points, which locate the position of RSL in time and space. The database incorporates sea-level observations from a latitudinal range of 5°N to 25°N and longitudinal range of 55°W to 90°W. We include sea-level observations from 11 ka BP to present, although the majority of the index points in the database are younger than 8 ka BP. The database is sub-divided into 13 regions based on the distance from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet and regional tectonic setting. The index points were primarily derived from mangrove peat deposits, which in the Caribbean form in the upper half of the tidal range, and corals (predominantly Acropora palmata), the growth of which is constrained to the upper 5 m of water depth. The index points are classified on the basis of their susceptibility to compaction (e.g., intercalated, basal). The influence of temporal changes in tidal range on index points is also considered. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, except at sites in Suriname/Guayana and possibly Trinidad

  11. Causes and systematics of inundations of the Krasnodar territory on the Russian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeevsky, Nikolay; Magritsky, Dmitry V.; Koltermann, Klaus Peter; Krylenko, Inna; Toropov, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The inundation situations on the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar territory for the period from 1945 until 2013 were analysed and the main types of inundations at the coast are described. Synoptic factors of the formation of extreme precipitation and rainfall floods, features and regularities of the downstream flood wave transformation in the rivers are also studied. Therefore, assessments of seasonal and maximum flow of the Black Sea coast rivers for the period of hydrometric measurements were done. Regularities of change of the occurrence of inundations and their characteristics on the coastal terrain were analysed, for a year and on a perennial timescale. Most catastrophic and exceptional inundations arise in the summer and in early autumn. Small inundations during the remaining year reflect the seasonal distribution of river flow and floods in the Black Sea rivers. Extensive and sometimes extreme precipitation dominates the river flow regimes. The seasonal distribution of small and moderately dangerous inundations reflects, on average, a water regime of two groups of rivers of the coast - to the north and to the south of the Tuapse River. To the north of the Tuapse River, floods prevail from November until March (up to 70 % of observed floods took place in this period) as a result of precipitation and winter snowmelt during frequent thaw periods. In winter, high waters often overlap to form a multi-peak high water of 2-3 weeks' duration. In the summer and in early autumn we observe a steady low flow. The total amount of runoff increases both in a southeast direction, and with the altitude of the river basins. Interannual variability of mean annual runoff, as well as maximum runoff, on the contrary decreases in the southern direction and with an increasing area of the river basins. The coastal high waters of the rivers of the Sochi part of the coast are typical at any time of the year, but more often floods in the cold season result from incessant rain, and

  12. Photon Regions and Shadows of Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Grenzebach, Arne; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2015-01-01

    In an earlier paper we have analytically determined the photon regions and the shadows of black holes of the Pleba\\'nski class of metrics which are also known as the Kerr-Newman-NUT-(anti-)deSitter metrics. The space-times described by these metrics are characterized by six independent parameters: mass, spin, electric and magnetic charge, gravitomagnetic NUT charge, and the cosmological constant. Here we extend this analysis to the Pleba\\'nski-Demia\\'nski class of metrics which contains, in addition to these six parameters, the so-called acceleration parameter. All these metrics are axially symmetric and stationary solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations with a cosmological constant which are of Petrov type D. We derive analytical formulas for the photon regions (i.e., for the regions that contain spherical lightlike geodesics) and for the boundary curve of the shadow as it is seen by an observer at Boyer-Lindquist coordinates $(r_O, \\vartheta _O)$ in the domain of outer communication. Whereas all relevan...

  13. Setting priorities for regional conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Levin, Noam; Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Abdulla, Ameer; Coll, Marta; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Kark, Salit; Koutsoubas, Drosos; Mackelworth, Peter; Maiorano, Luigi; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-01-01

    Spatial prioritization in conservation is required to direct limited resources to where actions are most urgently needed and most likely to produce effective conservation outcomes. In an effort to advance the protection of a highly threatened hotspot of marine biodiversity, the Mediterranean Sea, multiple spatial conservation plans have been developed in recent years. Here, we review and integrate these different plans with the goal of identifying priority conservation areas that represent the current consensus among the different initiatives. A review of six existing and twelve proposed conservation initiatives highlights gaps in conservation and management planning, particularly within the southern and eastern regions of the Mediterranean and for offshore and deep sea habitats. The eighteen initiatives vary substantially in their extent (covering 0.1-58.5% of the Mediterranean Sea) and in the location of additional proposed conservation and management areas. Differences in the criteria, approaches and data used explain such variation. Despite the diversity among proposals, our analyses identified ten areas, encompassing 10% of the Mediterranean Sea, that are consistently identified among the existing proposals, with an additional 10% selected by at least five proposals. These areas represent top priorities for immediate conservation action. Despite the plethora of initiatives, major challenges face Mediterranean biodiversity and conservation. These include the need for spatial prioritization within a comprehensive framework for regional conservation planning, the acquisition of additional information from data-poor areas, species or habitats, and addressing the challenges of establishing transboundary governance and collaboration in socially, culturally and politically complex conditions. Collective prioritised action, not new conservation plans, is needed for the north, western, and high seas of the Mediterranean, while developing initial information-based plans

  14. Nitrogen Cycling in the Black Sea on Glacial-Interglacial Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, T. M.; Wright, J. D.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    On geological time scales, the nitrogen cycle consists of three main processes: nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification/anammox, all of which are affected by the amount of oxygen present in the water column. The balance between nitrogen fixation and denitrification/anammox controls the pool of fixed inorganic nitrogen, and can be traced using nitrogen isotopes. We have previously proposed a conceptual model that relates sedimentary δ15N to deep water oxygen concentrations using a simple, non-linear curve. Provided that the sediment record is well-preserved, the nitrogen isotopic profile at a given location reflects history of the relative contributions of nitrogen fixation to denitrifiation and thus the past redox environment. Our goal was to test this model using deep sea sediments from the Black Sea, which alternates from an anoxic, stratified, marine water body during interglacial periods to a less saline, oxygenated lake during glacial events. We find that the measured δ15N profile in general corresponds to the changes in redox state as determined by trace metal concentrations and micropaleontology. Higher δ15N values occur during suboxic transitional periods, with lower δ15N values appearing under anoxic and oxic conditions, supporting our hypothesis that the nitrogen cycle is regulated by oxygen concentration. We also identify some intervals where the correlation between redox proxies appears to fail. While the lack of ancillary data from the paleo-Black Sea makes interpretation difficult, we believe analysis of these intervals may provide more information about Black Sea paleoenvironmental and paleoredox conditions.

  15. Organic Carbon Geochemistry in the North-western Black Sea Danube River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimov, E. M.; Kodina, L. A.; Zhiltsova, L. I.; Tokarev, V. G.; Vlasova, L. N.; Bogacheva, M. P.; Korobeinik, G. S.; Vaisman, T. I.

    2002-03-01

    The isotopic and chemical composition of organic matter from sediments collected on the north-western shelf of the Black Sea and the Danube River are discussed. The δ 13C distribution pattern in organic carbon from surface sediments (0-1 cm) of the western part of the Black Sea has been established. It reveals a rather complicated picture, reflecting the superposition of several factors: local marine primary productivity, terrestrial input to the Danube River discharge and possible contribution from anaerobic microbial activity. The analysis of organic carbon by a pyrolysis-chromatography technique showed that the H/O indices of organic matter from marine sediments are in correlation with δ 13C values. This is an indication of the mixed origin of the organic carbon in the littoral sediments. However, samples from the zone where H 2S conditions prevail deviate from the correlation line of δ 13C vs H/O indices. We believe that this is due to the contribution of the biomass of chemosynthetic bacteria in the sediments. Thus, we argue that in the Danube-Black Sea system several consecutive zones are distinguished. River discharge delivers organic carbon with δ 13C values from -28 to -26 (PSU is used). Mixing of the land-derived material with autochtonous marine primary production gives δ 13C values of about -26 to -23 for the organic carbon in coastal sediments. On the shelf area, beyond significant influence of both terrestrial and sulphide regime factors, plankton material dominates as a source of organic carbon in sediments. In the hydrogen sulphide zone, chemosynthetic bacteria produce additional amounts of organic matter with hydrogen to oxygen indices similar to those of plankton, but with different isotopic composition, which results in the appearance of relatively isotopically light organic carbon in the deep-sea sediments.

  16. Integrating sediment biogeochemistry into 3D oceanic models: A study of benthic-pelagic coupling in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, Arthur; Meysman, Filip J. R.; Akoumianaki, Ioanna; Soetaert, Karline; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) ecosystem models of shelf environments should properly account for the biogeochemical cycling within the sea floor. However, a full and explicit representation of sediment biogeochemistry into 3D ocean models is computationally demanding. Here, we describe a simplified approach to include benthic processes in 3D ocean models, which includes a parameterization of the different pathways for organic matter mineralization and allows for organic matter remobilization by bottom currents and waves. This efficient approach enables decadal simulations that resolve the inertial contribution of the sea floor to the biogeochemical cycling in shelf environments. The model was implemented to analyze the benthic-pelagic coupling in the northwestern shelf of the Black Sea. Three distinct biogeochemical provinces were identified on the basis of fluxes and rates associated with benthic-pelagic coupling. Our model simulations suitably capture the seasonal variability of in situ flux data as well as their regional variation, which stresses the importance of incorporating temporally varying sediment biogeochemistry and resuspension/redeposition cycles in shelf ecosystem models.

  17. High-Resolution Numerical Model for Predicting the Transport and Dispersal of Oil Spilled in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Korotenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled DieCAST-SSBOM (Shirshov-Stony Brook Oil spill transport Model circulation-oil spill transport model is used to predict the transport and dispersal of contaminants resulting from representative hypothetical oil spills in the Black Sea. With climatological forcing, the DieCAST model realistically simulates many of the dominant mesoscale features of seasonally-varying large scale circulation and meso-scale features of the circulation including the Rim Current, anticyclonic coastal eddies, headland eddy shedding and vertical stratification. The oil spill model ingests DieCAST surface currents and employs a Lagrangian tracking algorithm to predict the motion of a large number of seeded particles, the sum of which (~1 million form the oil plume. Basic processes affecting the transport of oil and its fate (advection, sinking, evaporation, etc. are included as parameters. Various scenarios of hypothetical blowouts of oil in different regions of the sea are simulated and discussed as to their structure, transport and likelihood of coastal contamination. The ultimate objective is to develop an operational oil slick model forced with synoptic winds and air-sea interaction.

  18. Forest Resources of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast: Problems and Prospects of Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bebia

    2015-02-01

    1750 m3/ha, Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng in the same crop forms 1478 m3/ha, Liquidambar styraciflua L. 1000 m3/ha, Liriodendron tulipifera L. forms 852 m3/ha. The most productive local tree species Abies nordmanniana (Stev. Spach of 50 year age forms a tree stand with timber stock of 350 m3/ha. It is noted that the negative impact on the state of forests and forestry in the region has a significant impact on management of forest resources, as well as global climate change of the planet, and example of which is desiccation of fir forests as a result of climate warming. For efficient use of forest resources, an environmentally and socio-economically sound development strategy for the forest industry in the region must be developed.More than 70 % of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast (CBSC forests grow in mountainous conditions of the Colchis phytogeographical province and perform primary environmental functions. In these forests for a long period of time excessively intense logging has been in practice, which caused serious damage to their health. The main issues of forestry here are the introduction of effective methods of harvesting, using rational technology in logging operations, restoring native forest types at past logging sites, increasing the productivity and sustainability of forests on the bioecological biogeocenotical level, and preserving the riparian-protective role of forests. In the article, the author analyzes the results of many years of research in forests of the CBSC, that consider the question of condition of forests, peculiarity the multifunctional values and priority direction forestry in them. The author also considers the basic conformity of structure and com-position of forest stands, and presents evidence about the natural renewal of logging sites in fir and beech forests. It has been established that high intensity selective logging more than 50 % canopy cover and bringing the stand after logging 0.5 and below leads to degradation of

  19. International migration between Finland and the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    ELLI HEIKKILÄ

    2006-01-01

    Immigration from the former socialist countries into Western Europe generally increased after the fall of the Iron Curtain. This was also apparent with respect to the Nordic labour markets and Finland where the share of immigrants grew from countries around the Baltic Sea Region. The main immigrant groups come to Finland from Sweden, Russia and Estonia. Immigration from Poland, Lithuania and Latvia has not played such an important role. This paper analyses the volume and integration of immigr...

  20. Meltwater events and the Mediterranean reconnection at the Saalian-Eemian transition in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwerth, Antje; Dellwig, Olaf; Kaiser, Jérôme; Ménot, Guillemette; Bard, Edouard; Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila; Schnetger, Bernhard; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.; Wille, Martin; Arz, Helge W.

    2014-10-01

    The last glacial-interglacial transition or Termination I (T I) is well documented in the Black Sea, whereas little is known about climate and environmental dynamics during the penultimate Termination (T II). Here we present a multi-proxy study based on a sediment core from the SE Black Sea covering the penultimate glacial and almost the entire Eemian interglacial ((133.5±0.7)-(122.5±1.7) ka BP). Proxies comprise ice-rafted debris (IRD), O and Sr isotopes as well as Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, and U/Ca ratios of benthic ostracods, organic and inorganic sediment geochemistry, as well as TEX86 and UK‧37 derived water temperatures. The ending penultimate glacial (MIS 6, 133.5 to 129.9±0.7 ka BP) is characterised by mean annual lake surface temperatures of about 9 °C as estimated from the TEX86 palaeothermometer. This period is impacted by two Black Sea melt water pulses (BSWP-II-1 and 2) as indicated by very low Sr/Caostracods but high sedimentary K/Al values. Anomalously high radiogenic 87Sr/86Srostracod values (max. 0.70945) during BSWP-II-2 suggest a potential Himalayan source communicated via the Caspian Sea. The T II warming started at 129.9±0.7 ka BP, witnessed by abrupt disappearance of IRD, increasing δ18Oostracod values, and a first TEX86 derived temperature rise of about 2.5 °C. A second, abrupt warming step to ca. 15.5 °C as the prelude of the Eemian warm period is documented at 128.3 ka BP. The Mediterranean-Black Sea reconnection most likely occurred at 128.1±0.7 ka BP as demonstrated by increasing Sr/Caostracods and U/Caostracods values. The disappearance of ostracods and TOC contents >2% document the onset of Eemian sapropel formation at 127.6 ka BP. During sapropel formation, TEX86 temperatures dropped and stabilised at around 9 °C, while UK‧37 temperatures remain on average 17 °C. This difference is possibly caused by a habitat shift of Thaumarchaeota communities from surface towards nutrient-rich deeper and colder waters located above the gradually

  1. Anaerobic oxidation of methane alters sediment records of sulfur, iron and phosphorus in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Matthias; Kraal, Peter; Jilbert, Tom; Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Sapart, Célia J.; Röckmann, Thomas; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-09-01

    The surface sediments in the Black Sea are underlain by extensive deposits of iron (Fe)-oxide-rich lake sediments that were deposited prior to the inflow of marine Mediterranean Sea waters ca. 9000 years ago. The subsequent downward diffusion of marine sulfate into the methane-bearing lake sediments has led to a multitude of diagenetic reactions in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ), including anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate. While the sedimentary cycles of sulfur (S), methane and Fe in the SMTZ have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about the diagenetic alterations of the sediment record occurring below the SMTZ.Here we combine detailed geochemical analyses of the sediment and porewater with multicomponent diagenetic modeling to study the diagenetic alterations below the SMTZ at two sites in the western Black Sea. We focus on the dynamics of Fe, S and phosphorus (P), and demonstrate that diagenesis has strongly overprinted the sedimentary burial records of these elements. In line with previous studies in the Black Sea, we show that sulfate-mediated AOM substantially enhances the downward diffusive flux of sulfide into the deep limnic deposits. During this downward sulfidization, Fe oxides, Fe carbonates and Fe phosphates (e.g., vivianite) are converted to sulfide phases, leading to an enrichment in solid-phase S and the release of phosphate to the porewater. Below the sulfidization front, high concentrations of dissolved ferrous Fe (Fe2+) lead to sequestration of downward-diffusing phosphate as authigenic vivianite, resulting in a transient accumulation of total P directly below the sulfidization front.Our model results further demonstrate that downward-migrating sulfide becomes partly re-oxidized to sulfate due to reactions with oxidized Fe minerals, fueling a cryptic S cycle and thus stimulating slow rates of sulfate-driven AOM ( ˜ 1-100 pmol cm-3 d-1) in the sulfate-depleted limnic deposits. However, this process is

  2. Propagation of Mediterranean-origin water into the Black Sea interior: pathways, travel times and underlying mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falina, Anastasia; Ozsoy, Emin; Sarafanov, Artem; Utku Turuncoglu, Ufuk

    2016-04-01

    About 300 km3 of warm saline Mediterranean-origin waters (MOW) are annually transported into the Black Sea by the lower current in the Bosphorus Strait. After passing through the Strait, saline and relatively dense MOW propagate over the shelf and descend down the continental slope, mixing with less saline and colder surrounding waters. As a result of this mixing, anomalously high- or low-temperature water plumes are formed, which laterally propagate in the Black Sea at intermediate depths (100-600 m). Recent studies suggest that lateral propagation of the MOW play a key role in maintenance of the stable thermohaline and hydrochemical structure of the water column in the Black Sea. This process is thought to be responsible for formation and maintenance of the main pycnocline and isothermal layer at the depths of 500-600 m, for ventilation of the anoxic waters at depths below the pycnocline and for the existence of the sub-oxic layer separating the oxic and anoxic waters of the Black Sea. This concept, however, is not flawless and not complete because of the absence of observation-based evidence of a regular or at least occasional propagation of the MOW throughout the entire Black Sea. To address this problem and to elucidate the mechanism(s) related to the inflow of the MOW and its spreading in the Black Sea, we compiled a comprehensive set of 2005-2009 data, which include hydrographic measurements from research vessels and Argo floats, meteorological data from weather stations near the Bosphorus Strait and available ADCP time series in the Strait. Based on the hydrographic data, we constructed a schematic chart showing the pathways of the MOW propagation into the Black Sea interior and estimated the MOW travel times along the pathways. A joint analysis of the atmospheric and marine data allowed us to reveal a direct link between passages of northward-moving deep cyclones over the Bosphorus Strait, blockage events in the Strait and occasional events of anomalously

  3. Revisiting the Issue of Far-Left Political Parties in 1907–1909 (through the Example of Black Sea Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Taran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the activity of far-left organizations across Black Sea Governorate in 1907–1909. During this period, the bodies of internal affairs detected in the region a subversive activity of SR Maximalists, Communist Anarchists, and other terrorist groups. The activity of these destructive forces would come down to the physical liquidation of government officials, representatives of right parties, as well as extortion of money from merchants. The author comes to the conclusion that in Novorossiysk the two-year period following the end of the First Russian Revolution saw the party organizations of Social Democrats, Socialist Revolutionaries, Maximalists, Anarchists, etc., to virtually degrade and take on forms of organized criminal groups.

  4. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Rudis, D.D.; Roffe, T.J.; Robinson-Wilson, E.

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) , white-winged scoter (M. fusca) , black scoter (M. nigra) , oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) , spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) , and Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 ?g/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high ; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%) , a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation ; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants.

  5. The fate of gas hydrates in the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzke, Peter; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Schicks, Judith; Luzi-Helbing, Manja; Cacace, Mauro; Jacquey, Antoine; Sippel, Judith; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2016-04-01

    The Barents Sea and Kara Sea are located in the European Arctic. Recent seismic lines indicate the presence of gas hydrates in the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region. Natural gas hydrates contain huge amounts of methane. Their stability is mainly sensitive to pressure and temperature conditions which make them susceptible for climate change. When not stable, large volumes of methane will be released in the water column and - depending on the water depth - may also be released into the atmosphere. Therefore, studying the evolution in time and space of the gas hydrates stability zone in the Barents Sea region is of interest for both environmental impact and energy production. In this study, we assess the gas hydrate inventory of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea under the light of increasing ocean bottom temperatures in the next 200 years. Thereby, we make use of an existing 3D structural and thermal model which resolves five sedimentary units, the crystalline crust and the lithospheric mantle. The sedimentary units are characterised by the prevailing lithology and porosity including effects of post-depositional erosion which strongly affect the local geothermal gradient. Governing equations for the conductive 3D thermal field and momentum balance have been integrated in a massively parallel finite-element-method based framework (MOOSE). The MOOSE framework provides a powerful and flexible platform to solve multiphysics problems implicitly on unstructured meshes. First we calculate the present-day steady-state 3D thermal field. Subsequently, we use the latter as initial condition to calculate the transient 3D thermal field for the next 200 years considering an ocean temperature model as upper boundary. Temperature and load distributions are then used to calculate the thickness of the gas hydrate stability zone for each time step. The results show that the gas hydrate stability zone strongly varies in the region due to the local geothermal gradient changes. The latter

  6. Resolving the Western Black Sea Fault Using Microtremor Measurements? -Preliminary Results-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Savas; Caglak, Faruk; Tun, Muammer; Cengiz Cinku, Mualla; Ustaomer, Timur; Ozel, Oguz; Parolai, Stefano; Tezel, Okan; Özçep, Ferhat

    2014-05-01

    Two terrain-bounding major fault zones occur in the Marmara Sea and the northern onshore areas. The first of these is the dextral, E-W trending, North Anatolian Fault Zone which cuts through the deep basins within the Marmara Sea and is known to be one of the most seismically active fault zones on the Earth. The second is the inferred West Black Sea Fault Zone (WBFZ), a NNW-SSE trending, dextral boundary fault which separates the Istranca Massif to the west and the Istanbul Terrane to the east. The WBFZ is thought to have accommodated the opening of the east Black Sea basin (Okay et al., 1994). This fault zone and the two adjacent continental blocks are covered by Middle to Upper Eocene sediments and therefore the WBFZ is considered to be an inactive fault. Nevertheless, it forms a major crustal zone of weakness in the vicinity of Istanbul. Scientists and researchers are confident that there will be in the comparatively near future a major earthquake in the Marmara Sea in the vicinity of Istanbul. Therefore, a major concern is to estimate possible damages to the heavily populated living areas due to such an event. Many studies have been conducted, accordingly, focusing on the offshore (Marmara Sea) and onshore areas (i.e., the City of Istanbul). We have initiated a new project with the aim of constraining the West Black Sea Fault and its local site effects by using geophysical methods. This fault is especially important for the determination of the possible damage area, whereas evidence of some basins which cut through this fault is considered to be potential risk of a site effect problem during a possible earthquake. Within the framework of our project, a series of geophysical methods, such as microtremor single station measurements, the Spatial Autocorrelation Method (SPAC), gravity, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES), Multi-channel analysis of Surface Wave Data (MASW), and Magnetotellurics (MT) are planned in the area between the Büyükçekmece and K

  7. Distribution of (137)Cs in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea Coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, H; Kiris, E; Dalgic, G; Cevik, U

    2016-06-15

    This study presents the results of (137)Cs and (40)K radionuclide concentrations in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) samples collected during the period of February-November 2014 from twelve different stations within the border of the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Also, these radionuclide concentrations were determined in sea water and sediment samples. The activity concentrations in seawater, sediment and mussel tissue samples were between 1.12-1.69mBqL(-1), 3.26-30.74 and 1.61-3.16Bqkg(-1) for (137)Cs and 231.41-399.49mBqL(-1), 215.71-450.07 and 286.84-382.16Bqkg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. These values are also in accordance with the concentrations reported for similar regions. Additionally, radiological impact parameters such as daily intake of (137)Cs and (40)K, annual committed effective dose and carcinogenic risk due to the consumption of mussel were calculated and compared with the international data. Lifetime cancer risk values are lower than the limit of 10(-3). PMID:27021268

  8. The Contemporary State of Development of Free-living Nematodes of the Northwestern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakova, I.

    2007-05-01

    The work was carried out on samples taken during an expedition on the Black Sea Western shelf (Bulgarian, Romanian, Ukrainian) in October, 2003 in the framework of the UNDP-GEF Black Sea, Ecosystem Recovery Project. Nematodes due to specific biological characteristics (high productivity, short life cycles) quickly respond to environmental changes by reducing species diversity, increasing abundance and decreasing biomass. Our studies have confirmed this. For the western Black Sea shelf 67 nematode species of 6 orders have been recorded. Of the 12 groups of meiobenthos encountered on the western Black Sea shelf the frequency of the dominating group of nematodes made up 93.8-100%. Results show that quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nematodes in the study areas on the Black Sea shelf are heterogeneous. This is due to hydrological conditions. The Bulgarian and Romanian zone have great depths (from 15 to 125m), while 15-45m depths prevail on the Ukrainian shelf. Each shelf has specific sediment type. As observed earlier sediment type and depth determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nematodes. For the Bulgarian and Romanian shelves there is a tendency for increasing diversity from shallows to deep water. On the Ukrainian shelf the species composition of nematodes is higher at small depth. Quantitative characteristics of nematodes increase from the Bulgarian to the Ukrainian shelf. The nematode fauna on the Bulgarian shelf has the greatest species similarity with that the Romanian. Under the influence of river runoff the species diversity is low in those areas of close proximity. In more distant areas the diversity increases. Key species communities are formed under the influence of the abiotic environmental factors and interrelations between organisms. The study of these key communities around which other species assemble is interesting. Sabatieria abissalis dominates among all key species on the Bulgarian shelf transects making up 37

  9. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin from R/Vs GORIZONT and OKEANOGRAF, 1960 - 1969 (NODC Accession 0074609)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin of the...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SEISMIC RESEARCH WORKS FOR OIL AND GAS DEPOSITS IN THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. CHIS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact of seismic research works for oil and gas deposits in the Black Sea. The prospecting and exploitation activity of hydrocarbon deposits in Romania has experienced a major development in the nineteenth century and has remained since a major component in achieving energy independence in our country. In 1970 the oil and gas production in Romania reached a peak of over 14.5 million tons of crude oil. Gas production reached 33 million tons of oil equivalents. After 1990 the production level fell again, because of the depletion of the existing resources and the lack of investment prevented the discovery and the development of new fields. They have led in the last few years to a decrease of the oil production level to less than 5.0 million tons of oil and of the gas production of 10,3 million oil equivalent. After 1990 the Romanian Government through THE NATIONAL AGENCY FOR MINERAL RESOURCES has decided to organize international auctions to award a series of contracts regarding exploration and participation to rates of production of specialized companies that run all the financial funds and necessary technologies for the development of hydrocarbon prospecting activities. That is why in the Black Sea, beside the oil and gas deposits leased to OMV Petrom, there were also leased 7 areas needed for research, exploration and possible exploitation of oil and gas deposits. This paper presents the effects of seismic research works on the environment, considering that these are the first that will run on the platform of the Black Sea shore.

  11. Rebuilding Socio-Economic Cooperation in South East Europe and the Black Sea for Restarting European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoris Zarotiadis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In our paper “Feraios Revised: Inter-Regional Trans-National Socioeconomic Cooperation in South and Eastern Europe”, published in International Relations and Diplomacy Journal (December 2014, we analyzed the prospects of an inter-regional cross-national cooperation (in economic, social and political patterns in South and Eastern Europe through the structural reorganization of the existing institutions (local, national or cross-national in the area and we expressed the need for the reintroduction of Rigas Feraios’ perspective of socioeconomic and ultimately of political integration in this region. The present paper is an attempt to explain the reasons why working on the regional socioeconomic cooperation and integration constitutes a necessary condition before going into a wider amalgamation. Contemporary systemic, global crisis brought out internal and transnational aberrations and the fact of the asymmetrical financial integration of the EU countries. The Union consists of a multilevel system were social conflicts, different rates of economic development and various demographic dynamics dominate. The increasing territorial inequalities in the enlarged Europe and the “suspended step” of a monetary unification might establish the need to revert to regional socioeconomic cooperation, on the basis of the existing cultural, economic and historical bonds, like those of South-East Europe and the Black Sea, for restarting European integration and succeed inter-union stability and prosperity.

  12. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to Recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Christiaan Gijsbert Cornelis Van Baak; Iuliana eVasiliev; Dan Valentin Palcu; Mark Jacobus Dekkers; Wout eKrijgsman

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the Late Neogene, the Black Sea experienced large paleoenvironmental changes, switching between (anoxic) marine conditions when connected to the Mediterranean Sea and (oxic) freshwater conditions at times of isolation. We create a magnetostratigraphic time frame for three sites drilled during Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 42B to the Black Sea (drilled in 1975). At the time, magnetostratigraphic dating was impossible because of the presence of the little understood iron sulfi...

  13. Mercury in the Black Sea - results of the 2013 GEOTRACES MEDBlack cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbürger, L. E.; Sonke, J.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Gerringa, L. J.; De Baar, H. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Inorganic mercury (Hg), whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, can be converted into the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg). Today we believe this conversion occurs during the bacterial remineralization of sinking organic matter in the oceanic water column. The Black Sea with its high organic matter inputs and anoxic deep waters is an excellent study site to investigate in more detail the processes yielding MeHg. To date only one vertical profile of Hg species near the Western shelf and one vertical profile in the Western Gyre are published (Lamborg et al. 2008). We will present new results of the 2013 Dutch-led GEOTRACES MEDBlack cruise in the Black Sea. Research vessel "Pelagia" occupied 12 full depth stations along an east-west transect from 13 to 25 July 2013. High resolution vertical profiles were sampled using a titanium ultraclean CTD frame (de Baar et al., 2008) equipped with 24 x 24L PVDF samplers. Samples were filtered (0.2µm, Sartobran 300), drawn into pre-cleaned 250mL Savillex PFA bottles and acidified to 0.4% (v:v) with double-distilled HCl. Dissolved MeHg, as the sum of monomethylHg and dimethylHg, was analyzed via isotope dilution gas chromatography sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Total dissolved Hg was determined following the US EPA 1631 method. We will present high resolution vertical Hg species profiles, including one ultra-high resolution profile (1 sample every 5m-depth) to understand the dynamics along the chemocline (Luther et al., 1991). We will also present the results of the GEOTRACES international intercalibration exercise for dissolved MeHg and dissolved total Hg in surface seawater that we organized during the same cruise. References De Baar HJW, Timmermans KR, Laan P, De Porto HH, Ober S, Blom JJ, Bakker MC, Schilling J, Sarthou G, Smit MG, Klunder M. Titan: A new facility for ultraclean sampling of trace elements and isotopes in the deep oceans in the international Geotraces program. Mar. Chem. 2008, 111

  14. GPS-drifters for study of water dynamics in the Black Sea shelf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrova, K. P.; Myslenkov, S. A.; Zatsepin, A. G.; Krayushkin, E. V.; Baranov, V. I.; Samsonov, T. E.; Kuklev, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the description of a monitoring system based on drifters equipped with GPSreceiver and cellular GSM. The system provides data about currents with a temporal and spatial resolution of 5-10 minutes and 100-200 m. The movement of the drifter can be observed in real time. Several experiments were conducted on the Black Sea shelf for identification of the advantages of the monitoring system. The results of experiments include a comparison of the drifter trajectories with bottom-tracked ADCP and towed ADCP data.

  15. Linking crenarchaeal and bacterial nitrification to anammox in the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Phyllis; Jensen, Marlene M.; Lavik, Gaute; McGinnis, Daniel F.; Müller, Beat; Schubert, Carsten J.; Amann, Rudolf; Thamdrup, Bo; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Active expression of putative ammonia monooxygenase gene subunit A (amoA) of marine group I Crenarchaeota has been detected in the Black Sea water column. It reached its maximum, as quantified by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR, exactly at the nitrate maximum or the nitrification zone modeled in the lower oxic zone. Crenarchaeal amoA expression could explain 74.5% of the nitrite variations in the lower oxic zone. In comparison, amoA expression by γ-proteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bac...

  16. Response of the Black Sea methane budget to massive short-term submarine inputs of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmale, O.; Haeckel, M.; McGinnis, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    -water mud volcanoes or submarine landslides at intermediate water depths) on the water column methane distribution and the resulting methane emission to the atmosphere. Our non-steady state simulations predict that these inputs will be effectively buffered by intense microbial methane consumption...... and that the upward flux of methane is strongly hampered by the pronounced density stratification of the Black Sea water column. For instance, an assumed input of methane of 179 Tg CH(4) d(-1) (equivalent to the amount of methane released by 1000 mud volcano eruptions) at a water depth of 700m will only marginally...

  17. Population development of the invader ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, in the Black Sea and in other seas of the Mediterranean basin

    OpenAIRE

    Shiganova, T.A.; Mirzoyan, Z.A.; Studenikina, E.A.; Volovik, S.P.; Siokou-Frangou, I.; S. ZERVOUDAKI; Christou, E. D.; Skirta, A.Y.; Dumont, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the last two decades of the twentieth century, the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz) has invaded the Black, Azov, Marmara and Aegean Seas, and, recently, the Caspian Sea. Here, we compare its spatial and temporal distribution, seasonal dynamics and the time and duration of reproduction. We also discuss factors that control its abundance throughout its invasive range and its effect on ecosystems. Observations are based on the long-term field data collected by three research institut...

  18. Microzooplankton Grazing Impact on Phytoplankton Blooms in the Coastal Seawater of the Southern Crimea (Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Stelmakh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of seasonal dynamics of microzooplankton specific grazing rate was carried out in the near-shore sea off the southern Crimea (Black Sea during 2006~2007 and 2010. It is shown that microzooplankton grazing depended on the abundance and quality of prey. The favorite prey items were diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros spp. When microzooplankton grazed less than 80% of the primary production, the peaks of phytoplankton biomass were recorded in this study. The average annual removal of primary production by microzooplankton was estimated as weighty as 65%. Such estimated values indicate the key role of the microzooplankton in exporting matter and energy from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels.

  19. Regulation of anaerobic methane oxidation in sediments of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Knab

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM and sulfate reduction (SRR were investigated in sediments of the western Black Sea, where upward methane transport is controlled by diffusion. To understand the regulation and dynamics of methane production and oxidation in the Black Sea, rates of methanogenesis, AOM, and SRR were determined using radiotracers in combination with pore water chemistry and stable isotopes. In the Danube Canyon and the Dnjepr palaeo-delta AOM did not consume methane effectively and upwards diffusing methane created an extended sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ that spread over more than 2.5 m and was located in brackish and limnic sediment. Measurable AOM rates occurred mainly in the lower part of the SMTZ, sometimes even at depths where sulfate seemed to be unavailable. The inefficiency of methane oxidation appears to be linked to the paleoceanographic history of the sediment, since in all cores methane was completely oxidized at the transition from the formerly oxic brackish clays to marine anoxic sediments. The upward tailing of methane was less pronounced in a core from the deep sea in the area of the Dnjepr Canyon, the only station with a SMTZ close to the marine deposits. Sub-surface sulfate reduction rates were mostly extremely low, and in the SMTZ were even lower than AOM rates. Rates of bicarbonate-based methanogenesis were below detection limit in two of the cores, but δ13C values of methane indicate a biogenic origin. The most δ13C- depleted isotopic signal of methane was found in the SMTZ of the core from the deep sea, most likely as a result of carbon recycling between AOM and methanogenesis.

  20. Regulation of anaerobic methane oxidation in sediments of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Knab

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM and sulfate reduction (SRR were investigated in sediments of the western Black Sea, where methane transport is controlled by diffusion. To understand the regulation and dynamics of methane production and oxidation in the Black Sea, rates of methanogenesis, AOM, and SRR were determined using radiotracers in combination with pore water chemistry and stable isotopes. On the shelf of the Danube paleo-delta and the Dnjepr Canyon, AOM did not consume methane effectively and upwards diffusing methane created an extended sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ that spread over more than 2.5 m and was located in formerly limnic sediment. Measurable AOM rates occurred mainly in the lower part of the SMTZ, sometimes even at depths where sulfate seemed to be unavailable. The inefficiency of methane oxidation appears to be linked to the limnic history of the sediment, since in all cores methane was completely oxidized at the limnic-marine transition. The upward tailing of methane was less pronounced in a core from the deep sea in the area of the Dnjepr Canyon, the only station with a SMTZ close to the marine deposits. Sulfate reduction rates were mostly extremely low, and in the SMTZ were even lower than AOM rates. Rates of bicarbonate-based methanogenesis were below detection limit in two of the cores, but δ13C values of methane indicate a biogenic origin. The most depleted δ13C-signal was found in the SMTZ of the core from the deep sea, most likely as a result of carbon recycling between AOM and methanogenesis.

  1. Exchanges between the open Black Sea and its North West shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zhou, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Exchanges between the vast NW shelf and the deep basin of the Black Sea play a significant role in maintaining the balance of nutrients, heat content and salinity of the shelf waters. Nearly 87 % of the Black Sea is entirely anoxic below 70 to 200m and contains high levels of hydrogen sulphide (Zaitsev et al, 2001), and this makes the shelf waters particularly valuable for maintaining the Black Sea ecosystem in good health. The increase in salinity of shelf waters occurs partially due to exchanges with more saline open sea waters and represents a threat to relics and endemic species. The shelf-break is commonly considered the bottle-neck of the shelf-deep sea exchanges (e.g. (Huthnance, 1995, Ivanov et al, 1997). Due to conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic currents flow along the contours of constant depth. However the ageostrophic flows (Ekman drift, mesoscale eddies, filaments, internal waves) are not subject to the same constraints. It has been shown that during the winter well mixed cold waters formed on the North West shelf propagate into the deep sea, providing an important mechanism for the replenishment of the Cold Intermediate Layer ( Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However, much less is known about exchanges in the warm season. In this study, the transports of water, heat and salt between the northwestern shelf and the adjacent deep basin of the Black Sea are investigated using a high-resolution three-dimensional primitive equation model, NEMO-SHELF-BLS (Shapiro et al, 2013). It is shown that during the period from April to August, 2005, both onshore and offshore cross-shelf break transports in the top 20 m were as high as 0.24 Sv on average, which was equivalent to the replacement of 60% of the volume of surface shelf waters (0 - 20 m) per month. Two main exchange mechanisms are studied: (i) Ekman transport, and (ii) transport by mesoscale eddies and associated meanders of the Rim Current. The Ekman drift causes nearly uniform onshore or

  2. BIO ARGO floats: tools for operational monitoring of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Slabakova, Violeta; Peneva, Elisaveta; Stanev, Emil

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of ecological status in the context of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the physical and biogeochemical processes that determine the functioning of marine ecosystems. One of the main challenges however is the need of data with frequency relevant to the spatial and temporal scales of the ecological processes. The majority of in situ observations that are commonly used for ecological monitoring of the Black Sea are generally based on near-shore monitoring programs or irregular oceanographic cruises that provide either non-synoptic, coarse resolution realizations of large scale processes or detailed, but time and site specific snapshots of local features. These gaps can be filled by two independent sources: satellite observation and profiling floats. In fact satellite ocean color sensors allows for determination at synoptic scale of water quality parameters through its absorption properties. However the satellite ocean color methods have a number of limitations such as: measurements can only be made during daylight hours; require cloud-free conditions and are sensitive to atmospheric aerosols; provide information only for the upper layer of the ocean (approximately the depth of 10% incident light); algorithms developed for global applications are a source of large uncertainties in the marginal seas and costal areas. These constrains of the optical remote sensing observations can be avoided by using miniature biogeochemical sensors and autonomous platforms that offer remarkable perspectives for observing the "biological" ocean, notably at critical spatiotemporal scales which have been out of reach until recently (Claustre et al., 2010). In the frame of "E-AIMS: Euro-Argo Improvements for the GMES marine Service" 7 EC FP project two Bio Argo floats were deployed in the Black Sea. Beside the traditionally CTD the floats were equipped with biogeochemical

  3. Quantum interference and the formation of trapping regions around a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrophysical processes in vicinity of black holes involve a coupling of spacetime geometry and the quantum effects. Using the quantum potential approach we investigate the quantum dynamics of a massive particle around a Schwarzschild black hole. The analysis shows the existence of typical quantum effects near the black hole region. In particular the R-amplitude variation leads to the formation of fringe-like trapping regions around the black hole where the particle is more likely to be located. However due to the energy loss, which gains a local maxima in the trapping regions, the particle in-fall eventually occurs. The energy loss during such a process will show up in frequency and amplitude modulation in X-ray signals from accreting black holes and may confirm the existence of such trapping regions.

  4. Comparative analysis of Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) from different biotopes of the Black Sea based on its morphological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos'yan, A. R.

    2013-02-01

    The Asian whelk Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda: Muricidae), being tolerant to wide variations in the temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentration, successfully settled down in the Black Sea and eventually became one of the dominant species in the benthic ecosystems. The whelk inhabits all types of grounds all over the Black sea demonstrating a wide spectrum of morphological modifications. The objective of this research is to compare 10 samples of R. venosa from different biotopes of the Black Sea coast from the western Crimea to Sochi. The results of the statistical comparison based on 15 morphological characteristics showed that most of the samples differed from each other with high statistical significance ( p Mytilus galloprovincialis, Anadara sp., Chamelea gallina), the prevailing prey size, and its abundance.

  5. Subduction erosion and accretion in the Solomon Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honza, Eiichi; Miyazaki, Teruki; Lock, Jo

    1989-03-01

    The Solomon Sea region is an area of intense tectonic activity characterized by structural complexity, a high level of seismicity and volcanism, and rapid evolution of plate boundaries. There is little accretion in the eastern New Britain Trench. Accretion gradually increases westward with thick accretion in the western New Britain Trench and in the Trobriand Subduction System. The thick accretion in the western part of the New Britain Trench may be a result of collision from the north of Finisterre-Huon block with New Guinea mainland. The present boundary of the collision is along the Ram-Markham fault. Deformation structures and present day seismicity suggest that the northern block is under compression. Accretion has occurred in the sediment filled trenches in the Solomon Sea. The scale of the accretionary wedge depends on the amount of trench-fill sediment available. It is unlikely that there is no sediment supply to the eastern part of the New Britain Trench where no accretion is observed and subduction erosion may be occurring. There are two possible mechanisms for subduction erosion of sediment; either a rapid rate of subduction relative to the supply of sediment inhibiting sediment accumulation in the trench; or horizontal tensional force superimposed on both the forearc and backarc regions of the arc. Seafloor spreading in both the Manus and Woodlark basins is fan-like with nearby poles in the western margins of the basins. This may be a reflection of a horizontally compressional field in the western part and a tensional field in the eastern part of the Solomon Sea. Therefore it is possible to conclude that the consumption of sediment in the eastern New Britain Trench is related to the horizontal tensional field superimposed on both the forearc and backarc regions of the subduction system. Imbricated thrust and overthrust faults in the western New Britain Trench and Trobriand Trough are not linear over long distance, but form wavy patterns in blocks with

  6. Abundance and Summer Distribution of a Local Stock of Black Sea Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus (Cetacea, Delphinidae, in Coastal Waters near Sudak (Ukraine, Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladilina E. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The first assessment of abundance of a local population of bottlenose dolphins in the Black Sea (near the Sudak coast in 2011–2012 has been conducted: the results of a mark-recapture study of photo identified animals were complemented by a vessel line transect survey. The overall abundance of a population was estimated at between 621 ± 198 and 715 ± 267 animals (Chapman and Petersen estimates, and the majority of members of the population were recorded in the surveyed area. The summer range covered the area of a few hundred square kilometers, similar to migrating coastal stocks in other world regions. The greatest density of distribution was observed in August in sea 45–60 m deep; in addition, frequent approaches to the coastline are usual for dolphins of this stock. These trends in distribution may be partly explained by distribution of prey. Interaction with sprat trawling fisheries can be a factor shaping the local population structure. Coastal waters of Sudak and adjoining sea areas are an important habitat for bottlenose dolphins in the northern Black Sea, significant for their conservation.

  7. PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS - PCBs AND DDTs IN FISH FROM DANUBE RIVER AND FROM BLACK SEA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Stancheva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and DDT residues (DDTs can still be a problem for the aquatic environment and the human health. PCBs and DDTs were determined in three freshwater fish species: common carp (Cyprinus carpio, catfish (Silurus glanis, pike-perch (Sander lucioperca and two marine fish: shad (Alosa pontica pontica and grey mullet (Mugil cephalus. The freshwater fish samples were collected from the Danube River and from Black Sea, Bulgaria in 2010. The POPs were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of PCBs and DDTs in fish species from Danube River and compared the results to the levels in marine fish species from Black Sea. The fifteen congeners of PCBs, p,p’-DDT and its two main metabolites p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. DDTs were the predominant contaminants in investigated species, with the p,p’- DDE contributing to more than 67% to the total DDTs. In freshwater fish concentrations of DDTs were found from 19.2 to 30.3 ng/g ww and PCBs concentrations - from 6.2 to 12.6 ng/g ww. The highest levels of PCBs and DDTs were determined in shad. The levels of DDTs and PCBs were determined lower than those found in similar fish species from other aquatic ecosystems.

  8. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF BLACK SEA CYSTOSEIRA BARBATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Panayotova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Cystoseira barbata is the most widely distributed seaweed in the Black Sea. There is limited information about fat soluble vitamins content and fatty acids composition of this specie from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The aim of this study was to determine fat soluble vitamins, pigments, total lipid and fatty acid composition of Cystoseira barbata. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin E and D, pigments (β-carotene and astaxanthin and total cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously using HPLC/UV/FL system equipped with RP analytical column. Sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Brown seaweed Cystoseira barbata contained high amounts of α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Lipids were extracted by following the method of Bligh and Dyer. The residual lipid fraction was methylated using base-catalyzed transmethylation with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Cystoseira barbata was rich in linoleic (C18:2n6 and eicosopentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 although total lipid content was generally low. High levels of α-tocopherol correlate with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. As an antioxidant α-tocopherol preserves tissue PUFA from oxidation.

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing for estimating coastal water quality: case study on coast of Black Sea, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezehegn, S. G.; Steef, Peters; Hommersom, Annelies; Nils, De Reus; Culcea, Oana; Krommendijk, Bram

    2014-10-01

    The North-Western part of the Black Sea is highly affected by eutrophication due to nutrient and sediment load inflow from the Danube River, which is the second largest delta in Europe. To get a general spatial picture of the water quality of the Romanian coast, it is not only time consuming, but also hard to measure with traditional in situ sampling. To solve these issues, methods have been developed to use close range spectral measurements for accurate and cheap assessments in real-time for the concentrations of Chlorophyll-a, Total Suspended Matter and water transparency. This paper presents the applicability of a state-of-the-art hand-held hyper-spectral sensor and a simple water transparency indicator for monitoring water quality. The fieldwork was conducted during the summer of 2013 on the Romanian coast of the Black Sea. The same techniques are used to calculate these parameters from satellite images (MODIS). The validation results and potential applications of the instruments will be discussed.

  10. Investigating Potential Strategies for Increasing Tourism Competiveness at the Black Sea Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Roxana Munteanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2009-2011 the tourism industry at the Black Sea shore experienced a significant downturn as a direct result of the global economic crisis and a shy growth in 2012-2013 period. In this context of difficult macroeconomic conditions and a hardly predictable number of tourists, the suppliers of tourism services need a constant revision of strategy in order to increase their competitiveness and adapt to external market conditions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that hotels managers in Mamaia resort, Romania, could adopt considering customers` expectations and hospitality industry best practices. In order to achieve this, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed considering several locations on the seaside in France, Italy, Spain and Turkey. Following this analysis, several strategies are drafted, such as: use of social media, creation of packaged deals, targeting the business segment and advertising by using the cultural and historical context of the location. Moreover, a short survey among social media users revealed some of the tourists` expectations regarding their holidays at the Romanian Black Sea shore, such as quality of accommodation facilities, personalized services and entertainment possibilities.

  11. Comparing tide gauge observations to regional patterns of sea-level change (1961–2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; Van de Wal, R.S.W.; Wada, Y.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Although the global mean sea-level budget for the 20th century can now be closed, the understanding of sea-level change on a regional scale is still limited. In this study we compare observations from tide gauges to regional patterns from various contributions to sea-level change to see how much of

  12. Comparing tide gauge observations to regional patterns of sea-level change (1961-2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A. B. A.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; Wada, Y.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

    2014-01-01

    Although the global mean sea-level budget for the 20th century can now be closed, the understanding of sea-level change on a regional scale is still limited. In this study we compare observations from tide gauges to regional patterns from various contributions to sea-level change to see how much of

  13. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  14. Distribution and preservation of black carbon in the East China Sea sediments: Perspectives on carbon cycling at continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Ying; Wang, Jinlong

    2016-02-01

    We determined the concentrations and radiocarbon (14C) compositions of black carbon (BC) in the sediments of the East China Sea (ECS). The BC concentrations, which were in the range of 0.30-1.52 mg/g, accounted for 12-65% of the total organic carbon (TOC). The distribution of BC in ECS sediments was controlled by factors such as grain size, distance from the coast, and deposition rate. Radiocarbon measurements of BC yielded ages of 6350-10,440 years before present (BP), suggesting that the percentage of BC derived from biomass combustion was in the range of 29-48%. The BC burial flux in sediments of the ECS was estimated to be ∼1.39×106 t/yr, which was similar to burial fluxes reported for shelf sediments in other areas. However, the magnitude of the total BC sink was far greater than that of any other shelf regions studied to date, indicating the global importance of BC accumulation in the ECS, and the magnitude of BC input from large rivers (e.g., the Changjiang). The riverine delivery of BC to the ECS (73%) was far greater than that of atmospheric flux (27%). Further study of the BC cycle and the interactions of BC with other organic compounds in marginal seas was required to better understand the role of BC in the global carbon cycle.

  15. The characterization of the main habitat types populated by the Black Sea Turbot in its different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Niţă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The turbot Psetta maeotica (Pallas, 1814 is a demersal species that populates the RomanianBlack Sea’s continental shelf and is an important segment of the regional fishing potential under theaspect of market demand, both on the national and international level. Being a migratory species (short,coast - perpendicular migrations, made for reproduction it uses during its complete biological cyclevarious habitat types, among which we mention: reproduction habitats (coastal waters, down to 30meters depth, growing habitats (close to the sea bottom, down to 50-60 meters depth, winteringhabitats (close to the sea bottom, down to 60-80 meters depth. The turbot populates almost all thehabitat types present down to these depths, but it prefers the sandy and muddy ones, that are foundespecially in the Central and Northern part of Romanian littoral. The physical, chemical and biologicalcharacterization of these habitats revealed an improving tendency, that appeared on the bases ofeconomical activities restructuring, the growing of the exigencies in implementing the environmentalpolicies, the setting-up of marine protected areas and also the new reglementations regarding the marineresources exploitation.

  16. Radioactive contamination of the Black Sea as of October 1986 resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors present results of investigations carried out in June-July and October 1986 of radioactive contamination of the Black Sea. The goal was, above all, to ascertain the contamination of the sea water by radionuclides discharged from the accident and the degree of risk they pose to human health. These efforts also initiate a cycle of long-term investigations of the self-purification processes of the sea, using the radionuclides as tracers. Foreign researchers also worked in the southwestern part of the Black Sea in June 1986. A comparison of these results with theirs will be given below. Sampling equipment used and means and methods of concentrating radionuclides were described elsewhere. Principal attention was devoted to determining concentrations of 137Cs, 134Cs, 90Sr, and 3H

  17. A study of the anthropic activities impact on the Black Sea eco-system (Romanian coast area) using nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research represents a first step in the direction of a real evaluation of the Black Sea - Romanian Coast pollution level. A continental closed sea, with a special chemism and a specific dynamic regime of its waters, the Black Sea is seriously affected by pollution today, its eco - systems suffering deep restructuring, many of these with an irreversible character and an alarming degradation of the marine life quality. Starting with 1996, a systematic sampling of the principal systemic parts of the Black Sea Eco - System (Romanian Coast Area) was initiated at NIPNE - HH Bucharest. The samples are prepared and analysed by high precision nuclear methods such as: neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and others. The results are presented as distribution maps and profiles of different elements (radioactive elements, heavy metals, trace elements etc.) in the investigated parts of the marine environment (water, sediments, vegetation and fauna). The research methodology and the obtained results offer a useful and efficient tool for the followup and permanent evaluation of the eco - system of the Black Sea. Monitoring this eco - system using a network and an efficient programme allows the storage of valuable data which are further used to make short - term and long - term prognosis referring to its evaluation. The results fit into the newest research programmes initiated by the international scientific community in the line of environment surveillance (The Programme of the International Board for Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean supported by the European Community and US). (author)

  18. Special data base of Informational - Computational System 'INM RAS - Black Sea' for solving inverse and data assimilation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Piskovatsky, Nicolay; Gusev, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for data assimilation procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The above problems are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for personal computers. In this work the results on the Special data base development for ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the presentation the input information for ICS is discussed, some special data processing procedures are described. In this work the results of forecast using ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" with operational observation data assimilation are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No 13-01-00753) and by Presidium Program of Russian Academy of Sciences (project P-23 "Black sea as an imitational ocean model"). References 1. V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 5-31. 2. E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 69-94. 3. V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V.V. Fomin, S.N. Moshonkin, S.G. Demyshev, Numerical model of the circulation of Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 95-111. 4. Agoshkov V.I.,Assovsky M.B., Giniatulin S. V., Zakharova N.B., Kuimov G.V., Parmuzin E.I., Fomin V.V. Informational Computational system of variational assimilation of observation data "INM RAS - Black sea"// Ecological

  19. Survey of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in wild fishes in the southeastern Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, H; Altuntas, C

    2014-05-13

    Species diversity in the Black Sea ecosystem has been declining rapidly over the last 2 decades. To assess the occurrence and distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in various wild fish species, a wild marine fish survey was carried out in 2009, 2010, and 2011. The pooled or individual samples of kidney, liver, and spleen of 5025 specimens, belonging to 17 fish species, were examined virologically using cell culture. The cells showing cytopathic effects (CPE) were subjected to ELISA and multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-mPCR), for VHSV and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), after blind passaging to determine the virus species causing CPE. The virus species and possibility of co-infection with IPNV were verified by the RT-mPCR developed in this study. Twelve species of fish (pontic shad Alosa immaculata, red mullet Mullus barbatus, three-bearded rockling Gaidropsarus vulgaris, black scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus, Mediterranean horse mackerel Trachurus mediterraneus, whiting Merlangius merlangus euxinus, stargazer Uranoscopus scaber, pilchard Sardina pilchardus, garfish Belone belone, round goby Neogobius melanostomus, thornback ray Raja clavata, and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus) tested positive for VHSV Genotype Ie (VHSV-Ie). Except whiting, pilchard, and round goby, the rest are new host records for VHSV. The extent and spread of VHSV-Ie was significantly higher among bottom fish than among pelagic fish. Sensitivity and specificity of the RT-mPCR developed was sufficiently high, suggesting that this assay may be used for both diagnostic and surveillance testing. According to the RT-mPCR results, IPNV was not present in wild fish. These results support the hypothesis that the VHSV-Ie genotype, highly prevalent among fish species in the Black Sea, may have a serious impact on the population dynamics of wild fish stocks. PMID:24991737

  20. Use fish biomarker response in the evaluation of the Black Sea coastal ecosystem health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Environmental stress in the Black Sea coastal zone resulted very negative biological events in ecosystem in various levels of its biological organization from molecular to the community. The peculiarities of the polluted responses should be applied for the assessment of stress factors and their after-effects. Fish populations are the most sensitive to anthropogenic impact. Within the past 40 years the number of fish species in the Sevastopol coastal zone was declined in 2- fold and their storage in 100-fold. Thus fish responses to stressors could be used for evaluation of the entire ecosystem health. Highly distributed fish species Scorpaena porcus and Neogobius melanostomus were used as biomonitors of the coastal zones ecological status evaluation. The fish were collected from polluted and non-polluted bays in Sevastopol region and their study includes various biological indicators (biomarker) analysis. Biochemical studies of antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, SOD, peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathioone-S-transferase), transaminases and aldolase in blood serum of fish caught in polluted areas showed the increase of the activity of main antioxidant enzymes SOD and glutathione-S-transferase, while the other parameters were not differed. At the same time lipid peroxidation level was higher in fish inhabited contaminated areas as compared with the individuals from the non-contaminated bay which was connected with the oxidative stress induced by the high concentrations of the xenobiotics in environment. Significant differences between lipid concentration, lipid composition and law molecular weight antioxidants were not identified. Elelctrophoretical studies of blood serum proteins demonstrated the changes in the protein composition and their variability in fish from polluted and non-polluted areas. Thus the most polluted sensitive to biochemical indicators in fish are antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD and GST), lipid peroxidation

  1. The Macrobenthic Fauna of Sirakaraagaçlar Stream flowing into the Black Sea at Akliman, Sinop

    OpenAIRE

    BAT, Levent; AKBULUT, Mehmet; ÇULHA, Mehmet; Sezgin, Murat

    2000-01-01

    Abstract In the present 'study carried out between July 1997 and June 1998, samples of macrobenthic fauna were collected at Akliman (Sinop) where Sirakaraagaglar stream flowed into the Black Sea. The physical parameters of water were measured, Sea, brackish water and fresh water species were determined, 39 in total including Mollusca, Insecta (larvae), Crustaceae, Polychaeta, Hirudinae and Turbellaria, The first. sampling station was chosen at the mouth of the Sirakaraagarlar stream. Th...

  2. Flight and foraging patterns of lesser black-backed gulls and northern gannets in the southern North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Corman, Anna-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The study focuses on the foraging ecology of two common seabird species of the southern North Sea, lesser black-backed gulls and northern gannets. The spatiotemporal patterns were considered in light of offshore wind farms, representing a recent anthropogenic pressure on the birds' foraging and space use. Flight and foraging patterns of both species were recorded by attaching small GPS data loggers on breeding birds at different German North Sea Islands. Their foraging patterns differed amon...

  3. Histological evaluation of the healing properties of Dead Sea black mud on full-thickness excision cutaneous wounds in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-al-Basal, Mariam A

    2012-04-01

    Dead Sea (DS) mud and salts are known for their therapeutic and cosmetic properties. Previous studies confirmed their efficacy in treating the more frequent skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the wound healing potential of natural and compounded skin-care product (facial mask) of DS black mud in BALB/c mice. Two full-thickness excision round wounds were created on the dorsum region of mouse. Each wound of mice test group were treated topically with 50 microL of 0.1% natural or compounded DS black mud or 50 microL of 0.2% nitrofurazone once a day for 2 consecutive days and the mice control group were left untreated. Healing was assessed by measuring the granulation tissue weight and percentage of wound contraction at day 3, 7, 14 and 21 after wounding. In addition to period of epithelialization and histological evaluation of the regenerated wound area at day 7 and 14 after wounding. Results revealed that DS black mud accelerate wound healing process by enhancing granulation, wound contraction, epithelialization, angiogenesis and collagen deposition. This may be due to high content of minerals and trace elements that possibly act as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant with enhancement effect on cell proliferation, migration and fibroblast cellular activity. However, the healing property of DS black mud compounded in skin-care product was greater than that of natural black mud, when compared to reference drug, nitrofurazone. PMID:24163956

  4. Optimising the vertical grid for numerical simulations of the Black Sea dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G. I.; Pickering, J.; Luneva, M. V.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to analytical methods which deal with continuous functions, solutions obtained using numerical methods depend on the type of discretisation used in the model. It is known that not only different classes of discretisation (such as finite difference, finite element, finite volume etc.) result in different numerical outputs but also variations within the same class may have significant effect on the quality of simulation. When it comes to discretization in the vertical, examples include z- or terrain-following coordinate systems all of which have their advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study is to identify how sensitive modelling results are to changes in the vertical grid structure, under condition that all other parameters, both physical (e.g. initial temperature and salinity field and meteo forcing) and numerical ( e.g. time step, horizontal resolution, number of vertical layers) are kept the same. The simulations were carried out using the NEMO ocean model at 6 km resolution for the Black Sea which has both deep (more than 2 km) areas and an extensive (hundreds of kilometres) continental shelf. The shelf break, where the slope changes abruptly, is traditionally a difficult location for many types of models. The terrain-following coordinate systems (such as s- and sigma-) are prone the pressure gradient (PG) errors, while z-coordinate systems create a serrated edge near the bottom. Some improvements are provided by z-coordinates with partial steps; however this approach has its own limitations. In this study we compare 4 vertical coordinate system: z-, s-, hybrid (s- on top of z-), and advanced hybrid (modified s- on top of z-). The latter two are the new systems, not yet implemented in the standard NEMO code and developed specifically for this study. The hybrid system uses s-coordinates in the upper layer of the ocean, from the sea surface to the depth of the shelf break and z-coordinate below this level. Such configuration minimizes the PG

  5. Periodical Press as a Means to Study Rear Area Activities in the First World War (Black Sea Province Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the Black Sea Province rear activity in the First World War. The article is based on the data of local and regional periodical press, such as: «Chernomorsky Kray», «Sochinsky Listok», «Chernomorskoe Poberezh’e», «Chernomorsky Listok Voyny», etc. Among the rear area activities, we can name charity for the wounded, entertainment at military hospitals, foundation of Mercy Sisters schools and Red Cross regional offices. Attention is also attached to the interaction with state institutions in charge of hospital work and the attitude of the royal family towards hospital care. Red Cross activities in the First World War are also significant. The conclusion states that cooperation between centre and outskirts in terms of help for the wounded was close in the First World War. Almost all of the work, concerning the establishment of regional (province hospitals was charity-funded. Outskirts attempted to model the supreme authority behavior, concerning this question and as a result the care for war victims had become the duty of the whole Russian community.

  6. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  7. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Tsangaris; Vanessa, Moschino; Evangelia, Strogyloudi; Valentina, Coatu; Andreja, Ramšak; Rana, Abu Alhaija; Susana, Carvalho; Serena, Felline; Alisa, Kosyan; Yiota, Lazarou; Ioannis, Hatzianestis; Andra, Oros; Daniela, Tiganus

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses. PMID:26396017

  8. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Daniel; Matthias, Volker; Bieser, Johannes; Aulinger, Armin; Quante, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 + NH4+ and HNO3 + NO3- and a decrease in NO3- concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 + NH4+ and HNO3 + NO3- concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is underestimated by the model at most

  9. Seasonal variation of black carbon over the South China Sea and in various continental locations in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is an important atmospheric constitute as an air pollutant and as a climate forcer. To our knowledge, field measurements of BC have not been reported over the South China Sea. Observation of light absorption coefficients (σabs and BC concentrations by Aethalometer were conducted on Yongxing Island in the South China Sea and at five continental sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, South China during the South China Sea monsoon period (rainy season, 16 May–20 June 2008 and the northeast monsoon period (dry season, 12 December 2008–8 January 2009. At the oceanic site, the daily average BC concentrations vary from 0.28 to 2.14 μg m−3 and seasonal variations of BC were small (0.67 in dry season and 0.54 μg m−3 in rainy season. Similarly, little seasonal difference was found at a background site in PRD (2.88 in dry season and 2.62 μg m−3 in rainy season. At PRD urban sites, the daily average concentration of BC ranges from 1.56 to 37.9 μg m−3, higher in the dry season (12.6 μg m−3 and lower in the rainy season (6.4 μg m−3. The observed average σabs values in rainy vs. dry seasons are 119 vs. 62 Mm−1 at the PRD urban sites, 29 vs. 26 Mm−1 at the PRD background site, and 8.4 vs. 7.2 Mm−1 at the marine site. A bi-peak pattern in diurnal BC variation was observed at all sites while this pattern is the most prominent at the urban sites. The first peak appears in the early morning rush hour and the second peak in early evening, with the evening peak more pronounced in dry season.

  10. Implementation of Black Sea numerical model based on NEMO and 3DVAR data assimilation scheme for operational forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Peneva, Elisaveta; Storto, Andrea; Rostislav, Kandilarov; Lecci, Rita; Yang, Chunxue; Coppini, Giovanni; Masina, Simona; Pinardi, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    This study describes a new model implementation for the Black Sea, which uses data assimilation, towards operational forecasting, based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean, Madec et al., 2012). The Black Sea domain is resolved with 1/27°×1/36° horizontal resolution (~3 km) and 31 z-levels with partial steps based on the GEBCO bathymetry data (Grayek et al., 2010). The model is forced by momentum, water and heat fluxes interactively computed by bulk formulae using high resolution atmospheric forcing provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecast (ECMWF). The initial condition is calculated from long-term climatological temperature and salinity 3D fields. Precipitation field over the basin has been computed from the climatological GPCP rainfall monthly data (Adler et al., 2003; Huffman et al., 2009), while the evaporation is derived from the latent heat flux. The climatological monthly mean runoff of the major rivers in the Black Sea is computed using the hydrological dataset provided by SESAME project (Ludvig et al., 2009). The exchange with Mediterranean Sea through the Bosporus Straits is represented by a surface boundary condition taking into account the barotropic transport calculated to balance the fresh water fluxes on monthly bases (Stanev and Beckers, 1999, Peneva et al., 2001). A multi-annual run 2011-2015 has been completed in order to describe the main characteristics of the Black Sea circulation dynamics and thermohaline structure and the numerical results have been validated using in-situ (ARGO) and satellite (SST, SLA) data. The Black Sea model represents also the core of the new Black Sea Forecasting System, implemented at CMCC operationally since January 2016, which produces at daily frequency 10-day forecasts, 3-days analyses and 1-day simulation. Once a week, the system is run 15-day in the past in analysis mode to compute the new optimal initial condition for the forecast cycle. The assimilation is performed by a

  11. Satellite observations of eddies in the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the present paper mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies in the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas are studied by means of satellite radiometer and radar images. Using these data makes it possible to investigate the vortical structures of a wide spatial range, from the basin scale through mesoscale to a small scale with a few kilometers in size. Over 2000 Envisat ASAR and ERS-2 SAR images with two-year time coverage (2009-2010) and spatial resolution of 75 m obtained in different parts of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Seas were applied to study submesoscale (with a diameter less than ca. 20 km) eddies in the basins mentioned. As a result of the analysis performed the role of different mechanisms (ones due to surfactant films, wave/current interactions and thermal fronts) in eddy visualization in SAR imagery was revealed. In every basin studied the main eddy characteristics such as number of eddies, frequency of their occurrence in SAR imagery, sign of vorticity, typical length scale and lifetime as well as spatial distribution patterns were investigated. Spatio-temporal parameters of the vortices were subjected to statistical analysis. Interannual and seasonal variabilities of the eddy parameters were traced. Hypotheses about the most important mechanisms of generation of the eddies observed were proposed. Among them there are barotropic, baroclinic and topographic instabilities, convection in the surface layer and heterogeneous wind forcing. Satellite infrared and visible images were used for retrieving statistical information on the Black Sea mesoscale vortical structures. The dataset used included ~5000 AVHRR NOAA Sea Surface Temperature (SST) images covering the entire Black Sea with time coverage since September, 2004 to December, 2010 and ~1500 MODIS Aqua (SST, normalized water-leaving radiance at 551 nm, chlorophyll-a concentration) images obtained in 2006-2010. Spatial resolution of the images was 1 km. Analysis performed revealed that numerous vortical

  12. Towards a system for sea state forecasts in the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone: the case of the storm of 07-08 february 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko; Dimitrova, Marieta

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the existing operational sea state forecast system of NIMH- BAS for sea state in the Black Sea and our current progress on the implementation of an additional component for the forecasts of wind waves in the Bulgarian coastal zone. Wind Waves and especially the extreme ones, occurring during severe storms are a major hazard for the coastal zone, causing significant damages to the infrastructure, threat for the human lives and also causing significant damages to the protected areas around the coast. The numerical model WAVEWATCH III is in use for wind waves forecasts for the entire Black Sea with horizontal resolution of 1/8 degree (roughly 14 kilometers), which is sufficient for the open Sea, but not enough for a detailed coastal forecast. For the purposes of the coastal forecasts and early warnings in case of severe storms we decided to implement SWAN (Simulating the Waves Near Shore)- development of TU- DELFT. In this paper we will describe the brief details about the coastal sea state f...

  13. Home Bodies and Wanderers: Sympatric Lineages of the Deep-Sea Black Coral Leiopathes glaberrima

    OpenAIRE

    Dannise V Ruiz-Ramos; Miles Saunders; Fisher, Charles R.; Baums, Iliana B.

    2015-01-01

    Colonial corals occur in a wide range of marine benthic habitats from the shallows to the deep ocean, often defining the structure of their local community. The black coral Leiopathes glaberrima is a long-lived foundation species occurring on carbonate outcrops in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Multiple color morphs of L. glaberrima grow sympatrically in the region. Morphological, mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal markers supported the hypothesis that color morphs constituted a single b...

  14. Zn and Ni Isotope Systematics in the Black Sea, an Analogue for Past Ocean Anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, S. H.; Vance, D.; Cameron, V.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Andersen, M. B.; Lyons, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Organic rich sediments, indicators of low bottom water oxygen, are often enriched in trace metals. Their concentrations in such sediments are thus used to probe past Earth surface conditions. Enrichment mechanisms are difficult to distinguish from concentrations alone, however. A range of processes fractionate metal stable isotopes, offering the potential to unpick these controls. The Black Sea is the classic modern analogue for past euxinia. Deep euxinic waters (dissolved sulfide ≤380mM) underlie a surface oxic layer and redoxcline at 80-250m. It is an ideal starting point to explore the behaviour of metal stable isotopes in low oxygen conditions. We report water column and sedimentary Zn and Ni data. A maximum in dissolved Zn (~3nM) occurs at the upper boundary of the redoxcline, probably reflecting cellular uptake above and sulfide co-precipitation below. Water column dissolved Ni concentrations remain within a narrow range throughout (9-12nM), with subtle variations in the redoxcline associated with Fe-Mn cycling and interaction with sulfide. Significant Zn and Ni isotopic variation (ca 1.5‰) is observed associated with these concentration variations. In the strongly sulfidic deep waters, Zn and Ni are homogeneous and isotopically heavy: [Zn] = 0.40 ± 0.05nM, δ66Zn = 0.96 ± 0.05‰, [Ni] = 10.7 ± 0.7nM, δ58Ni = 1.86 ± 0.16‰ (n=6, 1sd), suggesting preferential removal of light isotopes to the particulate phase. Sediments underlying oxic waters show no authigenic enrichment and isotope ratios close to crustal values (δ60Ni ~ 0.2‰, δ66Zn ~ 0.3‰). In contrast, Ni and Zn are enriched in sediments underlying the euxinic portion of the water column (by factors of 2-3). Authigenic Ni isotope values are light (δ60Niauth = 0.30 ± 0.21‰, n=13, 1sd) compared to the deep Black Sea water column, consistent with removal of light isotopes to the particulate phase. This may reflect sorption to Mn oxides, or co-precipitation with sulfide. Authigenic Zn

  15. Sulfur speciation and sulfide oxidation in the water column of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, George W., III; Church, Thomas M.; Powell, David

    We have applied sulfur speciation techniques to understand the chemistry and cycling of sulfur in Black Sea waters. The only reduced dissolved inorganic sulfur species detected (above the low minimum detection limits of the voltammetric methods employed) in the water column was hydrogen sulfide. The maximum concentration of sulfide (423 μM) is similar to previous reports. Using a cathodic stripping square wave voltammetry (CSSWV) method for nanomolar levels of sulfide, we determined the precise boundary between the "free" hydrogen sulfide (sulfidic) zone and the upper (oxic/suboxic) water column at the two stations studied. This boundary has apparently moved up by about 50 m in the past 20 years. Our results help demonstrate three chemically distinct zones of water in the central basin of the Black Sea: (1) the oxic [0-65 m], (2) the anoxic/nonsulfidic [65-100 m] and (3) the sulfidic [>100 m]. Sulfide bound to metals ("complexed" sulfide) is observed in both the oxic and anoxic/nonsulfidic zones of the water column. This supports previous studies on metal sulfide forms. From the electrochemical data, it is possible to estimate the strength of the complexation of sulfide to metals (log K = 10 to 11). Thiosulfate and sulfite were below our minimum detectable limit (MDL) of 50 nM using CSSWV. Elemental sulfur (MDL 5 nM) was detected below the onset of the hydrogen sulfide zone (90-100 m) with a maximum of 30-60 nM near 120 m. The sulfur speciation results for the Black Sea are lower by one order of magnitude or more than other marine systems such as the Cariaco Trench and salt marshes. New HPLC techniques were applied to detect thiols at submicromolar levels. The presence of thiols (2-mercaptoethylamine, 2-mercaptoethanol, N-acetylcysteine and glutathione) is correlated with the remineralization of organic matter at the oxic and anoxic/nonsulfidic interface. Water samples collected from the upper 50 m of the sulfidic zone showed significant sulfide oxidation on

  16. The timing of the Black Sea flood event: Insights from modeling of glacial isostatic adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Samuel L.; Lau, Harriet C. P.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Latychev, Konstantin

    2016-10-01

    We present a suite of gravitationally self-consistent predictions of sea-level change since Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the vicinity of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits that combine signals associated with glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and the flooding of the Black Sea. Our predictions are tuned to fit a relative sea level (RSL) record at the island of Samothrace in the north Aegean Sea and they include realistic 3-D variations in viscoelastic structure, including lateral variations in mantle viscosity and the elastic thickness of the lithosphere, as well as weak plate boundary zones. We demonstrate that 3-D Earth structure and the magnitude of the flood event (which depends on the pre-flood level of the lake) both have significant impact on the predicted RSL change at the location of the Bosphorus sill, and therefore on the inferred timing of the marine incursion. We summarize our results in a plot showing the predicted RSL change at the Bosphorus sill as a function of the timing of the flood event for different flood magnitudes up to 100 m. These results suggest, for example, that a flood event at 9 ka implies that the elevation of the sill was lowered through erosion by ∼14-21 m during, and after, the flood. In contrast, a flood event at 7 ka suggests erosion of ∼24-31 m at the sill since the flood. More generally, our results will be useful for future research aimed at constraining the details of this controversial, and widely debated geological event.

  17. Gelatinous macroplankton in the Black Sea in the autumn of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anninsky, B. E.; Finenko, G. A.; Datsyk, N. A.; Ignatyev, S. M.

    2013-11-01

    In October and November of 2010, the gelatinous macroplankton in the northwestern Black Sea and at the Crimean shelf was represented by the scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita, three species of ctenophores ( Beroe ovata, Mnemiopsis leidyi, and Pleurobrachia pileus), and three species of hydromedusae. A. aurita was more common at the shelf, M. leidyi and P. pileus prevailed at the deeper sea stations, and B. ovata was almost ubiquitous with a biomass from below 1 to 49 g/m2 A. aurita, which had an average biomass of 82-224 g/m2, was dominant at all the stations. M. leidyi, which had a biomass from below 1 to 115 g/m2, was recorded in October at only 14 of the 52 stations and in November at 20 of the 46 stations. The highest biomass of M. leidyi in October (105 to 116 g/m2) was recorded in the deep sea areas; in November, it was also the highest in these areas, but it reached at most 100 g/m2. The average daily ration of Aurelia ranged from 19.4 to 27.3 mg/m2 in October and from 7.0 to 17.2 mg/m2 in November; in both cases, it was insufficient to provide for the minimal physiological requirements. The average daily ration of the Mnemiopsis population (2.8-20.5 mg of zooplankton per m2) was invariably more than sufficient to provide for the minimal physiological requirements. Both predatory species together consumed less than 5% of the daily zooplankton production of the sea.

  18. Archaeal lipids and anaerobic oxidation of methane : A comparative study of the euxinic Black Sea and Cariaco Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Wakeham, S.G.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Black Sea and the Cariaco Basin are both large, euxinic marine basins in which methane concentrations are high and where anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important part of the carbon cycle. AOM can be recognized by lipid biomarkers that are specific to methanotrophic archaea involved a

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF GREAT SOIL GROUPS IN THE EAST BLACK SEA BASIN ACCORDING TO INTERNATIONAL SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    CUMHUR AYDINALP; EWART FITZPATRICK

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to classify great soil groups in the East Black Sea basin according to international soil classifi cation systems. 13 profi les of 3 great soil groups in this basin have been investigated and classifi ed according to system of FAO/UNESCO (1990), FitzPatrick (1988) and USDA Soil Taxonomy (1998) in this study.

  20. Impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis on Black Sea hydrology: Insights from hydrogen isotopes analysis on biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, I.; Reichart, G.-J.; Krijgsman, W.

    2013-01-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.96–5.33 Ma ago) was a dramatic oceanographic event, when evaporites kilometers thick precipitated in a desiccating Mediterranean basin, trapping more than 5% of the world's oceanic salt. Hydrological changes in the adjacent Black Sea and water exchange with the Medit

  1. Modeling the nitrogen cycling and plankton productivity in the Black Sea using a three-dimensional interdisciplinary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Nezlin, N.; Kostianoy, A.

    2004-01-01

    A six-compartment ecosystem model defined by a simple nitrogen cycle is coupled with a general circulation model in the Black Sea so as to examine the seasonal variability of the ecohydrodynamics. Model results show that the annual cycle of the biological productivity of the whole basin is character

  2. Anomalous dispersion of sea ice in the Fram Strait region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielski, A.; Badin, G.; Kaleschke, L.

    2015-03-01

    The single-particle dispersion of sea ice in the Fram Strait region is investigated using ice drift buoys deployed from 2002 to 2009 within the Fram Strait Cyclones and the Arctic Climate System Study campaigns. A new method to estimate the direction of the mean flow, based on a satellite drift product, is introduced. As a result, the bias in the dispersion introduced by the mean flow is eliminated considering only the displacements of the buoys in the cross-stream direction. Results show an absolute dispersion growing quadratically in time for the first 3 days and an anomalous dispersion regime exhibiting a strongly self-similar scaling following a 5/4 power law for time scales larger than 6 days persisting over the whole time series of length 32 days. The non-Gaussian distribution of the velocity fluctuations with a skewness of -0.15 and a kurtosis of 7.33 as well as the slope of the Lagrangian frequency spectrum between -2 and -1 are in agreement with the anomalous diffusion regime. Comparison with data from the International Arctic Buoy Program yields similar results with an anomalous dispersion starting after 10 days and persisting over the whole time series of length 50 days. The results suggest the presence of deformation and shear acting on the sea ice dispersion. The high correlation between the cross-stream displacements and the cross-stream wind velocities shows the important role of the wind as a source for the anomalous dispersion.

  3. The black disk to be observed in the Orear region

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I M

    2012-01-01

    It is argued that the very first signatures of the approach to the black disk asymptotical limit in hadron collisions may be observed in the differential cross section of elastic scattering. The exponentially decreasing with the angle (or $\\sqrt {|t|}$) regime beyond the diffraction peak will become replaced by an oscillatory behavior. Some estimates of energies where this can happen are presented.

  4. Jurassic domes in the North Sea - northern North Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the Jurassic of East Greenland, the Norwegian Shelf and the North Sea is remarkably similar. A major Middle Jurassic unconformity occurs in all three areas. In the North Sea it is commonly termed the `Mid-Cimmerian Unconformity` and is characterized by progressive truncation of the underlying section towards a centre at the triple junction between the Central Graben, Viking Graben and Moray Firth. Strata above the unconformity show a progressive Late Aalenian-Early Kimmeridgian onlap in the same direction. These relations have been interpreted as caused by Early Jurassic uplift and of a major thermal dome in the central North Sea, followed by Medial and Late Jurassic rifting, erosion, deflation and transgression of the dome. The East Greenland unconformity shows progressive truncation of underlying strata from south to north, and Bajocian to Callovian onlap in the same direction. The same pattern seems to be developed on the conjugate Norwegian margin. This suggests the possibility that the three unconformities have similar causes for their development. It is proposed that major rift domes formed in the Central North Sea and in the Greenland-Norway seaway in Early Jurassic times. The domes were eroded and gradually deflated during Medial Jurassic times and were finally submerged by the Late Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian. They were associated with volcanism and rifting which was delayed with respect to dome initiation. Roughly contemperaneous domes were present west of Britain, north of the Porcupine Seabight, and in Scania, southern Sweden, as reflected by development of asymmetrical unconformities showing progressive truncation of underlying strata, onlap of overlying Jurassic strata, and associated intrusive and extrusive volcanism. The domes are related to impingement of the heads of transient mantle plumes at the base of the lithosphere. The associated unconformities are thus of non-eustatic nature. Domal uplift and

  5. Upwelling-Induced Primary Productivity in Coastal Waters of the Black Sea: Impact on Algorithms for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Joel C.; Brink, Kenneth K.; Gawarkiewicz, Glen; Sosik, Heidi M.

    1997-01-01

    This research program was a collaborative effort to investigate the impact of rapid changes in the water column during coastal upwelling, on biological and optical properties. These properties are important for constructing region or event-specific algorithms for remote sensing of pigment concentration and primary productivity and for comparing these algorithms with those used for the development of large scale maps from ocean color. We successfully achieved the primary objective of this research project which was to study in situ the dynamics of rapid spatial and temporal changes in properties of the water column during, coastal upwelling off the Crimean Coast in the Black Sea. The work was a collaborative effort between a group of biological and physical oceanographers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and from two oceanographic research institutions in the Crimea, Ukraine, located near the study site, the Marine Hydrophysical Institute (MHI) and the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas (IBSS). The site was an ideal experimental model, both from a technical and economic standpoint, because of the predictable summer upwelling that occurs in the region and because of the availability of both a ship on call and laboratory and remote sensing facilities at the nearby marine institutes. We used a combination of shipboard measurements and remote sensing to investigate the physical evolution of rapid upwelling events and their impact on photoplankton and water column optical properties. The field work involved a two day cruise for mooring, deployment and a three day baseline survey cruise, followed by an eleven day primary cruise during, a summer upwelling event (anticipated by monitoring local winds and tracked by remote sensing imaging). An MHI ship was outfitted and used for these purposes.

  6. Participation in ICZM initiatives: critical aspects and lessons learnt from the Mediterranean and Black Sea experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriani, Stefano; Buono, Fabrizia; Tonino, Marco; Camuffo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Public participation is recognized as a necessary tool to ensure a successful implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) strategies and plans. This paper, based on the experiences carried out in the Mediterranean and in the Black Sea within the EU FP7 project PEGASO, presents some critical aspects and lessons learnt regarding participation in ICZM projects. The research shows that data availability, the complexity of data interpretation, an inadequate legal and cultural framework and the difficulties in promoting integration of all the components of coastal management within short term projects are all elements that if not properly considered since the beginning of the participatory process may hinder public participation effectiveness. Moreover the definition of the spatial scale of coastal phenomenon as well as the discrepancy between the local scale of coastal governance and the complex multi-scale nature of coastal systems remain highly critical aspects to be addressed.

  7. Data Assimilation and Sensitivity of the Black Sea Model to Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    An adjoint based technique is applied to a Shallow Water Model in order to estimate influence of the model's parameters on the solution. Among parameters the bottom topography, initial conditions, boundary conditions on rigid boundaries, viscosity coefficients and the amplitude of the wind stress tension are considered. Their influence is analyzed from different points of view. Two configurations have been analyzed: an academic case of the model in a square box and a more realistic case simulating Black Sea currents. It is shown in both experiments that the boundary conditions near a rigid boundary influence the most the solution. This fact points out the necessity to identify optimal boundary approximation during a model development.

  8. Romanian Coast of the Black Sea - Quality of Tourism Services and Choice Destination Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bulin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Romanian seaside is a summer destination for tourists Romans and not only, offering multiple holiday resorts. This paper propose to identify attitudes and perceptions of tourists on the quality of tourism services on the Romanian coast of the Black Sea. Authors is focused to measuring the perception of Romanian tourists on the quality of the Romanian seaside, the recovery of the tourism potential, the service personnel and appreciation of rates/quality balance. Also, we propose to identify key factors of choice of seaside destinations. The research hypothesis are: perceived quality of service is average to poor, coastal tourism potential is underexploited, the prices are high for the quality offered, and insufficiently trained service personnel; is the fact that the choice of holiday destination depends on a number of factors, not one critical.

  9. Duct occurrence and characteristics for Bulgarian Black sea shore derived from ECMWF data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkova, I.

    2015-12-01

    Non-standard propagation due to sharp gradients in tropospheric refraction is known to have significant impact on radar and communication systems working in microwave range. The formation of tropospheric ducts is the most severe deviation from the standard propagation conditions. The presented study reports results on the tropospheric ducts' occurrence and properties along the Bulgarian Black sea shore. The meteorology needed to reconstruct the refractivity profiles is derived from ECMWF current operational model, TL799L91, and refers to two-year period. Statistics of essential duct parameters for surface, surface-based and elevated ducts are reported for the summer months and overall duct statistics are given for the other seasons.

  10. Time series analysis of recent (1 ky) sediments of the euxinic slope of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, O. G.; Oaie, G.; Preoteasa, F.

    2012-04-01

    To reconstruct the past history of the euxinic environment of the Black Sea, a 0.5 m core containing unconsolidated sediments was collected at a dept of 600 m on the slope of Continental Platform of the Black Sea. The vertical profiles of both Cs-137 and Pb-210, as radiometricaly measured, allowed us to calculate a sedimentation ratio of 0.49 ± 0.03 mm/y, thus giving to the entire stratigraphic column an age of about 1 ky. By means of a fourth generation Computer Tomograph we have obtained a high resolution tomographic image of a longitudinal section through entire core evidencing the presence of about 250 parallel laminae (1 to 2.5 mm thick) consisting of an alternation of coccolithic and argillaceous mud. After image digitization, we have obtained the corresponding 3550 equidistant points time series (TS). After detrending, TS was analyzed by means of the Blackman-Tukey correlogram and subsequently decomposed in wavelet functions. The resulted correlogram evidenced multiple maxima, the most important ones corresponding to 307, 125, 35, 18, 9 and 7 years (at p <0.001). At the same time, the Morlet wavelet evolutionary spectra showed the presence of a bundle of cycles whose age, estimated to be between A.D. 1600 and 1800, could indicate some significant changes of the European environment, the end of the Little Ice Age being one of the possible explanations. At the same time, the relative constancy of the laminae thickness along entire sedimentary column testifies to a long term stationarity of the euxinic environment during the last thousand years, in concordance with the experimental data regarding both Mo and U vertical profiles, two important proxies of the euxinic medium.

  11. Ventilation of the Black Sea pycnocline on seasonal and interannual time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. IVANOV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a description of temporal variability of winter cooling conditions and estimation of effective cross-isopycnal mixing rates in the Black Sea. Data averaging versus salinity / sigma-t scale was used to filter effects of local dynamics. It is shown that traces of winter mixing events appear well preserved in the temperature-salinity structure, due to the peculiarities of the Black Sea where temperature often acts as a passive tracer with a smaller contribution to density as compared to salinity. Vertical distribution of the magnitudes of temperature oscillations indicates that the convection events have limited effects in modifying the structure of the middle and lower pycnocline on a seasonal time scale. However, long-term fluctuations are well recognised. The magnitudes of the seasonal and long-term temperature fluctuations are comparable only in the upper pycnocline. Three major cooling events can be distinguished from the record of the pycnocline temperature for the past 75 years. The intensive cooling occurred in the late 1920s - early 1930s, early 1950s and late 1980s - early 1990s. Partial renewal of the water of the cold intermediate layer core took place approximately once in two years. The period when convection causes erosion of the pycnocline lasts for only a week. It is shown that a lateral source of heat and salt exists for the upper pycnocline, where it is the cold intermediate water, and for the lower pycnocline, the layer below S@ 20.5, where this lateral source of salt and heat is maintained by disintegrating Bosphorus plume.

  12. Evolutionary melting pots: a biodiversity hotspot shaped by ring diversifications around the Black Sea in the Eastern tree frog (Hyla orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Leuenberger, Julien; Ghali, Karim; Zinenko, Oleksandr; Stöck, Matthias; Perrin, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Hotspots of intraspecific genetic diversity, which are of primary importance for the conservation of species, have been associated with glacial refugia, that is areas where species survived the Quaternary climatic oscillations. However, the proximate mechanisms generating these hotspots remain an open issue. Hotspots may reflect the long-term persistence of large refugial populations; alternatively, they may result from allopatric differentiation between small and isolated populations, that later admixed. Here, we test these two scenarios in a widely distributed species of tree frog, Hyla orientalis, which inhabits Asia Minor and southeastern Europe. We apply a fine-scale phylogeographic survey, combining fast-evolving mitochondrial and nuclear markers, with a dense sampling throughout the range, as well as ecological niche modelling, to understand what shaped the genetic variation of this species. We documented an important diversity centre around the Black Sea, composed of multiple allopatric and/or parapatric diversifications, likely driven by a combination of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex regional topography. Remarkably, this diversification forms a ring around the Black Sea, from the Caucasus through Anatolia and eastern Europe, with terminal forms coming into contact and partially admixing in Crimea. Our results support the view that glacial refugia generate rather than host genetic diversity and can also function as evolutionary melting pots of biodiversity. Moreover, we report a new case of ring diversification, triggered by a large, yet cohesive dispersal barrier, a very rare situation in nature. Finally, we emphasize the Black Sea region as an important centre of intraspecific diversity in the Palearctic with implications for conservation. PMID:27220555

  13. Wave modelling south of the Danube Delta in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen; Butunoiu, Dorin

    2015-04-01

    A multilevel wave modelling system, based on SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) spectral model, was implemented in the Black Sea and focused on the western coast. Model simulations have been performed for a 10-year time interval (1999-2008). Validations have been carried out against both satellite data and in situ measurements. A high resolution SWAN computational domain (100m x100m), which is focused on the coastal environment south of the Danube Delta, was also implemented. This coastal area includes Sacalin, which is a newly formed island in the Black Sea, south of the Saint George branch of the Danube. Initially, this was an island system, which consisted of two smaller islands, Greater Sacalin and Lesser Sacalin. In time, due to the enhanced sedimentary processes, the two islands merged into a single continuous landmass. The island has become the habitat of a great variety of rare species and for this reason it was declared an ecological reserve. In the high resolution computational domain, focused on the Sacalin Island, the effect of the currents induced by the Danube River outflow was also accounted in the model, together with some other processes specific to the coastal environment as diffraction, triad wave-wave interactions and wave induced set up. Considering the results of the ten-year SWAN model simulations with the modelling system covering the entire sea basin, the most relevant configurations of the environmental matrix, characteristic to this side of the sea, were defined. On this basis, by performing SWAN simulations in the high resolution coastal domain, the wave propagation patterns in the nearshore, together with some parameters related to the shoreline conditions, were evaluated. A great number of possible situations were analyzed. The most relevant correspond to different directions of the incoming waves (N, NE, E and SE, respectively) and significant wave energy conditions. The results provided by the modelling system indicate two different

  14. Reinventing the Baltic Sea Region: From the Hansa to the Eu-Strategy of 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael North

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The political changes of 1989 stimulated a new perception and perspective of the Baltic Sea Region. And this gained momentum with the Eastern Enlargement of the EU. The new situation encouraged research as well. In this context the “Baltic Sea” is not an unchangeable physical setting, but also a construction of different actors or protagonists. People and powers continuously reinvent the Baltic Sea Region. That is why; the following paper focuses on the different notions of the Baltic Sea Region from the Middle Ages up to now and also examines the recent EU-Strategy of this region.

  15. The black disk to be observed in the Orear region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2012-08-01

    It is argued that the very first signatures of the approach to the black disk asymptotical limit in hadron collisions may be observed in the differential cross section of elastic scattering. The exponentially decreasing with the angle (or √{|t|} ) regime beyond the diffraction peak will become replaced by an oscillatory behavior or by the power-like falloff. Some estimates of energies where this can happen are presented.

  16. The black disk to be observed in the Orear region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dremin, I.M., E-mail: dremin@td.lpi.ru [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-15

    It is argued that the very first signatures of the approach to the black disk asymptotical limit in hadron collisions may be observed in the differential cross section of elastic scattering. The exponentially decreasing with the angle (or {radical}(|t|) ) regime beyond the diffraction peak will become replaced by an oscillatory behavior or by the power-like falloff. Some estimates of energies where this can happen are presented.

  17. STUDY REGARDING TO AGGRESSIONS ON THE ECOSYSTEM DANUBE DELTA – BLACK SEA AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gr. IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Danube Delta has suffered damages of habitat and species loss caused by factors, including: construction of dams upstream have degraded obviously flooding regime; creation of agricultural and fishing enclosures which decreased the natural and original surfaces; extending artificial navigation channels that negatively affected the hydrological regime and water quality of lakes; increase of nutrients in the water, industrial pollution and accumulate effluents that led to the reduction of plant and bird species; attempt to exploit quartz sand, very pure and fine, the sea levees, although they were protected as nature reserves because of the specific morphology and sub-Mediterranean vegetation covering them; tourism and illegal fishing; mismanagement of resources of reed and fish. The fact is that there was a slight improvement for the marine ecosystem, reported since the early 90s. At present, the area of the Danube Delta - Black Sea is developing sustainable, in terms of medium and economic perspective. In my study I used comparative methods, investigations, direct observations, measurements, calculations and actual data, obtained from surveys and direct observations, from prestigious, specialized and authorized institutions.

  18. Investigation of the shelf break and continental slope in the Western part of the Black Sea using acoustic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutu, F.; Ion, G.; Jugaru Tiron, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Black Sea is a large marginal sea surrounded by a system of Alpine orogenic chains, including the Balkanides-Pontides, Caucasus, Crimea and North Dobrogea located to the south, northeast, north and northwest, respectively (Dinu et al., 2005). The north-western part of the Black Sea is the main depocentre for sediment supply from Central Europe via the Danube River, but also from Eastern Europe through the Ukrainian rivers Dniepr, Dniestr and Southern Bug (Popescu et al., 2004). The shelfbreak is located at water depths of 120-140 m southward of the Danube Canyon, and up to 170 m northward of the canyon possibly due to recent faulting which is very common in this area. The continental slope is dissected by numerous canyons, each of which is fed by several tributaries. The Danube Canyon (also known as Viteaz Canyon) is a large shelf-indenting canyon located in the north-western Black Sea and connected to the youngest channel-levee system of the Danube Fan (Popescu et al., 2004). The acoustic methods are a useful way for investigate the shelf break and the continental slope giving us information about landslides on the continental slope, the topography of the investigated area, the sedimentary zones affected by instability and to quantify the geometry of the underwater landslides. The measurements made on the continental slope from north-western part of the Black Sea gave us the possibility to make a digital terrain model. After processing the data the model offer information about the main access ways of the sediments through gravitational slide on the submarines canyons, with forming of turbidity currents, debris flows and also other transport/transformation phenomena of the sediments on the continental slope like submarine landslides and submarine collapse. References Dinu, C., Wong, H.K., Tambrea, D., Matenco, L., 2005. Stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the Romanian Black Sea shelf. Tectonophysics 410, 417-435. Popescu, I., Lericolais, G., Panin

  19. Distribution of heavy metals and nutrients in rainwater in coastal regions between the southern Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Changling; ZHANG Guosen; REN Hongbo; ZHANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    Rainwater samples were collected in series in Qianliyan Island (southern Yellow Sea) and Shengsi Archipelago (East China Sea) between May 2000 and May 2002, chemical analysis for pH values,concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd) and nutrients (NH4+, NO3-, PO43-, SiO32-) were performed.Results indicate that concentrations of most of the heavy metals and nutrients in rainwater show clear seasonal variation, i.e. high level in winter and low level in summer. Regionally, concentrations are higher in the southern Yellow Sea than in the East China Sea, but the annual input of heavy metals into oceans by wet deposition is similar in both stations. However, the input of nutrients by wet deposition in the East China Sea is 2-3 times higher than that in the southern Yellow Sea. In individual, Pb and PO43- are input to the sea mainly by dry deposition; whereas Cu, Zn, Cd and N compounds are input dominantly by wet deposition, the N/P ratios in the rainwater from two stations are much higher than those in seawater, showing a significant impact of atmospheric wet deposition on marine production and biogeochemical circulation of nutrients in these sea regions.

  20. A regional ocean circulation model for the mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic Basin: implications for black shale formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. M. Topper

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High concentrations of organic matter accumulated in marine sediments during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs in the Cretaceous. Model studies examining these events invariably make use of global ocean circulation models. In this study, a regional model for the North Atlantic Basin during OAE2 at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary has been developed. A first order check of the results has been performed by comparison with the results of a recent global Cenomanian CCSM3 run, from which boundary and initial conditions were obtained. The regional model is able to maintain tracer patterns and to produce velocity patterns similar to the global model. The sensitivity of the basin tracer and circulation patterns to changes in the geometry of the connections with the global ocean is examined with three experiments with different bathymetries near the sponges. Different geometries turn out to have little effect on tracer distribution, but do affect circulation and upwelling patterns. The regional model is also used to test the hypothesis that ocean circulation may have been behind the deposition of black shales during OAEs. Three scenarios are tested which are thought to represent pre-OAE, OAE and post-OAE situations. Model results confirm that Pacific intermediate inflow together with coastal upwelling could have enhanced primary production during OAE2. A low sea level in the pre-OAE scenario could have inhibited large scale black shale formation, as could have the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Seaway in the post-OAE scenario.

  1. Tectonics of the Central Anatolia Plateau between the Black Sea and the East Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Fernandez-Blanco, David; Willett, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    The Central Anatolia Plateau, focus point of the TopoEurope Vertical Anatolia Movement Project, is an elevated area (ca. 1.5km) with fairly smooth topography bounded to the N and to the S by mountain ranges (Pontides and Taurus) and flanked by marine domains (Black Sea and Cilicia Basin-Eastern Mediterranean). Towards the south the Cilicia Basin passes to the Island of Cyprus and eventually to the Cyprus subduction zone and African plate. To constrain the evolution of the CAP from its birth in the Miocene to present, we present the evolution of an upper crustal section stretching from the Black Sea to Cyprus with particular focus on a 350km long segment from the central part of the Plateau (Tüz Gölü) to the Cilicia Basin. This entire area occupies an upper plate position with respect to the Cyprus subduction zone. Tectonics from Early to Late Miocene times were fairly simple and characterized by a gently southward dipping basement experiencing generalized subsidence. Depositional environments gradually changed from continental in the north to shallow marine in the south. The overall tectonic regime during this stage is poorly constrained. In the Late Miocene the entire area of the future CAP began moving upward. At the same time, subsidence continued in the Cilicia basin. Uplift above sea level in the south is nicely recorded by the termination of marine sedimentation and the onset of erosion. Dominant tectonic structures during this stage are associated with N-S shortening. The largest structures caused the formation of the large S-dipping monocline characteristics of S Turkey. The coexistence of upward and downward movements (in the CAP and in the Cilicia basin respectively) as well as the dominant contractional regime suggest that the development of the CAP is related to dynamic changes in the Cyprus subduction zone. We validate this hypothesis with 2D thermo-mechanically coupled models. We demonstrate that the growth of the upper plate forearc basin system

  2. Integrated Prevention and Control System for Soil Erosion in Typical Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-ying; CAI Qiang-guo; CHEN Sheng-yong; HE Ji-jun

    2012-01-01

    The black soil region of Northeast China is one of the most important food production bases and commodity grain bases in China. However, the continual loss and degradation of precious black soil resources has led to direct threats to national food security and regional sustainable development. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize integrated prevention and control experience of small watersheds in black soil region of Northeast China. Tongshuang small watershed, a typical watershed in rolling hills of typical black soil areas in Northeast China, is selected as the study area. Based on nearly 50 years’ experience in prevention and control of soil and water loss, the structures and overall benefits of an integrated prevention and control system for soil and water loss are investigated. Then, the ’three defense lines’ tri-dimensional protection system with reasonable allocation of different types of soil and water control measures from the hill top to gully is systematically analyzed. The first line on the top hill can weaken and block uphill runoff and sediment, hold water resources and improve soil property. The second line on the hill can truncate slope length, slow down the runoff velocity and reduce erosion energy. The third line in the gully is mainly composed of waterfall engineering, which can inhibit soil erosion and restore land resources. The ’three defense lines’ system is feasible for soil and water loss control of small watersheds in the typical black soil region of Northeast China. Through the application of the in Tongshuang small watershed, There are effective improvements in ecological conditions in Tongshuang small watershed after the application of ’three defense lines’ soil and water control system. Moreover, the integrated treatment paradigm for soil and water loss in typical black soil region is compared with that in loess region. The results of this study could offer references and experiences for other small watersheds in

  3. Numerical modeling of the central Black Sea ecosystem functioning during the eutrophication phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, M.; Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.

    2008-03-01

    A one-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the central Black Sea at the end of the 1980s when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and dynamics of the system. The physical model is the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and the biogeochemical model describes the foodweb from bacteria to gelatinous carnivores through 24 state variables including three groups of phytoplankton: diatoms, small phototrophic flagellates and dinoflagellates, two zooplankton groups: micro- and mesozooplankton, two groups of gelatinous zooplankton: the omnivorous and carnivorous forms, an explicit representation of the bacterial loop: bacteria, labile and semi-labile dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter. The model simulates oxygen, nitrogen, silicate and carbon cycling. In addition, an innovation of this model is that it explicitly represents processes in the anoxic layer. Biogeochemical processes in anaerobic conditions have been represented using an approach similar to that used in the modeling of diagenetic processes in the sediments lumping together all the reduced substances in one state variable [Soetaert, K., Herman, P., 1996. A model of early diagenetic processes from the shelf to abyssal depths. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60 (6) 1019-1040]. In this way, processes in the upper oxygenated layer are fully coupled with anaerobic processes in the deep waters, allowing to perform longterm simulations. The mathematical modeling of phytoplankton and zooplankton dynamics, detritus and the microbial loop is based on the model developed by Van den Meersche et al. [Van den Meersche, K., Middelburg, J., Soetaert, K., van Rijswijk P.H.B., Heip, C., 2004. Carbon-nitrogen coupling and algal-bacterial interactions during an experimental bloom: Modeling a 13c tracer experiment. Limnology and Oceanography 49 (3), 862-878] and tested in the modeling of mesocosm

  4. [New settlers comb jellies Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz) and Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 and their influence on the pelagic ecosystem of the northeastern part of the Black Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiganova, T A; Musaeva, E I; Bulgakova, Iu V; Mirzoian, Z A; MartynIuk, M L

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the condition of pelagic ecosystem of northeastern Black Sea influenced by expansion of a new settler Beroe ovata in 1999-2001. Expansion of B. ovata considerably decreased the population of another new settler Mnemiopsis leidyi that deformed the Black Sea ecosystem for over a decade. Reduction of M. leidyi population limited its influence on the ecosystem and, consequently, we observed reestablishment of the main components of the Black Sea pelagic ecosystem--zooplankton and fish, their spawn and larvae. The relationship between annual and seasonal variability of the population and biomass of the both new settlers M. leidyi and B. ovata are discussed. PMID:12712584

  5. Comparison ecological characteristics of mound-building mouse (mus spicilegus in two natural hotbeds of tularemia at North-West coast of the Black sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. T. Rusev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of ecology-epizootic monitoring of North-West coast of the Black sea carried out in wintering seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2011 testifies the basic role of the Mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 as a carrier of Francisella tularensis. Spatial distribution of the Mound-building mouse strongly dependson a biotope, geographical region and weather conditions of a specific season. Mice nests in the storage mounds are located normally at a depth of 20–40 cm under the food storage chamber. Average number of the mice in storage mounds is 3.08 ± 1.54 in the south of investigated region and 3.88 ± 2.63 – in the NE of the region.

  6. Foraging Responses of Black-Legged Kittiwakes to Prolonged Food-Shortages around Colonies on the Bering Sea Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Rosana; Orben, Rachael A.; Suryan, Robert M.; Irons, David B.; Roby, Daniel D.; Harding, Ann M. A.; Young, Rebecca C.; Benoit-Bird, Kelly; Ladd, Carol; Renner, Heather; Heppell, Scott; Phillips, Richard A.; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that changes in southeastern Bering Sea foraging conditions for black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) have caused shifts in habitat use with direct implications for population trends. To test this, we compared at-sea distribution, breeding performance, and nutritional stress of kittiwakes in three years (2008–2010) at two sites in the Pribilof Islands, where the population has either declined (St. Paul) or remained stable (St. George). Foraging conditions were assessed from changes in (1) bird diets, (2) the biomass and distribution of juvenile pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in 2008 and 2009, and (3) eddy kinetic energy (EKE; considered to be a proxy for oceanic prey availability). In years when biomass of juvenile pollock was low and patchily distributed in shelf regions, kittiwake diets included little or no neritic prey and a much higher occurrence of oceanic prey (e.g. myctophids). Birds from both islands foraged on the nearby shelves, or made substantially longer-distance trips overnight to the basin. Here, feeding was more nocturnal and crepuscular than on the shelf, and often occurred near anticyclonic, or inside cyclonic eddies. As expected from colony location, birds from St. Paul used neritic waters more frequently, whereas birds from St. George typically foraged in oceanic waters. Despite these distinctive foraging patterns, there were no significant differences between colonies in chick feeding rates or fledging success. High EKE in 2010 coincided with a 63% increase in use of the basin by birds from St. Paul compared with 2008 when EKE was low. Nonetheless, adult nutritional stress, which was relatively high across years at both colonies, peaked in birds from St. Paul in 2010. Diminishing food resources in nearby shelf habitats may have contributed to kittiwake population declines at St Paul, possibly driven by increased adult mortality or breeding desertion due to high foraging effort and nutritional stress. PMID:24671108

  7. GHRSST Level 4 DMI_OI North Sea and Baltic Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the Danish...

  8. Some Interesting Behaviour of Accreting Particles in the Gap Region of Black Hole Accretion Discs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ding-Xiong; XIAO Kan; LEI Wei-Hua

    2001-01-01

    Some interesting behaviour of accreting particles in the gap region between the horizon of the Kerr black hole and the inner edge of the surrounding disc is investigated. The following results are obtained. (i) Spacetime coincidence of the maximum of angular velocity of accreting particles and that of the black hole horizon is extended to the more general disc-accretion. (ii) The possibility is discussed of negative energy of accreting particles in prograde orbit inside the ergosphere of the Kerr black hole, which is surrounded by strong enough magnetic field.

  9. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  10. GHRSST Level 4 EUR Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily by Ifremer/CERSAT (France) using optimal...

  11. The Eye of the Storm: Light from the Inner Plunging Region of Black Hole Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yucong; Narayan, Ramesh; Kulkarni, Akshay K; Penna, Robert F; McClintock, Jeffrey E

    2012-01-01

    It is generally thought that the light coming from the inner plunging region of black hole accretion discs contributes negligibly to the disc's overall spectrum, i.e. the plunging fluid is swallowed by the black hole before it has time to radiate. In the standard disc model used to fit X-ray observations of accretion discs, the plunging region is assumed to be perfectly dark. However, numerical simulations that include the full physics of the magnetized flow predict that a small fraction of the disc's total luminosity emanates from this plunging region. In this work, we investigate the observational consequences of this neglected inner light. We compute radiative transfer based disc spectra that correspond to 3D general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulated discs (which produce light inside their plunging regions). In the context of black hole spin estimation, we find that this neglected inner light only has a modest effect (this bias is less than typical observational systematic errors). For rapidly spi...

  12. Economic Research on Ecological Environment of Frigid Region with Black Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun’e; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Suihua City in Heilongjiang Province is located in the heart of the frigid region with black earth and it has created abundant green property resources. However,the environmental issue of this place has caused wide attention,so the government should make full use of various means to solve the environment problem and protect the ecology in this region. Among the measures taken by the government,the tax means is the most effective economic device to solve the environmental problem. Economic means supplemented by lawful and administrative measures should be adopted to solve the ecological environmental problems in the frigid region with black earth.

  13. Biological parameters and feeding behaviour of invasive whelk Rapana venosa Valenciennes, 1846 in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hacer Saglam; Ertug Düzgünes

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine length-weight relationships, growth type and feeding behavior of the benthic predator Rapa whelk at the coast of Camburnu, south-eastern Black Sea. Methods:Rapa whelk was monthly collected by dredge sampling on the south-eastern Black Sea at 20 m depth. The relationships between morphometric parameters of Rapa whelk were described by linear and exponential models. The allometric growth of each variable relative to shell length (SL) was calculated from the function Y=aSLb or logY=loga+blogSL. The functional regression b values were tested by t-test at the 0.05 significance level if it was significantly different from isometric growth. The total time spent on feeding either on mussel tissue or live mussels was recorded for each individual under controlled conditions in laboratory. Results:The length-weight relationships showed positive allometric growth and no inter-sex variability. Body size in the male population was significantly higher than in the individuals of the female. All characters in males and females showed a trend towards allometry rather than isometry. While the total time spent feeding increased with increasing prey size the total time that Rapana venosa spent feeding decreased with increasing Rapa whelk size. The total average feeding time needed by Rapa whelks was 160 min. But they took 310 min on live mussels in 27-28 °C in the laboratory conditions. Conclusions: Length and weight relationships, growth type, total time spent feeding of this species were explained in details for this region. It would be useful to sustainable management in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey. The results about the feeding behaviour of this species will contribute to the understanding of the role of this species within the ecosystem.

  14. 15 CFR 918.5 - Eligibility, qualifications, and responsibilities-Sea Grant Regional Consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-State approach to solving problems or meeting needs relating to ocean, Great Lakes, and coastal... above as evaluated by a site review team composed of members of the Sea Grant Review Panel, the Office... Regional Consortium candidate's Sea Grant Program must be relevant to regional opportunities and...

  15. Comparing tide gauge observations to regional patterns of sea-level change (1961–2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Wada, Y.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Although the global mean sea-level budget for the20th century can now be closed, the understanding of sealevelchange on a regional scale is still limited. In this studywe compare observations from tide gauges to regional patternsfrom various contributions to sea-level change to seehow much of the re

  16. State of the marine environment in the South Asian seas region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Ali, M.M.; Bhuiyan, A; Hossain, M.M.; Sivalingam, P.M.; Subasinghe, S.; Tirmizi, N

    stream_size 45 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name UNEP_Regional_Seas_Rep_Stud_1990_123.pdf.txt stream_source_info UNEP_Regional_Seas_Rep_Stud_1990_123.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  17. Genetic Differentiation between Mullus barbatus from the Western Part of the Black Sea andMullus surmuletus (Pisces, Mullidae from the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya P. Ivanova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of two species Mullus barbatus from the western part of Black Sea (Varna and M. surmuletus from the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki were investigated using the electrophoretic data from enzymatic systems, codifying for 15 putative loci, and the patterns of general muscle proteins (PROT coded from nine loci. Several loci PROT- 4*, PROT-5* and PROT-8* as well as two mMDH and two sMDH loci, and LDH-A* showed different electrophoretic patterns among species and can be used as species-specific markers. Only one esterase locus (EST-9* was found to be polymorphic for both species. The remaining enzymes and proteins were monomorphic. In this study for the first time existence of hybrids between two species were reported. Hybrids were registered in the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki as well in the northeastern part of Black Sea (Balshoj Utrish using electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing methods. Genetic distance D Nei (0.526 and time of divergence (tNei = 3 215 000 years between M. barbatus (Varna Bay and M. surmuletus (Thessaloniki give evidence for existence of these two well diverged species in one genus.

  18. Report on assessing trawling impact in regional seas

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Bastardie, Francois; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene; Eigaard, Ole; Gümüs, Aysun; HINTZEN Niels T.; Kavadas, Stefanos; Laffargue, Pascal; Mengual, Baptiste; Notti, Emilio; Papadoupoulou, Nadia; Polet, Hans; Reid, David; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Rochet, Marie-joelle

    2014-01-01

    Baltic Sea Benthic ecosystem impacts from demersal fishery in the western Baltic is assumed to come mainly from Nephrops trawling in the central and southern Kattegat, mussel dredging in the Belt Sea, and mixed cod trawling in the western Baltic Sea.These fisheries both impact the seabed, as well as produce substantial amounts of discards. The western Baltic Sea offer a unique opportunity to analyse the benthic effects of fishingthanks to the closure of Øresund to towed gears since the 192...

  19. Mo-Isotopes in the Oceans and a Case Study From the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, C.; Nagler, T. F.; Boettcher, M.; Kramers, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    Because of an increasing number of Mo isotope fractionation data, the geochemical cycle of Mo especially in the recent oceans is now better understood. Data presented here were determined using a Nu instruments MC-ICPMS and double spike techniques (external reproducibility generally below 0.1 permil (2s.d.) on 98Mo/95Mo). Mo isotopes are homogenous in the oceans (+2.3 delta 98Mo/95Mo relative to JMC in-house standard) at present day resolution. All data are therefore given in delta notation relative to Mean Ocean water Mo (MOMO). Mo-Sources: Continental rocks, assumed to represent the riverrhine input, show a narrow range of Mo isotope compositions (-2.0 to -2.3 permil) close to the in-house standard solution. Oxic Mo-sinks: Pelagic sediments and recent Fe-Mn crust surfaces show lighter Mo isotope compositions (-2.7 to -3.2 permil). In addition, to depth profiles through thick sections of Fe-Mn crusts also yield uniform Mo isotope compositions (average of -2.9 and -3.2) over the last 60Ma implying a homogenous isotope composition in ocean water over this time period. This makes Mo different from other oceanic proxies since the large variations in environmental parameters seem to have not affected Mo. We explain the observed general offset of about 3 permil from ocean water with an equilibrium fractionation between major and minor Mo species in the water column, of which the latter are lighter and can be scavenged more efficiantly due to higher coordination numbers. Suboxic Mo-sinks: The balancing heavier Mo isotope composition with respect to the input can be found in recent suboxic sediments from open ocean basins, which display variable values but are all heavier than the input (-0.7 to -1.6 permil). The influence of Low-T hydrothermal activity on the Mo isotope budget in the oceans is still to be tested. Mo isotopes in the Black-Sea: Because of its limited water exchange with the open oceans, the high surface freshwater content (1/3) and its widespread bottom

  20. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  1. Effect of diesel fuel pollution on the lipid composition of some wide-spread Black sea algae and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nechev, J.T.; Stefanov, K.L.; Popov, S.S. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Khotimchenko, S.V. [Inst. of Marine Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Ivanova, A.P. [Inst. of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova-Konaklieva, S.D. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Higher Medical School, Sofia (Bulgaria); Andreev, S. [Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2002-04-01

    Two green algae (Ulva rigida and Cladophora coelothrix), the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the snail Rapana thomasiana from the Bulgarian Black Sea shore have been treated with diesel fuel (100 mg l{sup -1}) in an aquarium with sea-water for three days. The lipids and their fatty acid changes have been examined. Significant changes have been observed mainly in the polar lipids and in the saturation of the fatty acids. These changes appeared to be bigger in the evolutionary less advanced species from both groups of marine organisms - algae and invertebrates (Ulva rigida and Mytilus galloprovincialis respectively). The data obtained could be used for a biomonitoring of the pollution. (orig.)

  2. Investigations at regional scales of reconstruct sea level variability over the past 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Meyssignac, B.; Llovel, W.; Cazenave, A. A.; Rogel, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sea level rise is a major consequence of global warming, which threatens many low-lying, highly populated coastal regions of the world. In such regions, sea level rise amplifies other stresses due to natural phenomena (e.g., sediment load-induced ground subsidence in deltaic areas, vertical ground motions due to tectonics, volcanism and post-glacial rebound, etc.) or human activities (e.g., ground subsidence due to ground water pumping and/or oil extraction, urbanisation, etc.). Observations for the recent decades from tide gauges and satellite altimetry show that sea level rise is far from being geographically uniform. Here we present an analysis of decadal / multi-decadal sea level variations in a number of selected regions: Tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean region. For that purpose, we use a reconstruction of past sea level -last 50 years- based on the joint statistical analysis of tide gauge records and gridded sea level from an ocean circulation model. We highlight the sea level trends over the past 50 years in each region. Comparison between reconstructed sea-level trends with tide gauge records at sites not included in the reconstruction shows general good agreement, suggesting that regional trend patterns infer from the reconstruction are realistic (in addition, reconstructed sea-level agrees well with altimeter measurements since 1993). We find above-global average sea level rise since 1950 at several islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (Funafuti, Samoa, Kiribati, Cook Islands). Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses are performed for each region to describe accurately the spatio-temporal interannual variability. We also compute spatial trend patterns in thermal expansion to determine which part of the observed regional sea level variability can be attributed to change in ocean temperature.

  3. Identifying depositional and post-depositional processes using high-resolution elemental distribution in sedimentary cores from the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, G.; Tamburini, F.; Ariztegui, D.; Hajdas, I.; Wacker, L.; Mart, Y.; Spezzaferri, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is an extremely complex system, subdivided in several basins interconnected by often very shallow straits and sills. As a result, its sediments can amplify the geochemical signal of both climate and sea level changes. Thus, together with its eastern marginal basins - the Marmara and Black Seas - the Mediterranean Sea provides us with a natural laboratory for paleoenvironmental studies. Climatically-driven changes in paleoenvironmental conditions are often reflected in the relative abundance of major and minor elements (e.g., Wehausen and Brumsack, 1998). Hence, their variation in marine sedimentary sequences may provide high-resolution records of past environments. Here we present two examples of ultra-high resolution geochemical studies on sedimentary cores from the upper Pleistocene-Holocene of the Eastern Mediterranean (core SIN97-01GC) and Black Sea (core MedEx05-10), and their application in paleoceanographic reconstructions. Ultra high-resolution qualitative analyses of major and minor elements (Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, Al, Sr, Cl, Ti) were performed on macroscopic contiguous samples (average spacing between analytical points was 0.35 mm) by X-ray microfluorescence (μ-XRF), using an EDAX Eagle III XPL μprobe with an analytical spot size of 50 μm. The geochemical characterization of core SIN97-01GC (Cretan Ridge, Eastern Mediterranean) provides evidence of the diagenetic alteration of sapropel S1. Spectral analysis on this very high-resolution proxy record further allowed us to identify high-frequency millennial to decennial-scale solar cycles. The latter suggests that climate in the Mediterranean region during sapropel S1 deposition was paced by solar variability even at short periodicities (Gennari et al., 2008). The elemental distribution on core MedEx05-10 located in the south-western Black Sea shelf allows to separate two main intervals. According to the Ca and Ti/Ca contents, that reflect variations in biogenic/authigenic calcite versus

  4. Survival of the fittest: phosphorus burial in the sulfidic deep Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Peter; Dijkstra, Nikki; Behrends, Thilo; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    The Black Sea is characterized by permanently anoxic and sulfidic deep waters. Studies of the mechanisms of P burial in such a setting can be used to improve our understanding of P cycling in modern coastal systems undergoing eutrophication and ancient oceans during periods of anoxia in Earth's past. Here, we present phosphorus and iron (Fe) pools as determined in surface sediments along a transect from oxic shallow waters to sulfidic deep waters in the northwestern Black Sea, using a combination of bulk chemical analyses and micro-scale X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μXAS). We show that under oxic bottom water conditions, ferric iron oxides (Fe(III)ox) in surficial sediment efficiently scavenge dissolved phosphate from pore waters. Under these conditions, Fe(III)ox-bound P constitutes the main P pool at the sediment surface, but rapidly declines with depth in the sediment due to anoxic diagenesis. The transition from shallow (oxic) to deep (sulfidic) waters along the depth transect is reflected in a slight increase in the fraction of organic P. We also show evidence for authigenic calcium phosphate formation under sulfidic conditions at relatively low dissolved PO4 concentrations. Furthermore, we provide spectroscopic evidence for the presence of Fe(II)-Mn(II)-Mg-P minerals in sediments of the sulfidic deep basin. We hypothesize that these minerals are formed as a result of input of Fe(III)ox-P from shallower waters and subsequent transformation in either the water column or sediment. This finding suggests an unexpected strength of Fe-P shuttling from the shelf to the deep basin. While the presence of Fe-P species in such a highly sulfidic environment is remarkable, further analysis suggests that this P pool may not be quantitatively significant. In fact, our results indicate that some of the P that is interpreted as Fe-bound P based on chemical extraction may in fact be Ca-associated PO4 consisting of a combination of fish debris

  5. Inorganic nutrients, sulfide and oxygen profiles from R/V KNORR in the Black Sea from 19880514 to 19880725 (NODC Accession 9400101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection contains inorganic nutrient chemistry, sulfide and oxygen data collected during cruises 2 through 5 of the 1988 Black Sea Oceanographic...

  6. PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME GREEN AND RED MACROPHYTE ALGAE FROM THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA LITTORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Negreanu-Pîrjol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Algae are a group of organisms, Thallophytes, containing specific bioactive compounds (i.e. brominated phenols, heterocyclic oxygen compounds, sterols, terpenes, polysaccharides. Their excessive growth has negative consequences on marine organisms; on the other hand, they have a crucial role in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agriculture. In this paper were studied the main physical-chemical characteristics correlated with the biological specificity of three species of multicellular algae, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva rigida (green, Ceramium rubrum (red, frequently encountered along the Romanian Black Sea coast. Generally mixtures of thallophytes algae from the Black Sea were collected, processed and characterized. Density, pH, conductivity, anions, loss on drying, ash, total nitrogen, protein, lipids, carbohydrates, carotenoids were determined. The results emphasized the possibility of using these marine resources as biofertilizer in agriculture.

  7. Sulina and Danube-Black Sea Channels: Competitors or Allies on Cargo Transport in South-Eastern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The two river channels which connect the Black Sea to the inland Romanian area, have constituted since the beginning of their building two very important transport routes for the cargo and passenger traffic (Sulina that have connected Black Sea to the internal ports of Romania, thus representing ”transport highways” of the Romanian economy. The present study tries to present the chronological evolution of these two shipping routes, regarding their importance to the cargo traffic, as well as the financial policy imposed by the administration of these channels. We will present and analyze retrospectively the major elements regarding the administration of these channels, a comparative analysis of the role of these two channels in the river cargo transport, consequently trying to predict a future evolution of these two river communication routes.

  8. Factors influencing 14C concentrations of algal and archaeal lipids and their associated sea surface temperature proxies in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Stephanie; Rethemeyer, Janet; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Wacker, Lukas; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the preservation and deposition history of organic molecules is crucial for the understanding of paleoenvironmental information contained in their abundance ratios such as Uk‧37 and TEX86 used as proxies for sea surface temperature (SST). Based on their relatively high refractivity, alkenones and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) can survive postdepositional processes like lateral transport, potentially causing inferred SSTs to be misleading. Likewise, selective preservation of alkenones and GDGTs may cause biases of the SST proxies themselves and can lead to decoupling of both proxy records. Here we report compound-specific radiocarbon data of marine biomarkers including alkenones, GDGTs, and low molecular weight (LMW) n-fatty acids from Black Sea sediments deposited under different redox regimes to evaluate the potentially differential preservation of both biomarker classes and its effect on the SST indices Uk‧37 and TEX86. The decadal Δ14C values of alkenones, GDGTs, and LMW n-fatty acids indicate similar preservation under oxic, suboxic, and anoxic redox regimes and no contribution of pre-aged compounds, e.g., by lateral supply. Moreover, similar 14C concentrations of crenarchaeol, alkenones, and LMW n-fatty acids imply that the thaumarchaeotal GDGTs preserved in these sediments are produced in the euphotic zone rather than in subsurface/thermocline waters. However, we observe biomarker-based SSTs that strongly deviate (ΔSST up to 8.4 °C) from in situ measured mean annual SSTs in the Black Sea. This is not due to redox-dependent differential biomarker preservation as implied by their Δ14C values and spatial SST pattern. Since contributions from different sources can largely be excluded, the deviation of the Uk‧37 and TEX86 proxy-derived SSTs from in situ SSTs requires further study of phylogenetic and other yet unknown environmental controls on alkenone and GDGT lipid distributions in the Black Sea.

  9. Influence of coupling on atmosphere, sea ice and ocean regional models in the Ross Sea sector, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdain, Nicolas C. [LGGE, UMR 5183, CNRS-UJF, Grenoble (France); LEGI, UMR 5519, CNRS-UJF-INPG, Grenoble (France); Mathiot, Pierre; Barnier, Bernard [LEGI, UMR 5519, CNRS-UJF-INPG, Grenoble (France); Gallee, Hubert [LGGE, UMR 5183, CNRS-UJF, Grenoble (France)

    2011-04-15

    Air-sea ice-ocean interactions in the Ross Sea sector form dense waters that feed the global thermohaline circulation. In this paper, we develop the new limited-area ocean-sea ice-atmosphere coupled model TANGO to simulate the Ross Sea sector. TANGO is built up by coupling the atmospheric limited-area model MAR to a regional configuration of the ocean-sea ice model NEMO. A method is then developed to identify the mechanisms by which local coupling affects the simulations. TANGO is shown to simulate realistic sea ice properties and atmospheric surface temperatures. These skills are mostly related to the skills of the stand alone atmospheric and oceanic models used to build TANGO. Nonetheless, air temperatures over ocean and winter sea ice thickness are found to be slightly improved in coupled simulations as compared to standard stand alone ones. Local atmosphere ocean feedbacks over the open ocean are found to significantly influence ocean temperature and salinity. In a stand alone ocean configuration, the dry and cold air produces an ocean cooling through sensible and latent heat loss. In a coupled configuration, the atmosphere is in turn moistened and warmed by the ocean; sensible and latent heat loss is therefore reduced as compared to the stand alone simulations. The atmosphere is found to be less sensitive to local feedbacks than the ocean. Effects of local feedbacks are increased in the coastal area because of the presence of sea ice. It is suggested that slow heat conduction within sea ice could amplify the feedbacks. These local feedbacks result in less sea ice production in polynyas in coupled mode, with a subsequent reduction in deep water formation. (orig.)

  10. Making Sense of the Reality of Conflict in the Black Sea Basin Within the Context of the Theory of Securitization

    OpenAIRE

    TÜYSÜZOĞLU, Göktürk

    2014-01-01

    The Black Sea Basin has seen a dramatic change both in geographical extent and systemic sense after the Cold War. Completion of the Cold War induced the collapse of the political substructure which is fictionalised by the USSR for shaping the relations between the countries of the basin. Articulation of the basin into the competition that obtains within the scope of the international system has created conflict oriented scenery, when it’s converged with the historical problems, social tension...

  11. Consumption of Methane and CO_2 by Methanotrophic Microbial Mats from Gas Seeps of the Anoxic Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Treude, Tina; Orphan, Victoria; Knittel, Katrin; Gieseke, Armin; House, Christopher H.; Boetius, Antje

    2007-01-01

    The deep anoxic shelf of the northwestern Black Sea has numerous gas seeps, which are populated by methanotrophic microbial mats in and above the seafloor. Above the seafloor, the mats can form tall reef-like structures composed of porous carbonate and microbial biomass. Here, we investigated the spatial patterns of CH_4 and CO_2 assimilation in relation to the distribution of ANME groups and their associated bacteria in mat samples obtained from the surface of a large reef structure. A combi...

  12. Quantifying importance and scaling effects of atmospheric deposition of inorganic fixed nitrogen for the eutrophic Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    A. Varenik; Konovalov, S.; S. Stanichny

    2015-01-01

    Wet atmospheric depositions have been collected in a rural (Katsiveli) and urban (Sevastopol) location at the Crimean coast of the Black Sea from 2003 to 2008. Samples, 217 from Katsiveli and 228 from Sevastopol, have been analysed for inorganic fixed nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium). Data have revealed almost equal contributions of ammonium (44–45 %) and nitrate (52–53 %) and minor contribution of nitrite (2–4 %) for both rural and urban samples. The volume weight ...

  13. Quantifying importance and scaling effects of atmospheric deposition of inorganic fixed nitrogen for the eutrophic Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    A. Varenik; Konovalov, S.; S. Stanichny

    2015-01-01

    Wet atmospheric depositions have been collected in a rural (Katsiveli) and urban (Sevastopol) location at the Crimean coast of the Black Sea from 2003 to 2008. Samples, 217 from Katsiveli and 228 from Sevastopol, have been analyzed for inorganic fixed nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium). Data has revealed almost equal contributions of ammonium (44–45 %) and nitrate (52–53 %) and minor contribution of nitrite (2–4 %) for both rural and urban samples. The average concent...

  14. First attempt to understand the effect of pingers on static fishing gear in Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORNITSA ZAHARIEVA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic deterrent devices (pingers were used on static fishing gear called dalyans in an attempt to reduce bycatch of small cetaceans and/or to reduce depredation in the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Between April and July 2015 dalyans were equipped with harbour porpoise pingers in the northern part of the coast. Observations were carried out on regular bases on active (with pingers and on control dalyans (without pingers. The preliminary results were positive in reducing damages on fishing gear.

  15. Spring diet and feeding strategy of the European sprat Sprattus sprattus (L., 1758) from the Black Sea coast of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Bayhan; Tuncay Murat Sever

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the spring diet composition and feeding strategy of the European sprat, Sprattus sprattus. Diet composition of European sprat was investigated for the first time in the central Black Sea coast of Turkey. Examined of the 115 specimens (6 - 9.1 cm total length) of stomach, 12 (10.4%) had emty. Diet analysis was described based on gravimetric percentages (W%), frequency of abundance (N%), frequency of occurrence (%F) and relative importance index (IRI%). Feeding strat...

  16. Determination of the Black Sea area and coastline length using GIS methods and Landsat 7 satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    STANCHEV, Hristo; Palazov, Atanas; STANCHEVA, Margarita; APOSTOLOV, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Quantifying accurate coastline length is important for management applications, such as coastal classification/land cover use, erosion and environmental monitoring. However, due to the dynamic nature of the coastline, measuring its length with high accuracy has turned out to be a difficult research task. By far, different values of the Black Sea coastline length have been determined and these values range between 4020 km and 4500 km. Potential reasons for this could be mostly associ...

  17. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  18. [Phylogeography and phenotypic diversity of the pumpkinseed Sunfish Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) of the Northern Black Sea Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slynko, E E; Novitsky, R A; Bangs, M R; Douglas, M R; Douglas, M E; Khrystenko, D S; Kasyanov, A N; Slynko, Yu V

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the origin and the genetic and morphological diversity of the pumpkinseed sunfish, a North American invader that is actively expanding its range in the Northern Black Sea Coast. Based on an analysis of variability of the nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA cyt b locus, it was found that all populations of the Northern Black Sea Coast (basins of Dnieper, Dniester, and Danube rivers) are represented by one haplotype. Intraspecific variability is absent. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that the most related haplotype is in a population of pumpkinseed sunfish from New Germany Lake in the Potomac Riverbasin (Maryland, United States), which makes it possible to consider it a parent of the investigated populations. Morphological variation oin countable traits was highly homogeneous. Significant differentiation of a sample from the population of the Dnieper Reservoir from the populations of the Danube and Dniester was found for plastic traits of both the body and cranium. Analysis of the trajectories of development showed that the Dnieper is inhabited by a "pelagic" morpho-ecological form of pumpkinseed sunfish, while the Dniester and Danube is inhabited by a "littoral" form. It is suggested that the success of the settlement of this North American species in the Northern Black Sea Coast does not depend on the origin or the level of its genetic diversity but is instead likely to be ensured by the realization of its available discrete morpho-ecological variability. PMID:25966587

  19. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): Black sea bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, L.P.

    1989-07-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The black sea bass, Centropristis striata, is an abundant species associated with the inshore sponge-coral habitat in the South Atlantic Bight (Cape Hatteras to Cape Canaveral). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite (each individual is first a female and then a male) that spawns from January to June on the Continental shelf. Juveniles utilize estuaries, as well as offshore areas, for nurseries. It is a slow growing species with a life span of about 10 years. Juveniles and adults are bottom-feeding carnivores. Adults have been collected at temperatures as low as 6 /degree/C but are most abundant at temperatures of 8 to 10 /degree/C and above. Juveniles tolerate lower temperatures and greater salinity ranges than adults. Black sea bass are primarily harvested by the recreational hook and line fishery and the commercial trap fishery. Yield-per-recruit analyses indicate that the harvest of black sea bass is less than the maximum possible due to a combination of high fishing pressure and harvest of small fish. 58 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Regional variability of a projected sea ice-free Arctic during the summer months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, F.; Howell, S. E. L.; Kushner, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate projections of sea ice retreat under anthropogenic climate change at the regional scale and in summer months other than September have largely not been evaluated. Information at this level of detail is vital for future planning of safe Arctic marine activities. Here the timing of when Arctic waters will be reliably ice free across Arctic regions from June to October is presented. It is shown that during this century regions along the Northern Sea Route and Arctic Bridge will be more reliably ice free than regions along the Northwest Passage and the Transpolar Sea Route, which will retain substantial sea ice cover past midcentury. Moreover, ice-free conditions in the Arctic will likely be confined to September for several decades to come in many regions. Projections using a selection of models that accounts for agreement of models in each region and calendar month with observations yield similar conclusions.

  1. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  2. Development of a Web-based GIS monitoring and environmental assessment system for the Black Sea: application in the Danube Delta area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziavos, Ilias N; Alexandridis, Thomas K; Aleksandrov, Borys; Andrianopoulos, Agamemnon; Doukas, Ioannis D; Grigoras, Ion; Grigoriadis, Vassilios N; Papadopoulou, Ioanna D; Savvaidis, Paraskevas; Stergioudis, Argyrios; Teodorof, Liliana; Vergos, Georgios S; Vorobyova, Lyudmila; Zalidis, Georgios C

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the development of a Web-based GIS system for the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea is presented. The integrated multilevel system is based on the combination of terrestrial and satellite Earth observation data through the technological assets provided by innovative information tools and facilities. The key component of the system is a unified, easy to update geodatabase including a wide range of appropriately selected environmental parameters. The collection procedure of current and historical data along with the methods employed for their processing in three test areas of the current study are extensively discussed, and special attention is given to the overall design and structure of the developed geodatabase. Furthermore, the information system includes a decision support component (DSC) which allows assessment and effective management of a wide range of heterogeneous data and environmental parameters within an appropriately designed and well-tested methodology. The DSC provides simplified and straightforward results based on a classification procedure, thus contributing to a monitoring system not only for experts but for auxiliary staff as well. The examples of the system's functionality that are presented highlight its usability as well as the assistance that is provided to the decision maker. The given examples emphasize on the Danube Delta area; however, the information layers of the integrated system can be expanded in the future to cover other regions, thus contributing to the development of an environmental monitoring system for the entire Black Sea. PMID:27491819

  3. The teaching staff of the public education system in the period of the First Russian Revolution (1905–1907 years (on the materials of the Black Sea province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Taran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article on the basis of archival documents examines the role of teaching staff of educational institutions of the Black Sea province during the First Russian revolution. The attention is paid to the participation of students of senior classes in the revolutionary movement. Among the materials are the archival documents of central and regional archives, namely the state archive of the Russian Federation, Russian state military historical archive, the state archive of the Krasnodar Krai, the center for documentation of contemporary history of Krasnodar Krai and the archive department of historical museum of city-resort Sochi. The authors come to the conclusion that on the territory of the Black Sea province, the activities of significant part of the teaching staff were aimed at destabilization of the political situation, contributing to the overthrow of the existing government. Rather than to protect the high schools students from the influence of political propaganda and to return students to the classrooms, some teachers have contributed to reverse the process, encouraging the study of the political programs of the parties and the desire to participate in the revolutionary movement. As a result, the schoolchildren, minors with unsettled teenage psychology participated in various revolutionary actions, which could lead to the tragic consequences.

  4. Development of a Web-based GIS monitoring and environmental assessment system for the Black Sea: application in the Danube Delta area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziavos, Ilias N; Alexandridis, Thomas K; Aleksandrov, Borys; Andrianopoulos, Agamemnon; Doukas, Ioannis D; Grigoras, Ion; Grigoriadis, Vassilios N; Papadopoulou, Ioanna D; Savvaidis, Paraskevas; Stergioudis, Argyrios; Teodorof, Liliana; Vergos, Georgios S; Vorobyova, Lyudmila; Zalidis, Georgios C

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the development of a Web-based GIS system for the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea is presented. The integrated multilevel system is based on the combination of terrestrial and satellite Earth observation data through the technological assets provided by innovative information tools and facilities. The key component of the system is a unified, easy to update geodatabase including a wide range of appropriately selected environmental parameters. The collection procedure of current and historical data along with the methods employed for their processing in three test areas of the current study are extensively discussed, and special attention is given to the overall design and structure of the developed geodatabase. Furthermore, the information system includes a decision support component (DSC) which allows assessment and effective management of a wide range of heterogeneous data and environmental parameters within an appropriately designed and well-tested methodology. The DSC provides simplified and straightforward results based on a classification procedure, thus contributing to a monitoring system not only for experts but for auxiliary staff as well. The examples of the system's functionality that are presented highlight its usability as well as the assistance that is provided to the decision maker. The given examples emphasize on the Danube Delta area; however, the information layers of the integrated system can be expanded in the future to cover other regions, thus contributing to the development of an environmental monitoring system for the entire Black Sea.

  5. Sloping beach with wave breaking and moving shoreline on Romanian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, F. V.; Panaitescu, M.; Anton, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose of the work: wave breaking and wave run-up on a gently sloping plane beach from Romanian Black Sea Coast. That coast has a length of 244 km and an almost linear configuration with the exception of build-up areas. The paper concentrates on shoaling of regular waves and spilling type of wave breaking running with a simulation on software MIKE 21. Research and methodology: the paper contents the measurements for spilling and plunging type of breakers on a plane sloping beach with a slope of 1/45 starting in depth of 0.23 m to 0.46 m. A moving shoreline is included in the simulations. With respect to the parameters of the breaker model the standard values are applied. An explicit filter is introduced near the still water shoreline to remove short-wave instabilities and to dissipate the wave energy in the model. Results: the obtained values indicate the wave breaking and wave run-up processes, the spatial variation of a number of phase-averaged quantities and the shoreline motion converted intro a vertical and a horizontal displacement.

  6. Spatial planning modeling in ICZM implementation for Black Sea- case study Sulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichersu, Iuliana; Marin, Eugenia; Nichersu, Iulian; Mierla, Marian; Trifanov, Cristian

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of modeling the spatial planning system in the context of implementation the Protocol for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in the area of Sulina, on the Romanian coastal zone of Black Sea. Spatial Planning system in coastal zone is complex and composed by a big number of factors (identified from all its' components: environment, social, economic and cultural), with multivalent connections. By describing and considering the relationships between the identified factors related to the aspects of coastal zone Sulina we obtain a detailed model of this spatial planning system.This modeling process helps us to visualize the entire systems' dynamics and it is very important for future developments (scenarios, forward looking studies, etc.). The spatial planning system model is use to develop ideas, to use the complex process or predict possible evolution of coastal zone management. Romania already has the legal basis for the implementation of ICZM Protocol, which is very important for the spatial planning system in the coastal zone and aspires towards an efficient coastal zone management. This positive aspect is revealed also in the model and gives the system a beneficial evolution. The results of modeling show how spatial planning is strongly influenced by other factors, in various stages of analysis.One of the most important observations is that spatial planning in the coastal zone is influenced in similar ways by all its' four components, but there are still differences in the evolution of this process.

  7. The environmental impact of a Wave Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401

  8. ANALYSIS OF HUNTING STRATEGY OF UPPER PALEOLITHIC IN THE NORTHERN BLACK SEA COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plohenko B. G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the studying of one of the most important aspects of learning of life-support and wildlife management systems of hunting of ancient inhabitants of the Northern Black Sea Coast. Such researches are one of the main directions in sphere of studying prehistory of humankind in our country and abroad. The main aim of the research was to create the hunting pattern and to learn the chronological changes, by studying same time materials of Kamennaya Balka II, Tretij Mys, Anetolka II and Amvrosievka. During this research, the complex analysis of faunistic remainders was conducted with the help of new methods, which were developed by Russian and foreign authors. This led to a number of new high-quality results. The article shows the meaning of data which can be learnt by studying faunistic remainders and importance of such type of sources. The continuation of such research can extend our conception of life of our ancient ancestors

  9. Economic Situation of Fish Farming in Southeastern Coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Mihai Petrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture industry, like most other industries, has a very powerfull correlation with the economical domain. Being an economic activity that generates profit, practicing fish farming aims profit maximization. The present study gives information regarding the economical indicators and also makes a cost structure analysis of five groups of fish farms from Southeastern Coast of the Black Sea: homestead fish farms, small scale fish farms, middle scale fish farms, big scale fish farms and floating cages. The fish farms were classified in this way by their production capacity. In order to collect data, the most representative fish farms for each group were selected and face to face interviews were made for every one of them. Data related to their source of financing, initial investment, labour costs, selling prices, feed costs and other operational costs were collected, arranged, structured and analyzed and a series of economic indicators as gross production value, gross margin, breakeven quantity, specific investment, profit, profitability ratio, rate of return or labour productivity were calculated. As a result, it was observed that fish production capacity has a big influence over the rate of return, middle scale fish farms being the most profitable, followed closely by small scale fish farms.

  10. Phytoplankton taxonomy based on CHEMTAX and microscopy in the northwestern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker-Develi, Elif; Berthon, Jean-François; Canuti, Elisabetta; Slabakova, Natalya; Moncheva, Snejana; Shtereva, Galina; Dzhurova, Boryana

    2012-06-01

    Abundance and carbon biomass of different phytoplankton groups obtained by microscopy were compared with taxonomy derived from pigment measurements and CHEMTAX analysis of samples collected in June 2006 in the NW Black Sea. The diatom Chaetoceros curvisetus was dominant in terms of carbon biomass based on cell volume at inshore stations, while the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi was prevalent at offshore. Emiliania huxleyi reached bloom abundance of 3.3 × 106 cells L- 1. The chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration within phytoplankton groups as allocated by CHEMTAX was in agreement with microscopy derived carbon biomasses of the taxonomic groups diatoms, dinoflagellates and cryptophytes only. Carbon biomass of less abundant phytoplankton taxa (cyanophytes, euglenophytes and chlorophytes) did not correlate with group-specific chl a. It was not possible to detect E. huxleyi bloom by CHEMTAX analysis probably due to much higher biomass of other species containing 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin. Nutrient concentrations were generally high in the waters where diatom and dinoflagellates dominated the community but low in the area of E. huxleyi bloom. A good correlation between total carbon biomass of phytoplankton and chl a was found and the estimated C:chl a ratio of phytoplankton varied between 36 and 256 (in average 124 ± 50).

  11. The environmental impact of a Wave Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  12. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Diaconu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  13. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401

  14. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on lipogenesis and lipolysis in black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hong; OM Ahamd Daud; YOSHIMATSU Takao; UMINO Testuya; NAKAGAWA Heisuke; FURUHASHI Makoto; SAKAMOTO Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Hatchery-reared juvenile black sea breams are characterized by a low level of highly unsaturated fatty acids in their bodies, as compared with wild fish. To assess the effect of docosahaxaenoic acid (DHA) on lipogenic and lipolysis enzymes, one-year fish were reared on a casein-based purified diet and a DHA fortified diet (1.5% DHA ethyl ester/kg diet) for 60 d, followed with a period of 55 d for starvation. Dietary DHA was effectively incorporated into the fish body. Fortification of DHA depressed activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase as lipogenic enzymes in the hepatopancreas and intraperitoneal fat body. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase as lipolysis enzyme in the hepatopancreas was active in the DHA fortified fish. Starvation after feeding experiment induced increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity in both control and DHA fortified fish and the activity remained higher in the DHA fortified fish, while the monoenes were selectively consumed prior to highly unsaturated fatty acids. These results indicated that dietary DHA depressed lipogenesis and activated lipolysis.

  15. Analemmatic and Horizontal Sundials of the Bronze Age (Northern Black Sea Coast)

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of unique plate with images of Srubna burial of tumuli group Popov Yar-2 (Ukraine) and plate of Srubna burial of tumulus field Tavriya-1 (Russia). A distinctive feature of the images is the orderliness and symmetry of the composition, as well as the location of elliptical cupped depressions. With the help of mathematical and astronomical methods we prove in this paper that the plates with the images are the ancient sundials. At the Popov Yar-2 plate located two sundials, which worked at the same time: the analemmatic sundial and the horizontal sundial with two gnomons and the linear scale. At the Tavriya-1 plate located analemmatic sundial. On the basis of the reconstruction of the linear parameters of the gnomon of both Popov Yar-2 plate sundials and given the scale value of horizontal sundial, in the article that the potential indirect impact protoscientific knowledge of ancient Egypt to the Srubna population in the Northern Black Sea coast. Srubna burial, plate, we...

  16. Diagenetic alteration of iron and phosphorus records below the sulfate-methane-transition-zone in Black Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Matthias; Kraal, Peter; Jilbert, Tom; Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    The sediments of the Black Sea are characterized by vast deposits of iron oxide-rich lake sediments below the current marine sediments. The lake sediments were deposited until ca. 9000 years ago when the former giant lake became connected to the Mediterranean Sea through post-glacial sea level rise. The subsequent downward diffusion of marine sulfate into the methane-bearing lake sediments has led to a multitude of diagenetic reactions in the sulfate-methane-transition zone (SMTZ), including anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate. While the cycles of sulfur, methane and iron in the SMTZ have been extensively studied (e.g. Jorgensen et al., 2004), relatively little is known about the diagenetic alterations of the sediment record occurring directly below the SMTZ. Here, we combine detailed geochemical analyses of the sediment and pore water with multicomponent diagenetic modeling to study the diagenetic alterations below the SMTZ at two sites in the Black Sea. We focus on the dynamics of iron and phosphorus and demonstrate that downward sulfidization leads to dissolution of Fe-oxide bound P, Fe-carbonate and vivianite in the lake sediments. Below the sulfidization front, downward diffusing phosphate is bound again in vivianite. Trends in total sediment P with depth are significantly altered highlighting that diagenesis may strongly overprint burial records of P below a lake-marine transition. We also demonstrate that cryptic sulfur cycling cannot explain the observed release of dissolved Fe below the SMTZ. Instead, we suggest that organoclastic Fe-oxide reduction and/or AOM coupled to the reduction of Fe-oxides are the key processes explaining the high concentrations of dissolved Fe at depth in the sediment. Reference Jørgensen, B. B., Böttcher, M. E., Lüschen, H., Neretin, L. N. and Volkov, I. I.: Anaerobic methane oxidation and a deep H2S sink generate isotopically heavy sulfides in Black Sea sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 68(9), 2095-2118, 2004.

  17. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the Circumpolar region

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this paper we review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during the last several decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be...

  18. Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NODC Accession 0112824)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas (GINS), NODC developed a new...

  19. Deep Sea Coral National Observation Database, Northeast Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The national database of deep sea coral observations. Northeast version 1.0. * This database was developed by the NOAA NOS NCCOS CCMA Biogeography office as part of...

  20. A scaling approach to project regional sea level rise and its uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Perrette, M.; Landerer, F.; Riva, R.; K. Frieler; M. Meinshausen

    2013-01-01

    Climate change causes global mean sea level to rise due to thermal expansion of seawater and loss of land ice from mountain glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets. Locally, sea level can strongly deviate from the global mean rise due to changes in wind and ocean currents. In addition, gravitational adjustments redistribute seawater away from shrinking ice masses. However, the land ice contribution to sea level rise (SLR) remains very challenging to model, and comprehensive region...

  1. Dvigateli regional'nogo stroitel'stva. Vlijanie regional'nyh politicheskih organizacij na sotrudnichestvo universitetov v regione Baltijskogo morja [Motors for regional development: impact on regional political organizations on the university cooperation in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational co-operation is one of the main aspects of the regional political agenda in the Baltic Sea Region. The article analyzes the political impact of the organizations, as perceived by the universities in the region and political decision-makers on national and regional levels. Based on the success of the OECD in becoming an influential actor in educational policies, this article discusses different strategies for the regional political organizations to enhance their influence.

  2. Regional patterns of low-frequency sea level variability: case of the Japan/East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusenkova, Olga

    An increasing trend is detected in globally averaged sea level derived from satellite altimetry measurements for the last two decades. Sea level trends in the North Pacific can be attributed to steric expansion, mostly due to the temperature increase, while the spatial distribution resembles the negative phase of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The latter is attributed to water redistribution caused by circulation (Fukumore, Wang, 2013). As for the East Asia marginal seas, there are strong positive sea level trends in the subtropical areas but only weak positive or even negative trends in the subarctic areas (Marcos et al., 2012). Strong seasonal sea level oscillations, with amplitude of 15-25 cm, occur simultaneously in the entire Japan/East Sea, with maxima and minima in October and March, respectively (Choi et al., 2004; Trusenkova et al., 2010). The timing of the extremes can be explained by maximum inflow of warm water through the Korea Strait in October and strong winter cooling. This study is focused on low-frequency sea level variability in the Japan/East Sea, beyond the steric effects. To this purpose, AVISO 0.25 dergee gridded weekly sea level anomalies (SLA) for the period from October 1992 onwards are low-pass filtered, with the cut-off period of 1.3 years. Decomposition to Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) yields the leading mode of synchronous, weak but statistically significant, quasi-biennial oscillations in the entire Sea. They also manifest interannual and decadal variability but no linear trend. This mode should be attributed to variation of water volume in the sea, i.e. transport imbalance through the straits. The strong SLA are timed with the strong anomalies of the inflow transport in the Korea Strait. An out-of-phase relationship of sea level with PDO was found and explained by transport variations in the Korea Strait (Gordon and Giulivi, 2004). However, the alternating out-of-phase and in-phase regimes are detected when the altimetry

  3. Sea surface temperature and torrential rains in the Valencia region: modelling the role of recharge areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy rain events are frequently recorded in the Western Mediterranean causing economic and human losses. A main factor in the development of torrential rains is ocean-atmosphere exchange of heat and moisture that can destabilize air masses travelling over the sea. The study of air mass trajectories previous to the rain event permits the identification of sea areas that could probably contribute to the development or intensification of rainfall. From a Mediterranean sea surface temperature climatology, its spatio-temporal distribution patterns have been studied showing two main distribution modes in winter and summer and transitional regimes in spring and autumn. Hence, three heavy precipitation events, for such winter and summer sea temperature regimes and for fall transition, affecting the Valencia region have been selected to study the effect of sea surface temperature in torrential rains. Simulations with perturbed sea surface temperature in different areas along the air mass path were run to compare results with unperturbed simulation. The variation of sea surface temperature in certain areas caused significant changes in model accumulated values and its spatial distribution. Therefore, the existence of areas that at a greater extent favour air-sea interaction leading to the development of torrential rainfall in the Valencia region is shown. This methodology could be extended to other Mediterranean regions to look for such potential recharge areas. The identification of sea areas that contribute to the development or intensification of heavy rain events in the Mediterranean countries could be a useful prognosis and/or monitoring tool.

  4. The barrier layer in the southern region of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By analysing the CTD data in the southernregion of the South China Sea gathered during six cruises between 1989 and 1999, a barrier layer with seasonal variation just like what exists in the equatorial oceans is found in this region. It is the first discovery in such a marginal sea yet.It is strong in autunm and a little weak in summer and winter. The thicker the barrier layer, the higher the average temperature of the upper mixed layer. The region with the thicker barrier layer overlaps the region with the higher average temperature of the upper mixed layer, and accords with the thicker region of the warm pool in the South China Sea got from the Levitus data. The barrier layer in the southern region of the South China Sea has significant influence on the heat storage of the upper ocean there.``

  5. Positioning the School in the Landscape: Exploring Black History with a Regional Australian Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with a project establishing an Indigenous Australian artists-in-residence program at a regional Australian primary school to foreground its Black History. Primary school students worked with Indigenous Australian story tellers, artists, dancers and musicians to explore ways in which they could examine print and non-print texts for…

  6. Nature conservation and tourism development in the Dutch Wadden Sea region: a common future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revier, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about the development of tourism in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region in combination with nature conservation. The main question is whether they have a common future. There are some future points stated: - Nature and landscape of the Wadden Sea are the main pull factors for the tourism de

  7. Propagation pathways of classical Labrador Sea water from its source region to 26°N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sebille, E.; Baringer, M.O.; Johns, W.E.; Meinen, C.S.; Beal, L.M.; de Jong, M.F.; van Aken, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    More than two decades of hydrography on the Abaco line east of the Bahamas at 26 degrees N reveals decadal variability in the salinity of classical Labrador Sea Water (cLSW), despite the long distance from its source region in the North Atlantic Ocean. Hydrographic time series from the Labrador Sea

  8. Seasonal Hypoxia on the Shelf and Shoaling of the Permanent Oxycline in the Open Sea: Two Faces of the Black Sea Deoxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, Arthur; Stanev, Emil; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2016-04-01

    The Black Sea is highly sensitive to external forcings and constitutes a natural laboratory to study the interplays of atmospheric warming and eutrophication on deoxygenation dynamics. Two decades of eutrophication were followed by a sudden reduction of nutrient loads in the late 1980s. Warm and cold air temperature cycles (5-10 years) follow atmospheric oscillation patterns, with a clear warming affecting the recent decades. On the Black Sea north western shelf (hypoxia occurs when summer stratification prevents atmospheric fluxes to compensate for the respiration of organic matter accumulated in the lower water column and the sediments. A former multidecadal 3D model study (1) indicated that current monitoring do not provide a satisfactorily assessment of hypoxia, (2) revealed the inertia due to the benthic accumulation of organic matter during eutrophication period and (3) estimated the nutrient reduction effort required in adaptation to atmospheric warming. In the open basin (120-2000m), the permanent interface between anoxic and oxic waters is subject to vertical migration as the ventilation ensured by dense water formation balances the respiration of sinking organic matter. The analysis of R/V casts and ARGO profiles revealed that the oxycline has shoaled from 140 to 90m between 1955 and present years, while the basin lost 36 % of its oxygen inventory. While the interactions between seasonal hypoxia on the shelf and the shoaling oxic interface in the open basin are not clear, both dynamics will face atmospheric warming and new industrial development of the lower danube watershed. We discuss the specific monitoring and modelling efforts required to assess the environmental and economical threat cast by further deoxygenation in the Black Sea.

  9. Problem of non-rotating black hole accretion disc main enegy releas region extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the size of region of the main energy release of black hol acretion discs. This problem is deeply connected with accretion process at the innermost region of accretion disc and with boundary condition at its inner edge. Ou main result is demonstration that the region of the main energy release is strongly localized. It is shown that for accretion onto non-rotating black hol the main portion of the liberated energy is released within a rather narrow radial range 5N≤13M. This property can have profound effect on spectrum and variability of the radiation of the acretion disc as a whole. In particular, the asymmetry of the main energy release region is favourable for the mechanism of the millisecond variability proposed earlier by the authors. (author). 15 refs.; 5 figs

  10. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    of erosion and coastal landslides. Among human activities that might have direct or indirect adverse impact on cultural heritage the main are coastal and underwater developments and infrastructures. These are building of coast- and shore-protection structures, roads, placing different types of pipeline (a recent case from Bulgaria is envisaged construction of gas pipeline "South Stream"). Other categories of anthropogenic impacts, such as coastal tourism and expansion of settlements, etc. are less negative factors, but locals and visitors can accidentally damage monuments, or in most of the cases by not being aware of the presence and importance of a archeological site. Finally, insufficient decision-making and management of coastal and underwater cultural heritage can also have potential adverse impact. Recommendations for mitigation and protection measures are also outlined in the end. This work is a part of the Project "Submarine Archaeological Heritage on the Western Black Sea Shelf - HERAS", financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria.

  11. Modelling regional sea-level changes in recent past and future

    OpenAIRE

    Slangen, A.B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Sea-level change is one of the most important consequences of a warming climate, affecting many densely populated coastal communities. To improve coastal management and the planning of flood defences, information on the future development of sea-level rise is needed. However, sea-level rise is not uniform around the world. It is therefore not sufficient to know how much the global mean sea level will rise in the future. Instead, there is a pressing need for information on a regional scale. Ma...

  12. Identification and expression of GnRH2 and GnRH3 in the black sea bass (Centropristis striata), a hermaphroditic teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Scott J; Decatur, Wayne A; Breton, Timothy S; Marquis, Timothy J; Hayes, Mary K; Berlinsky, David L; Sower, Stacia A

    2015-04-01

    We cloned two cDNAs for two gonadotropin-releasing hormones, GnRH2 (chicken GnRH-II) and GnRH3 (salmon GnRH), respectively, from the black sea bass (Centropristis striata). Black sea bass are protogynous hermaphroditic teleosts that change from females to males between 2 and 5 years of age. Similar to other GnRH precursors, the precursors of black sea bass GnRH2 and GnRH23 consisted of a signal peptide, decapeptide, a downstream processing site, and a GnRH-associated peptide. Our analyses failed to identify GnRH1. GnRH3 precursor transcript was more widely distributed in a variety of tissues compared with GnRH2. Further examination of GnRH expression and gonadal histology was done in black sea bass from three different size groups: small (11.4-44.1 g), medium (179.4-352.2 g) and large (393.8-607.3 g). Interestingly, GnRH3 expression occurred only in the pituitaries of males in the small and medium groups compared with expression of GnRH2. Future functional studies of the sea bass GnRHs will be valuable in elucidating the potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms of black sea bass reproduction and may ultimately contribute to management advances in this commercially important fish. PMID:25255937

  13. Regionalization of climate model results for the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauker, F.

    1999-07-01

    A dynamical downscaling is presented that allows an estimation of potential effects of climate change on the North Sea. Therefore, the ocean general circulation model OPYC is adapted for application on a shelf by adding a lateral boundary formulation and a tide model. In this set-up the model is forced, first, with data from the ECMWF reanalysis for model validation and the study of the natural variability, and, second, with data from climate change experiments to estimate the effects of climate change on the North Sea. (orig.)

  14. Formation of methane fields in the Golubaya bay of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Study of formation of methane fields in water environments is essential for search of oil and gas in bottom sediments of the aquatories [Egorov et al., 2008]. Methane acts as a tracer of various biogeochemical processes in freshwater and marine waters as well. Moreover, in recent years estimation of methane emission is one of tasks of current climate research because of high contribution of methane in the greenhouse effect [Bazhin, 2000]. The Black Sea is the largest methane reservoir in the world [Lein, Ivanov, 2005]. The Golubaya Bay of the Black Sea acts as a peculiar model of formation and variability of methane fields in the marine environment. The main purpose of our study is to identify factors that influence the high methane saturation in the aerobic coastal waters. Data collection took place in the Golubaya and the Gelendzhikskaya bays and in the Ashamba River since 1999 to 2013. Water samples were analyzed by the head-space method with further gas chromatographic determination of methane concentrations [Bolshakov, Egorov, 1987]. Methane saturation in the Golubaya Bay waters exceeds the equilibrium with the atmosphere value 10-100 times. According to the simultaneous measurements of methane in two bays in different seasons, methane saturation in the Golubaya Bay is higher than in the Gelendzhikskaya Bay. The smaller bottom depth and accordingly the larger biological productivity in the Golubaya Bay may be the reason of it. Microbial production of methane in aerobic waters of the bay is associated with zone of zooplankton concentration and products of its vital activity [Lein, Ivanov, 2009]. It is known that formation of methane is intense in periodically flooded soils where anaerobic conditions are formed. That causes development of methanogenic bacteria [Alekseev et al., 1978]. Distribution of methane in marine and river waters illustrates that the river runoff and groundwater supply are some of the sources of high methane saturation in the Golubaya Bay

  15. Quasar Cartography: from Black Hole to Broad Line Region Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Chelouche, Doron

    2013-01-01

    A generalized approach to reverberation mapping (RM) is presented, which is applicable to broad- and narrow-band photometric data, as well as to spectroscopic observations. It is based on multivariate correlation analysis techniques and, in its present implementation, is able to identify reverberating signals across the accretion disk and the broad line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Statistical tests are defined to assess the significance of time-delay measurements using this approach, and the limitations of the adopted formalism are discussed. It is shown how additional constraints on some of the parameters of the problem may be incorporated into the analysis thereby leading to improved results. When applied to a sample of 14 Seyfert 1 galaxies having good-quality high-cadence photometric data, accretion disk scales and BLR sizes are simultaneously determined, on a case-by-case basis, in most objects. The BLR scales deduced here are in good agreement with the findings of independent spectrosc...

  16. Quantification of microbial communities in subsurface marine sediments of the Black Sea and off Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eSchippers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-rich subsurface marine sediments were taken by gravity coring up to a depth of 10 meters below seafloor at six stations from the anoxic Black Sea and the Benguela upwelling system off Namibia during the research cruises R/V Meteor 72/5 and 76/1, respectively. The quantitative microbial community composition at various sediment depths was analyzed using total cell counting, CARD-FISH and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR. Total cell counts decreased with depths from 109 – 1010 cells /mL at the sediment surface to 107 – 109 cells /mL below one meter depth. Based on CARD-FISH and Q-PCR analysis overall similar proportions of Bacteria and Archaea were determined. The down core quantitative distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was successfully revealed by Q-PCR. Crenarchaeota and the bacterial candidate division JS-1 and the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi were as highly abundant as Archaea and Bacteria, respectively. Less abundant but detectable in most of the samples in high gene copy numbers were Eukarya and the Fe(III- and Mn(IV-reducing bacterial group Geobacteriaceae (off Namibia as well as the functional genes cbbL encoding for the large subunit of Rubisco, the functional genes dsrA and aprA of sulfate-reducers and the gene mcrA of methanogens. Overall the high organic carbon content of the sediments goes along with high cell counts and high gene copy numbers, as well as an equal abundance of Bacteria and Archaea.

  17. Aspects regarding environmental impact of oil marine platforms from Black sea coast - Romanian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : As a result of investigations conducted by R.A.PETROM - PETROMAR Constanta subsidiary, reserves of oil and gas in geological structures LEBADA, EOCEN - LEBADA and SINOE from romanian sector of Black Sea Continental Platform, have been discovered. These reserves are exploited by marine platforms and ways of oil transportation to the shore are submarine pipe-lines and ships. To assess environmental impact of oil transportation, studies covered following steps; Characterization of the present status of environmental factors, in the range of pipe-lines and ships; Marine water characterization: salinity, ionic composition, dissolved gases, organic depositions on metallic bodies; Marine bicenosys: phytoplankton and zooplankton characteristics, phytobenthos and zoobenthos communities, marine ichtyofauna, marine mammals. Marine resources available for exploitation; Total radioactivity analysis results; Marine water hydrocarbons analysis results; Present pollution sources in the area; Air quality in oil marine platforms area and shore area; Potential pollution sources and pollutants resulted from oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Sources and emissions in air; Sources and emissions in marine environment; Aspects regarding waste management; Environmental impact of oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Impact on the air quality and marine environment of oil marine platforms activities; Assessment of environmental impact on atmosphere generated by the oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Impact on the marine environment of oil transport ships; Effects of oil fractions on marine organisms; Acute effects of oil pollution on marine communities; Risks of causing major environmental impact accidents/failures on marine platforms PETROMAR; Chronic effects of low oil concentrations;Marine environment recovery potential after discharges accidents

  18. Fe-binding dissolved organic ligands in the oxic and suboxic waters of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes J.A. Gerringa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the oxygen-rich layer of the Black Sea, above the permanent halocline, the Fe and nitrate concentrations are low where fluorescence is relatively high , indicating uptake by phytoplankton. In this study we used ligand exchange adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-aCSV, using 2-(2-Thiazolylazo-p-cresol (TAC as measuring ligand, to investigate the role of Fe-binding dissolved organic ligands in keeping Fe in the dissolved phase and potentially biologically available. The conditional stability constant, logK´, was between 21 and 22 in most samples, which is on average lower than in ocean water. The Fe-binding dissolved organic ligand concentrations varied between 0.35 and 4.81 nEq of M Fe, which was higher than the dissolved concentration of Fe (DFe as found in most samples. At two stations ligands were saturated in the surface. At one station ligands were saturated near the oxycline, where ligand concentrations seemed to increase, indicating that they play a role in keeping Fe in the dissolved phase across the redox gradient. At the fluorescence maximum (between 40 and 50 m, the dissolved organic ligand binding capacity (alphaFeL=K´*[L´] of Fe was at its highest while the concentration DFe was at its lowest. Here, we find a statistically significant, positive relationship between fluorescence and the logarithm of alphaFeL, along with fluorescence and the ratio of the total ligand concentration over DFe. These relationships are best explained by phytoplankton utilizing Fe from Fe-binding organic ligands, resulting in an increase in free Fe-binding ligands.

  19. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie;

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...... for the Baltic Sea Region from 2010-2013. The project has involved 18 partners from 8 countries with MTT Agrifood Research Finland as the Lead Partne...

  20. Anaerobic methane oxidation and a deep H2S sink generate isotopically heavy sulfides in Black Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, BB; Bottcher, ME; Luschen, H.;

    2004-01-01

    and underlying sapropel, below which sea water ions penetrate deep down into the limnic Pleistocene deposits from >9000 years BP. Sulfate reduction rates have a subsurface maximum at the SO42--CH4 transition where H2S reaches 4 maximum concentration. Because of an excess of reactive iron in the deep limnic...... deposits, most of the methane-derived H2S is drawn downward to a sulfidization front where it reacts with Fe(III) and with Fe 21 diffusing up from below. The H2S-Fe2+ transition is marked by a black band of amorphous iron sulfide above which distinct horizons of greigite and pyrite formation occur....... The pore water gradients respond dynamically to environmental changes in the Black Sea with relatively short time constants of ca. 500 yr for SO42- and 10 yr for H2S, whereas the FeS in the black band has taken ca. 3000 yr to accumulate. The dual diffusion interfaces of SO42--CH4 and H2S-Fe2+ cause...

  1. A scaling approach to project regional sea level rise and its uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perrette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change causes global mean sea level to rise due to thermal expansion of seawater and loss of land ice from mountain glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets. Locally, sea level can strongly deviate from the global mean rise due to changes in wind and ocean currents. In addition, gravitational adjustments redistribute seawater away from shrinking ice masses. However, the land ice contribution to sea level rise (SLR remains very challenging to model, and comprehensive regional sea level projections, which include appropriate gravitational adjustments, are still a nascent field (Katsman et al., 2011; Slangen et al., 2011. Here, we present an alternative approach to derive regional sea level changes for a range of emission and land ice melt scenarios, combining probabilistic forecasts of a simple climate model (MAGICC6 with the new CMIP5 general circulation models. The contribution from ice sheets varies considerably depending on the assumptions for the ice sheet projections, and thus represents sizeable uncertainties for future sea level rise. However, several consistent and robust patterns emerge from our analysis: at low latitudes, especially in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific, sea level will likely rise more than the global mean (mostly by 10–20%. Around the northeastern Atlantic and the northeastern Pacific coasts, sea level will rise less than the global average or, in some rare cases, even fall. In the northwestern Atlantic, along the American coast, a strong dynamic sea level rise is counteracted by gravitational depression due to Greenland ice melt; whether sea level will be above- or below-average will depend on the relative contribution of these two factors. Our regional sea level projections and the diagnosed uncertainties provide an improved basis for coastal impact analysis and infrastructure planning for adaptation to climate change.

  2. CLIMATIC FEATURES OF SEA TEMPERATURE OF WARM POOL AND RELATIONSHIP WITH SST OF ITS ADJACENT REGIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任小波; 周秀骥; 陈隆勋

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, climatic features of sea temperature of western Pacific warm pool and the relationship with sea surface temperature (SST) of its adjacent regions are analyzed based on the observed sea temperature on vertical cross section along 137°E in western Pacific, the monthly mean SST of Xisha Station in South China Sea and the global monthly mean SST with resolution of 1°× 1° (U. K./GISST2.2). The results indicate that (1) in a sense of correlation, SST of western Pacific warm pool can represent its sea subsurface temperature from surface to 200 m-depth level in winter, and it can only represent sea temperature from surface to 70 m depth in summer. The sea subsurface temperature anomaly of warm pool may be more suitable for representing thermal regime of western Pacific warm pool. The sea subsurface temperature of warm pool has a characteristic of quasi-biennial oscillation. (2) Warm pool and Kuroshio current are subject to different ocean current systems. (3) Furthermore, the relationship between SST of Xisha Station and SST of warm pool has a characteristic of negative correlation in winter and positive correlation in summer, and a better lag negative correlation of SST of Xisha Station with sea subsurface temperature of warm pool exists. (4) Additionally, oscillation structure of sea temperature like "a seesaw" exists in between warm pool and Regions Nino3 and Nino4. January (June) maximum(minimum) sea subsurface temperature anomaly of warm pool may serve as a strong signal that indicates maturity phase (development phase) of La Nina (El Nino) event, it also acts as a strong signal which reveals variations of SST of Regions Nino3 and Nino4.

  3. Influence of vertical motions on maintaining the nitrate balance in the Black Sea based on numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubryakova, E. A.; Korotaev, G. K.

    2016-01-01

    The upwelling of deep water associated with the influence of cyclonic wind curl and the difference in the buoyancy of the inflows in the lower and upper water layers is observed in the central part of the Black Sea. The resulting vertical water motions contribute to the transport of ammonium to the upper boundary of the anaerobic zone. In the suboxic zone, ammonium is converted to nitrate via nitrite as a result of the nitrification, and thus it can supply the nitrocline in the water basin. Within the framework of this paper we discuss the effectiveness of this mechanism on the basis of the numerical simulation. The calculations were performed using a one-dimensional physical-biogeochemical model for the upper 600-m sea water layer, which takes into account seasonal variations in atmospheric parameters and vertical motions. The model describes the biological and redox processes in the suboxic zone. We have estimated the contribution of different constituents into the balance of nitrogen compounds in the euphotic water layer. It is shown that ammonium nitrogen coming from the deep water due to vertical water motion plays a significant role in maintaining the balance of nitrates in the central part of the Black Sea.

  4. Gravitational instability of the inner static region of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotti, Gustavo; Gleiser, Reinaldo J, E-mail: gdotti@famaf.unc.edu.a [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica (FaMAF), Universidad Nacional de Cordoba and Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2010-09-21

    Reissner-Nordstroem black holes have two static regions: r > r{sub o} and 0 < r < r{sub i}, where r{sub i} and r{sub o} are the inner and outer horizon radii, respectively. The stability of the exterior static region was established a long time ago. In this work we prove that the interior static region is unstable under linear gravitational perturbations, by showing that field perturbations compactly supported within this region will generically excite a mode that grows exponentially in time. This result gives an alternative reason to mass inflation to consider the spacetime extension beyond the Cauchy horizon as physically irrelevant, and thus provides support to the strong cosmic censorship conjecture, which is also backed by recent evidence of a linear gravitational instability in the interior region of Kerr black holes found by the authors. The use of intertwiners to solve the evolution of initial data plays a key role, and adapts without a change to the case of super-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, allowing us to complete the proof of the linear instability of this naked singularity. A particular intertwiner is found such that the intertwined Zerilli field has a geometrical meaning-it is the first-order variation of a particular Riemann tensor invariant. Using this, calculations can be carried out explicitly for every harmonic number.

  5. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, alkalinity, silicate, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate profiles from bottle and CTD taken from Russian vessels in the Black Sea from 1890-06-27 to 2005-08-06 (NODC Accession 0119566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from June 1890 to August 2005 in the Black Seas. Russian vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Small boats were used to collect data...

  6. Oceanographic and meteorological data from meteorological sensors and bottle/rosette/net and CTD taken from Russian vessels in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas from 1897 to 2012 (NODC Accession 0117429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from May 1897 to December 2012 in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas. Russian vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Small boats were...

  7. Oceanographic and meteorological data from various meteorological sensors and bottle/rosette/net taken from several Russian vessels in Caspian, Black and Azov Seas from 18 April, 1952 to 7 December, 2012 (NCEI Accession 0117731)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from 18 April 1952 to 7 December 2012 in Caspian, Black and Azov Seas. Various vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Data collection...

  8. Determining change of bathymetry with GPR method in Ordu-Giresun, a sea-filled airport in the Black Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Ordu-Giresun (OGU) is a newly-constructed airport, the first sea-filled airport in Turkey and in Europe, and the second airport in the world after Osaca-Japan. The airport is between Gulyalı district in Ordu city and Piraziz district in Giresun city in Black Sea -Turkey. A protection breakwater has been constructed by filling a rock approximately 7.435-m long and with an average height of 5.5 m. Then, the Black Sea has been filled until 1 m over the sea level, approximately the area is 1.770.000 m2 wide and includes a runway, aprons and taxiway covered by breakwater. The runway has a 1-m thickness, 3-km length and 45-m width, PCN84 strength, and stone mastic asphalt surface. The aprons has a 240 x 110 m length and PCN110 strength, the taxiway is 250 x 24 m wide. The airport was started to be constructed in July 2011 and it began to serve on 22th May 2015. The aim of this study was to determine the depth of the rock-filled layer and the amount of sinking of the bathymetry which has been determined before filling processing. In addition, before bathymetry determination, unconsolidated sediments had been removed from the bottom of the sea. There were four drilling points to control the sinking of the bathymetry. Therefore, six suitable Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) profiles were measured, crossing these points with runway and aprons, using 250-MHz and 100-MHz shielded antennas. Starting points of the profiles were in the middle of the runway to merge between depth and thickness changing of the filled layer and bathymetry along the profiles. Surface topography changing was measured spaced 1 m apart with 1 cm sensitivity on each profile. At the same time, similarly the topography changing, bathymetry coordinates was re-arranged along the each profile. Topography corrections were applied to the processed radargrams and then the bottom boundary lines of the rock-filled layer were determined. The maximum height was 3.5 m according to the sea level, which was on the

  9. Variation of the cold intermediate water in the Black Sea exit of the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus and its transfer through the strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Yuce

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cold intermediate water (CIW, T < 8°C entering the Strait of Istanbul and its variation along the strait have been studied by using monthly conductivity-temperature-depth (CTDdata sets collected during the period from 1996 to 2000. In the northern exit of the strait, CIW is located between the seasonal thermocline and Mediterranean water originating from the lowerlayer of the Sea of Marmara. The thickness of CIW decreases fromApril to October. In the Strait of Istanbul, CIW is observedas a layer of temperature < 14$^{circ}$C. The thickness of thismodified cold intermediate water flowing southwards with the upper layer decreases, while its temperature increases along thestrait due to mixing with adjacent water. In the southern exit of the strait, the modified cold intermediate water is observed during the period from May to October. If CIW exists in the Black Sea exit region of the strait, modified cold water is found inthe Marmara exit region during the same period. The distribution of CIW in the Strait of Istanbul contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of the strait, especially in the summer months.

  10. Luminescence Dating of Marine Terrace Sediments Between Trabzon and Rize, Eastern Black Sea Basin: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softa, Mustafa; Spencer, Joel Q. G.; Emre, Tahir; Sözbilir, Hasan; Turan, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    Quaternary marine terraces in the coastal region of Pontides in Northeastern Turkey are valuable archives of past sea level change. Until recently, dates of raised marine terraces undeciphered in the coastal region between Trabzon and Rize because of chronologic limitations. In this paper was to determine ages of the terrace deposits by applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating methods using single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) techniques on quartz minerals from extracted marine terraces. Several samples were collected from three orders of Quaternary marine terraces which are reproducible at all sampling location in between cities of Trabzon and Rize, Turkey, coastal of Eastern Pontides, at the front of the thrust system. The terrace deposits mainly consist of clays, silts, sands and gravels. The sediments in these deposits are mainly derived from basaltic, andesitic, and limestone geology, and have elipsoid, square and flat shapes. The terrace deposits have heights ranging from 1 to 17 meters and increases in height and thickness from west to east. Initial OSL results from 1 mm and 3 mm quartz aliquots demonstrate good luminescence characteristics. Preliminary equivalent dose analysis results ranging from 17.6 Gy to 79.6 Gy have been calculated using the Central Age Model (CAM) and Minimum Age Model (MAM). According to ages obtained from three separate terrace is ~8 ka, ~42 ka and ~78 ka, respectively. Results of marine terrace sediments indicate th