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Sample records for black sea bream

  1. On the fecundity of the Black Sea bream, Spondyliosoma cantharus (L. , from the Adriatic Sea (Croatian coast

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    Jakov Dulcic

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The fecundity of the Black Sea bream from the eastern middle Adriatic (Croatian coast was assessed by the volumetric method using 59 ovaries in pre-spawning stage from fish between 18.5 and 33.5 cm total length. Estimates of total potential annual fecundity varied between 31,670 and 554,070 eggs per female. Relationships between total potential fecundity and total length (TL, total weight (TW and age (A were established using the multiplicative regression model. Relative fecundity is constant, reaching a maximum of 850 eggs per g in the 30.5 cm to 31.0 cm length class.

  2. Determination of Seasonal Vitamin and Mineral Contents of Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) Cultured in Net Cages in Central Black Sea Region.

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    Öztürk, Dilara Kaya; Baki, Birol; Karayücel, İsmihan; Öztürk, Recep; Gören, Gülşen Uzun; Karayücel, Sedat

    2018-05-12

    This study aimed to determine the seasonal vitamin and mineral contents of sea bream (Sparus aurata) cultured in net cages in Central Black Sea region. The average seasonal A, D 3 , and E vitamins values in fish meat were between 0.27 ± 0.02-0.60 ± 0.00, 0.98 ± 0.01-1.70 ± 0.00, and 3.10 ± 0.14-6.00 ± 0.21 mg/kg, respectively (p meat were between 276.90 ± 0.99-1788.50 ± 51.27 (p  0.05), 4244.50 ± 8.84-4761.50 ± 1.06 (p  0.05), respectively. As a result, it can be concluded that sea bream cultured in the Central Black Sea region is a rich source of nutrients in terms of vitamins and mineral matters, and fish size, feed quality, and the environmental factors are influential on the contents of vitamin and mineral substances in the fish tissue.

  3. PTHrP potentiating estradiol-induced vitellogenesis in sea bream (Sparus auratus, L.)

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    Bevelander, G.S.; Hang, X.; Abbink, W.; Spanings, F.A.T.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    In fish, vitellogenin is an important nutritional precursor protein produced solely in the liver and released into the blood where it binds calcium. In the gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus) 17beta-Estradiol (E2) plays an important role in the synthesis of vitellogenin, but also the pituitary

  4. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

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    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  5. Melatonin synthesis under calcium constraint in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.)

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    Abbink, W.; Kulczkowska, E.; Kalamarz, H.; Guerreiro, P.M.G.; Flik, G.

    2008-01-01

    Brain or blood plasma melatonin was analysed as a measure for pineal melatonin production in sea bream. Access to calcium was limited by diluting the seawater to 2.5‰ and removing calcium from the diet or by prolonged feeding of vitamin D-deficient diet. Interactions/relations between melatonin and

  6. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to RSIVD in Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major).

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    Sawayama, Eitaro; Tanizawa, Shiho; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Nakayama, Kei; Ohta, Kohei; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Takagi, Motohiro

    2017-12-01

    Red sea bream iridoviral disease (RSIVD) is a major viral disease in red sea bream farming in Japan. Previously, we identified one candidate male individual of red sea bream that was significantly associated with convalescent individuals after RSIVD. The purpose of this study is to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to the RSIVD-resistant trait for future marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two test families were developed using the candidate male in 2014 (Fam-2014) and 2015 (Fam-2015). These test families were challenged with RSIV, and phenotypes were evaluated. Then, de novo genome sequences of red sea bream were obtained through next-generation sequencing, and microsatellite markers were searched and selected for linkage map construction. One immune-related gene, MHC class IIβ, was also used for linkage map construction. Of the microsatellite markers searched, 148 and 197 were mapped on 23 and 27 linkage groups in the female and male linkage maps, respectively, covering approximately 65% of genomes in both sexes. One QTL linked to an RSIVD-resistant trait was found in linkage group 2 of the candidate male in Fam-2014, and the phenotypic variance of the QTL was 31.1%. The QTL was closely linked to MHC class IIβ. Moreover, the QTL observed in Fam-2014 was also significantly linked to an RSIVD-resistant trait in the candidate male of Fam-2015. Our results suggest that the RSIVD-resistant trait in the candidate male was controlled by one major QTL closely linked to the MHC class IIβ gene and could be useful for MAS of red sea bream.

  7. FRESHNESS QUALITY OF GILTHEAD SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata REARED UNDER DIFFERENT FARMING CONDITIONS

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    P.P. Gatta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory and physico-chemical freshness indices (QI score, Torrymeter readings, pH and WHC were evaluated in gilthead sea bream of commercial size reared in Italy in: land based facilities (recirculation systems, lagoons and net-cages. Fish were stored under ice for 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 16 days: at each sampling time analyses were performed to determine the evolution of each freshness index within sea bream sources. Significant differences emerged among farming conditions following the application of the Quality Index Method. Torrymeter readings gradually decreased with the number of days of ice storage. pH values remained practically constant over the 16 days of storage. For WHC the effect of both time of storage and farming conditions was statistically significant.

  8. Cloning and expression analysis of innate immune genes from red sea bream to assess different susceptibility to megalocytivirus infection.

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    Jin, J W; Kim, Y C; Hong, S; Kim, M S; Jeong, J B; Jeong, H D

    2017-04-01

    As suggested by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), fishes belonging to the genus Oplegnathus are more sensitive to megalocytivirus infection than other fish species including red sea bream (Pagrus major). To assess the roles of the innate immune response to these different susceptibilities, we cloned the genes encoding inflammatory factors including IL-8 and COX-2, and the antiviral factor like Mx from red sea bream for the first time and performed phylogenetic and structural analysis. Analysed expression levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and COX-2 and the antiviral factor like Mx genes performed with in vivo challenge experiment showed no difference in inflammatory gene expression or respiratory burst activity between red sea bream and rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). However, the Mx gene expression levels in red sea bream were markedly higher than those in rock bream, suggesting the importance of type I interferon (IFN)-induced proteins, particularly Mx, during megalocytivirus infection, rather than inflammation-related genes. The in vitro challenge experiments using embryonic primary cultures derived from both fish species showed no difference in cytopathic effects (CPE), viral replication profiles, and inflammatory and Mx gene expression pattern between the two fish species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. PIXE analysis of otoliths from reared red sea bream, pagrus major (temminck et schlegl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru

    1993-01-01

    PIXE analysis was applied to estimate mineral concentration in red sea bream otoliths without cutting or polishing. Detected elements include Sr, Fe, Mn and Zn, which are commonly found in the otoliths in marine fishes. Strontium-Calcium concentration ratio is calculated by means of combined X-ray yields. The ratio doesn't indicate clear correlaion with mean reared seawater temperature. It is caused by the diffraction error induced by rough topographies of the otoliths surface. (author)

  10. A Comparative BAC Map for the Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.

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    Heiner Kuhl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first comparative BAC map of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, a highly valuated marine aquaculture fish species in the Mediterranean. High-throughput end sequencing of a BAC library yielded 92,468 reads (60.6 Mbp. Comparative mapping was achieved by anchoring BAC end sequences to the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus genome. BACs that were consistently ordered along the stickleback chromosomes accounted for 14,265 clones. A fraction of 5,249 BACs constituted a minimal tiling path that covers 73.5% of the stickleback chromosomes and 70.2% of the genes that have been annotated. The N50 size of 1,485 “BACtigs” consisting of redundant BACs is 337,253 bp. The largest BACtig covers 2.15 Mbp in the stickleback genome. According to the insert size distribution of mapped BACs the sea bream genome is 1.71-fold larger than the stickleback genome. These results represent a valuable tool to researchers in the field and may support future projects to elucidate the whole sea bream genome.

  11. Interspecies differences in the accumulation of tributyltin and its metabolites under dietary exposure in sea perch, Lateolabrax japonicus, and red sea bream, Pagrus major.

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    Uno, Seiichi; Murakami, Masayo; Kokushi, Emiko; Koyama, Jiro

    2011-02-01

    Interspecies differences in the accumulation of dietary tributyltin (TBT) between sea perch, Lateolabrax japonicus, and red sea bream, Pagrus major, were studied. Although TBTs in both species reached steady-state condition in low-concentration group (L-group, 200 ng/g nominal concentration) by 1 week, it increased up to the end of exposure in high-concentration group (H-group, 3000 ng/g nominal concentration). In H-group, the accumulation rate of TBT in sea perch from 1 to 2 weeks was much higher than in red sea bream, which were 2.4-fold for sea perch and 1.7-fold for red sea bream, although TBT concentrations were similar between sea perch and red sea bream in L-group. Furthermore, in the H-group, the concentrations of TBT at 1 and 2 weeks were about 1.3- and 1.9-fold, respectively, higher in the sea perch than in the red sea bream. On the other hand, DBT residue in red sea bream was about 1.4-fold higher in sea perch for the L-group but concentrations were similar in both fishes for the H-group. These results suggest that red sea bream could metabolize faster the TBT to DBT than sea perch. This study also reveals that fish probably could absorb TBT through the food chain. The uptake of TBT by fish should be regarded in the real environment, because TBT concentration in seawater has been decreasing and now already at significantly low level. Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Seasonal Variation in Trawl Codend Selectivity for Annular Sea Bream (Diplodus annularis L., 1758)

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    ÖZBİLGİN, Hüseyin; TOSUNOĞLU, Zafer; TOKAÇ, Adnan; METİN, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the selectivity of a 40 mm mesh size polyethylene codend commonly used by Turkish demersal trawlers. Seasonal selectivity data were collected for annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis), which is the most abundant discard species in the catch composition in Gülbahçe Bay. Four sets of data were collected in spring (4-18 April 2002), summer (10-25 July 2002), autumn (26 September-2 October 2002) and winter (22-23 January 2003). The selectivity of the same codend was teste...

  13. Fast skeletal muscle transcriptome of the Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata determined by next generation sequencing

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    Garcia de la serrana Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. occurs around the Mediterranean and along Eastern Atlantic coasts from Great Britain to Senegal. It is tolerant of a wide range of temperatures and salinities and is often found in brackish coastal lagoons and estuarine areas, particularly early in its life cycle. Gilthead sea bream are extensively cultivated in the Mediterranean with an annual production of 125,000 metric tonnes. Here we present a de novo assembly of the fast skeletal muscle transcriptome of gilthead sea bream using 454 reads and identify gene paralogues, splice variants and microsatellite repeats. An annotated transcriptome of the skeletal muscle will facilitate understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of traits linked to production in this economically important species. Results Around 2.7 million reads of mRNA sequence data were generated from the fast myotomal of adult fish (~2 kg and juvenile fish (~0.09 kg that had been either fed to satiation, fasted for 3-5d or transferred to low (11°C or high (33°C temperatures for 3-5d. Newbler v2.5 assembly resulted in 43,461 isotigs >100 bp. The number of sequences annotated by searching protein and gene ontology databases was 10,465. The average coverage of the annotated isotigs was x40 containing 5655 unique gene IDs and 785 full-length cDNAs coding for proteins containing 58–1536 amino acids. The v2.5 assembly was found to be of good quality based on validation using 200 full-length cDNAs from GenBank. Annotated isotigs from the reference transcriptome were attributable to 344 KEGG pathway maps. We identified 26 gene paralogues (20 of them teleost-specific and 43 splice variants, of which 12 had functional domains missing that were likely to affect their biological function. Many key transcription factors, signaling molecules and structural proteins necessary for myogenesis and muscle growth have been identified. Physiological status affected the

  14. Seasonal variations of cellular stress response of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

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    Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Lazou, Antigone; Pörtner, Hans O; Michaelidis, Basile

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the seasonal cellular stress response in vital organs, like the heart, the liver, the whole blood and the skeletal (red and white) muscles of the Mediterranean fish Sparus aurata during a 1-year acclimatization period in the field, in two examined depths (0-2 m and 10-12 m). Processes studied included heat shock protein expression and protein kinase activation. Molecular responses were addressed through the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90, the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases and particularly p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK-1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3). The induction of Hsp70 and Hsp90 and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, JNKs and ERKs in the examined five tissues of the gilthead sea bream indicated a cellular stress response under the prism of a seasonal pattern which was characterized by distinct tissue specificity. Specifically, Hsp induction and MAPK activation occurred before peak summer water temperatures, with no further increases in their levels despite increases in water temperatures. Moreover, although water temperature did not vary significantly with depth of immersion, significant effects of depth on cellular stress response were observed, probably caused by different light regime. The expression and the activation of these certain proteins can be used as tools to define the extreme thermal limits of the gilthead sea bream.

  15. Effect of the squid viscera hydrolysate on growth performance and digestion in the red sea bream Pagrus major.

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    Kondo, Fumitaka; Ohta, Takashi; Iwai, Toshiharu; Ido, Atsushi; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    The improvement in feed efficiency is one of the most important subjects in fish culture. The development of feed, in terms of good intake, high growth performance, and high feed efficiency is needed. Squid viscera are one of the candidates for alternative material in improving feed efficiency in fish culture. In the present study, we described the dietary effect of the squid viscera hydrolysate (SVH) on the growth performance of the red sea bream. The addition of SVH to feed caused significant increases in feed intake, fork length, and body weight and produced a marked improvement in feed conversion after 4 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, the results of this feeding revealed that low dietary levels of SVH promote growth performance in the red sea bream. We physiologically analyzed digestion and appetite in fish fed diet containing SVH. SVH promoted the activity of hepatic trypsin and lipase, gene expression of stomach pepsin, hepatic lipase, and pyloric caeca trypsin, thereby improving the nutrient availability in red sea bream. Moreover, the mRNA expression of appetite regulating factor, such as brain NPY and stomach ghrelin was significantly improved by dietary SVH. Our current results indicate that dietary SVH as alternative material produced excellent effects on growth performance, which is dependent on the promoting effect on digestion and appetite in red sea bream.

  16. Metabolic and transcriptional responses of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) to environmental stress: New insights in fish mitochondrial phenotyping

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    Bermejo-Nogales, A.; Nederlof, M.A.J.; Benedito-Palos, L.; Ballester-Lozano, G.F.; Folkedal, O.; Olsen, R.E.; Sitjà-Bobadilla, A.; Pérez-Sánchez, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to phenotype fish metabolism and the transcriptionally-mediated response of hepatic mitochondria of gilthead sea bream to intermittent and repetitive environmental stressors: (i) changes in water temperature (T-ST), (ii) changes in water level and chasing (C-ST) and

  17. Exposure of sea bream (Sparus aurata) to toxic concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene: possible human health effect.

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    Zena, R; Speciale, A; Calabrò, C; Calò, M; Palombieri, D; Saija, A; Cimino, F; Trombetta, D; Lo Cascio, P

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can accumulate in the food chain, due to their lipophilic properties. Fish can accumulate contaminants including PAHs and frequent consumption of such contaminated fish can pose risk to human health. The aim of this study was to clarify if acute exposure of sea bream (Sparus aurata, a fish species of great economic importance in the Atlantic and Mediterranean areas) to a PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), at a dose that can induce CYP1A and pathological changes in fish gills, liver and muscle, can induce accumulation in muscle. We investigated the cytotoxic effects (as changes in cell viability, DNA laddering and glutathione content) of in vitro exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to organic extracts obtained from muscle of sea breams previously exposed via water to B[a]P (2mg/l, for 12, 24 and 72 h). At this level of exposure, B[a]P caused morphological changes, inflammatory response and CYP1A induction not only in sea bream gills and liver but also in muscle; furthermore, in fish muscle we observed a substantial B[a]P accumulation, which may be associated with the increased CYP1A activity in liver and especially in muscle. However, when PBMCs were exposed to organic extracts obtained from sea bream muscle contaminated with B[a]P, a toxic, although modest effect was revealed, consisting in a significant decrease in cell glutathione levels without alterations in cell viability and DNA laddering. This suggests that consumption of sea breams from B[a]P contaminated waters might represent a risk for human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacisalihoglu, G.; Eliyakut, F.; Anwari, M.A.; Ataman, O.Y.; Balkas, T.I.; Tuncel, G.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m 3 , which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  19. NUTRITION AS POSSIBLE ETHIOLOGICAL AGENT OF WINTER DISEASE SYNDROME IN SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata L.

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    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The circumstance of winter disease phenomenon in intensively reared sea bream (Sparus aurata L. has been described. It’s occurence in Mediterranean has been registered and reported by several authors. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the comprehension on the aethiology of this syndrome which is causing significant losses in one year old cultured fish. Different types of commercial diets were introduced during 1994/95 rearing season to the sea bream reared in floating cages. The feeds were displaying differences in energetic compound level and vitamin A, D3 and E content. Health difficulties and mortality in the observed fish groups at the beginning of the problem, did not indicate any biotic agent as being responsible for such condition. Clinical features and mortality in the groups affected by winter disease syndrome were increasing by low sea temperature and correlating with feeding period by food containing low levels of protein, lipids and vitamins. Pathological findings were in particularly related to the organs involved in digestion. Growth rate was characteristic for the group that were suffering winter disease, where increasing in length was not followed by body weight. Clinical signs, simptomathology related to the organs involved in digestion, liver histology analyses, weight losses and pattern of weight and length relation, correlation between used feeds and occurrence of winter disease, implicated nutrition as one of most possible ethiological agent of this condition. Nutritional interventions applied contributed in comprehension of the winter disease syndrome. The relationship between nutritional requirements, particularly regerding autumn-winter period, has been researched and analyzed. The results approved our basic hypothesis.

  20. Biological and nutritional studies on hybrid between red sea bream and black sea bream

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    金, 良沫

    2010-01-01

    [目次] 緒論, 第1章.F_1の生物学的特性, 第2章.F_1の栄養学的特性, 第3章.魚粉代替タンパク源の検索, 第4章.韓国における飼育試験, 要約, Summary,  謝辞, 文献

  1. Diel activity and variability in habitat use of white sea bream in a temperate marine protected area.

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    Di Lorenzo, Manfredi; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Badalamenti, Fabio; Guidetti, Paolo; Starr, Richard M; Giacalone, Vincenzo Maximiliano; Di Franco, Antonio; D'Anna, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Fish populations are often comprised of individuals that use habitats and associated resources in different ways. We placed sonic transmitters in, and tracked movements of, white sea bream (Diplodus sargus sargus) in the no-take zone of a Mediterranean marine protected area: the Torre Guaceto marine protected area, (Adriatic Sea, Italy). Tagged fish displayed three types of diel activity patterns in three different habitats: sand, rocky reefs and "matte" of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Individuals were more active during the day than at night. Overall, white sea bream displayed a remarkable behavioural plasticity in habitat use. Our results indicate that the observed behavioural plasticity in the marine protected area could be the result of multiple ecological and environmental drivers such as size, sex and increased intra-specific competition. Our findings support the view that habitat diversity helps support high densities of fishes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of dietary nutrient composition on de novo lipogenesis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn

    rate of 18.7 to 123.7 mg/kg biomass/day, when feeding iso-DP and iso-DE diets ranging between 6 and 24% dietary starch, respectively. Additionally, up to 68.8% of the hepatic glycogen pool could be attributed to dietary starch, while the same was true for up to 38.8% of the whole body glycogen pool...... (using diets otherwise iso-DP and iso-DE). The apparent retention of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were positively related to dietary starch level (and negatively related to dietary lipid level), exceeding 100% in fish fed high starch diets. These findings...... and the PUFA content to decrease when increasing dietary starch level, adversely affecting the overall FA quality of the final product. Considering lipogenesis results, nutrient retention efficiencies and body composition results obtained in the three trials collectively, gilthead sea bream appear to endeavour...

  3. Lysine and Leucine Deficiencies Affect Myocytes Development and IGF Signaling in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata.

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    Sheida Azizi

    Full Text Available Optimizing aquaculture production requires better knowledge of growth regulation and improvement in diet formulation. A great effort has been made to replace fish meal for plant protein sources in aquafeeds, making necessary the supplementation of such diets with crystalline amino acids (AA to cover the nutritional requirements of each species. Lysine and Leucine are limiting essential AA in fish, and it has been demonstrated that supplementation with them improves growth in different species. However, the specific effects of AA deficiencies in myogenesis are completely unknown and have only been studied at the level of hepatic metabolism. It is well-known that the TOR pathway integrates the nutritional and hormonal signals to regulate protein synthesis and cell proliferation, to finally control muscle growth, a process also coordinated by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs. This study aimed to provide new information on the impact of Lysine and Leucine deficiencies in gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes examining their development and the response of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs, MRFs, as well as key molecules involved in muscle growth regulation like TOR. Leucine deficiency did not cause significant differences in most of the molecules analyzed, whereas Lysine deficiency appeared crucial in IGFs regulation, decreasing significantly IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IRb mRNA levels. This treatment also down-regulated the gene expression of different MRFs, including Myf5, Myogenin and MyoD2. These changes were also corroborated by a significant decrease in proliferation and differentiation markers in the Lysine-deficient treatment. Moreover, both Lysine and Leucine limitation induced a significant down-regulation in FOXO3 gene expression, which deserves further investigation. We believe that these results will be relevant for the production of a species as appreciated for human consumption as it is gilthead sea bream and demonstrates

  4. [Effect of food availability in early ontogenesis on the rate of growth and numbers of bream Abramis brama L. (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) in Kursh Bay of the Baltic Sea].

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    Naumenko, E N

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of studies of zooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the coastal zone of Kursh Bay of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton production accessible for juveniles of bream Abramis brama L. at early stages of ontogenesis, degree of removal of food resources, and food availability of juveniles of the bream that was reflected in the rate of growth were calculated. It is concluded that the removal of more than 60% of production of food zooplankton by bream juveniles leads to an increase of their mortality at early stages and a decrease in the rate of increase in the body weight.

  5. Starvation beneficially influences the liver physiology and nutrient metabolism in Edwardsiella tarda infected red sea bream (Pagrus major).

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    Mohapatra, Sipra; Chakraborty, Tapas; Shimizu, Sonoko; Urasaki, Shintaro; Matsubara, Takahiro; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Ohta, Kohei

    2015-11-01

    Dietary compromises, especially food restrictions, possess species-specific effects on the health status and infection control in several organisms, including fish. To understand the starvation-mediated physiological responses in Edwardsiella tarda infected red sea bream, especially in the liver, we performed a 20-day starvation experiment using 4 treatment (2 fed and 2 starved) groups, namely, fed-placebo, starved-placebo, fed-infected, and starved-infected, wherein bacterial exposure was done on the 11th day. In the present study, the starved groups showed reduced hepatosomatic index and drastic depletion in glycogen storage and vacuole formation. The fed-infected fish showed significant (Pred sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification, Characterization, and Mapping of a Novel SNP Associated with Body Color Transparency in Juvenile Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major).

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    Sawayama, Eitaro; Noguchi, Daiki; Nakayama, Kei; Takagi, Motohiro

    2018-03-23

    We previously reported a body color deformity in juvenile red sea bream, which shows transparency in the juvenile stage because of delayed chromatophore development compared with normal individuals, and this finding suggested a genetic cause based on parentage assessments. To conduct marker-assisted selection to eliminate broodstock inheriting the causative gene, developing DNA markers associated with the phenotype was needed. We first conducted SNP mining based on AFLP analysis using bulked-DNA from normal and transparent individuals. One SNP was identified from a transparent-specific AFLP fragment, which significantly associated with transparent individuals. Two alleles (A/G) were observed in this locus, and the genotype G/G was dominantly observed in the transparent groups (97.1%) collected from several production lots produced from different broodstock populations. A few normal individuals inherited the G/G genotype (5.0%), but the A/A and A/G genotypes were dominantly observed in the normal groups. The homologs region of the SNP was searched using a medaka genome database, and intron 12 of the Nell2a gene (located on chromosome 6 of the medaka genome) was highly matched. We also mapped the red sea bream Nell2a gene on the previously developed linkage maps, and this gene was mapped on a male linkage group, LG4-M. The newly found SNP was useful in eliminating broodstock possessing the causative gene of the body color transparency observed in juvenile stage of red sea bream.

  7. Partial replacement of fish meal by T-Iso in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata juveniles diets

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    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of microalga Isochrysis sp. T-Iso in partial substitution of fish meal and the study of the effects on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata perform- ances and chemical composition of fillets. The results show that the microalga T-Iso nutrients support growth better than control diets, and the chemical composition of sea bream fillets also meets the needs of consumers for healthy diets. T-Iso resulted highly digestible, and support the best perform- ances of fish fed on 70% alga diet probably due to its high protein efficiency in comparison to other diets. The presence of a high quantity of cyclic isoprenoid could explain this high efficiency of T-Iso. Gilthead sea bream fed on 70% T-Iso showed fillets with a low level of protein and a high level of fat; moreover, their somatic indexes were higher than those of fish fed other diets. Highest percentage T- Iso diet showed the highest amount of the sum of saturated fatty acids, mainly due to myristate and palmitate. On the contrary, the sum of polyunsaturated decreases, mainly because of the reduction of EPA and DHA amounts. If the mass production economical problems are solved, T-Iso will represent a good solution in partial substitution of fish meal.

  8. PREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO SPP. ISOLATED ON AQUACULTURED GILTHEAD SEA BREAM

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    C. Scarano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp isolated from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata farmed on sea cages and to identify and characterize the pathogen by molecular techniques. Eighty fish were collected from two hatcheries located on the North-Est Sardinian Mediterranean coast, and microbiological analysis were performed on different body parts such as skin, gills, muscle and intestinal tract. Subsequently 100 pure colonies with typical morphology and phenotypic characteristics were selected and submitted to the molecular identification. The analysis on the prevalence of Vibrio spp showed the effect of the hatchery rearing system (P<0.001, of the date of sampling (P<0.001, and of the body part (P<0.001. All the strains selected were confirmed to be members of the genus Vibrio spp by the molecular method/techinique/identification, whereas the rpoA gene sequence analyses allowed to identify 89 strains belonging to the species Vibrio harveyi, 6 to V. diabolicus, 2 to V. parahaemolyticus and 1 to V. mediterranei.

  9. Black Sea challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this month's European column, Jean-Francois Drevet examines the issues that arise for Europe from the Black Sea region. The Black Sea is increasingly becoming a crucial place of transit for hydrocarbon imports from the Caspian and Russia into the European Union. The considerable increase in this traffic raises both environmental problems (the risk of oil slicks) and issues of security of supply, on account of the economic and political fragility of some of the bordering or neighbouring states (Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia/Chechnya etc.). This is why, as Jean-Francois Drevet stresses, the European Union has been trying since the mid-1990's to claim a role in the management of the affairs of the region. With two bordering states (Rumania and Bulgaria) joining the EU in 2007, cooperation in the Black Sea has become a priority within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, and this column delineates a number of the obstacles that still have to be surmounted. (author)

  10. Disruption of thyroid hormone binding to sea bream recombinant transthyretin by ioxinyl and polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Isabel; Hamers, Timo; Van der Ven, Leo; Power, D M

    2007-08-01

    A number of chemicals released into the environment share structural similarity to the thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) and it is thought that they may interfere with the thyroid axis and behave as endocrine disruptors (EDs). One of the ways by which such environmental contaminants may disrupt the TH axis is by binding to TH transporter proteins. Transthyretin (TTR) is one of the thyroid hormone binding proteins responsible for TH transport in the blood. TTR forms a stable tetramer that binds both T(4) and T(3) and in fish it is principally synthesized in the liver but is also produced by the brain and intestine. In the present study, we investigate the ability of some chemicals arising from pharmaceutical, industrial or agricultural production and classified as EDs, to compete with [I(125)]-T(3) for sea bream recombinant TTR (sbrTTR). Ioxinyl, a common herbicide and several polybrominated diphenyl ethers were strong inhibitors of [I(125)]-T(3) binding to TTR and some showed even greater affinity than the natural ligand T(3). The TTR competitive binding assay developed offers a quick and effective tool for preliminary risk assessment of chemicals which may disrupt the thyroid axis in teleost fish inhabiting vulnerable aquatic environments.

  11. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  12. Sample size matters in dietary gene expression studies—A case study in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Kokou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns in gene expression studies is the calculation of statistical significance which in most cases remains low due to limited sample size. Increasing biological replicates translates into more effective gains in power which, especially in nutritional experiments, is of great importance as individual variation of growth performance parameters and feed conversion is high. The present study investigates in the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, one of the most important Mediterranean aquaculture species. For 24 gilthead sea bream individuals (biological replicates the effects of gradual substitution of fish meal by plant ingredients (0% (control, 25%, 50% and 75% in the diets were studied by looking at expression levels of four immune-and stress-related genes in intestine, head kidney and liver. The present results showed that only the lowest substitution percentage is tolerated and that liver is the most sensitive tissue to detect gene expression variations in relation to fish meal substituted diets. Additionally the usage of three independent biological replicates were evaluated by calculating the averages of all possible triplets in order to assess the suitability of selected genes for stress indication as well as the impact of the experimental set up, thus in the present work the impact of FM substitution. Gene expression was altered depending of the selected biological triplicate. Only for two genes in liver (hsp70 and tgf significant differential expression was assured independently of the triplicates used. These results underlined the importance of choosing the adequate sample number especially when significant, but minor differences in gene expression levels are observed. Keywords: Sample size, Gene expression, Fish meal replacement, Immune response, Gilthead sea bream

  13. Adaptation to different salinities exposes functional specialization in the intestine of the sea bream (Sparus aurata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gregório, Sílvia F.; Carvalho, Edison Samir Mascarelhas; Encarnação, Sandra; Wilson, J.; Power, Deborah; Canario, Adelino V. M.; Fuentes, J.

    2013-01-01

    The processing of intestinal fluid, in addition to a high drinking rate, is essential for osmoregulation in marine fish. This study analyzed the long-term response of the sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) to relevant changes of external salinity (12, 35 and 55p.p.t.), focusing on the anterior intestine and in the less-often studied rectum. Intestinal water absorption, epithelial HCO3– secretion and gene expression of the main molecular mechanisms (SLC26a6, SLC26a3, SLC4a4, atp6v1b, CFTR, NKCC1 an...

  14. Skin healing and scale regeneration in fed and unfed sea bream, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canario Adelino VM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish scales are an important reservoir of calcium and phosphorus and together with the skin function as an integrated barrier against environmental changes and external aggressors. Histological studies have revealed that the skin and scales regenerate rapidly in fish when they are lost or damaged. In the present manuscript the histological and molecular changes underlying skin and scale regeneration in fed and fasted sea bream (Sparus auratus were studied using a microarray 3 and 7 days after scale removal to provide a comprehensive molecular understanding of the early stages of these processes. Results Histological analysis of skin/scales revealed 3 days after scale removal re-epithelisation and formation of the scale pocket had occurred and 53 and 109 genes showed significant up or down-regulation, respectively. Genes significantly up-regulated were involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and adhesion, immune response and antioxidant activities. 7 days after scale removal a thin regenerated scale was visible and only minor changes in gene expression occurred. In animals that were fasted to deplete mineral availability the expression profiles centred on maintaining energy homeostasis. The utilisation of fasting as a treatment emphasised the competing whole animal physiological requirements with regard to barrier repair, infection control and energy homeostasis. Conclusions The identification of numerous genes involved in the mitotic checkpoint and cell proliferation indicate that the experimental procedure may be useful for understanding cell proliferation and control in vertebrates within the context of the whole animal physiology. In response to skin damage genes of immune surveillance were up-regulated along with others involved in tissue regeneration required to rapidly re-establish barrier function. Additionally, candidate fish genes were identified that may be involved in cytoskeletal re

  15. Prebiotics effect on immune and hepatic oxidative status and gut morphology of white sea bream (Diplodus sargus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Inês; Couto, Ana; Machado, Marina; Castro, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on immune and hepatic oxidative status, and gut morphology of white sea bream juveniles. Four diets were formulated: a control diet with fish meal (FM) and plant feedstuffs (PF) (30FM:70PF) and three test diets similar to the control but supplemented with 1% of scFOS, XOS or GOS. Dietary prebiotic incorporation did not affect total blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood indices or differential white blood cell counts. Fish fed GOS had lower ACH50 and nitric oxide than fish fed control diet. XOS enhanced immune status through the increase in alternative complement pathway (ACH50), lysozyme and total immunoglobulin. The higher activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in fish fed FOS compared to the other dietary groups was the only related antioxidant enzyme affected by prebiotics in the liver. GOS ameliorated the precocious adverse effects of PF based diet on gut histomorphology, as denoted by the lower incidence of histological alterations in fish fed GOS for 15 days. In conclusion, XOS and GOS at 1% might have potential to be used as prebiotics in white sea bream juveniles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary keto-acid feed-back on pituitary activity in gilthead sea bream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarz, Antoni; Costa, Rita; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2010-01-01

    bream pituitary proteome was generated. Proteins with a modified expression between Controls and AKG treated fish were further analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and liquid chromatography combined with a nanoelectrospray (LC-MS/MS). The main changes in the proteome induced by AKG treatment were grouped...

  17. Development temperature has persistent effects on muscle growth responses in gilthead sea bream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia de la serrana

    Full Text Available Initially we characterised growth responses to altered nutritional input at the transcriptional and tissue levels in the fast skeletal muscle of juvenile gilthead sea bream. Fish reared at 21-22°C (range were fed a commercial diet at 3% body mass d(-1 (non-satiation feeding, NSF for 4 weeks, fasted for 4d (F and then fed to satiation (SF for 21d. 13 out of 34 genes investigated showed consistent patterns of regulation between nutritional states. Fasting was associated with a 20-fold increase in MAFbx, and a 5-fold increase in Six1 and WASp expression, which returned to NSF levels within 16h of SF. Refeeding to satiation was associated with a rapid (<24 h 12 to 17-fold increase in UNC45, Hsp70 and Hsp90α transcripts coding for molecular chaperones associated with unfolded protein response pathways. The growth factors FGF6 and IGF1 increased 6.0 and 4.5-fold within 16 h and 24 h of refeeding respectively. The average growth in diameter of fast muscle fibres was checked with fasting and significant fibre hypertrophy was only observed after 13d and 21d SF. To investigate developmental plasticity in growth responses we used the same experimental protocol with fish reared at either 17.5-18.5°C (range (LT or 21-22°C (range (HT to metamorphosis and then transferred to 21-22°C. There were persistent effects of development temperature on muscle growth patterns with 20% more fibres of lower average diameter in LT than HT group of similar body size. Altering the nutritional input to the muscle to stimulate growth revealed cryptic changes in the expression of UNC45 and Hsp90α with higher transcript abundance in the LT than HT groups, whereas there were no differences in the expression of MAFbx and Six1. It was concluded that myogenesis and gene expression patterns during growth are not fixed, but can be modified by temperature during the early stages of the life cycle.

  18. Influence of Moraxella sp. colonization on the kidney proteome of farmed gilthead sea breams (Sparus aurata, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viale Iolanda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, presence of Moraxella sp. in internal organs of fish is not considered detrimental for fish farming. However, bacterial colonization of internal organs can affect fish wellness and decrease growth rate, stress resistance, and immune response. Recently, there have been reports by farmers concerning slow growth, poor feed conversion, and low average weight increase of fish farmed in offshore floating sea cages, often associated with internal organ colonization by Moraxella sp. Therefore, presence of these opportunistic bacteria deserves further investigations for elucidating incidence and impact on fish metabolism. Results A total of 960 gilthead sea breams (Sparus aurata, L., collected along 17 months from four offshore sea cage plants and two natural lagoons in Sardinia, were subjected to routine microbiological examination of internal organs throughout the production cycle. Thirteen subjects (1.35% were found positive for Moraxella sp. in the kidney (7, brain (3, eye (1, spleen (1, and perivisceral fat (1. In order to investigate the influence of Moraxella sp. colonization, positive and negative kidney samples were subjected to a differential proteomics study by means of 2-D PAGE and mass spectrometry. Interestingly, Moraxella sp. infected kidneys displayed a concerted upregulation of several mitochondrial enzymes compared to negative tissues, reinforcing previous observations following lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge in fish. Conclusions Presence of Moraxella sp. in farmed sea bream kidney is able to induce proteome alterations similar to those described following LPS challenge in other fish species. This study revealed that Moraxella sp. might be causing metabolic alterations in fish, and provided indications on proteins that could be investigated as markers of infection by Gram-negative bacteria within farming plants.

  19. Proximate Composition, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Attributes of Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and Emperor Sea Bream (Lethrinus spp. Fillets Sold on Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Nicoleta Boițeanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The variety of seafood on the European market has considerably increased in recent years. This study presents data to the main nutritional values and the sensory properties of two exotic fish species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and emperor sea bream (Lethrinus spp., sold on retail market in Germany. Information on the quality of frozen and glazed fillets is still missing, but is important to characterize these products. This also includes details on the substances added to increase the water-binding ability. Aims: The paper aims to assess the quality of exotic fish fillets sold on the German market, through the evaluation of physical and chemical parameters, microbiological quality and sensory attributes. Materials and methods: 10 samples of each fish species were analysed after homogenisation to determine the following parameters:  pH-value (with a pH meter; water (gravimetrically; ash (in  a muffle furnace at 550 °C; salt (NaCl; by auto-titration; fat (by a modified Smedes method; protein (with a LECO TruSpecN based on the principles of the Dumas combustion method; total phosphorus content (photometrically; total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, using the EU reference method; total viable bacteria count (TVC and specific fish spoiling bacteria (SSO (by decimal dilutions method. The sensory assessments were done with cooked and fried fillets by a panel consisting of 6 specialists, using a descriptive method. Results: Lipid, ash and salt contents of mahi-mahi were comparable to the emperor sea bream values. Due to low lipid content, both species can be classified as lean species. The protein amount of emperor sea bream was significantly higher compared to mahi-mahi and many other common fish species. In mahi-mahi samples, slightly higher values of total phosphates content were found. The pH values of emperor sea bream were in a normal range for fresh fish, whereas in mahi-mahi significantly higher values were determined which

  20. Comparative proteome analysis of cryopreserved flagella and head plasma membrane proteins from sea bream spermatozoa: effect of antifreeze proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilli, Loredana; Beirão, José; Schiavone, Roberta; Herraez, Maria Paz; Gnoni, Antonio; Vilella, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation induces injuries to fish spermatozoa that in turn affect sperm quality in terms of fertilization ability, motility, DNA and protein integrity and larval survival. To reduce the loss of sperm quality due to freezing-thawing, it is necessary to improve these procedures. In the present study we investigated the ability of two antifreeze proteins (AFPI and AFPIII) to reduce the loss of quality of sea bream spermatozoa due to cryopreservation. To do so, we compared viability, motility, straight-line velocity and curvilinear velocity of fresh and (AFPs)-cryopreserved spermatozoa. AFPIII addition to cryopreservation medium improved viability, motility and straight-line velocity with respect to DMSO or DMSO plus AFPI. To clarify the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these findings, the protein profile of two different cryopreserved sperm domains, flagella and head plasma membranes, was analysed. The protein profiles differed between fresh and frozen-thawed semen and results of the image analysis demonstrated that, after cryopreservation, out of 270 proteins 12 were decreased and 7 were increased in isolated flagella, and out of 150 proteins 6 showed a significant decrease and 4 showed a significant increase in head membranes. Mass spectrometry analysis identified 6 proteins (4 from isolated flagella and 2 present both in flagella and head plasma membranes) within the protein spots affected by the freezing-thawing procedure. 3 out of 4 proteins from isolated flagella were involved in the sperm bioenergetic system. Our results indicate that the ability of AFPIII to protect sea bream sperm quality can be, at least in part, ascribed to reducing changes in the sperm protein profile occurring during the freezing-thawing procedure. Our results clearly demonstrated that AFPIII addition to cryopreservation medium improved the protection against freezing respect to DMSO or DMSO plus AFPI. In addition we propose specific proteins of spermatozoa as markers related to

  1. Effects of protein hydrolysates supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Rahimnejad, Samad; Herault, Mikaël; Fournier, Vincent; Lee, Cho-Rong; Dio Bui, Hien Thi; Jeong, Jun-Bum; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwardsiella tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P red sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary Investigation on the Use of Allyi Isothiocyanate to Increase the Shelf-Life of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus Aurata) Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Crinò, Chiara; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against fish spoilage bacteria (specific spoilage organisms; SSOs) as well as its possible use in gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) fillets to extend their shelf-life. In this regard, in vitro tests are carried out in order to evaluate the inhibitory activity of AITC and its vapours on several strains of SSOs. The AITC effect on the shelf-life of sea bream fillets was made by putting them in plastic trays hermetically closed with the addition AITC. Microbiological and sensorial evaluations were made on fish fillets during storage. Treated fillets maintained microbial populations at a significantly lower level compared with the control samples during storage, showing better sensorial characteristics. Therefore, the use of AITC's vapours seems to be a new and interesting alternative way to increase fish product shelf-life.

  3. Effects of Large-Scale Releases on the Genetic Structure of Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel) Populations in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Gonzalez, Enrique; Aritaki, Masato; Knutsen, Halvor; Taniguchi, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale hatchery releases are carried out for many marine fish species worldwide; nevertheless, the long-term effects of this practice on the genetic structure of natural populations remains unclear. The lack of knowledge is especially evident when independent stock enhancement programs are conducted simultaneously on the same species at different geographical locations, as occurs with red sea bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel) in Japan. In this study, we examined the putative effects of intensive offspring releases on the genetic structure of red sea bream populations along the Japanese archipelago by genotyping 848 fish at fifteen microsatellite loci. Our results suggests weak but consistent patterns of genetic divergence (F(ST) = 0.002, p Red sea bream in Japan appeared spatially structured with several patches of distinct allelic composition, which corresponded to areas receiving an important influx of fish of hatchery origin, either released intentionally or from unintentional escapees from aquaculture operations. In addition to impacts upon local populations inhabiting semi-enclosed embayments, large-scale releases (either intentionally or from unintentional escapes) appeared also to have perturbed genetic structure in open areas. Hence, results of the present study suggest that independent large-scale marine stock enhancement programs conducted simultaneously on one species at different geographical locations may compromise native genetic structure and lead to patchy patterns in population genetic structure.

  4. Activity of R(+) limonene on the maximum growth rate of fish spoilage organisms and related effects on shelf-life prolongation of fresh gilthead sea bream fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2016-11-21

    R(+)limonene (LMN) is the major aromatic compound in essential oils obtained from oranges, grapefruits, and lemons. The improvement of preservation techniques to reduce the growth and activity of spoilage microorganisms in foods is crucial to increase their shelf life and to reduce the losses due to spoilage. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of LMN on the shelf life of fish fillets. Its effectiveness was preliminarily investigated in vitro against 60 strains of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) and then on gilt-head sea bream fillets stored at 2±0.5°C for 15days under vacuum. LMN showed a good inhibitory effect against tested SSOs strains. On gilt-head sea bream fillets, LMN inhibited the growth SSOs effectively, and its use resulted in a shelf-life extension of ca. 6-9days of treated fillets, compared to the control samples. The LMN addition in Sparus aurata fillets giving a distinctive smell and like-lemon taste to fish fillets that resulted pleasant to panellists. Its use contributed to a considerable reduction of fish spoilage given that the fillets treated with LMN were still sensory acceptable after 15days of storage. LMN may be used as an effective antimicrobial system to reduce the microbial growth and to improve the shelf life of fresh gilt-head sea bream fillets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of the diet on the microbial diversity of faecal and gastrointestinal contents in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and intestinal contents in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Zambonino-Infante, José Luiz; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Gatesoupe, François-Joël

    2011-11-01

    Fish intestinal microbiota changes with the diet and this effect is of particular interest considering the increasing substitution of fish meal by plant protein sources. The objective of this work was to study the effects of partial substitution of fish meal with lupin and rapeseed meals on gut microbiota of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Faecal, gastrointestinal and intestinal contents were characterized using culture-based and molecular methods. Vibrionaceae was high in faeces and in the intestine of sea bream, while a more diverse microbiota was retrieved from the stomach, where Bacillales and Flavobacteriaceae appeared to be influenced by the diet. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles revealed a high diversity of the microbiota transiting in the sea bream digestive tract, with a shift between gastric and intestinal communities, especially in the group fed with lupin meal. The goldfish was different, with a predominance of Aeromonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens and Staphylococcus spp. among the aerotolerant-cultivable bacteria. The culture-independent methods revealed the presence of anaerobes like Cetobacterium somerae, and that of Vibrio spp., likely in a viable, but noncultivable state. There was a trend towards decreasing diversity in goldfish microbiota with the partial substitution by lupin, which seemed to inhibit some taxa. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytokine modulation by stress hormones and antagonist specific hormonal inhibition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) head kidney primary cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, Ali Reza; Parra, David; Reyes-López, Felipe E; Tort, Lluís

    2017-09-01

    A tight interaction between endocrine and immune systems takes place mainly due to the key role of head kidney in both hormone and cytokine secretion, particularly under stress situations in which the physiological response promotes the synthesis and release of stress hormones which may lead into immunomodulation as side effect. Although such interaction has been previously investigated, this study evaluated for the first time the effect of stress-associated hormones together with their receptor antagonists on the expression of cytokine genes in head kidney primary cell culture (HKPCC) of the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the seawater gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The results showed a striking difference when comparing the response obtained in trout and seabream. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) decreased the expression of immune-related genes in sea bream but not in rainbow trout and this cortisol effect was reverted by the antagonist mifepristone but not spironolactone. On the other hand, while adrenaline reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) in rainbow trout, the opposite effect was observed in sea bream showing an increased expression (IL-1β, IL-6). Interestingly, this effect was reverted by antagonist propranolol but not phentolamine. Overall, our results confirm the regional interaction between endocrine and cytokine messengers and a clear difference in the sensitivity to the hormonal stimuli between the two species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interactive effects of food quality, temperature and rearing time on condition of juvenile black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, B D; Elsdon, T S; Gillanders, B M

    2010-06-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the interactive effects of temperature and diet on condition indices of juvenile black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri, reared for time periods ranging from 2 to 42 days. After fish were reared for varying periods, growth, morphometric (Fulton's K) and biochemical [RNA:DNA (R:D) ratios] indices were measured. Fulton's K responded primarily to temperature, with progressive decrease in condition over time for fish reared at high temperatures. In contrast, R:D ratios were primarily affected by diet composition, with the highest values observed for fish reared on fish-based diets as opposed to vegetable-based diets. Significant effects of rearing time were also observed for Fulton's K and R:D ratios, as were some interactive treatment effects. In addition, Fulton's K and R:D ratios were not significantly correlated, perhaps due to the different periods of time integrated by each index or their relative sensitivity to lipid and protein deposition. These results highlight the complex responses of these condition indices to environmental variables and nutritional status.

  8. On The Black Sea Surozhian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Corneliu, Cerchia

    2016-04-01

    Some Black Sea researchers still support the idea of no other connection to the Mediterranean Sea between LGM and Karangatian Stage (Riss - Wurm). We try to clarify the source of these disagreements. C14 AMS age data (HERAS Project) made on undisturbed samples from a new Mamaia drilling hole where compared with the classical Black Sea stratigraphic schemes. A first transgressive event (Zone D) is found between 38.00 - 20.20 m depth. Zone D4 shows a fairly rapid rise of sea level, about 10 m below the present one indicating an inner shelf marine polyhaline environment. AMS age data show 14C ages between 53690 - 47359 y (MIS 1), corresponding to the "Surozhian Beds" of Popov. The "beach rock" from Zone E marks the decrease of the sea level after the maximum reached in Zone D4. Zone E mollusc shells AMS data, indicate 14C ages of 48724 - 44604 y, suggesting a long-time reworked material from the previous D4 zone sediments, and represents the beginning of the "regressive Tarkankutian" sequence.The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) led to the retreat of the sea level down to about 100 m below the current one (27-17 ky BP), followed by an retreat of the shoreline to the present position. At the beginning of the Holocene - MIS 1 (8408-8132 cal. y BP), Black Sea brackish water level grew rapidly, up to -14 m below the present one (Zone F: 22, 57-20, 20 m). Zone F deposits could be correlated with the Bugazian strata. Then, a continuous rising of the Black Sea level is recorded up to a maximum of -2 m under the present one, about 6789 - 7063 cal. y BP, when a transgressive spurt ("Neolithic transgression") may have taken place. After that, given a weak Danubian sedimentary input, coastal erosion intensified. The coarse sandy sediments were reworked and pushed over the previous peat deposits, and suggest a classical "sedimentary regression", not a sea-level decrease. During the last 1.5 ky, sea level has risen towards the current one. Previous C14 dates from "Karangatian

  9. Adaptation to different salinities exposes functional specialization in the intestine of the sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregório, Sílvia F; Carvalho, Edison S M; Encarnação, Sandra; Wilson, Jonathan M; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

    2013-02-01

    The processing of intestinal fluid, in addition to a high drinking rate, is essential for osmoregulation in marine fish. This study analyzed the long-term response of the sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) to relevant changes of external salinity (12, 35 and 55 p.p.t.), focusing on the anterior intestine and in the less-often studied rectum. Intestinal water absorption, epithelial HCO(3)(-) secretion and gene expression of the main molecular mechanisms (SLC26a6, SLC26a3, SLC4a4, atp6v1b, CFTR, NKCC1 and NKCC2) involved in Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) movements were examined. The anion transporters SLC26a6 and SLC26a3 are expressed severalfold higher in the anterior intestine, while the expression of Atp6v1b (V-type H(+)-ATPase β-subunit) is severalfold higher in the rectum. Prolonged exposure to altered external salinity was without effect on water absorption but was associated with concomitant changes in intestinal fluid content, epithelial HCO(3)(-) secretion and salinity-dependent expression of SLC26a6, SLC26a3 and SLC4a4 in the anterior intestine. However, the most striking response to external salinity was obtained in the rectum, where a 4- to 5-fold increase in water absorption was paralleled by a 2- to 3-fold increase in HCO(3)(-) secretion in response to a salinity of 55 p.p.t. In addition, the rectum of high salinity-acclimated fish shows a sustained (and enhanced) secretory current (I(sc)), identified in vitro in Ussing chambers and confirmed by the higher expression of CFTR and NKCC1 and by immunohistochemical protein localization. Taken together, the present results suggest a functional anterior-posterior specialization with regard to intestinal fluid processing and subsequently to salinity adaptation of the sea bream. The rectum becomes more active at higher salinities and functions as the final controller of intestinal function in osmoregulation.

  10. PTHrP regulates water absorption and aquaporin expression in the intestine of the marine sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Canário, Adelino V M; Power, Deborah M; Fuentes, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Water ingestion by drinking is fundamental for ion homeostasis in marine fish. However, the fluid ingested requires processing to allow net water absorption in the intestine. The formation of luminal carbonate aggregates impacts on calcium homeostasis and requires epithelial HCO3(-) secretion to enable water absorption. In light of its endocrine importance in calcium handling and the indication of involvement in HCO3(-) secretion the present study was designed to expose the role of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in HCO3(-) secretion, water absorption and the regulation of aqp1 gene expression in the anterior intestine of the sea bream. HCO3(-) secretion rapidly decreased when PTHrP(1-34) was added to anterior intestine of the sea bream mounted in Ussing chambers. The effect achieved a maximum inhibition of 60% of basal secretion rates, showing a threshold effective dose of 0.1 ng ml(-1) compatible with reported plasma values of PTHrP. When applied in combination with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) or the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)) the effect of PTHrP(1-34) on HCO3(-) secretion was reduced by about 50% in both cases. In parallel, bulk water absorption measured in intestinal sacs was sensitive to inhibition by PTHrP. The inhibitory action conforms to a typical dose-response curve in the range of 0.1-1000 ng ml(-1), achieves a maximal effect of 60-65% inhibition from basal rates and shows threshold significant effects at hormone levels of 0.1 ng ml(-1). The action of PTHrP in water absorption was completely abolished in the presence of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) and was insensitive to the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)). In vivo injections of PTHrP(1-34) or the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) evoked respectively, a significant decrease or increase of aqp1ab, but not aqp1a. Overall the present results suggest that PTHrP acts as a key

  11. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  12. Unraveling vasotocinergic, isotocinergic and stress pathways after food deprivation and high stocking density in the gilthead sea bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzynska, Arleta Krystyna; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2018-01-01

    The influence of chronic stress, induced by food deprivation (FD) and/or high stocking density (HSD), was assessed on stress, vasotocinergic and isotocinergic pathways of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Fish were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: (1) fed at low stocking density (LSD-F; 5kg·m -3 ); (2) fed at high stocking density (HSD-F, 40kg·m -3 ); (3) food-deprived at LSD (LSD-FD); and (4) food-deprived at HSD (HSD-FD). After 21days, samples from plasma, liver, hypothalamus, pituitary and head-kidney were collected. Both stressors (FD and HSD) induced a chronic stress situation, as indicated by the elevated cortisol levels, the enhancement in corticotrophin releasing hormone (crh) expression and the down-regulation in corticotrophin releasing hormone binding protein (crhbp) expression. Changes in plasma and liver metabolites confirmed a metabolic adjustment to cope with energy demand imposed by stressors. Changes in avt and it gene expression, as well as in their specific receptors (avtrv1a, avtrv2 and itr) at central (hypothalamus and pituitary) and peripheral (liver and head-kidney) levels, showed that vasotocinergic and isotocinergic pathways are involved in physiological changes induced by FD or HSD, suggesting that different stressors are handled through different stress pathways in S. aurata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biometric and metabolic profiles associated to different rearing conditions in offshore farmed gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Riccardo; Anedda, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Modern multivariate methods are applied to both biometric measurements and NMR metabolic profiling of fillet to discriminate farmed gilthead sea bream reared in different farming conditions. Two fish groups having the same average size, from the same farm, were caught in May and October. Biometric data demonstrate that condition factor is higher for the leaner fish, sampled in May, while liver somatic index is lower in fish sampled in October. Biometric features are related to metabolic changes that involve lipid storage from May to September, and their mobilization from muscle and liver during prespawning season (September, October). Structural phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine) and essential fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) characterize the lipid profile of the May catch, while triglycerides, monounsaturated and diunsaturated fatty acids, likely from absorption of vegetable oil components of feeds, suggest fish fattening in the warm season and discriminate fish caught in October. Among polar metabolites, taurine, glutamine, glycine, alanine, and creatine/phosphocreatine confirm their role as good biomarkers for the discrimination among fish produced in different farming conditions, especially involving feed digestion and metabolism, chronic stress, and alteration of energetic balance in cage-reared fish. Qualitative traits of farmed fish are therefore the result of a complex combination of environmental factors and farming practices, which should be analyzed to increase consumers' and farmers' awareness. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Phosphorus dynamics in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372617034

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) in hypoxic and anoxic marine basins are still incompletely understood. This thesis focuses on the cycling of P in two of such basins: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Water column particulates and sediments from the deep basin of the Black Sea were

  15. Dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-09-01

    Our study explored the dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (AMP-0.1), 0.2% (AMP-0.2), 0.4% (AMP-0.4) and 0.8% (AMP-0.8) purified AMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The results indicated that dietary AMP supplements tended to improve growth performances. One of the best ones was found in diet group AMP-0.2, followed by diet groups AMP-0.1, AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. The Apparent digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein and lipid) also improved by AMP supplementation and the significantly highest dry matter digestibility was observed in diet group AMP-0.2. Fish fed diet groups AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 had significantly higher peroxidase and bactericidal activities than fish fed the control diet. Nitro-blue-tetrazolium (NBT) activity was found to be significantly (P  0.05) by dietary supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with AMP supplementation. Moreover, the fish fed AMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P red sea bream. The regression analysis revealed that a dietary AMP supplementation between 0.2 and 0.4% supported weight gain and lysozyme activity as a marker of immune functions for red sea bream, which is also inline with the most of the growth and health performance parameters of fish under present experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of dietary administration of guanosine monophosphate on the growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-10-01

    The present study explored the dietary administration effects of guanosine monophosphate (GMP) on growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (GMP-0.1), 0.2% (GMP-0.2), 0.4% (GMP-0.4) and 0.8% (GMP-0.8) purified GMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The obtained results clearly indicated that, growth performance of red sea bream enhanced by dietary GMP supplementation compared to control and significantly higher final weight was found in fish fed diet group GMP-0.4. Specific growth rate (SGR) and percent weight gain (%WG) also significantly higher in diet group GMP-0.4 in compared to control and it was not differed (P > 0.05) with diet group GMP-0.8. Feed intake significantly increased with the supplementation of GMP. Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) also improved (P  0.05) by GMP supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with GMP supplementation. In terms of oxidative stress GMP-0.2 showed best condition with low oxidative stress and high antioxidant level. Moreover, the fish fed GMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P red sea bream, which is also in line with the most of the growth performance and health parameters of the fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbiological changes, shelf life and identification of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under various conditions using 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2015-09-01

    Sea bream fillets are one of the most important value-added products of the seafood market. Fresh seafood spoils mainly owing to bacterial action. In this study an exploration of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0 and 5 °C was conducted by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of isolates grown on plates. Sensory evaluation and enumeration of total viable counts and spoilage microorganisms were also conducted to determine shelf life and bacterial growth respectively. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected growth and synthesis of spoilage microbiota as well as shelf life. Shelf life under air at 0 and 5 °C was 14 and 5 days respectively, while under MAP it was 20 and 8 days respectively. Initial microbiota were dominated by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Psychrobacter and Macrococcus caseolyticus. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. At the end of shelf life, different phylotypes of Pseudomonas closely related to Pseudomonas fragi were found to dominate in most cases, while Pseudomonas veronii dominated in fillets under MAP at 0 °C. Furthermore, in fillets under MAP at 5 °C, new dominant species such as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium divergens and Vagococcus fluvialis were revealed. Different temperature and atmospheric conditions affected bacterial growth, shelf life and the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. Molecular identification revealed species and strains of microorganisms that have not been reported before for sea bream fillets stored under various conditions, thus providing valuable information regarding microbiological spoilage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Impact of Fishmeal Replacement in Diets for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota Determined by Pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Estruch

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the impact of diet on microbiota composition, but the essential need for the optimization of production rates and costs forces farms and aquaculture production to carry out continuous dietary tests. In order to understand the effect of total fishmeal replacement by vegetable-based feed in the sea bream (Sparus aurata, the microbial composition of the stomach, foregut, midgut and hindgut was analysed using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing, also considering parameters of growth, survival and nutrient utilisation indices.A total of 91,539 16S rRNA filtered-sequences were analysed, with an average number of 3661.56 taxonomically assigned, high-quality sequences per sample. The dominant phyla throughout the whole gastrointestinal tract were Actinobacteria, Protebacteria and Firmicutes. A lower diversity in the stomach in comparison to the other intestinal sections was observed. The microbial composition of the Recirculating Aquaculture System was totally different to that of the sea bream gastrointestinal tract. Total fishmeal replacement had an important impact on microbial profiles but not on diversity. Streptococcus (p-value: 0.043 and Photobacterium (p-value: 0.025 were highly represented in fish fed with fishmeal and vegetable-meal diets, respectively. In the stomach samples with the vegetable diet, reads of chloroplasts and mitochondria from vegetable dietary ingredients were rather abundant. Principal Coordinate Analysis showed a clear differentiation between diets in the microbiota present in the gut, supporting the presence of specific bacterial consortia associated with the diet.Although differences in growth and nutritive parameters were not observed, a negative effect of the vegetable diet on the survival rate was determined. Further studies are required to shed more light on the relationship between the immune system and sea bream gastrointestinal tract microbiota and should consider the modulation of

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or/and Lactococcus lactis on the growth, gut microbiota and immune responses of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Nhu, Truong H; Dossou, Serge; Moss, Amina S

    2016-02-01

    Pagrus major fingerlings (3·29 ± 0·02 g) were fed with basal diet (control) supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactococcus lactis (LL), and L. rhamnosus + L. lactis (LR + LL) at 10(6) cell g(-1) feed for 56 days. Feeding a mixture of LR and LL significantly increased feed utilization (FER and PER), intestine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, plasma total protein, alternative complement pathway (ACP), peroxidase, and mucus secretion compared with the other groups (P red sea bream aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uranium in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinets, A.E.; Zhorov, V.A.; Bezborodov, A.A.; Kobylyanskaya, A.G.; Solov'eva, L.V.; Urdenko, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    Water samples for uranium analysis have been collected over the entire Black Sea, from the surface to the sea floor. As distinct from the previously known facts, it has been established that the uranium content in different parts of the sea appears to vary both in extent and with depth. A behaviour of uranium is governed by redox conditions of the environment. A decrease in pH value of water to 7.5 and a change of Eh value from +0.4 to -0.2 v lead to reduction of U 6+ → U 4+ and ensure higher sorption properties of the solid phases. The reducing reaction is proved possible through the calculated data. It is shown that the rate of uranium isolation is increasing with depth and its content is going down. Using optical properties of water, a hydrogeochemical behaviour of organic matter and uranium in water thickness is explained. Role of organic matter and mineral components in the uranium deposition is described. Sorption of U 6+ ions on twelve components, which constitute a base of suspensions and floor sediments, has been also studied [ru

  1. Identification of Vibrio harveyi as a causative bacterium for a tail rot disease of sea bream Sparus aurata from research hatchery in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, S; Maharajan, A; Chatterjee, S; Hunter, S A; Chowdhury, N; Hinenoya, A; Asakura, M; Yamasaki, S

    2010-10-20

    A bacterial disease was reported from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) within a hatchery environment in Malta. Symptoms included complete erosion of tail, infection in the eye, mucous secretion and frequent mortality. A total of 540 strains were initially isolated in marine agar from different infected body parts and culture water sources. Subsequently 100 isolates were randomly selected, identified biochemically and all were found to be Vibrio harveyi-related organisms; finally from 100 isolates a total of 13 numbers were randomly selected and accurately identified as V. harveyi by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR. Ribotyping of these strains with HindIII revealed total of six clusters. In vivo challenge study with representative isolates from each cluster proved two clusters each were highly pathogenic, moderately pathogenic and non-pathogenic. All 13 isolates were positive for hemolysin gene, a potential virulence factor. Further analysis revealed probably a single copy of this gene was encoded in all isolates, although not in the same locus in the genome. Although V. harveyi was reported to be an important pathogen for many aquatic organisms, to our knowledge this might be the first report of disease caused by V. harveyi and their systematic study in the sea bream hatchery from Malta. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Diets Containing Plant Raw Materials as Fish Meal and Fish Oil Replacement on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata, and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Freshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorakis Kriton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate whether the total or high substitution of fish meal (FM and fish oil (FO by sustainable plant raw materials (plant meal and oils in long-term feeding for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp can result in spoilage alterations during ice storage. These three species were fed throughout their whole rearing cycle with plant-based diets and compared to counterparts that received FM/FO-based diets or commercial-like diets. Sensory QIM schemes adopted for these species and ATP breakdown products (K-value and components were used to evaluate the freshness. Sensory acceptability of 14, 15, and 12 days was found for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. This corresponded to K-values of approximately 80%, 35%, and 65% for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. No major effect of dietary history on postmortem shelf life was shown for gilthead sea bream and common carp; neither sensory-perceived nor chemical freshness showed diet-related differences. Rainbow trout fed with the plant-based diet exhibited slightly worse sensory freshness than fish fed with FM/FO-based diets, at the end of shelf life. These findings imply that FM and FO can be successfully substituted without major impacts on shelf life of fish.

  3. A gene-based radiation hybrid map of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata refines and exploits conserved synteny with Tetraodon nigroviridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsalavouta Matina

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative teleost studies are of great interest since they are important in aquaculture and in evolutionary issues. Comparing genomes of fully sequenced model fish species with those of farmed fish species through comparative mapping offers shortcuts for quantitative trait loci (QTL detections and for studying genome evolution through the identification of regions of conserved synteny in teleosts. Here a comparative mapping study is presented by radiation hybrid (RH mapping genes of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, a non-model teleost fish of commercial and evolutionary interest, as it represents the worldwide distributed species-rich family of Sparidae. Results An additional 74 microsatellite markers and 428 gene-based markers appropriate for comparative mapping studies were mapped on the existing RH map of Sparus aurata. The anchoring of the RH map to the genetic linkage map resulted in 24 groups matching the karyotype of Sparus aurata. Homologous sequences to Tetraodon were identified for 301 of the gene-based markers positioned on the RH map of Sparus aurata. Comparison between Sparus aurata RH groups and Tetraodon chromosomes (karyotype of Tetraodon consists of 21 chromosomes in this study reveals an unambiguous one-to-one relationship suggesting that three Tetraodon chromosomes correspond to six Sparus aurata radiation hybrid groups. The exploitation of this conserved synteny relationship is furthermore demonstrated by in silico mapping of gilthead sea bream expressed sequence tags (EST that give a significant similarity hit to Tetraodon. Conclusion The addition of primarily gene-based markers increased substantially the density of the existing RH map and facilitated comparative analysis. The anchoring of this gene-based radiation hybrid map to the genome maps of model species broadened the pool of candidate genes that mainly control growth, disease resistance, sex determination and reversal, reproduction as well

  4. Biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and stable isotope characterization of the trophic chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Roque [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA). Avda Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)], E-mail: serrano@qfa.uji.es; Blanes, Miguel A.; Lopez, Francisco J. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA). Avda Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2008-01-25

    Organochlorine pollutants (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were analysed in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) tissues (white muscle and liver) from the Western Mediterranean (Spain) and in their diets. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after clean up of the fatty extracts by normal phase HPLC, with detection limits around 0.1 ng/g. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined in the samples. Organochlorine compounds concentration was found to be uniform throughout the year in farmed fish, in both white muscle and liver. In contrast, wild fish showed contamination profiles that reflect environmental factors and the biological cycle. Although biomagnification factors for white muscle and liver were found to be 2.4 and 3.0, respectively for farmed fish, and 0.15 and 0.54 for wild specimens, wild fish presented higher levels of organochlorine contaminants than farmed fish. Nitrogen stable isotopes determination in muscle from wild and farmed sea bream during the year gave us a profile related to the biological cycle. {delta}{sup 15}N mean values from farmed fish were 2.0 per mille higher than from wild fish throughout the year that corresponding to close to one trophic step. {delta}{sup 13}C values were stable during the year, and also more enriched in the case of farmed fish. The low levels of contaminants found in the feed supplied to farmed fish explain the organochlorine concentrations in their tissues which remain below wild fish, in spite of the intensive culture conditions and higher trophic level of cultured specimens.

  5. Biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and stable isotope characterization of the trophic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Roque; Blanes, Miguel A.; Lopez, Francisco J.

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorine pollutants (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were analysed in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) tissues (white muscle and liver) from the Western Mediterranean (Spain) and in their diets. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after clean up of the fatty extracts by normal phase HPLC, with detection limits around 0.1 ng/g. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined in the samples. Organochlorine compounds concentration was found to be uniform throughout the year in farmed fish, in both white muscle and liver. In contrast, wild fish showed contamination profiles that reflect environmental factors and the biological cycle. Although biomagnification factors for white muscle and liver were found to be 2.4 and 3.0, respectively for farmed fish, and 0.15 and 0.54 for wild specimens, wild fish presented higher levels of organochlorine contaminants than farmed fish. Nitrogen stable isotopes determination in muscle from wild and farmed sea bream during the year gave us a profile related to the biological cycle. δ 15 N mean values from farmed fish were 2.0 per mille higher than from wild fish throughout the year that corresponding to close to one trophic step. δ 13 C values were stable during the year, and also more enriched in the case of farmed fish. The low levels of contaminants found in the feed supplied to farmed fish explain the organochlorine concentrations in their tissues which remain below wild fish, in spite of the intensive culture conditions and higher trophic level of cultured specimens

  6. Black Sea Traffic and European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Urucu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea is a major component of the MeditetmneanSea. It is a bridge between two continents and a factor of cohesionamong ancient neighbouring spaces of civilisation. Someof its geographical peculiatities make of it a half-closed sea betweenEurope and Asia. Its link with the Mediterranean is securedby the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles Straits and thencewith the planetaty ocean. So, the Black Sea ports represent actualgateways to the world for its tiverain countries. These portsboomed or waned in terms of the riverain regions' hist01y. After1990, and moreover after the Soviet Union fell apatt and newsovereign states came into being, the Pontic space has been undergoingmajor geopolitical changes. Traffic suffered radicalchanges, being governed by fresh criteria and directions. Thereis growing competition among the city-ports and, under the1992 Black Sea Economic Co-operation Treaty, new regionaldevelopment opportunities have been cropping up for the individualstates. Viewed at global scale, the Black Sea might play,if integrated into an adequate programme, an essential role ofcohesion and stability in a complex European zone with a histOtyfull of turmoil.

  7. REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia GAVUIK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is situated in a very important geopolitical manner. Consequently, a large-scale regional collaboration becomes possible within the Black Sea zone and countries get appropriate conditions to launch their activity in this context. Aim: The body of the article is going to analyze the BSEC as one of the most successful regional organizations in the Black Sea area. The paper aims to provide an overview of the regional players’ activity in the framework of the BSEC which are involved in sustaining and strengthening of this organization and also in continuing the reform process in it, developing in the same time relations of cooperation with the EU and other regional initiatives. Methods. This article embraces a row of different scientific methods of data analysis, predictive analytics, historical and statistical overview, descriptive method, case study etc. Results. The countries from the Black Sea basin are the most vulnerable to potential risks and shocks due to the instability of the region. This requires the interstate cooperation in the Black Sea area with no tradition in this field several decades ago. In the same time, countries like Turkey, Romania or Russia aspire to play the role of the regional leader, which can cause regional rivalries. With the help of the regional cooperation and the BSEC in particular, regional countries could learn how to work together for the common benefit. The creation of stable markets, interconnected and transparent regional organizations and initiatives would largely contribute to the security and stability of the Black Sea region.

  8. Interactive effects of high stocking density and food deprivation on carbohydrate metabolism in several tissues of gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Guzmán, José M; Láiz-Carrión, Raúl; Míguez, Jesús M; Martín Del Río, María P; Mancera, Juan M; Soengas, José L

    2005-09-01

    The influence of high stocking density (HSD) and food deprivation was assessed on carbohydrate metabolism of several tissues of gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus for 14 days. Fish were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: (1) fed fish under normal stocking density (NSD) (4 kg m(-3)); (2) fed fish under HSD (70 kg m(-3)); (3) food-deprived fish under NSD; and (4) food-deprived fish under HSD. After 14 days, samples were taken from the plasma, liver, gills, kidney and brain for the assessment of plasma cortisol, levels of metabolites and the activity of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. HSD conditions alone elicited important changes in energy metabolism of several tissues that in some cases were confirmatory (5-fold increase in plama cortisol, 20% increase in plasma glucose, 60% decrease in liver glycogen and 20% increase in gluconeogenic potential in the liver) whereas in others provided new information regarding metabolic adjustments to cope with HSD in the liver (100% increase in glucose phosphorylating capacity), gills (30% decrease in capacity for phosphorylating glucose), kidney (80% increase in the capacity of phosphorylating glucose) and brain (2.5-fold increase in ATP levels). On the other hand, food deprivation alone resulted in increased plasma cortisol, and metabolic changes in the liver (enhanced gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic potential of 13% and 18%, respectively) and brain (10% increase in glycolytic capacity), confirmatory of previous studies, whereas new information regarding metabolic adjustments during food deprivation was obtained in the gills and kidney (decreased lactate levels in both tissues of 45% and 55%, respectively). Furthermore, the results obtained provided, for the first time in fish, information indicating that food deprivation increased the sensitivity of gilthead sea bream to the stress induced by HSD compared with the fed controls, as demonstrated by increased plasma cortisol levels (50% increase vs

  9. Concurrence of Iridovirus, Polyomavirus, and a Unique Member of a New Group of Fish Papillomaviruses in Lymphocystis Disease-Affected Gilthead Sea Bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bueno, Alberto; Mavian, Carla; Labella, Alejandro M; Castro, Dolores; Borrego, Juan J; Alcami, Antonio; Alejo, Alí

    2016-10-01

    Lymphocystis disease is a geographically widespread disease affecting more than 150 different species of marine and freshwater fish. The disease, provoked by the iridovirus lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), is characterized by the appearance of papillomalike lesions on the skin of affected animals that usually self-resolve over time. Development of the disease is usually associated with several environmental factors and, more frequently, with stress conditions provoked by the intensive culture conditions present in fish farms. In gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), an economically important cultured fish species in the Mediterranean area, a distinct LCDV has been identified but not yet completely characterized. We have used direct sequencing of the virome of lymphocystis lesions from affected S. aurata fish to obtain the complete genome of a new LCDV-Sa species that is the largest vertebrate iridovirus sequenced to date. Importantly, this approach allowed us to assemble the full-length circular genome sequence of two previously unknown viruses belonging to the papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses, termed Sparus aurata papillomavirus 1 (SaPV1) and Sparus aurata polyomavirus 1 (SaPyV1), respectively. Epidemiological surveys showed that lymphocystis disease was frequently associated with the concurrent appearance of one or both of the new viruses. SaPV1 has unique characteristics, such as an intron within the L1 gene, and as the first member of the Papillomaviridae family described in fish, provides evidence for a more ancient origin of this family than previously thought. Lymphocystis disease affects marine and freshwater fish species worldwide. It is characterized by the appearance of papillomalike lesions on the skin that contain heavily enlarged cells (lymphocysts). The causative agent is the lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), a large icosahedral virus of the family Iridoviridae In the Mediterranean area, the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), an important farmed

  10. Black Sea Energy Security - Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We chose this theme to highlight the need for continuous and sustained human society to secure energy resources needed to survive, needs reflected in an increasingly in recent years in the strategies adopted at both states, as at the level of international organizations. Achieving security and stability in the wider Black Sea area has been among the priorities of each country's interests in this region. In this context, state and non-state actors were being called to come up with new solutions to achieve those interests. Certainly not in all cases the negotiations were completed or not yet found a generally accepted formula for others to apply, but most of them show off their values. The main environmental threats to security environment in the Black Sea region are represented by ethnic conflicts and territorial secessionism. A significant contribution to the security environment of the Black Sea region has the phenomenon of globalization, which in this region is manifested by a steady increase in traffic and volume of shipping passage of communication, which largely affects the security in the region. Globalization and the need for energy resources in the Black Sea was an important area not only as energy transport route, but as a potential supplier of material energy (oil and natural gas. Black Sea Basin can be stabilized and secured only by the will and input from all States and interested international organizations in pragmatic and effective institutional frameworks, meant to promote and protect the common interests of countries decided to participate in actions aimed at ensuring a stable environment security.

  11. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  12. Antibody profiling using a recombinant protein-based multiplex ELISA array accelerates recombinant vaccine development: Case study on red sea bream iridovirus as a reverse vaccinology model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Sano, Natsumi; Takano, Tomokazu; Sakai, Takamitsu; Yasuike, Motoshige; Fujiwara, Atushi; Kawato, Yasuhiko; Kurita, Jun; Yoshida, Kazunori; Shimada, Yukinori; Nakayasu, Chihaya

    2018-05-03

    Predicting antigens that would be protective is crucial for the development of recombinant vaccine using genome based vaccine development, also known as reverse vaccinology. High-throughput antigen screening is effective for identifying vaccine target genes, particularly for pathogens for which minimal antigenicity data exist. Using red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) as a research model, we developed enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) based RSIV-derived 72 recombinant antigen array to profile antiviral antibody responses in convalescent Japanese amberjack (Seriola quinqueradiata). Two and three genes for which the products were unrecognized and recognized, respectively, by antibodies in convalescent serum were selected for recombinant vaccine preparation, and the protective effect was examined in infection tests using Japanese amberjack and greater amberjack (S. dumerili). No protection was provided by vaccines prepared from gene products unrecognized by convalescent serum antibodies. By contrast, two vaccines prepared from gene products recognized by serum antibodies induced protective immunity in both fish species. These results indicate that ELISA array screening is effective for identifying antigens that induce protective immune responses. As this method does not require culturing of pathogens, it is also suitable for identifying protective antigens to un-culturable etiologic agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ANTILISTERIAL ACTYVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM GILTHEAD BREAMS AND SEA BASSES FILLETS PACKAGED MAP AGAINST PRIMITIVE STRAINS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barile

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis typically caused by ready-to-eat processed food that have a refrigerated shelf-life, but lightly preserved fish products also belong to a high-risk category. Aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity linked bacteriocin-producing of LAB isolated from gilthead breams and sea basses fillets packaged in modified atmospheres. Fifty-five LAB strains were screened against 21 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, 1 Listeria innocua held in the culture collection of Department of Zootechnical Sciences and Food Ispection (SIA and submitted to antagonistic activity using the spot on lawn and the agar well diffusion assay. Lactococcus lactis sub. lactis Sa31 was able to produce bacteriocin in agar and different broth medium. The bacteriocin man31 showed sensitivity to trypsin, pronase E and papain, inactivation at temperatures ≥ 100°C, bactericidal mode of action and antilisterial act, rapidly. The bacteriocin man31 caused a reduction of L. monocytogenes ½ c growth about log10 > 3 UFC/ml, when was applied on indicator strain at 20,480 AU/ml concentration, in vitro.

  14. Vessel noise pollution as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of boat noise pollution on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background noise) and 10 days of noise derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel noise treatment). The exposure to noise produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p < 0.05) of ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity in the fish exposed to vessel noise for 10 days. This study clearly highlights that anthropogenic noise negatively affects fish, and they are valuable targets for detailed investigations into the effects of this global pollutant. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this pollutant phenomenon.

  15. Exploring neutral and adaptive processes in expanding populations of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., in the North-East Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, I; Vogiatzi, E; Kotoulas, G; Tsigenopoulos, C S; Mariani, S

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies in empirical population genetics have highlighted the importance of taking into account both neutral and adaptive genetic variation in characterizing microevolutionary dynamics. Here, we explore the genetic population structure and the footprints of selection in four populations of the warm-temperate coastal fish, the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), whose recent northward expansion has been linked to climate change. Samples were collected at four Atlantic locations, including Spain, Portugal, France and the South of Ireland, and genetically assayed using a suite of species-specific markers, including 15 putatively neutral microsatellites and 23 expressed sequence tag-linked markers, as well as a portion of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Two of the putatively neutral markers, Bld-10 and Ad-10, bore signatures of strong directional selection, particularly in the newly established Irish population, although the potential 'surfing effect' of rare alleles at the edge of the expansion front was also considered. Analyses after the removal of these loci suggest low but significant population structure likely affected by some degree of gene flow counteracting random genetic drift. No signal of historic divergence was detected at mtDNA. BLAST searches conducted with all 38 markers used failed to identify specific genomic regions associated to adaptive functions. However, the availability of genomic resources for this commercially valuable species is rapidly increasing, bringing us closer to the understanding of the interplay between selective and neutral evolutionary forces, shaping population divergence of an expanding species in a heterogeneous milieu.

  16. Naturally occurring stable isotopes reflect changes in protein turnover and growth in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles under different dietary protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Perez, Miguel; Fernandez-Borras, Jaume; Ibarz, Antoni; Felip, Olga; Fontanillas, Ramon; Gutierrez, Joaquim; Blasco, Josefina

    2013-09-18

    Ideal nutritional conditions are crucial to sustainable aquaculture due to economic and environmental issues. Here we apply stable isotope analysis as an indicator of fish growth and feeding balance, to define the optimum diet for efficient growing conditions. Juveniles of gilthead sea bream were fed with six isoenergetic diets differing in protein to lipid proportion (from 41/26 to 57/20). As protein intake increased, δ¹⁵N and Δδ¹⁵N of muscle and Δδ¹⁵N and Δδ¹³C of its protein fraction decreased, indicating lower protein turnover and higher protein deposition in muscle. This is reflected in the inverse relationship found between Δδ¹⁵N and growth rate, although no differences were observed in either parameter beyond the protein/lipid proportion 47/23. Principal component analysis (PCA) also signaled 47/23 diet as the pivotal point with the highest growing efficiency, with isotopic parameters having the highest discrimination load. Thus, muscle isotope composition, especially ¹⁵N, can be used to evaluate nutritional status in farmed fish.

  17. Origin of broodstock and effects on the deformities of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. 1758 in a Mediterranean commercial hatchery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Theodorou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of broodstock of different origin as a method to improve fry production performance and consequently to minimize deformities was examined at industrial scale in a commercial gilthead sea bream hatchery. The outcome of fry production from three different broodstock groups (BA: broodfish (Mediterranean with multiannual hatchery presence, BB: selected offspring originating from the BA group, and BC: broodfish of Atlantic origin was investigated in the same rearing conditions and feeding protocol. Performance factors assessed were the survival and weaning of the larvae; the mortality rates from the “weaning until the end of the hatchery stage” of the larvae/fry; the percentage of fry without swim bladder; the percentage of fry with skeletal deformities and the feed conversion ratio. In all factors, no statistical differences among the experimental groups were detected. However, due to early rejection of the deformed individuals, benefits are expected from the decrease of the supplied amount of food and the reduced labor cost.

  18. Rn 222 in the Black Sea waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzova, A.P.; Batrakov, G.F.; Eremeev, V.N.; Zemlyanoj, A.D.; Ivanova, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Results of Rn 222 concentration measurements in the Black Sea waters obtained in the summer of 1986 during the expedition of the Akademik Vernadskij research ship are presented. It is ascertained that the intensity of vertical turbulent exchange produces the main effect on Rn 222 distribution in the sea surface waters. The vertical distribution in a 200 m layer is characterized by the growth of concentration with depth, which is caused by the presence of Ra 226 increased concentration region, that coincides with the boundary layer between oxygen and hydrogen sulfide

  19. The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G.

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since Bucharest Convention signed in 1992. The Black Sea Region has became a challenging international arena for political scientific and socio-economic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Black Sea Environmental Programme(BSEP), Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin, Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region Technical Cooperation Programme by the IAEA and establishment of the Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat are some of the major international efforts of the past decade that emphasizes the multi-nationality and large dimension of the Black Sea environmental management issues. The environmental degradation of the Black Sea is briefly reviewed based on the BSEP reports and data available for land based pollution sources. The environmental risk of marine vessel accidents are indicated and environmental safety concern is emphasized under the current conditions of intense energy transportation projects in the Black Sea and Caspian regions. The international policy actions, co-operation issues and scientific programmes of the past decade are overviewed with emphasis on the international achievements. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of continuation of the international commitments and sharing the political, scientific and socio-economic responsibility on the transboundary environmental pollution, rehabilitation and the safety issues of the Black Sea

  20. Black Sea GIS developed in MHI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, E.; Khaliulin, A.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Isaeva, E.

    2016-08-01

    The work aims at creating the Black Sea geoinformation system (GIS) and complementing it with a model bank. The software for data access and visualization was developed using client server architecture. A map service based on MapServer and MySQL data management system were chosen for the Black Sea GIS. Php-modules and python-scripts are used to provide data access, processing, and exchange between the client application and the server. According to the basic data types, the module structure of GIS was developed. Each type of data is matched to a module which allows selection and visualization of the data. At present, a GIS complement with a model bank (the models build in to the GIS) and users' models (programs launched on users' PCs but receiving and displaying data via GIS) is developed.

  1. An Introduction to the Black Sea Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    genus related to the Black Sea Cystoseira) are transported away from the Gulf of Mexico by the Gulf Stream to the northeast and are retained by the...social and economic consequences are not less harmful. It is enough to name the cases of epidemics of cholera and other gastrointestinal infections...seawater, are also found Salmonella, cholera’s vibrios , helmint’s eggs, viruses and other pathogenic organisms which are usually common in insufficiently

  2. Wind impact on the Black Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanichny, Sergey; Ratner, Yuriy; Shokurov, Mike; Stanychna, Rimma; Soloviev, Dmytro; Burdyugov, Vyacheslav

    2010-05-01

    Combination of the recent satellite and meteorological data for the regional investigation allowed to describe new features of the processes in marine ecosystem and detect some relations with wind variability for different time scales. Next topics are highlighted in presentation: 1. Inter-annual variability of the wind stress curl over the Black Sea. Shift in the atmospheric processes after 2003 year and related variations in chlorophyll concentration and intensity of the mesoscale currents. 2. Like-tropical cyclone in September 2005 and its impact o the Black Sea upper layer. 3. Strong storm November 11, 2007 and oil pollutions of the Kerch Strait. 4. Relation of the Danube waters transport with wind fields for summer 2007 and 2008. 5. "Valley" wind in the Eastern part of the Black Sea and its impact on the Rim current formation. 6. Low wind conditions and blue -green algae bloom. NCEP, SKIRON and MHI MM5 wind data together with AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS, ETM+, QuikSCAT, ASAR (ESA) satellite data were used for investigation. Work was done with support of the SESAME FP7, "Stable Ecosystem" and Operational Oceanography NASU projects.

  3. Black Sea and Caspian Sea, Symposium II, Constanta, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Great, the Bronze Horseman . You may have heard me quote this before, but Pushkin in his poem “Th e Bronze Horseman ,” asks rhe- torically “Whither dost...mile down the embankment from the Bronze Horseman in front of the Admiralty Building in Petersburg. It commemorates the Czarist Foreign Minister...need for a coordinated approach to broader political developments in the Black and Caspian Sea regions. Th e December 21, 2006 death of

  4. Treatment With High-Hydrostatic Pressure, Activated Film Packaging With Thymol Plus Enterocin AS-48, and Its Combination Modify the Bacterial Communities of Refrigerated Sea Bream (Sparus aurata Fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ortega Blázquez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of activated plastic films with thymol and enterocin AS-48 and high-hydrostatic pressure (HP treatment on the bacterial load and bacterial diversity of vacuum-packaged sea bream fillets under refrigerated storage for 10 days. The activated film and the HP treatment reduced aerobic mesophiles viable counts by 1.46 and 2.36 log cycles, respectively, while the combined treatment achieved a reduction of 4.13 log cycles. HP and combined treatments resulted in longer delays in bacterial growth. Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in sea bream fillets. The relative abundance of Firmicutes increased by the end of storage both in controls and in samples treated by HP singly or in combination with the activated films. The predominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs found at time 0 in control samples (Listeria, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Chryseobacterium rapidly changed during storage (with an increase of Vibrio, Photobacterium, and Shewanella together with Cloacibacterium and Lactobacillales by the end of storage. The activated film and the HP treatment induced drastic changes in bacterial diversity right after treatments (with Comamonadaceae, Methylobacterium, Acidovorax, and Sphingomonas as main OTUs and also induced further modifications during storage. Bacterial diversity in activated film samples was quite homogeneous during storage (with Vibrio, Photobacterium, and Shewanella as main OTUs and approached control samples. HP treatments (singly or in combination with activated films determined a high relative abundance of Acinetobacter (followed by Pseudomonas and Shewanella during early storage as well as a higher relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria by the end of storage. The results indicate that the complex dynamics of bacterial populations in the refrigerated sea bream fillets are markedly influenced by treatment and antimicrobials applied.

  5. Treatment With High-Hydrostatic Pressure, Activated Film Packaging With Thymol Plus Enterocin AS-48, and Its Combination Modify the Bacterial Communities of Refrigerated Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Blázquez, Irene; Grande Burgos, María J; Pérez-Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of activated plastic films with thymol and enterocin AS-48 and high-hydrostatic pressure (HP) treatment on the bacterial load and bacterial diversity of vacuum-packaged sea bream fillets under refrigerated storage for 10 days. The activated film and the HP treatment reduced aerobic mesophiles viable counts by 1.46 and 2.36 log cycles, respectively, while the combined treatment achieved a reduction of 4.13 log cycles. HP and combined treatments resulted in longer delays in bacterial growth. Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in sea bream fillets. The relative abundance of Firmicutes increased by the end of storage both in controls and in samples treated by HP singly or in combination with the activated films. The predominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found at time 0 in control samples ( Listeria, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Chryseobacterium ) rapidly changed during storage (with an increase of Vibrio, Photobacterium , and Shewanella together with Cloacibacterium and Lactobacillales by the end of storage). The activated film and the HP treatment induced drastic changes in bacterial diversity right after treatments (with Comamonadaceae, Methylobacterium, Acidovorax , and Sphingomonas as main OTUs) and also induced further modifications during storage. Bacterial diversity in activated film samples was quite homogeneous during storage (with Vibrio, Photobacterium , and Shewanella as main OTUs) and approached control samples. HP treatments (singly or in combination with activated films) determined a high relative abundance of Acinetobacter (followed by Pseudomonas and Shewanella ) during early storage as well as a higher relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria by the end of storage. The results indicate that the complex dynamics of bacterial populations in the refrigerated sea bream fillets are markedly influenced by treatment and antimicrobials applied.

  6. Treatment With High-Hydrostatic Pressure, Activated Film Packaging With Thymol Plus Enterocin AS-48, and Its Combination Modify the Bacterial Communities of Refrigerated Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Blázquez, Irene; Grande Burgos, María J.; Pérez-Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of activated plastic films with thymol and enterocin AS-48 and high-hydrostatic pressure (HP) treatment on the bacterial load and bacterial diversity of vacuum-packaged sea bream fillets under refrigerated storage for 10 days. The activated film and the HP treatment reduced aerobic mesophiles viable counts by 1.46 and 2.36 log cycles, respectively, while the combined treatment achieved a reduction of 4.13 log cycles. HP and combined treatments resulted in longer delays in bacterial growth. Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in sea bream fillets. The relative abundance of Firmicutes increased by the end of storage both in controls and in samples treated by HP singly or in combination with the activated films. The predominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found at time 0 in control samples (Listeria, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Chryseobacterium) rapidly changed during storage (with an increase of Vibrio, Photobacterium, and Shewanella together with Cloacibacterium and Lactobacillales by the end of storage). The activated film and the HP treatment induced drastic changes in bacterial diversity right after treatments (with Comamonadaceae, Methylobacterium, Acidovorax, and Sphingomonas as main OTUs) and also induced further modifications during storage. Bacterial diversity in activated film samples was quite homogeneous during storage (with Vibrio, Photobacterium, and Shewanella as main OTUs) and approached control samples. HP treatments (singly or in combination with activated films) determined a high relative abundance of Acinetobacter (followed by Pseudomonas and Shewanella) during early storage as well as a higher relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria by the end of storage. The results indicate that the complex dynamics of bacterial populations in the refrigerated sea bream fillets are markedly influenced by treatment and antimicrobials applied. PMID:29541064

  7. Technogenic and natural radionuclides in Black Sea sediments and algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.; Stoilova, T.; Petkov, N.; Hristoskova, M.

    1999-01-01

    Technogenic and natural emitters have been monitored since 1991 in marine samples from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast by low level gamma and alpha spectroscopy. The radionuclide content was determined in bottom sediment samples from 35 reference locations in the spring, summer and autumn during six consecutive years. Samples were collected and data obtained for the main Black Sea resorts and the main dwelling places along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore

  8. Extending Immunological Profiling in the Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, by Enriched cDNA Library Analysis, Microarray Design and Initial Studies upon the Inflammatory Response to PAMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Boltaña

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge. The developed microarray was further validated by analysing monocyte/macrophage activation profiles after challenge with two Gram-negative bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs; lipopolysaccharide (LPS and peptidoglycan (PGN. Of the approximately 10,000 EST sequenced, we obtained a total of 6837 EST longer than 100 nt, with 3778 and 3059 EST obtained from the bacterial-primed and from the viral-primed cDNA libraries, respectively. Functional classification of contigs from the bacterial- and viral-primed cDNA libraries by Gene Ontology (GO showed that the top five represented categories were equally represented in the two libraries: metabolism (approximately 24% of the total number of contigs, carrier proteins/membrane transport (approximately 15%, effectors/modulators and cell communication (approximately 11%, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism (approximately 7.5% and intracellular transducers/signal transduction (approximately 5%. Transcriptome analyses using this enriched oligonucleotide platform identified differential shifts in the response to PGN and LPS in macrophage-like cells, highlighting responsive gene-cassettes tightly related to PAMP host recognition. As observed in other fish species, PGN is a powerful activator of the inflammatory response in S. aurata macrophage-like cells. We have developed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (SAQ that provides a platform enriched for the study

  9. Extending Immunological Profiling in the Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, by Enriched cDNA Library Analysis, Microarray Design and Initial Studies upon the Inflammatory Response to PAMPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Castellana, Barbara; Goetz, Giles; Tort, Lluis; Teles, Mariana; Mulero, Victor; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Goetz, Frederick W; Gallardo-Escarate, Cristian; Planas, Josep V; Mackenzie, Simon

    2017-02-03

    This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ) to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST) from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge. The developed microarray was further validated by analysing monocyte/macrophage activation profiles after challenge with two Gram-negative bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN)). Of the approximately 10,000 EST sequenced, we obtained a total of 6837 EST longer than 100 nt, with 3778 and 3059 EST obtained from the bacterial-primed and from the viral-primed cDNA libraries, respectively. Functional classification of contigs from the bacterial- and viral-primed cDNA libraries by Gene Ontology (GO) showed that the top five represented categories were equally represented in the two libraries: metabolism (approximately 24% of the total number of contigs), carrier proteins/membrane transport (approximately 15%), effectors/modulators and cell communication (approximately 11%), nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism (approximately 7.5%) and intracellular transducers/signal transduction (approximately 5%). Transcriptome analyses using this enriched oligonucleotide platform identified differential shifts in the response to PGN and LPS in macrophage-like cells, highlighting responsive gene-cassettes tightly related to PAMP host recognition. As observed in other fish species, PGN is a powerful activator of the inflammatory response in S. aurata macrophage-like cells. We have developed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (SAQ) that provides a platform enriched for the study of gene

  10. Dietary taurine supplementation ameliorates the lethal effect of phenanthrene but not the bioaccumulation in a marine teleost, red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kono, Kumiko; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary taurine on the hepatic metabolic profiles of red sea bream (Pagrus major) and on phenanthrene (a polyaromatic hydrocarbon) toxicity and bioaccumulation. The fish were fed a diet supplemented with 0% (TAU0%), 0.5% (TAU0.5%), or 5% (TAU5%) taurine for 40-55d and subjected to phenanthrene acute toxicity and bioaccumulation tests. Taurine deficiency in feed severely affected the hepatic metabolic profiles of fish, which indicated a complementary physiological response to taurine deficiency. For the acute toxicity test, fish were fed the test diets for 55d and were then exposed to 0-893µg/L phenanthrene for 96h. Tolerance to phenanthrene was significantly improved by 0.5% of taurine inclusion in feed relative to TAU0%, but not by 5.0% inclusion. Reduced glutathione in the liver, which acts as an oxygen-free radical scavenger, was associated with a reduction in the toxicity of phenanthrene. For the bioaccumulation test, fish were fed the test diets for 40d and were thereafter chronically exposed to 20µg/L phenanthrene for 13d followed by depuration for 3d. The activity of hepatic biomarker, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, was increased by phenanthrene exposure in the taurine inclusion groups. However, phenanthrene concentrations in the liver and muscle of fish fed TAU5.0% tended to be higher than those of fish fed TAU0% and TAU0.5% during the exposure period. These results indicate that 0.5% of taurine inclusion in feed plays an important role in the alleviation of phenanthrene toxicity but not bioaccumulation. Furthermore, larger amount of taurine inclusion (TAU5%) did not show marked beneficial effects against phenanthrene exposure. This study provides insight about a major concern of environmental contaminants into aquatic environment and can be effectively used for improvement of aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of taurine supplementation on hepatic metabolism and alleviation of cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation in a marine teleost, red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kono, Kumiko; Ito, Mana; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Mochida, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to unravel the mechanism of the beneficial action of taurine on marine teleost fish, red sea bream (Pagrus major), by analyzing the hepatic metabolism. Moreover, the ameliorative effects of the nutrient against cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation were further evaluated. The fish were fed a diet containing 0 % (TAU0 %), 0.5 % (TAU0.5 %), or 5.0 % (TAU5.0 %) taurine for 40-55 days (d) and subjected to cadmium acute toxicity and bioaccumulation tests. Taurine deficiency in feed severely affected growth and the hepatic metabolic profiles of the fish, including a remarkable increase in myo-inositol, aspartate, and ß-alanine in the TAU0 % group, which indicates a complementary physiological response to taurine deficiency. For the acute toxicity test, fish were fed the test diets for 55 d and were then exposed to different dose of cadmium ranging from 0 to 5.6 mg/L for 96 h. Fish fed taurine had a higher tolerance to cadmium than those not fed taurine. For the bioaccumulation test, fish were fed the test diets for 40 d and then were chronically exposed to 0.2 mg/L of cadmium for 28 d followed by depuration for 21 d. Cadmium concentrations in the liver and muscle of fish fed TAU5.0 % were significantly lower than those of fish fed TAU0 % for the first 7 d of exposure and the first 7 d of elimination. Our findings suggest a possible mechanism for the beneficial role played by taurine and that the inclusion of taurine in fish aquaculture feed may reduce cadmium contamination of fish intended for human consumption.

  12. Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2013-04-14

    The effect of ration size on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism have been addressed in juveniles of gilthead sea bream fed a practical diet over the course of an 11-week trial. The experimental setup included three feeding levels: (i) full ration until visual satiety, (ii) 70 % of satiation and (iii) 70 % of satiation with the last 2 weeks at the maintenance ration. Feed restriction reduced lipid content of whole body by 30 % and that of fillet by 50 %. In this scenario, the FA composition of fillet TAG was not altered by ration size, whereas that of phospholipids was largely modified with a higher retention of arachidonic acid and DHA. The mRNA transcript levels of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and FA desaturase 2 were not regulated by ration size in the present experimental model. In contrast, mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturases were markedly down-regulated by feed restriction. An opposite trend was found for a muscle-specific lipoprotein lipase, which is exclusive of fish lineage. Several upstream regulatory transcriptions were also assessed, although nutritionally mediated changes in mRNA transcripts were almost reduced to PPARα and β, which might act in a counter-regulatory way on lipolysis and lipogenic pathways. This gene expression pattern contributes to the construction of a panel of biomarkers to direct marine fish production towards muscle lean phenotypes with increased retentions of long-chain PUFA.

  13. Interactions of microorganisms isolated from gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrillón, M; Rico, R M; Arijo, S; Díaz-Rosales, P; Balebona, M C; Moriñigo, M A

    2005-09-01

    Four bacterial isolates from farmed gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, included in a previous study as members of the Vibrionaceae and Pseudomonodaceae and the genus Micrococcus, have been evaluated for their adhesive ability to skin and intestinal mucus of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, and their antagonistic effect on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of sole. These isolates showed higher adhesion to sole mucus than the pathogenic strains of V. harveyi assayed. Only two of the isolates showed antagonistic activity to V. harveyi. Interactions of the four isolates with V. harveyi in respect of adhesion to skin and intestinal mucus under exclusion, competition and displacement conditions were studied. Three isolates were able to reduce the attachment to skin and intestinal sole mucus of a pathogenic strain of V. harveyi under displacement and exclusion conditions, but not under competition conditions. The in vivo probiotic potential of isolate Pdp11 was assessed by oral administration followed by challenge with the pathogenic V. harveyi strain Lg14/00. A group of 50 Senegalese sole received a commercial diet supplemented with 10(8) cfu g(-1) of lyophilized Lg14/00 for 15 days. A second group of fish received a non-supplemented commercial diet. After challenge the mortality of the fish receiving the diet supplemented with the potential probiotic isolate was significantly lower than that in the fish receiving the non-supplemented commercial diet. This study has shown that the ability to interfere with attachment of pathogens, as well as the adhesion to host surfaces, are suitable criteria for selection of candidate probiotics for use in the culture of Senegalese sole.

  14. Gelationous Organism (Macrozooplankton in the Black Sea and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye BİRİNCİ ÖZDEMİR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important problem as ecological, invasion of the marine systems by the gelatinous organism that distributed natural balance. Black Sea ecosystem has been changed critical level by the some causes such as marine pollution, eutrophication, climate change, overfishing, invasive gelatinous organisms. Effect in the ecosystem of gelatinous organisms occurred especially with collapsed of Black Sea anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus stock and fishery production. In the study, gelatinous organism species, important for Black sea, and its effects in the Black sea ecosystem were presented.

  15. Interaction effects of dietary supplementation of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum and β-glucan on growth performance, digestibility and immune response of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro

    2015-07-01

    Both heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (HK-LP) and β-glucan (BG) play important roles in growth performance, feed utilization and health status of fish. Therefore, a feeding trial was conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary HK-LP and BG on growth performance, digestibility, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream for 56 days. A significant interaction was found between HK-LP and BG on final body weight, total plasma protein, glucose, serum bactericidal activity (BA), total serum protein, serum alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity, protein and dry matter digestibility coefficients (P 0.05). Interestingly, fish fed with both HK-LP at (0.025 and 0.1%) in combination with BG at (0 and 0.1%) showed higher oxidative stress resistance. Under the experimental conditions, dietary HK-LP and BG had a significant interaction on enhancing the growth, digestibility and immune responses of red sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The taxonomic status of Japanese threadfin bream Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Perciformes: Nemipteridae) with a redescription of this species from the south china sea based on morphology and DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ping; Sha, Zhongli; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Russell, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Because of its importance as a food source, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Nemipteridae) or Japanese threadfin bream is the best studied of these taxa, and numerous investigations have examined its fisheries, its biology and biochemistry. Despite such intensive work, the taxonomic status of N. japonicus has never been seriously questioned and it is regarded as a common species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean. In fact, Bloch's description of the type specimen of N. japonicus has ambiguous collection data and lacks a designation for the type locality, though it is probably Java. In this paper, DNA barcode results based on COI gene support the existence of two geographically separated lineages of the Japanese threadfin bream, both being an Indian Ocean and western Pacific lineage, with 2.7% sequence divergence, and the results indicate a possible existing of some cryptic species. The two lineages also possess a diagnostic difference in their belly color, with specimens in the South China Sea having a silver belly, while those from the Indian Ocean isolate specimen have a yellow coloration. Based upon new collections from the South China Sea, this species from the western Pacific is morphologically redescribed and its details of DNA barcode diversity are shown for the future investigations.

  17. A Novel Approach to Limit Chemical Deterioration of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fillets: Coating with Electrospun Nanofibers as Characterized by Molecular, Thermal, and Microstructural Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Zafer; Sengor, Gulgun F Unal; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2017-05-01

    Coating of sea bream fillets with thymol loaded chitosan based electrospun nanofibers (TLCN) and chitosan based nanafibers (CN) has been presented a novel approach to delay chemical deterioration. We assessed CN and TLCN with respect of scanting of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), trimethylamine (TMA), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) deterioration during cold storage condition. Electrospinning process was applied to obtain TLCN and CN. Both of nanofibers obtained from biopolymer and bioactive material were cylindrical, smooth, beadless. Thermal, molecular, zeta potential (ZP), and surface properties of the groups were investigated, revealing that CN indicated molecular interactions with thymol in nanofibers, reduce in physical properties of these structures, thermal decomposition (an alteration in mass of CN and TLCN at temperatures below 190 °C, corresponding to 20.53% and 19.97%, respectively) and also dispersion stabilities (ζ potential) of CN and TLCN were determined 33.68 ± 3.35 and 21.85 ± 1.96 mV, respectively. TVBN and TMA stability analyses demonstrated that CN and TLCN were both effective in delaying chemical deterioration of fish fillets, furthermore TLCN was more effective against chemical deterioration. TBA analyses results of fish fillets indicated that CN and TLCN delayed rancidity in fish meat as compared to control group samples. The presented study results suggested that coating of the sea bream fillets with CN and TLCN would be a promising approach to delay the chemical deterioration of fish fillets. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Determination of wave energy potential of black sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bingölbali, Bilal; Akpınar, Adem; van Vledder, G.P.; Lynett, P.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess wave energy potential and its long-term spatial and temporal characteristics in the Black Sea within the TUBITAK research project (Akpınar et al., 2015). With this purpose, a wave model (SWAN model version 41.01 driven by the CFSR winds) over the entire Black Sea was

  19. Geochemistry of uranium in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhorov, V.A.; Bogushlavskij, S.G.; Babinets, A.E.; Solov'eva, L.V.; Kirchanova, A.I.; Kir'yanov, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    According to the results of expedition investigations on the base of SCOICH program (''Acade''Mmician Vernadsky'' and ichael Lomonosov'' shiptrips) main geometrical peculiarities of uranium distribution in deep water of the Black Sea including benthic and silt waters are studied. Sampling have been made from the surface layer across the whole width of the water and from benthic sediments (silt water). Uranium in samples has been determined by the adsorption-colorimetric method. Nonuniform uranium distribution (depending on water dynamics) over the basin area and across the whole width of water is established. Most of uranium is contained in the 0-500 m layer and in the eastern part of the sea. Uranium content decreases in depth, it is higher in the benthic water layer. It is shown that uranium decrease in a hydrogen-sulphide sea zone is conditioned by its reduction due to formation of more adsorption-active forms and effective sedimentation. Causes of differences in uranium content in silt waters have been found. High uranium concentrations in silt waters are confined to active sulphate reduction characterized by elevated values of pHsub(#betta#), alkalinity, Eh. In weak suphate reduction zones (pHsub(#betta#), Alsub(k) value decrease) in silt waters uranium content is lower as a result of sorption-active forms formation and their transition into the solid phase of sediments

  20. Environmental pollution of the Black Sea: A search for answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, V.; Osvath, I.; Froehlich, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Black Sea region governments have initiated a regional approach to the management and protection of the marine environment supported by research at national and international levels. Environmental problems in the Black Sea are serious. The Sea's shallow, mixed surface waters receive river discharges which are heavily loaded with nutrients containing nitrogen and phosphorus and contaminated with industrial and mining wastes. In addition, coastal industries appear to discharge wastes directly into the sea with little or no treatment. Thus the water quality of the life-supporting surface layer has seriously deteriorated. Eutrophication (an enrichment in nutrients) presently prevails in many parts of the Black Sea. It has dramatically changed the marine food chain, thus contributing to the demise of the Black Sea fishery and, especially in the northwestern region, to its diminished amenity value. Other factors also are at work, including changes in the hydrological balance, overfishing, and chemical pollution. Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, riparian countries further identified radioactive pollution as having a high priority. This article looks at major aspects of the state of the Black Sea's environment, and outlines the potential of, and first results derived from, the use of isotope tracers in Black Sea studies. It further discusses IAEA initiatives to join concerted international actions directed towards rehabilitation of the Black Sea environment. 1 fig., 3 tabs, 2 maps

  1. Introduction: The Black Sea as region and horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphrey, Caroline; Skvirskaja, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The introduction first outlines different perspectives on the Black Sea: in history, as a site of imperial conflicts and a buffer zone; in area studies, as a “region”; and in anthropology, as a sea crisscrossed by migration, cultural influences, alternative visions, and often a mutual turning...... brought about by migration and trade. In the concluding section we discuss how the Black Sea has appeared as a “horizon” and imaginary of the beyond for the peoples living around its shores....

  2. Sodium salt medium-chain fatty acids and Bacillus-based probiotic strategies to improve growth and intestinal health of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Simó-Mirabet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance. Therefore, a number of alternatives, including enzymes, prebiotics, probiotics, phytonutrients and organic acids used alone or in combination have been proposed for the improvement of immunological state, growth performance and production in livestock animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate two commercially available feed additives, one based on medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs from coconut oil and another with a Bacillus-based probiotic, in gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata, a marine farmed fish of high value in the Mediterranean aquaculture. Methods The potential benefits of adding two commercial feed additives on fish growth performance and intestinal health were assessed in a 100-days feeding trial. The experimental diets (D2 and D3 were prepared by supplementing a basal diet (D1 with MCFAs in the form of a sodium salt of coconut fatty acid distillate (DICOSAN®; Norel, Madrid, Spain, rich on C-12, added at 0.3% (D2 or with the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940, added at 0.1% (D3. The study integrated data on growth performance, blood biochemistry, histology and intestinal gene expression patterns of selected markers of intestinal function and architecture. Results MCFAs in the form of a coconut oil increased feed intake, growth rates and the surface of nutrient absorption, promoting the anabolic action of the somatotropic axis. The probiotic (D3 induced anti

  3. Recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) enhances somatic growth by regulating the GH-IGF axis in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Emilio J; Perelló, Miquel; Azizi, Sheida; Moya, Alberto; Lutfi, Esmail; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Navarro, Isabel; Blasco, Josefina; Fernández-Borràs, Jaume; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) endocrine axis is the main growth-regulator system in vertebrates. Some authors have demonstrated the positive effects on growth of a sustained-release formulation of a recombinant bovine GH (rBGH) in different fish species. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of a single injection of rBGH in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream on growth, GH-IGF axis, and both myogenic and osteogenic processes. Thus, body weight and specific growth rate were significantly increased in rBGH-treated fish respect to control fish at 6weeks post-injection, whereas the hepatosomatic index was decreased and the condition factor and mesenteric fat index were unchanged, altogether indicating enhanced somatic growth. Moreover, rBGH injection increased the plasma IGF-I levels in parallel with a rise of hepatic mRNA from total IGF-I, IGF-Ic and IGF-II, the binding proteins IGFBP-1a and IGFBP-2b, and also the receptors IGF-IRb, GHR-I and GHR-II. In skeletal muscle, the expression of IGF-Ib and GHR-I was significantly increased but that of IGF-IRb was reduced; the mRNA levels of myogenic regulatory factors, proliferation and differentiation markers (PCNA and MHC, respectively), or that of different molecules of the signaling pathway (TOR/AKT) were unaltered. Besides, the growth inhibitor myostatin (MSTN1 and MSTN2) and the hypertrophic marker (MLC2B) expression resulted significantly enhanced, suggesting altogether that the muscle is in a non-proliferative stage of development. Contrarily in bone, although the expression of most molecules of the GH/IGF axis was decreased, the mRNA levels of several osteogenic genes were increased. The histology analysis showed a GH induced lipolytic effect with a clear decrease in the subcutaneous fat layer. Overall, these results reveal that a better growth potential can be achieved on this species and supports the possibility to improve growth and quality through the optimization of its

  4. HYDROOPTICS FOR ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTYNOV, Victor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a method for environmental monitoring of the Black Sea basin. The main indicator of environmental changes of water masses authors considers the variation of their transparency. In the currently used method for measuring the transparency of water environment based on definition ZW – depth visibility of white standard disc diameter of 300 millimeters, called the white disс, which falls into the aquatic environment from the deck of a surface ship. This method for measuring the transparency has significant drawbacks, among them – the ability to determine the transparency of the water only in the surface layer, dependent on weather conditions and the low accuracy of the measurement ZW value. To eliminate these drawbacks the authors propose another method of measuring the transparency of water environment based on the use of laser technologies.

  5. Problems of the active tectonics of the Eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javakhishvili, Z.; Godoladze, T.; Dreger, D. S.; Mikava, D.; Tvaliashvili, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Black Sea Basin is the part of the Arabian Eurasian Collision zone and important unit for understanding the tectonic process of the region. This complex basin comprises two deep basins, separated by the mid-Black Sea Ridge. The basement of the Black Sea includes areas with oceanic and continental crust. It was formed as a "back-arc" basin over the subduction zone during the closing of the Tethys Ocean. In the past decades the Black Sea has been the subject of intense geological and geophysical studies. Several papers were published about the geological history, tectonics, basement relief and crustal and upper mantle structure of the basin. New tectonic schemes were suggested (e. g. Nikishin et al 2014, Shillington et al. 2008, Starostenko et al. 2004 etc.). Nevertheless, seismicity of the Black Sea is poorly studied due to the lack of seismic network in the coastal area. It is considered, that the eastern basin currently lies in a compressional setting associated with the uplift of the Caucasus and structural development of the Caucasus was closely related to the evolution of the Eastern Black Sea Basin. Analyses of recent sequence of earthquakes in 2012 can provide useful information to understand complex tectonic structure of the Eastern Black Sea region. Right after the earthquake of 2012/12/23, National Seismic monitoring center of Georgia deployed additional 4 stations in the coastal area of the country, close to the epicenter area, to monitor aftershock sequence. Seismic activity in the epicentral area is continuing until now. We have relocated approximately 1200 aftershocks to delineate fault scarf using data from Georgian, Turkish and Russian datacenters. Waveforms of the major events and the aftershocks were inverted for the fault plane solutions of the events. For the inversion were used green's functions, computed using new 1D velocity model of the region. Strike-slip mechanism of the major events of the earthquake sequence indicates extensional

  6. Recent Extreme Marine Events at Southern Coast of Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kirezci, Cagil; Baykal, Cuneyt; Gokhan Guler, Hasan; Erol, Onur; Zaytsev, Andrey; Kurkin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The utilization at the coastal areas of Black Sea basin has increased in the recent years with the projects such as large commercial ports, international transportation hubs, gas and petrol pipelines, touristic and recreational infrastructures both along surrounding shoreline. Although Black Sea is a closed basin, extreme storms and storm surges have also been observed with an increasing frequency in the recent years. Among those events, February 1999, March 2013 and September 2014 storms impacted Southern coast of Black sea have clearly shown that the increasing economic value at the coastal areas caused the increasing cost of damages and loss of property by natural hazards. The storm occurred on February 19-20, 1999 is one of the most destructive storm in the last decades. The 1999 event (1999 Southern Black sea storm) caused destruction at all harbors and coastal protection structures along the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The complete damage of the breakwater of Giresun Harbor and damage on the harbor structures and cargo handling equipment were the major impacts of the 1999 Southern Black sea storm. Similar coastal impact have also been observed during the September 24, 2014 storm at 500m East of Giresun harbor. Although there are considerable number of destructive storms observed at southern coast of Black sea recently, data on these events are limited and vastly scattered. In this study the list of recent extreme marine events at South coast of the Black sea compiled and related data such as wind speed, wave height, period, and type of damages are cataloged. Particular attention is focused on the 1999 and 2014 storm events. The meteorological and morphological characteristics which may be considered as the reasons of the generation and coastal amplification of these storms are discussed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This study is partly supported by Turkish Russian Joint Research Grant Program by TUBITAK (Turkey) and RFBR (Russia), and TUBITAK 213M534 Research Project.

  7. The effects of additional black carbon on Arctic sea ice surface albedo: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marks; M. D. King

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon in sea ice will decrease sea ice surface albedo through increased absorption of incident solar radiation, exacerbating sea ice melting. Previous literature has reported different albedo responses to additions of black carbon in sea ice and has not considered how a snow cover may mitigate the effect of black carbon in sea ice. Sea ice is predominately snow covered. Visible light absorption and light scattering coefficients are calculated for a typical first year and multi-y...

  8. Spectral partitioning and swells in the black sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vledder, G.P.; Akpınar, Adem; Lynett, P.

    2016-01-01

    The swell climate of the Black Sea has been determined using a long-term 31-year wave hindcast with the thirdgeneration spectral wave model SWAN in combination with spectral partitioning. This technique enables decomposing wave spectra into individual wave systems representing wind seas or swells

  9. The performance of the Black Sea Commission as a collaborative governance regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avoyan, Emma; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Toonen, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    It is often claimed that the Black Sea is one of the most degraded seas in the world. Management to rehabilitate the Black Sea requires cooperation between the coastal countries to be successful. However, regional cooperation in the Black Sea is poorly coordinated and lack concrete outcomes. This

  10. Extreme waves at Filyos, southern Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bilyay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A wave measurement project was carried out for a new port planned in Filyos, in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. The measurement at a depth of 12.5 m lasted for a period of two years and 7949 records were obtained. During the analysis, it was noticed that there were 209 records in which H/Hs ratio was higher than 2.0. These higher waves in a record are called extreme waves in this study. Although the purpose of wave measurement is not to investigate extreme waves, it is believed that studying these unexpected waves could be interesting. Therefore, detailed statistical and spectral analyses on the extreme waves were done for the records. The analyses results show that the distribution of surface profiles of the records containing extreme waves deviates from Gaussian distribution with the negative skewness changing between –0.01 and –0.4 and with the high kurtosis in the range of 3.1–4.2. Although the probability of occurrence of the extreme waves is over-predicted by the Rayleigh distribution, a higher ratio of Hsrms indicates that the wave height distribution can be represented by Rayleigh. The average value of the slope of the frequency spectrum at the high frequency range is proportional to f–9 which is much steeper than the typical wind-wave frequency power law, f–4, –5. The directional spreading is measured with the parameter Smax and it is in the range of 5–70 for the extreme wave records. The wave and current interaction was also investigated and it was found that in most cases, extreme waves occur when the wave and the current are almost aligned. Furthermore, it is observed that extreme waves appear within a group of high waves.

  11. Nannoplankton and uranium concentration relations in the Black Sea Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedia TOKER

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Nannoplanktons obtained from sixty-two core samples taken from twenty-three holes penetrated in the Southern part of Black Sea were investigated in this work. Twelve species belonging to the Emiliania huxleyi zone (NN 21-Holocene were determined. Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann came into existence in Black Sea three thousand years ago and is very abundant in these sediments. This study clearly showed that uranium concentration increases with increasing nannoplankton content of the sediments. It is also observed that the uranium oxide (U3O8 contents of the Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann accumulations on the abyssal plains are higher than those other sediments in the same environments.

  12. Dissolved rare earth elements in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Landing, William M.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of rare earths in the deep anoxic Black Sea are about one order of magnitude higher than in normal open ocean waters. From a minimum at the suboxic-anoxic interface at about 107 m depth, concentrations increase strongly to a maximum at about 300–400 m depth. Concentrations of Ce range

  13. Oxygen, nitrogen and sulphide fluxes in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. KONOVALOV

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The fluxes and production/consumption rates of oxygen, nitrate, ammonium and sulphide are estimated in the paper utilising results of the 1.5-dimensional stationary model of vertical exchange in the Black Sea (Samodurov & Ivanov, 1998. The profiles of the vertical flux and rate of production/consumption of these substances have revealed a number of intriguing features in the biogeochemical nature of the Black Sea. An approximate redox balance of the counter-fluxes of nitrate and ammonium into the sub-oxic zone has been revealed confirming that intensive denitrification may be the primary loss of nitrogen in the Black Sea. A low ratio of the nitrate stock to the flux of nitrate from the oxycline confirms the possibility of prominent changes in the distribution of nitrate on the time scale of a year. The ratio of the nitrate to oxygen vertical flux has revealed a lack of nitrate in the oxycline above the nitrate maximum. The lateral (related to the "Bosporus plume" flux of oxygen in the layer of the main pycnocline appears to be very important for the existing biogeochemical structure of the Black sea water column being the reason of sulphide consumption inside the anoxic zone and changes in the ammonium-sulphide stoichiometry of the anoxic zone, the primary reason of the existence of the sub-oxic layer and the basic reason of relative stability of the sulphide onset.

  14. Contribution of mesoscale eddies to Black Sea ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, Arthur; Mason, Evan; Pascual, Ananda; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2017-04-01

    The shoaling of the Black Sea oxycline is one of the most urgent environmental issues in the Black Sea. The permanent oxycline derives directly from the Black Sea permanent stratification and has shoaled alarmingly in the last decades, due to a shifting balance between oxygen consumption and ventilation processes (Capet et al. 2016). The understanding of this balance is thus of the utmost importance and requires to quantify 1) the export of nutrients and organic materials from the shelf regions to the open sea and 2) the ventilation processes. These two processes being influenced by mesoscale features, it is critical to understand the role of the semi-permanent mesoscale structures in horizontal (center/periphery) and vertical (diapycnal and isopycnal) exchanges. A useful insight can be obtained by merging observations from satellite altimeter and in situ profilers (ARGO). In such composite analyses, eddies are first automatically identified and tracked from altimeter data (Mason et al. 2014, py-eddy-tracker). Vertical ARGO profiles are then expressed in terms of their position relative to eddy centers and radii. Derived statistics indicate how consistently mesoscale eddies alter the vertical structure, and provide a deeper understanding of the associated horizontal and vertical fluxes. However, this data-based approach is limited in the Black Sea due to the lower quality of gridded altimetric products in the vicinity of the coast, where semi-permanent mesoscale structures prevail. To complement the difficult analysis of this sparse dataset, a compositing methodology. is also applied to model outputs from the 5km GHER-BHAMBI Black Sea implementation (CMEMS BS-MFC). Characteristic biogeochemical anomalies associated with eddies in the model are analyzed per se, and compared to the observation-based analysis. Capet, A., Stanev, E. V., Beckers, J.-M., Murray, J. W., and Grégoire, M.: Decline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory, Biogeosciences, 13, 1287-1297, doi:10

  15. Variational data assimilation system "INM RAS - Black Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmuzin, Eugene; Agoshkov, Valery; Assovskiy, Maksim; Giniatulin, Sergey; Zakharova, Natalia; Kuimov, Grigory; Fomin, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for Data Assimilation Procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The problems discussed above are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for Personal Computers (PC). Special problems and questions arise while effective ICS versions for PC are being developed. These problems and questions can be solved with applying modern methods of numerical mathematics and by solving "parallelism problem" using OpenMP technology and special linear algebra packages. In this work the results on the ICS development for PC-ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the work the following problems and questions are discussed: practical problems that can be studied by ICS; parallelism problems and their solutions with applying of OpenMP technology and the linear algebra packages used in ICS "INM - Black Sea"; Interface of ICS. The results of ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" testing are presented. Efficiency of technologies and methods applied are discussed. The work was supported by RFBR, grants No. 13-01-00753, 13-05-00715 and by The Ministry of education and science of Russian Federation, project 8291, project 11.519.11.1005 References: [1] V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 5-31 [2] E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 [3] V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V

  16. Contemporary genetic structure and postglacial demographic history of the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus, in the Mediterranean and the Black Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissin, E; Micu, D; Janczyszyn-Le Goff, M; Neglia, V; Bat, L; Todorova, V; Panayotova, M; Kruschel, C; Macic, V; Milchakova, N; Keskin, Ç; Anastasopoulou, A; Nasto, I; Zane, L; Planes, S

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the distribution of genetic diversity in the light of past demographic events linked with climatic shifts will help to forecast evolutionary trajectories of ecosystems within the current context of climate change. In this study, mitochondrial sequences and microsatellite loci were analysed using traditional population genetic approaches together with Bayesian dating and the more recent approximate Bayesian computation scenario testing. The genetic structure and demographic history of a commercial fish, the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus, was investigated throughout the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The results suggest that the species recently underwent population expansions, in both seas, likely concomitant with the warming period following the Last Glacial Maximum, 20 000 years ago. A weak contemporaneous genetic differentiation was identified between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. However, the genetic diversity was similar for populations of the two seas, suggesting a high number of colonizers entered the Black Sea during the interglacial period and/or the presence of a refugial population in the Black Sea during the glacial period. Finally, within seas, an east/west genetic differentiation in the Adriatic seems to prevail, whereas the Black Sea does not show any structured spatial genetic pattern of its population. Overall, these results suggest that the Black Sea is not that isolated from the Mediterranean, and both seas revealed similar evolutionary patterns related to climate change and changes in sea level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Transient up- and down-regulation of expression of myosin light chain 2 and myostatin mRNA mark the changes from stratified hyperplasia to muscle fiber hypertrophy in larvae of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stella; Alami-Durante, Hélène; Power, Deborah M; Sarropoulou, Elena; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A

    2016-02-01

    Hyperplasia and hypertrophy are the two mechanisms by which muscle develops and grows. We study these two mechanisms, during the early development of white muscle in Sparus aurata, by means of histology and the expression of structural and regulatory genes. A clear stage of stratified hyperplasia was identified early in the development of gilthead sea bream but ceased by 35 dph when hypertrophy took over. Mosaic recruitment of new white fibers began as soon as 60 dph. The genes mlc2a and mlc2b were expressed at various levels during the main phases of hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The genes myog and mlc2a were significantly up-regulated during the intensive stratified formation of new fibers and their expression was significantly correlated. Expression of mstn1 and igf1 increased at 35 dph, appeared to regulate the hyperplasia-to-hypertrophy transition, and may have stimulated the expression of mlc2a, mlc2b and col1a1 at the onset of mosaic hyperplasia. The up-regulation of mstn1 at transitional phases in muscle development indicates a dual regulatory role of myostatin in fish larval muscle growth.

  18. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Bradley, Lee R.; Takano, Yoshihito

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of salinity in the Holocene Black Sea has been an ongoing debate over the past four decades. Here we calibrate summer surface water salinity in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea with the process length of the dinoflagellate cyst Lingulodinium machaerophorum. We then apply ...

  19. On the Bioeconomic potential of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian

    2015-04-01

    The paper is a plea for the need to engage in more intensive researches on the Black Sea region bioeconomy so that they should keep pace with the researches taking place in other European seas. Bioeconomy offers Europe a unique opportunity to address complex inter-connected challenges, while achieving economic growth. Bioeconomy refers to the set of economic activities relating to the invention, development, production and use of biological products and processes. According to the European Commission, bioeconomy can be found in societal challenge category entitled "Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine, maritime and inland water research, and the Bioeconomy" (http://ec.europa.eu/research/bioeconomy/h2020/index_en.htm); a transition is needed towards an optimal and renewable use of biological resources and towards sustainable primary production and processing systems. The author makes a brief overview of the European preoccupations concerning scientific research into bioeconomy and, equally, presents Romanian thinking in the field, launched several decades ago, but never applied and developed in practice. In 1933 Dr. Gr. Antipa, former outstanding student of Ernst Haeckel at Jena, expounded his conception of general biology and the biological structure of the Black Sea introducing the concepts of "biosociology" and "bioeconomy", drawing conclusions on the natural mechanism of fish production in this sea and specifying the determining factors in functioning. Antipa notes the lack of uniformity of the living conditions in the Black Sea and draws conclusions based on indices and faunal aspects found in different areas and at different depths: 1. The Black Sea, to an even greater extent than the Baltic Sea, with which it has some similarity both of them having a continuous surface and homogeneous appearance, is divided into more zones or biotypes, bounded horizontally and vertically - i.e. depending on areas and depths - each with distinct and well

  20. ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF CITIZENS OF RECREATIONAL ZONES OF THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. Білявський

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to meaningfulness estimation of ecological control of sea aquatory in forming ofsafety ecological conditions for citizens of the Black Sea. The pecularity and the role of technogenic pollution ofsea aquatory of the Black Sea are estimated. The degrees of ecological safety and negative influences of technogenicobjects on people living in the Black Sea coast are defined. The reccomendations for ecologization of recreationalzones of the Black Seat are characterized. The main goal of the work is the ecological estimation of livingconditions for sitizens in the Black Sea on the bases of using of methodology of complex searching andmarking of protecting laws

  1. Sea level change along the Black Sea coast from satellite altimetry, tide gauge and GPS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin B. Avsar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea level change affects human living conditions, particularly ocean coasts. However, sea level change is still unclear along the Black Sea coast due to lack of in-situ measurements and low resolution satellite data. In this paper, sea level change along the Black Sea coast is investigated from joint satellite altimetry, tide gauge (TG and Global Positioning System (GPS observations. The linear trend and seasonal components of sea level change are estimated at 8 TG stations (Amasra, Igneada, Trabzon-II, Sinop, Sile, Poti, Tuapse, and Batumi located along the Black Sea coast, which are compared with Satellite Altimetry and GPS. At the tide gauge stations with long-term records such as Poti (about 21 years and Tuapse (about 19 years, the results obtained from the satellite altimetry and tide gauge observations show a remarkably good agreement. While some big differences are existed between Satellite Altimetry and TG at other stations, after adding vertical motion from GPS, correlation coefficients of the trend have been greatly improved from 0.37 to 0.99 at 3 co-located GPS and TG stations (Trabzon-II, Sinop and Sile.

  2. Romanian contribution to the regional study of Black Sea radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, S.

    1993-01-01

    In the Black Sea area, polluting mineral exploitation, abusive fishing, unrestricted shipping activities and dumping of toxic wastes were done. Pollutant load carried by the Danube and other northern rivers, such as: Dnieper, Dniester, Bug, etc to the Black Sea, industrial and municipal discharges of air and water pollutants, pollution from ship traffic (particularly in the Constanta harbour area) contributed to the ecological degradation of the sea. Radioactivity monitoring as well as radioecological research are part of environmental assessments and protection strategies in Romania. The Romanian contribution consisted in participation in research contracts and coordinated research programs with IAEA-Vienna/Marine Environment Laboratory-Monaco between 1987-1992, in the program 'Global Inventory of Radioactivity in the Mediterranean Sea' (GIRMED) launched by IAEA after the XXXIst Congress and General assembly of the International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea by the Committee of Marine Radioactivity in 1988 and in the Co-operative Marine Science Program for the Black Sea (CoMSBlack) trough its Working group on radiochemistry and radioecology. This group includes Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Natural and artificial radionuclide (K-40, Ac-228, Ra-226, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Cs-137 and, starting in 1992, Sr-90) space and time distribution data were used for computation of in situ distribution coefficients and concentration factors (CFs) as well as for external and internal dose assessments in the Romanian sector. CFs of marine sediments, seaweeds and molluscs were measured in laboratory conditions. (author)

  3. 7000 years of Emiliania huxleyi viruses in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Marco J L

    2011-07-22

    A 7000-year record of Coccolithovirus and its host, the calcifying haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi, was reconstructed on the basis of genetic signatures preserved in sediments underlying the Black Sea. The data show that the same virus and host populations can persist for centuries. Major changes in virus and host populations occurred during early sapropel deposition, ~5600 years ago, and throughout the formation of the coccolith-bearing sediments of Unit I during the past 2500 years, when the Black Sea experienced dramatic changes in hydrologic and nutrient regimes. Unit I saw a reoccurrence of the same host genotype thousands of years later in the presence of a different subset of viruses. Historical plankton virus populations can thus be included in paleoecological and paleoenvironmental studies.

  4. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19 by multiple Soviet Union institutes (NODC Accession 0077413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19...

  5. Black Sea challenges; Les enjeux de la Mer Noire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevet, J F [Commission Europeenne, DG III, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2008-03-15

    In this month's European column, Jean-Francois Drevet examines the issues that arise for Europe from the Black Sea region. The Black Sea is increasingly becoming a crucial place of transit for hydrocarbon imports from the Caspian and Russia into the European Union. The considerable increase in this traffic raises both environmental problems (the risk of oil slicks) and issues of security of supply, on account of the economic and political fragility of some of the bordering or neighbouring states (Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia/Chechnya etc.). This is why, as Jean-Francois Drevet stresses, the European Union has been trying since the mid-1990's to claim a role in the management of the affairs of the region. With two bordering states (Rumania and Bulgaria) joining the EU in 2007, cooperation in the Black Sea has become a priority within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, and this column delineates a number of the obstacles that still have to be surmounted. (author)

  6. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C Tsikliras

    Full Text Available The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W, central (C and eastern (E Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS, with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.

  7. Black Sea Governorate during World War I: A Historiographical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey article addresses the historiography of World War I in the territory of Black Sea Governorate. The author singles out three chronological periods, ante-revolutionary, Soviet, and present-day Russian, and discusses distinctive characteristics in the study of the history of each of the periods. Thus, for instance, a distinctive trait in the study of World War I during the Soviet period was a permanent search in it for preconditions for the socialist revolution, which led to the artificial politicization of events and phenomena. The author comes to the conclusion that the historiography of World War I in the territory of Black Sea Governorate has considerable gaps, while the topic itself is yet to become the subject of comprehensive study. Up until the present day the following topics have remained virtually unstudied: the activity of the hospital framework across Black Sea Governorate, the identification of distinctive characteristics of combating alcoholism during the war, and the activity of charity societies.

  8. THE ECONOMY AND ENERGY OF THE BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Floriana Popescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea region has proved to be an emerging hub for Europe’s security and has experienced several changes and a great development at the beginning of the twenty-first century. This process is currently carried out, and has important implications for European security in a broader definition of the term - to achieve traditional military security, but also tackling other challenges at the address soft security issues, such as organized crime. Located at the crossroads of three regions of paramount importance - Europe, Middle East and Central Asia – the Black Sea region is a major transit area for energy and at the same time, an important source of asymmetric risks and outbreaks of conflicts. Therefore, analysing this region from an economical point of view, but not forgetting the energy security implications for this area, represents the main focus of this article, along with underlining the importance of various actors in the region and their actions’ impact on the future development of the Black Sea territory and surroundings.

  9. Heavy metals distribution in the Dead Sea black mud, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momani, K.; El-Hasan, T.; Auaydeh, S.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb) were investigated in the Dead Sea black mud and river sediments in the northern basin of the Dead Sea region, Jordan. The pH of the mud was slightly above 8 while it was around 6 for the seawater. All analyzed heavy metal content in the black mud, except Pb, was less than their contents in other types of mud. Tlis might be due to the effect of the mildly acideic pH of seawater, which would enhance the metal solubility or incorporation within salt mineral structure, rather than precipitation. The sequential extraction results showed that Ni and Co transferred into the carbonate fraction, Mn is found mostly as manganese-iron oxide, and the residual phase contained Cr, Cu, Fe,and Pb. This study illustrated that the black mud had low heavy metal contents, thus indicating low toxicity. additionally, it shows insignificance effect of the mixing of freshwater with seawater on the heavy metal contents in the black mud. (authors).

  10. Oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rank, D.; Oezsoy, E.; Salihoglu, I.

    1999-01-01

    The stable isotopes 18 O and 2 H, together with the transient tracer 3 H can be used to identify origins and characteristics of distinct water masses in the Black Sea, and in its smaller neighbour, the Marmara Sea, connected between them and to the Mediterranean Sea through the Straits of Bosphorus and Dardanelles, respectively. Exchange through the system and the water mass formation and evolution are characterised, based on the isotope measurements. Spatial coverage including the shelf and deep regions, with improved accuracy and reduced noise provide-definitive assessments of pycnocline and deep mixing in the system. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Reconstructing the trophic history of the Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunev, Oleg; Velikova, Violeta; Carstensen, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    In the last 50 years the Black Sea has undergone large changes driven by increasing anthropogenic pressures. We estimated the integrated annual primary production (APP) for different shelf regions during the early eutrophication phase (1963-1976) using chlorophyll a and winter nitrate concentrations as proxy observations of primary production to describe its seasonal variation. For comparison, APP was estimated during the period when eutrophication peaked (1985-1992). In the early eutrophication period APP was estimated at 64-89 g C m-2 yr-1 for most part of the shelf, except the shelf part influenced by the Danube River (the shallow waters off the Romanian and Bulgarian coasts) where APP was ∼126 g C m-2 yr-1. In these two different shelf parts, APP increased to 138-190 and 266-318 g C m-2 yr-1 during the peak eutrophication period. These spatial differences are attributed to the large nutrient inputs from the Danube River. The APP estimates provide new insight into the eutrophication history of the Black Sea shelf, documenting stronger signs of eutrophiction than observed in other enclosed seas such as the Baltic Sea. Since the peak eutrophication period APP is estimated to have decreased by approximately 15-20%.

  12. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg−1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and

  13. Rare earth element exchange through the Bosporus : The Black Sea as a net source of REEs to the Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; German, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Bosporus is the only source of seawater to the Black Sea and helps to maintain the basin-wide salinity gradient that caused the Black Sea to become the largest permanently anoxic basin in the world, some 3000 years ago. Concentrations of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) in each of the three

  14. First evaluation of neustonic microplastics in Black Sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytan, Ulgen; Valente, Andre; Senturk, Yasemen; Usta, Riza; Esensoy Sahin, Fatma Basak; Mazlum, Rahsan Evren; Agirbas, Ertugrul

    2016-08-01

    The Black Sea has a high risk of plastic pollution given the high river discharge of several industrialized countries into this semi-enclosed sea. Here, for the first time, the occurrence and distribution of microplastics are reported for the Black Sea. Microplastics were assessed from zooplankton samples taken during two cruises along the south eastern coast of the Black Sea in the November of 2014 and February of 2015. In each cruise neuston samples were collected at 12 stations using a WP2 net with 200 μm mesh. Microplastics (0.2-5 mm) were found in 92% of the samples. The primary shapes were fibres (49.4%) followed by plastic films (30.6%) and fragments (20%), and no micro beads were found. Average microplastic concentration in November (1.2 ± 1.1 × 10(3) par. m(-3)) was higher than in February (0.6 ± 0.55 × 10(3) par. m(-3)). Reduced concentrations in February were possibly caused by increased mixing. The highest concentrations of microplastics were observed in offshore stations during November sampling. The heterogeneous spatial distribution (0.2 × 10(3)-3.3 × 10(3) par. m(-3) for all samples) and accumulation in some stations could be associated to transport and retention mechanisms linked with wind and the dynamics of the rim current, as well by different sources of plastic. There were no statistically significant differences in MP concentration between sampling stations and sampling periods (t-test, p pollution and there is an urgency to understand their origins, transportation and effects on marine life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the contamination level of sea bottom sediments on the Crimean coast of the Black and Azov Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikhonova Elena

    2016-12-01

    At the most stations in the Azov Sea the content of HM exceeded values obtained in the Black Sea. Now (2016 in the open Crimean coast bottom sediments of the Black Sea have properties typical for marine sediments of the studied area. There is an upward trend in the content of chloroform-extracted substances in the Black Sea region, but the sediments are not contaminated with oil products. Taking into account the physical-chemical characteristics of marine sediments, it can be stated that the condition the studied area as a whole is safe.

  16. Controls of Multiple Stressors on the Black Sea Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Oguz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Black Sea is one of the most severely degraded and exploited large marine ecosystems in the world. For the last 50 years after the depletion of large predatory fish stocks, anchovy (with the partial contribution of sprat has been acting as the main top predator species and experienced a major stock collapse at the end of 1990s. After the collapse, eastern part of the southern Black Sea became the only region sustaining relatively high anchovy catch (400,000 tons whereas the total catch within the rest of the sea was reduced to nearly its one-third. The lack of recovery of different fish stocks under a slow ecosystem rehabilitation may be attributed, on the one hand, to inappropriate management measures and the lack of harmonized fishery policy among the riparian countries. On the other hand, impacts of multiple stressors (eutrophication, alien species invasions, natural climatic variations on the food web may contribute to resilience of the system toward its recovery. The overfishing/recovery problem therefore cannot be isolated from rehabilitation efforts devoted to the long-term chronic degradation of the food web structure, and alternative fishery-related management measures must be adopted as a part of a comprehensive ecosystem-based management strategy. The present study provides a data-driven ecosystem assessment, underlines the key environmental issues and threats, and points to the critical importance of holistic approach to resolve the fishery-ecosystem interactions. It also stresses the transboundary nature of the problem.

  17. MAIN FEATURES OF BALNEOLOGICAL AND MUD RESORTS NETWORK OF THE BLACK SEA COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Молодецький, А. Е.; Пишна, Г. О.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the article is the characteristics of geographical (natural and socio-economic) prerequisites for the development of coastal resorts of Black Sea region countries, with emphasis on balneological and mud-bath of recreational resources systems. Six European and Asian countries – Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania have a diverse and significant resort and recreational resources of the Black Sea coast. However, for many decades the Black Sea resorts of thes...

  18. Sound-scattering layers of the Black Sea based on ADCP observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. N.; Lemeshko, E. M.; Fedorov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    The paper discusses the results of expeditions to the northwestern part of the Black Sea carried out in 2004-2008. Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) with an operating frequency of 150 and 300 kHz were used as the echo sounders. The characteristic scales of the spatial variability of sound scattering in the Black Sea were determined; the revealed peculiarities are interpreted. The characteristics of a deep soundscattering layer in the Black Sea are given.

  19. Coccolithophore assemblage response to Black Sea Water inflow into the North Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatsolis, B.-Th.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Dimiza, M. D.; Malinverno, E.; Lagaria, A.; Mara, P.; Archontikis, O.; Psarra, S.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to presents the species composition of living coccolithophore communities in the NE Aegean Sea, investigating their spatial and temporal variations along a north-south transect in the area receiving the inflowing surface Black Sea Water (BSW) over the deeper Levantine Water (LW) layer. Coccolithophores in the area were relatively diverse and a total of 95 species over 3 sampling periods studied were recognized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) techniques. R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished two coccolithophore Groups (I, IIa, IIb, IIc) with different ecological preferences. Emiliania huxleyi was the most abundant species of Group I, whereas Syracosphaera spp., Rhabdosphaera spp. and holococcolithophores were prevailing in the highly diversified Group II assemblages. Biometric analysis conducted on E. huxleyi coccoliths from Aegean water column and Black Sea sediment trap samples, indicated that during autumn, NE Aegean specimens in samples under BSW influence were featured by unimodal distribution concerning the coccolith relative tube width, with values similar to those provided by the Black Sea specimens. In early spring, coccoliths in the stations with increased BSW influx displayed a bimodal pattern of relative tube width with smaller values found mostly in the surface layers, while the distribution became again unimodal and dominated by larger values within the deeper LW layers. In the summer period, the typical LW holococcolithophore species (Group II) presented low cell numbers in the surface layer (huxleyi was almost absent in the NE Aegean during the summer sampling period.

  20. Black Sea Mixed Layer Sensitivity to Various Wind and Thermal Forcing Products on Climatological Time Scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kara, A. B; Jurlburt, Harley; Wallcraft, Alan; Bourassa, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This study describes atmospheric forcing parameters constructed from different global climatologies, applied to the Black Sea, and investigates the sensitivity of HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM...

  1. The EU’s Black Sea Policies: Any Hopes for Success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Akgül Açıkmeşe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available he 2004-2007 enlargements brought the EU onto the shores of the Black Sea region which is encircled with complex insecurities. Since then, the EU has been actively engaged in developing a vision for this problematic region through the various instruments of enlargement, CFSP/CSDP, European Neighborhood Policy, Black Sea Synergy as well as the Eastern Partnership. This paper aims at analysing the efficacy of EU’s Black Sea policies in providing regional security, with a particular and a comparative focus on the impact of the Synergy as the only genuine regional Black Sea strategy.

  2. Spawning of bluefin tuna in the black sea: historical evidence, environmental constraints and population plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity...

  3. Black Sea ecosystem and the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, Alexandru S.; Patrascu, Vasile

    1999-01-01

    The Black Sea region is a space with an old historical tradition. Its unitary character was achieved by economical, cultural and technical-scientific relations. Common exploitation of its resources has sustained a flourishing civilization. Having an area of 423,000 km 2 , a maximum depth of 2,212 m and a volume of 570,000 km 3 , Black Sea connects Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine. Its hydro-graphic basin reaches 2,200 million km 2 , an area inhabited by 160 million people. The North-Western sector occupies 63,800 km 2 , the water being under 200 m, is grouping 85% of the total sweet water input (Danube, Dniester, Dnieper). The most rich and dynamical marine life is developed here. The Romanian coast extends over 245 km and comprises 10 cities, 100 villages, in which 650,000 people live. The main ecological problems of the Black Sea are pollution, eutrophication, intrusion of foreign species, over-fishing as well as the reduction of the biodiversity and living resources. The causes for all these are the industrial and agricultural activities, the intensive marine and fluvial traffic, the demographical growth. The Danube River alone transports annually 34,000 t mineral N, 60,000 t total P, 6,000 t Zn, 1,000 t Cr, 280 t Cd, 60 t Hg and 50,000 t oil. The nuclear power development in Europe and worldwide led Romania to include radioactivity among the monitored environmental parameters. By this monitoring reference values have been established for all the marine components. The maximum concentrations of 90 Sr, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in edible resources (fish and molluscs) were found always under the limits imposed by FAO, while the internal and external irradiation level through marine resources did not exceed the national and international exposure limits. These data are necessary as reference standards for the nuclear activities in future

  4. Investigation of the biota of Burgas Bay, Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klisarova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Burgas Bay is the largest one on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Industrial plants along the coast as well as ports for liquid and solid cargoes create conditions of anthropogenic pressure on hydrobionts in that area. Macrozoobenthos and phytoplankton samples were collected under a specific scheme in connection with the construction of the Burgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline, at stations located around the designated places for unloading tankers. During the study period (2009 – 2010, 88 phytoplankton species distributed in 13 classes were identified and over 50 species of benthic species distributed in four main groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and the mixed group Diversa

  5. Conflict Resolution Trends in the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Shelest

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses the main trends of the various conflict resolution processes in the Black Sea region. It emphasizes the transformation of the mediators’ role, including the increase of the EU efforts in the various peace processes. The author states that the absence of military actions, the narrowness of the existing peace formats and competition between the various mediating parties for leadership lead to the militarization of the region, the absence of the conflicts’ ‘ripeness’, new peace initiatives and an ‘all or nothing’ position on the part of the conflicting parties.

  6. Bioecology of tulip trees at the Ajara Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Tskhoidze

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tulip trees (Liriodendron tulipifera L. andLiriodendron chinense(Hemsl. Sarg. grow well along the Batumi coastline, develop, bloom, produce fruit, give natural revival. There they already have blooming and fruiting self-seeds. Chinese tulip poplar sometimes reaches here bigger sizes than in natural habitat. It resists winter temperatures very well. Both species can be jointly used along the Caucasian Black Sea coast as ornamental trees because there are the most favorable conditions for their vegetation. Due the great resistance American tulip trees can grow along the coastline as well as inland of Ajara.

  7. Present level of contaminants in the Romanian Black Sea sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, A.S.; Apas, M.; Cociasu, A.; Cuingioglu, E.; Patrascu, V.; Pecheanu, I.; Piescu, V.; Popa, L.

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of environmental quality in the Romanian Black Sea sector is being constantly made by the Romanian Marine Research Institute (RMRI) within the National Integrated Monitoring System. The contamination of the marine environment is expressed by considering four chemical and a biological parameter: nutrients (N-NO 2 , N-NO 3 , N-NH 4 , P-PO 4 , organic P, Si-SiO 4 ), heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb), artificial radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs), total hydrocarbons, parasite and saprophyte fungi in sediments, sea water and/or biota. Present levels of contaminants are discussed as to their historical evolution during the last few years or decades. Inorganic N and P concentrations still exceed three to five times those before eutrophication started to intensify in the early '70s. Practical uses of results by national and regional authorities are discussed. (author)

  8. Anticancer potency of black sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) from Mentawai Islands, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mieke Hemiawati Satari; Utmi Arma; Syafruddin Ilyas; Dian Handayani

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The source of bioactive compounds believed to have strong anticancer potency is derived from sea cucumber. Black sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) is a dominant species in Mentawai Islands, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Key factor compound that acts as anticancer in sea cucumber extract is tritepenoid also known as Frondoside A. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the active compound taken from black sea cucumber as anticancer. Methods: Methods u...

  9. Polyporus squamosus (Huds. Fr. in the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanem Bulam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyporus squamosus (Huds. Fr., also named as Aladana, Peri Semeri, Pullu Mantar in varying by localities of Turkey, is an edible wild mushroom species widely existed in the mycobiota of the Black Sea Region. It has not been sold in the local markets. The public recognition of this mushroom may change locally in the Black Sea Region. It is widely consumed by the people in some parts of the region. It is usually appeared in the nature during May-September on the logs, dead and living trunks of the deciduous trees. Following the rainy period, it grows so fast and can produce a few kilograms fruit body within a short period. It is delicious and precious as much as meat for the nutritional value, especially during early growth stage. In this review, general knowledge on the morphological and ecological characteristics, nutritional value and medicinal properties of P. squamosus mushroom and some study results on the domestication of this mushroom have been presented in order to improve the public awareness and its consumption.

  10. Horsemanship of ancient armies of Northern Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kolesnykov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deal with the description, analysis and generalization of features of organization and tactics of cavalry of the army ancient states of the Northern Black Sea region: Olbia, Chersonese, Bosporus. Author sure that the foundation of the armed forces of these states was a civil militia – free, economically independent landowners, endowed with the broadest volume of political and social rights men – full citizens. Bosporus kings have attracted a significant number of hired troops that held by the royal treasury income and special direct tax. The cavalry is interacted with heavily armed infantry contingents – hoplites or swordsman­ thyureoforoi. The contingents of lightweight (arrow­toxots and heavy (akontists and spearmen cavalry were presented as part of ancient armies of the Northern Black Sea Region in Classical and Hellenistic periods. In the Roman period on the Bosporus fixed formation units of cathafractarian cavalry. The weapons and tactics of the Sarmatian nomadic nobility (Aspurhianian, Sirak, Aorsy and more were served as a model for Bosporus cataphractarian horsemen.

  11. Modelling of migration of radionuclides and trace elements between the components of the Black Sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    This report considers peculiarities of the mathematical description of radionuclides migration between water environment and biotic and abiotic components of the Black Sea ecosystems at different periods of averaging, from the time scale of metabolic processes, taking place in hydrobionts, to the large-scale description of radionuclides migration in the Black Sea

  12. 75 FR 17618 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Analyst, (978) 281-9104. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Correction Rule NMFS published an emergency rule to... reconsider their previous recommendations regarding the Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) for black sea bass for the 2010 fishing year. The SSC concluded that the ABC for black sea bass could be increased from 2...

  13. Managing Rapana in the Black Sea: stakeholder workshops on both sides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Knudsen, S.; Todorova, V.; Gündüz Hosgör, A.

    2014-01-01

    Rapana venosa is a non-indigenous invasive predator on bivalves in the Black Sea. A Rapana fishery has developed in the Black Sea since the 1980s, primarily in Turkey and Bulgaria. The Rapana fishery provides a complex management problem with three groups of objectives: 1. Good economic status; 2.

  14. Radiotracers in the Black Sea: A Tool for Marine Environmental Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Egorov, V.N.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Stokozov, N.A.; Mirzoeva, N.Yu.; Tereshenko, N.N.; Gulina, L.V.; Proskurnin, V.Yu.; Osvath, I.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to its geographical location, the Black Sea has been one of the marine basins most contaminated with artificial radioactivity. During the pre-Chernobyl period, the main source of radioactive contamination of the Black Sea was the global fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, which peaked in 1962 before the 1963 Test Ban Treaty was signed between the main nuclear states. As maximum global fallout was observed within the 40-50 o N latitude band that runs exactly across the Black Sea, this semi enclosed water body received high levels of the fallout radionuclides derived from the atmospheric weapons testing. Being a closest marine body to the Chernobyl site, the Black Sea and its broad drainage areas have received substantial amounts of the long-lived artificial radionuclides, particularly 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and plutonium isotopes, released into the atmosphere from the damaged nuclear reactor and delivered with the air masses moving south- and westward from the accident area. Besides direct atmospheric deposition, the Black Sea received (and continues to receive) additional radioactive input by river runoff, particularly to its northwestern area from the Danube and Dnieper Rivers. Resulting from contribution of the above-mentioned sources of radioactive contamination of the Black Sea, the 90 Sr concentration in its water ranks second after the Irish Sea, and third after the Baltic Sea with respect to 137 Cs concentration in seawater. Overview of results. Extensive radioecological studies performed during the last decades have showed that post-Chernobyl evolution and levels of man-made radioactivity in the Black Sea were governed, except radioactive decay, by the large-scale oceanographic, biogeochemical and ecological processes, which control the self-cleaning of the Black Sea environments against the radioactive contamination: first of all the vertical water mixing, which dilutes the surface radionuclide concentrations, the loss through the Bosporus

  15. Flood risk on the Black sea coast of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseevsky, Nikolay; Magritsky, Dmitry; Koltermann, Peter; Krylenko, Inna; Umina, Natalya; Aybulatov, Denis; Efremova, Natalya; Lebedeva, Seraphima

    2013-04-01

    The data of unique database "Floods in the coastal zones of Europeans part of Russia", developed by authors, are shown, that frequency of floods and damage in the coastal zones are growing. There is most dangerous situation on the Black sea coast of Russia. Here the main part of settlements, resorts and industry is situated in the river valleys and mouths. All main roads and pipelines cross the river channels. The Black sea rivers have flood regime with high intensity of flood formations and huge destructive flood power. Despite prevalence of floods during the cold period of year the most part of high floods in 100 years of supervision was noted here in the summer-fall (65% in July-October). Usually they were induced by the showers connected with passing of powerful cyclones, atmospheric fronts, and water tornadoes. The insignificant part of floods was connected with snow melting, backwater phenomena, showers in the cities and dam breaks. Thus shower induced floods here are the most widespread and destructive. Usually they arise within two-three watersheds simultaneously. Formation catastrophic heavy rain flood is possible on any site of a river valley of the Black Sea coast. The wave of a high water moves with very high speed, carrying a large number of deposits and garbage. To the mouth the flood can be transformed into debris flow. The water levels during a high water period rise on 3-6 m in the channels, and up to 11-12 m in the river canyons; the maximum depths of flow on the floodplains are 3 m and more. Flooding depths, induced by slope streams, can be to 0,5 m and higher. Flooding proceeds only some hours. After that water rather quickly flows down from a floodplains to the bed of the rivers and into the sea, leaving traces of destructions, a powerful layer of deposits (to 10-20 cm and more) and garbage. In the mouth river deposits quite often form the river mouth bar which is washed away during next storms. The damage from river floods on the Black Sea

  16. Air-sea exchange over Black Sea estimated from high resolution regional climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velea, Liliana; Bojariu, Roxana; Cica, Roxana

    2013-04-01

    Black Sea is an important influencing factor for the climate of bordering countries, showing cyclogenetic activity (Trigo et al, 1999) and influencing Mediterranean cyclones passing over. As for other seas, standard observations of the atmosphere are limited in time and space and available observation-based estimations of air-sea exchange terms present quite large ranges of uncertainty. The reanalysis datasets (e.g. ERA produced by ECMWF) provide promising validation estimates of climatic characteristics against the ones in available climatic data (Schrum et al, 2001), while cannot reproduce some local features due to relatively coarse horizontal resolution. Detailed and realistic information on smaller-scale processes are foreseen to be provided by regional climate models, due to continuous improvements of physical parameterizations and numerical solutions and thus affording simulations at high spatial resolution. The aim of the study is to assess the potential of three regional climate models in reproducing known climatological characteristics of air-sea exchange over Black Sea, as well as to explore the added value of the model compared to the input (reanalysis) data. We employ results of long-term (1961-2000) simulations performed within ENSEMBLE project (http://ensemblesrt3.dmi.dk/) using models ETHZ-CLM, CNRM-ALADIN, METO-HadCM, for which the integration domain covers the whole area of interest. The analysis is performed for the entire basin for several variables entering the heat and water budget terms and available as direct output from the models, at seasonal and annual scale. A comparison with independent data (ERA-INTERIM) and findings from other studies (e.g. Schrum et al, 2001) is also presented. References: Schrum, C., Staneva, J., Stanev, E. and Ozsoy, E., 2001: Air-sea exchange in the Black Sea estimated from atmospheric analysis for the period 1979-1993, J. Marine Systems, 31, 3-19 Trigo, I. F., T. D. Davies, and G. R. Bigg (1999): Objective

  17. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTEMENTS FLOWS IN BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU-MARCEL JOIA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We live in a time when the world’s economy is in a constantly change. Foreign direct investments flows are in actual economy one of the most dynamic and prospective part of the world’s economy being in a continuous globalization. These international financial flows determine the traders who take part at the world’s economy to know to adopt a specific management in the international affairs field. We are viewers of an unprecedented expansion of foreign direct investments. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the foreign direct investments flows in Black Sea Economic Cooperation. This study is based on UNCTAD reports and on an econometrical model which gives us the possibility to create different analysis concerning FDI flow in this cooperation. So we defined a simple regression model, in which the dependent variable is represented by Nominal and real GDP, total and per capita, variable explicated by FDI flows, using as method the Least Squared, including 19 observations. Through this paper, we tried to illustrate the relation between the FDI flows and the economic growth rate in the past years inRomania, member of Black Sea Economic region. In line with a general upward trend in FDI to Central and Eastern Europe, inward FDI to the Russian Federation held steady between 1998 and 2001, at an annual average of $2.8 billion. In Black Sea Economic region, Russian average is the biggest one, Russia being a leader country in warding FDI. The Russian Federation is by far the leading investor country in the region, accounting for more than 75% of its annual outflows. Inward and outward direct investments flows in Russia have reached in 2009 an amount of $38,722 billion. In Romania, following years of stagnation at very low levels, 1991 to 1997, FDI flows reached $1.1 billion in 2002. Inflows to Bulgaria peaked at $1 billion in 2000; the surge is largely due to flows from developed countries. Inward and outward direct investments flows in

  18. Atmospheric circulation and storm events in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkova, Galina V.; Arkhipkin, Victor S.; Kislov, Alexander V.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme sea storms are dangerous and a potential source of damage. In this study, we examine storm events in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, the atmosphere circulation patterns associated with the sea storm events, and their changes in the present (1961-2000) and future (2046-2065) climates. A calendar of storms for the present climate is derived from results of wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) experiments. On the basis of this calendar, a catalog of atmospheric sea level pressure (SLP) fields was prepared from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset for 1961-2000. The SLP fields were subjected to a pattern recognition algorithm which employed empirical orthogonal decomposition followed by cluster analysis. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data is used to evaluate the occurring circulation types (CTs) within the ECHAM5-MPI/OM Atmosphere and Ocean Global Circulation Model (AOGCM) for the period 1961-2000. Our analysis shows that the ECHAM5-MPI/OM model is capable of reproducing circulation patterns for the storm events. The occurrence of present and future ECHAM5-MPI/OM CTs is investigated. It is shown that storm CTs are expected to occur noticeably less frequently in the middle of the 21st century.

  19. Biogenic Properties of Deep Waters from the Black Sea Reduction (Hydrogen Sulphide) Zone for Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Polikarpov, Gennady G.; Lazorenko, Galina Е.; Тereschenko, Natalya N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generalized data of biogenic properties investigations of the Black Sea deep waters from its reduction zone for marine algae are presented. It is shown on board and in laboratory that after pre-oxidation of hydrogen sulphide by intensive aeration of the deep waters lifted to the surface of the sea, they are ready to be used for cultivation of the Black Sea unicellular, planktonic, and multicellular, benthic, algae instead of artificial medium. Naturally balanced micro- and macroeleme...

  20. Dynamics of macrozoobenthos in the Southern Bulgarian Black Sea coastal and open-sea areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STOYKOV

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of analysis of 96 macrozoobenthic samples, collected on a seasonal basis in Bourgas Bay and in open-sea areas offshore Cape Emine (Bulgarian Black Sea in 1996 and 1998. In total 96 taxa were established, distributed in four groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and “Diversa”. The average density of populations was 1756 ind.m-2 with a predominating abundance of Polychaeta species. The average biomass estimated was 183.02 g.m-2, formed mainly by representatives of Mollusca. The latter species were measured together with the shells, which appraised their individual weights. Seven of the species found had a coefficient of constancy more than 50%. These were the most adapted species to the environmental conditions of the investigated areas. The quantitative and qualitative assessments in this study demonstrate an increasing tendency in the parameters obtained (density, biomass, species diversity in comparison with previous investigations in the early 1990-s, when intensive anthropogenic influence was widely perceived to misbalance the Black Sea ecosystem. The method of Warwick (1986 applied to characterize the water quality of the studied areas allowed us to define them as rather clean or moderately polluted aquatories.

  1. BLACK SEA YAHTING: POSSIBILITES AND LIMITATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Selivanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some of the issues associated with the international practice of registration of foreign-yacht in the Black Sea ports of Russia. The development of nautical tourism in the Republic of the Crimea is given special attention. Russian Government is developing a program of creation of favorable conditions for development of yachting in the coastal areas of the Russian Federation. However, the legislation of the Russian Federation governing the yachts passing through the state border of the Russian Federation has not yet fully in line with international standards. Therefore, consideration of international practice, foreign-design yacht is relevant for the sustainable development of nautical tourism in the Crimea.

  2. Radioisotopes in sedimentary study of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, Gennady; Voitsekhovych, Oleg V.

    2013-04-01

    Natural archives, such as lake or marine sediment, are widely used in erosion/sedimentation, water quality, climate change and eutrophication study alongside with the retrospective reanalysis of contaminants fluxes (trace metals, organic pollutants or radionuclides). In order to "read" information stored in sediment sequences a chronostatigraphic method have been developed and used since 1950s which is based upon variation of activity of 210Pb over the sediment profile, natural radioisotope of Uranium decay series with half-life 22 years, and hence valid for the last 100-150 years of recent sedimentation history. The 210Pb chronology is prone to be validated by other time-markers, such as artificial radionuclides globally dispersed after the nuclear weapons tests of 1960s or major accidents on NPP (the Chernobyl accident of 1986 or latest on the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011). In the last decade an intensive study using sediment cores collected from shelf and deep-sea areas in the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea have been undertaken within the framework of a number of international research projects organized by IAEA and UNOPS-GEF and devoted to environmental problems of this enclosed, and therefore sensitive to environmental impact, marine systems. Elaborative analysis of the experimental data and sediment age calculation have been done by application of CRS and CIC dating models to unsupported 210Pb activity over the sediment profile. Measured in sediment 137Cs and 241Am clearly showed well resolved Bomb test and Chernobyl fallout peaks and were used as markers in order to corroborate radiometrically determined age of sediment. Geochronological reconstruction of the fallout radionuclides inventory, fluxes and accumulation rate in the sediment of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea by application of combined radiometric dating technique proved to be very consistent with the historical data of atmospheric fallout observations of that artificial radionuclides recorded worldwide

  3. Study of radioactivity among te Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone - results from the NIMH monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veleva, B.; Kolarova, M.; Mungov, G. [National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    In the frame of the NIMH at BAS investigations of the Black sea radioactivity were initiated in 1978 with a development of a monitoring campaign. Samples of sea waters, sediments and algae were collected from several sampling sites along the coastal zone and measured by gamma-spectrometry. Results on gamma-emitting radio-nuclide's measurements in the Black sea coastal waters were published in the 80's. After the Chernobyl accident during the period between 1986-1989 seasonal-fields sampling campaigns were organised and radioactivity of algae and bottom sediments was estimated. Harmonized sampling strategies, analytical procedures and related data information exchange for radioactivity of seawater, sediment and biota in coastal areas of Black Sea countries were developed under the IAEA TCP Black Sea Project. The present work reports results of the monitoring programme of the NIMH of Bulgaria developed in the frame of the IAEA projects for the Black Sea basin. From 1993 to 2005 regular seasonal sampling was performed in 5 sampling sites along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Results of the dissolved '1'3'7Cs concentrations in sea water, sand, algae, and fish samples are discussed. The data for the different radio-isotopes measured in algae, fish and sea sediment samples are given in comparison with other investigations. A complex assessment of Cs-137 concentrations as important tracer and indicator of the marine processes is made on a long-term basis. (author)

  4. Study of radioactivity among te Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone - results from the NIMH monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleva, B.; Kolarova, M.; Mungov, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the NIMH at BAS investigations of the Black sea radioactivity were initiated in 1978 with a development of a monitoring campaign. Samples of sea waters, sediments and algae were collected from several sampling sites along the coastal zone and measured by gamma-spectrometry. Results on gamma-emitting radio-nuclide's measurements in the Black sea coastal waters were published in the 80's. After the Chernobyl accident during the period between 1986-1989 seasonal-fields sampling campaigns were organised and radioactivity of algae and bottom sediments was estimated. Harmonized sampling strategies, analytical procedures and related data information exchange for radioactivity of seawater, sediment and biota in coastal areas of Black Sea countries were developed under the IAEA TCP Black Sea Project. The present work reports results of the monitoring programme of the NIMH of Bulgaria developed in the frame of the IAEA projects for the Black Sea basin. From 1993 to 2005 regular seasonal sampling was performed in 5 sampling sites along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Results of the dissolved '1'3'7Cs concentrations in sea water, sand, algae, and fish samples are discussed. The data for the different radio-isotopes measured in algae, fish and sea sediment samples are given in comparison with other investigations. A complex assessment of Cs-137 concentrations as important tracer and indicator of the marine processes is made on a long-term basis. (author)

  5. Habitat preferences among three top predators inhabiting a degraded ecosystem, the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Sánchez-Cabanes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether there is evidence of widespread niche partitioning based on environmental factors in the Black Sea and tested the hypothesis that physiographic factors may be employed as predictors. It addresses poorly researched areas with good habitat potential for the only three cetacean subspecies living in this area: the Black Sea short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis spp. ponticus, the Black Sea bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus spp. ponticus and the Black Sea harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena spp. relicta. Generalized additive models (GAMs were used to analyse data collected from multiple sources. In total, 745 sightings of the three species between 1998 and 2010 throughout the Black Sea were included. The analysis found depth and sea surface temperature to be the most important variables for separating the occurrence of the three species. Common dolphins occurred mainly in deep waters and in areas where the sea surface temperature was low, bottlenose dolphins were distributed primarily in shallower and warmer waters than common dolphins, and harbour porpoises were distributed in shallower waters with lower sea surface temperature than bottlenose dolphins. This study suggests strong niche segregation among the three cetacean species. The study is also the first contribution to the basic information of cetacean species distribution and habitat preferences in the Black Sea as a whole. Knowledge of the distribution of the three dolphin species in the study area is essential to establish conservation measures for these populations.

  6. Past and recent trends in the western Black Sea storminess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Valchev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Storms are one of the most important phenomena producing coastal hazards and endangering human life and activities. In recent decades storm climate has become a subject of increased public awareness and knowledge of this issue can help the society to meet future challenges related to extreme storm manifestation. Therefore, the goal of this study is to assess trends in past and recent storminess in the western Black Sea. The analysis of storm climate is based on a continuous hindcast dataset covering a substantial historical time-span of 63 yr (1948–2010. It was used to create a storm population and to estimate properties describing storminess (proxies. This was done by introduction of criteria allowing separation of events with low probability of occurrence and at the same time keeping the information on their pattern, i.e. properties of storm phases. Eleven storminess proxies were analysed and the most indicative appeared to be storm duration; integral, mean and specific storm wave energy; and wind velocity and direction, which were obtained for each storm season.

    While experiencing significant variability on a quasi-decadal scale, no significant upward or downward trends in storminess were detected. For almost all proxies, an increasing trend until the 1980s or the 1990s and a return to average or even calm conditions in the late 2000s are traceable. On this background, a steady although not significant increase of wind velocity was detected. Results also indicate an alteration of storm pattern, manifested as shortening of storm duration due to a shift of the prevailing direction of storm forcing winds to the north. Nevertheless, incident wave energy in the storms' most intense phase remains significant. The obtained results are discussed with regard to the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the hydrometeorological pattern of the Black Sea region as a part of the European-Atlantic area, in particular with respect to the

  7. Tides in three enclosed basins: the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor P Medvedev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tides are the main type of sea level variability in the world ocean. However, oceanic tides penetrate weakly, or do not penetrate at all, into enclosed basins such as the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas. Consequently, only directly forced tides are formed in these basins. Long observation time series (up to 123 years in the Baltic Sea and 38 years in the Black and Caspian seas at numerous stations were used to precisely estimate tidal constituents. High-resolution spectra revealed fine structure of discrete peaks at tidal frequencies. The diurnal radiational constituent S1 (1 cpd, apparently associated with breeze winds, was found to play an important role in general tidal dynamics in these seas. Harmonic analysis of tides for individual yearly series with consecutive vector averaging over the entire observational period was applied to estimate mean amplitudes and phases of tidal constituents. Our findings indicate that the formation and predominance of diurnal or semidiurnal tides in these seas appears to depend on the frequency-selective properties of the basins. Thus, in the Baltic Sea with fundamental modal period of about 27 h, diurnal tides dominate in the major eastern gulfs. In the Black Sea resonant amplification of semidiurnal tides is observed in the northwestern part. The predominance of semidiurnal tides in the Caspian Sea has also probably a resonant nature. Maximum tidal heights estimated for a 100-year period are 23 cm in the Baltic Sea, 18 cm in the Black Sea and 21 cm in the southern Caspian Sea.

  8. Net removal of dissolved organic carbon in the anoxic waters of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margolin, A.R.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Hansell, D.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the deep Black Sea are ~2.5 times higher than found in the globalocean. The two major external sources of DOC are rivers and the Sea of Marmara, a transit point for waters from theMediterranean Sea. In addition, expansive phytoplankton blooms

  9. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Mirzoyeva, N.Yu.; Egorov, V.N.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Sidorov, I.G.; Proskurnin, V.Yu.

    2013-01-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m −3 , respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq 137 Cs and 22 Bq 90 Sr per m 3 as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly 90 Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of 90 Sr and 137 Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995–1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. -- Highlights: • Concentration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the Black Sea water is still relatively high. • The Black Sea continues to receive considerable radionuclide amount from the rivers. • The North-Crimean Canal is significant source of the Black Sea radioactivity. • Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea increased in the late 1990's. • Radionuclide remobilization from sediments leads to a further Black Sea pollution

  10. Modeling the buoyancy-driven Black Sea Water outflow into the North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kokkos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate the Black Sea Water (BSW outflux and spreading over the North Aegean Sea, and its impact on circulation and stratification–mixing dynamics. Model results were validated against satellite-derived sea surface temperature and in-situ temperature and salinity profiles. Further, the model results were post-processed in terms of the potential energy anomaly, ϕ, analyzing the factors contributing to its change. It occurs that BSW contributes significantly on the Thracian Sea water column stratification, but its signal reduces in the rest of the North Aegean Sea. The BSW buoyancy flux contributed to the change of ϕ in the Thracian Sea by 1.23 × 10−3 W m−3 in the winter and 7.9 × 10−4 W m−3 in the summer, significantly higher than the corresponding solar heat flux contribution (1.41 × 10−5 W m−3 and 7.4 × 10−5 W m−3, respectively. Quantification of the ϕ-advective term crossing the north-western BSW branch (to the north of Lemnos Island, depicted a strong non-linear relation to the relative vorticity of Samothraki Anticyclone. Similar analysis for the south-western branch illustrated a relationship between the ϕ-advective term sign and the relative vorticity in the Sporades system. The ϕ-mixing term increases its significance under strong winds (>15 m s−1, tending to destroy surface meso-scale eddies.

  11. XXI century projections of wind-wave conditions and sea-level rise in the Black sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, A.; Garmashov, A.; Fomin, V.; Valchev, N.; Trifonova, E.

    2012-04-01

    Projection of regional climate changes for XXI century is one of the priorities of EC environmental programme. Potential worsening of the waves' statistics, sea level rise and extreme surges are the principal negative consequences of the climate change for marine environment. That is why the main purpose of this presentation is to discuss the above issue for the Black sea region (with a strong focus to the south-west subregion because the maximum heights of waves exceeding 10 m occur just here) using output of several global coupled models (GCM) for XXI century, wave simulation, long-term observations of sea level and statistical techniques. First of all we tried to choose the best coupled model (s) simulated the Black sea climate change and variability using the control experiments for 20 century (203). The principal result is as follows. There is not one model which is simulating adequately even one atmospheric parameter for all seasons. Therefore we considered (for the climate projection) different outputs form various models. When it was possible we calculated also the ensemble mean projection for the selected model (s) and emission scenarios. To calculate the wave projection we used the output of SWAN model forced by the GCM wind projection for 2010 to 2100. To estimate the sea level rise in XXI century and future surges statistics we extrapolate the observed sea level rise tendencies, statistical relation between wave heights and sea level and wave scenarios. Results show that in general, the climate change in XXI century doesn't lead to the catastrophic change of the Black sea wind-wave statistics including the extreme waves in the S-W Black sea. The typical atmospheric pattern leading to the intense storm in the S-W Black sea is characterized by the persistent anticyclonic area to the North of the Black sea and cyclonic conditions in the Southern Black sea region. Such pressure pattern causes persistent and strong eastern or north-eastern wind which

  12. Presence of the Striped Seabream (Lithognathus mormyrus L., 1758 in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYDIN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Mediterranean demersal species reach to the Black Sea through the Turkish Straits System and adapt to this nearly landlocked environment. In this article, the existence of Mediterranean originated striped seabream (Lithognathus mormyrus L., 1758 in the Black Sea is studied. In this study, 25 individuals were sampled in the Middle Black Sea region (Ordu – Fatsa by trammel nets. The minimum and maximum lengths of the sampled species were measured as 16 cm and 20.1 cm respectively, while the length-weight relationship can be given by the equation, W=0.0711L2.3981 (R² = 0.8171.

  13. A model technical cooperation project on the marine radioactivity assessment in the Black Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, B. G.; Koeksal, G.; Osvath, I.; Koese, A.; Kuecuekcezzar, R.; Varinlioglu, A.; Guengoer, E.

    2002-01-01

    Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region is a wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project coded as RER/2/003 implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001.This multidisciplinay project was designed in response to the needs of participating Member States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey)- to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer techniques to marine pollution studies. The IAEA assisted laboratories in the region by providing expert services, training, equipment and materials (Goektepe et al., 1998; Osvath et al., 1997-2000)

  14. Marine environmental assessment in the Black Sea region- a case for the Turkish coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G G.; Koeksal, G.; Osvath, I.

    2001-01-01

    'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' Technical Cooperation Project, implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Environmental problems of the Black Sea eco-system and the current international efforts with regard to prevention of pollution are discussed. General aspects of the project are presented. A joint monitoring program initiated according to the work plan of the project among six Black Sea countries is outlined with emphasis on the monitoring program for the Turkish coastal zone. Concluding remarks are on the vital importance of sharing the scientific responsibility on the trans-boundary environmental problems

  15. The European Eel Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Anguillidae. Native or Alien in the Black Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos I. Apostolou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STEFC of EU suggested the Black Sea region should be excluded from the list of natural areas, where the European eel (Anguilla anguilla is distributed. The basic conception of this idea was that the eels caught in the Black Sea region represent escaped specimens from fish farming in some Danubian countries. This article illustrates an effort to be given an indirect answer on the question if Black Sea is the end of natural distribution of European eel. The species is present but never been abundant in the region and do not represent an object of commercial fishing.

  16. Long-term variability of extreme waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobroliubov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    In order to study extreme storm waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Sea we used the spectral wave model SWAN. Significant wave height, swell and sea height, direction of propagation, their length and period were calculated with the NCEP/NCAR (1,9°x1,9°, 4-daily) reanalysis wind forcing from 1948 to 2010 in the Caspian, Black and Baltic Seas and with the NCEP/CFSR (0,3°x0,3°, 1 hour) for the period from 1979 to 2010 in the Azov Sea. The calculations were performed on supercomputers of Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU). The spatial resolution of the numerical grid was of order 5 km for the Caspian, Baltic and Black Seas, 2 km for the Azov Sea. These model wave hindcasts were used to calculate interannual and seasonal variability of the storm frequency, location and duration. The Initial Distribution Method and Annual Maxima Series Methods were used to study probable waves of a century reoccurrence. The long-term variability of extreme waves revealed different trends in the investigated seas. The Caspian and Azov seas decreased the storm activity, while in the Baltic Sea the number of storm cases increased and the Black Sea showed no significant trend. The of more than 12 m were observed in two centers in the middle part of the Caspian Sea and in the center of the Baltic Sea. In the Black Sea the extreme waves of the same probability of more than 14 m were found in the region to the south of the Crimean peninsula. In the Azov Sea the highest waves of a century reoccurrence do not exceed 5 m. The work was done in Natural Risk Assessment Laboratory, MSU under contract G.34.31.0007.

  17. Molecular taxonomy study of representatives of the genus Gobius inhabiting coastal waters of Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriha Tserkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin the Black Sea gobies can be divided to Ponto-Caspian relicts and Mediterranean immigrants. The increase of species diversity in the Black Sea is a consequence of Mediterranean immigrants. The present study investigated the variability in Cytochrome b sequences isolated from two former Mediterranean immigrant species: Gobius niger and Zosterisessor ophiocephalus. The annotated at NCBI Cyt b sequences of the species were also used to extend the reach of the study. The analyses demonstrated that Black Sea inhabited by four haplotypes of G. niger. Four other haplotypes were found in sequences of Mediterranean black gobies. In the Black Sea haplotype, 6 is predominant and 83.5% of all G. niger representatives belong to it. Three other haplotypes (H_1; H_7 and H_8 were found to form isolated populations. The Tajima D-test indicated that in the Black Sea G. niger in a stage of expansion and significant evolutionary pressure according to data from Maximum Composite Likelihood model of Tamura-Nei, which can explain the accumulation of mutation and appearance of new haplotypes. Unlike G. niger, Z. ophiocephalus populations are shrinking according to Tajima D-test and only one haplotype is still surviving in isolated locations in the Black Sea. These data are in agreement with previous reports of other authors which alarmed that the grass goby is a critically endangered species close to extinction.

  18. Possibilities of Production and Storage of Hydrogen in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmet Haklidir; Fusun Servin Tut; Sule Kapkin

    2006-01-01

    Black Sea, a highly-isolated inland sea, is the largest anoxic zone in the world. Since the hydrogen sulphide zone was discovered in early 19. century in the Black Sea, it has been adopted that there is no life in the depths of the Black Sea and there are only bacteria live in the hydrogen sulphide layer. High content of organic matter, with maximum processes of bacterial sulfate reduction is the major source of this hydrogen sulphide zone. Hydrogen sulphide is one of the most poisonous gases in the world but it has great economic value to obtain hydrogen via dissociated into hydrogen and sulphur. Thus the Black Sea is not only has a serious environmental contamination but also has potential source of hydrogen energy, if a decomposition process can be developed. In this study, the sources of hydrogen sulphide, environmental impact of hydrogen sulphide in the Black Sea, the available techniques of hydrogen production from hydrogen sulphide and the possibilities of hydrogen storage by the natural sources in the Black Sea have been investigated. (authors)

  19. Radioecological monitoring of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulebakina, L.G.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    A monitoring programme was drawn up to study the radioecological situation of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident, with studies being carried out from May 1986 onwards to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in various parts of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Aegean Sea, including the estuaries of major rivers (Dnieper, Danube, Dniester and Don) and shelf areas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The work focused on long-lived radionuclides ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs), with the migration dynamics of these radionuclides in the aquatic environment, bed sediments and aquatic biota (including plants, molluscs, crustacea and fish) being studied. We compared the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic environment of the Dnieper reservoirs following the Chernobyl accident (our data) with the behaviour of radionuclides in lakes in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident (published data). As in the case of the lakes in the Urals, the Dnieper waters contain substantial concentrations of 90 Sr as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and 90 Sr therefore enters the Black Sea with the Dnieper waters. The paper compares the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to radioactive contamination of the Black Sea with that of global fallout. (author)

  20. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic coast....

  1. Solutions for reducing dissolved hydrogen sulphide in the Black Sea by electrochemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocanea, Adrian; Budea, Sanda; Radulescu, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic disintegration of organic matter is a particular phenomenon in the Black Sea because of the set up of deposits of hydrogen sulphide, H 2 S, having high concentrations. The formation of such deposits is due to the absence of upward streams at depths larger than 100 meters. In Black Sea there is an oxic layer located roughly between 50 and 200 meters from which downwards begins the anoxic layer. If the equilibrium in Black Sea is not kept under control, an ecological disaster is possible. The first signals will be observed in surface waters, than, if the equilibrium is further disturbed the depth sulphides and the hydrogen sulphide deposits can develop up to inflammable and even explosive phases. This paper presents some solutions to reduce the hydrogen sulphide from Black Sea with a particular stress upon the electrochemical method. (authors)

  2. MULTILATERAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA REGION IN THE ENERGY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vyacheslavovich Ishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the state of international cooperation is analysed in the field of energy in Black Sea besseyne. Problems and prospects of development of power communications, their influence, are examined on the level of international stability.

  3. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF COASTAL EROSION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOUTHERN ROMANIAN BLACK SEA COASTLINE

    OpenAIRE

    STAN Mari-Isabella

    2014-01-01

    The influence of human uses, especially the urbanization and economic activities in the coastal zone have transformed the coastal erosion from a natural phenomenon into a growing problem. The paper aims to analyze and present several important aspects of the influence of the anthropic factors on the coastal erosion along the Romanian Black Sea coast, attempting to answer the following question: what is the framework of development that the coastal zone of the Black Sea could access in order t...

  5. Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region ministerial meeting. Opening statement, Monaco, 5 October 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Opening Statement of the Director General of the IAEA at the Ministerial Meeting on Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region, held in Monaco, on 5 October 1998. The Director General emphasized the contribution of the IAEA, mainly through its Technical Co-operation Programme, in strengthening the international co-operation in marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region

  6. Chernobyl radioactivity on the Black Sea coast of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goekmen, I.G.; Akgoez, M.; Goekmen, A.

    1996-01-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident, Eastern Black Sea coast was one of the heavily contaminated regions of Turkey. Clouds loaded with radioactive isotopes arrived the region on May 1986 and emptied their contents with the heavy rains that are frequently seen in the region. In order to asses the current level of contamination, several different samples, moss, lichen, litter, surface soil and soil cores were collected on August 1994. Samples were brought to the laboratory and their moisture, pH and organic matter contents were determined. Gamma-ray spectra of the samples were collected with a HpGe detector. 137 Cs was the major isotope observed. Activity of most litter samples were below 1000 Bq/kg, while most of the moss samples had activities below 5000 Bq/kg, there were a few with higher 137 Cs activities. Surface soil samples generally had activities less than 2000 Bq/kg and depth profiles of cesium activities in the soil cores showed regional variations. (orig.)

  7. Exogenic geomorphic processes dynamics at the Black Sea coast, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia; Tsvetkova, Daria

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays there is an obvious grow of anthropogenic load going on in many areas worldwide. Under such conditions, intensive activation of a number of exogenic geomorphic processes may be observed. Moreover, if natural environment is aggressive itself their dynamics and rates may reach enormous values. Our work is conducted at the Black Sea coast, known for its mountainous topography, wet subtropical climate and intensive anthropogenic development (especially during the last decade due to the recent Olympic games). We chose two key basins near Sochi, Russia to study a number of presented exogenic processes, including rill, gully and channel erosion, weathering, suffusion and piping, soil creep. A set of field study methods is used to monitor the processes dynamics since 2005 (and late 1970s for soil creep). In addition, soil erosion rates and landslide susceptibility were modelled to get information of the watersheds dynamics. This is ongoing work, but the results of the passed period of observations will be resented. Special attention is paid to the processes connectivity and their input into sediment redistribution over the river basins.

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the Southern Black Sea Shelf, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkıs, Nuray; Aksu, Abdullah; Erşan, Mahmut S

    2012-02-01

    In this study, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contents and some aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were analysed in coastal sediments of hot points collected from along the Southern Black Sea Shelf. Surface sediment (0-2 cm) samples were collected from the locations using a Van Veen type grab sampler in September 2008 during a cruise on the Pollution Monitoring R/V ARAR. All sampling procedures were carried out according to internationally recognized guide-lines (UNEP 1991). Samples were analysed using a UV-fluorescence spec-trophotometry (UNEP/IOC/IAEA 1992) and gas chromatog- raphy (GC) via a Hewlett-Packard HP6890N series with a selective detector (GC-MSD) after hexane/ dichloromethane extraction. The ratio C(17)/C(18) varied between 2.2 and 2.9 for the surface sediments of TRK 34Y (Samsun), TRK46 (Giresun), and TRK55 (Rize), respectively. These results showed higher marine organic matter accumulation. However, pyrolytic PAHs were found predominant in these areas. In contrast, petrogenic contributions were found at Stations TRK1 (İğneada), TRK13 (Zonguldak), TRK53 (Trabzon) and TRK61 (Hopa). TPH contents of surface sediments varied between 0.29 and 363 μg g(-1) (dry wt) throughout the shelf. The lowest values were measured at Stations TRK1 (İğneada) and TRK 19 (Bartın), whereas the highest values were found at Stations TRK13 (Zonguldak) and TRK 53 (Trabzon).

  9. Mono-, Di-, or Trimorphism in Black Sea Ammonia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenbach, Alexander V.; Bassler, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    For the genus Ammonia, the size of proloculi was considered one of the valuable taxonomic landmarks, although it may split in first alternating generations. We analysed 140 living (stained) tests of Ammonia sp. from the outer shelf of the Black Sea, collected from 5 stations on a depth gradient (138 to 206 m water depth). Samples were treated by standard technologies, such as live staining, wet sieving, volume detection, counts, and measures by light microscopy. The size of the proloculi was detected, extended by biometric characterisations of 11 measures, 5 qualitative characters, and 4 numerical ratios. Surprisingly, the multitude of test parameters allows the definition of either one highly variable taxon, or several species, or either di- or trimorphism, exclusively resulting from the definition of 'decisive' or 'neglectable' parameters, or parameter subsets. We followed the general taxonomic definition for the species of the genera, and applied, discussed and rejected published criteria considered as taxonomically important. Surprisingly, in result none of the species described hitherto fully correlates with the morphological roundup observed. It is a new species. This conclusion mainly results from the balance of all morphologies, and not from the selection of an ultimate subset.

  10. 77 FR 28305 - Temporary Rule To Delay Start Date of 2012-2013 South Atlantic Black Sea Bass Commercial Fishing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    .... 120501426-2426-01] RIN 0648-BB98 Temporary Rule To Delay Start Date of 2012-2013 South Atlantic Black Sea... this temporary rule to delay the start date of the 2012-2013 fishing season for the commercial black... temporary rule delays the start date of the 2012-2013 commercial fishing season for black sea bass from June...

  11. Ecological state of the Romanian Black Sea littoral lacustrine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, M.-T.

    2009-04-01

    The author uses the results of his own researches as well as data from specialty literature to assess the ecological state of some typical lacustrine ecosystems considered, about 50 years ago, of major importance by their functions, services and researches, for the human populations in the settlements nearby. Based on this assessment the author recommends a few criteria which can be taken into account when programs of integrated management of these coastal ecosystems are initiated. The paper focuses on the study cases regarding the following major ecosystems: 1. Razelm-Sinoie Lagoon Complex - tightly linked to the Danube River and Delta systems, 2. Taşaul Lake - interfered in the last two decades by a branch of the DanubeRiver - Black Sea Canal and 3. Techirghiol Lake - for a long time under the sea level, a hyperhaline lake with therapeutic, sapropelic mud, disturbed by huge quantities of freshwaters infiltrated from the irrigation system. At present, the state of the lacustrine ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea Coast can be characterized, mainly, by the following aspects: · Increase in the quantities of nutrients and chemical toxicants; · Rise in the level and frequency of eutrophication and pollution phenomena; · Drastic reduction of specific diversity; · Simplification of communities' structure - biocoenosis homogeneity; · Decrease in numerical abundance and biomass of benthic populations and consequently, low biofilter power by the decrease of the filter-feeder populations; · Worsening of the qualitative and the quantitative state of the biological benthic resources; · Thriving opportunistic forms (e.g. the worms causing sediment bioturbation); · Invasion by some exotic species, with harmful, unexpected consequences; · All populations undergo quantitative fluctuations; · Decrease in the fish population and in the use values of lacustrine assets, with strong impact on the welfare of the human society. Almost all pressure forms associated with the

  12. On Multidisciplinary Investigations of Dangerous Natural Phenomena in the Azov–Black Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Belokopytov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain results of investigating dangerous phenomena and potential natural disasters in the Azov–Black Sea basin are represented. The decrease of storm activity in the Black Sea observed in the end of the XX century is due to diminution of total amount and intensity of the passing cyclones. According to long-term tendencies of the North Atlantic Oscillation and the East Atlantic Oscillation atmosphere indices, future increase of the storm amount in the Black Sea would be expected. The effective sources of storm surges in the Sea of Azov are the atmospheric cyclones spreading with the 20–40 km/h velocity. The decrease of a cyclone movement velocity results in a storm surge intensification in the Gulf of Taganrog and increase of the flooded area in the Don delta. When the Don discharge becomes lower than the threshold value ~1600 m3/s, the wind surge exerts a blocking impact upon the river water that promotes the sea level rise in the branches and the delta lowland. The highest potential tsunami hazard for the Black Sea northern coast is represented by the earthquake epicenters located in the Crimea – Caucasus seismic zone. Noticeable sea level oscillations can arise in some locations of the Crimea Southern Coast as a result of the trapped waves propagating to the northwest, north and northeast from the seismic centers nearby the southern coast of the sea.

  13. PLASTIC POLLUTION ON RIZE SARAYKOY BEACH IN THE SOUTHEASTERN BLACK SEA

    OpenAIRE

    Esensoy Şahin, Fatma Başak; Karacan, Furkan; Aytan, Ülgen

    2018-01-01

    Marine litter is an important environmental problem in the Black Seawhich is a semi-enclosed with high river discharge. Plastics are the mostcommon marine litter in the Black Sea as it’s in the other regions in theworld. Plastic litter were monitored in the Saraykoy beach of Rize in theSouth-Eastern Black Sea between June 2016 and March 2017. The beach littercollected seasonally following OSPAR beach monitoring methodology and collectedin 100 m beach section and separated into types. During t...

  14. New records of five sponge species (Porifera) for the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcen, Alper; Çinar, Melih Ertan; Zengin, Mustafa; Süer, Serdar; Rüzgar, Melih

    2016-04-13

    The present study deals with five sponge species [Chalinula renieroides, Haliclona (Halichoclona) fulva, H. (Rhizoniera) rosea, Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) pansa and Ircinia variabilis] belonging to 3 families (Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, and Irciniidae) found at one locality (near the opening of Kızılırmak River) on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. All these species are new records for the Black Sea. Three species (Chalinula renieroides, H. (R.) rosea and H. (H.) pansa] are also new records for the marine fauna of Turkey. All these species were previously reported from Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The morphological and distributional features of these species are presented.

  15. Sulfides of Bottom Sediments in the Northeastern Part of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    A study of bottom sediments conducted on the 100th cruise of R/V Professor Shtokman in the northeastern part of the Black Sea along the section from the Kerch Strait to the deep-sea depression allowed estimation of Holocene sulfide sedimentation and consideration of the accompanying diagenetic processes, which involve reactions with C, N, and P. The behavior of dissolved forms of Mn and Fe is considered from the viewpoint of their different solubility and formation of sulfides. The redox system of the Black Sea sediments can significantly be expanded at the expense of the migration methane and hydrogen, which accompanies its anaerobic oxidation.

  16. Development of Oil Spill Monitoring System for the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and the Barents/Kara Seas (DEMOSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandven, Stein; Kudriavtsev, Vladimir; Malinovsky, Vladimir; Stanovoy, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    DEMOSS will develop and demonstrate elements of a marine oil spill detection and prediction system based on satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and other space data. In addition, models for prediction of sea surface pollution drift will be developed and tested. The project implements field experiments to study the effect of artificial crude oil and oil derivatives films on short wind waves and multi-frequency (Ka-, Ku-, X-, and C-band) dual polarization radar backscatter power and Doppler shift at different wind and wave conditions. On the basis of these and other available experimental data, the present model of short wind waves and radar scattering will be improved and tested.A new approach for detection and quantification of the oil slicks/spills in satellite SAR images is developed that can discriminate human oil spills from biogenic slicks and look-alikes in the SAR images. New SAR images are obtained in coordination with the field experiments to test the detection algorithm. Satellite SAR images from archives as well as from new acquisitions will be analyzed for the Black/Caspian/Kara/Barents seas to investigate oil slicks/spills occurrence statistics.A model for oil spills/slicks transport and evolution is developed and tested in ice-infested arctic seas, including the Caspian Sea. Case studies using the model will be conducted to simulate drift and evolution of oil spill events observed in SAR images. The results of the project will be disseminated via scientific publications and by demonstration to users and agencies working with marine monitoring. The project lasts for two years (2007 - 2009) and is funded under INTAS Thematic Call with ESA 2006.

  17. 40K in the Black Sea: a proxy to estimate biogenic sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Gulina, L.V.; Sidorov, I.G.; Proskurnin, V.Yu.; Duka, M.S.; Moseichenko, I.N.; Rodina, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to estimate the rate of biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea using the naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K has been considered. It allows assessment of the contribution of suspended matter of biological origin to the overall sediment accumulation in the Black Sea coastal, shelf and deep-water areas. Based upon this method, a relationship between the biogenic fraction of the seabed sediments and the water depth has been established with a view to differentiating the contributions of allochthonous and autochthonous suspended matter to the sedimentation rate. Overall, 40 K can be considered as an easily applicable proxy to assess sedimentation rate of biogenic fraction of particulate matter in marine environments. - Highlights: • 40 K-based approach was developed to assess biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea. • 40 K-derived relationship between biogenic sedimentation and water depth was traced. • 40 K is an easily applicable proxy to estimate rate of biogenic sedimentation in sea

  18. Lead pollution and its sources along the Turkish coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. UNSAL

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution and its sources have been investigated in the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea. Surficial sediments and mussels were collected in different seasons of the year from the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea and analysed for their lead contents. In the south-eastern Black Sea sediments from the easternmost and from the central stations contained the highest lead concentrations. Sediments contained 8 to 10 times the lead concentrations of sediments from the south-west. Samples taken from rivers, streams and effluents had especially high lead concentrations. The highest lead concentrations were found in sediments collected in October and December. Lead concentrations in mussels from the south-eastern coast were comparatively lower compared to those from the south-western coast. The highest average values occurred in December and in October. In the south-western Black Sea, the highest lead concentrations in sediments were obtained in those from Inebolu, followed by those from around Zonguldak. The concentrations increased from the middle to the west of the southern Black Sea coast, possibly due to the effect of the Danube River. Sediments taken in September had the highest lead concentrations, followed by samples taken in December. Very high lead concentrations (> 10 μ g g-1 were observed in mussels from those stations where the sediments also contained high concentrations. Mussels had their highest lead concentrations in January and April.

  19. Potential economic impacts of achieving good environmental status in Black Sea fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C. Goulding

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD mandates that European Union (EU member states achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS based on an ecosystem-based approach to management. For commercial fisheries, the primary target under the MSFD is one of maximum sustainable yield. Of Black Sea riparian nations, only Romania and Bulgaria are EU member states. Focusing at the supranational level, we review institutions and instruments relevant to management of the Black Sea. The economic values of current fish catches are assessed, and the results of a recent analytical assessment of fish stocks are used to estimate potential future values based on maximum sustainable yields. In the Black Sea region, despite long-standing attempts to improve fisheries management, there remains a lack of effective regional cooperation. Evidence from the scenario analysis suggests that achieving GEnS would not have an undue negative impact on overall fishery sector incomes, and could, with appropriate investments in processing and marketing, deliver increased economic benefits for Black Sea countries. The ongoing policy debate between and within Black Sea coastal states needs to be extended to include recognition of the potential economic and social benefits of effective fisheries management. More work is required to assess returns on investment in interim management measures to deliver GEnS.

  20. The effects of additional black carbon on the albedo of Arctic sea ice: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of the albedo of bare sea ice and snow-covered sea ice to the addition of black carbon is calculated. Visible light absorption and light-scattering cross-sections are derived for a typical first-year and multi-year sea ice with both "dry" and "wet" snow types. The cross-sections are derived using data from a 1970s field study that recorded both reflectivity and light penetration in Arctic sea ice and snow overlying sea ice. The variation of absorption cross-section over the visible wavelengths suggests black carbon is the dominating light-absorbing impurity. The response of first-year and multi-year sea ice albedo to increasing black carbon, from 1 to 1024 ng g−1, in a top 5 cm layer of a 155 cm-thick sea ice was calculated using a radiative-transfer model. The albedo of the first-year sea ice is more sensitive to additional loadings of black carbon than the multi-year sea ice. An addition of 8 ng g−1 of black carbon causes a decrease to 98.7% of the original albedo for first-year sea ice compared to a decrease to 99.7% for the albedo of multi-year sea ice, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The albedo of sea ice is surprisingly unresponsive to additional black carbon up to 100 ng g−1 . Snow layers on sea ice may mitigate the effects of black carbon in sea ice. Wet and dry snow layers of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth were added onto the sea ice surface. The albedo of the snow surface was calculated whilst the black carbon in the underlying sea ice was increased. A layer of snow 0.5 cm thick greatly diminishes the effect of black carbon in sea ice on the surface albedo. The albedo of a 2–5 cm snow layer (less than the e-folding depth of snow is still influenced by the underlying sea ice, but the effect of additional black carbon in the sea ice is masked.

  1. Coccolithophores and calcite saturation state in the Baltic and Black Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tyrrell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic and Black Seas are both brackish, that is to say both have salinities intermediate between freshwater and seawater. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is abundant in one, the Black Sea, but absent from the other, the Baltic Sea. Here we present summertime coccolithophore measurements confirming this difference, as well as data on the calcium carbonate saturation state of the Baltic Sea. We find that the Baltic Sea becomes undersaturated (or nearly so in winter, with respect to both the aragonite and calcite mineral forms of CaCO3. Data for the Black Sea are more limited, but it appears to remain strongly supersaturated year-round. The absence of E. huxleyi from the Baltic Sea could therefore potentially be explained by dissolution of their coccoliths in winter, suggesting that minimum annual (wintertime saturation states could be most important in determining future ocean acidification impacts. In addition to this potential importance of winter saturation state, alternative explanations are also possible, either related to differences in salinity or else to differences in silicate concentrations.

  2. Assessment of metal element concentrations in mussel (M. Galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)], E-mail: berrenazli@yahoo.com; Damla, N.; Kobya, A.I. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bulut, V.N. [Giresun University, Department of Chemistry, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Duran, C. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Dalgic, G. [Rize University, Faculty of Fisheries, 53100 Rize (Turkey); Bozaci, R. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-30

    The main goal of this work is to determine the effects of pollution of copper, lead and zinc mines on the Eastern Black Sea. Metal and heavy metal concentrations in the Eastern Black Sea mussels were measured using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS). The analytical results showed that the tissue of mussel in Eastern Black Sea contains K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Sr elements, and the shell of mussel contains Ca, Cu, Sr, and Ba elements. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, the mussels were analyzed with FAAS for Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb elements. An ANOVA and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. The results showed although that the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn for the tissue of the mussels were markedly above the permissible levels of the Turkish regulations, Zn concentration is in the limits of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

  3. Gas nad mud volcanism formation as a result of geodynamic development of the Black sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrievsky, A.N.; Karakin, A.V.; Kazmin, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Fluidodynamic model of moving of gas-mud mixture accompanied by eruptions of mud volcanoes and gas bursts is firstly demonstrated by the example of the Black sea basin. The entire spectrum of gas bursts can be divided into gas and mud-fluid volcanoes. Emanation of hydrocarbon gases during the eruptions accompanied by powerful exploison, bursts of gas, water and fragments of rocks as well as by issue of breccia are typical for the first type of volcanoes. It was suggested that the eastern part of the Black sea forms block or subplate moving to the northeast. This conclusion is important for estimation of seismic and connected geological hazard in the studied region. It was established that deformations and seismicity were mainly confined to the edges of the East Black sea subplate while in its inner part the level of seismic activity is considerably lower.

  4. Economic Development of the Black Sea Riparian Countries during 2004-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Bosneagu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea is politically divided between the European Union, countries aspiring to join the EU and the Russian Federation. From an economic perspective, the area has a huge potential for development and is “claimed” by the same political actors. In 1992, BSEC (Black Sea Economic Cooperation was formed and it includes, along with the six riparian countries, eight countries in order to meet their economic power in order to achieve regional development. In the period 2004-2012 the economy Black Sea countries experienced strongly fluctuated, which was strongly connected to the global economy, the inflow of capital in the region and the influence of the global economic crisis.

  5. Estimates of tsunami damage for Russian coast of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Yalciner, Ahmet; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2010-05-01

    The historic database of tsunamis in the Black Sea contains 20 - 30 events with different level of validity, and at least six events occurred in 20th century. Numerical modeling of the last historic events is performed in the framework of shallow-water theory with use of code NAMI-DANCE. The computed tide-gauge records in Russian coastal locations are in good agreement with instrumental data for the 1939 and 1966 tsunamis. The tsunami of the landslide origin occurred in Sochi in 1970 is modeled in the framework of the two-layer model realized in TUNAMI. Also, some hypothetic tsunamis generated in the open part of the Black Sea are computed and the distribution of the tsunami height along the Russian and Turkish coast ais found. In particular, the tsunami amplification near Sochi is highest to compare with other coastal locations on the Russian coast of Black Sea.

  6. Copper, zinc, molybdenum and uranium distribution in bottom sediments of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhorov, V.A.; Sovga, E.E.; Solov'eva, L.B.; Oguslavskij, P.G.; Babinets, A.E.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Geologicheskikh Nauk)

    1983-01-01

    The results of investigations of bottom sediments of the Black Sea by four expeditions aboard scientific ships ''Academician Vernadsky'', ''Michael Lomonosov'', ''Academician Vavilov'' in 1972-1978, are presented. 70 columns of bottom sediments are studied, about 200 samples are analyzed for Cu, Zn, Mo and U using chemical methods with photometric ending. Charts of Cu, Zn, Mo and U distribution in modern, ancient Black Sea and neoeuxenic sediments of the basin are prepared. Preferable uranium concentration in modern sediments, copper and molybdenum - in sapropelic muds of ancient Black Sea sediments and zinc - in neoeuxenic layers, is shown. Uranium geochemical behaviour is determined by physico-chemical regime of the basin, the presence of restoring situation which promotes the formation of uranium sorption-active forms in the upper layer of modern sediments. Neither sapropelite (organic matter), nor the peculiarities of lithological composition of sediments affect uranium behaviour

  7. Radionuclide uptake in red macroalgae from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonova, Tz.; Strezov, A.

    2005-01-01

    Technogenic and natural radionuclide content in red macroalgae (Ceramium rubrum, Corallina officinalis and Callithamnion corymbosum) from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, collected in the period 1992-2003, was studied by low-level gamma-spectrometry. The data show that the nuclide concentrations depend on macroalgae species and coast locations. The highest nuclide content was measured in Ceramium rubrum species. The 137 Cs mean value is 9.8 Bq/kg, 19.6 Bq/kg for 226 Ra and 17 Bq/kg for 210 Pb. The radionuclide pollution is considerably small due to the absence of nuclear facilities along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. (author)

  8. Tourism-Environment Impact Relationship on the Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Cristina Stanciu

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims to identify the key features which may intervene in the tourist developmenton the Romanian Black Sea Coast perceived as limits, constraints and bottlenecks on the basis ofwhich tourism management decisions have to be taken. In this respect, the study will take intoconsideration the concept of tourism carrying capacity, meaning the maximum acceptable level oftourist development in an area and intend to stress out the main steps to implement this instrumentto be used in the analysis of tourist potential but also as a policy tool in a strategy of touristdevelopment for the Romanian Black Sea coast.

  9. Finding of alien brown macroalgae Chorda tomentosa Lyngb. in the Ukrainian Black Sea coast

    OpenAIRE

    Minicheva, Galina

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBrown algae Chorda tomentosa Lyngb. 1819, representative of order Laminariales Mig. 1909, was found in the north-western part of the Black Sea (Ukraine, Odessa Bay, Cape Bolshoi Fontan) in spring 2015. This is a new invasive species in the Black Sea ecosystem and the only representative of brown laminarian algae. Ecological activity of this species is 82.2±4.3 m2·kg-1, that corresponds to the nutrient level of the area where it was found.

  10. Natural occurring radionuclide 210Po in the components of the Black Sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazorenko, G. G.; Polikarpov, G. G.

    2006-01-01

    The interest to study of the behavior of naturally occurring radionuclide 2 10Po in marine ecosystem was caused by its main contribution to the doses of irradiation to hydrobionts. This work presents own data of 2 10Po concentrations determined in water, bottom sediments and hydrobionts of the Black Sea in 1998-2004. 2 10Po concentrations in water varied from 0.58 to 1.02 Bqxm - 3. Their range in bottom sediments from shelf zone and open part of the Black Sea was 11.5-496.5 Bqxkg - 1 dry weight with maximum in the North-West region. The range of 2 10Po concentrations in bottom sediments from the Eastern part of the Black Sea was 4.5-220 Bqxkg-1 dry weight. Concentration factors (CF) of 2 10Po in bottom sediments reached 10 4 -10 5 . 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea hydrobionts are reported and compared with published data in the same taxa. The range of 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea mesozooplankton was 1.7-3.5 Bqxkg - 1 wet weight. It was 1.9-2.9 Bqxkg - 1 wet weight in the representative species of macro plankton community, namely the ctenophore Beroe ovata. 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea fishes depend on their belonging to different ecological groups and decrease from pelagic species to demersal and bottom ones. 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea mollusks excluding small species Nana nerithea were on the highest levels determined in hydrobionts inhabiting in this region. Concentration factors of this radionuclide, estimated on a wet weight basis, reached values of 1.5x10 3 for macrophytes, 4x10 3 for total zooplankton, 10 3 -10 4 for the entire fishes, depending on their ecological groups affiliation and (3.0-6.7) x10 4 for mollusks. So, the ability of the Black Sea hydrobionts to accumulate natural radionuclide 2 10Po is comparable with that of similar species from others marine and oceanic areas

  11. Black sea annual and inter-annual water mass variations from space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Simav, M.

    2011-01-01

    influenced by the leakage of hydrological signals from the surrounding land. After applying the corresponding correction, we found a good agreement with water mass variations derived from steric-corrected satellite altimetry observations. Both GRACE and altimetry show significant annual water mass variations......This study evaluates the performance of two widely used GRACE solutions (CNES/GRGS RL02 and CSR RL04) in deriving annual and inter-annual water mass variations in the Black Sea for the period 2003–2007. It is demonstrated that the GRACE derived water mass variations in the Black Sea are heavily...

  12. Contemporary radioecological state of the North-western Black Sea and the problems of environment conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshchenko, N.N.; Mirzoyeva, N.Yu.; Gulin, S.B.; Milchakova, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Contamination of the ecosystem components by the radioactive isotopes 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239, 240 Pu. • The maps of the temporal–spatial change in distribution of isotopes are submitted. • Zones with an increased ability to accumulate these radioactive pollutants were revealed. • Estimations of the flows of elimination of the radionuclides into the bottom sediments were carried out. • Assessment of dose rates formed by 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu for Black Sea hydrobionts was obtained. - Abstract: Review is devoted to the analysis of a radioecological situation in the North-western Black Sea and concerns the levels of contamination of the components of an ecosystem by the main artificial radioactive isotopes ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu). The long-term accumulation trends of these radionuclides were analyzed in components of the Black Sea ecosystem after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Zones that have an increased ability to accumulate these radioisotopes were revealed. The assessment of irradiation dose rates formed by 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in Black Sea hydrobionts was obtained. The strategy for biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of natural resources should include monitoring of the radioecological state of the marine ecosystems, and the formation of a complex of biogeochemical criteria for assessment of an ecological situation in the sea. This approach is important for marine protected areas, since it allows the formation of a basis for scientific and practical function

  13. Chlorophyll Diagenesis in the Water Column and Sediments of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Washington. Eyssen H. J., Parmentier G. G., Compemolle G. C., De Pauw G., and Piessens-Denef M. (1973) Biohydrogenation of sterols by Eubacterium ATCC...sediments. I 144 dominant diatom species identified in the Black Sea, Rhizoselenium spp , is cholesterol (Volkman, 1986; Benli, 1987). The flux of cholesterol...in the Clack Sea, for example Gonyaulax polygramma and Peridinium spp ., do not possess this sterol (Volkman, 1986; Benli, 1987). The appeav ince of

  14. 77 FR 60945 - 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 0907271173-0629-03] RIN 0648-XC152 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass... accountability measure (AM) for the commercial sector of black sea bass in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of...

  15. A success story of regional projects implemented for the management of marine environment. Turkish experience related to the black sea and the mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goktepe, B.G.; Gungor, N.; Gungor, E.; Karakelle, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001. This project was initiated in response to the needs of participating Member States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey) to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer techniques to marine pollution studies The project has various important aspects: Scientifically; one of the major environmental issue radioactivity pollution is addressed. Technically; laboratory capability for transuranic analysis is being developed. Economically; the reversing the ecological deterioration and developing sustainable uses of the Black Sea and its natural resources is one of the major interests. Politically; responsibility of pollution control and rehabilitation plans of six Black Sea countries are addressed through various convention and declarations. Socio-economically, fisheries and tourism sectors are expected to benefit. Highlights from the joint radioactivity-monitoring program of the project among six Black Sea countries are outlined. Examples from the Turkish monitoring work consist of the routine sampling of seawater, algae, mussels, fish samples and beach sand from the selected stations along the Black Sea coast are presented for illustration. The success of the Black Sea regional project has given rise to a new regional project 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Mediterranean Region' based on the request of the member countries, which will be initiated in 2005 by the IAEA. The initial phase the project, its objectives and the schedule will be summarized. Key words: marine radioactivity, environmental management, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, regional cooperation

  16. Indicator polychlorinated biphenyl residues in muscle tissue of fish from Black Sea coast of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Georgieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are characterized by high lipophilicity and persistence in the environment and will therefore bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food chain. PCBs were determined in muscle tissue of four fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus, horse mackerel (Trachurus Mediterraneus ponticus, shad (Alosa pontica pontica and turbot (Psetta maxima maeotica. Samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast during 2007 – 2011. The PCBs were analyzed in order to examine the time trends of PCB concentrations in fish from Black Sea. The six individual PCBs congeners were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. PCBs were found in all fish species at concentrations ranging between 2.32 ng/g ww (wet weight and 32.87 ng/g ww in goby and shad, respectively. PCB profiles have been found to be similar in all the fish species tested. The most abundant PCB congeners in fish species were hexa- and heptachlorinated PCBs 138, 153 and 180. PCB 153 was the dominant congener in all fish studied and were found in the range from 0.95 ng/g ww (horse mackerel 2011 to 11.67 ng/g ww (shad 2010. The sum of six indicator PCBs in all fish species did not exceed the European maximum limit of 75 ng/g ww. The levels of PCBs in fish from Bulgarian Black Sea coast were found lower than in fish species from other seas – the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  18. Acoustic Conditioning System Development and Conditioning Experiments on Black Seabreams in the Xiangshan Bay Sea Ranch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingsong; Rahman, Hafiz Abd ur; Jiang, Yazhou; Zhang, Shouyu; Shentu, Jikang

    2018-06-01

    Attracting released hatchery-reared fish to designated areas during the growth process is vital to realize the objectives of sea ranching. Based on the bottom artificial reefs and surface kelp culture facilities in the Xiangshan Bay sea ranch, we proposed systematic techniques related to acoustic conditioning of the black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus). Experiments conducted in 12 m × 10 m × 1.6 m ponds on Xixuan Island showed that black seabream was positively sensitive to 500-600 Hz periodic signals. Conditioned responses were apparent after 8 d. Two to three days were required for recovery of the memory of a conditioned response after a 20-day interval. According to the practical application requirements in the open sea, unattended acoustic conditioning equipment was developed. The ranching equipment was used in 12 m × 12 m × 2.5 m cages, and the behavior of black seabream juveniles was successfully guided after 7 days. Of the 16000 released fish, 82.5% of them were conditioned with a flexible grading net. To avoid inducing a stress response, the juveniles were released into the sea ranch in situ from the net cage. The acoustic conditioning equipments were moved into the open sea and the aggregation phenomenon of the released fish was observed when the sound was played. After 6 months of investigation and based on Sr+ marking, only one acoustically conditioned fish was found outside the 3.5-km2 sea ranch area, thereby reached the goal of guiding activity. The practical effect in the Xiangshan Bay sea ranch showed the validity of the acoustic conditioning system, which may contribute to improve the operation of the sea ranches in the East China Sea.

  19. An assessment of the wind re-analyses in the modelling of an extreme sea state in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Adem; Ponce de León, S.

    2016-03-01

    This study aims at an assessment of wind re-analyses for modelling storms in the Black Sea. A wind-wave modelling system (Simulating WAve Nearshore, SWAN) is applied to the Black Sea basin and calibrated with buoy data for three recent re-analysis wind sources, namely the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-Interim), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), and Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) during an extreme wave condition that occurred in the north eastern part of the Black Sea. The SWAN model simulations are carried out for default and tuning settings for deep water source terms, especially whitecapping. Performances of the best model configurations based on calibration with buoy data are discussed using data from the JASON2, TOPEX-Poseidon, ENVISAT and GFO satellites. The SWAN model calibration shows that the best configuration is obtained with Janssen and Komen formulations with whitecapping coefficient (Cds) equal to 1.8e-5 for wave generation by wind and whitecapping dissipation using ERA-Interim. In addition, from the collocated SWAN results against the satellite records, the best configuration is determined to be the SWAN using the CFSR winds. Numerical results, thus show that the accuracy of a wave forecast will depend on the quality of the wind field and the ability of the SWAN model to simulate the waves under extreme wind conditions in fetch limited wave conditions.

  20. Radionuclide accumulation in green and brown macroalgae at the Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.; Nonova, T.

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of technogenic and natural radionuclides were measured in brown and green macroalgae from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast for the period 1996 and 2003 using low-level gamma spectroscopy. Mean values and concentration range for the studied species enables the comparison of the nuclide content in macroalgae showing that brown algae accumulate the studied radionuclides to a higher extent. (author)

  1. REGIONAL BLACK SEA ARCHITECTURE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Homorozean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes considered an asset, other times a liability, the Black Sea started recently to be regarded as a region. However, the Black Sea Region lacks a common vision, often due to the complicated and often inefficient nexus of regional cooperation initiatives. Following the logic of finding regional solutions for regional problems, this paper aims to assess existing institutional and regional initiatives, reflecting on the implications for the success of Black Sea regionalism in creating patterns of sustained and sustainable development and a high degree of actors' involvement.This paper concentrates on two complementary research questions: What is the regional order in the BSR and what does it imply for its future? What is the current contribution of the most significant cooperation initiatives and what are the consequences for regional institutionalism? For the purpose of this paper, I draw on best-practices from other two regions: the Northern Dimension and South- East Asia. Through a comparative perspective, I suggest an analysis of the most important initiatives: BSEC, CDC, Black Sea Synergy, Eastern Partnership, Baku Initiative and the BSF. This paper argues that a possible strategic solution for successful policy development lies in the creation of an integrated regional cooperation package, functioning on the principles of multi-speed and multi-dimensional cooperation in several policy fields, in a context in which the BSR seems to be caught between two paradigms: a European and a Russian-oriented one.

  2. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are transcontinental migration routes of wild birds from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting of many migratory bird species with a very high level of ...

  3. Circum Black sea phylogeography of Barbus freshwater fishes: divergence in the Pontic glacial refugium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotlík, Petr; Bogutskaya, N. G.; Ekmekci, F. G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2004), s. 87-95 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5045111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : Black Sea flood * coalescent simulation * gene genealogy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.375, year: 2004

  4. Emerging and Conventional Contaminants in River Waters Discharging into the Black Sea along the Ukrainian Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major rivers of Ukraine, including the Dnieper, Dniester, Southern Bug and Danube, discharge approximately 8500 m3/s of freshwater into the northern and western portions of the Black Sea. As one of the largest countries in Europe, Ukraine also has one of the largest human po...

  5. Origin and abundance of marine litter along sandy beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Eda N; Tonay, Arda M; Dede, Ayhan; Öztürk, Ayaka A; Öztürk, Bayram

    2013-04-01

    Beach debris abundance was estimated from surveys on 10 beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast. Debris was collected from 20 m long transects during four different seasons; sorted and categorized by type, usage and origin. Litter density varied from 0.085 to 5.058 items m(-2). Debris was mainly composed of unidentifiable small size (2-7 cm) plastic pieces and beverage-related litter such as bottles and bottle caps. About half of the labeled litter was of foreign origin, including 25 different countries, 23% of which are in the Black Sea region. The south-western Black Sea Coast seems to receive foreign litter from two main sources: land-based debris from the neighboring countries and seaborne debris due to international shipping. Standardized methodology and indicators need to be designated all over the Black Sea basin in order to quantify and qualify coastal litter pollution, monitor compliance with MARPOL and develop regionally effective mitigation measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On the Development of an Operational SWAN Model for the Black Sea (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, A.; Van Vledder, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the results of some studies performed on the development of an efficient and operational SWAN model for the Black Sea. This model will be used to study the wind-wave climate and wave energy potential in the region and will provide boundary conditions for coastal engineering and

  7. Radiotracers in the Black Sea: A Tool for Marine Environmental Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, S. B.; Egorov, V. N.; Polikarpov, G. G.; Stokozov, N. A.; Mirzoeva, N. Y.; Tereshenko, N. N.; Gulina, L. V.; Proskurnin, V. Y. [A.O. Kovalevskiy Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas (IBSS), Sevastopol (Ukraine); Osvath, I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratories (Monaco)

    2013-07-15

    Post-Chernobyl trends of radioactive contamination of the Black Sea showed a relatively high rate of purification of its waters against soluble and particle reactive radionuclides. The apparent half-lives for the decrease of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr concentrations in the central Black Sea waters was around 6 and 8 years, respectively, suggesting an additional {sup 90}Sr input by river runoff. These values, particularly for {sup 137}Cs, are considerably lower than in the adjacent Mediterranean basin ({approx}13 years), which is caused by faster dilution of {sup 137}Cs concentration in the upper Black Sea waters due to strong river discharge, and by loss of {sup 137}Cs via the Bosporus Strait. These factors, together with a higher rate of particle scavenging of plutonium in the mesotrophic Black Sea water, reflect its significant capability for self-cleaning against nuclear and non-nuclear pollutants, which was traced in this study using data on fluxes and time evolution of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity. (author)

  8. 77 FR 76942 - 2013-2014 Summer Flounder and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (IRFA), and other supporting documents used by the Summer Flounder, Scup, and... http://www.nero.noaa.gov . The Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (FRFA) consists of the IRFA... Specifications Summer Flounder Scup Black Sea Bass 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 ABC million lb 22.34 22.24 38.71 35...

  9. Benthic nutrient cycling and diagenetic pathways in the North-western Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrich, J.; Dinkel, C.; Friedl, G.; Pimenov, N.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Gomoiu, M-T.; Cociasu, A.; Popa, L.; Wehrli, B.

    2002-01-01

    Benthic fluxes of nutrients and metals were measured in the coastal zone of the north-western Black Sea, which is influenced by the Danube and Dniestr rivers. The results from the benthic flux chambers deployed during two EROS 21 cruises in summer 1995 and in spring 1997 yield information on benthic

  10. Black Sea ecology. Pollution research in Turkey of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, Sayhan

    2000-01-01

    Scientific research is leading to answers that can help protect the Black Sea marine environment. Through projects supported by the IAEA and other cooperative channels, countries in the Black Sea region are applying their expertise and capabilities to expand scientific knowledge of chemical and radioactive pollution. Turkey stands among the countries engaged in studies of the Black Sea, for a number of reasons related to environmental, economic, and health issues. Our scientific knowledge of pollution problems in the marine environment promises to expand in years ahead. Advances in the integration of biokinetic, ecotoxicology and risk analysis with environmental monitoring studies could make it possible to eventually determine the sensitivity to pollutants of human populations and marine organisms. Such integrated studies are being conducted by the Radioecology Laboratory of Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNAEM) in Turkey. The Laboratory has gained considerable experience over the years, including through its collaboration since 1970 with the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco. Agency technical cooperation projects and research programmes additionally have benefited the laboratory. This article highlights selected Turkish studies of the Black Sea related to both radioactive and chemical pollution

  11. Fe-Binding Dissolved Organic Ligands in the Oxic and Suboxic Waters of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Bown, J.; Margolin, A.R.; Laan, P.; De Baar, H.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    In the oxygen-rich layer of the Black Sea, above the permanent halocline, the Fe and nitrate concentrations are low where fluorescence is relatively high, indicating uptake by phytoplankton. In this study we used ligand exchange adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-aCSV), using

  12. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  13. Wind waves in the Black Sea: results of a hindcast study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, V. S.; Gippius, F. N.; Koltermann, K. P.; Surkova, G. V.

    2014-11-01

    In this study we describe the wind wave fields in the Black Sea. The general aims of the work were the estimation of statistical wave parameters and the assessment of interannual and seasonal wave parameter variability. The domain of this study was the entire Black Sea. Wave parameters were calculated by means of the SWAN wave model on a 5 × 5 km rectangular grid. Initial conditions (wind speed and direction) for the period between 1949 and 2010 were derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. According to our calculations the average significant wave height on the Black Sea does not exceed 0.7 m. Areas of most significant heavy sea are the southwestern and the northeastern parts of the sea as expressed in the spatial distribution of significant wave heights, wave lengths and periods. Besides, long-term annual variations of wave parameters were estimated. Thus, linear trends of the annual total duration of storms and of their quantity are nearly stable over the hindcast period. However, an intensification of storm activity is observed in the 1960s-1970s.

  14. Beaufort Region Environmental Assessment and Monitoring program (BREAM). Final report for 1992/1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonk, P.; Duval, W.; Thomas, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Beaufort Region Environmental Assessment and Monitoring (BREAM) program was established to identify environmental research and monitoring priorities related to future hydrocarbon development activities in the Beaufort Sea and Mackenzie Delta region. The activities occurring during the third year of BREAM focused on major oil spills. Three planning meetings were held: a Project Initiation Meeting and technical meetings of the Community-Based Concerns and Catastrophic Oil Spill Working Groups. The initiation meeting had goals that included identifying specific tasks to be completed by the two Working Groups, discussion of contents and scope of materials being prepared for an oil spill workshop, and determining project schedules. The Community-Based Concerns group focused its work on identifying ecological concerns related to oil spills and their cleanup, identifying community-based ecological issues and concerns, and incorporating local and traditional knowledge into the BREAM program. The group suggested changes to the wording of existing impact hypotheses and oil spill scenarios, and recommended changes in a list of valued ecosystem components. The oil spill group reviewed ecological concerns related to oil spills, and reviewed each oil spill scenario and impact hypothesis selected for an interdisciplinary workshop held in February 1993. The workshop evaluated four of the most important oil spill impact hypotheses (offshore platform blowout, river barge spill of diesel fuel, under-ice spill from a pipeline river crossing, and a pipeline spill affecting mammals). Further research and monitoring related to a number of impact hypotheses was recommended by workshop participants. 57 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Exchanges between the open Black Sea and its North West shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zhou, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Exchanges between the vast NW shelf and the deep basin of the Black Sea play a significant role in maintaining the balance of nutrients, heat content and salinity of the shelf waters. Nearly 87 % of the Black Sea is entirely anoxic below 70 to 200m and contains high levels of hydrogen sulphide (Zaitsev et al, 2001), and this makes the shelf waters particularly valuable for maintaining the Black Sea ecosystem in good health. The increase in salinity of shelf waters occurs partially due to exchanges with more saline open sea waters and represents a threat to relics and endemic species. The shelf-break is commonly considered the bottle-neck of the shelf-deep sea exchanges (e.g. (Huthnance, 1995, Ivanov et al, 1997). Due to conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic currents flow along the contours of constant depth. However the ageostrophic flows (Ekman drift, mesoscale eddies, filaments, internal waves) are not subject to the same constraints. It has been shown that during the winter well mixed cold waters formed on the North West shelf propagate into the deep sea, providing an important mechanism for the replenishment of the Cold Intermediate Layer ( Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However, much less is known about exchanges in the warm season. In this study, the transports of water, heat and salt between the northwestern shelf and the adjacent deep basin of the Black Sea are investigated using a high-resolution three-dimensional primitive equation model, NEMO-SHELF-BLS (Shapiro et al, 2013). It is shown that during the period from April to August, 2005, both onshore and offshore cross-shelf break transports in the top 20 m were as high as 0.24 Sv on average, which was equivalent to the replacement of 60% of the volume of surface shelf waters (0 - 20 m) per month. Two main exchange mechanisms are studied: (i) Ekman transport, and (ii) transport by mesoscale eddies and associated meanders of the Rim Current. The Ekman drift causes nearly uniform onshore or

  16. STUDIES ON THE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SPECIES Mytilus galloprovincialis OF THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Sirbu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that, among the marine organisms, mollusks are highly appreciated in many European, Asian and North American countries. In the Romanian area of the Black Sea, mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis can be found in deep areas which form a belt around the sea on the continental platform. There are significant variations of the main environmental factors which directly influence the physiological behavior of the organisms and the accumulation of the biochemical components with nutritional value. This paper correlates the study of the dynamics of the main biochemical compounds with the environmental factors and the annual ontogenetic phases of the organisms. There are also presented comparative studies concerning the rock mollusks and mollusks of deep from the Black Sea. It was found variations in quantitative results for biochemical composition. Cases are due to seasonal variations of physical-chemical conditions of seawater.

  17. The levels of radionuclides and heavy metals in Black Sea ecosystems (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.; Nonova, Tz.

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of geographically varying marine ecosystem properties on the uptake of radionuclides and toxic metals in marine environment, samples of sand, slime and silt sediments were taken during the period 1991-2004. Samples were collected from different zones along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast - from the north Romanian border (Durankulak) to the South Turkish border (Rezovo). Technogenic and natural radionuclides were measured by Low-level Gamma Spectroscopy using HPGe detector with 35 % counting efficiency and energy resolution 1.8 KeV (1332 KeV). Heavy metals (HM) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) - ETAAS (Perkin - Elmer Zeeman 3030 with graphite furnace) and flame AAS - Pye Unicam SP 1950. The measured radionuclides concentrations in Black Sea sediments were found to depend on sediment type - slime sediments accumulate technogenic ( 1 37Cs) and natural nuclides (U and Th series) to the highest extent. Considerably low levels of technogenic and natural radionuclides and a narrow concentration intervals were established for sand and silt sediment samples. The intercomparison of radionuclide and HM content in bottom sediments from one and the same sampling location gives information for mechanisms of radionuclide transfer and shows the trend of potential hazard of anthropogenic impact on marine ecosystems. The obtained data show that highest nuclide and heavy metal content in Black Sea sediments were determined in the northern part of the Black Sea coast. It can be attributed to the influence of the big rivers entering the northern part of the Black Sea - Danube, Dnyepr, Dnester. Data for radionuclides and heavy metals in sediments are in the limits of the cited in literature natural levels, showing no additional anthropogenic contamination

  18. Exchanges between the shelf and the deep Black Sea: an integrated analysis of physical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zatsepin, Andrei; Akivis, Tatiana; Zhou, Feng

    2017-04-01

    This study provides an integrated analysis of exchanges of water, salt and heat between the north-western Black Sea shelf and the deep basin. Three contributing physical mechanisms are quantified, namely: Ekman drift, transport by mesoscale eddies at the edge of the NW Black Sea shelf and non-local cascading assisted by the rim current and mesoscale eddies. The semi-enclosed nature of the Black Sea together with its unique combination of an extensive shelf area in the North West and the deep central part make it sensitive to natural variations of fluxes, including the fluxes between the biologically productive shelf and predominantly anoxic deep sea. Exchanges between the shelf and deep sea play an important role in forming the balance of waters, nutrients and pollution within the coastal areas, and hence the level of human-induced eutrophication of coastal waters (MSFD Descriptor 5). In this study we analyse physical mechanisms and quantify shelf-deep sea exchange processes in the Black Sea sector using the NEMO ocean circulation model. The model is configured and optimized taking into account specific features of the Black Sea, and validated against in-situ and satellite observations. The study uses NEMO-BLS24 numerical model which is based on the NEMO codebase v3.2.1 with amendments introduced by the UK Met Office. The model has a horizontal resolution of 1/24×1/24° and a hybrid s-on-top-of-z vertical coordinate system with a total of 33 layers. The horizontal viscosity/diffusivity operator is rotated to reduce the contamination of vertical diffusion/viscosity by large values of their horizontal counterparts. The bathymetry is processed from ETOPO5 and capped to 1550m. Atmospheric forcing for the period 1989-2012 is given by the Drakkar Forcing Set v5.2. For comparison, the NCEP atmospheric forcing also used for 2005. The climatological runoff from 8 major rivers is included. We run the model individually for 24 calendar years without data assimilation. For

  19. Wave modelling to assess the storm conditions in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Liliana; Raileanu, Alina

    2014-05-01

    The work proposed herewith presents the results of a ten-year wave hindcast performed in the Black Sea and focused on the storm conditions. A wave modelling system, SWAN based, was implemented in the basin of the Black Sea. Validations have been performed both against in situ and remotely sensed data for the entire ten-year period considered (1999-2008). The wind field provided by NCEP-CFSR (United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) with a spatial resolution of 0.312ºx0.312º and a temporal resolution of 3 hours was considered for forcing the wave model. In statistical terms, the results are in general in line with those provided by similar wave prediction systems implemented in enclosed or semi-enclosed seas, the most important factors in increasing the general system reliability being the accuracy and resolution of the wind fields considered. As regards the physical processes, the calibration tests performed show that whitecapping still represents the weak link in deep water wave modelling. The most relevant storm conditions encountered in this ten-year period considered were further analysed. This analysis was performed from the point of view of the intensity, location of occurrence, duration and propagation in the geographical space of the storms. Following the results of the work, the western side of the sea is more energetic and almost each year storms with significant wave heights of about eight meters are encountered in this part of the Black Sea, while in the case of the extreme storms significant wave heights even greater than eleven meters may occur. From this perspective, it can be concluded that the present work provides valuable information about the characteristics of the storm conditions and on their dynamics in the Black Sea. Moreover, this marine environment is currently subjected to high navigation traffic and to offshore operations and the strong storms that systematically occur may produce

  20. Comparative bioavailability of radionuclides in macroalgae from Black sea coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.; Nonova, Tz.; Christoskova, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide and heavy metal content is measured by gamma spectroscopy and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in the commonest species of the Black Sea red, brown, and green macroalgae, sampled in the period 1996 - 2002. Radionuclide content was measured in ten different macrophytic algae species (five green: Cladophora vagabunda, Ulva rigida, Enteromorpha intestinal, Chaetomorpha gracilis, Bryopsis plumosa; two brown: Cystoseira crinita and Cystoseira barbata; three red: Ceramium rubrum, Callithamnium corymbosum, Corallina officinalis) from eleven sampling locations for eight consecutive years. The measured concentrations of artificial and natural gamma emitters in algae depend on the alga species. The obtained range for 137 Cs in algae is 1.2 - 26 Bq/kg. The average values for the natural nuclides are 238 U - 13 Bq/kg; 232 Th - 6 Bq/kg and for 226 Ra - 8 Bq/kg. The measured natural nuclides in the species Bryopsis plumosa are with two orders of magnitude higher than other species at the same location. Significant differences in Cs-137 concentrations were found among different species growing under similar environmental conditions at same locations, suggesting that uptake does not follow physical levels but influenced by allometric parameters and physiological mechanisms. Cs-137 content in collected sea algae follows the descending order: Ceramium rubrum , Cladophora vagabunda, Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira crinita, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva rigida, Callithamnium corymbosum, Corallina officinalis, Chaetomorpha gracilis. A comparison of the stations studied indicated that the accumulation degree is also dependent on the geomorphology of the specific area. Higher levels are obtained in the northern part of the Black Sea basin due to current circulation originating from the outflow of the rivers Danube, Dnyepr and Dnester, also at the south part of the Black sea coast. It is concluded that the general dispersion of Cs-137 results from the water circulation regime

  1. Inter-annual variability of exchange processes at the outer Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Yuan, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    The advection of cold water below the surface mixed layer has a significant role in shaping the properties of the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) in the Black Sea, and thus the horizontal redistribution of nutrients. The minimal temperature of the CIL in the southwest deep region of the sea in summer was shown to be lower than the winter surface temperature at the same location, indicating the horizontal advective nature of CIL formation in the area (Kolesnikov, 1953). In addition to advection in the deep area of the sea, the transport of cold waters from the northwest Black Sea shelf across the shelf break in winter was shown to contribute to the formation of the CIL (Filippov, 1968; Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However less is known of the exchanges between the CIL waters and the outer shelf areas in summer, when a surface mixed layer and the underlying seasonal thermocline are formed. Ivanov et al. (1997) suggested that the cross frontal exchange within the CIL is strongly inhibited, so that CIL waters formed in the deep sea (i.e. offshore of the Rim Current) do not replenish the CIL waters onshore of the Rim Current (also known as near-bottom shelf waters, or BSW), due to strong cross frontal gradients in potential vorticity (PV). To the contrary, Shapiro et al. (2011) analysed in-situ observations over the period of 1950-2001 and showed a high correlation between the CIL temperatures in the open sea and outer shelf. However, the statistical methods alone were not able to clearly establish the relation between the cause and the consequences. In this study we use a 3D numerical model of the Black Sea (NEMO-SHELF-BLS) to quantify the exchange of CIL waters between the open sea and the outer northwest Black Sea shelf and to assess its significance for the replenishment of BSW on the outer shelf. The model has a resolution of 1/16º latitude × 1/12º longitude and 33 levels in the vertical. In order to represent near-bottom processes better, the model uses a hybrid

  2. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from ERNST KRENKEL, MUSSON and other platforms in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea from 1978-02-11 to 1979-12-20 (NODC Accession 9000266)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Station data in this accession was collected in Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea as part of the International Council for the Exploration of Seas (ICES)...

  3. Radioactivity monitoring of the Turkish Black Sea coast as a part of the IAEA model project 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' and nuclear techniques for the environmental management of water resources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goktepe, B.G.; Koksal, G.; Gungor, N.; Gungor, E.; Kose, A.; Kucukcezzar, R.; Varinlioglu, A.; Erkol, A.Y.; Karakelle, B.; Osvath, I.; Fowler, S.

    2002-01-01

    A wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001. This project is initiated in response to the needs of participating Member-States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey) to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer technique to marine pollution studies. The project has various important aspects: Scientifically; one of the major environmental issue radioactivity pollution is addressed. Technically; laboratory capability for transuranic analysis is being developed. Economically; the reversing the ecological deterioration and developing sustainable uses of the Black Sea and its natural resources is one of the major interest. Politically; responsibility of pollution control and rehabilitation plans of six Black Sea countries are addressed thought various conventions and declarations. Socio-economically; fisheries and tourism sectors are expected to benefit. Highlights from the joint radioactivity monitoring program of the project among six Black Sea countries are outlined. Examples from Turkish monitoring work consists of the routine sampling of sea water, algae, mussels, fish samples and beach sand from the selected stations along the Black Sea coast are presented for illustration. Insights gained from the application of nuclear techniques for the 'Pollution Investigation of the Kucukcekmece Lake' and the 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' Model Technical Co-operation Project carried out at the Cekmece Nuclear Research Center supporting by the IAEA are presented. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of protection of the water resources within Eurasian countries and the need for strong cooperation among nuclear research centers

  4. Nutritional evaluation of aquaculture mussels (M. galloprovincialis from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merdzhanova Albena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years black mussels are one of the most commercially important species from the Bulgarian Black Sea. The marine mollusks are valuable healthy food, low in calories and fats and high in proteins. They are a major dietary source of fat soluble pigments - astaxanthin, carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. To our knowledge the information about the nutritional quality of mussels from the Bulgarian Black Sea waters, based on chemical composition, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and PUFA content is very limited. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy values, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and fatty acid composition in farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Bulgarian northern and southern parts of the Black Sea coast. The mussel samples were analyzed for lipids (Bligh & Dyer method, crude proteins (Kjeldahl method, carbohydrates and moistures according to the AOAC (1990 methods. Fatty acids were analyzed by the GC-MS system. Fat soluble pigments and cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously by the RP-HPLC system. Lipid and protein content were found to be higher in mussels from the northern region. In accordance with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 116/2010 all analyzed mussel samples can be classified as high in protein and low in fats and carbohydrates. The amount of cholesterol, contained in all mussel populations is significantly low, while the omega-3 (n-3 is significantly higher than the omega-6 PUFA. A portion of 100 g edible tissue provides 0.500 g more of the required amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3 PUFA according to EFSA (2012. It can be concluded that the studied mussel aquaculture in the Black Sea is beneficial food for the human health and it is advisable to be part of a proper or a preventive diet of Bulgarian consumers.

  5. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. System of the Wind Wave Operational Forecast by the Black Sea Marine Forecast Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.B. Ratner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available System of the wind wave operational forecast in the Black Sea based on the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore numerical spectral model is represented. In the course of the system development the SWAN model was adapted to take into account the features of its operation at the Black Sea Marine Forecast Center. The model input-output is agreed with the applied nomenclature and the data representation formats. The user interface for rapid access to simulation results was developed. The model adapted to wave forecast in the Black Sea in a quasi-operational mode, is validated for 2012–2015. Validation of the calculation results was carried out for all five forecasting terms based on the analysis of two-dimensional graphs of the wave height distribution derived from the data of prognostic calculations and remote measurements obtained with the altimeter installed on the Jason-2 satellite. Calculation of the statistical characteristics of the deviations between the wave height prognostic values and the data of their measurements from the Jason-2 satellite, as well as a regression analysis of the relationship between the forecasted and measured wave heights was additionally carried out. A comparison of the results obtained with the similar results reported in the works of other authors published in 2009–2016 showed their satisfactory compliance with each other. The forecasts carried out by the authors for the Black Sea as well as those obtained for the other World Ocean regions show that the current level of numerical methods for sea wave forecasting is in full compliance with the requirements of specialists engaged in studying and modeling the state of the ocean and the atmosphere, as well as the experts using these results for solving applied problems.

  7. Magnesian calcite and the problem of the origin of carbonates in the deep-sea Old Black Sea sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, V M

    1988-04-01

    The Old Black Sea (Lower-Middle Holocene) deep-sea sediments in the Black Sea basin contain carbonate laminae with a fixed position in the section - in the base of the typical sapropelic muds. The areal distribution of these laminae covers the whole continental slope and rise. They are usually lacking in the sediments of the abyssal plain. XRD, SEM and EDS studies show that the laminae comprise mainly authigenic carbonates - aragonite and magnesian calcite. Aragonite occurs as elongated rice-shaped monocrystals or as diverse aggregates of elongated crystal platelets. The magnesian calcite (6-14 mol % MgCO/sub 3/) forms aggregates of isometric grains with submicritic dimensions between the aragonite grains or individual laminae consisting of idiomorphic rhombohedral and/or skeleton crystals. Low-magnesian calcite is also found sometimes. Usually it is related to Holocene coccoliths without traces of recrystallization. The laminae do not show traces of lithification. A hemogenic-synsedimentary genesis of the carbonate laminae is suggested; their mineral composition witnesses marine chemical composition of the initial solutions with a high Mg/Ca ratio.

  8. Hydrologic Control on Bacterial Nitrogen Fixation in the Holocene Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. M.; Arthur, M. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2008-12-01

    Stratified oceans of the Phanerozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events apparently were dominated by bacterial nitrogen fixation. Decreased marine N:P nutrient ratios resulting from increased denitrification and decreased phosphate burial efficiency under anoxic waters drove this nutrient regime. This model is upheld by the presence of cyanobacterial hopanoid biomarkers in sedimentary records and δ15N values indicative of nitrogen fixation. However, in the largest modern redox-stratified marine basin, the Black Sea, bacterial nitrogen fixation seems to be only a minor contributor to the nitrogen cycle. In this study, we use geochemical proxies to evaluate the role of bacterial nitrogen fixation during the deposition of the Holocene Black Sea sapropel, starting 7.8 ka. We report compound-specific nitrogen and carbon stable isotope values of pyropheophytin a, a chlorophyll degradation product, and bacteriochlorophyll e produced by green sulfur bacteria. We also present the surprising finding of scytonemin, a pigment produced only by filamentous cyanobacteria exposed to ultraviolet radiation, in certain intervals in these sediments. In the Holocene, nitrogen fixation in the Black Sea is most prominent during times of reduced river water influx. This directly decreases the external flux of nitrate into the surface waters. Reduced freshwater influx also decreases the volume of low salinity water dispersed around the sea by the Rim Current, allowing the chemocline to shoal along the margins. Previous geochemical studies have described this changing chemocline geometry. The exposure of shallow water sediments to anoxic waters further stimulates nitrogen fixation by releasing more phosphorus to the system. Nitrogen fixation is recorded in the sediments as bulk and compound-specific pyropheophytin a δ15N values near 0 ‰ and -5 ‰, respectively. We have also detected scytonemin in two intervals characterized by especially low δ15N values. This compound suggests abundant filamentous

  9. Control of the geomorphology and gas hydrate extent on widespread gas emissions offshore Romania (Black Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboulot, V.; Cattaneo, A.; Sultan, N.; Ker, S.; Scalabrin, C.; Gaillot, A.; Jouet, G.; Marsset, B.; Thomas, Y.; Ballas, G.; Marsset, T.; Garziglia, S.; Ruffine, L.; Boulart, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Romanian sector of the Black Sea deserves attention because the Danube deep-sea fan is one of the largest sediment depositional systems worldwide and is considered the world's most isolated sea, the largest anoxic water body on the planet and a unique energy-rich sea. Due to the high sediment accumulation rate, presence of organic matter and anoxic conditions, the Black sea sediment offshore the Danube delta is rich in gas and thus show BSR. The cartography of the BSR over the last 20 years, exhibits its widespread occurrence, indicative of extensive development of hydrate accumulations and a huge gas hydrate potential. By combining old and new datasets acquired in 2015 during the GHASS expedition, we performed a geomorphological analysis of the continental slope north-east of the Danube canyon that reveals the presence of several landslides inside and outside several canyons incising the seafloor. It is a complex study area presenting sedimentary processes such as seafloor erosion and instability, mass wasting, formation of gas hydrates, fluid migration, gas escape, where the imprint of geomorphology seems to dictate the location where gas seep occurs. . Some 1409 gas seeps within the water column acoustic records are observed between 200 m and 800 m water depth. No gas flares were detected in deeper areas where gas hydrates are stable. Overall, 93% of the all gas seeps observed are above geomorphological structures. 78% are right above escarpment induced by sedimentary destabilizations inside or outside canyons. The results suggest a geomorphological control of degassing at the seafloor and gas seeps are thus constrained by the gas hydrates stability zone. The stability of the gas hydrates is dependent on the salinity gradient through the sedimentary column and thus on the Black Sea recent geological history. The extent and the dynamics of gas hydrates have a probable impact on the sedimentary destabilization observed at the seafloor.

  10. Distribution of pollutants in the Russian sector of the Black Sea coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos'yan, R.D.; Yesin, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    For the latest 30-40 years the Black Sea pollution by various pollutants is observed. It is the result of economical activity intensification on the shore and of slow growth of cleaning system capacity. In the coastal zone concentration of pollutants depends on the pollutant amount brought from the source and the process of their distribution and transport to the open sea. Within the Krasnodar region towns of Novorossiisk, Gelendzhik, Tuapse, Sochi and the ports of Novorossiisk and Tuapse are the main sources of pollutants

  11. The effects of additional black carbon on the albedo of Arctic sea ice: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marks; M. D. King

    2013-01-01

    The response of the albedo of bare sea ice and snow-covered sea ice to the addition of black carbon is calculated. Visible light absorption and light-scattering cross-sections are derived for a typical first-year and multi-year sea ice with both "dry" and "wet" snow types. The cross-sections are derived using data from a 1970s field study that recorded both reflectivity and light penetration in Arctic sea ice and snow overlying sea ice. The variation of absorption cross-section ov...

  12. Ukraine’s trade and economic priorities in the Black sea economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Goncharuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of trade and economic priorities of Ukraine’s integration into the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC. The country’s integration options have been analyzed including the Western European vs. pro-Russian integration vector, the bidirectional gravity model, and an alte — native subregional cooperation direction. Ukraine’s sectoral priorities for deepening economic cooperation with the BSEC member countries in the context of implementation of the national interests have been identified, in particular in the field of goods, transport and tourism services, and energy trading. The ways of and instruments for improving Ukraine’s trade activities within the framework of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation have been offered for the various working groups of the Organization that are focused on such areas of cooperation as macroeconomics, policy and law, finance and economics, science and technology, culture and society, infrastructure, and institutional renewal.

  13. Tritium activity concentration along the Western shore of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Varlam; Faurescu, I.; Irina Vagner; Denisa Faurescu; Patrascu, V.; Margineanu, R.M.; Duliu, O.G.

    2013-01-01

    The Black Sea tritium level was investigated in 33 places southward the Danube Delta covering about 360 km of the Black Sea Western Shore. Both surface (10 cm depth) and bottom (up to 20 m depth) water samples were collected. In the close vicinity of Danube Delta, the tritium activity concentration in the surface water was around 28 TU, which is almost the same as that of the Danube River waters, but it decreased to about 5 TU in the bottom water. This discrepancy slowly diminished wherein at about 120 km southward, the tritium content in both surface and bottom water reached almost the same constant value of 6.5 ± 2.3 TU. This value, about two and a half times smaller than that reported 17 years ago, remained almost unchanged for the last 240 km of shore up to the Turkish border. (author)

  14. Predictive isotopic biogeochemistry of lipids from the Black Sea and Cariaco Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, K.H.; Hayes, J.M.; Wakeham, S.G.

    1991-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions of autotrophic organisms can be predicted based on recently established relationships between [CO 2 (aq)] and var-epsilon p , the isotopic fractionation accompanying carbon fixation. In both the Black Sea and the Cariaco Trench, where [CO 2 (aq)] values are known and δ values for hydrocarbons were recently determined, predicted biomass δ values can be compared to those of biomarkers extracted from POM and sediment samples. The agreement is good, although a 5 per-thousand range in δ values is observed for the lipids, which may be due to ecological factors or to contributions from organisms that assimilate HCO 3 -. Lycopane and pentamethyleicosane apparently derive from planktonic organisms. Diploptene in the Black Sea apparently is derived from chemoautotrophic bacteria living at the oxic/anoxic interface. Some odd-C, long-chain n-alkanes have planktonic δ values, and the authors suggest they are not strict terrestrial indicators

  15. Numerical studies on the dynamics of the Northwestern Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. KOURAFALOU

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Northwestern Black Sea shelf dynamics are studied with numerical simulations based on the Princeton Ocean Model. The study focus is on buoyancy and wind driven flows and on the transport and fate of low salinity waters that are introduced through riverine sources (the Danube, Dnestr and Dnepr Rivers, under the seasonal changes in atmospheric forcing. The study is part of the DANUBS project (NUtrient management in the DAnube basin and its impact on the Black Sea. The numerical simulations show that the coastal circulation is greatly influenced by river runoff and especially that of the Danube, which is dominant with monthly averaged values ranging from 5,000 m3 to 10,000 m3. The transport of low-salinity waters associated with the Danube runoff is greatly influenced by wind stress, topographic effects and basin-scale circulation patterns, such as changes in the position of the Rim Current.

  16. Defining Mediterranean and Black Sea biogeochemical subprovinces and synthetic ocean indicators using mesoscale oceanographic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieblas, Anne-Elise; Drushka, Kyla; Reygondeau, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    variables to define integrative indices to monitor the environmental changes within each resultant subprovince at monthly resolutions. Using both the classical and mesoscale features, we find five biogeochemical subprovinces for the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Interestingly, the use of mesoscale variables......The Mediterranean and Black Seas are semi-enclosed basins characterized by high environmental variability and growing anthropogenic pressure. This has led to an increasing need for a bioregionalization of the oceanic environment at local and regional scales that can be used for managerial...... applications as a geographical reference. We aim to identify biogeochemical subprovinces within this domain, and develop synthetic indices of the key oceanographic dynamics of each subprovince to quantify baselines from which to assess variability and change. To do this, we compile a data set of 101 months...

  17. Influence of macroalgal diversity on accumulation of radionuclides and heavy metals in Bulgarian Black Sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, Alexander; Nonova, Tzvetana

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclides and heavy metals were studied in green, brown and red Black Sea macroalgae by low-level gamma spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected along the whole Bulgarian coast from 1996 to 2004. The levels have been depending on algae species, locations and year of sampling. The highest 137 Cs levels were found in red Ceramium rubrum species from all studied locations, while 226 Ra and 210 Pb were up to three orders of magnitude higher in Bryopsis plumosa. The data showed that the red algae species (Rhodophyta) accumulate more heavy metals than the other phyla (except for Fe whose values were higher in green algae). The data confirmed that algae are valuable indicators of the environmental contamination. The observed elevated levels were mainly due to Danube, Dnieper and Dnester inputs in the NW corner of the Black Sea

  18. Influence of macroalgal diversity on accumulation of radionuclides and heavy metals in Bulgarian Black Sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strezov, Alexander [Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Radiopharmacy, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Blvd. Tzarigradsko shosse 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: strezov@inrne.bas.bg; Nonova, Tzvetana [Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Radiopharmacy, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Blvd. Tzarigradsko shosse 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-02-15

    Radionuclides and heavy metals were studied in green, brown and red Black Sea macroalgae by low-level gamma spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected along the whole Bulgarian coast from 1996 to 2004. The levels have been depending on algae species, locations and year of sampling. The highest {sup 137}Cs levels were found in red Ceramium rubrum species from all studied locations, while {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were up to three orders of magnitude higher in Bryopsis plumosa. The data showed that the red algae species (Rhodophyta) accumulate more heavy metals than the other phyla (except for Fe whose values were higher in green algae). The data confirmed that algae are valuable indicators of the environmental contamination. The observed elevated levels were mainly due to Danube, Dnieper and Dnester inputs in the NW corner of the Black Sea.

  19. Numerical modeling of wind waves in the Black Sea generated by atmospheric cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    The influence of the translation speed and intensity of atmospheric cyclones on surface wind waves in the Black Sea is investigated by using tightly-coupled model SWAN+ADCIRC. It is shown that the wave field has a spatial asymmetry, which depends on the velocity and intensity of the cyclone. The region of maximum waves is formed to the right of the direction of the cyclone motion. Speedier cyclones generate wind waves of lower height. The largest waves are generated at cyclonic translation speed of 7-9 m/s. This effect is due to the coincidence of the characteristic values of the group velocity of the dominant wind waves in the deep-water part of the Black Sea with the cyclone translation speed.

  20. Present regulatory situation in South East European and Black Sea countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenow, K.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, after the energy reforms beginning, various regulatory models are either actually used or contemplated in the countries of Southeastern Europe and the Black Sea region. The 'models' are country-specific and five of them are described in this report. Certain common issues emerge specific to these countries can be grouped in three categories. The first category, called 'framework issues', includes the policy issues that determine the context in which the regulator will have to evolve. The second category, called 'regulatory issues proper', includes licensing, setting of prices, tariffs, transmission fees, establishment of codes for markets, grids and metering. The third category, called 'international issues', includes these issues requiring the international cooperation among regulators. The countries in Southeastern Europe and around the Black Sea have a long experience with regulation of grid-based energies and this experience should be adapted to the market-oriented context bearing in mind the benefits of competition and of regional integration and markets

  1. 76 FR 82189 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ..., 200,000 lb (90,718 kg) of butterfish, and 200,000 lb (90,718 kg) of bluefish. Project awards are... species, including summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, longfin squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish...

  2. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G. I.; Wobus, F.; Aleynik, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW) on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of temperature as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the temperature anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal) which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May-November) due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May-November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980-2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter

  3. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    ANUFRIIEVA, Elena V.; SHADRIN, Nickolai V.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some o...

  4. The Analysis Regarding the Building of a Hydraulic Power Plant on the Black Sea Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Samoilescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents the result of a research project regarding the construction of a wave driven hydraulic plant that is going to be installed on the Black Sea shore in the area of the city of Constanta. Several phases were analyzed: numerical simulations for the micro plant – wave energy theory; finite element simulation – results and conclusions; generating the blueprint for the construction of the plant.

  5. Sediment Yields of Basins in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CAMBAZOĞLU, Mustafa Kemal; GÖĞÜŞ, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Soil loss and sediment yield are estimated for the basins of the Western Black Sea region of Turkey with different prediction models. The universal soil loss equation (USLE) is the first model applied in this study. Due to the lack of reliable measurement data, the results determined by the application of the USLE using weighted average factors are compared with the results from geographical information system supported USLE predictions undertaken in the TEFER studies performed in th...

  6. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  7. Russian Build-Up on the Black Sea and Recommendations for U.S.-NATO Counter-Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    the Mediterranean and the greater world by Russia. In 1841 in London the great powers of Europe—Russia, United Kingdom, France , Austria and Prussia—as...next decade, becoming one of the causes of the Crimean War (1853–1856).4 In 1850 some disputes arose between the Orthodox and the Roman Catholic ...the Turkish fleet near Sinop, in the Black Sea. France , the British Empire, and Sardinia sided with the Ottomans. War was fought on the Black Sea as

  8. About local calibration curve of the Black Sea during the period 18000 - 3000 calendar years BP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavova, K.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the youngest geological Black Sea history requires that the age of the tested samples be accurately determined. The comparison between 234 U/ 230 Th and 14 C ages obtained on the Holocene samples demonstrate that 234 U/ 230 Th ages are accurate because they are in agreement with the dendrochonological calibration. Beyond 9100 calendar year BP it is proved that 14 C ages are systematically younger than 234 U/ 230 Th ages with a maximum difference of about 3000 years reached at about 20000 calendar years. This calls for converting the conventional 14 C ages in calendar ages. The procedure is called calibration. A local calibration Black Sea curve in which features of the Black Sea as a basin to be included is required, videlicet: correction of conventional ages for 'reservoir effect' - 60 years for TOC (Total Organic Carbon), 460 years for TCC (Total Carbonate Carbon) and for 'detrital carbon input - 580 years for TOC, 260 years for TCC. Such local calibration curve is constructed and proved in the article by using and comparing data from different dating methods (carbon 14, 234 U/ 230 Th, dendrochronology)

  9. The renewable energy and economic growth nexus in Black Sea and Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koçak, Emrah; Şarkgüneşi, Aykut

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth within the framework of traditional production function for the period of 1990–2012 in 9 Black Sea and Balkan countries. For this purpose, we use panel cointegration, co-integration estimate methods and heterogeneous panel causality estimation techniques. The study has concluded that there is a long term balance relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth and renewable energy consumption has a positive impact on economic growth. Heterogeneous panel causality analysis results support growth hypothesis in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Russia and Ukraine; feedback hypothesis in Albania, Georgia and Romania; neutrality hypothesis in Turkey and according to the panel data set including all nine countries the results support feedback hypothesis. With the findings, it was concluded that there is a significant impact of renewable energy consumption on economic growth in Balkan and Black Sea Countries. - Highlights: • Explores the impact of renewable energy on economic growth in Black Sea and Balkan countries. • Employs panel cointegration and heterogeneous causality analyses. • Finds significant effect of renewable energy consumption on economic growth. • Finds bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for the whole panel.

  10. Chronological study of 137Cs input to the Black Sea deep and shelf sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Egorov, V.N.; Aarkrog, A.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The chart of the post-Chernobyl 137 Cs distribution in the upper Black Sea sediments was made. The field of sediments with the highest 137 Cs activity was found near the Danube River mouth. The age of sediment layers as well as the sedimentation rates were calculated from 137 Cs vertical profiles in the top of the uncompacted sediments nearby the Danube (11.5 mm yr -1 ), the NW Black Sea slope (2.2 mm yr -1 ) and the deepest western area (0.4 mm yr -1 ). Subsequent assessments showed the high distinction of 137 Cs sedimentary fluxes and inventories between these sites related to different contributions of terrigenous matter in the sediments, as traced by 40 K. The results allow to reconstruct chronology of 137 Cs input to the Black Sea over the last decades. The traced three most notable phases correspond well with the periods of active nuclear weapon testings in the 1950's and 1960's as well as of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The post-Chernobyl dynamics of 137 Cs activity in the near Danube sediments traced from its dated profile was like that observed during the annual monitoring. (author)

  11. Natural depuration rate and concentration of cesium-137 radionuclide in black SEA macro algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Kuecuekcezzar, R.; Kut, D.; Esen, N.; Gueven, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    Cesium-137 concentrations in red, brown and green algae have been studied for the calculation of natural depuration rates. The algae species were collected from the same population of the Black Sea stations during the period of 1986-1995. The natural depuration rates are estimated as biological half-lives. The pattern of depuration results represented by a single component for each algae division. The biological half-lives of 137 Cs in red (Phyllophora nervosa), green (Chaetomorpha linum) and brown (cystoceira barbata) algae are estimated to be 18.5, 21.6 and 29.3 months, respectively. 137 Cs and 40 K activity levels and their ratios in algae species in two stations in Black Sea region of Turkey have been determined during the period of 1990-1995. The results showed that the Sinop region was more contaminated than the Sile region on the Black Sea coast of Turkey from the Chernobyl accident. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Wind waves on the Black Sea: results of a hindcast study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, V. S.; Gippius, F. N.; Koltermann, K. P.; Surkova, G. V.

    2014-02-01

    In this study we describe the wind waves fields on the Black Sea. The general aims of the work were the estimation of statistical wave parameters and the assessment of interannual and seasonal storm variability. The domain of this study was the entire Black Sea. Wave parameters were calculated by means of the SWAN wave model on a 5 km × 5 km rectangular grid. Initial conditions (wind speed and direction) for the period between 1948 and 2010 were derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. In our calculations the average significant wave height on the Black Sea does not exceed 0.7 m. Areas of most significant storminess are the south-western and the north-eastern corners as expressed in the spatial distribution of wave heights, wave lengths and periods. Besides that, long-term annual variations of storminess were estimated. Thus, linear trends of the annual total duration of storms and of their quantity are nearly stable over the reanalysis period. However, an intensification of storm activity is observed in the 1960s-1970s.

  13. Evaluation of the numerical wave model (SWAN) for wave simulation in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpınar, Adem; van Vledder, Gerbrant Ph.; Kömürcü, Murat İhsan; Özger, Mehmet

    2012-12-01

    This study summaries the implementation of the SWAN model forced by the ECMWF ERA Interim dataset reanalyzed 10 m winds over the Black Sea which will be used to study the wind-wave climate and wave energy potential in the region, and its verification. The SWAN model results were compared with directional buoy measurements at three locations along the north and south coasts of the Black Sea, parametric model results based on the JONSWAP growth relations, and the results of previous studies. The SWAN model has been applied in a third generation and non-stationary mode with spherical coordinates. The linear and exponential growth from wind input, depth-induced wave breaking, bottom friction, whitecapping, four-wave (for deep water) and triad-wave (for shallow water) nonlinear interactions have been activated in the simulations. The results of this study indicate that agreement between simulated and observed wave parameters is satisfactory and it is slightly more accurate than the results of the previous studies. However, it still has lower estimates for the maximum values of both wave parameters. These lower estimates are probably due to too low wind speeds in the applied ECMWF wind fields, which is probably caused by orographic effects, and due to the relatively course resolution in time and space of the ECMWF (ERA-Interim) wind fields for the Black Sea.

  14. Subsatellite polygon for studying hydrophysical processes in the Black Sea shelf-slope zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsepin, A. G.; Ostrovskii, A. G.; Kremenetskiy, V. V.; Nizov, S. S.; Piotukh, V. B.; Soloviev, V. A.; Shvoev, D. A.; Tsibul'sky, A. L.; Kuklev, S. B.; Kukleva, O. N.; Moskalenko, L. V.; Podymov, O. I.; Baranov, V. I.; Kondrashov, A. A.; Korzh, A. O.; Kubryakov, A. A.; Soloviev, D. M.; Stanichny, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    The first data on the creation of the subsatellite polygon on the Black Sea shelf and continental slope in the Gelendzhik area (designed in order to permanently monitor the state of the aquatic environment and biota) and the plans for maintaining and developing this polygon are presented. The autonomous measuring systems of the polygon in the composition of bottom stations with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP), Aqualog robotic profilers, and thermo-chains on moored buoy stations should make it possible to regularly obtain hydrophysical, hydrochemical, and bio-optical data with a high spatial-time resolution and transmit these data to the coastal center on a real-time basis. These field data should be used to study the characteristics and formation mechanisms of the marine environment and biota variability, as well as the water-exchange processes in the shelf-deep basin system, ocean-atmosphere coupling, and many other processes. These data are used to calibrate the satellite measurements and verify the water circulation numerical simulation. It is assumed to use these data in order to warn about the hazardous natural phenomena and control the marine environment state and its variation under the action of anthropogenic and natural factors, including climatic trends. It is planned to use the polygon subsatellite monitoring methods and equipment in other coastal areas, including other Black Sea sectors, in order to create a unified system for monitoring the Black Sea shelf-slope zone.

  15. LIPIDS OF BLACK SEA ALGAE: UNVEILING THEIR POTENTIAL FOR PHARMACEUTICAL AND COSMETIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Panayotova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bulgarian Black Sea coast is rich in algae, regarding biomass and algal biodiversity. The red algae Gelidium crinale (Rhodophyta and brown algae Cystoseira barbata (Phaeophytes are among the most abundant species along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Yet information about their lipid composition is limited. Purpose: Present study was conducted to investigate biologically active substances in two underexplored seaweed lipids. Total lipids, total phospholipids, fat soluble vitamins and carotenoids were analysed. In addition, the specific distribution of fatty acids group among the total lipids and total phospholipids were elucidated. Material/Methods: The saponifiable lipid fraction was derivatized into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS to identify and quantify the fatty acids. The fat soluble non-saponifiable lipids were identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with UV/Vis and fluorescence detectors (HPLC-UV-FL. Results: Results showed that Rhodophyta and Phaeophytes have high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a good source of these compounds. They presented a “healthy” n-6/n-3 ratio. Both seaweed species showed considerably high amounts of α-tocopherol, β-carotene and astaxanthin. Conclusions: The study reveals that lipids from Black Sea algae have a high potential as natural sources of biologically active ingredients. They are balanced source of fatty acids and contained beneficial antioxidants, such as α-tocopherol, β-carotene and astaxanthin.

  16. EU Contribution to Strengthening Regional Development and Cooperation in the Black Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu-Dorobanțu Roxana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EU's agenda had for some time a topic (at least at an idea level about the “strengthening ofcooperation in the Black Sea Region.” It faced an interesting paradox: the lack of (or, in the caseof existence, sub-optimal economic relations between countries in this area, regardless of theirgeographical proximity. The paradoxical situation considered to be mostly due to their differenthistorical and political backgrounds. Therefore, a form of support of regional development in thearea was necessary, as it has been considered in EU's Black Sea Synergy, which encouragescooperation between countries in the Basin while offering a forum for solving common issues andpromoting political and economic reform. Regional cooperation in various areas stems from a highpolitical involvement as the main initiator but requires a strong involvement and participation ofboth civil society and private sector as main drivers of cross-border cooperation. Our paperfocuses, apart from its conceptual research background, on mapping the effective outcomes of theEU initiatives in the area and on providing future perspectives for EU contribution tostrengthening regional development and cooperation in the Black Sea Basin.

  17. Risk Assessment in the Istanbul Strait Using Black Sea MOU Port State Control Inspections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Gül Emecen Kara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Istanbul Strait has intense maritime traffic while, at the same time, it poses significant navigational challenges. Due to these properties, there is always a high risk arising from maritime shipping in this region. Especially, substandard ships threaten life, as well as the marine environment. In this aspect, Black Sea Memorandum of Understanding (MOU Port State Control Inspections are important for maritime safety in the Istanbul Strait, because they directly reflect the performance of ships passing through the Istanbul Strait. Stringent and effective inspections assist in the enhancement of navigation safety and help to develop sustainable environment management. In this context, this study aims to assess maritime safety for the Strait region concerning passing flag states. Firstly, to assess the performance of flag states in general, the Black Sea MOU Black-Grey-White lists were generated for the period 2004–2014 and the change in the performance of these flags was examined. Secondly, the risk level of each flag state passing from the Strait region was determined using the method of weighted points based on the Black-Grey-White List, deficiency index level, casualty index level, and passing index level.

  18. Determination of sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, and N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine in fish muscle plus skin by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Withdrawal-time calculation after in-feed administration in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed two different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonaras, V; Tyrpenou, A; Alexis, M; Koupparis, M

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a depletion study for sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in muscle plus skin of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine, the main metabolite of sulfadiazine (SDZ), was also examined. The fish were held in seawater at a temperature of 24-26 °C. SDZ and trimethoprim (TMP) were administered orally with medicated feed for five consecutive days at daily doses of 25 mg SDZ and 5 mg TMP per kg of fish body weight per day. Two different diets, fish oil- and plant oil-based diets, were investigated. Ten fish were sampled at each of the days 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12 after the start of veterinary medicine administration. However for the calculation of the withdrawal periods, sampling day 1 was set as 24 h after the last dose of the treatment. Fish samples were analyzed for SDZ, TMP, and acetyl-sulfadiazine (AcSDZ) residues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. SDZ and TMP concentrations declined rapidly from muscle plus skin. Considering a maximum residue limit of 100 μg/kg for the total of sulfonamides and 50 μg/kg for TMP residues in fish muscle plus skin, the withdrawal periods of the premix trimethoprim-sulfadiazine 50% were calculated as 5 and 6 days, at 24-26 °C, in fish oil (FO) and plant oil (PO) groups, respectively. The investigation of this work is important to protect consumers by controlling the undesirable residues in fish. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Black shale deposition during Toarcian super-greenhouse driven by sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, M.; Minoletti, F.; Pellenard, P.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most elusive aspects of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE) is the paradox between carbon isotopes that indicate intense global primary productivity and organic carbon burial at a global scale, and the delayed expression of anoxia in Europe. During the earliest Toarcian, no black shales were deposited in the European epicontinental seaways, and most organic carbon enrichment of the sediments postdated the end of the overarching positive trend in the carbon isotopes that characterises the T-OAE. In the present study, we have attempted to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework for Early Toarcian deposits recovered from a core drilled in the Paris Basin using a combination of mineralogical (quartz and clay relative abundance) and geochemical (Si, Zr, Ti and Al) measurements. Combined with the evolution in redox sensitive elements (Fe, V and Mo), the data suggest that expression of anoxia was hampered in European epicontinental seas during most of the T-OAE (defined by the positive carbon isotope trend) due to insufficient water depth that prevented stratification of the water column. Only the first stratigraphic occurrence of black shales in Europe corresponds to the "global" event. This interval is characterised by >10% Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content that contains relatively low concentration of molybdenum compared to subsequent black shale horizons. Additionally, this first black shale occurrence is coeval with the record of the major negative Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE), likely corresponding to a period of transient greenhouse intensification likely due to massive injection of carbon into the atmosphere-ocean system. As a response to enhanced weathering and riverine run-off, increased fresh water supply to the basin may have promoted the development of full anoxic conditions through haline stratification of the water column. In contrast, post T-OAE black shales during the serpentinum and bifrons Zones were restricted to epicontinental

  20. Black Sea impact on its west-coast land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Constantin, Sorin

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the Black Sea influence on the thermal characteristics of its western hinterland based on satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The marine impact on the land surface temperature (LST) values is detected at daily, seasonal and annual time scales, and a strong linkage with the land cover is demonstrated. The remote sensing products used within the study supply LST data with complete areal coverage during clear sky conditions at 1-km spatial resolution, which is appropriate for climate studies. The sea influence is significant up to 4-5 km, by daytime, while the nighttime influence is very strong in the first 1-2 km, and it gradually decreases westward. Excepting the winter, the daytime temperature increases towards the plateau with the distance from the sea, e.g. with a gradient of 0.9 °C/km in the first 5 km in spring or with 0.7 °C/km in summer. By nighttime, the sea water usually remains warmer than the contiguous land triggering higher LST values in the immediate proximity of the coastline in all seasons, e.g. mean summer LST is 19.0 °C for the 1-km buffer, 16.6 °C for the 5-km buffer and 16.0 °C for the 10-km buffer. The results confirm a strong relationship between the land cover and thermal regime in the western hinterland of the Black Sea coast. The satellite-derived LST and air temperature values recorded at the meteorological stations are highly correlated for similar locations, but the marine influence propagates differently, pledging for distinct analysis. Identified anomalies in the general observed trends are investigated in correlation with sea surface temperature dynamics in the coastal area.

  1. Ancient DNA derived from alkenone-biosynthesizing haptophytes and other algae in Holocene sediments from the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, M.J.L.; Boere, A.; Abbas, M.; Wakeham, S.G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Holocene sea surface temperatures (SST) of the Black Sea have been reconstructed using sedimentary C37 unsaturated alkenones assumed to be derived from the coccolithophorid haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi, whose fossil coccoliths are an important constituent of the unit I sediments. However,

  2. Practical Application of Sea Water Quality Mathematical Model for the Black Sea Coast of Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Burunin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an application of the developed model of the sea water quality for forecasting of coastal waters indicators change in the artificial coastal water areas of Sochi. Results of the researches conducted in relation to yacht port «Grand Marina Sochi» are considered.

  3. Assimilation of satellite data to increase the reliability of the wave predictions in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Liliana; Raileanu, Alina

    2015-04-01

    In order to improve the wave predictions provided in the Black Sea by a wave modelling system based on the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) spectral model, a technique for assimilating the satellite data has been implemented and evaluated. For this purpose, an approach based on the Optimal Interpolation method has been considered and its results are discussed in the present work. As a first step, SWAN model simulations have been carried out for a 5-year interval (2004-2008). The assimilation is made in terms of the significant wave height (Hs) for each 24 hours considering data coming from 4 satellites (ERS-2, JASON-1, JASON-2, GEOSAT Follow-On). Subsequently, data provided by two other satellites (ENVISAT and TOPEX) are used for validations. To assess the improvement brought in the model predictions by the assimilation scheme, a comparison has been performed between the model results with and without assimilation. The statistical parameters evaluated are: bias, mean absolute error, RMS error, scatter index, correlation coefficient and symmetric slope. The results show that the data assimilation procedure induces a significant improvement of the statistical parameters (lower values for bias, errors and scatter index and values closer to the unity of the correlation coefficient and for the symmetric slope). It was found also that an important factor in improving the wave predictions is represented by the value of the correlation length accounted for the Hs prediction errors (Lmax). Previous studies indicate for this length a value around four degrees in the vicinity of 45 degrees latitude (which corresponds also to the basin of the Black Sea). This value was first considered in the assimilation technique. On the other hand, taking also into account the fact that in the Black Sea the wind-sea waves are dominant, lower values for the parameter Lmax were tested as well and it seems that the most appropriate value for this parameter is between three and four degrees

  4. Arctic sea ice a major determinant in Mandt's black guillemot movement and distribution during non-breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoky, G.J.; Douglas, David C.; Stenhouse, I. J.

    2016-01-01

    Mandt's black guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandtii) is one of the few seabirds associated in all seasons with Arctic sea ice, a habitat that is changing rapidly. Recent decreases in summer ice have reduced breeding success and colony size of this species in Arctic Alaska. Little is known about the species' movements and distribution during the nine month non-breeding period (September–May), when changes in sea ice extent and composition are also occurring and predicted to continue. To examine bird movements and the seasonal role of sea ice to non-breeding Mandt's black guillemots, we deployed and recovered (n = 45) geolocators on individuals at a breeding colony in Arctic Alaska during 2011–2015. Black guillemots moved north to the marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas immediately after breeding, moved south to the Bering Sea during freeze-up in December, and wintered in the Bering Sea January–April. Most birds occupied the MIZ in regions averaging 30–60% sea ice concentration, with little seasonal variation. Birds regularly roosted on ice in all seasons averaging 5 h d−1, primarily at night. By using the MIZ, with its roosting opportunities and associated prey, black guillemots can remain in the Arctic during winter when littoral waters are completely covered by ice.

  5. Disposal of solid waste in Istanbul and along the Black Sea coast of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkun, Mehmet; Aras, Egemen; Nemlioglu, Semih

    2005-01-01

    The increasing amount of solid waste arising from municipalities and other sources and its consequent disposal has been one of the major environmental problems in Turkey. Istanbul is a metropolitan city with a current population of around 14 million, and produces about 9000 ton of solid waste every day. The waste composition for Istanbul has changed markedly from 1981 to 1996 with large decreases in waste density, much of which is related to decreased amounts of ash collected in winter. In recent years, the Istanbul region has implemented a new solid waste management system with transfer stations, sanitary landfills, and methane recovery, which has led to major improvements. In the Black Sea region of Turkey, most of the municipal and industrial solid wastes, mixed with hospital and hazardous wastes, are dumped on the nearest lowlands and river valleys or into the sea. The impact of riverside and seashore dumping of solid wastes adds significantly to problems arising from sewage and industry on the Black Sea coast. Appropriate integrated solid waste management systems are needed here as well; however, they have been more difficult to implement than in Istanbul because of more difficult topography, weaker administrative structures, and the lower incomes of the inhabitants

  6. Optical properties of sea ice doped with black carbon – an experimental and radiative-transfer modelling comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiative-transfer calculations of the light reflectivity and extinction coefficient in laboratory-generated sea ice doped with and without black carbon demonstrate that the radiative-transfer model TUV-snow can be used to predict the light reflectance and extinction coefficient as a function of wavelength. The sea ice is representative of first-year sea ice containing typical amounts of black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities. The experiments give confidence in the application of the model to predict albedo of other sea ice fabrics. Sea ices,  ∼  30 cm thick, were generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator ( ∼  2000 L tanks with scattering cross sections measured between 0.012 and 0.032 m2 kg−1 for four ices. Sea ices were generated with and without  ∼  5 cm upper layers containing particulate black carbon. Nadir reflectances between 0.60 and 0.78 were measured along with extinction coefficients of 0.1 to 0.03 cm−1 (e-folding depths of 10–30 cm at a wavelength of 500 nm. Values were measured between light wavelengths of 350 and 650 nm. The sea ices generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator were found to be representative of natural sea ices. Particulate black carbon at mass ratios of  ∼  75,  ∼  150 and  ∼  300 ng g−1 in a 5 cm ice layer lowers the albedo to 97, 90 and 79 % of the reflectivity of an undoped clean sea ice (at a wavelength of 500 nm.

  7. Optical properties of sea ice doped with black carbon - an experimental and radiative-transfer modelling comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Amelia A.; Lamare, Maxim L.; King, Martin D.

    2017-12-01

    Radiative-transfer calculations of the light reflectivity and extinction coefficient in laboratory-generated sea ice doped with and without black carbon demonstrate that the radiative-transfer model TUV-snow can be used to predict the light reflectance and extinction coefficient as a function of wavelength. The sea ice is representative of first-year sea ice containing typical amounts of black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities. The experiments give confidence in the application of the model to predict albedo of other sea ice fabrics. Sea ices, ˜ 30 cm thick, were generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator ( ˜ 2000 L tanks) with scattering cross sections measured between 0.012 and 0.032 m2 kg-1 for four ices. Sea ices were generated with and without ˜ 5 cm upper layers containing particulate black carbon. Nadir reflectances between 0.60 and 0.78 were measured along with extinction coefficients of 0.1 to 0.03 cm-1 (e-folding depths of 10-30 cm) at a wavelength of 500 nm. Values were measured between light wavelengths of 350 and 650 nm. The sea ices generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator were found to be representative of natural sea ices. Particulate black carbon at mass ratios of ˜ 75, ˜ 150 and ˜ 300 ng g-1 in a 5 cm ice layer lowers the albedo to 97, 90 and 79 % of the reflectivity of an undoped clean sea ice (at a wavelength of 500 nm).

  8. Do buoyant plumes enhance cross-shelf transport in the Black Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedakov, Roman; Zavialov, Peter; Izhitsky, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Like many inland seas, the Black Sea is exposed to massive continental discharges on the one hand and significant anthropogenic stresses, including pollution, on the other. It is, therefore, important to understand mechanisms of advection of continental water into the sea and factors that may influence transport of such water across shelf areas. In this study, we focus on the coastal segment of the Black Sea between the Feodosia Bay, which includes nature reserve and resort areas, and the Kerch Strait. The Sea of Azov outflow penetrates into the Black Sea through the latter, forming a plume of relatively fresh, light waters with elevated concentrations of suspended matter but also pollutants, especially hydrocarbons. This plume, which can be detected via satellite imagery of the region, extends on over 70 km from the Kerch Strait outfall along Crimea shore and reaches the Feodosia Bay, making that area the most polluted of the Crimea shoreline. In situ velocity measurements were conducted at a mooring station deployed in the area at the depth of 5 and 21.5 meters during the period 17th-23rd of May 2015. These data demonstrated high correlation of the wind stress with the cross-shore component of the velocity in the surface layer and anti-correlation with that in the bottom layer during the periods when a two-layered stratification of the water column due to the occurrence of the Azov plume was present, and lack of such correlation otherwise. In order to investigate whether the buoyant plume in the surface layer is capable of fortifying the wind-driven cross-shelf exchanges, we develop a dynamical model of current forming under the influence of wind tension, pressure gradient and Earth's rotation in a simple one- and a two- layer setups. Firstly, a 2D model was investigated that did not account Coriolis effect. Secondly, a 3D model with Coriolis effect was investigated. The main parameter of the problem is the eddy diffusivity coefficient, which we choose to be

  9. The Change in Black Sea Water Composition and Hydrology during Deglaciation from Multiproxy Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchilina, A.; Ryan, W. B. F.; McManus, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a reconstruction of changes in the water column from the last glacial into the early Holocene using stable isotope, 87Sr/86Sr, 14C, and trace element ratios from mollusks from the shelf area and ostracods from the basin of the Black Sea. The stable isotope record is compared to a thoroughly U/Th dated terrestrial stable isotope record of a nearby cave, Sofular cave in northwestern Turkey. The combination of deep, surface, and terrestrial signals gives valuable insight towards the behavior of the lake water during the deglaciation in multiple dimensions, specifically the water column stratification and hydrological dynamics. The comparison of the stable isotope records of two independent proxies allows to make inferences on the changes in the 14C reservoir of the Black Sea-Lake. Results show that during the glacial period, water from the Black Sea-Lake was outflowing to the Sea of Marmara but the ventilation of the water column was weak as old 14C was not removed and allowed to accumulate giving the lake a large 14C reservoir age. A deglacial pulse of meltwater released from the Eurasian Fennoscandian pro-glacial lakes increased ventilation of the water column. This is seen in lighter δ18O and a spike in radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr in both deep and shallow parts of the water column. The dynamic ventilation and outflow of water into the Sea of Marmara continued until the onset of the Bolling/Allerod as the radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr was almost completely flushed out in a couple hundred years time. During the Bolling/Allerod and Preboreal warming, δ18O got heavier whereas the 87Sr/86Sr stayed constant and the 14C again accumulated and contributed to an older reservoir age. The Younger Dryas period, sandwiched in between the two warming periods, shows a return to glacial conditions in the δ13C and that the water outflowed to the Sea of Marmara as the δ18O only showed a slight change towards a more heavy value.

  10. Multiscale wind cycles and current pulses at the Black Sea eastern boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Vasiliy; Moskalenko, Lidija; Piotoukh, Vladimir; Zatsepin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The goal of the research is to examine meteorological descriptive elements, sea-water properties, regional hydrodynamics and energy conversion fluxes in order to study sea responses to the local and far-field weather system. The Black Sea is situated in the chain of internal basins between the North Atlantic and Central Asia deserts in the marginal interaction zone and, accordingly, is under the influence of the Azores and Siberian anticyclones, Arctic cold-air surges and subtropical desert belt to the south. The analysis is based on the data of modern oceanographic measuring network "Hydro-physical Polygon" of the Institute of oceanology, using contact and remote sensing methods, weather stations around the Black Sea coasts, including long-term (1938-2014) measurements at the Gelendzhik weather station. Various satellite and Reanalysis databases are used. Currently, there are three long-time measuring moored stations (each contains ADCP and thermistor chain) and scanning profiling system "Akvalog". Hydrological sections and field surveys using towed ADCP and CTD are performed on a regular basis. The data are accumulated in the coastal archive which allows calibration of satellite measurements and testing results of numerical modeling. Data processing includes data sets preparation, editing, time series statistical calculations using histograms, progressive vector diagrams, traditional Fourier spectral analysis including auto- and cross spectra, auto and mutual wavelet diagrams, moving spectrograms, vector data methods using rotary components, spectral invariants, empirical modes, hodograph and pre-specified spectrum representations on the basis of stochastic models with imposed dynamical assumptions. Due to the intermittent nature of the time rows, spectral representation is misleading, often. In order to identify the individual evolving dynamical phenomenon, typical background (seasonal) three-dimensional structures of the hydrological field, as well as

  11. First Indo-Pacific fish species from the Black Sea coast of Turkey: Shrimp scad Alepes djedaba (Forsskål, 1775 (Carangidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Turan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One specimen of shrimp scad Alepes djedaba (Forsskål, 1775 was caught by using fish net at a depth of 30 m on 11 October 2017 from Sinop Bay, the West Black Sea. With the present study, A. djedaba is first lessepsian fish species in the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The migration of IndoPacific species to the Black Sea indicate that climate change is getting an important issue both for marine biodiversity and fisheries in the Black Sea.

  12. Regional Responses to Black Carbon Aerosols: The Importance of Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Scott, A. A.; Pradal, M.-A.; Seviour, W. J. M.; Waugh, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of modern black carbon aerosols on climate via their changes in radiative balance is studied using a coupled model where sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are allowed to vary and an atmosphere-only version of the same model where SSTs are held fixed. Allowing the ocean to respond is shown to have a profound impact on the pattern of temperature change. Particularly, large impacts are found in the North Pacific (which cools by up to 1 K in the coupled model) and in north central Asia (which warms in the coupled simulation and cools in the fixed SST simulation). Neither set of experiments shows large changes in surface temperatures in the Southeast Asian region where the atmospheric burden of black carbon is highest. These results are related to the stabilization of the atmosphere and changes in oceanic heat transport. Over the North Pacific, atmospheric stabilization results in an increase in stratiform clouds. The resulting shading reduces evaporation, freshening the surface layer of the ocean and reducing the inflow of warm subtropical waters. Over the land, a delicate balance between greater atmospheric absorption, shading of the surface and changes in latent cooling of the surface helps to determine whether warming or cooling is seen. Our results emphasize the importance of coupling in determining the response of the climate system to black carbon and suggest that black carbon may play an important role in modulating climate change over the North Pacific.

  13. Environmental policy in the north-eastern sector of the Black sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, Ruben; Godin, Evgenii; Kosyan, Alisa

    2015-04-01

    Active economic development of the Black Sea East coastal zone has started in the beginning of 20-th century. Those days the pebble taken from beaches was used for construction of buildings, rail and motor roads. Active consumption of pebble from the beaches and river banks had caused a sharp increase of sea shores abrasion and washout rate, number of landslides had also increased. Contemporary Caucasian shores of Black Sea are being developed under increasing man-caused load. Favorable natural conditions, their variety and uniqueness determine the exceptional role of these shores as very important recreational zone of Russian South. Waste urbanized areas, agricultural territories and National Parks are located in immediate neighborhood with the sea. Important industrial facilities and federal and international communi- cations, including major seaports are located in the shore zone. At present time major gas and oil transportation facilities are commissioned and being constructed in the area. Due to the change of geopolitical situation the Russian shoreline had significantly reduced in comparison with Soviet period, especially in most developed regions. Large resort complexes in Georgia, Crimea and Baltic area were lost. Russia had also lost many major seaports that, under conditions of structural change of economy and export growth, had caused the necessity of building new industrial facilities in the Black Sea coastal zone, and, consequently, had stimulated active human invasion into natural coastal processes. At the time being, a major part (three hundred nine kilometers) of Black Sea coast within Russian sector is subject to abrasion and landslide processes. Abrasion process and beaches wash-out, landslides cause destruction of industrial and transport facilities, living and public buildings, resort complexes and valuable agricultural areas. In this light, the challenge of estimation of effective methods of shores protection against wave-induced erosion

  14. Southern Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black Sea level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Southern Dobrogea is a typical geologic platform unit, placed in the south-eastern part of Romania, with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. It is bordered to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault and by the Black Sea to the east. A regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system divides the Southern Dobrogea structure in several tectonic blocks. Four drinking water sources have been identified: surface water, phreatic water, medium depth Sarmatian aquifer, and deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer. Surface water sources are represented by several springs emerged from the base of the loess cliff, and a few small rivers, barred by coastal beaches. The phreatic aquifer develops at the base of the loess deposits, on the impervious red clay, overlapping the Sarmatian limestones. The medium depth aquifer is located in the altered and karstified Sarmatian limestones, and discharges into the Black Sea. The Sarmatian aquifer is unconfined where covered by silty loess deposits, and locally confined, where capped by clayey loess deposits. The aquifer is supplied from the Pre-Balkan Plateau. The Deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer, located in the limestone and dolomite deposits, is generally confined and affected by the regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system. In the south-eastern Dobrogea, the deep aquifer complex is separated from the Sarmatian aquifer by a Senonian aquitard (chalk and marls). The natural boundary of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault. The piezometric heads show that the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is supplied from the Bulgarian territory, where the Upper Jurassic deposits crop out. The aquifer discharges into the Black Sea to the east and into Lake Siutghiol to the northeast. The cyclic Upper Quaternary climate changes induced drastic remodeling of the Black Sea level and the corresponding shorelines. During the Last Glacial

  15. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to recent DSDP Leg 42B Cores from the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baak, Christiaan G. C.; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Palcu, Dan V.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the Late Neogene, the Black Sea experienced large paleoenvironmental changes, switching between (anoxic) marine conditions when connected to the Mediterranean Sea and (oxic) freshwater conditions at times of isolation. We create a magnetostratigraphic time frame for three sites drilled

  16. Including granulometric sediment coastal data composition into the Black Sea GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Elena; Khaliulin, Alexey; Krylenko, Marina; Krylenko, Viacheslav; Zodiatis, George; Nikolaidis, Marios; Nikolaidis, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The module structure of the Black Sea GIS allows the increasing of its functionality, including new data types and defining new procedures accessing them, their visualization and integration with existing data by their conjoint processing and representation. The Black Sea GIS is released as free software; Mapserver is used as a mapping service; MySQL DBMS works with relational data. A new additional feature provided, is the ability of including coastal data obtained in SB SIO RAS. The data represent granulometric composition of the Anapa bay-bar sediments. The Anapa bay-bar is an accumulative sand form (about 50 km long) located on the northwest Russian Black Sea coast. The entire bay-bar and especially its southern part with sand beaches 50-200 m wide is intensively used in recreation. This work is based on the results of field studies of 2010-2014 in the southern part of the Anapa bay-bar researched by scientists of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS. Since the shore under consideration has no clearly pronounced reference points, "virtual" points located within 1 km distance from each other were selected. Transversal profiles cross these points. The granulometric composition was studied along with 45 profiles. The samples taken in every profile were from the most characteristic morphological parts of the beach. In this study we used shoreline zone samples. Twenty one granule fractions (mm) were separated in the laboratory. The module which processes coastal data allows to select coastal data based on territory/region and granulometric sediment composition. Also, it allows to visualize coastal maps with user-selected features combined with other GIS data.

  17. Application of allozyme markers for screening of turbot populations along Western Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENELIN NIKOLOV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Data for electrophoretic pattern of 26 loci, resolved for the 8 protein systems (7- enzyme and 1-non-enzyme assayed were used to investigate population structure of turbot along the Bulgarian and Romanian Black Sea coasts using genetic diversity measures. Seventeen loci were polymorphic in all populations and a total of 34 alleles were identified. Four types of tissue: muscle, retina, plasma and haemoglobin were analyzed. The percentage of polymorphic loci was high (65.38% within populations. A low level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected, based on the Shannon’s information index (0.446-0.448 and the coefficient of genetic differentiation between populations (FST =0.014. The overall mean of within-population inbreeding estimate (FIS was (-0.209 and demonstrated low level of inbreeding. The genetic distance (DNei between the populations was low and vary between 0.003 and 0.014. Genetic distances among turbot populations were positively correlated with geographic distances (r = 0.474, but the association was not significant according to the Mantel test (p=0.651 and showed a lack of correlation between genetic distance and the geographic location of populations. Results identified one genetic stock with sufficient gene flow between all the three sites to prevent genetic differentiation from occurring. Only 1.4% of the genetic variation was observed among populations. Results revealed that adopting a single stock model and regional shared management could probably be appropriate for sustainable long-term use of turbot along western Black Sea coast. Determination of the contemporary state of the population distribution will be the prerequisite for determination of adequate measures for exploitation and protection of the existing turbot populations along western Black Sea coast.

  18. Microbial plankton communities in the coastal southeastern Black Sea: biomass, composition and trophic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulgen Aytan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We investigated biomass and composition of the pico-, nano- and microplankton communities in a coastal station of the southeastern Black Sea during 2011. We also examined trophic interactions within these communities from size-fractionated dilution experiments in February, June and December. Autotrophic and heterotrophic biomasses showed similar seasonal trends, with a peak in June, but heterotrophs dominated throughout the year. Autotrophic biomass was mainly comprised by nanoflagellates and diatoms in the first half of the year, and by dinoflagellates and Synechococcus spp. in the second half. Heterotrophic biomass was mostly dominated by heterotrophic bacteria, followed by nanoflagellates and microzooplankton. Dilution experiments suggest that nano- and microzooplankton were significant consumers of autotrophs and heterotrophic bacteria. More than 100% of bacterial production was consumed by grazers in all experiments, while 46%, 21% and 30% of daily primary production were consumed in February, June and December, respectively. In February, autotrophs were the main carbon source, but in December, it was heterotrophic bacteria. An intermediate situation was observed in June, with similar carbon flows from autotrophs and heterotrophic bacteria. Size-fraction dilution experiments suggested that heterotrophic nanoflagellates are an important link between the high heterotrophic bacterial biomass and microzooplankton. In summary, these results indicate that nano- and microzooplankton were responsible for comprising a significant fraction of total microbial plankton biomass, standing stocks, growth and grazing processes. This suggests that in 2011, the microbial food web was an important compartment of the planktonic food web in the coastal southeastern Black Sea. Keywords: Phytoplankton, Microzooplankton, Carbon biomass, Microbial food web, Grazing, Black Sea

  19. IR-BASED SATELLITE PRODUCTS FOR THE MONITORING OF ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR OVER THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELEA LILIANA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of precipitable water (TPW in the atmospheric column is one of the important information used weather forecasting. Some of the studies involving the use of TPW relate to issues like lightning warning system in airports, tornadic events, data assimilation in numerical weather prediction models for short-range forecast, TPW associated with intense rain episodes. Most of the available studies on TPW focus on properties and products at global scale, with the drawback that regional characteristics – due to local processes acting as modulating factors - may be lost. For the Black Sea area, studies on the climatological features of atmospheric moisture are available from sparse or not readily available observational databases or from global reanalysis. These studies show that, although a basin of relatively small dimensions, the Black Sea presents features that may significantly impact on the atmospheric circulation and its general characteristics. Satellite observations provide new opportunities for extending the knowledge on this area and for monitoring atmospheric properties at various scales. In particular, observations in infrared (IR spectrum are suitable for studies on small-scale basins, due to the finer spatial sampling and reliable information in the coastal areas. As a first step toward the characterization of atmospheric moisture over the Black Sea from satellite-based information, we investigate three datasets of IR-based products which contain information on the total amount of moisture and on its vertical distribution, available in the area of interest. The aim is to provide a comparison of these data with regard to main climatological features of moisture in this area and to highlight particular strengths and limits of each of them, which may be helpful in the choice of the most suitable dataset for a certain application.

  20. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin from R/Vs GORIZONT and OKEANOGRAF, 1960 - 1969 (NODC Accession 0074609)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin of the Mediterranean...

  1. Growth rate and age distribution of deep-sea black corals in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.G.; Roark, E.B.; Buster, N.A.; Ross, Steve W.

    2011-01-01

    Black corals (order Antipatharia) are important long-lived, habitat-forming, sessile, benthic suspension feeders that are found in all oceans and are usually found in water depths greater than 30 m. Deep-water black corals are some of the slowest-growing, longest-lived deep-sea corals known. Previous age dating of a limited number of black coral samples in the Gulf of Mexico focused on extrapolated ages and growth rates based on skeletal 210Pb dating. Our results greatly expand the age and growth rate data of black corals from the Gulf of Mexico. Radiocarbon analysis of the oldest Leiopathes sp. specimen from the upper De Soto Slope at 300 m water depth indicates that these animals have been growing continuously for at least the last 2 millennia, with growth rates ranging from 8 to 22 µm yr–1. Visual growth ring counts based on scanning electron microscopy images were in good agreement with the 14C-derived ages, suggestive of annual ring formation. The presence of bomb-derived 14C in the outermost samples confirms sinking particulate organic matter as the dominant carbon source and suggests a link between the deep-sea and surface ocean. There was a high degree of reproducibility found between multiple discs cut from the base of each specimen, as well as within duplicate subsamples. Robust 14C-derived chronologies and known surface ocean 14C reservoir age constraints in the Gulf of Mexico provided reliable calendar ages with future application to the development of proxy records.

  2. Maturity and Fecundity of Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias L., 1758) in the Eastern Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRHAN, Sefa Ayhan; SEYHAN, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    The maturity and fecundity of Squalus acanthias spiny dogfish sampled from the south-eastern Black Sea were studied. Age and length at 50% maturity were 10.49 years and 87.57 cm for males, and 11.99 years and 102.97 cm for females, respectively. Mean biennial fecundity was 19.4 eggs and 12.9 pups. A linear relationship between fecundities and length was found: Fe = 0.09 x TLp + 2.12 (r = 0.5) for pups and Fo = 0.27 x TLp - 21.59 (r = 0.7) for eggs.

  3. Calculations of hydrophysical fields in the coastal regions of the Black Sea with high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, N.

    2017-09-01

    Numerical experiments have been carried out using a hydrodynamical model with nonlinear equations of motion and heat and salt advection to reconstruct the fields of hydrophysical parameters in the coastal regions of the Black Sea taking into account the real atmospheric forcing and river discharges for the winter and summer seasons of 2006. A higher spatial resolution allowed to get a detailed meso- and submesoscale structure of hydrophysical fields in the upper and deep layers of the Southern Coast of Crimea and the north-western shelf and to obtain quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the eddies and jets more accurately in comparison with previous calculations.

  4. Radioactivity in the Romanian Black Sea sector one decade after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, A.S.; Patrascu, V.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring in the marine environment was imposed by the increasing development of nuclear energetics and its world-wide use in many different activities. Spatial and temporal monitoring of marine radioactivity along the Romanian Black Sea shore has been systematically performed by the Romanian Marine Research Institute (RMRI), in close co-operation with the Research Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity (RLER) belonging to the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (until 1990) and to the Research Institute for Environmental Engineering (REIE) afterwards, since 1991

  5. Transport and geographical position of the big and average cities of the Ukrainian Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Shulevskyi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There were features of the transport and geographical position of large and average cities of the Ukrainian Black Sea region described in the article. The situation of cities in relation to the existing network of main types of transport connections like road, rail, water, aviation was analyzed. The location of cities in relation to regional centers, the regional center of Odessa, the capital of the country and the state border were characterized. The situation of cities in relation to international transport corridors and the international E-road network was examined. The cities with the most and least favorable transport and geographical location in the region were highlighted.

  6. Determination of particles concentration in Black Sea waters from spectral beam attenuation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchemkina, E. N.; Latushkin, A. A.; Lee, M. E.

    2017-11-01

    The methods of determination of concentration and scattering by suspended particles in seawater are compared. The methods considered include gravimetric measurements of the mass concentration of suspended matter, empirical and analytical calculations based on measurements of the light beam attenuation coefficient (BAC) in 4 spectral bands, calculation of backscattering by particles using satellite measurements in the visible spectral range. The data were obtained in two cruises of the R/V "Professor Vodyanitsky" in the deep-water part of the Black Sea in July and October 2016., Spatial distribution of scattering by marine particles according to satellite data is in good agreement with the contact measurements.

  7. Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in mosses in the Black Sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Bulut, A.M.; Gueven, K.C.; Sauer, E.

    1993-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) activity levels in mosses from the Black Sea area, northern Turkey, are reported following the Chernobyl accident during the period of 1989-1991. The cesium radionuclides were detected and measured in all the samples but other long-lived radionuclides such as 144 Ce and 106 Ru were measured in only one sample. The present data support the fact that radioactivity monitoring in mosses can be useful to determine the lasting effect of radioactive contamination. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  8. Modelling the coastal processes at the mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen; Zanopol, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    The mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea represent the main southern entrance in the seventh Pan European transportation corridor that links the Black and the Northern seas and is the most important inland navigable waterway in Europe. For this reason the coastal area close to the Danube Delta is subjected to high navigation traffic, which is crucially affected by the strong processes mainly induced by the interactions between the waves and the currents generated by the Danube River outflow. From this perspective, the objective of the present work is to develop a computational framework based on numerical models able to evaluate properly the effects of these interactions and to provide reliable predictions concerning the wave and current conditions corresponding to various environmental patterns. Following this target, a wave modelling system, SWAN based, was implemented in the entire basin of the Black Sea and focused on the coastal sector at the entrance of the Danube Delta. As a next step of the modelling process, SWAN simulations were performed at two different computational levels, considering in parallel the situations without and with the current fields for the main environmental conditions characteristic to the target area. The first level covers the entire coastal area at the mouths of the Danube River and has a resolution in the geographical space of 500m. The second is a computational domain with the resolution of 50m that is focused on the Sulina channel, which is the main navigation gate at the mouths of the Danube River. The results show that the presence of the currents induces relevant enhancements in terms of significant wave heights. Additionally, the Benjamin Feir index (BFI) was also evaluated. This is a spectral shape parameter that is related to the kurtosis of the distribution and indicates the risk of the freak wave occurrence. The enhanced values for BFI in the case when the current fields are considered in the modelling process

  9. Analysis of Complex Marine Hazards on the Romanian Black Sea Shelf Using Combined Geophysical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoila, I. V.; Radulescu, V.; Moise, G.; Diaconu, A.; Radulescu, R.

    2017-12-01

    Combined geophysical acquisition technologies including High Resolution 2D Seismic (HR2D), Multi-Beam Echo-Sounding (MBES), Sub-Bottom Profiling (SBP) and Magnetometry were used in the Western Black Sea (offshore Romania) to identify possible geohazards, such as gas escaping surface sediments and tectonic hazard areas up to 1 km below the seafloor. The National Project was funded by the Research and Innovation Ministry of Romania, and has taken place over 1.5 years with the purpose of creating risk maps for the surveyed pilot area. Using an array of geophysical methods and creating a workflow to identify geohazard susceptible areas on the Romanian Black Sea continental shelf is important and beneficial for future research projects. The SBP and MBES data show disturbed areas that can be interpreted as gas escapes on the surface of the seafloor, and some escapes were confirmed on the HR2D profiles. Shallow gas indicators like gas chimneys and acoustic blanking are usually delimited by vertical, sub-vertical and/or quasi-horizontal faults that mark possible hazard areas on shallow sedimentary sections. Interpreted seismic profiles show three main markers: one delimiting the Pliocene-Quaternary boundary and two for the Miocene (Upper and Lower). Vertical and quasi-horizontal faults are characteristic for the Upper Miocene, while the Lower Miocene has NW-SE horizontal faults. Faults and possible hazard areas were marked on seismic sections and were further correlated with the MBES, SBP, Magnetometry and previously recorded data, such as earthquake epicenters scattered offshore in the Western Black Sea. The main fault systems likely to cause those earthquakes also aid the migration of gas if the faults are not sealed. We observed that the gas escapes were correlated with faults described on the recent seismic profiles. Mapping hazard areas will have an important contribution to better understand the recent evolution of the Western Black Sea basin but also for projecting

  10. Depletion of barium and radium-226 in Black Sea surface waters over the past thirty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenison Falkner, K.K.; Edmond, J.M.; O'Neill, D.J.; Todd, J.F.; Moore, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nearly landlocked waters of the Black Sea support a valuable fishery, but are also particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance. Here we use dissolved barium and radium-226 as tracers, to investigate the biogeochemical health of the sea. Both elements are brought to surface waters by vertical mixing of deeper, enriched waters, and by rivers; these inputs should ordinarily be balanced by outflow of surface waters at the Bosphorus, and by biologically mediated removal of 226 Ra-bearing barite. We show, however, that surface-water inventories have been substantially depleted over the past few decades: recent (1988-89) barium concentrations were 1.6 times lower than in 1958 and 1967. These observations suggest that steady-state cycling of these elements has been perturbed by increased primary productivity, presumably fuelled by nutrients from industry and agricultural runoff, and to a lesser extent by decreased fluvial sediment loads owing to extensive impoundment of rivers in the region. (author)

  11. Coastal upwelling in the Gelendzhik area of the Black Sea: Effect of wind and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrova, K. P.; Zatsepin, A. G.; Myslenkov, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Long series data of a thermistor chain in the Black Sea coastal zone near Gelendzhik were analyzed. A thermistor chain installed 1 km offshore and at a depth of 22 m. There are full and incomplete upwelling events observed. The study of upwelling genesis based on: wind speed data from the NCEP/CFSR reanalysis and Gelendzhik weather station, velocity and direction of coastal currents measured by ADCP profiler moored on the bottom near the thermistor chain. Over the whole observation period (warm seasons of 2013-2015), more than 40 events of upwelling were registered four of them were full upwellings, when presence of under-thermocline water was observed near the sea surface. For every upwelling event, conditions prior to the changes in thermic structure, were analyzed. It is found that full upwelling generally occur under synergistic wind and current forcing. Fairly strong forcing of one of these factors is sufficient for partial upwelling to occur.

  12. Towards an Integrated Management and Planning in the Romanian Black Sea Coastal Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Catalin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic and “natural” systems are, to a variable extent, now locked in a coevolutionary path, characterized by a joint determinism and complex feedback effects. The management of the coastal zones, including also modeling and assessment measures, should, be reoriented over time to properly capture the causes and consequences of the joint system changes as manifested in the coastal areas. This will require a collaborative work among a range of economical, environmental and social science disciplines. The pressures and the high instability are similar between the coast and the sea, in both senses (from the land to the sea and also from the sea to the land, being given by various factors as the strong winds, waves, storms, open sea, currents, as well well also the variability of temperatures, salinity, density, due to the Danube impact, etc. The influence of the rivers discharging into the Black Sea is important, while the coastal erosion, flooding, urbanization, tourism, naval industry have an impact on the coast and the sea environment. The Marine Spatial Planning Directive is appropriate in Romania to put in practice the similar tools, and practical approach from the coast to the maritime space. This paper aims to represent an useful starting point in the management of the coastal zones for both natural and social science research that would be seeked (by a more integrated modelling and assessment process to better describe and understand the functioning of the ecosystems, that form the coastal interface, and in particular the filter effect is exerted on nutrients in response to the environmental pressures, both anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic - the climate change, land use/cover change, urbanization and effluent treatment from both point and non-point sources. For this it is necessary a broad analytical framework (rather than a specific model in which to set a more detailed analysis.

  13. Source identification of hydrocarbon contaminants and their transportation over the Zonguldak shelf, Turkish Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, S.; Alpar, B.

    2009-04-01

    Under great anthropogenic pressure due to the substantial freshwater input from the surrounding industrial and agricultural areas, especially central and middle-Eastern Europe, the Black Sea basin is ranked among the most ecologically threatened water bodies of the world. Oil levels are unacceptable in many coastal areas perilously close to polluted harbors and many river mouths; the places presenting the highest levels of bio-diversity and having a high socio-economic importance due to human use of coastal resources. There are about sixty sources of pollution which resulted in "hot spots" having disastrous impacts on sensitive marine and coastal areas and needing immediate priorities for action. Beyond such land-based sources, trans-boundary pollution sources from Black Sea riparian countries, heavy maritime traffic, particularly involving petroleum transports and fishing boats, and the improper disposal of ballast and bilge waters and solid waste are also important marine sources of pollution. Found in fossil fuels such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are generated by incomplete combustion of organic matter. In order to estimate their distribution in sediment and their sources, they were monitored from the bottom samples offshore the Zonguldak industry region, one of the most polluted spots in the Turkish Black Sea. There the budget of pollutants via rivers is not precisely known due to an evident lack of data on chemical and granulometric composition of the river runoff and their fluxes. Therefore the marine sediments, essential components of marine ecosystems, are very important in our estimating the degree of the damage given to the ecosystem by such inputs. Realization of the sources and transport of these contaminants will be a critical tool for future management of the Zonguldak industry region and its watershed. The sea bottom in study area is composed of mainly sand and silt mixtures with small amount of clay. Geochemical analyses have shown that oil

  14. Assessment of the Wave Energy in the Black Sea Based on a 15-Year Hindcast with Data Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rusu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal target of the present work is to assess the wave energy potential in the Black Sea, identifying also some relevant energetic features and possible patterns. A wave prediction system based on the Simulating Waves Nearshore model (SWAN has been implemented and intensively tested in the entire sea basin. Moreover, considering an optimal interpolation technique, an assimilation scheme of the satellite data has been developed, leading to a visible improvement of the wave model predictions in terms of significant wave heights and, consequently, also in terms of wave power. Using this wave prediction system with data assimilation, simulations have been performed for a 15-year period (1999–2013. Considering the results of this 15-year wave hindcast, an analysis of the wave energy conditions in the basin of the Black Sea has been carried out. This provided a more comprehensive picture concerning the wave energy patterns in the coastal environment of the Black Sea focused on the average wave conditions that might be expected in this sea. Following the results presented, it can be concluded that the wave energy extraction in the Black Sea can become an issue of interest, especially from the perspective of the hybrid solutions.

  15. BIO ARGO floats: tools for operational monitoring of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Slabakova, Violeta; Peneva, Elisaveta; Stanev, Emil

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of ecological status in the context of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the physical and biogeochemical processes that determine the functioning of marine ecosystems. One of the main challenges however is the need of data with frequency relevant to the spatial and temporal scales of the ecological processes. The majority of in situ observations that are commonly used for ecological monitoring of the Black Sea are generally based on near-shore monitoring programs or irregular oceanographic cruises that provide either non-synoptic, coarse resolution realizations of large scale processes or detailed, but time and site specific snapshots of local features. These gaps can be filled by two independent sources: satellite observation and profiling floats. In fact satellite ocean color sensors allows for determination at synoptic scale of water quality parameters through its absorption properties. However the satellite ocean color methods have a number of limitations such as: measurements can only be made during daylight hours; require cloud-free conditions and are sensitive to atmospheric aerosols; provide information only for the upper layer of the ocean (approximately the depth of 10% incident light); algorithms developed for global applications are a source of large uncertainties in the marginal seas and costal areas. These constrains of the optical remote sensing observations can be avoided by using miniature biogeochemical sensors and autonomous platforms that offer remarkable perspectives for observing the "biological" ocean, notably at critical spatiotemporal scales which have been out of reach until recently (Claustre et al., 2010). In the frame of "E-AIMS: Euro-Argo Improvements for the GMES marine Service" 7 EC FP project two Bio Argo floats were deployed in the Black Sea. Beside the traditionally CTD the floats were equipped with biogeochemical

  16. Sublacustrine river valley in the shelf zone of the Black Sea parallel to the Bulgarian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisinger, A.; Aslanian, S.; Beigelbeck, R.; Heinitz, W.-D.

    2009-04-01

    The considered sublacustrine river valley is situated in the shelf zone of the Black Sea. It runs in parallel to the Bulgarian coast, was formed in the time period of the Younger Dryas (Preisinger et al., 2005), and features an inclination of about 0.5 m/km. An about 200 km long sediment wall separates the approximately 10 km broad river valley from the outside shelf zone. This wall was generated during the Older Dryas until the beginning of the Younger Dryas. Its shape was formed by transportation of water and sediment from the Strait of Kerch by a circulating rim current in the Black Sea and water as well as sediment flow of the Danube in direction to the Bosporus. New investigations of the sediments of this river valley were performed by utilizing a Sediment Echo Sounder (SES 2000). This Echo Sounder is a parametric sub-bottom profiler enabling a high resolution sub-bottom analyses. It is capable of penetrating sea beds up to more than 50 m of water depth. The received echo data are real-time processed. The signal amplitudes are valuated in context to a logarithmic scale and graphically visualized by means of a colorized echogram utilizing false colours ranging from red for a high to blue representing a low signal (W.-D. Heinitz et al., 1998). The highest signal (red) is given by the acoustic impedance of the boundary between sea water and river sediment. The echograms of the river valley depict spatially isolated (red) high-signal peaks, which are periodically repeated in vertical direction between the sediment surface and the bottom of the valley. The number of these high-signal parts increase with an increasing valley depth. Studying of the distribution of these peaks allows to draw conclusions regarding the content and composition of the sediment. This prediction of the sediment composition obtained by means of the SES 2000 was successfully verified by analyzing a gravity core taken near Nos Maslen (at 44 m water depth) with a particular focus on the water

  17. Separating contributions from natural and anthropogenic sources in atmospheric methane from the Black Sea region, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, Stela; Pendall, Elise; Miller, John B.; Tans, Pieter P.; Dlugokencky, Ed; White, James W.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Danube Delta-Black Sea region of Romania is an important wetland, and this preliminary study evaluates the significance of this region as a source of atmospheric CH 4 . Measurements of the mixing ratio and δ 13 C in CH 4 are reported from air and water samples collected at eight sites in the Danube Delta. High mixing ratios of CH 4 were found in air (2500-14,000 ppb) and dissolved in water samples (∼1-10 μmol L -1 ), demonstrating that the Danube Delta is an important natural source of CH 4 . The intercepts on Keeling plots of about -62 per mille show that the main source of CH 4 in this region is microbial, probably resulting primarily from acetate fermentation. Atmospheric CH 4 and CO data from the NOAA/ESRL (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory) were used to make a preliminary estimate of biogenic CH 4 at the Black Sea sampling site at Constanta (BSC). These data were used to calculate ratios of CH 4 /CO in air samples, and using an assumed CH 4 /CO anthropogenic emissions ratio of 0.6, fossil fuel emissions at BSC were estimated. Biogenic CH 4 emissions were then estimated by a simple mass balance approach. Keeling plots of well-mixed air from the BSC site suggested a stronger wetland source in summer and a stronger fossil fuel source in winter

  18. Investigating Potential Strategies for Increasing Tourism Competiveness at the Black Sea Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Roxana Munteanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2009-2011 the tourism industry at the Black Sea shore experienced a significant downturn as a direct result of the global economic crisis and a shy growth in 2012-2013 period. In this context of difficult macroeconomic conditions and a hardly predictable number of tourists, the suppliers of tourism services need a constant revision of strategy in order to increase their competitiveness and adapt to external market conditions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that hotels managers in Mamaia resort, Romania, could adopt considering customers` expectations and hospitality industry best practices. In order to achieve this, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed considering several locations on the seaside in France, Italy, Spain and Turkey. Following this analysis, several strategies are drafted, such as: use of social media, creation of packaged deals, targeting the business segment and advertising by using the cultural and historical context of the location. Moreover, a short survey among social media users revealed some of the tourists` expectations regarding their holidays at the Romanian Black Sea shore, such as quality of accommodation facilities, personalized services and entertainment possibilities.

  19. Seafloor Litter in the Sinop İnceburun Coast in the Southern Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşah Öztekin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, abundance, distribution and type of seafloor litter were determined in the Sinop Inceburun coast which is the northeast point of Turkey. Study was carried out in October 2014 and proposed methods by Guidance on Monitoring of Marine Litter in European Seas’ published by European Marine Strategy Framework Directive Technical Subgroup on Marine Litter section of seafloor litter adopted the region. Seafloor litter density was found mean 808.74±215.02 pieces per km-2. The amount of litter was found maximum in 34 m depth. When results were evaluated in terms of the type of material plastic was found 95.35% and encountered litter items were mainly composed of plastic bags. The size groups were found generally small than 50 cm x 50 cm in the classification according to the size groups. The data obtained from the study demonstrate that the seafloor in the region have highly littered compared to the other studies in the Black Sea. Marine litter pollution is a growing problem in the world all of the world’s oceans and also the Black Sea. Necessary measurements must be taken to solve this problem.

  20. Microphallids in Gammarus insensibilis Stock, 1966 from a Black Sea lagoon: manipulation hypothesis going East?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinova, A; Mavrodieva, R S

    2005-09-01

    Patterns of parasite site selection, variation in infection parameters and interspecific associations are examined in the light of new field data on larval microphallids in Gammarus insensibilis from a Black Sea lagoon. These patterns are discussed in relation to the predictions for the manipulative effect of Microphallus papillorobustus and its relationships with the other microphallid species based on studies on the French Mediterranean coast. Four species were recovered: Maritrema subdolum, Microphallus hoffmanni, M. papillorobustus and Levinseniella propinqua. The latter two were located in both corporal and cephalic segments, but the selection of brain appeared stronger for L. propinqua. M. subdolum was the first colonizer of amphipod population recruits, and unequivocally the dominant species in the lagoon. There was a significant positive relationship between the parasite load of all 4 species. Concurrent infections were exceedingly frequent, and no departures from random association were detected. We found no evidence that the cerebral metacercariae of M. papillorobustus consistently predict the parasite load of any of the other species in the system and identify sources for heterogeneity that may account for the differences between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean system: habitat heterogeneity, bird diversity and host-parasite systems used to infer relationships between microphallids.

  1. Influence of macroalgae diversity on radionuclide and heavy metal accumulation in Bulgarian Black Sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonova, Tz.; Strezov, A.; Ivanov, D.; Stankov, D.

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclides and toxic metals in Black Sea green, brown and red macroalgae were investigated using Low-level Gamma Spectroscopy and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry AAS (FAAS, ETAAS). All algae samples were collected along the whole Bulgarian coast during the period 1996 - 2004. The obtained data show that radionuclide and metal concentrations depend on the macrophytes type and are higher in red Ceramium species. Tendencies in the concentration pollutants variations during the studied period are examined and all data give information about different macrophytic species ability to accumulate certain elements from one and the same sampling location The possibilities to use Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta algae phylums as bioindicators in marine environment are investigated. All obtained results show that use of macroalgae reduces the need of complex studies on chemical speciation of aquatic contaminants and makes algae valuable indicators for the seawater quality assessment. Higher levels are obtained at the northern part of the Black Sea due to seawater current circulation, originating from Danube, Dnyeper and Dnester river outflow and also at the southern part of the coast. All data show that there is no serious contamination along the Bulgarian coast

  2. Romania – an International Actor in the Context of the Extensive Region of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world of the 21st century, the international relations are presented as a mandatory element for maintaining the balance of world power and peace. Although the international actors, such as states or international organizations, are trying to establish as many relationships as possible of various kinds (economic, political, military through diplomacy, all over the world, at macro level, the international actors should first achieve a harmony or a general state of good understanding at the micro level, i.e. in a certain geographic region to which they belong. Romania, as an actor of international relations, has as own purpose, and also imposed upon accession to the European Union, maintaining the diplomatic relations in the region of Central-Eastern Europe, both with its neighbors and with the states in the proximity of the Black Sea region. The article aims at outlining better the role that they have, in the geopolitical context, the countries from the extensive region of the Black Sea, in the consolidation of economic and political cooperation relationships, which would lead to stability in the region.

  3. Education and Raising Awareness of Seismic Risk in the Black Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Balan, Stefan; Alcaz, Vasile; Trifonova, Petya; Uker, Nalan; Tataru, Dragos

    2014-05-01

    The Project "Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work)" ESNET has the intention to educate and raise awareness of seismic risk in the Black Sea Basin in four countries: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. The project is financed through "The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme", an EU operational programmes under European Neighborhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The programme is financed by ENPI. The participation of Turkey is financed by Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. It is implemented during the period 2007 - 2013. The project wants to contribute to the prevention of natural disasters generated by earthquakes in Black Sea Basin by developing a joint monitoring and intervention concept. All the countries involved in the project have their own studies, strategies, prevention and intervention systems in case of earthquakes, but until now there has not been an integrated approach so far in the Black Sea Basin. Given the cross-border character of seismic activity, it is necessary to have a cross-border approach on prevention, monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes. Main objectives : 1. The assessment of the disaster potential, with accent on the seismic risk degree and the earthquakes effects in the intervention area. For achieving the main objective is to have an accurate and up-to-date assessment of the potential of disasters provoked by earthquakes in the project area/regions. This assessment will be carried out at national level and will be used in designing the common concept/approach for dealing with earthquakes at regional level, thus ensuring the cross-border character of the objective. 2.To develop an integrated seismic monitoring and intervention concept. This integrated concept, built on the basis of the previous objective, will have a cross-border relevance and is at the core of the action. The monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes will be coordinated among the participating countries based on this, thus a

  4. Estimation of Sea Level variations with GPS/GLONASS-Reflectometry Technique: Case Study at Stationary Oceanographic Platform in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatov, G. A.; Padokhin, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work we study GNSS - reflectometry methods for estimation of sea level variations using a single GNSS-receiver, which are based on the multipath propagation effects (interference pattern in SNR of GNSS signals at small elevation angles) caused by the reflection of navigational signals from the sea surface. The measurements were carried out in the coastal zone of Black Sea at the Stationary Oceanographic Platform during one-week campaign in the summer 2017. GPS/GLONASS signals at two working frequencies of both systems were used to study sea level variations which almost doubled the amount of observations compared to GPS-only tide gauge. Moreover all the measurements were conducted with 4-antenna GNSS receiver providing the opportunity for different orientations of antennas including zenith and nadir looking ones as well as two horizontally oriented ones at different azimuths. As the reference we used data from co-located wire wave gauge which showed good correspondence of both datasets. Though tidal effects are not so pronounced for the Black Sea, the described experimental setup allowed to study the effects of sea surface roughness, driven by meteorological conditions (e.g. wind waves), as well as antenna directivity pattern effects on the observed interference patterns of GPS/GLONASS L1/L2 signals (relation of the main spectral peak to the noise power) and the quality of sea level estimations.

  5. Geochemistry and microbiology at gas hydrate and mud volcano sites in the black sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M.; Schmaljohann, R.; Wallmann, K.

    2003-04-01

    We present geochemical and microbiological results which were obtained from sediments at gas hydrate and mud volcano sites in the Sorokin Trough (northern Black Sea, south east of the Crimean peninsula) at water depths of about 1800 to 2100 m during the METEOR cruise 52-1. The surface near sub-bottom accumulations of gas hydrates (occuring at depths of several meters or less beneath the sea floor) in the Black Sea are associated with numerous mud volcanos. At stations we investigated gas hydrates occurred below 10 cm to 100 cm with a significant influence on the sediment biochemistry. Analyses revealed high methane concentrations, anoxic and sulfidic conditions, a steep sulfate gradient, carbonate precipitation, and high anaerobic methane oxidation rates. In proximity of the so called Odessa mud volcano one investigated sampling station showed maximum methane oxidation rates in the depth horizon of a firm 2 cm thick carbonate crust layer, adhered to by a bacterial mat. This observation is taken to indicate that the bacteria are causing or mediating the crust formation by their anaerobic methane oxidation metabolism. The station was further characterised by two layers of gas hydrate fragments and lenses below 1 m depth. A 2 to 4 cm thick carbonate crust with attached bacterial mat from a Yalta mud vulcano sample (2124 m water depth) was investigated under the scanning electron microscope. The stiff gelatinous mat showed a dense and morphologically uniform population of rod shaped bacteria with only a few nests of coccoid cells. Purified mat material exhibited anaerobic methane oxidation activity. These mats resemble the type previously found in the shallow NW methane seep area of the Black Sea, where it covers carbonate chimneys. Samples from two sites atop the summit of the active but flat-topped Dvurechenskii mud volcano were characterised by very high methane oxidation rates (up to 563 nmol/cm3/d) at the sediment surface. Strong pore water gradients of chloride

  6. Danube paleohydrology: Hyperspectral and sedimentological high-resultion study of the last glacial Black Sea rythmites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Lamas, R.; Debret, M.; Deloffre, J.; Toucanne, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Black Sea has undergone alternating phases of lacustrine and marine environment over geological timescales directly related to its semi-enclosed character and to eustatic sea-level oscillations. During lowstand conditions, as during the last glacial period, the Black Sea was a giant lake disconnected from the global ocean. At that time, Black Sea water-level was controlled by regional climate, and by Eurasian rivers, including the Danube that acted as an outlet of European Ice Sheet and the Alpine ice cap. Thus, the paleo-mouth of the Danube river contains a high quality archive for the study of the paleohydrology of the Danube River and by extension of the European climate changes during the last 30 kyr. For this purpose, we have focused on the GAS-CS01 calypso long-piston core (33.4 m) which was taken during GHASS cruise (Ifremer, 2015) on the upper slope (240 m. depth) at about 25 km east of the Danube Canyon, i.e. in the sediment pile of the Danube paleo-mouth during the last glacial period. Our chronology reveals that core GAS-CS01 extends back to 31 cal kyr BP. The lithology of GAS-CS01 is characterized by clastic rythmites which are presented as a high-resolution Danube runoff proxy. Preliminary results of sedimentological and chronological analysis showed five peaks of terrestrial discharges between ca 31 and 14 ka BP, probably linked to five phases of the enhanced runoff during the studied period. In order to understand the origin and the depositional processes of this laminae, we combined sedimentary analysis (x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, grain size ...) and hyperspectral images analysis. Hyperspectral imagery is a non-destructive fast method classically used to quantify colour and provides data with high spatial (57-µm pixel size) and spectral (3 nm) resolution. The multi-proxy calibration is essential in order to obtain a high-resolution sedimentological dataset. This information allows us to reconstruct the nature and depositional

  7. Biodiversity of the macrozoobenthos in some protected marine areas along Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this paper is to establish the biodiversity status of the macrozoobenthos in some protected marine areas (NATURA 2000 along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The observation stations in the period 2010-2012 were within the frames of the following habitats: 1160 – Large shallow inlets and bays; 1110 – Sandbanks, slightly covered by seawater and Sublittoral mussel banks on sediment. In general, the data shows steady state compared to the 1980s, except for the area near Kamchia River, characterized by low biodiversity due to water pollution from the river inflow (with contaminants from agricultural and industrial sources in the upper river stream and less salinity leading to marine mussel species reduction. In the border area, near the Emona zone, the black mussel catches varied between 160-600 kg in 2005, while only single specimens were detected in 2013. In the same field, the yield of Rapana venosa was within the limits of 5-40 kg in 2005 and between 80-160 kg in 2013. The established variability showed a dynamic balance between Mytilus galloprovicialis and Rapana venosa that pose a challenge for future stock of the black mussel and point the need of regular monitoring.

  8. Technique for Simulation of Black Sea Circulation with Increased Resolution in the Area of the IO RAS Polygon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, A. V.; Zalesny, V. B.; Fomin, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    A numerical technique is presented for simulating the hydrophysical fields of the Black Sea on a variable-step grid with refinement in the area of IO RAS polygon. Model primitive equations are written in spherical coordinates with an arbitrary arrangement of poles. In order to increase the horizontal resolution of the coastal zone in the area of the IO RAS polygon in the northeastern part of the sea near Gelendzhik, one of the poles is placed at a land point (38.35° E, 44.75° N). The model horizontal resolution varies from 150 m in the area of the IO RAS polygon to 4.6 km in the southwestern part of the Black Sea. The numerical technique makes it possible to simulate a large-scale structure of Black Sea circulation as well as the meso- and submesoscale dynamics of the coastal zone. In order to compute the atmospheric forcing, the results of the regional climate model WRF with a resolution of about 10 km in space and 1 h in time are used. In order to demonstrate the technique, Black Sea hydrophysical fields for 2011-2012 and a passive tracer transport representing self-cleaning of Gelendzhik Bay in July 2012 are simulated.

  9. A study of the anthropic activities impact on the Black Sea eco-system (Romanian coast area) using nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofte, L.

    1997-01-01

    This research represents a first step in the direction of a real evaluation of the Black Sea - Romanian Coast pollution level. A continental closed sea, with a special chemism and a specific dynamic regime of its waters, the Black Sea is seriously affected by pollution today, its eco - systems suffering deep restructuring, many of these with an irreversible character and an alarming degradation of the marine life quality. Starting with 1996, a systematic sampling of the principal systemic parts of the Black Sea Eco - System (Romanian Coast Area) was initiated at NIPNE - HH Bucharest. The samples are prepared and analysed by high precision nuclear methods such as: neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and others. The results are presented as distribution maps and profiles of different elements (radioactive elements, heavy metals, trace elements etc.) in the investigated parts of the marine environment (water, sediments, vegetation and fauna). The research methodology and the obtained results offer a useful and efficient tool for the followup and permanent evaluation of the eco - system of the Black Sea. Monitoring this eco - system using a network and an efficient programme allows the storage of valuable data which are further used to make short - term and long - term prognosis referring to its evaluation. The results fit into the newest research programmes initiated by the international scientific community in the line of environment surveillance (The Programme of the International Board for Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean supported by the European Community and US). (author)

  10. Special data base of Informational - Computational System 'INM RAS - Black Sea' for solving inverse and data assimilation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Piskovatsky, Nicolay; Gusev, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for data assimilation procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The above problems are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for personal computers. In this work the results on the Special data base development for ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the presentation the input information for ICS is discussed, some special data processing procedures are described. In this work the results of forecast using ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" with operational observation data assimilation are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No 13-01-00753) and by Presidium Program of Russian Academy of Sciences (project P-23 "Black sea as an imitational ocean model"). References 1. V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 5-31. 2. E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 69-94. 3. V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V.V. Fomin, S.N. Moshonkin, S.G. Demyshev, Numerical model of the circulation of Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 95-111. 4. Agoshkov V.I.,Assovsky M.B., Giniatulin S. V., Zakharova N.B., Kuimov G.V., Parmuzin E.I., Fomin V.V. Informational Computational system of variational assimilation of observation data "INM RAS - Black sea"// Ecological

  11. Phosphorus dynamics in and below the redoxcline in the Black Sea and implications for phosphorus burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, N.; Kraal, P.; Séguret, M. J. M.; Flores, M. R.; Gonzalez, S.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Slomp, C. P.

    2018-02-01

    Marine basins with oxygen-depleted deep waters provide a natural laboratory to investigate the consequences of anoxic and sulfidic (i.e. euxinic) conditions for biogeochemical processes in seawater and sediments. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) and associated elements such as manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) in the euxinic deep basin of the Black Sea. By examining water column particles with scanning electron microscope - energy dispersive spectroscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that Mn(III/IV)-P is the key form of particulate P in the redoxcline. Other forms of particulate P include organic P, Fe(III)-P, and inorganic polyphosphates. Most inorganic P particles that are formed in the redoxcline subsequently dissolve in the underlying sulfidic waters, with the exception of some particulate Fe(III)-P that accounts for <1% of all P settling onto the seafloor. Organic P is the dominant source of P to the sediment. Most of this organic P is degraded in the upper 2 cm of the sediment. Results of sequential extractions and a 33P radiotracer experiment point towards the formation of labile Ca-P and P adsorbed onto calcium-carbonate and clays and a role of these phases as a major sink of P in the sediment. The total P burial efficiency in the sediments is ∼27%, which is relatively high when compared to estimates for sediments in other euxinic basins such as the Baltic Sea (<12%). We suggest that the abundant presence of calcium carbonate may contribute to the more efficient sequestration of P in Black Sea sediments.

  12. Heavy metal concentrations in macroalgae species from Sinop coasts of the Southern Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Bat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn, Pb, Cd and Co in macroalgae from Sinop coasts of the Sounthern Black Sea. Methods: Chlorophyta-green algae (Chaetomorpha spp., Cladophora spp., Ulva linza, Ulva intestinalis, Ulva lactuca, Ulva rigida; Ochrophyta-brown alga [Cystoseira barbata (C. barbata] and Rhodophyta-red algae (Ceramium spp., Corallina panizzoi were collected seasonally in the year 2010 from the upper infralittoral zone of inner harbour, outer harbour, Gerze and Ayancık of Sinop coasts of the Black Sea. The samples were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer in order to determine heavy metal levels in different algal division species along Sinop coasts and to provide information of marine environment quality as marine strategy framework directive is aimed to ensure good environmental status of the seas by 2020 in the European Union. Results: The results showed that metal concentrations in all studied green algae, brown alga and red algae increase in the order: Cd < Co < Ni < Pb < Cu < Zn < Mn < Fe, Cd < Co < Cu < Ni < Pb < Mn < Zn < Fe and Co < Cd < Ni < Cu < Pb < Mn < Zn < Fe, respectively. In all divisions, among the essential elements the highest concentrations exhibited by Fe, in Gerze station- (2328 ± 89 µg/g dry weight in Chaetomorpha spp.; (2143 ± 78 µg/g dry weight in C. barbata and (968 ± 20 µg/g dry weight in Ceramium spp. Conclusions: The highest accumulation of different metals in the analysed algae species were: Fe and Co in Chaetomorpha spp., Zn in C. barbata, Ni and Cu in Ulva linza, Mn in Ulva intestinalis, Pb and Cd in Corallina panizzoi.

  13. Benthic hypoxia and early diagenesis in the Black Sea shelf sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Audrey; Roevros, Nathalie; Capet, Arthur; Grégoire, Marilaure; Fagel, Nathalie; Chou, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Marine waters of semi-enclosed seas are affected by a major environmental issue which is oxygen depletion in bottom waters. Deoxygenation is one of the most widespread man-induced consequences which can be catastrophic for living species. Between 1970 and 1990, the benthic compartment of the Black Sea underwent modifications due to the occurrence and increase of hypoxia. Indeed, these changes might cause a deterioration of the structure and functioning of the ecosystems. Nowadays, some regions, such as the north-western shelf, are still affected seasonally by this phenomenon. Within the framework of the BENTHOX project, a biogeochemical study focusing on the early diagenesis is conducted in the Black Sea. It aims (1) to obtain a better understanding of the impact of benthic hypoxia on the diagenetic pathways, (2) to contribute to a new dataset of biogeochemical measurements in the sediments including porewaters. During a cruise (Emblas II - May 2016), on board the RV Mare Nigrum, sediment cores were taken at 4 stations on the Ukrainian shelf. Porewaters were extracted on board the ship using Rhizon technique under N2 atmosphere and will be analyzed for dissolved nutrients and major ions. In addition, sediments were sliced and will be determined for major solid phases and trace element contents. A multi-proxies (biological, sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical) approach will be used to identify the hypoxic events and to reconstruct the history of bottom hypoxia. The results obtained will be presented and discussed with emphasis on the first outcomes and the major biogeochemical processes involved in the early diagenesis.

  14. Crimea and the quest for energy and military hegemony in the Black Sea region: governance gap in a contested geostrategic zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2015-01-01

    Russia’s annexation of Crimea and its destabilization of Eastern Ukraine have radically altered the European security order, with the Black Sea region becoming an acutely contested geostrategic zone. Russia’s strategic interests in the Black Sea region, especially in terms of energy and military

  15. The fecundity of fork-tailed threadfin bream (Nemipterus furcosus) in Bangka, Bangka Belitung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, E.; Safitriyani, E.; Gatra Persada, Leo

    2018-04-01

    Fork-tailed threadfin bream (Nemipterus furcosus) is one of important economic fishes in Bangka. The sustainability of fork-tailed threadfin bream is threatened by degradation of natural habitat. Information of reproductive is needed for further management. The objective of this study was to examine fecundity of fork-tailed threadfin bream. The mean values of temperature was 28.83 ± 0,37°C, respectively. Sex ratio during sampling showed that female fork-tailed threadfin bream greater than male population. Berried female fork-tailed threadfin bream found from March until November. The greatest number of berried female fork-tailed threadfin bream showed in July with berried female value of 25. Fork-tailed threadfin bream fecundity was 19951 and 66628, respectively. The fecundity data can be used to access the reproductive potential of fish stock and also as an assessment on stock size of their natural population.

  16. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Alhaija, Rana Abu; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  17. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  18. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Abu Alhaija, Rana; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  19. Severe fish mortality associated with 'red tide' observed in the sea off Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; George, M; Narvekar, P.V.; Jayakumar, D.A.; Shailaja, M; Sardessai, S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Shenoy, D.M; Naik, H.; Maheswaran, P.A.; KrishnaKumari, L.; Rajesh, G.; Sudhir, A.K.; Binu, M

    Severe fish mortality associated with the "red tide" phenomenon caused by Noctiluca blooms was observed in the sea off Cochin, Kerala, India at depths less than 40 m. The dead fish, almost entirely comprised of the threadfin bream (Nemipterus...

  20. Geochemical characteristics of Holocene laminated sapropel (unit II) and underlying lacustrine unit III in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Walter E.; Arthur, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    eg 1 of the 1988 R/V Knorr expeditions to the Black Sea recovered 90 gravity and box cores. The longest recovery by gravity cores was about 3 meters, with an average of about 2.5 meters, recovering all of the Holocene and upper Pleistocene sections in the Black Sea. During the latest Pleistocene glaciation, sea level dropped below the 35-meters-deep Bosporus outlet sill of the Black Sea. Therefore throughout most of its history the Black Sea was a lake, and most of its sediments are lacustrine. The oldest sediments recovered (older than 8,000 calendar years) consist of massive to coarsely banded lacustrine calcareous clay designated as lithologic Unit III, generally containing less than 1 percent organic carbon (OC). The base of overlying Unit II marks the first incursion of Mediterranean seawater into the Black Sea, and the onset of bottom-water anoxia about 7,900 calendar years. Unit II contains as much as 15 percent OC in cores from the deepest part of the Black Sea (2,200 meters). The calcium carbonate (CaCO3) remains of the coccolith Emiliania huxleyi form the distinctive white laminae of overlying Unit I. The composition of Unit III and Unit II sediments are quite different, reflecting different terrigenous clastic sources and increased contributions from hydrogenous and biogenic components in anoxic Unit II sapropel. In Unit II, positive covariance between OC and three trace elements commonly concentrated in OC-rich sediments where sulfate reduction has occurred (molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium) and a nutrient (phosphorus) suggest a large marine source for these elements although nickel and vanadium also have a large terrigenous clastic source. The marine sources may be biogenic or hydrogenous. A large biogenic source is also suggested for copper and cobalt. Because abundant pyrite forms in the water column and sediments of the Black Sea, we expected to find a large hydrogenous iron component, but a strong covariance of iron with aluminum suggests that the

  1. Mass Evolution of Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas from GRACE and Altimetry: Accuracy Assessment and Solution Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, B. D.; Luthcke, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present new measurements of mass evolution for the Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas as determined by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) GRACE time-variable global gravity mascon solutions. These new solutions are compared to sea surface altimetry measurements of sea level anomalies with steric corrections applied. To assess their accuracy, the GRACE and altimetry-derived solutions are applied to the set of forward models used by GSFC for processing the GRACE Level-1B datasets, with the resulting inter-satellite range acceleration residuals providing a useful metric for analyzing solution quality.

  2. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September ...

  3. Jurassic arc volcanism on Crimea (Ukraine): Implications for the paleo-subduction zone configuration of the Black Sea region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, M.J.M.; Vrouwe, B.; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.; Kuiper, K.F.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Davies, G.R.; Stephenson, R.A.; Kaymakci, N.; Matenco, L.C.; Saintot, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    The early Cretaceous and younger opening of the Black Sea has obliterated much of the older record of Tethyan subduction below southeastern Europe. The earlier Mesozoic evolution was dominated by opening and closure of Tethyan oceans between Gondwana and Laurasia with their consumption, at least in

  4. Modeling the nitrogen cycling and plankton productivity in the Black Sea using a three-dimensional interdisciplinary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Nezlin, N.; Kostianoy, A.

    2004-01-01

    A six-compartment ecosystem model defined by a simple nitrogen cycle is coupled with a general circulation model in the Black Sea so as to examine the seasonal variability of the ecohydrodynamics. Model results show that the annual cycle of the biological productivity of the whole basin is

  5. Nitrogen budget of the northwestern Black Sea shelf inferred from modeling studies and in situ benthic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Friedrich, J.

    2004-01-01

    A 3D eddy-resolving coupled biogeochemical-hydrodynamical model and in situ observations are used to investigate benthic processes on the Black Sea's NW shelf. Measurements of benthic fluxes (oxygen, nutrients, redox compounds) with in situ flux chambers are analyzed in regard to sediment dynamics

  6. The assemblage of fish of the Tyligul River (Black-Sea basin of South-West Ukraine)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutsokon, Y.; Kvach, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2015), s. 223-228 ISSN 1996-4536 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Tyligul River * fish * assemblage * Northern Black Sea * museum collections Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://bioweb.lnu.edu.ua/studia/pdf/201591/2015_9_1_382.pdf

  7. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, E.W.M.; Desmet, P.; Aelterman, B.; Courtens, W.; Feys, S.; Vanermen, N.; Verstraete, H.; Van de Walle, M.; Deneudt, K.; Hernandez, F.; Houthoofdt, R.; Vanhoorne, B.; Bouten, W.; Buijs, R.-J.; Kavelaars, M.M.; Müller, W.; Herman, D.; Matheve, H.; Sotillo, A.; Lens, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5

  8. 77 FR 68723 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... flounder, scup, black sea bass, longfin squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish fisheries. If the total... of butterfish; and 715,830 lb of bluefish. For 2014, projects may collectively be awarded up to 587... Atlantic bluefish, and assessment-quality data for weakfish, Atlantic croaker, spot, several skate and ray...

  9. 75 FR 70192 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish fisheries. If the total amount of RSA is not awarded, NMFS will...; 727,527 lb (330 mt) of Loligo squid; 818,790 lb (371 mt) of bluefish; and 33,069 lb (15 mt) of... stock assessment data for summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, Loligo squid, butterfish, bluefish...

  10. Response of the Black Sea methane budget to massive short-term submarine inputs of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmale, O.; Haeckel, M.; McGinnis, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    A steady state box model was developed to estimate the methane input into the Black Sea water column at various water depths. Our model results reveal a total input of methane of 4.7 Tg yr(-1). The model predicts that the input of methane is largest at water depths between 600 and 700 m (7......% of the total input), suggesting that the dissociation of methane gas hydrates at water depths equivalent to their upper stability limit may represent an important source of methane into the water column. In addition we discuss the effects of massive short-term methane inputs (e. g. through eruptions of deep......-water mud volcanoes or submarine landslides at intermediate water depths) on the water column methane distribution and the resulting methane emission to the atmosphere. Our non-steady state simulations predict that these inputs will be effectively buffered by intense microbial methane consumption...

  11. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea RID B-8834-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuypers, MMM; Sliekers, AO; Lavik, G.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions(1). The conversion of nitrate to N(2) by heterotrophic bacteria (denitrification) is believed to be the only important sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen in the ocean(2......). Here we provide evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N(2) in the world's largest anoxic basin, the Black Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences shows that these bacteria are related to members of the order Planctomycetales performing...... the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in ammonium-removing bioreactors(3). Nutrient profiles, fluorescently labelled RNA probes, (15)N tracer experiments and the distribution of specific 'ladderane' membrane lipids(4) indicate that ammonium diffusing upwards from the anoxic deep water is consumed...

  12. RATIONALE OF KUYALNIK ESTUARY FILLING ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY BY THE BLACK SEA WATERS. CHEMICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Antonovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It was found that currently sulphate and calcium ions content in Kuyalnik brine close to the solubility product of CaSO4. If brine will not by dilute precipitation of gypsum may be expect in prospectstive. It is shown that the dilution of the Kuyalnik brine by seawater willreduces the concentration of calcium and sulfate ions reducing their solubility product and making it impossible the formation of calcium sulfate and precipitation of gypsum. On the basis of established the contents of some heavy metals, polyarenes, chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls which were in water and sediments of the Gulf of Odessa , brine and peloids Kuyalnik estuary pronounced more pollution by priority toxicants of estuary compared with seawater. Concluded tht environmental safety of Kuyalnik estuary filling by the Black Sea waters.

  13. Evaluating extreme flood characteristics of small mountainous basins of the Black Sea coastal area, Northern Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Lebedeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The probability of heavy rains and river floods is expected to increase with time in the Northern Caucasus region. Densely populated areas in the valleys of small mountainous watersheds already frequently suffer from catastrophic peak floods caused by intense rains at higher elevations. This study aimed at assessing the flood characteristics of several small basins in the piedmont area of the Caucasus Mountains adjacent to the Black Sea coast including ungauged Cemes River in the Novorossiysk city. The Deterministic-Stochastic Modelling System which consists of hydrological model Hydrograph and stochastic weather generator was applied to evaluate extreme rainfall and runoff characteristics of 1% exceedance probability. Rainfall intensity is shown to play more significant role than its depth in formation of extreme flows within the studied region.

  14. INAA, AAS, and lead isotope analysis of ancient lead anchors from the black SEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuleff, I.; Djingova, R.; Alexandrova, A.

    1995-01-01

    Lead stock of wooden-lead anchors found along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast and typo logically dated VI c. B.C. - III c. A.D. have been analyzed for chemical composition and lead isotope ratios by INAA, AAS and mass spectrometry. Using multivariate methods for analysis as well as simple bi variate plots the lead for production of the stocks was localized as originating from Laurion, Thassos, Troas, Chalkidike and the Rhodopes. In general, the chemical composition is not recommended to be used for provenance study of lead artefacts. Combining the results from this study with the existing typo logical classification certain conclusion about the production and distribution of lead anchors in the Aegean region are made. (author). 22 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2015-11-18

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some observed regularities. The variability of linear body parameters and proportions was studied. The impacts of salinity, temperature, and population density on morphological characteristics and their variability can manifest themselves in different ways at the intra- and inter-population levels. A significant effect of salinity, pH and temperature on the body proportions was not found. Their intra-population variability is dependent on temperature and salinity. Sexual dimorphism of A. salinus manifests in different linear parameters, proportions, and their variability. There were no effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the female/male parameter ratio. There were significant differences in the body proportions of males and females in different populations. The influence of temperature, salinity, and population density can be attributed to 80%-90% of intra-population variability of A. salinus. However, these factors can explain less than 40% of inter-population differences. Significant differences in the body proportions of males and females from different populations may suggest that some local populations of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region are in the initial stages of differentiation.

  16. Turkish Straits System and Southern Black Sea: Exchange. Mixing and Shelf / Canyon Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Emin; Gürses, Özgür; Tutsak, Ersin

    2015-04-01

    Based largely on an experiment employing high-resolution measurements carried out in June-July 2013 and re-interpretation of past experiments, the oceanographic variability of the exchange through the Turkish Straits System (TSS) and the interactions with the southern Black Sea are revealed through CTD, ADCP, oxygen and light transmission measurements. The exchange flow is primarily governed by the complex topography spanning two narrow straits, wide continental shelf regions, steep slopes and numerous canyons connecting deep basins. Water properties and currents in the high energy environment depends on the mosaic of fine-scale processes and pathways. The TSS, often approximated as a two-layer system has a hydraulically controlled, upper ocean and straits intensified regime, leading to surface jets and bottom plumes participating in mixing and renewal processes. The exit of the 'Mediterranean effluent' onto the Black Sea past a sill overflow from the Bosphorus passes through two subsequent hydraulic jumps and proceeds along a narrow canyon that veers to the west clear of the greater Bosphorus Canyon finally cascading down the few small canyons. A diffusive spread from the bottom vein of salty water reforms to the east and spills down the Bosphorus Canyon. The suspended particulate signature of the cascade, as well as its influence in hydrography is traced over the shelf and slope waters and through the numerous canyons into deep water where the reformed flow is found to sustain signatures of the past evolution of intrusive waters. An evaluation of the processes is given with reference to model development carried out in parallel to the analyses of the measurements.

  17. Landslide susceptibility assessment of SE Bartin (West Black Sea region, Turkey by artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ercanoglu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are significant natural hazards in Turkey, second only to earthquakes with respect to economic losses and casualties. The West Black Sea region of Turkey is known as one of the most landslide-prone regions in the country. The work presented in this paper is aimed at evaluating landslide susceptibility in a selected area in the West Black Sea region using Artificial Neural Network (ANN method. A total of 317 landslides were identified and mapped in the area by extensive field work and by use of air photo interpretations to build a landslide inventory map. A landslide database was then derived automatically from the landslide inventory map. To evaluate landslide susceptibility, six input parameters (slope angle, slope aspect, topographical elevation, topographical shape, wetness index, and vegetation index were used. To obtain maps of these parameters, Digital Elevation Model (DEM and ASTER satellite imagery of the study area were used. At the first stage, all data were normalized in [0, 1] interval, and parameter effects on landslide occurrence were expressed using Statistical Index values (Wi. Then, landslide susceptibility analyses were performed using an ANN. Finally, performance of the resulting map and the applied methodology is discussed relative to performance indicators, such as predicted areal extent of landslides and the strength of relation (rij value. Much of the areal extents of the landslides (87.2% were classified as susceptible to landsliding, and rij value of 0.85 showed a high degree of similarity. In addition to these, at the final stage, an independent validation strategy was followed by dividing the landslide data set into two parts and 82.5% of the validation data set was found to be correctly classified as landslide susceptible areas. According to these results, it is concluded that the map produced by the ANN is reliable and methodology applied in the study produced high performance, and satisfactory results.

  18. Quantification of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Marine Sediments of the Black Sea and off Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Axel; Kock, Dagmar; Höft, Carmen; Köweker, Gerrit; Siegert, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Organic-rich subsurface marine sediments were taken by gravity coring up to a depth of 10 m below seafloor at six stations from the anoxic Black Sea and the Benguela upwelling system off Namibia during the research cruises Meteor 72-5 and 76-1, respectively. The quantitative microbial community composition at various sediment depths was analyzed using total cell counting, catalyzed reporter deposition - fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR). Total cell counts decreased with depths from 10(9) to 10(10) cells/mL at the sediment surface to 10(7)-10(9) cells/mL below one meter depth. Based on CARD-FISH and Q-PCR analyses overall similar proportions of Bacteria and Archaea were found. The down-core distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 18S rRNA) as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was quantified using Q-PCR. Crenarchaeota and the bacterial candidate division JS-1 as well as the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi were highly abundant. Less abundant but detectable in most of the samples were Eukarya as well as the metal and sulfate-reducing Geobacteraceae (only in the Benguela upwelling influenced sediments). The functional genes cbbL, encoding for the large subunit of RuBisCO, the genes dsrA and aprA, indicative of sulfate-reducers as well as the mcrA gene of methanogens were detected in the Benguela upwelling and Black Sea sediments. Overall, the high organic carbon content of the sediments goes along with high cell counts and high gene copy numbers, as well as an equal abundance of Bacteria and Archaea.

  19. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  20. Wave modelling south of the Danube Delta in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen; Butunoiu, Dorin

    2015-04-01

    A multilevel wave modelling system, based on SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) spectral model, was implemented in the Black Sea and focused on the western coast. Model simulations have been performed for a 10-year time interval (1999-2008). Validations have been carried out against both satellite data and in situ measurements. A high resolution SWAN computational domain (100m x100m), which is focused on the coastal environment south of the Danube Delta, was also implemented. This coastal area includes Sacalin, which is a newly formed island in the Black Sea, south of the Saint George branch of the Danube. Initially, this was an island system, which consisted of two smaller islands, Greater Sacalin and Lesser Sacalin. In time, due to the enhanced sedimentary processes, the two islands merged into a single continuous landmass. The island has become the habitat of a great variety of rare species and for this reason it was declared an ecological reserve. In the high resolution computational domain, focused on the Sacalin Island, the effect of the currents induced by the Danube River outflow was also accounted in the model, together with some other processes specific to the coastal environment as diffraction, triad wave-wave interactions and wave induced set up. Considering the results of the ten-year SWAN model simulations with the modelling system covering the entire sea basin, the most relevant configurations of the environmental matrix, characteristic to this side of the sea, were defined. On this basis, by performing SWAN simulations in the high resolution coastal domain, the wave propagation patterns in the nearshore, together with some parameters related to the shoreline conditions, were evaluated. A great number of possible situations were analyzed. The most relevant correspond to different directions of the incoming waves (N, NE, E and SE, respectively) and significant wave energy conditions. The results provided by the modelling system indicate two different

  1. Ecological policy, assessment and prediction of the fate of Chernobyl radionuclides in sediments of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontar, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    The mathematical model has been designed to investigate the fate and distribution of the Chernobyl radionuclides in sediments of the Black Sea. One of the regions of intensive radioactive precipitation during the Chernobyl disaster was the nothwestern Black Sea region. There are some canyon systems in this region, where bottom sediments of the shelf zone are removed to the continental slope region and finally to the abyssal part of the sea. The lack of reliable information on the removal intensity of the shelf sediments, which contain different kinds of radioactive precipitation, does not allow changes in the radioactive situation to be predicted reliably enough in the given region. On the other hand, the surface sedimentary layers dated by characteristic Chernobyl precipitation made it possible to obtain information on sediment movement rates and directions, as well as other quantitative and qualitative parameters for the mechanisms of canyon processes. This region was selected for our study

  2. The 2012 Strike-slip Earthquake Sequence in Black Sea and its Link to the Caucasus Collision Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, T. L.; Hsu, C. H.; Legendre, C. P.; Jian, P. R.; Huang, B. S.; Karakhanian, A.; Chen, C. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Black Sea formed as a back-arc basin in Late Cretaceous to Paleogene with lots of extensional features. However, the Black Sea is now tectonically stable and absent of notable earthquakes except for the coastal region. In this study we invert regional waveforms of a new seismic array to constrain the focal mechanisms and depths of the 2012/12/23 earthquake sequence occurred in northeastern Black Sea basin that can provide unique estimates on the stress field in the region. The results show that the focal mechanisms for the main shock and 5 larger aftershocks are all strike-slip faulting and resembling with each other. The main rupture fall along the vertical dipping, NW-SE trending sinistral fault indicated by the lineation of most aftershocks. The fault strike and aftershock distribution are both consistent with the Shatsky Ridge, which is continental in nature but large normal faults was created by previous subsidence. The occurrence of 2012 earthquakes can be re-activated, as strike-slip, on one of the pre-existing normal fault cutting at depth nearly 20-30 km in the extended crust. Some of the aftershocks, including a larger one occurred 5 days later, are distributed toward NE direction 20 km away from main fault zone. Those events might be triggered by the main shock along a conjugate fault, which is surprisingly at the extension of proposed transform fault perpendicular to the rift axis of eastern Black Sea Basin. The focal mechanisms also indicate that the maximum compression in northeast Black Sea is at E-W direction, completely different from the N-S compression in the Caucasus and East Turkey controlled by Arabia-Eurasia collision. The origin of E-W maximum compression is probably the same as the secondary stress inferred from earthquakes in Racha region of the Greater Caucasus.

  3. AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL IN WESTERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas UYGUR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main energy sources which are natural, clean, environmentally friendly, and renewable are wind power, solar energy, biomass energy, hydro energy, and wave energy. The wave energy has no cost except for the first investment and maintenance. There is also no cost for input energy. Besides these, it has no pollution effect on the environment, it is cheap and there is a huge potential all around the world. Wave energy is a good opportunity to solve the energy problem for Turkey which is surrounded by seas. Concerning all these facts, it has been conducted some studies which included five years of observation in the Western Black Sea Region (Akçakoca. The wave energy potential has also been calculated. From this sutdy results, it can be concluded that the wave energy potential of this region is inefficient. It is believed that by the improvement of the new energy converter devices in future, this low potential can be used more efficiently and as a result this study might be used as a basis for the future researches.

  4. STUDY REGARDING TO AGGRESSIONS ON THE ECOSYSTEM DANUBE DELTA – BLACK SEA AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gr. IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Danube Delta has suffered damages of habitat and species loss caused by factors, including: construction of dams upstream have degraded obviously flooding regime; creation of agricultural and fishing enclosures which decreased the natural and original surfaces; extending artificial navigation channels that negatively affected the hydrological regime and water quality of lakes; increase of nutrients in the water, industrial pollution and accumulate effluents that led to the reduction of plant and bird species; attempt to exploit quartz sand, very pure and fine, the sea levees, although they were protected as nature reserves because of the specific morphology and sub-Mediterranean vegetation covering them; tourism and illegal fishing; mismanagement of resources of reed and fish. The fact is that there was a slight improvement for the marine ecosystem, reported since the early 90s. At present, the area of the Danube Delta - Black Sea is developing sustainable, in terms of medium and economic perspective. In my study I used comparative methods, investigations, direct observations, measurements, calculations and actual data, obtained from surveys and direct observations, from prestigious, specialized and authorized institutions.

  5. On the geochemistry of 'Chernobyl' Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, G.F.; Chudinovskikh, T.V.; Zemlyanoi, A.D.; Eremeev, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    The following correlations for Cs 137 and Sr 90 were found. For Cs-137, the relation of its concentration in suspended matter to that in the dissolved component is 2.4 centre dot 10 5 in the Dnieper waters and 0.0037 centre dot 10 5 in the North-West shelf waters; for Sr-90 - 0.44 centre dot 10 3 and 2.8 centre dot 10 3 , respectively. The relation of the concentration of dissolved Cs-137 in the sea and in the Dnieper waters is 4.3, and for Sr-90 - 0.25. It is evident that these basic correlations for Cs-137 are close to those for stable cesium. These correlations for Sr-90 differ very much from those for stable strontium. So, the situation formed for the last time in the boundary area 'the Dnieper river - the North-Western Black Sea' is close to the balanced one for Cs-137, while it is very far from that for Sr-90

  6. Are iron-phosphate minerals a sink for phosphorus in anoxic Black Sea sediments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Dijkstra

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is a key nutrient for marine organisms. The only long-term removal pathway for P in the marine realm is burial in sediments. Iron (Fe bound P accounts for a significant proportion of this burial at the global scale. In sediments underlying anoxic bottom waters, burial of Fe-bound P is generally assumed to be negligible because of reductive dissolution of Fe(III (oxyhydroxides and release of the associated P. However, recent work suggests that Fe-bound P is an important burial phase in euxinic (i.e. anoxic and sulfidic basin sediments in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we investigate the role of Fe-bound P as a potential sink for P in Black Sea sediments overlain by oxic and euxinic bottom waters. Sequential P extractions performed on sediments from six multicores along two shelf-to-basin transects provide evidence for the burial of Fe-bound P at all sites, including those in the euxinic deep basin. In the latter sediments, Fe-bound P accounts for more than 20% of the total sedimentary P pool. We suggest that this P is present in the form of reduced Fe-P minerals. We hypothesize that these minerals may be formed as inclusions in sulfur-disproportionating Deltaproteobacteria. Further research is required to elucidate the exact mineral form and formation mechanism of this P burial phase, as well as its role as a sink for P in sulfide-rich marine sediments.

  7. Are iron-phosphate minerals a sink for phosphorus in anoxic Black Sea sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Nikki; Kraal, Peter; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Schnetger, Bernhard; Slomp, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a key nutrient for marine organisms. The only long-term removal pathway for P in the marine realm is burial in sediments. Iron (Fe) bound P accounts for a significant proportion of this burial at the global scale. In sediments underlying anoxic bottom waters, burial of Fe-bound P is generally assumed to be negligible because of reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides and release of the associated P. However, recent work suggests that Fe-bound P is an important burial phase in euxinic (i.e. anoxic and sulfidic) basin sediments in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we investigate the role of Fe-bound P as a potential sink for P in Black Sea sediments overlain by oxic and euxinic bottom waters. Sequential P extractions performed on sediments from six multicores along two shelf-to-basin transects provide evidence for the burial of Fe-bound P at all sites, including those in the euxinic deep basin. In the latter sediments, Fe-bound P accounts for more than 20% of the total sedimentary P pool. We suggest that this P is present in the form of reduced Fe-P minerals. We hypothesize that these minerals may be formed as inclusions in sulfur-disproportionating Deltaproteobacteria. Further research is required to elucidate the exact mineral form and formation mechanism of this P burial phase, as well as its role as a sink for P in sulfide-rich marine sediments.

  8. Doppler HF Radar Application for the Study of Spatial Structure of Currents in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Gorbatskiy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the surface current spatial structure observations performed by SeaSonde Doppler HF radar (operating frequency is 25 MHz in the Black Sea region adjacent to the city of Gelendzhik are represented. The observations imply a special technique consisting in successive measurements at two selected points of the coastline. Initially, the measurements are carried out in the first of two selected coastal points during two hours. Then the radar system is transferred to the second point on the coast where the procedure is repeated. At that the velocity field is assumed to remain unchanged during the total measurement period (including the time of the radar displacement from both points. The measurement results are shown in a form of a spatial map of the current velocity vectors in the research region (with 20 × 20 km dimensions. Some features of the current spatial and temporal variability in the coastal waters are revealed. Particularly, the eddy-like formations (the diameter is a few kilometers which rapidly move and collapse. Since similar eddies are detected using the contact measurement methods, complex and variable structure of the surface currents measured by a radar does not seem to be an artifact. Nevertheless, reliability of the data resulted from the radar measurements of the surface current velocity field should be verified in future by comparing it with the results of the quasi-synchronous velocity field measurements performed by stationary, drifting and towed velocity meters.

  9. A web platform for landuse, climate, demography, hydrology and beach erosion in the Black Sea catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Anthony; Guigoz, Yaniss; Ray, Nicolas; Mancosu, Emanuele; Abbaspour, Karim C; Rouholahnejad Freund, Elham; Allenbach, Karin; De Bono, Andrea; Fasel, Marc; Gago-Silva, Ana; Bär, Roger; Lacroix, Pierre; Giuliani, Gregory

    2017-07-04

    The Black Sea catchment (BSC) is facing important demographic, climatic and landuse changes that may increase pollution, vulnerability and scarcity of water resources, as well as beach erosion through sea level rise. Limited access to reliable time-series monitoring data from environmental, statistical, and socio-economical sources is a major barrier to policy development and decision-making. To address these issues, a web-based platform was developed to enable discovery and access to key environmental information for the region. This platform covers: landuse, climate, and demographic scenarios; hydrology and related water vulnerability and scarcity; as well as beach erosion. Each data set has been obtained with state-of-the-art modelling tools from available monitoring data using appropriate validation methods. These analyses were conducted using global and regional data sets. The data sets are intended for national to regional assessments, for instance for prioritizing environmental protection projects and investments. Together they form a unique set of information, which lay out future plausible change scenarios for the BSC, both for scientific and policy purposes.

  10. The test skeletal matrix of the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanold, Julia M; Immel, Francoise; Broussard, Cédric; Guichard, Nathalie; Plasseraud, Laurent; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Brümmer, Franz; Marin, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    In the field of biomineralization, the past decade has been marked by the increasing use of high throughput techniques, i.e. proteomics, for identifying in one shot the protein content of complex macromolecular mixtures extracted from mineralized tissues. Although crowned with success, this approach has been restricted so far to a limited set of key-organisms, such as the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the pearl oyster or the abalone, leaving in the shadow non-model organisms. As a consequence, it is still unknown to what extent the calcifying repertoire varies, from group to group, at high (phylum, class), median (order, family) or low (genus, species) taxonomic rank. The present paper shows the first biochemical and proteomic characterization of the test matrix of the Mediterranean black sea urchin Arbacia lixula (Arbacioida). Our work suggests that the skeletal repertoire of A. lixula exhibits some similarities but also several differences with that of the few sea urchin species (S. purpuratus, Paracentrotus lividus), for which molecular data are already available. The differences may be attributable to the taxonomic position of the species considered: A. lixula belongs to an order - Arbacioida - that diverged more than one hundred million years ago from the Camarodonta, which includes the two species S. purpuratus and P. lividus. For the echinoid class, we suggest that large-scale proteomic screening should be performed in order to understand which molecular functions related to calcification are conserved and which ones have been co-opted for biomineralization in particular lineages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Benthos microalgae of the Lebyazhy'i Ostrova Reserve in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya S. Balycheva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents for the first time a list of the benthic microalgae of the Lebyazhy'i Ostrova Reserve, including the Karkinitsky Gulf and Sary-Bulatsky liman. During 2015 and 2016, 78 taxa were found: Bacillariophyta – 69, Cyanoprokaryota – 6, Haptophyta – 3. In the Karkinitsky Gulf 45 taxa were found, in the Sary-Bulatsky liman – 56 taxa. The Czekanovski-Sorensen similarity coefficient between these locality is 46%. The basis of the flora is diatoms: Cocconeis scutellum, Entomoneis alata, Halamphora coffeiformis, Nitzschia scalpelliformis, Pleurosigma angulatum, Pl. elongatum, Psammodictyon panduriforme, including Coronia daemeliana, Surirella striatula, Tryblionella circumsuta, which are rare for the microphytobenthos of the Crimean coast of the Black Sea. According to different classifications, dominant algae are benthic (86%, marine (49% and cosmopolite (30% species. Two potentially toxic species of diatoms, H. coffeiformis and Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, were found once, 20 species of saprobionts – indicators of water quality were found. A comparison of the floras in the protected regions of the Black Sea between the Lebyazhy'i Ostrova Reserve and the Kazachya Bay Sanctuary showed 38 common species of benthic diatoms, in the Karadag Nature Reserve – 43 and in the Kazantip Nature Reserve (Azov Sea – 21. The total microalgae abundance of the epilithon of the stones of the Sary-Bulatsky liman varied from 81,000 to 331,000 cellscm-2, biomass – 0.012–0.018 mgcm-2, number of species – 11–13. A significant contribution was made by cyanobacteria, their average abundance reached 256,000 cellscm-2 and biomass – 0.007 mgcm-2. The abundance of diatoms varied from 48,000 to 75,000 cellscm-2, the biomass reached 0.011 mgcm-2 with the dominance of Seminavis ventricosa. The obtained data have shown the necessity of regular monitoring of the microphytobenthos of the Lebyazhy'i Ostrova Reserve in order to identify the qualitative

  12. From beans to breams: how participatory workshops can contribute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From beans to breams: how participatory workshops can contribute to marine conservation planning. ... conservation plan. We report on how this data void was filled using information provided by marine resource users, managers and scientists during participatory workshops. Participants described the distribution of reefs, ...

  13. Investigation of the shelf break and continental slope in the Western part of the Black Sea using acoustic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutu, F.; Ion, G.; Jugaru Tiron, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Black Sea is a large marginal sea surrounded by a system of Alpine orogenic chains, including the Balkanides-Pontides, Caucasus, Crimea and North Dobrogea located to the south, northeast, north and northwest, respectively (Dinu et al., 2005). The north-western part of the Black Sea is the main depocentre for sediment supply from Central Europe via the Danube River, but also from Eastern Europe through the Ukrainian rivers Dniepr, Dniestr and Southern Bug (Popescu et al., 2004). The shelfbreak is located at water depths of 120-140 m southward of the Danube Canyon, and up to 170 m northward of the canyon possibly due to recent faulting which is very common in this area. The continental slope is dissected by numerous canyons, each of which is fed by several tributaries. The Danube Canyon (also known as Viteaz Canyon) is a large shelf-indenting canyon located in the north-western Black Sea and connected to the youngest channel-levee system of the Danube Fan (Popescu et al., 2004). The acoustic methods are a useful way for investigate the shelf break and the continental slope giving us information about landslides on the continental slope, the topography of the investigated area, the sedimentary zones affected by instability and to quantify the geometry of the underwater landslides. The measurements made on the continental slope from north-western part of the Black Sea gave us the possibility to make a digital terrain model. After processing the data the model offer information about the main access ways of the sediments through gravitational slide on the submarines canyons, with forming of turbidity currents, debris flows and also other transport/transformation phenomena of the sediments on the continental slope like submarine landslides and submarine collapse. References Dinu, C., Wong, H.K., Tambrea, D., Matenco, L., 2005. Stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the Romanian Black Sea shelf. Tectonophysics 410, 417-435. Popescu, I., Lericolais, G., Panin

  14. Effect of hypoxia on benthic nutrient fluxes in the northwestern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J.

    2012-04-01

    The western Black Sea shelf has been affected by eutrophication from the 1960s to the mid 1990s. A combination of increased nutrient loads from the major inflowing rivers Danube, Dniester and Dnepr and favourable climate conditions led to high productivity regimes. As a consequence, increased oxygen consumption due to decomposition of organic matter caused recurrent seasonal bottom water hypoxia for more than 20 years. In addition, recycling of nutrients from organic matter settling to the seafloor along with tight benthic-pelagic coupling represents an important internal source for productivity, hence internally supporting eutrophication. From the 1970s to 1990s, the benthic and pelagic systems deteriorated and ecosystem structure and functioning changed. Following the collapse of the centrally planned economies in the eastern European countries during the 1990s, the riverine nutrient input decreased, and the ecosystem, now slowly responding, shows signs of recovery; e.g. by a decrease in hypoxic events. In this study, benthic nutrient flux data from in-situ and ex-situ experiments during the 1990s on the Danube-influenced north-western Black Sea shelf and data from the 2000s, including the EU-FP7 HYPOX experiments, are analysed to reveal the effect of hypoxia on benthic nutrient fluxes. Mann-Whitney statistical tests have been applied to demonstrate the significance of differences in fluxes due to varying oxygen conditions in the water. During the 1990s experiments, bottom water hypoxia was encountered in all locations, while during the 2000s hypoxia has been met only during summer in the Danube Prodelta area and near the Dniester mouth. Indeed, bottom water oxygen in the 1990s has been statistically significantly lower than in the 2000s while benthic oxygen consumption was higher during eutrophication-induced hypoxia. The benthic nutrient fluxes in the 1990s and the 2000s however do not differ significantly. During hypoxia, despite ceasing eutrophication

  15. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the western Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Shapiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra-seasonal and inter-annual temperature variations. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water mass between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season due to formation of a seasonal pycnocline. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from in-situ observations taken over the 2nd half of the 20th century. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the shelf area during the summer stratification period (May–November.The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by a cold phase between 1985 and 1995 and a further warming after 1995. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter convection is well preserved over the following months in the deep sea, the signal of winter cooling in the BSW significantly reduces during the warm season. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. It is shown that temperature in the BSW is stronger correlated with the temperature of Cold Intermediate Waters (CIW in the deep sea than with the severity of the previous winters, thus indicating that the isopycnal exchanges with the deep sea are more important for inter-annual/inter-decadal variability of the BSW on the western Black Sea shelf than effects of winter convection on the shelf itself.

  16. Insights into the benthic communities response to the inflow of Black Sea mesotrophic waters in the North Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Sevastou, Katerina; Podaras, Dimitrios; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2017-10-01

    The effects of the Dardanelles inflow of buoyant, modified Black Sea waters (BSW) of low salinity and temperature, on the meio- and macrobenthic communities of the north Aegean ecosystem was investigated during two cruises in October 2013 and March 2014. Sediment samples were collected from two stations subjected to the BSW effect, one shallow and one deep north of the Dardanelles Straits, and from two stations of similar bathymetry, which were considered to be outside the influence of BSW and were located to the south of the Dardanelles Straits. Results suggest that there is an effect of the BSW on benthos, as both meiofaunal and macrofaunal standing stocks were lower at the most distant, and therefore least affected from the inflow, station, and higher at the station of similar bathymetry which was affected the most by the BSW inflow. Univariate and multivariate non-parametric analyses (nMDS, PERMANOVA) provided further support, indicating differences between the two areas (North vs. South) in the case of the deep stations, while differences between depth categories were evident in the area outside the BSW influence zone. Distance-based linear modeling (DISTLM) indicated that meiofauna correlated with proxies of food availability and sediment characteristics. Macrofauna, on the other hand, showed a rather high significant correlation with depth only. Nematode species composition was statistically significant different between depth categories only, yet the nMDS ordination clearly separated the deep southern station from the rest, with non-selective deposit feeders dominating the stations under the influence of the BSW, and epistratum feeders being important at the stations outside the influence of the BSW. It is concluded that both the meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities at the northern stations benefit from a constant input of high amounts of organic matter to the seafloor, while those at the southern area may be occasionally affected by the thermohaline BSW

  17. [New settlers comb jellies Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz) and Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 and their influence on the pelagic ecosystem of the northeastern part of the Black Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiganova, T A; Musaeva, E I; Bulgakova, Iu V; Mirzoian, Z A; MartynIuk, M L

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the condition of pelagic ecosystem of northeastern Black Sea influenced by expansion of a new settler Beroe ovata in 1999-2001. Expansion of B. ovata considerably decreased the population of another new settler Mnemiopsis leidyi that deformed the Black Sea ecosystem for over a decade. Reduction of M. leidyi population limited its influence on the ecosystem and, consequently, we observed reestablishment of the main components of the Black Sea pelagic ecosystem--zooplankton and fish, their spawn and larvae. The relationship between annual and seasonal variability of the population and biomass of the both new settlers M. leidyi and B. ovata are discussed.

  18. Expression Analysis of Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15 in the Rock Bream Oplegnathus fasciatus against Rock Bream Iridovirus (RSIV) Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yang, In Jung; Kim, Woo-Jin; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Noh, Gyeong Eon; Lee, Seunghyung; Lee, Young Mee; Hwang, Hyung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Chul

    2017-12-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is known to interfere with viral replication and infection by limiting the viral infection of cells. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) interferes with viral replication and infectivity by limiting viral infection in cells. It also plays an important role in the immune response. In this study, tissue-specific expression of ISG15 in healthy rock bream samples and spatial and temporal expression analysis of rock bream ISG15 (RbISG15) were performed following rock bream iridovirus (RSIV) infection. RbISG15 expression was significantly higher in the eye, gill, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, spleen, and stomach, but low in the brain. There were particularly high levels of expression in the liver and muscle. RbISG15 expression was also examined in several tissues and at various times following RSIV infection. ISG15 expression increased within 3 h in the whole body and decreased at 24 h after infection. In addition, temporal expression of several tissues following RSIV infection showed a similar pattern in the muscle, kidney, and spleen, increasing at 3 h and decreasing at 72 h. These results suggest that ISG15 plays an important role in the immune response of rock bream. Overall, this study characterizes the response of RbISG15 following RSIV infection.

  19. Genetic Differentiation between Mullus barbatus from the Western Part of the Black Sea andMullus surmuletus (Pisces, Mullidae from the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya P. Ivanova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of two species Mullus barbatus from the western part of Black Sea (Varna and M. surmuletus from the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki were investigated using the electrophoretic data from enzymatic systems, codifying for 15 putative loci, and the patterns of general muscle proteins (PROT coded from nine loci. Several loci PROT- 4*, PROT-5* and PROT-8* as well as two mMDH and two sMDH loci, and LDH-A* showed different electrophoretic patterns among species and can be used as species-specific markers. Only one esterase locus (EST-9* was found to be polymorphic for both species. The remaining enzymes and proteins were monomorphic. In this study for the first time existence of hybrids between two species were reported. Hybrids were registered in the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki as well in the northeastern part of Black Sea (Balshoj Utrish using electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing methods. Genetic distance D Nei (0.526 and time of divergence (tNei = 3 215 000 years between M. barbatus (Varna Bay and M. surmuletus (Thessaloniki give evidence for existence of these two well diverged species in one genus.

  20. Preliminary sediments quality assessment of the Midia Port aquatorium - Black Sea - Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catianis, I.; Ungureanu, C.; Stanica, A.

    2012-04-01

    This study shows the present environmental quality of superficial sediments within the aquatorium of an industrial harbor. These results help better understand the correlation between historical pollution and present environmental state of the harbor sediments and related environmental hazards in case of dredging. The study area is the Port of Midia, situated in Romania, western Black Sea coast. The port is located at the boundary between the Danube Delta coast (widest nature protected biosphere reserve in the EU) in the north - and the almost entirely human controlled coast - starting south of the port. Midia Harbor was first built in 1942, expanded during the late 1970`s, and currently operates as an oil and general merchandise terminal. This port receives a double impact of waters: brackish Black Sea waters, as well as Danube fresh waters arriving into the aquatorium through the inshore Danube - Black Sea Canal Lock. To understand the environmental status of the port aquatorium one sampling campaign was performed during August 2011. Samples were collected within the aquatorium and in in the surrounding area outside the harbor. For a better correlation with the particularities related to the transitions in water salinity, the aquatorium was divided into five sectors with specific characteristics: Cargo Terminal Area, Oil Terminal Enclosure Area, Ships Transit Area, Waste Oil Buffer Area and Marine Area. The following analyses were performed on water and sediment samples: physical and chemical characteristics of the waters (dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts, pH, redox potential, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulphates, heavy metals), bulk sediments (particle size, grain size distribution, mineralogy, organic matter and carbonates content, heavy minerals load, organic compounds) and microbiological and ecotoxicological assays. The grain size analysis reveals the prevalence of very fine-silt and silty-clay fractions, and

  1. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  2. Productivity, facies and stable-isotope records of OAE2 (Cenomanian - Turonian) in the NW European epicontinental sea: from the English Chalk to North Sea black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Ian; Olde, Kate; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Gröcke, Darren

    2013-04-01

    The Late Cretaceous (100.5 - 66.0 Ma) provides perhaps the best example of how the Earth System may function under long-term extreme greenhouse conditions. Rapidly rising global temperatures indicate that we are heading 'back to the Cretaceous' within a few hundred years, so a better understanding of this time interval is essential. The beginning of the Late Cretaceous was characterized by a period of rapidly rising eustatic sea level, the Cenomanian transgression, which flooded continental margins and established large areas of new epicontinental sea that accumulated thick sequences of pelagic and hemipelagic carbonate (chalk). Highest global temperatures were reached during the early part of the Turonian Stage (93.9 - 89.8 Ma). This period of dramatic palaeoenvironmental change was accompanied by one the largest perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the Mesozoic: Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2), which was characterized by a 500 kyr episode of oceanic anoxia, widespread black shale deposition, biotic turnover, and a large global positive carbon stable-isotope excursion (2 - 6 ‰ ∂13C) recorded in marine carbonates and both marine and terrestrial organic matter. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval exposed at Eastbourne, southern England, has become established as a European reference section for OAE2. Here, and elsewhere in Europe, the base of the ∂13C excursion is coincident with a marked facies change from rhythmically bedded grey chalks and marls, to a >8 m thick package of dark greenish-grey marl - the Plenus Marl. The termination of OAE2 occurs 6 m above, in a package of pale-yellow-weathering nodular chalks with prominent marl seams. Sediments are organic lean (10 wt%. The onshore equivalent in eastern England (the Black Band) is similarly organic-rich, as are comparable sections in northern Germany (e.g. Wunstorf), indicating likely fully anoxic episodes within some NW European basins. The exact stratigraphic equivalence between the onshore

  3. Antioxidant property of wild and farmed sea bream (Sparus aurata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-26

    Dec 26, 2011 ... 4Département de Biologie 05/UR-09/05 “Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des organismes aquatiques” .... is the presence of deoxyribose but without test compounds and Ac, ..... Kris-Etherton P M, Harris W S, Appel L J (2003).

  4. Morphologic and seismic evidence of rapid submergence offshore Cide-Sinop in the southern Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocakoğlu, Neslihan; İşcan, Yeliz; Kılıç, Fatmagül; Özel, Oğuz

    2018-06-01

    Multi-beam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data obtained offshore Cide-Sinop have revealed important records on the latest transgression of the Black Sea for the first time. A relatively large shelf plain within the narrow southern continental shelf characterized by a flat seafloor morphology at -100 water depth followed by a steep continental slope leading to -500 m depth. This area is widely covered by submerged morphological features such as dunes, lagoons, possible aeolianites, an eroded anticline and small channels that developed by aeolian and fluvial processes. These morphological features sit upon an erosional surface that truncates the top of all seismic units and constitutes the seafloor over the whole shelf. The recent prograded delta deposits around the shelf break are also truncated by the similar erosional surface. These results indicate that offshore Cide-Sinop was once a terrestrial landscape that was then submerged. The interpreted paleoshoreline varies from -100 to -120 m. This variation can be explained by not only sea level changes but also the active faults observed on the seismic section. The effective protection of morphological features on the seafloor is the evidence of abrupt submergence rather than gradual. In addition, the absence of coastal onlaps suggests that these morphological features should have developed at low sea level before the latest sea level rise in the Black Sea.

  5. Buried paleo-sedimentary basins in the north-eastern Black Sea-Azov Sea area and tectonic implications (DOBRE-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Tolkunov, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    A number of independent but inter-related projects carried out under the auspices of various national and international programmes in Ukraine including DARIUS were aimed at imaging the upper lithosphere, crustal and sedimentary basin architecture in the north-eastern Black Sea, southern Crimea and Kerch peninsulas and the Azov Sea. This region marks the transition from relatively undisturbed Precambrian European cratonic crust and lithosphere north of the Azov Sea to areas of significant Phanerozoic tectonics and basin development, in both extensional as well as compressional environments, to the south, including the eastern Black Sea rift, which is the main sedimentary basin of the study area. The wide-angle reflection and refraction (WARR) profile DOBRE-2, a Ukrainian national project with international participation (see below), overlapping some 115 km of the southern end of the DOBREfraction'99 profile (that crosses the intracratonic Donbas Foldbelt) in the north and running to the eastern Black Sea basin in the south, utilised on- and offshore recording and energy sources. It maps crustal velocity structure across the craton margin and documents, among other things, that the Moho deepens from 40 km to ~47 km to the southwest below the Azov Sea and Crimean-Caucasus deformed zone. A regional CDP seismic profile coincident with DOBRE-2, crossing the Azov Sea, Kerch Peninsula and the north-eastern Black Sea southwest to the Ukraine-Turkey border, acquired by Ukrgeofisika (the Ukrainian national geophysical company) reveals in its inferred structural relationships the ages of Cretaceous and younger extensional and subsequent basin inversion tectonic events as well as the 2D geometry of basement displacement associated with post mid-Eocene inversion. A direct comparison of the results of the WARR velocity model and the near-vertical reflection structural image has been made by converting the former into the time domain. The results dramatically demonstrate that

  6. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  7. Teaching anti-corruption in the caucasus and black sea region(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kruessmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is hardly a topic in the current transformations that is as central as corruption. Anti-corruption efforts go back to the nineties when globalisation turned the world into a corporate playing field. Since then, a wealth of tools and instruments has been invented, and any student of anti-corruption can be certain to find abundant materials. From a teacher’s perspective, turning these materials into a coherent academic subject is the first challenge. But anti-corruption is not a subject like any other. If taught properly, it should challenge every student’s moral compass and become a catalyst for the development of professional ethics. Anybody who has ever been forced to pay bribes in a university setting will remember «turning red with shame». Bribing your teacher, as compared to a traffic police or customs officer, seems like the ultimate betrayal of the notion of the intellectual community between scholar/teacher and student, and it throws into doubt the entire system of values and goals that higher education stands for. In its effect, it is as pernicious as doping in sports. And when the shame is overcome, the result will be a graduate who is «street-wise», who is ready to play the game and expect nothing less from his or her colleagues. Against this background, the purpose of this paper is twofold. It serves as a reflection on the state of anti-corruption efforts in the Black Sea and Caucasus region(s and suggests a model how electronic resources could become a catalyst in bringing blended learning/teaching on anti-corruption to the region(s. At the same time, it develops the scholarly argument that the «toolkit box approach» favoured by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC is not sufficient to address the root causes of corruption in the region(s. As an alternative and to the extent that it concerns the Black Sea and Caucasus region(s, it is suggested to place anti-corruption more firmly into the context of

  8. Effect of diesel fuel pollution on the lipid composition of some wide-spread Black sea algae and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nechev, J.T.; Stefanov, K.L.; Popov, S.S. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Khotimchenko, S.V. [Inst. of Marine Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Ivanova, A.P. [Inst. of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova-Konaklieva, S.D. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Higher Medical School, Sofia (Bulgaria); Andreev, S. [Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2002-04-01

    Two green algae (Ulva rigida and Cladophora coelothrix), the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the snail Rapana thomasiana from the Bulgarian Black Sea shore have been treated with diesel fuel (100 mg l{sup -1}) in an aquarium with sea-water for three days. The lipids and their fatty acid changes have been examined. Significant changes have been observed mainly in the polar lipids and in the saturation of the fatty acids. These changes appeared to be bigger in the evolutionary less advanced species from both groups of marine organisms - algae and invertebrates (Ulva rigida and Mytilus galloprovincialis respectively). The data obtained could be used for a biomonitoring of the pollution. (orig.)

  9. Controlled source electromagnetic data analysis with seismic constraints and rigorous uncertainty estimation in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann, R. A. S.; Schwalenberg, K.; Hölz, S.; Zander, T.; Dettmer, J.; Bialas, J.

    2016-12-01

    In 2014 an interdisciplinary survey was conducted as part of the German SUGAR project in the Western Black Sea targeting gas hydrate occurrences in the Danube Delta. Marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data were acquired with an inline seafloor-towed array (BGR), and a two-polarization horizontal ocean-bottom source and receiver configuration (GEOMAR). The CSEM data are co-located with high-resolution 2-D and 3-D seismic reflection data (GEOMAR). We present results from 2-D regularized inversion (MARE2DEM by Kerry Key), which provides a smooth model of the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the source and multiple receivers. The 2-D approach includes seafloor topography and structural constraints from seismic data. We estimate uncertainties from the regularized inversion and compare them to 1-D Bayesian inversion results. The probabilistic inversion for a layered subsurface treats the parameter values and the number of layers as unknown by applying reversible-jump Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling. A non-diagonal data covariance matrix obtained from residual error analysis accounts for correlated errors. The resulting resistivity models show generally high resistivity values between 3 and 10 Ωm on average which can be partly attributed to depleted pore water salinities due to sea-level low stands in the past, and locally up to 30 Ωm which is likely caused by gas hydrates. At the base of the gas hydrate stability zone resistivities rise up to more than 100 Ωm which could be due to gas hydrate as well as a layer of free gas underneath. However, the deeper parts also show the largest model parameter uncertainties. Archie's Law is used to derive estimates of the gas hydrate saturation, which vary between 30 and 80% within the anomalous layers considering salinity and porosity profiles from a distant DSDP bore hole.

  10. The effect of snow/sea ice type on the response of albedo and light penetration depth (e-folding depth to increasing black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of snow/sea ice vary with age and by the processes they were formed, giving characteristic types of snow and sea ice. The response of albedo and light penetration depth (e-folding depth to increasing mass ratio of black carbon is shown to depend on the snow and sea ice type and the thickness of the snow or sea ice. The response of albedo and e-folding depth of three different types of snow (cold polar snow, wind-packed snow and melting snow and three sea ice (multi-year ice, first-year ice and melting sea ice to increasing mass ratio of black carbon is calculated using a coupled atmosphere–snow/sea ice radiative-transfer model (TUV-snow, over the optical wavelengths of 300–800 nm. The snow and sea ice types are effectively defined by a scattering cross-section, density and asymmetry parameter. The relative change in albedo and e-folding depth of each of the three snow and three sea ice types with increasing mass ratio of black carbon is considered relative to a base case of 1 ng g−1 of black carbon. The relative response of each snow and sea ice type is intercompared to examine how different types of snow and sea ice respond relative to each other. The relative change in albedo of a melting snowpack is a factor of four more responsive to additions of black carbon compared to cold polar snow over a black carbon increase from 1 to 50 ng g−1, while the relative change in albedo of a melting sea ice is a factor of two more responsive to additions of black carbon compared to multi-year ice for the same increase in mass ratio of black carbon. The response of e-folding depth is effectively not dependent on snow/sea ice type. The albedo of sea ice is more responsive to increasing mass ratios of black carbon than snow.

  11. Sulina and Danube-Black Sea Channels: Competitors or Allies on Cargo Transport in South-Eastern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The two river channels which connect the Black Sea to the inland Romanian area, have constituted since the beginning of their building two very important transport routes for the cargo and passenger traffic (Sulina that have connected Black Sea to the internal ports of Romania, thus representing ”transport highways” of the Romanian economy. The present study tries to present the chronological evolution of these two shipping routes, regarding their importance to the cargo traffic, as well as the financial policy imposed by the administration of these channels. We will present and analyze retrospectively the major elements regarding the administration of these channels, a comparative analysis of the role of these two channels in the river cargo transport, consequently trying to predict a future evolution of these two river communication routes.

  12. Geothermal structure of the eastern Black Sea basin and the eastern Pontides orogenic belt: Implications for subduction polarity of Tethys oceanic lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiz Maden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The numerical results of thermal modeling studies indicate that the lithosphere is cold and strong beneath the Black Sea basin. The thermal lithospheric thickness increases southward from the eastern Pontides orogenic belt (49.4 km to Black Sea basin (152.2 km. The Moho temperature increases from 367 °C in the trench to 978 °C in the arc region. The heat flow values for the Moho surface change between 16.4 mW m−2 in the Black Sea basin and 56.9 mW m−2 in the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. Along the southern Black Sea coast, the trench region has a relatively low geothermal potential with respect to the arc and back-arc region. The numerical studies support the existence of southward subduction beneath the Pontides during the late Mesozoic–Cenozoic.

  13. Long-term post-Chernobyl 90Sr and 137Cs profiles as the indicators of the large scale vertical water mixing in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.; Stokozov, N.A.; Mirzoyeva, N.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive and chemical pollutions, eutrophic elements come to the surface water layer of the Black Sea from the territory of 22 countries. The self-purification of the surface water layer essentially depends from the vertical water mixing. The atmospheric fallout in the May 1986 after Chernobyl NPP accident were main source of the 137 Cs input in the Black Sea. The 90 Sr input to the Black Sea was caused by atmospheric fallout as well as the Dnieper River and Danube River runoff during of consequent years. 90 Sr and 137 Cs are conservative elements in a marine environment and could be used as tracers of the hydrological processes, including vertical water mixing. The aim of our investigations was an assessment of the large-scale vertical water exchange in the Black Sea on base of analysis time-series 90 Sr and 137 Cs vertical profiles

  14. lllicit Radiological and Nuclear Trafficking, Smuggling and Security Incidents in the Black Sea Region since the Fall of the Iron Curtain – an Open Source Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear and radiological smuggling and trafficking incidents, events, and threats from the wider Black Sea area, 1990 – 2011  An Open Source Compilation prepared by Alex P. Schmid & Charlotte Spencer-Smith

  15. Temperature profile data collected using bottle casts from the YANTAR in the Black Sea from 27 June 1980 to 15 July 2000 (NODC Accession 0000781)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts in the Black Sea from the YANTAR and others. Data were collected from 27 June 1980 to 15 July 2000. Data...

  16. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990 (NODC Accession 0002717)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990

  17. Temperature, salinity, nutrient, and ammonia profiles collected by bottle in the Black Sea from 5/5/1955 - 4/16/1989 (NODC Accession 0000131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts from the FIOLENT and other platforms in the Black Sea. Data were collected from 05 May 1955...

  18. Inorganic nutrients, sulfide and oxygen profiles from R/V KNORR in the Black Sea from 19880514 to 19880725 (NODC Accession 9400101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection contains inorganic nutrient chemistry, sulfide and oxygen data collected during cruises 2 through 5 of the 1988 Black Sea Oceanographic...

  19. The environmental impact of a Wave Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  20. Economic Situation of Fish Farming in Southeastern Coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Mihai Petrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture industry, like most other industries, has a very powerfull correlation with the economical domain. Being an economic activity that generates profit, practicing fish farming aims profit maximization. The present study gives information regarding the economical indicators and also makes a cost structure analysis of five groups of fish farms from Southeastern Coast of the Black Sea: homestead fish farms, small scale fish farms, middle scale fish farms, big scale fish farms and floating cages. The fish farms were classified in this way by their production capacity. In order to collect data, the most representative fish farms for each group were selected and face to face interviews were made for every one of them. Data related to their source of financing, initial investment, labour costs, selling prices, feed costs and other operational costs were collected, arranged, structured and analyzed and a series of economic indicators as gross production value, gross margin, breakeven quantity, specific investment, profit, profitability ratio, rate of return or labour productivity were calculated. As a result, it was observed that fish production capacity has a big influence over the rate of return, middle scale fish farms being the most profitable, followed closely by small scale fish farms.

  1. Microphallids in Gammarus insensibilis Stock, 1966 from a Black Sea lagoon: host response to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinova, A; Mavrodieva, R S

    2005-09-01

    We examined the patterns of parasite melanization in Gammarus insensibilis using data on microphallids from Pomorie Lagoon (Black Sea) in the light of 3 predictions associated with host survival: (i) hosts invest more in defence in an environment where the likelihood for infection is higher; (ii) multiple immune challenges exhaust host reserves and result in decreased melanization rates in older hosts; (iii) host immune response is directed against the cerebral metacercariae of Microphallus papillorobustus that alter amphipod behaviour and are most detrimental to the host. G. insensibilis was capable of melanizing the metacercariae of all four species of trematodes found to be hosted by the amphipods. The frequency of melanization and mean abundance of melanized metacercariae were substantially higher than those observed in the same amphipod-gammarid system on the French Mediterranean coast. However, the rate of melanization was low and showed a significant decrease with amphipod size. Although the 4 species were differentially melanized, the host response was largely directed against Microphallus hoffmanni and M. subdolum. We suggest that (i) the lower melanization efficiency with age is due to the mode of infection, probably leading to loss of haemolymph and monopolization of the defence resources for wound healing and (ii) in the French system, host response focuses on the most prevalent and abundant species.

  2. Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, Ömer; Kankal, Murat; Üçüncü, Osman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955-2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychological and technical factors. Some structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages are also included in the paper. Structural measures include dykes and flood levees. Main non-structural measures include flood warning system, modification of land use, watershed management and improvement, flood insurance, organization of flood management studies, coordination between related institutions and education of the people and informing of the stakeholders.

  3. Bottom trawl fishery discards in the Black Sea coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. CEYLAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the amount of bycatch and discardfish caught by bottom trawlers used in the Black Sea coasts of Turkey anddiscard changes depending on the depth. The study was conducted during theSeptember 2009 – April 2010 fishing season. Twenty-one bottom trawleroperations were sampled and the catch composition was determined. A total of 26species were caught, which included 22 species of fish, 2 species of arthropods,1 species of gastropods and 1 species of bivalves. Two of these were targetspecies (Mullusbarbatus, Merlangius merlangus, while 25 species werediscarded including trash fish and specimens below the legal size. A total of2142.76 kg of biomass was caught during the operations, of which 53.99 % bycatch.The weighted discard rate was determined as 42.06% and two different groupswere identified in discards (T1: 10-57 m, T2: 72-118 m based on the depth. Significantdifferences were identified between these depth groups (p0.05 between theecological parameters of landings.

  4. Relationship of spontaneous pneumothorax cases seen in Eastern Black Sea region with meteorological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamac, Mustafa Esat; Karapolat, Sami; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Seyis, Kubra Nur; Tekinbas, Celal

    2017-08-01

    The relationship of climate changes or weather conditions with the incidence of pneumothorax has been explored for many years. We aimed at revealing the effects of meteorological changes on the incidence of pneumothorax in the Eastern Black Sea region where spontaneous pneumothorax cases are seen relatively more frequently. The records of 195 subjects (179 males and 16 females) who had been monitored and treated due to spontaneous pneumothorax between January 2006 and December 2012 at our clinic were reviewed retrospectively, and their relationship was investigated with the meteorological data obtained by going through the database archive records of the 11th Regional Meteorology Directorate for the years between 2006 and 2012. Wind velocity was observed to be less in the days of having spontaneous pneumothorax than in the days of having no spontaneous pneumothorax, and the difference was found statistically significant ( P = 0.026). The people of our region whose active lifestyle is reflected in their working life, social life, and even in their folk dances usually take a rest in the days of slower wind speed. We think that this state of resting leads to an increase in the frequency of spontaneous pneumothorax.

  5. Using residual tritiated water from Cernavoda NPP to study Danube - Black Sea Canal hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Lazar, R.; Varlam, M.; Patrascu, V.; Bucur, C.; Bobric, E.

    2003-01-01

    By benefiting of Cernavoda NPP's location in the neighbourhood of Danube - Black Sea Canal one suggests extending the area of interest along this canal particularly to use the residual tritiated water from this CANDU type reactor as tracing means in the study of canal's hydrodynamics. This canal appears to be ideal for such a study because releases in normal operation of NPP are occasional. The tritiated water can be used for simulating the transport and dispersion of soluble pollutants because it has the same physical characteristics as the usual water. By measuring response curves produced at injecting a known amount of tracer one can developed an efficient method for estimating: the soluble pollutant velocity along the canal; attenuation rate of concentration peak as a function of time as well as the time required by the propagation front of the soluble pollutant to reach a given point along the canal. In this work the calculation of the mixture length as a function of the particular characteristics of the canal is presented as well as different experimental formulas. Also the reference level of tritium concentration in the investigated area is established for future experiments

  6. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401

  7. On the issue of drought-tolerant ornamental woody plants the Black Sea coast (near Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpun Yuriy Nikolaevich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The summer-autumn drought, when rainfall in July - September, less than 200 mm, a significant limiting factor for ornamental woody plants of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. In the region under dry periods are irregular, the study of their impact on plants is problematic and delayed for many years. The last drought was in 2015, when the three months fell only 87 mm of rainfall. In the last days of the dry period were examined 501 views and intraspecific taxa belonging to 112 genera, bushy evergreen shrubs and trees, as the most vulnerable. Evaluation of drought resistance was evaluated according to our 3-point system, and the results were analyzed in the context of consolidated floristic regions. The results showed adequate drought tolerance, not less than 65 %, cultivated in the region of evergreen shrubs and bushy trees mainly from East Asia and the Mediterranean. Among the species that are recommended for mass plantings, for the pre-emptive use of landscaping and street-resistant plants 67-80 %. All this ensures stability and high decorative plants ofSochi city.

  8. Spatial distribution of earthquake hypocenters in the Crimea—Black Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmin, V. Yu; Shumlianska, L. O.

    2018-03-01

    Some aspects of the seismicity the Crime—Black Sea region are considered on the basis of the catalogued data on earthquakes that have occurred between 1970 and 2012. The complete list of the Crimean earthquakes for this period contains about 2140 events with magnitude ranging from -1.5 to 5.5. Bulletins contain information about compressional and shear waves arrival times regarding nearly 2000 earthquakes. A new approach to the definition of the coordinates of all of the events was applied to re-establish the hypocenters of the catalogued earthquakes. The obtained results indicate that the bulk of the earthquakes' foci in the region are located in the crust. However, some 2.5% of the foci are located at the depths ranging from 50 to 250 km. The new distribution of foci of earthquakes shows the concentration of foci in the form of two inclined branches, the center of which is located under the Yalto-Alushta seismic focal zone. The whole distribution of foci in depth corresponds to the relief of the lithosphere.

  9. Natural and artificial radioactivity measurements in Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, N.; Cevik, U.; Celik, A.; Koz, B.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, naturally occurring radionuclides of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in soil samples collected from the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. It was found that the activity concentrations ranged from 12 to 120 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 13 to 121 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and from 204 to 1295 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. Besides naturally occurring radionuclides, 137 Cs activity concentration was measured in soil, lichen and moss samples and it was found that 137 Cs activity concentration ranged from 27 to 775 Bq kg -1 with for soil, from 29 to 879 Bq kg -1 for lichen and from 67 to 1396 Bq kg -1 for moss samples. Annual effective doses due to the naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs were estimated. Ecological half-lives of 137 Cs in lichen and moss species were estimated. The decrease of the activity concentrations in the present measurements (2007) relative to those in 1993 indicated ecological half-lives between 1.36 and 2.96 years for lichen and between 1.35 and 2.85 years for moss species

  10. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Diaconu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  11. Display of the β-effect in the Black Sea Two-Layer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Pavlushin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research is a continuation of a series of numerical experiments on modeling formation of wind currents and eddies in the Black Sea within the framework of a two-layer eddy-resolving model. The main attention is focused on studying the β-effect role. The stationary cyclonic wind is used as an external forcing and the bottom topography is not considered. It is shown that at the β-effect being taken into account, the Rossby waves propagating from east to west are observed both during the currents’ formation and at the statistical equilibrium mode when the mesoscale eddies are formed. In the integral flows’ field the waves are visually manifested in a form of the alternate large-scale cyclonic gyres and zones in which the meso-scale anti-cyclones are formed. This spatial pattern constantly propagates to the west that differs from the results of calculations using the constant Coriolis parameter when the spatially alternate cyclonic and anti-cyclonic vortices are formed, but hold a quasi-stationary position. The waves with the parameters of the Rossby wave first barotropic mode for the closed basin are most clearly pronounced. Interaction of the Rossby waves with large-scale circulation results in intensification of the of the currents’ hydrodynamic instability and in formation of the mesoscale eddies. Significant decrease of kinetic and available potential energy as compared to the values obtained at the constant Coriolis parameter is also a consequence of the eddy formation intensification.

  12. Radiological indices of drinking waters on the north part of the bulgarian black sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, P.T.; Rusev, R.; Chuturkova, R.

    2005-01-01

    Bulgaria is a country which is located in the Eastern Europe. A drinking water sources on the North part of Bulgarian Black Sea coast have different radiological indices. The sources of drinking water can be lakes, rivers, wells, dam lakes and so on. Property estimation of the contents of Uranium (Ur), Radium (Ra 226), and total Beta activity, shows that concentrations of investigated parameters vary around TDI (tolerable daily intake). To Uranium for example the TDI yields a guideline value are 2 μg/litre if a 60 kg adult consuming 2 litres of drinking water per day and the provisional guideline value of Uranium which shows the health significance in drinking waters is 0.002 mg/1. The situation with the full Beta activity and Radium concentrations is the same. All these qualitative and quantitative indices are close to the provisional guideline values, but in some cases it is higher than the limit concentrations. The full Beta activity is measured in Becquerel per litre and values are around 0.193+7-20% Bq/1. The Radium concentration takes the dimensions of Bq/1 and it is about 0.009 Bq/l. No matter of the source of drinking water, contents of radiological indices is a very important element of the health care control

  13. Water resources of the Black Sea Basin at high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Srinivasan, Raghvan; Bacu, Victor; Lehmann, Anthony

    2014-07-01

    The pressure on water resources, deteriorating water quality, and uncertainties associated with the climate change create an environment of conflict in large and complex river system. The Black Sea Basin (BSB), in particular, suffers from ecological unsustainability and inadequate resource management leading to severe environmental, social, and economical problems. To better tackle the future challenges, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of the BSB coupling water quantity, water quality, and crop yield components. The hydrological model of the BSB was calibrated and validated considering sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. River discharges, nitrate loads, and crop yields were used to calibrate the model. Employing grid technology improved calibration computation time by more than an order of magnitude. We calculated components of water resources such as river discharge, infiltration, aquifer recharge, soil moisture, and actual and potential evapotranspiration. Furthermore, available water resources were calculated at subbasin spatial and monthly temporal levels. Within this framework, a comprehensive database of the BSB was created to fill the existing gaps in water resources data in the region. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of building a large-scale model in fine spatial and temporal detail. This study provides the basis for further research on the impacts of climate and land use change on water resources in the BSB.

  14. Military organization and army command of ancient armies of Northern Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kolesnykov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deal with the description, analysis and generalization of features organization of command structure of the army ancient states of the Northern Black Sea region: Olbia, Chersonese, Bosporus. Author sure that the foundation of the armed forces of these states was a civil militia – free, economically independent landowners, endowed with the broadest volume of political and social rights men – full citizens. Accordingly, the assemblies of citizens were electing strategists, who led militia forces. In case of need the people also claimed commanders’ mercenary troops. Bosporus kings have attracted a significant number of hired troops that held by the royal treasury income and special direct tax. Bosporus military command came from magistrates of polis only at the lower levels. Middle and higher level of «officer corps» of the Bosporus were appointed by the monarch from among the landowners, officialdom and military aristocracy. For example, in the Roman period on the Bosporus fixed formation units of cathafractarian cavalry. The weapons and tactics of the Sarmatian nomadic nobility (Aspurhianian, Sirak, Aorsy and more were served as a model for Bosporus cataphractarian horsemen.

  15. Regulation of Mnemiopsis leidyi dynamics by potential changes in temperature and zooplankton conditions in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, B.; Fach, B.; Oguz, T.

    2009-04-01

    Providing a comprehensive understanding of the effects that cause formations of ctenophore blooms in the Black Sea is the main objective of this study. In order to analyse ctenophore dynamics in the Black Sea a zero-dimensional population based model of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi is developed. The stage resolving ctenophore model combines the modified form of stage resolving approach of Fennel, 2001 with the growth dynamics model of Kremer, 1976; Kremer and Reeve, 1989 under 4 stages of model-ctenophore. These stages include the different growth characteristics of egg, juvenile, transitional and adult stages. The dietary patterns of the different stages follows the observations obtained from the literature. The model is able to represent consistent development patterns, while reflecting the physiological complexity of a population of Mnemiopsis leidyi. Model results suggest that different nutritional requirement of each stage may serve as the bottlenecks for population growth and only when growth conditions are favorable for both larval and lobate stages, the high overall population growth rates may occur. Model is also used to analyse the influence of climatic changes on Mnemiopsis leidyi reproduction and outburst. This study presents and discussed how potential changes in temperature and zooplankton conditions in the Black Sea may regulate Mnemiopsis leidyi dynamics.

  16. A new record of Ratan goby - Ponticola ratan (Nordmann, 1840 (Pisces: Gobiidae in the Black Sea, Romanian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cocan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In August 2015 we managed to capture a specimen of ratan goby (Ponticola ratan in the Romanian coastal waters of the Black Sea, near the locality of Sf. Gheorghe (Tulcea County. This is the 7-th signaling for this species in Romanian coastal waters. The previous 6 specimens were recorded in the period 1960-1993, between Mangalia (Constanţa County and Sulina (Tulcea County. The species was identified by means of meristic characters (number of scales on medial line, number of spiny and soft rays, and morphological particularities (cycloid scales on the nape area and pectoral fin joint. Also, the measurements made, confirmed that the ratio between the head length and total length, which was 33% (TL=8.70 cm vs. Head Length=2.61cm. Another morphological character, specific to this species, is the lower jaw, which exceeds in length the upper jaw. Being a Ponto-Caspian endemite, with low population along the Bulgarian and Romanian coastline, we considered it important to point out this new record. Noting that, being known the trend of sporadic migration of this species, would not be excluded that global warming causes a shift from its normal distribution area, from northern and northeastern (Black Sea to south-west. Therefore, future research may bring more notifications regarding this species in south-western area of the Black Sea

  17. Molecular characterization and morphological aspects of Myxobolus parvus (Myxozoa) from Liza saliens (Mugilidae) off the Turkish Black Sea coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, A; Gürkanlı, C T; Özkan, H; Acar, G; Çiftçi, Y; Yurakhno, V

    2016-09-01

    Members of the phylum Myxozoa are among the most cosmopolitan parasites of fish, and the genus Myxobolus is the largest within the class Myxosporea in freshwater and marine environment from all over the world. Myxobolus parvus has been reported from mainly mugilid fishes from different localities including the Black Sea. Leaping mullet Liza saliens collected by fishermen off Sinop coasts of the Black Sea in the period between September 2014 and December 2015 was investigated for myxosporean parasites using conventional methods. M. parvus Schulman, 1962 was the only Myxobolus species identified and it was found in the gills, gall bladder, kidney tubules, and inside several cysts located on the lower jaw of examined fish in the present study. Morphometric data and all details of parasitic infection were determined and presented in tables and illustrated in figures. Molecular characterization was also conducted to reveal its position within Myxosporea. Two M. parvus samples from gills and kidney showed the same haplotype and appeared in the same sub-lineage with marine Myxobolus species. The closest haplotypes to M. parvus were Triactinomyxon sp. and Endocapsa sp. which are the actinosporeans forms of unknown myxozoan species. These data are the first in molecular characterization of M. parvus, its occurrence in lower jaw of leaping mullet along with its infection prevalence values off the Turkish Black Sea coasts.

  18. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  19. Use of a nesting platform by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers at the Salton Sea, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Kathy C.; Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Schoneman, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, we constructed an elevated nesting platform at the Salton Sea, California, and monitored its use by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers over three subsequent breeding seasons. Black Skimmers were the first to colonize the platform with a total of five nests in 2006. In 2007 Gull-billed Terns colonized the platform with a total of 28 nests and the number of Black Skimmer nests increased to 20. Neither species nested on the platform in 2008. Low success for both species was probably influenced by at least two factors. First, when both species nested on the platform, nest densities were higher than is typical of their colonies on larger, earthen islands, and colony success may have been reduced by overcrowding. Second, lack of access to water may have reduced chicks' ability to thermoregulate effectively in the hot environment of the Salton Sea. Refinements to the size, design, and location of artificial nesting habitats are necessary to enhance productivity of colonial groundnesting birds at the Salton Sea successfully.

  20. Cascading ocean basins: numerical simulations of the circulation and interbasin exchange in the Azov-Black-Marmara-Mediterranean Seas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, Emil Vassilev; Grashorn, Sebastian; Zhang, Yinglong Joseph

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we use the unstructured grid model SCHISM to simulate the thermohydrodynamics in a chain of baroclinic, interconnected basins. The model shows a good skill in simulating the horizontal circulation and vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and currents. The magnitude and phases of the seasonal changes of circulation are consistent with earlier observations. Among the mesoscale and subbasin-scale circulation features that are realistically simulated are the anticyclonic coastal eddies, the Sebastopol and Batumi eddies, the Marmara Sea outflow around the southern coast of the Limnos Island, and the pathway of the cold water originating from the shelf. The superiority of the simulations compared to earlier numerical studies is demonstrated with the example of model capabilities to resolve the strait dynamics, gravity currents originating from the straits, high-salinity bottom layer on the shallow shelf, as well as the multiple intrusions from the Bosporus Strait down to 700 m depth. The warm temperature intrusions from the strait produce the warm water mass in the intermediate layers of the Black Sea. One novel result is that the seasonal intensification of circulation affects the interbasin exchange, thus allowing us to formulate the concept of circulation-controlled interbasin exchange. To the best of our knowledge, the present numerical simulations, for the first time, suggest that the sea level in the interior part of the Black Sea can be lower than the sea level in the Marmara Sea and even in some parts of the Aegean Sea. The comparison with observations shows that the timings and magnitude of exchange flows are also realistically simulated, along with the blocking events. The short-term variability of the strait transports is largely controlled by the anomalies of wind. The simulations demonstrate the crucial role of the narrow and shallow strait of Bosporus in separating the two pairs of basins: Aegean-Marmara Seas from one side and Azov-Black

  1. Host switch and infestation by Ligula intestinalis L. in a silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna L.) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, M; Masson, G; Beisel, J-N

    2012-03-01

    Sampling of the fish community was carried out for 20 years in the Mirgenbach reservoir, in North-Eastern France. The prevalence and the mean intensity of Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda) were analysed in roach (Rutilus rutilus) and silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) populations, the main two infected species. The aim of this study was to investigate the host switch from roach to silver bream and the consequences of L. intestinalis infestation in silver bream, which is an unusual host for this parasite as Ligula parasitism in silver bream appears to be rare. We analysed in detail the relationships between parasitism index (PI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), perivisceral fat abundance (PFA) and condition index (CI) in the silver bream population. In 1998, prevalence of L. intestinalis highlighted a clear host switch from roach to silver bream. In the silver bream population, young fish were the most severely infected and the impact of plerocercoids appeared to be different depending on the host sex. In male silver bream, plerocercoids drew energy from fat reserves even if GSI was also slightly impacted. On the contrary, in females energy was diverted from gonad maturation rather than from perivisceral fat reserves. No significant difference was observed in terms of CI in either sex.

  2. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    of erosion and coastal landslides. Among human activities that might have direct or indirect adverse impact on cultural heritage the main are coastal and underwater developments and infrastructures. These are building of coast- and shore-protection structures, roads, placing different types of pipeline (a recent case from Bulgaria is envisaged construction of gas pipeline "South Stream"). Other categories of anthropogenic impacts, such as coastal tourism and expansion of settlements, etc. are less negative factors, but locals and visitors can accidentally damage monuments, or in most of the cases by not being aware of the presence and importance of a archeological site. Finally, insufficient decision-making and management of coastal and underwater cultural heritage can also have potential adverse impact. Recommendations for mitigation and protection measures are also outlined in the end. This work is a part of the Project "Submarine Archaeological Heritage on the Western Black Sea Shelf - HERAS", financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria.

  3. Euphotic zone bacterioplankton sources major sedimentary bacteriohopanepolyols in the Holocene Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Martin; Seifert, Richard; Kasten, Sabine; Bahlmann, Enno; Michaelis, Walter

    2009-02-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are lipid constituents of many bacterial groups. Geohopanoids, the diagenetic products, are therefore ubiquitous in organic matter of the geosphere. To examine the potential of BHPs as environmental markers in marine sediments, we investigated a Holocene sediment core from the Black Sea. The concentrations of BHPs mirror the environmental shift from a well-mixed lake to a stratified marine environment by a strong and gradual increase from low values (˜30 μg g -1 TOC) in the oldest sediments to ˜170 μg g -1 TOC in sediments representing the onset of a permanently anoxic water body at about 7500 years before present (BP). This increase in BHP concentrations was most likely caused by a strong increase in bacterioplanktonic paleoproductivity brought about by several ingressions of Mediterranean Sea waters at the end of the lacustrine stage (˜9500 years BP). δ 15N values coevally decreasing with increasing BHP concentrations may indicate a shift from a phosphorus- to a nitrogen-limited setting supporting growth of N 2-fixing, BHP-producing bacteria. In sediments of the last ˜3000 years BHP concentrations have remained relatively stable at about 50 μg g -1 TOC. The distributions of major BHPs did not change significantly during the shift from lacustrine (or oligohaline) to marine conditions. Tetrafunctionalized BHPs prevailed throughout the entire sediment core, with the common bacteriohopanetetrol and 35-aminobacteriohopanetriol and the rare 35-aminobacteriohopenetriol, so far only known from a purple non-sulfur α-proteobacterium, being the main components. Other BHPs specific to cyanobacteria and pelagic methanotrophic bacteria were also found but only in much smaller amounts. Our results demonstrate that BHPs from microorganisms living in deeper biogeochemical zones of marine water columns are underrepresented or even absent in the sediment compared to the BHPs of bacteria present in the euphotic zone. Obviously, the assemblage of

  4. Toxic metals in tissues of fishes from the Black Sea and associated human health risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavan, Gabriel; Jitar, Oana; Teodosiu, Carmen; Nicoara, Mircea; Micu, Dragos; Strungaru, Stefan-Adrian

    2017-03-01

    The anthropogenic activities in the Black Sea area are responsible for toxic metal contamination of sea food products. In this study, several toxic metals: cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium, and copper were quantified in different tissues (digestive tract, muscle, skeleton, skin) of nine fish species (Neogobius melanostomus, Belone belone, Solea solea, Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus, Sardina pilchardus, Engraulis encrasicolus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Sprattus sprattus, Scorpaena porcus) by using atomic absorption spectrometer with a high-resolution continuum source and graphite furnace technique (HR-CS GF-AAS), and the risk of fish meat consumption by the young human population was evaluated. These metals are used in high amounts in industries located near the coastline such as shipyard construction and industrial plants. Toxic metal accumulation depends on fish feeding behavior, abiotic conditions, metal chemistry, and animal physiology. For instance, cadmium was measured in the muscle of the investigated species and average values of 0.0008-0.0338 mg kg -1 were obtained. The lowest average value of this metal was measured at benthic species N. melanostomus and the highest at the pelagic predator T. mediterraneus ponticus. Generally, the highest metal concentration was measured in the digestive tract that has the role of biofilter for these contaminants. The risk of contamination is significantly reduced by avoiding the consumption of certain fish tissues (digestive tract and skin for copper and skeleton for nickel). An estimation of the dietary metal intake to young consumers was realized for each of the studied species of fish from Romanian, Bulgarian, and Turkish waters, during the period 2001-2014 in order to evaluate the risks of chronic exposure in time due to metal toxicity. This estimation is important for the prevention of chronic exposure due to metal toxicity. Food exposure to studied metals showed a negative trend for Romania, Turkey, and Bulgaria based

  5. Ligophorus pilengas n. sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from the introduced So-iuy mullet, Mugil soiuy (Teleostei: Mugilidae), in the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabeev, Volodimir Leonidovich; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2004-04-01

    The monogenean Ligophorus chabaudi was originally described on the gills of the flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus, and was subsequently reported on the So-iuy mullet, Mugil soiuy. However, the morphology of sclerotized parts and multivariate statistical analyses suggest that the form from the So-iuy mullet represents a new species. This study provides a description of the new species Ligophorus pilengas n. sp. and provides additional morphological data concerning the morphology of the ventral bar that might be useful for the diagnosis of Ligophorus. Ligophorus pilengas n. sp. is the second species of Ligophorus reported on the So-iuy mullet. Zoogeographical records indicate that L. pilengas n. sp. was probably introduced to the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov from the western Pacific Ocean together with its host.

  6. Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) replication in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) exposed for different time periods to susceptible water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Vinay, Tharabenahalli-Nagaraju; Lee, Jehee; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-11-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) is a member of the Megalocytivirus genus that causes severe mortality to rock bream. Water temperature is known to affect the immune system and susceptibility of fish to RBIV infection. In this study, we evaluated the time dependent virus replication pattern and time required to completely eliminate virus from the rock bream body against RBIV infection at different water temperature conditions. The rock bream was exposed to the virus and held at 7 (group A1), 4 (group A2) and 2 days (group A3) at 23 °C before the water temperature was reduced to 17 °C. A total of 28% mortality was observed 24-35 days post infection (dpi) in only the 7 day exposure group at 23 °C. In all 23 °C exposure groups, virus replication peaked at 20 to 22 dpi (10 6 -10 7 /μl). In recovery stages (30-100 dpi), the virus copy number was gradually reduced, from 10 6 to 10 1 with faster decreases in the shorter exposure period group at 23 °C. When the water temperature was increased in surviving fish from 17 to 26 °C at 70 dpi, they did not show any mortality or signs of disease and had low virus copy numbers (below 10 2 /μl). Thus, fish need at least 50 days from peaked RBIV levels (approximately 20-25 dpi) to inhibit the virus. This indicates that maintaining the fish at low water temperature (17 °C) for 70 days is sufficient to eradicate RBIV from fish body. Thus, RBIV could be eliminated slowly from the fish body and the virus may be completely eliminated under the threshold of causing mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Innate immune responses against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) following poly (I:C) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-12-01

    Poly (I:C) showed promise as an immunoprotective agents in rock bream against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection. In this study, we evaluated the time-dependent virus replication pattern and antiviral immune responses in RBIV-infected rock bream with and without poly (I:C) administration. In the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, virus copy numbers were more than 18.9-, 24.0- and 479.2-fold lower than in the virus only injected group at 4 (4.73 × 10 4 and 8.95 × 10 5 /μl, respectively), 7 (3.67 × 10 5 and 8.81 × 10 6 /μl, respectively) and 10 days post infection (dpi) (1.26 × 10 5 and 6.02 × 10 7 /μl, respectively). Moreover, significantly high expression levels of TLR3 (8.6- and 7.7-fold, at 4 and 7 dpi, respectively) and IL1β (3.6-fold at 2 dpi) were observed in the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, but the expression levels were not significantly in the virus-injected group. However, IL8 and TNFα expression levels showed no statistical significance in both groups. Mx, ISG15 and PKR were significantly highly expressed from 4 to 10 dpi in the virus-injected group. Nevertheless, in the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, Mx and ISG15 expression were significantly expressed from 2 dpi. In summary, poly (I:C) administration in rock bream induces TLR3, IL1β, Mx and ISG15-mediated immune responses, which could be a critical factor for inhibition of virus replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Trophic structure of the fouling community in Odessa Bay (Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Varigin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The trophic structure of the coastal fouling community of Odessa Bay (Black Sea, which was composed of 10 species of macrophytes, 57 invertebrate species and 4 species of fish, was determined. The basic trophic relationship between organisms composing the community is shown. A minimization of interspecific trophic competition within the community is noted. The main sources of food material entering the fouling community were determined. We show that a significant proportion of food in the form of detritus, dissolved organic matter and small planktonic organisms enters the community from the water column. Filtration and pumping activity of sestonophage-organisms, particularly mussels, helps to attract food material to the community. Primary producers of the community are macrophytes and microphytes, which develop on account of their photosynthetic activity and ensure the provision of food to herbivores. The trophic group of detritophages consumes different fractions of the detritus which accumulates in the byssus threads of bivalve molluscs. In this context, mussel druses act as sediment traps, collecting detritus. Numerous polyphages, which are essentially omnivores and do not usually lack food material, were noted in the community. A small group of carnivorous invertebrates, whose representatives actively attack small animals, was identified. The abundance of these species in the community was about 1%, and their biomass less than 0.6%. Fish living in macrophyte weeds are the consumers in the community. We determined that the highest relative abundance (over 36% in the fouling community was reached by sestonophages and polyphages. We found that the undisputed leader in the relative biomass (over 97% in the fouling community ofOdessaBaywas the sestonophages (mainly composed of mussels. We determined that the trophic structure index of the community was 0.94, which confirms the significant dominance in biomass of bivalves over other species in

  9. Palaeoecology and geoarchaeology of the Varna Lake, northern Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana FILIPOVA-MARINOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal lakes are rich sources of biostratigraphic information that is very useful in palaeoecological reconstructions of climate changes and human impact on the natural vegetation. This information is of great importance for the archaeological descriptions of submerged praehistorical settlements found in the northern Bulgarian Black sea area. There are 4 archaeological sites in this area that have been palynologically studied for the last 30 years: the Durankulak Lake, the Shabla-Ezeretz Lake system, the Lake Bolata, as well as the Varna-Beloslav Lake system. Because of the lack of AMS radiocarbon dates for these sites, it was not possible to correlate adequately all palaeoenvironmental results with the available archaeological chronology.Aimed to receive additional information on the Holocene vegetation dynamics and lake level changes, as well as on the anthropogenic impact during the Late Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age, the high-resolution spore-pollen analysis of AMS dated laminated sediments from a new Core 3 – Varna Lake was combined with analyses of dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, and other non-pollen palynomorphs.The location of the core is close to several sites of submerged praehistorical settlements and the Varna Late Eneolithic (Chalcolithic Necropolis, which is famous with the oldest hand-made gold treasure in the Worlds, and permits the palaeoenvironmental correlations of obtained results with available archaeological and geochronological data. The core is 995 cm long, but its palynologically investigated length is 870 cm. It contains dark grey clay and laminated sediments (varves. Seven samples of sediments were submitted for radiocarbon dating to the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (NOSAMS Facility of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI. The dates have been calibrated using the program CALIB version 6.1.0 of using the IntCal09 curve. An Age Model for the sedimentation rate was created by the

  10. Quantification of microbial communities in subsurface marine sediments of the Black Sea and off Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eSchippers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-rich subsurface marine sediments were taken by gravity coring up to a depth of 10 meters below seafloor at six stations from the anoxic Black Sea and the Benguela upwelling system off Namibia during the research cruises R/V Meteor 72/5 and 76/1, respectively. The quantitative microbial community composition at various sediment depths was analyzed using total cell counting, CARD-FISH and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR. Total cell counts decreased with depths from 109 – 1010 cells /mL at the sediment surface to 107 – 109 cells /mL below one meter depth. Based on CARD-FISH and Q-PCR analysis overall similar proportions of Bacteria and Archaea were determined. The down core quantitative distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was successfully revealed by Q-PCR. Crenarchaeota and the bacterial candidate division JS-1 and the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi were as highly abundant as Archaea and Bacteria, respectively. Less abundant but detectable in most of the samples in high gene copy numbers were Eukarya and the Fe(III- and Mn(IV-reducing bacterial group Geobacteriaceae (off Namibia as well as the functional genes cbbL encoding for the large subunit of Rubisco, the functional genes dsrA and aprA of sulfate-reducers and the gene mcrA of methanogens. Overall the high organic carbon content of the sediments goes along with high cell counts and high gene copy numbers, as well as an equal abundance of Bacteria and Archaea.

  11. Aspects regarding environmental impact of oil marine platforms from Black sea coast - Romanian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : As a result of investigations conducted by R.A.PETROM - PETROMAR Constanta subsidiary, reserves of oil and gas in geological structures LEBADA, EOCEN - LEBADA and SINOE from romanian sector of Black Sea Continental Platform, have been discovered. These reserves are exploited by marine platforms and ways of oil transportation to the shore are submarine pipe-lines and ships. To assess environmental impact of oil transportation, studies covered following steps; Characterization of the present status of environmental factors, in the range of pipe-lines and ships; Marine water characterization: salinity, ionic composition, dissolved gases, organic depositions on metallic bodies; Marine bicenosys: phytoplankton and zooplankton characteristics, phytobenthos and zoobenthos communities, marine ichtyofauna, marine mammals. Marine resources available for exploitation; Total radioactivity analysis results; Marine water hydrocarbons analysis results; Present pollution sources in the area; Air quality in oil marine platforms area and shore area; Potential pollution sources and pollutants resulted from oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Sources and emissions in air; Sources and emissions in marine environment; Aspects regarding waste management; Environmental impact of oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Impact on the air quality and marine environment of oil marine platforms activities; Assessment of environmental impact on atmosphere generated by the oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Impact on the marine environment of oil transport ships; Effects of oil fractions on marine organisms; Acute effects of oil pollution on marine communities; Risks of causing major environmental impact accidents/failures on marine platforms PETROMAR; Chronic effects of low oil concentrations;Marine environment recovery potential after discharges accidents

  12. On-line applications of numerical models in the Black Sea GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, E.; Khaliulin, A.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nikolaidis, M.; Stylianou, Stavros

    2017-09-01

    The Black Sea Geographical Information System (GIS) is developed based on cutting edge information technologies, and provides automated data processing and visualization on-line. Mapserver is used as a mapping service; the data are stored in MySQL DBMS; PHP and Python modules are utilized for data access, processing, and exchange. New numerical models can be incorporated in the GIS environment as individual software modules, compiled for a server-based operational system, providing interaction with the GIS. A common interface allows setting the input parameters; then the model performs the calculation of the output data in specifically predefined files and format. The calculation results are then passed to the GIS for visualization. Initially, a test scenario of integration of a numerical model into the GIS was performed, using software, developed to describe a two-dimensional tsunami propagation in variable basin depth, based on a linear long surface wave model which is legitimate for more than 5 m depth. Furthermore, the well established oil spill and trajectory 3-D model MEDSLIK (http://www.oceanography.ucy.ac.cy/medslik/) was integrated into the GIS with more advanced GIS functionality and capabilities. MEDSLIK is able to forecast and hind cast the trajectories of oil pollution and floating objects, by using meteo-ocean data and the state of oil spill. The MEDSLIK module interface allows a user to enter all the necessary oil spill parameters, i.e. date and time, rate of spill or spill volume, forecasting time, coordinates, oil spill type, currents, wind, and waves, as well as the specification of the output parameters. The entered data are passed on to MEDSLIK; then the oil pollution characteristics are calculated for pre-defined time steps. The results of the forecast or hind cast are then visualized upon a map.

  13. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  14. {sup 137}Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve [IRSN, LERCM, Centre Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M. [International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (CIESM), 16 Blvd de Suisse, MC-98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Andral, Bruno [Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Barisic, Delko [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto [Inst. Espanol de Oceanografi' a (IEO), Centro Oceanografico de Murcia - Calle Varadero No. 1, 30740 San Pedro del Pinatar (Spain); Bologa, Alexandru S. [National Institute for Marine Research and Development ' Grigore Antipa' , RO-900581, Constantza (Romania); Boudjenoun, Redouane [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Delfanti, Roberta [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia, e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Egorov, Victor N. [Inst. of Biology of the Southern Seas (IBSS), National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 2 Porspekt Nakhimova, 99 011 Sevastopol, Crimea (Ukraine); El Khoukhi, Tahar [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CNESTEN), BP 1382 RP Rabat 10001 (Morocco); Florou, Heleni [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 153 10, P.O. Box 60228, Athens (Greece); Kniewald, Goran [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Noureddine, Abdelkader [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify {sup 137}Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured {sup 137}Cs levels were found to be very low (usually <1 Bq kg{sup -1} wet wt) {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area.

  15. 137Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, Herve; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M.; Andral, Bruno; Barisic, Delko; Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto; Bologa, Alexandru S.; Boudjenoun, Redouane; Delfanti, Roberta; Egorov, Victor N.; El Khoukhi, Tahar; Florou, Heleni; Kniewald, Goran; Noureddine, Abdelkader

    2008-01-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify 137 Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured 137 Cs levels were found to be very low (usually -1 wet wt) 137 Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area

  16. Possible multihazard events (tsunamis, earthquakes, landslides) expected on the North Bulgarian Black sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranguelov, B.; Gospodinopv, D.

    2009-04-01

    Earthquakes The area is famous with its seismic regime. The region usually shows non regular behavior of the strong events occurrence. There are episodes of activation and between them long periods of seismic quiescence. The most important one is at the I-st century BC when according to the chronicler Strabo, the ancient Greek colony "Bisone sank in the waters of the sea". The seismic source is known as Shabla-Kaliakra zone with the best documented seismic event of 31st March 1901. This event had a magnitude of 7.2 (estimated by the macroseismic transformation formula) with a source depth of about 10-20 km. The epicenter was located in the aquatory of the sea. The observed macroseismic intensity on the land reached the maximum value of X degree MSK. This event produced a number of secondary effects - landslides, rockfalls, subsidence, extensive destruction of the houses located around and tsunami (up to 3 meters height observed at Balchik port. This event is selected as referent one. Tsunamis Such earthquakes (magnitude greater then 7.0) almost always trigger tsunamis. They could be generated by the earthquake rupture process, or more frequently by the secondary triggered phenomena - landslides (submarine or surface) and/or other geodynamic phenomena - rock falls, degradation of gas hydrates, etc. the most famous water level change is described by Strabo - related to the great catastrophe. The area shows also some other expressions about tsunamis - the last one - a non seismic tsunami at 7th May, 2007 with maximum observed amplitudes of about 3 meters water level changes. Landslides The area on the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast is covered by many active landslides. They have different size, depth and activation time. Most of them are located near the coast line thus presenting huge danger about the beaches, tourist infrastructure, population and historical heritage. The most famous landslide (subsidence) is related with the I-st century BC seismic event, when a

  17. Neutron activation analysis and scanning electron microscopy of phytoplankton in the coastal zone of the Crimea (Black sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekhoroshkov, P.S.; Kravtsova, A.V.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Tokarev, Yu.N.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the concentrations of 45 elements in the coastal phytoplankton communities used as bioindicator of inorganic contamination of the Black Sea coastal area near Sevastopol, Ukraine, were determined by means of neutron activation analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer. Phytoplankton samples were collected by total tows of the plankton net with 35 μm pore size at 3 stations situated in polluted and relatively pristine water areas of the Sevastopol coastal zone during autumn period of the phytoplankton active growth. The concentration of Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, As, Rb, Ba, Th and Fe, Cr increases exponentially from relatively pristine station to more polluted station and 10 and 3 times greater, respectively, in the phytoplankton of the Sevastopol Bay. The rare-earth elements have relatively the same concentration values of about 1 μg/g and tend to accumulate in the phytoplankton from the polluted station in the Sevastopol Bay. The obtained results are in good agreement with the elemental concentration data in the oceanic plankton, plankton communities from the White Sea and the Black Sea. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry the mineral particles of unknown origin and impurities of copper (0.42% by weight) in the phytoplankton at the polluted station and zinc (0.57% by weight) at the relatively pristine station were determined

  18. Chromosome mutagenesis in populations of aquatic biota in the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Danube and Dnieper rivers, 1986-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytsugina, V.G.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the level of structural mutagenesis in the reproductive and somatic cells of aquatic biota of various taxa from natural populations of neustic and benthic communities in the Black and Aegean Seas and the Dnieper and Danube rivers between 1986 and 1989. The cytogenetic research covered embryos, larvae and adult worms of Nereidae, Naididae, Tubificidae and Turbellaria, adult Sagitta setosa, young Bivalvia molluscs, embryos of Mysidacea, and growing roe of Engraulis encrasicholus, Sprattus sprattus, Diplodus annularis, Mullus barbatus, Trachurus trachurus, Scophthalmus maeoticus, Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna, Rutilus rutilus and Stizostedion lucioperca. It was established that aquatic biota in the open waters of the Black and Aegean Seas had a lower level of chromosome mutagenesis than representatives of the fluvial communities. The intensity of mutagenesis was compared with the data published in the literature on radioactive contamination/chemical pollution of the aqueous medium in these areas. The paper sets out statistical regularities in chromosome mutagenesis (inter-individual variability in the chromosome aberration rate and distribution of chromosome damage in cells), noting different patterns of chromosome aberration distribution among cells. On the basis of a large quantity on our own data from field and experimental cytogenetic studies involving aquatic biota, the paper considers the possibility of using - for the purposes of radiochemical-ecological monitoring - chromosome damage distribution in cells as an indicator of whether mutagens are radiation-related or not. (author)

  19. Selected heavy metals and selenium in the blood of black sea turtle (Chelonia mydas agasiizzi) from Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley-Quiñónez, C P; Zavala-Norzagaray, A A; Réndon-Maldonado, J G; Espinosa-Carreón, T L; Canizales-Román, A; Escobedo-Urías, D C; Leal-Acosta, M L; Hart, C E; Aguirre, A A

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, Mn) and selenium (Se) was analyzed in blood collected from 12 black turtles (Chelonia mydas agasiizzi) captured in Canal del Infiernillo, Punta Chueca, Mexico. The most abundant metals were Zn (63.58 μg g(-1)) and Se (7.66 μg g(-1)), and Cd was the lower (0.99 μg g(-1)). The sequential concentrations of trace metals were Zn > Se > Cu > Mn > Ni > Cd. In conclusion, this information is important as a baseline when using blood as tissue analysis of heavy metals; however, these levels could represent recent exposure in foraging grounds of black turtles in the Sea of Cortez.

  20. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, alkalinity, silicate, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate profiles from bottle and CTD taken from Russian vessels in the Black Sea from 1890-06-27 to 2005-08-06 (NODC Accession 0119566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from June 1890 to August 2005 in the Black Seas. Russian vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Small boats were used to collect data...

  1. Oceanographic and meteorological data from meteorological sensors and bottle/rosette/net and CTD taken from Russian vessels in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas from 1897 to 2012 (NODC Accession 0117429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from May 1897 to December 2012 in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas. Russian vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Small boats were...

  2. Climate and land-use change impacts on potential solar photovoltaic power generation in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, I.; Goyette, S.; Gago-Silva, A.; Quiquerez, L.; Lehmann, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solar resource is sufficient to provide PV power at suitable locations within the Black Sea catchment. • Climate change will not significantly impact the solar resource, although uncertainty exists. • Land-use change will significantly impact potential PV power, although socio-economic factors will have more importance. • It is important to strengthen regional cooperation for the integration of renewable energy resources. - Abstract: Climate change is a naturally occurring phenomenon that has recently been greatly impacted by anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of the main contributing sectors to GHG emissions is the energy sector, due to its high dependency on fossil fuels. Renewable energy systems, notably solar energy, can be an effective climate change mitigation alternative. Photovoltaic (PV) technology provides an interesting method to produce electricity through a virtually infinite renewable resource at the human time scale: solar radiation. This study evaluates the current and future solar energy potential through the use of grid-connected PV power plants at the scale of countries within the Black Sea catchment. Simulated data are used to determine potential change in climate and land-use according to two different development scenarios. Incident solar radiation flux from re-analyses, spatial interpolation, and the application of the Delta change method are used to assess the current and future solar resource potential within this catchment. Potential sites suitable for PV power plants are selected following a Fuzzy logic approach, and thus the total potential solar energy through PV power generation can be determined. Results show that climate change will have little impact on the solar radiation resource, while land-use change induces more variability. However, regardless of the scenario followed, the solar energy potential is sufficient to provide an interesting contribution to the electricity generation mix of

  3. Coastal cliffs, rock-slope failures and Late Quaternary transgressions of the Black Sea along southern Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Lenart, Jan; Hradecký, Jan; Hercman, Helena; Braucher, Règis; Šilhán, Karel; Škarpich, Václav

    2018-02-01

    Rock-slope failures represent a significant hazard along global coastlines, but their chronology remains poorly documented. Here, we focus on the geomorphology and chronology of giant rockslides affecting the Crimean Mountains along the Black Sea coast. Geomorphic evidence suggests that high (>100 m) limestone cliffs flanking the southern slopes of the Crimean Mountains are scarps of rockslides nested within larger deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs). Such pervasive slope failures originated due to lateral spreading of intensively faulted Late Jurassic carbonate blocks moving atop weak/plastic Late Triassic flysch and tuff layers. By introducing a dating strategy relying on the combination of the uranium-thorium dating (U-Th) of exposed calcareous speleothems covering the landslide scarps with the 36Cl exposure dating of rock walls, we are able to approximate the time interval between the origin of incipient crevices and the final collapse of limestone blocks that exposed the cliff faces. For the three representative large-scale rockslides between the towns of Foros and Yalta, the initiation of the DSGSDs as evidenced by the widening of crevices and the onset of speleothem accumulation was >300 ka BP, but the recent cliff morphology along the coast is the result of Late Pleistocene/Holocene failures spanning ∼20-0.5 ka BP. The exposures of rockslide scarps occurred mostly at ∼20-15, ∼8, ∼5-4 and ∼2-0.5 ka, which substantially coincide with the last major Black Sea transgressions and/or more humid Holocene intervals. Our study suggests that before ultimate fast and/or catastrophic slope failures, the relaxation of rock massifs correlative with karstification, cracks opening, and incipient sliding lasted on the order of 104-105 years. Rapid Late Glacial/Holocene transgressions of the Black Sea likely represented the last impulse for the collapse of limestone blocks and the origin of giant rockslides, simultaneously affecting the majority

  4. Effects of changing nutrient inputs on the ratio of small pelagic fish stock and phytoplankton biomass in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunev, Oleg A.; Velikova, Violeta; Carstensen, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    Significant increases in nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the Black Sea in the second half of the 20th century caused eutrophication and drastically decreasing Si:N and Si:P ratios. Combined with climate change, overfishing of top predators and a huge outbreak of the non-indigenous ctenophore Mnemiopsis, the pelagic food web was strongly modified and its efficiency for channeling primary production to higher trophic levels substantially reduced. We used the ratio between small pelagic fish stock and phytoplankton biomass on the Danube shelf and in the open Black Sea to investigate long-term changes in food web functioning. The ratio had 1) highest values for the pre-eutrophication period when diatoms and copepods dominated the pelagic food web ('muscle food chain'), 2) decreased during the eutrophication period with stronger prevalence of autotrophic pico- and nanophytoplankton, bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, microzooplankton, Noctiluca and jellyfish ('jelly food chain' with increased importance of the microbial loop), 3) lowest values during the ecological crisis (1989-1992), when small pelagic fish stocks collapsed, and 4) increased after 1993, indicating that the ecosystem went out of the crisis and exhibited a trend of recovery. However, in the last period (1993-2008) the ratio remained close to values observed in the middle eutrophication phase, suggesting that the ecosystem was far from fully recovered. Since early 2000s, fluctuating pelagic fish stocks, with a tendency to decreasing fish landing again, have been observed in the Black Sea. Additionally, the quality of food for the small pelagic fish has deteriorated due to warming trends and the legacy of eutrophication, giving support for the 'jelly food chain', exhibiting low energy transfer and prevalence of organisms with high respiration rate and low nutritional value.

  5. Microbial ecology of the stratified water column of the Black Sea as revealed by a comprehensive biomarker study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakeham, Stuart G.; Amann, Rudi; Freemann, Katherine H.

    2007-01-01

    The stratified water column of the Black Sea is partitioned into oxic, suboxic, and euxinic zones, each characterized by different biogeochemical processes and by distinct microbial communities. In 2003, we collected particulate matter by large volume in situ filtration at the highest resolution...... reduction, and sulfide oxidation at the chemocline, and bacterial sulfate reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane by archaea in the anoxic zone. Cell densities for archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria are estimated based on water column biomarker concentrations and compared with CARD-FISH results....

  6. Seasonality of Reproduction and Embryonic Growth of Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias L., 1758) in the Eastern Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRHAN, Sefa Ayhan; SEYHAN, Kadir

    2006-01-01

    The seasonality of reproduction and embryonic development of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) sampled from the Eastern Black Sea were studied. The gestation period of spiny dogfish, starting in August, September and October, takes around 23-24 months. Fertilized females were caught at a depth of 30-45 m in July and August. Females with full-term pups and empty uteri were found at 50-60 m depth, where the temperature was 10 °C. Lengths of pups at birth were around 28-29 cm, whereas their weig...

  7. The use of helicopter-borne neutron detectors to detect nuclear warheads in the USSR-US Black Sea experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Obinyakov, B.A.; Zemlyakov, M.V.; Ryazantsev, V.A.; Armashov, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Soviet Navy used a helicopter/ship system called Sovietnik to detect a cruise-missile warhead in the joint USSR-US experiment on the Black Sea, which took place on 5 July 1989. The system consists of a ship-based helicopter, equipped with a neutron detector and processing equipment, associated ship-based equipment. The neutron detector, together with instrumentation for recording preliminary processing, and analysis of initial information, is located on the helicopter, which carries out the measurement while flying slowly past the ship in question

  8. Application of the spectrometric and radiochemical techniques in analyzing environmental samples from the Bulgarian Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleva, B.S.; Mungov, G.; Galabov, N.; Kolarova, M.; Guenchev, T.

    1999-01-01

    Development of the appropriate methods and techniques for marine and atmospheric radioactivity measurements in the NIMH-BAS during the last 5 years is presented. Approaches for pre-concentration of the radionuclides from the atmosphere and sea water samples followed with reliable radiochemical methods for radionuclides separation and low level counting are discussed. Dissolved radiocesium concentrations measured in a period of time starting in 1993 show some decrease with years and spatial variations probably due to the hydrophysical features of the sampling sides - the lower measured concentrations during 1995 and 1998 correspond to the lower salinity. Application of the radiochemical separation of Plutonium, Thorium, 90 Sr and Americium on the samples from the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal region is reported. (author)

  9. Seismic crustal structure between the Transylvanian Basin and the Black Sea, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, F.; Raileanu, V.; Fielitz, W.; Dinu, C.; Landes, M.; Bala, A.; Prodehl, C.

    2007-02-01

    In order to study the lithospheric structure in Romania a 450 km long WNW-ESE trending seismic refraction project was carried out in August/September 2001. It runs from the Transylvanian Basin across the East Carpathian Orogen and the Vrancea seismic region to the foreland areas with the very deep Neogene Focsani Basin and the North Dobrogea Orogen on the Black Sea. A total of ten shots with charge sizes 300-1500 kg were recorded by over 700 geophones. The data quality of the experiment was variable, depending primarily on charge size but also on local geological conditions. The data interpretation indicates a multi-layered structure with variable thicknesses and velocities. The sedimentary stack comprises up to 7 layers with seismic velocities of 2.0-5.9 km/s. It reaches a maximum thickness of about 22 km within the Focsani Basin area. The sedimentary succession is composed of (1) the Carpathian nappe pile, (2) the post-collisional Neogene Transylvanian Basin, which covers the local Late Cretaceous to Paleogene Tarnava Basin, (3) the Neogene Focsani Basin in the foredeep area, which covers autochthonous Mesozoic and Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks as well as a probably Permo-Triassic graben structure of the Moesian Platform, and (4) the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks of the North Dobrogea Orogen. The underlying crystalline crust shows considerable thickness variations in total as well as in its individual subdivisions, which correlate well with the Tisza-Dacia, Moesian and North Dobrogea crustal blocks. The lateral velocity structure of these blocks along the seismic line remains constant with about 6.0 km/s along the basement top and 7.0 km/s above the Moho. The Tisza-Dacia block is about 33 to 37 km thick and shows low velocity zones in its uppermost 15 km, which are presumably due to basement thrusts imbricated with sedimentary successions related to the Carpathian Orogen. The crystalline crust of Moesia does not exceed 25 km and is covered by up to 22 km of

  10. Multivariate Hybrid Modelling of Future Wave-Storms at the Northwestern Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Lin-Ye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of future wave-storms and their relationship to large-scale climate can provide useful information for environmental or urban planning at coastal areas. A hybrid methodology (process-based and statistical was used to characterize the extreme wave-climate at the northwestern Black Sea. The Simulating WAve Nearshore spectral wave-model was employed to produce wave-climate projections, forced with wind-fields projections for two climate change scenarios: Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. A non-stationary multivariate statistical model was built, considering significant wave-height and peak-wave-period at the peak of the wave-storm, as well as storm total energy and storm-duration. The climate indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic Pattern, and Scandinavian Pattern have been used as covariates to link to storminess, wave-storm threshold, and wave-storm components in the statistical model. The results show that, first, under both RCP scenarios, the mean values of significant wave-height and peak-wave-period at the peak of the wave-storm remain fairly constant over the 21st century. Second, the mean value of storm total energy is more markedly increasing in the RCP4.5 scenario than in the RCP8.5 scenario. Third, the mean value of storm-duration is increasing in the RCP4.5 scenario, as opposed to the constant trend in the RCP8.5 scenario. The variance of each wave-storm component increases when the corresponding mean value increases under both RCP scenarios. During the 21st century, the East Atlantic Pattern and changes in its pattern have a special influence on wave-storm conditions. Apart from the individual characteristics of each wave-storm component, wave-storms with both extreme energy and duration can be expected in the 21st century. The dependence between all the wave-storm components is moderate, but grows with time and, in general, the severe emission scenario of RCP8.5 presents

  11. Numerical simulation of gas hydrate exploitation from subsea reservoirs in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2017-04-01

    Natural gas (methane) is the most environmental friendly source of fossil energy. When coal is replace by natural gas in power production the emission of carbon dioxide is reduced by 50 %. The vast amount of methane assumed in gas hydrate deposits can help to overcome a shortage of fossil energy resources in the future. To increase their potential for energy applications new technological approaches are being discussed and developed worldwide. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e. g. depressurization and/or carbon dioxide injection) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR - Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs«. In order to simulate the exploitation of hydrate-bearing sediments in the subsea, an in-house simulation model HyReS which is implemented in the general-purpose software COMSOL Multiphysics is used. This tool turned out to be especially suited for the flexible implementation of non-standard correlations concerning heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate kinetics, and other relevant model data. Partially based on the simulation results, the development of a technical concept and its evaluation are the subject of ongoing investigations, whereby geological and ecological criteria are to be considered. The results illustrate the processes and effects occurring during the gas production from a subsea gas hydrate deposit by depressurization. The simulation results from a case study for a deposit located in the Black Sea reveal that the production of natural gas by simple depressurization is possible but with quite low rates. It can be shown that the hydrate decomposition and thus the gas production strongly depend on the geophysical properties of the reservoir, the mass and heat transport within the reservoir, and

  12. An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Bernsten, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; DeLuca, N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. Here, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng/g for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng/g for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng/g. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model-measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60-90degN) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with the fact that most Arctic BC deposition originates

  13. An AeroCom assessment of black carbon in Arctic snow and sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; De Luca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; van Noije, T.; Yun, Y.; Zhang, K.

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. In this paper, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng g-1 for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng g-1 for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng g-1. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model–measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60–90° N) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with

  14. Seasonal hypoxia in eutrophic stratified coastal shelves: mechanisms, sensibilities and interannual variability from the North-Western Black Sea case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, A.; Beckers, J.-M.; Grégoire, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf (NWS) is a~shallow eutrophic area in which seasonal stratification of the water column isolates bottom waters from the atmosphere and prevents ventilation to compensate for the large consumption of oxygen, due to respiration in the bottom waters and in the sediments. A 3-D coupled physical biogeochemical model is used to investigate the dynamics of bottom hypoxia in the Black Sea NWS at different temporal scales from seasonal to interannual (1981-2009) and to differentiate the driving factors (climatic versus eutrophication) of hypoxic conditions in bottom waters. Model skills are evaluated by comparison with 14 500 in-situ oxygen measurements available in the NOAA World Ocean Database and the Black Sea Commission data. The choice of skill metrics and data subselections orientate the validation procedure towards specific aspects of the oxygen dynamics, and prove the model's ability to resolve the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of oxygen concentration as well as the spatial location of the oxygen depleted waters and the specific threshold of hypoxia. During the period 1981-2009, each year exhibits seasonal bottom hypoxia at the end of summer. This phenomenon essentially covers the northern part of the NWS, receiving large inputs of nutrients from the Danube, Dniestr and Dniepr rivers, and extends, during the years of severe hypoxia, towards the Romanian Bay of Constanta. In order to explain the interannual variability of bottom hypoxia and to disentangle its drivers, a statistical model (multiple linear regression) is proposed using the long time series of model results as input variables. This statistical model gives a general relationship that links the intensity of hypoxia to eutrophication and climate related variables. The use of four predictors allows to reproduce 78% of hypoxia interannual variability: the annual nitrate discharge (N), the sea surface temperature in the month preceding stratification (T), the

  15. Forest Resources of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast: Problems and Prospects of Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bebia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70 % of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast (CBSC forests grow in mountainous conditions of the Colchis phytogeographical province and perform primary environmental functions. In these forests for a long period of time excessively intense logging has been in practice, which caused serious damage to their health. The main issues of forestry here are the introduction of effective methods of harvesting, using rational technology in logging operations, restoring native forest types at past logging sites, increasing the productivity and sustainability of forests on the bioecological biogeocenotical level, and preserving the riparian-protective role of forests. In the article, the author analyzes the results of many years of research in forests of the CBSC, that consider the question of condition of forests, peculiarity the multifunctional values and priority direction forestry in them. The author also considers the basic conformity of structure and com-position of forest stands, and presents evidence about the natural renewal of logging sites in fir and beech forests. It has been established that high intensity selective logging more than 50 % canopy cover and bringing the stand after logging 0.5 and below leads to degradation of forests, except for the possibility of natural regeneration felling areas for over 70 years. The study substantiates the effectiveness of selective forms of forest management in the uneven-aged stands and the importance of a multi-purpose and sustainable use of forest resources. The study emphasizes the need for a rational technology of logging operations and silvicultural demands strict compliance with the development of cutting areas and suggests ways to improve the productivity of forests, using introduced valuable tree species. For example, Sequoia sempervirens Endl. in the plantings of forest monocultures on the Abkhazian Research Forest Experimental Station (Ochamchira at age of 50 years forms a valuable timber of

  16. Black Sea's wind wave parameters derived from numerical simulations driven by NCEP/NCAR and NCEP CFSR reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gippius, Fedor; Myslenkov, Stanislav; Stoliarova, Elena; Arkhipkin, Victor

    2017-04-01

    This study is focused on typical features of spatiotemporal distribution of wind wave parameters on the Black Sea. These parameters were calculated during two experiments using the third-generation spectral wind wave model SWAN. During the first run a 5x5 km rectangular grid covering the entire Black Sea was used. Forcing parameters - wind speed and direction - were derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis for the period between 1948 and 2010. During the second run high resolution wind fields form the NCEP-CFSR reanalysis were used as forcing for the period from 1979 till 2010. For the period form 2011 till 2015 the second version of this reanalysis was used. The computations were performed on an unstructured computational grid with cell size depending on the sea depth. The distance between grid points varies from 10—15 km in deep-water regions till 500 m in coastal areas. Calculated values of significant wave heights (SWH) obtained during both runs were validated against instrumental measurements data. In the first case we used satellite altimetry data from the AVISO project. It turned out that calculated SWH values are typically lower than observed ones - the deviation between them was 0.3 m on the average, its maximum was of 1.67 m. Therefore, an empirical formula was applied to correct the modeling results obtained during the first experiment. For the second experiment in situ measurements performed by a Datawell buoy installed 7 km off the city Gelendzhik were used for validation. The comparison of measured and modelled values of SWH shows a good agreement between these parameters in this case. No correction was applied to the results of the second experiment. We applied the results of the NCEP/NCAR experiment to assess various features of the wave climate of the entire Black Sea. Thus, maximal SWH are observed in winter and autumn in two areas in the southwestern and northeastern parts of the sea; SWH values in these areas exceed 9 m. To define areas with most

  17. Temperature profile in apricot tree canopies under the soil and climate conditions of the Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Chitu, Emil

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the temperature profiles determined by thermal imagery in apricot tree canopies under the semi-arid conditions of the Black Sea Coast in a chernozem of Dobrogea Region, Romania. The study analyzes the thermal vertical profile of apricot orchards for three representative cultivars during summertime. Measurements were done when the soil water content (SWC) was at field capacity (FC) within the rooting depth, after intense sprinkler irrigation applications. Canopy temperature was measured during clear sky days at three heights for both sides of the apricot trees, sunlit (south), and shaded (north). For the SWC studied, i.e., FC, canopy height did not induce a significant difference between the temperature of apricot tree leaves (Tc) and the ambient air temperature (Ta) within the entire vertical tree profile, and temperature measurements by thermal imagery can therefore be taken at any height on the tree crown leaves. Differences between sunlit and shaded sides of the canopy were significant. Because of these differences for Tc-Ta among the apricot tree cultivars studied, lower base lines (LBLs) should be determined for each cultivar separately. The use of thermal imagery technique under the conditions of semi-arid coastal areas with low range of vapor pressure deficit could be useful in irrigation scheduling of apricot trees. The paper discusses the implications of the data obtained in the experiment under the conditions of the coastal area of the Black Sea, Romania, and neighboring countries with similar climate, such as Bulgaria and Turkey.

  18. The Demographic Characteristics of the Tribes of the Black Sea Region in the first half of the XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The social class structure of the Black sea tribes, the resettlement area which was the territory from Anapa to the river Bzyb, has not yet become a subject of research in the historiography. Natukhaitsy and shapsugs of Adygeyan tribe, ubykhs, and also jikis of Abaza tribe lived in the territory during the first half of the XIX century. The data sources on the population in this territory at a specified time are contradictory, thus practically does not reflect the proportion of estates. The authors attracted as sources the statistical materials of 1800-1860-ies, including those published in the modern period on the Abkhazia (Abaza tribe and the Kuban. By the comparison of the different sources there was made an attempt to calculate the proportion of the population on the estates, namely: the proportion of princes, nobles, free inhabitants, dependent inhabitants, slaves separately for coastal and mountain societies. In addition there were attracted the sources of personal origin – diaries and memoirs, the works of Abkhazians who lived among travelers, and, of course, the scientific literature. The authors used the methods of demographic statistics for reconstruction of the population of the tribes of the Black sea region due to the presence of incomplete data on the number of classes. In conclusion the research provides with the accumulated statistical data on total population, population class and gender.

  19. Distribution and abundance of phytobenthic communities: Implications for connectivity and ecosystem functioning in a Black Sea Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berov, Dimitar; Todorova, Valentina; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Rinde, Eli; Karamfilov, Ventzislav

    2018-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of macroalgal communities in a Marine Protected Area (MPA) along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast were mapped and quantified, with particular focus on the previously unstudied P. crispa lower-infralittoral communities on Ostrea edulis biogenic reefs. Data from high resolution geophysical substrate mapping were combined with benthic community observations from georeferenced benthic photographic surveys and sampling. Multivariate analysis identified four distinct assemblages of lower-infralittoral macroalgal communities at depths between 10 and 17 m, dominated by Phyllophora crispa, Apoglossum ruscifoluim, Zanardinia typus and Gelidium spp. Maxent software analysis showed distinct preferences of the identified communities to areas with specific ranges of depth, inclination and curvature, with P. crispa more frequently occurring on vertical oyster biogenic reef structures. By combining production rates from literature, biomass measurements and the produced habitat maps, the highest proportion of primary production and DOC release was shown for the upper infralittoral Cystoseira barbata and Cystoseira bosphorica, followed by the production of the lower-infralittoral macroalgae. The observed distribution of P. crispa within the studied MPA was related to the network of Natura 2000 maritime MPAs along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, which indicated that the connectivity of the populations of the species within the established network is insufficient within this cell of ecosystem functioning.

  20. The nitrogen cycle in anaerobic methanotrophic mats of the Black Sea is linked to sulfate reduction and biomass decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Taubert, Martin; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen-Tomm, Martin; Basen, Mirko; Bastida, Felipe; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) mats host methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes. Little is known about the nitrogen cycle in these communities. Here, we link the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) to the nitrogen cycle in microbial mats of the Black Sea by using stable isotope probing. We used four different (15)N-labeled sources of nitrogen: dinitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium. We estimated the nitrogen incorporation rates into the total biomass and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR). Dinitrogen played an insignificant role as nitrogen source. Assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction occurred. High rates of nitrate reduction to dinitrogen were stimulated by methane and sulfate, suggesting that oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfides was necessary for AOM with nitrate as electron acceptor. Nitrate reduction to dinitrogen occurred also in the absence of methane as electron donor but at six times slower rates. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium was independent of AOM. Ammonium was used for biomass synthesis under all conditions. The pivotal enzyme in AOM coupled to sulfate reduction, MCR, was synthesized from nitrate and ammonium. Results show that AOM coupled to sulfate reduction along with biomass decomposition drive the nitrogen cycle in the ANME mats of the Black Sea and that MCR enzymes are involved in this process. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Moderate to severe iodine deficiency in three endemic goitre areas from the Black Sea region and the capital of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, G.; Erdogan, M.F.; Delange, F.; Sav, H.; Guellue, S.; Kamel, N.

    2000-01-01

    Endemic goitre is still an important and underestimated health concern in Turkey. The overall prevalence had been calculated as 30.3% by palpation in a national survey conducted in 1995. However, direct evidence that iodine deficiency (ID) is the major cause of the endemic were lacking until now. We measured sonographic thyroid volumes (STV), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in 1226 school age children (SAC) (9-11 year old) from Ankara the capital of Turkey located in the central Anatolia, and three highly endemic goitre areas of the Black Sea region. A considerable number of school age children (SAC) were found to have STV exceeding the recommended upper normal limits for their age and gender obtained from iodine-replete European children (i.e. 26.7, 40.3, 44.8 and 51.7% of children from Ankara, Kastamonu, Bayburt and Trabzon respectively). UIC indicated moderate to severe ID in these areas with median concentrations of 25.5, 30.5, 16.0 and 14 μg/L respectively. This study showed severe to moderate ID as the primary etiological factor for the goitre endemic observed in Ankara and the Black Sea region of Turkey

  2. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V.; Milchakova, Nataliya A.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  3. Phorbin steryl esters in Black Sea sediment traps and sediments: A preliminary evaluation of their paleooceanographic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Linda L.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    1994-10-01

    The distributions of pyropheophorbide- a steryl esters in one-year deployments of sediment traps at two locations in the Black Sea are described. In nearly all our trap samples, phorbin steryl esters (PSEs) contribute a significant portion of the total phorbin flux. The relative abundances of sterols esterified to pyropheophorbide- a varied throughout the year, and we suggest these changes result from the observed seasonal variation of phytoplankton species in the overlying water column. The distribution of free sterols in a one-year composite sediment trap sample closely approximates the distribution of sterols derived from the hydrolysis of sedimentary PSEs collected at an adjacent site. From these results, we suggest that the distribution of sedimentary PSE sterols provides a record of sterol deposition to the sediment-water interface. Esterification of sterols to pyropheophorbide- a apparently prevents the preferential removal of 4-desmethyl sterols relative to 4-methyl sterols, and the reduction of stenols to stanols during degradation. Analysis of PSEs in a gravity core covering the last 8-10 Kyr shows that the abundance and distribution of PSEs change with downcore variations in sedimentology. Detailed analysis of PSEs in sediments may, therefore, provide a means to evaluate paleooceanographic changes in phytoplankton community structure and sterol early diagenesis. The synthesis, NMR, CI-MS, and visible spectroscopic properties of four abundant PSEs found in the Black Sea are also described.

  4. DNA vaccine encoding myristoylated membrane protein (MMP) of rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) induces protective immunity in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2018-02-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) in Korea. In this study, we investigated the potential of viral membrane protein to induce antiviral status protecting rock bream against RBIV infection. We found that fish administered with ORF008L (myristoylated membrane protein, MMP) vaccine exhibited significantly higher levels of survival compared to ORF007L (major capsid protein, MCP). Moreover, ORF008L-based DNA vaccinated fish showed significant protection at 4 and 8 weeks post vaccination (wpv) than non-vaccinated fish after infected with RBIV (6.7 × 10 5 ) at 23 °C, with relative percent survival (RPS) of 73.36% and 46.72%, respectively. All of the survivors from the first RBIV infection were strongly protected (100% RPS) from re-infected with RBIV (1.1 × 10 7 ) at 100 dpi. In addition, the MMP (ORF008L)-based DNA vaccine significantly induced the gene expression of TLR3 (14.2-fold), MyD88 (11.6-fold), Mx (84.7-fold), ISG15 (8.7-fold), PKR (25.6-fold), MHC class I (13.3-fold), Fas (6.7-fold), Fas ligand (6.7-fold), caspase9 (17.0-fold) and caspase3 (15.3-fold) at 7 days post vaccination in the muscle (vaccine injection site). Our results showed the induction of immune responses and suggest the possibility of developing preventive measures against RBIV using myristoylated membrane protein-based DNA vaccine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution and sources of dissolved black carbon in surface waters of the Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, and the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Motohiro; Ajioka, Taku; Yamashita, Youhei

    2017-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon, also called black carbon (BC), is an important component in the global carbon cycle. BC produced by biomass burning or fossil fuel combustion is transported to oceans by the atmosphere or rivers. However, environmental dynamics (i.e., major sources and sinks) of BC in marine environments have not been well documented. In this study, dissolved BC (DBC) collected from surface waters of the Chukchi Sea, the Bering Sea, and the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific were analyzed using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method. The DBC concentration and the ratio of B5CA and B6CA to all BPCAs (an index of the DBC condensation degree) ranged from 4.8 to 15.5 µg-C L-1 and from 0.20 to 0.43, respectively, in surface waters of the Chukchi/Bering Seas and the North Pacific Ocean. The concentration and condensation degree of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas were higher and more variable than those in the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which implies that the major factors controlling DBC distribution were different in these marine provinces. In the Chukchi/Bering Seas, the DBC concentration was negatively correlated to salinity but positively correlated to chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) quantity and total dissolved lignin phenol concentration estimated by CDOM parameters. These correlations indicated that the possible major source of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas was Arctic rivers. However, in the North Pacific, where riverine inputs are negligible for most sampling sites, DBC was possibly derived from the atmosphere. Although spectral slopes of CDOM at 275-295 nm (an index of the photodegradation degree of CDOM) differed widely between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, the concentration and condensation degrees of DBC were similar between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which suggests that photodegradation was not the only major factor controlling DBC distribution. Therefore, DBC distributions of the

  6. Satellite observation of bio-optical indicators related to North-Western Black Sea coastal zone changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    Satellite remote sensing provides a means for locating, identifying and mapping certain coastal zone features and assessing of spatio-temporal changes.The Romanian coastal zone of the Black Sea is a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, exposed to dramatic changes due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). This study focuses on the assessment of coastal zone land cover changes based on the fusion of satellite remote sensing data.The evaluation of coastal zone landscapes is based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as water, soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. Mixed pixels result when the sensor's instantaneous field-of-view includes more than one land cover class on the ground. Based on different satellite data (Landsat TM, ETM, SAR ERS, IKONOS, Quickbird, and MODIS) was performed object recognition for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone. Preliminary results show significant coastline position changes of North Western Black Sea during the period of 1987-2007 and urban growth of Constantza town. Also the change in the position of the coastline is examined and linked to the urban expansion in order to determine if the changes are natural or anthropogenic. A distinction is made between landfill/sedimentation processes on the one hand and dredging/erosion processes on the other. Waves play an important role for shoreline configuration. Wave pattern could induce erosion and sedimentation. A quasi-linear model was used to model the rate of shoreline change. The vectors of shoreline were used to compare with wave spectra model in order to examine the accuracy of the coastal erosion model. The shoreline rate modeled from vectors data of SAR ERS-1 has a good correlation with a quasi-linear model. Wave refraction patterns are a good index for shoreline erosion. A coast

  7. Understanding the Impact of Environmental Variability on Anchovy Overwintering Migration in the Black Sea and its Implications for the Fishing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Guraslan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Black Sea anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus undertake extensive overwintering migrations every fall from nursery grounds to warmer overwintering areas located on the south-eastern coast of the Black Sea. During migration and particularly upon arrival at the Anatolian coast, they support an important fishery and valuable source of income for the regional community. Black Sea anchovy have undergone significant stock fluctuations partly related to climatic conditions; for example, migrating anchovy schools arrived late or failed to arrive at the Anatolian coast when fall temperatures increased. It is therefore of importance to understand the conditions required for successful overwintering migration and explore different migration routes. This study invokes a Lagrangian modeling approach applied to satellite derived circulation and temperature data as a first attempt to model anchovy migration dynamics in the Black Sea. This modeling approach takes the influence of the physical environment into account, while the quality of overwintering grounds, adaptive, schooling, and homing behavior is neglected. The model is used to investigate the possible influence of interannual and seasonal variability of temperature and surface currents, as well as the influence of migration behavior on the success of anchovy overwintering migration for both the Black Sea and Azov Sea anchovy. The results of the present work show the possibility that overwintering anchovy fished along the Turkish Eastern Anatolian coast may not exclusively originate from the northwestern shelf, but mainly from the eastern Black Sea basin. Migration pathways are identified for both Black Sea and Azov Sea anchovy, which are of importance for the national fisheries efforts of riparian countries. The modeling results are in agreement with general patterns of anchovy migration given in the literature indicating that the physical environment may be a major factor in shaping general migration

  8. Small river plumes off the northeastern coast of the Black Sea under average climatic and flooding discharge conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Osadchiev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the impact of discharges of small rivers on the delivery and fate of fluvial water and suspended matter at the northeastern part of the Black Sea under different local precipitation conditions. Several dozens of mountainous rivers flow into the sea at the study region, and most of them, except for several of the largest, have little annual runoff and affect adjacent coastal waters to a limited extent under average climatic conditions. However, the discharges of these small rivers are characterized by a quick response to precipitation events and can significantly increase during and shortly after heavy rains, which are frequent in the considered area. The delivery and fate of fluvial water and terrigenous sediments at the study region, under average climatic and rain-induced flooding conditions, were explored and compared using in situ data, satellite imagery, and numerical modeling. It was shown that the point-source spread of continental discharge dominated by several large rivers under average climatic conditions can change to the line-source discharge from numerous small rivers situated along the coast in response to heavy rains. The intense line-source runoff of water and suspended sediments forms a geostrophic alongshore current of turbid and freshened water, which induces the intense transport of suspended and dissolved constituents discharged with river waters in a northwestern direction. This process significantly influences water quality and causes active sediment load at large segments of the narrow shelf at the northeastern part of the Black Sea compared to average climatic discharge conditions.

  9. Small river plumes off the northeastern coast of the Black Sea under average climatic and flooding discharge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchiev, Alexander; Korshenko, Evgeniya

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on the impact of discharges of small rivers on the delivery and fate of fluvial water and suspended matter at the northeastern part of the Black Sea under different local precipitation conditions. Several dozens of mountainous rivers flow into the sea at the study region, and most of them, except for several of the largest, have little annual runoff and affect adjacent coastal waters to a limited extent under average climatic conditions. However, the discharges of these small rivers are characterized by a quick response to precipitation events and can significantly increase during and shortly after heavy rains, which are frequent in the considered area. The delivery and fate of fluvial water and terrigenous sediments at the study region, under average climatic and rain-induced flooding conditions, were explored and compared using in situ data, satellite imagery, and numerical modeling. It was shown that the point-source spread of continental discharge dominated by several large rivers under average climatic conditions can change to the line-source discharge from numerous small rivers situated along the coast in response to heavy rains. The intense line-source runoff of water and suspended sediments forms a geostrophic alongshore current of turbid and freshened water, which induces the intense transport of suspended and dissolved constituents discharged with river waters in a northwestern direction. This process significantly influences water quality and causes active sediment load at large segments of the narrow shelf at the northeastern part of the Black Sea compared to average climatic discharge conditions.

  10. Small river plumes near the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea under climatic mean and flooding discharge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchiev, Alexander; Korshenko, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    The study is focused on the impact of discharge from small rivers on propagation and final location of fluvial waters and suspended matter at the north-eastern part of the Black Sea under different local precipitation conditions. Several dozens of mountainous rivers inflow into the sea at the studied region and most of them, except the several largest of them, have small annual runoff and limitedly affect adjacent coastal waters under climatic mean conditions. However, discharges of these small rivers are characterized by quick response to precipitation events and can dramatically increase during and shortly after heavy rains, which are frequent in the area under consideration. Propagation and final location of fluvial waters and terrigenous sediments at the studied region under climatic mean and rain-induced flooding conditions were explored and compared using in situ data, satellite imagery and numerical modelling. It was shown that the point-source spread of continental discharge dominated by several large rivers during climatic mean conditions can change to the line-source discharge from numerous small rivers situated along the coast in response to heavy rains. Intense line-source runoff of water and suspended sediments form a geostrophic alongshore current of turbid and freshened water, which induces intense transport of suspended and dissolved constituents discharged with river waters in a north-western direction. This process significantly influences water quality and causes active sediment load at large segments of narrow shelf at the north-eastern part of the Black Sea as compared to climatic mean discharge conditions.

  11. Northern Black Sea Region in 1400–1442 and the Origin of the Crimean Khanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Gulevych

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The history of the Crimean Khanate’s foundation still remains poorly studied. Also, little is known about the early years of the first Crimean khan Haci I Giray whose ancestors ruled in the Crimea and the Golden Horde. In the 20s of the 15th century the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas actively intervened in the affairs of the Crimea and the Golden Horde trying to establish his sovereignty in the city of Caffa, where he strove to nominate subordinated khans. However, at the end of his reign, he could not exert a serious military pressure because until he died, he was occupied with his coronation. The boundaries of the Crimean tumen extended from the river Dniester in the West to the Volga River in the East, from the mean flow of the Dnieper and Southern Bug River in the North to the coastal cities of the Crimean peninsula in the south. In the first half of 15th century, there were many stationary settlements of Tatars in the Black Sea steppes. Thus, the tumen occupied a large territory. Having a great military power, the Crimean rulers did not separate the Crimean Ulus from the Golden Horde, but used the peninsula as a staging area for the seizure of power in the state capital city of Sarai. The Tatar nobility also sought to enthrone those khans who would be dependent on them. One of their strongest representatives was Tehene-bey who had a residence in Solkhat on the Crimean peninsula. He persuaded Vytautas to give them Ulugh Muhammad as a khan. In response, the khan nominated Tehene-bey as his deputy in the Crimea. A few years later, Ulugh Muhammad quarreled both with Tehene-bey and the Lithuanian ruler Švitrigaila. In 1433, the Grand Duke of Lithuania helped Khan Sayid Ahmad II both to split the Golden Horde and to seize power on the right bank of the Dnieper. According to many historians, Haci Giray seized power in the Crimea and defeated a Genoese military detachment in 1434, but this statement is not confirmed by the written sources and

  12. The determination of the effects of coal mining on the coastal morphology at Black Sea coasts of Istanbul using Landsat data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maktav, D.; Kapdasli, S.

    1994-01-01

    At some regions of the Black Sea coasts of Istanbul in Turkey, there are a number of coal mining areas. As a result of these mining works, topographical and morphological structure of the land near the coast line has been strongly changed. Moreover, a great amount of earth has been carried into the sea in front of the coast line. The study concerns the attempt to monitor the coal mining effects on the coast line and coastal morphology by using remote sensing technology

  13. Falia strategică Marea Neagră – Marea Baltică (The strategic Black Sea – Baltic Sea ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe VĂDUVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There was a moment when it seemed that the East-West dimension of the ontology of Euro-Asian space was beginning to emerge out of its traditional conflicting character and do something in order to bridge the gaps. This would have been excellent, since Western Europe has finance and technology, while Asia is rich in resources. The civilizations to be found on the largest geophysical platform of the Earth are not contradictory and conflicting; they are just different, by area, culture, and interests. Many of the truths that sounded like dogmata or things which were well known and had become chronic were ignored both by the triumphalist and the pessimist analysts. Whatever had happened seemed to be water under the bridge. The Summit of the Eastern Partnership in Vilnius, in the autumn of 2013, showed, however, the real face of things. The undercurrents were revealed, frustrations became evident, the strategic Black Sea – Baltic Sea ridge was reactivated and, consequently, the forces, the means, the plans and the resources were re-positioned. The war started again. Actually, it had never stopped because the war between the East and the West is unfortunately a continuous one. Like a road without beginning, without end, and with no exit.

  14. 90Sr content in the Black Sea bottom sediments after the Chernobyl NPP accident and its use as a radiotracer for an assessment of bottom settlement rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyeva, N. Y.; Egorov, V. N.; Polikarpov, G. G.

    2006-01-01

    The increase of 9 0Sr concentrations in the Black Sea bottom sediments along to western coast of the Black Sea and south