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Sample records for black sea bream

  1. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on lipogenesis and lipolysis in black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hong; OM Ahamd Daud; YOSHIMATSU Takao; UMINO Testuya; NAKAGAWA Heisuke; FURUHASHI Makoto; SAKAMOTO Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Hatchery-reared juvenile black sea breams are characterized by a low level of highly unsaturated fatty acids in their bodies, as compared with wild fish. To assess the effect of docosahaxaenoic acid (DHA) on lipogenic and lipolysis enzymes, one-year fish were reared on a casein-based purified diet and a DHA fortified diet (1.5% DHA ethyl ester/kg diet) for 60 d, followed with a period of 55 d for starvation. Dietary DHA was effectively incorporated into the fish body. Fortification of DHA depressed activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase as lipogenic enzymes in the hepatopancreas and intraperitoneal fat body. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase as lipolysis enzyme in the hepatopancreas was active in the DHA fortified fish. Starvation after feeding experiment induced increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity in both control and DHA fortified fish and the activity remained higher in the DHA fortified fish, while the monoenes were selectively consumed prior to highly unsaturated fatty acids. These results indicated that dietary DHA depressed lipogenesis and activated lipolysis.

  2. Effect of n-3 HUFA levels in rotifers and Artemia on growth and survival of larval black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Kuiran; Huang, Bingxin; Chen, Xiaolin

    2004-12-01

    Requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was studied using rotifers and Artemia at various levels of n-3 HUFA. Five treatments with rotifers and Artemia differing in n-3 HUFA were prepared by enriching them with various oil emulsions. Results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influence fish n-3 HUFA levels and are essential for growth and survival of black sea bream larvae. The results also indicated that the incorporation of n-3HUFA TG (triacylglycerols) into tissues of larval black sea bream was more effective from natural fish oil in comparison with n-3 HUFA fatty acid ethyl esters from ethyl-esterified oil.

  3. Effect of n-3 HUFA levels in rotifers and Artemia on growth and survival of larval black sea bream (Sparus macrocephalus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingke; LI Kuiran; HUANG Bingxin; CHEN Xiaolin

    2004-01-01

    Requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black sea bream (Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was studied using rotifers and Artemia at various levels of n-3 HUFA. Five treatments with rotifers and Artemia differing in n-3 HUFA were prepared by enriching them with various oil emulsions. Results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influence fish n-3 HUFA levels and are essential for growth and survival of black sea bream larvae. The results also indicated that the incorporation of n-3HUFA TG (triacylglycerols) into tissues of larval black sea bream was more effective from natural fish oil in comparison with n-3 HUFA fatty acid ethyl esters from ethyl-esterified oil.

  4. Studies on the phosphorus requirement and proper calcium/phosphorus ratio in the diet of the black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Maotang; Wang, Keling; Wang, Xincheng; Liu, Jianking

    1993-06-01

    An expriment on the phosphorus requirement and the proper Ca/P ratio in the diet of the black sea bream using the phosphorus gradient method (with casein as basic diet, sodium dihydrogen phosphate as source of phosphorus, and calcium lactate as source of calcium) showed that growth was greatly affected by the diet's phosphorus content and Ca/P ratio. Inadequate phosphorus in the diet resulted in slow growth and poor food conversion ratio (FCR). Analyses of the fish body showed it contained a high level of lipid but a low level of moisture, ash, calcium and phosphorus. The optimal values of phosphorus and Ca/P ratio in the black sea bream diet are 0.68% and 1∶2 respectively. Phosphorus in excess of this optimum value resulted in slow growth or even death. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that phosphorus is the principal mineral additive affecting black sea bream growth.

  5. 黑鲷幼鱼赖氨酸需求量的研究%Study on Lysine Requirement of Juvenile Black Sea Bream(Sparus macrocephalus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永正; 周凡; 邵庆均; 许梓荣

    2009-01-01

    选用初体重(9.13±0.09)g的黑鲷(Sparus macrocephalus)幼鱼360尾随机分为6组,每组3个重复,每个重复20尾,分别投饲赖氨酸水平实测值为2.08%、2.52%、2.88%、3.25%、3.68%和4.05%的等氮等能日粮.试验期为8周,观察日粮赖氨酸对黑鲷生长性能,体组成以及消化能力的影响,并确定其适宜的赖氨酸需求量.结果表明,当饲料中的赖氨酸水平从2.08%上升到3.25%,黑鲷的增重率和特定生长率随着饲料赖氨酸水平升高而升高(P0.05).饲料赖氨酸水平从2.08%上升到3.25%,蛋白质沉积率有显著提高(P0.05).肝脏总必需氨基酸和赖氨酸含量随着饲料赖氨酸水平升高而增加,但是在赖氨酸添加水平最高组这两个指标均有所降低(P0.05).赖氨酸含量为3.25%时,干物质和蛋白质的表观消化率最高,而脂肪消化率的最高值出现在3.68%赖氨酸的饲料组.试验结果还表明,黑鲷幼鱼胃、前肠和中肠的蛋白酶活性变化趋势基本一致.随着饲料中赖氨酸水平的增加而升高(P0.05).使用曲线模型,根据试验黑鲷幼鱼的增重率同饲料中赖氨酸水平的相关性得出其赖氨酸需要量为3.28%,占饲料蛋白质的8.63%.%An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of lysine on growth performance, body com-position, digestive ability and determine the quantitative lysine requirement of juvenile black sea bream (Sparus macrocepha-lus). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial body weight of (9.13 ± 0.09) g were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates each and 20 fish in each replicate. Six treatments were fed with 6 iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets contai-ning 6 levels of lysine (2.08%, 2.52%, 2.88%, 3.25%, 3.68% and 4.05%). The results showed that, weight gain ratio (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with the level of dietary lysine increased to 3.25% from 2.08% (P0.05). The protein efficiency ratio (PER) increased significantly

  6. Dietary keto-acid feed-back on pituitary activity in gilthead sea bream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarz, Antoni; Costa, Rita; Harrison, Adrian Paul;

    2010-01-01

    The influence of a daily oral dose of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG, 0.1 g/kg body weight), an intermediate metabolite in the Krebs cycle and a dietary additive, on the pituitary proteome of gilthead sea bream was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). A high-resolution map of the sea...

  7. Aquaporin 1a expression in gill, intestine and kidney of the euryhaline silver sea bream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie E Deane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic salinity acclimation, abrupt salinity transfer and cortisol administration on aquaporin 1 (AQP1 expression in gill, intestine and kidney of silver sea bream (Sparus sarba. An AQP1a cDNA was cloned and found to share 83 – 96 % amino acid sequence identity with AQP1 genes from several fish species. Tissue distribution studies of AQP1a mRNA demonstrated that it was expressed in gill, liver, intestine, rectum, kidney, heart, urinary bladder and whole blood. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to measure AQP1a transcript abundance in sea bream that were acclimated to salinity conditions of 0, 6, 12, 33, 50 and 70ppt for 1 month. The abundance of gill AQP1a transcript was highest in sea bream acclimated to 0ppt whereas no differences were found among 0 – 50ppt groups. For intestine, the highest AQP1a transcript amounts were found in sea bream acclimated to 12 and 70ppt whereas the transcript abundance of kidney AQP1a was found to be unchanged amongst the different salinity groups. To investigate the effects of acute salinity alterations on AQP1a expression, sea bream were abruptly transferred from 33ppt to 6ppt. For intestine AQP1a levels were altered at different times, post transfer, but remained unchanged in gill and kidney. To study the effects of cortisol on AQP1a expression, sea bream were administered a single dose of cortisol followed by a 3 day acclimation to either 33ppt or 6ppt. The findings from this experiment demonstrated that cortisol administration resulted in alterations of AQP1a transcript in gill and intestine but not in kidney.

  8. Characterization of eight microsatellite markers in the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, L; Infante, C; Ponce, M; Crespo, A; Zuasti, E; Funes, V; Catanese, G; Manchado, M

    2008-11-01

    The white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae), is a species with a high commercial importance in Mediterranean aquaculture. There is currently little information available about the genetic characteristics of cultured populations. In this survey, we have developed eight polymorphic microsatellites for the white sea bream using an enriched genome library protocol. All of them were polymorphic in the 67 individuals tested, 32 of which were wild specimens, and 35 were individuals from a captive F(1) broodstock. These markers can potentially be useful tools for use in population genetic studies.

  9. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  10. Melatonin synthesis under calcium constraint in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Kulczkowska, E.; Kalamarz, H.; Guerreiro, P.M.G.; Flik, G.

    2008-01-01

    Brain or blood plasma melatonin was analysed as a measure for pineal melatonin production in sea bream. Access to calcium was limited by diluting the seawater to 2.5‰ and removing calcium from the diet or by prolonged feeding of vitamin D-deficient diet. Interactions/relations between melatonin and

  11. FRESHNESS QUALITY OF GILTHEAD SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata REARED UNDER DIFFERENT FARMING CONDITIONS

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    P. Fagioli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory and physico-chemical freshness indices (QI score, Torrymeter readings, pH and WHC were evaluated in gilthead sea bream of commercial size reared in Italy in: land based facilities (recirculation systems, lagoons and net-cages. Fish were stored under ice for 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 16 days: at each sampling time analyses were performed to determine the evolution of each freshness index within sea bream sources. Significant differences emerged among farming conditions following the application of the Quality Index Method. Torrymeter readings gradually decreased with the number of days of ice storage. pH values remained practically constant over the 16 days of storage. For WHC the effect of both time of storage and farming conditions was statistically significant.

  12. Characterization data of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) IGF-I receptors (IGF-IRa/Rb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Emilio J; Azizi, Sheida; Salmerón, Cristina; Chan, Shu Jin; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-03-01

    In this data article we describe the coding sequence of two IGF-IR paralogues (IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb) obtained from gilthead sea bream embryos. The putative protein architecture (domains and other important motifs) was determined and, amino acid sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis of both receptors together with IGF-IR orthologues from different vertebrates was performed. Additionally, a semi-quantitative conventional PCR was done to analyze the mRNA expression of both receptors in different tissues of gilthead sea bream. These data will assist in further physiological studies in this species. In this sense, the expression of both receptors during ontogeny in muscle as well as the differential effects of IGF-I and IGF-II on their regulation during in vitro myogenesis has been recently studied (doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.11.011; [1]).

  13. Characterization data of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata IGF-I receptors (IGF-IRa/Rb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J. Vélez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this data article we describe the coding sequence of two IGF-IR paralogues (IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb obtained from gilthead sea bream embryos. The putative protein architecture (domains and other important motifs was determined and, amino acid sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis of both receptors together with IGF-IR orthologues from different vertebrates was performed. Additionally, a semi-quantitative conventional PCR was done to analyze the mRNA expression of both receptors in different tissues of gilthead sea bream. These data will assist in further physiological studies in this species. In this sense, the expression of both receptors during ontogeny in muscle as well as the differential effects of IGF-I and IGF-II on their regulation during in vitro myogenesis has been recently studied (doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.11.011; [1].

  14. Variability in growth and condition of juvenile common two-banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, Patrícia Nunes, 1980-

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Ecologia Marinha). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 The objective of this study was to assess the variability in condition for juvenile common two-banded sea bream Diplodus vulgaris in nursery areas of the main Portuguese estuaries using several individual condition indices. Estuaries and coastal lagoons play an important role for juveniles of marine fish because they offer areas with high availability of food, high water temperature and lower...

  15. Determination of some quality properties of marinated sea bream (Sparus Aurata L., 1758 during cold storage

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    Gülderen Kurt Kaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the effect of sea bream (Sparus aurata marinated some quality properties during cold storage. The fillets of fish were immersed into brine including 3.5% acetic acid 11% salt in the ratio of 1: 1.5 (fish: marinate brine for marination process. After the process of ripening, samples were grouped into two and packed in plastic containers; one being plain (in sunflower oil and the other being sauced (sauced prepared with sunflower oil. During storage, sensory, crude protein, lipid, dry matter and crude ash, TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N and peroxide analyses were done periodically. According to results of 200 days of storage, TVB-N values of sea bream marinates packaged as plain and sauced were 15.86/14.89 mg/100g, TBA 7.06/7.99 mg MA/kg, TMA-N 2.97/3.12, mg/100g, the value of peroxide was 7.23/7.45 meq/kg respectively. According to chemical and sensory analyses results obtained in the study; it was concluded that sea bream marinates packaged as plain and sauced can be stored in +4 °C for 200 days.

  16. Effect of ivermectin on the liver of gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata: a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varó, I; Rigos, G; Navarro, J C; del Ramo, J; Calduch-Giner, J; Hernández, A; Pertusa, J; Torreblanca, A

    2010-07-01

    Gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata is the most commercialized Mediterranean aquacultured fish species. Ivermectin has recently (experimentally) started to be used to control ectoparasitic infestations in Mediterranean cultured marine fish. The potential hepatotoxicity of ivermectin was investigated in gilthead sea bream juveniles (35g) following oral administration at the recommended dose of 0.2 mgkg(-1) fish for 10d. Difference Gel Electrophoresis Technology (DIGE) was used to study the effect of this treatment in gilthead sea bream liver protein profile under routine culture conditions. The 2D-DIGE protein maps obtained were analyzed using the DeCyder 6.5 software. The results obtained showed significant changes in the expression of 36 proteins respect to the control group. Among these proteins, six increased in abundance, and 30 decreased. Spot showing differential expression respect to the control were analyzed by mass spectrometry and database search, which resulted in three positive identifications corresponding to hepatic proteins involved in lipid metabolism (apoA-I), oxidative stress responses and energy generation (beta-globin, ATP synthase subunit beta). These proteins have not been previously associated to invermectin effect.

  17. A Comparative BAC map for the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Heiner; Sarropoulou, Elena; Tine, Mbaye; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Reinhardt, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the first comparative BAC map of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), a highly valuated marine aquaculture fish species in the Mediterranean. High-throughput end sequencing of a BAC library yielded 92,468 reads (60.6  Mbp). Comparative mapping was achieved by anchoring BAC end sequences to the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) genome. BACs that were consistently ordered along the stickleback chromosomes accounted for 14,265 clones. A fraction of 5,249 BACs constituted a minimal tiling path that covers 73.5% of the stickleback chromosomes and 70.2% of the genes that have been annotated. The N50 size of 1,485 "BACtigs" consisting of redundant BACs is 337,253 bp. The largest BACtig covers 2.15 Mbp in the stickleback genome. According to the insert size distribution of mapped BACs the sea bream genome is 1.71-fold larger than the stickleback genome. These results represent a valuable tool to researchers in the field and may support future projects to elucidate the whole sea bream genome.

  18. A Comparative BAC Map for the Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Kuhl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first comparative BAC map of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, a highly valuated marine aquaculture fish species in the Mediterranean. High-throughput end sequencing of a BAC library yielded 92,468 reads (60.6 Mbp. Comparative mapping was achieved by anchoring BAC end sequences to the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus genome. BACs that were consistently ordered along the stickleback chromosomes accounted for 14,265 clones. A fraction of 5,249 BACs constituted a minimal tiling path that covers 73.5% of the stickleback chromosomes and 70.2% of the genes that have been annotated. The N50 size of 1,485 “BACtigs” consisting of redundant BACs is 337,253 bp. The largest BACtig covers 2.15 Mbp in the stickleback genome. According to the insert size distribution of mapped BACs the sea bream genome is 1.71-fold larger than the stickleback genome. These results represent a valuable tool to researchers in the field and may support future projects to elucidate the whole sea bream genome.

  19. Cultivation of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 in low salinity inland brackish geothermal water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Appelbaum

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the course of attempting to culture gilthead sea bream in inland brackish geothermal water, indoor and outdoor research studies have been ongoing from early 2006 at the "Bengis Centre for Desert Aquaculture" of the Institutes for Desert Research in Israel, some of which are described below. Gilthead sea bream fingerlings with an average weight of 19 g were acclimated to and reared for 56 days in brackish water of three salinities: 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 ppt collected from three different locations. At the salinity of 3.5 ppt the fish grew best (P Artemia nauplii plus larval dry feed and were grown in brackish water of 2.6 ppt salinity for 8 weeks reaching a weight gain of 92% at a survival rate of 83%. The control groups at sea water (39 ppt reached at the same time a weight gain of 95% at a survival rate of 98%. In a further study gilthead sea bream juveniles with an average weight of 2.24 g were reared in brackish water with a salinity of 3.6 ppt for 8 weeks and received salt added diets of 4% and 6%. Compared with the control diet with no salt added, both salt rich diets significantly improved the fingerlings growth and survival rates as well as the feed conversion ratio. The 6% salt rich diet promoted fish weight gain by 560% which was the best performance (P <0.05 followed by 448% weight gain with the 4% salt rich diet while the lowest performance with a weight gain of only 360% was obtained with the control (no salt added diet. The next study with higher levels of salt added diets showed that gilthead sea bream post larvae with an average weight of 0.58 g reared in brackish geothermal water of 2.9 ppt salinity for 10 weeks grew best (P < 0.05 obtaining a weight gain of 778% with the highest survival rate of 88% when fed a diet containing 12% salt. In the studies with the salt rich diets, the salt incorporated was obtained by the evaporation of brine produced during the process of desalination of the brackish geothermal water from the same

  20. The changes of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in sea bream (Sparus aurata) during irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkan, Nuray [Faculty of Fisheries, Department of the Seafood Processing and Quality Control, Istanbul University, Ordu, Cad. No. 200, 34470 Laleli/Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: nurerkan@istanbul.edu.tr; Ozden, Ozkan [Faculty of Fisheries, Department of the Seafood Processing and Quality Control, Istanbul University, Ordu, Cad. No. 200, 34470 Laleli/Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozden@istanbul.edu.tr

    2007-10-15

    Aqua cultured fish (sea bream) were irradiated by Cobalt-60 at commercial irradiation facility at dose of 2.5 and 5 kGy at 2-4 deg. C. The proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid composition changes of irradiated aqua cultured sea bream (Sparus aurata) of Aegean Sea were investigated. Total saturated (28.01%) and total monounsaturated (28.42%) fatty acid contents of non-irradiated decreased content of 27.69-27.97% for 2.5 kGy irradiated groups and increased content of 28.33-28.56% for 5 kGy irradiated groups after irradiation process. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid content for irradiated samples was lower than that of non-irradiated samples. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, arginine, alanine, tyrosine, cystine, tryptophan, lysine and proline contents for 2.5 and 5 kGy irradiated sea bream are significantly different (p<0.05)

  1. Radiometric analysis of farmed fish (sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout) from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, A; López-Pérez, M; Karlsson, L; Hernández, F; Rubio, C; Hernández-Armas, J; Hardisson, A

    2009-09-01

    This study analyzed the content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in fish farmed on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The fish species included in this study were sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout. The first two species are produced in offshore enclosures, while the third is produced in a freshwater fish farm. All measurements were performed using two high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors. The content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the fodder used to feed the different species of farmed fish studied was also determined. The following nuclides were often detected in the analyzed samples: 137Cs, 40K, 235U, 228Ac, 214Bi, 208Tl, 212Pb, and 214Pb. As a complement to this analysis, 210Po concentrations in two fish samples were determined by alpha spectrometry. The nuclide presenting the highest concentration was, as expected, the naturally occurring 40K, with an average concentration of 0.13 +/- 0.01 Bq/g (wet weight) (Bq/gww) in gilthead bream and sea bass and 0.12 +/- 0.01 Bq/gww in rainbow trout. The 235U concentrations determined in the same fish species were 0.6 +/- 0.5, 0.8 +/- 0.7, and 1.6 +/- 1.0 mBq/gww, respectively. This nuclide is seldom reported in fish samples. The concentrations of 137Cs (the only artificial nuclide determined in this study) in gilthead bream and sea bass were 0.026 +/- 0.006 and 0.044 +/- 0.01 mBq/gww, respectively. In addition to the radiometric analysis, the contribution of the analyzed nuclides to the effective dose from the mean daily intake of the fish was calculated. The calculated contribution, in terms of dose per person, produced by intake of the analyzed fish was 0.8 microSv/year. This value does not represent a significant risk to the local population.

  2. Glycemic and insulin responses in white sea bream Diplodus sargus, after intraperitoneal administration of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, P; Peres, H; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Sanchez-Gurmaches, J; Navarro, I; Gutiérrez, J; Oliva-Teles, A

    2012-06-01

    A glucose tolerance test was performed in white sea bream Diplodus sargus, juveniles to evaluate the effect of a glucose load on plasma glucose, insulin, triacylglyceride levels, and on liver glycogen storage in order to study the capability of glucose utilization by this species. After being fasted for 48 h, fish were intraperitoneally injected with either 1 g of glucose per kg body weight or a saline solution. Plasma glucose rose from a basal level of 4 to a peak of 18-19 mmol l(-1), 2-4 h after glucose injection and fish exhibited hyperglycemia for 9 h. An insulin peak (from 0.5 to 0.8 ng ml(-1)) was observed 2-6 h after glucose injection, and basal value was attained within 9 h. Liver glycogen peaked 6-12 h after the glucose load and thereafter decreased to the basal value which was attained 24 h after injection. Plasma triacylglycerides in glucose-injected fish were only significantly higher than the basal value 12 h after injection. Glucose-injected fish generally showed lower plasma triacylglyceride levels than control fish. Our results indicate that under these experimental conditions, glucose acts as an insulin secretagogue in white sea bream juveniles. Moreover, insulin may have contributed to restoring basal plasma glucose levels by enhancing glucose uptake in the liver. Further studies are needed to corroborate the lipolytic action of glucose. Clearance of glucose from the blood stream was fast, comparatively to other species, indicating that white sea bream has a good capability of glucose utilization.

  3. Aspects on respiratory physiology of cultured Sea bream, Sparidentex hasta (Valenciennes 1830, Kingdom of Bahrain

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    Khadija Zainal

    2016-06-01

    The fish regulatory ability to withstand declining oxygen concentration in the water was limited. A typical steep straight line relationship was found between oxygen consumption rate and oxygen concentration indicating a non regulatory ability and extreme in-tolerance to hypoxia. Therefore, the fish is considered as oxy-conformer, i.e., unable to continue metabolism at anaerobic condition. Correlation between minimum (basic oxygen consumption rate and body weight was of non-linear form. The present study provides comparative data to base on for further prospective related studies on juvenile Sea bream and other fish species.

  4. Fast skeletal muscle transcriptome of the Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata determined by next generation sequencing

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    Garcia de la serrana Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. occurs around the Mediterranean and along Eastern Atlantic coasts from Great Britain to Senegal. It is tolerant of a wide range of temperatures and salinities and is often found in brackish coastal lagoons and estuarine areas, particularly early in its life cycle. Gilthead sea bream are extensively cultivated in the Mediterranean with an annual production of 125,000 metric tonnes. Here we present a de novo assembly of the fast skeletal muscle transcriptome of gilthead sea bream using 454 reads and identify gene paralogues, splice variants and microsatellite repeats. An annotated transcriptome of the skeletal muscle will facilitate understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of traits linked to production in this economically important species. Results Around 2.7 million reads of mRNA sequence data were generated from the fast myotomal of adult fish (~2 kg and juvenile fish (~0.09 kg that had been either fed to satiation, fasted for 3-5d or transferred to low (11°C or high (33°C temperatures for 3-5d. Newbler v2.5 assembly resulted in 43,461 isotigs >100 bp. The number of sequences annotated by searching protein and gene ontology databases was 10,465. The average coverage of the annotated isotigs was x40 containing 5655 unique gene IDs and 785 full-length cDNAs coding for proteins containing 58–1536 amino acids. The v2.5 assembly was found to be of good quality based on validation using 200 full-length cDNAs from GenBank. Annotated isotigs from the reference transcriptome were attributable to 344 KEGG pathway maps. We identified 26 gene paralogues (20 of them teleost-specific and 43 splice variants, of which 12 had functional domains missing that were likely to affect their biological function. Many key transcription factors, signaling molecules and structural proteins necessary for myogenesis and muscle growth have been identified. Physiological status affected the

  5. Comparison of volatiles of cultured and wild sea bream (Sparus aurata) during storage in ice by dynamic headspace analysis/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Taylor, K D Anthony; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2005-04-06

    Cultured and wild sea bream were compared for differences in their volatile components over a 23 day storage period in ice. A total of 60 compounds in cultured and 78 compounds in wild sea bream were tentatively identified (in addition to this, there were 23 unknowns in cultured and 29 unknowns in wild sea bream volatiles). These included aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, aromatics, terpenes, furans, sulfur-containing compounds, an acid, and miscellaneous compounds. Although selection of best fish is a subjective matter, more aldehydes, ketones, aromatics, and terpenes were found in wild sea bream as compared to that of its cultured counterpart. Both sea bream samples exhibited complex volatile profiles over the entire storage period. The combination of several classes of volatile compounds, dependent upon their concentrations and odor thresholds, is responsible for the distinctive and unique flavor of fresh cultured and wild sea bream. Relative concentrations of several compounds (trimethylamine, piperidine, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-penten-3-ol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and acetic acid) increased continually throughout the storage period, and these may have the potential to be used as indicators of sea bream quality.

  6. 3种滤料生物滤器的挂膜与黑鲷幼鱼循环水养殖效果%Biofilm cultivation with three stuffings and their effect on the growth of young black sea bream, Sparus macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 曲克明; 朱建新; 王海增; 崔正国; 夏斌

    2012-01-01

    young black sea bream, Sparus macrocephalus. We tested the effect of using microbial water purified agents as a strain for three different kinds of fillers (pottery ring, elastic brush, and biochemical cotton fiber) during biofilm cultivation. The bio-film maturation time for the three fillers was 25, 32, and 28 d, respectively. Our results suggested that maintaining high dissolved oxygen concentrations, changing the water, and adding nutrients and NaCOs promoted the growth and propagation of nitrifying bacteria. Conversely, NO2-N concentrations cannot be held at high levels for an extended period because ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nitrifying bacteria require dissolved oxygen and alkalinity for survival. Young black sea bream grew well in the simple recirculating aquaculture system. After 40 d feeding, the mean body weight and feed conversion rate of black sea bream in the three experimental groups differed significantly from that in the control group (P95%. The activity of serum LSZ and liver SOD was significantly higher in the experimental groups than the control group (P<0.05). Similarly, the quantity and diversity of digestive tract flora was significantly higher in the experimental groups than the control group. We identified several different kinds of beneficial bacteria in the three experimental groups, relative to the control. Our results suggest that these beneficial bacteria are dominant, and thus inhibited the survival of pathogenic bacteria. During circulation of the water, the beneficial bacteria are able to enter the fish body during respiration and ingestion, thereby enhancing the nonspecific immunity of the fish. Our results suggest that different filter materials have different bio-film maturation times under the same operating conditions. A recirculating aquaculture system can not only improve fish growth, but also enhance their immune performance.

  7. Evaluation of sea bream (Sparus aurata) shelf life using an optoelectronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragozá, Patricia; Fuentes, Ana; Fernández-Segovia, Isabel; Vivancos, José-Luis; Rizo, Arantxa; Ros-Lis, José V; Barat, José M; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2013-06-01

    A new optoelectronic nose for the shelf-life assessment of fresh sea bream in cold storage has been developed. The chromogenic array used eight sensing materials (based on aluminium oxide and silica gel) containing pH indicators, Lewis acids and an oxidation-reduction indicator. The colour changes of the sensor array were characteristic of sea bream spoilage. Colour modulations were measured on day 0 and for the samples held in cold storage for 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11 days. Determination of moisture content, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), drip loss, ATP-related compounds and K(1)-value and microbial (mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae) analyses were carried out on the same days. The changes in the chromogenic arrays data were processed by statistical analysis (PCA). Moreover, PLS statistical studies allowed the creation of models to correlate the chromogenic data with concentrations of mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae. The results suggest the feasibility of this system to help develop optoelectronic noses for fish freshness monitoring.

  8. Vegetable oils affect the composition of lipoproteins in sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Maria José; Torstensen, Bente E; Robaina, Lidia; Montero, Daniel; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the dietary fatty acid profile on the lipoprotein composition in sea bream fed different vegetable oils. Six experimental diets were formulated combining fish oil with three vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed) in order to obtain 60-80 % (w/w) fish-oil replacement. VLDL, LDL and HDL in plasma samples were obtained by sequential centrifugal flotation. The lipid class, protein content and fatty acid composition of each lipoprotein fraction were analysed. HDL was the predominant lipoprotein in sea bream plasma containing the highest proportion of protein (34 %) and phosphatidylcholine. LDL presented a high content of cholesterol, whereas triacylglycerol comprised a larger proportion of VLDL. The lipid class of the lipoprotein fractions was affected by the dietary vegetable oils. Thus, a high dietary inclusion of soyabean and linseed oil (80 %) increased the cholesterol in HDL and LDL in comparison to fish oil. Similarly, the triacylglycerol concentration of VLDL was increased in fish fed 80 % soyabean and linseed oils owing to the low n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content of these diets. Lipoprotein fatty acid composition easily responded to dietary fatty acid composition. VLDL was the fraction more affected by dietary fatty acid, followed by LDL and HDL. The n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content increased in the order VLDL less than LDL and less than HDL, regardless of dietary vegetable oils.

  9. Effect of guar gum on glucose and lipid metabolism in white sea bream Diplodus sargus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, P; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Salmerón, C; Capilla, E; Navarro, I; Gutiérrez, J; Oliva-Teles, A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of soluble non-starch polysaccharide (guar gum) on white sea bream Diplodus sargus, glucose and lipid metabolism. A control diet was formulated to contain 40 % crude protein, 14 % crude lipids and 35 % pregelatinized maize starch, and three other diets were formulated similar to the control diet except for guar gum, which was included at 4 % (diet GG4), 8 % (diet GG8) or 12 % (diet GG12). Diets were fed to the fish for 9 weeks on a pair-feeding scheme. Guar gum had no effect on growth performance, feed efficiency, glycaemia, cholesterolaemia and plasma triacylglyceride levels. Hepatic glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activities, liver glycogen content and liver insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression were not affected by dietary guar gum, while fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity was lower in fish fed guar gum-supplemented diets. Hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was higher in fish fed diets GG4 and GG8 than in the control group. Overall, data suggest that in contrast to mammals guar gum had no effect on white sea bream glucose utilization and in lowering plasma cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels. However, it seems to contribute to lower endogenous glucose production.

  10. Growth-promoting effects of sustained swimming in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Josefina; Moya, A; Millán-Cubillo, A; Vélez, E J; Capilla, E; Pérez-Sánchez, J; Gutiérrez, J; Fernández-Borrás, J

    2015-12-01

    Fish growth is strongly influenced by environmental and nutritional factors and changing culture conditions can help optimize it. The importance of early-life experience on the muscle phenotype later in life is well known. Here, we study the effects of 5 weeks of moderate and sustained swimming activity (5 BL s(-1)) in gilthead sea bream during early development. We analysed growth and body indexes, plasma IGF-I and GH levels, feed conversion, composition [proximate and isotopic ((15)N/(13)C)] and metabolic key enzymes (COX, CS, LDH, HOAD, HK, ALAT, ASAT) of white muscle. Moderate and continuous exercise in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream increased plasma IGF-I, whereas it reduced plasma GH. Under these conditions, growth rate improved without any modification to feed intake through an increase in muscle mass and a reduction in mesenteric fat deposits. There were no changes in the content and turnover of muscle proteins and lipid reserves. Glycogen stores were maintained, but glycogen turnover was higher in white muscle of exercised fish. A lower LDH/CS ratio demonstrated an improvement in the aerobic capacity of white muscle, while a reduction in the COX/CS ratio possibly indicated a functional adaptation of mitochondria to adjust to the tissue-specific energy demand and metabolic fuel availability in exercised fish. We discuss the synergistic effects of dietary nutrients and sustained exercise on the different mitochondrial responses.

  11. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of hyaluronan binding protein 2 (HABP2) in red sea bream Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Asami; Wang, Yajun; Bae, Inwoo; Cao, Min-Jie; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Hara, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    Previously we have isolated a novel gelatinolytic serine proteinase, named G1, from the muscle and the plasma of red sea bream. In order to clarify the structure and function of G1, we cloned the full-length cDNA of G1 from the hepatopancreas of red sea bream. G1 cDNA encoded 633 amino acids with a secretory signal sequence at N-terminus, three epidermal growth factor-like domains, a kringle domain, and a trypsin-like serine protease domain. The active site residues of a serine proteinase were conserved in the serine protease domain of G1. The tissue distributions of the mRNA and gelatinolytic activity of G1 were investigated using RT-PCR and gelatin zymography, respectively. Its activity was detected in various tissues while the mRNA of it was strongly expressed in the hepatopancreas. These results suggest that G1 is synthesized in hepatopancreas and carried to the muscle, kidney, heart and ovary via the bloodstream in the red sea bream. The enzyme has a similar domain structure and tissue distribution to those of human hyaluronan binding protein 2 (HABP2) engaged in the extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. Thus, it is suggested that G1 is identified as HABP2 and is possibly involved in ECM proteolysis of red sea bream.

  12. Adipogenic Gene Expression in Gilthead Sea Bream Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Different Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Cristina; Riera-Heredia, Natàlia; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, adipogenesis has become an emerging field of study in aquaculture due to the relevance of the adipose tissue in many physiological processes and its connection with the endocrine system. In this sense, recent studies have translated into the establishment of preadipocyte culture models from several fish species, sometimes lacking information on the mRNA levels of adipogenic genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) primary cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from different origin (adipose tissue and vertebra bone) during adipogenesis. Both cell types differentiated into adipocyte-like cells, accumulating lipids inside their cytoplasm. Adipocyte differentiation of MSCs from adipose tissue resulted in downregulation of several adipocyte-related genes (such as lpl, hsl, pparα, pparγ and gapdh2) at day 4, gapdh1 at day 8, and fas and pparβ at day 12. In contrast, differences in lxrα mRNA expression were not observed, while g6pdh levels increased during adipocyte maturation. Gapdh and Pparγ protein levels were also detected in preadipocyte cultures; however, only the former increased its expression during adipogenesis. Moreover, differentiation of bone-derived cells into adipocytes also resulted in the downregulation of several adipocyte gene markers, such as fas and g6pdh at day 10 and hsl, pparβ, and lxrα at day 15. On the other hand, the osteogenic genes fib1a, mgp, and op remained stable, but an increase in runx2 expression at day 20 was observed. In summary, the present study demonstrates that gilthead sea bream MSCs, from both adipose tissue and bone, differentiate into adipocyte-like cells, although revealed some kind of species- and cell lineage-specific regulation with regards to gene expression. Present data also provide novel insights into some of the potential key genes controlling adipogenesis in gilthead sea bream that can help to better

  13. Adipogenic gene expression in gilthead sea bream mesenchymal stem cells from different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salmerón

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, adipogenesis has become an emerging field of study in aquaculture due to the relevance of the adipose tissue in many physiological processes and its connection with the endocrine system. In this sense, recent studies have translated into the establishment of preadipocyte culture models from several fish species, lacking sometimes information on the mRNA levels of adipogenic genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata primary cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from different origin (adipose tissue and vertebra bone during adipogenesis. Both cell types differentiated into adipocyte-like cells accumulating lipids inside their cytoplasm. Adipocyte differentiation of MSCs from adipose tissue resulted in down-regulation of several adipocyte-related genes (such as lpl, hsl, pparα, pparγ and gapdh2 at day 4, gapdh1 at day 8, and fas and pparβ at day 12. In contrast, differences in lxrα mRNA expression were not observed, while g6pdh levels increased during adipocyte maturation. Gapdh and Pparγ protein levels were also detected in preadipocyte cultures; however, only the former increased its expression during adipogenesis. Moreover, differentiation of bone-derived cells into adipocytes also resulted in the down-regulation of several adipocyte gene markers such as fas and g6pdh at day 10 and hsl, pparβ and lxrα at day 15. On the other hand, the osteogenic genes fib1a, mgp and op remained stable, but an increase in runx2 expression at day 20 was observed. In summary, the present study demonstrates that gilthead sea bream MSCs from both adipose tissue and bone differentiate into adipocyte-like cells, although revealed some kind of species- and cell lineage-specific regulation with regards to gene expression. Present data also provide novel insights into some of the potential key genes controlling adipogenesis in gilthead sea bream that can help to

  14. Diel activity and variability in habitat use of white sea bream in a temperate marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Manfredi; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Badalamenti, Fabio; Guidetti, Paolo; Starr, Richard M; Giacalone, Vincenzo Maximiliano; Di Franco, Antonio; D'Anna, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Fish populations are often comprised of individuals that use habitats and associated resources in different ways. We placed sonic transmitters in, and tracked movements of, white sea bream (Diplodus sargus sargus) in the no-take zone of a Mediterranean marine protected area: the Torre Guaceto marine protected area, (Adriatic Sea, Italy). Tagged fish displayed three types of diel activity patterns in three different habitats: sand, rocky reefs and "matte" of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Individuals were more active during the day than at night. Overall, white sea bream displayed a remarkable behavioural plasticity in habitat use. Our results indicate that the observed behavioural plasticity in the marine protected area could be the result of multiple ecological and environmental drivers such as size, sex and increased intra-specific competition. Our findings support the view that habitat diversity helps support high densities of fishes.

  15. Age and Growth Characteristics of Crimson Sea Bream Paragyrops edita Tanaka in Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Gang; FENG Bo; LU Huosheng; ZHU Junfeng

    2008-01-01

    Age and growth characteristics of crimson sea bream Paragyrops edita Tanaka in Beibu Gulf were studied through bot-tom trawling and gillnet fleets fishing from July 2006 to December 2007.A total number of 1155 individuals,ranging from 49 to 249mmin standard length was examined.The age of the fish was determined from sagittal otoliths.One year growth was made up of onetranslucent and one opaque zone.A maximum likelihood estimation procedure was used to fit the Von Bertalanffy,Logistic andGompertz growth functions to the length-at-age data.ARSS indicated that there were no significant differences in growth betweensexes in the three growth models (P>0.05),and the Von Bertalanffy growth function L=292.8{1-exp[-0.167(t+1.116)]} was se-lected as the most appropriate growth model according to Akaike's information criterion (AIC).

  16. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CHROMOSOMES OF INDUCED TRIPLOID IN THE RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Triploidy red sea bream were induced by cold-shock techniques (0-3℃) in Qingdao in April 1994, May 1995 and May 1996. Normal diploidy and triploidy chromosome metaphases were produced by chromosome spreads from the gastrula. Counts of 104 chromosome metaphases of normal diploid showed each of them consisted of 2 acrocentric (st) and 46 telocentric (t) chromosomes. Based on the relative lengths and arm ratios, the 48 chromosomes were matched into 24 pairs. Counts of 107 chromosome metaphases of induced triploid showed that each metaphase consisted of 3 acrocentric (st) and 69 telocentric (t) chromosomes. The 72 chromosomes were easily matched into three sets of chromosomes, based on the relative lengths and arm ratios.

  17. Evaluation of the possible transmission of BSE and scrapie to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Salta

    Full Text Available In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many species, the key event in disease pathogenesis is the accumulation of an abnormal conformational isoform (PrP(Sc of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP(C. While the precise mechanism of the PrP(C to PrP(Sc conversion is not understood, it is clear that host PrP(C expression is a prerequisite for effective infectious prion propagation. Although there have been many studies on TSEs in mammalian species, little is known about TSE pathogenesis in fish. Here we show that while gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata orally challenged with brain homogenates prepared either from a BSE infected cow or from scrapie infected sheep developed no clinical prion disease, the brains of TSE-fed fish sampled two years after challenge did show signs of neurodegeneration and accumulation of deposits that reacted positively with antibodies raised against sea bream PrP. The control groups, fed with brains from uninfected animals, showed no such signs. Remarkably, the deposits developed much more rapidly and extensively in fish inoculated with BSE-infected material than in the ones challenged with the scrapie-infected brain homogenate, with numerous deposits being proteinase K-resistant. These plaque-like aggregates exhibited congophilia and birefringence in polarized light, consistent with an amyloid-like component. The neurodegeneration and abnormal deposition in the brains of fish challenged with prion, especially BSE, raises concerns about the potential risk to public health. As fish aquaculture is an economically important industry providing high protein nutrition for humans and other mammalian species, the prospect of farmed fish being contaminated with infectious mammalian PrP(Sc, or of a prion disease developing in farmed fish is alarming and requires further evaluation.

  18. Evaluation of the possible transmission of BSE and scrapie to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salta, Evgenia; Panagiotidis, Cynthia; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Petrakis, Spyros; Eleftheriadis, Eleftherios; Arapoglou, Fotis; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Nicolaou, Anna; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Krey, Grigorios; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

    2009-07-28

    In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many species, the key event in disease pathogenesis is the accumulation of an abnormal conformational isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). While the precise mechanism of the PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) conversion is not understood, it is clear that host PrP(C) expression is a prerequisite for effective infectious prion propagation. Although there have been many studies on TSEs in mammalian species, little is known about TSE pathogenesis in fish. Here we show that while gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) orally challenged with brain homogenates prepared either from a BSE infected cow or from scrapie infected sheep developed no clinical prion disease, the brains of TSE-fed fish sampled two years after challenge did show signs of neurodegeneration and accumulation of deposits that reacted positively with antibodies raised against sea bream PrP. The control groups, fed with brains from uninfected animals, showed no such signs. Remarkably, the deposits developed much more rapidly and extensively in fish inoculated with BSE-infected material than in the ones challenged with the scrapie-infected brain homogenate, with numerous deposits being proteinase K-resistant. These plaque-like aggregates exhibited congophilia and birefringence in polarized light, consistent with an amyloid-like component. The neurodegeneration and abnormal deposition in the brains of fish challenged with prion, especially BSE, raises concerns about the potential risk to public health. As fish aquaculture is an economically important industry providing high protein nutrition for humans and other mammalian species, the prospect of farmed fish being contaminated with infectious mammalian PrP(Sc), or of a prion disease developing in farmed fish is alarming and requires further evaluation.

  19. Effects of sustained exercise on GH-IGFs axis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Emilio J; Azizi, Sheida; Millán-Cubillo, Antonio; Fernández-Borràs, Jaume; Blasco, Josefina; Chan, Shu Jin; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-02-15

    The endocrine system regulates growth mainly through the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) axis and, although exercise promotes growth, little is known about its modulation of these factors. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 wk of moderate sustained swimming on the GH-IGFs axis in gilthead sea bream fingerlings. Plasma IGF-I/GH ratio and tissue gene expression of total IGF-I and three splice variants, IGF-II, three IGF binding proteins, two GH receptors, two IGF-I receptors, and the downstream molecules were analyzed. Fish under exercise (EX) grew more than control fish (CT), had a higher plasma IGF-I/GH ratio, and showed increased hepatic IGF-I expression (mainly IGF-Ia). Total IGF-I expression levels were similar in the anterior and caudal muscles; however, IGF-Ic expression increased with exercise, suggesting that this splice variant may be the most sensitive to mechanical action. Moreover, IGFBP-5b and IGF-II increased in the anterior and caudal muscles, respectively, supporting enhanced muscle growth. Furthermore, in EX fish, hepatic IGF-IRb was reduced together with both GHRs; GHR-II was also reduced in anterior muscle, while GHR-I showed higher expression in the two muscle regions, indicating tissue-dependent differences and responses to exercise. Exercise also increased gene and protein expression of target of rapamycin (TOR), suggesting enhanced muscle protein synthesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that moderate sustained activity may be used to increase the plasma IGF-I/GH ratio and to potentiate growth in farmed gilthead sea bream, modulating the gene expression of different members of the GH-IGFs axis (i.e., IGF-Ic, IGF-II, IGFBP-5b, GHR-I, and TOR).

  20. Demographic and genetic structures of white sea bream populations (Diplodus sargus, Linnaeus, 1758) inside and outside a Mediterranean marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenfant, Philippe

    2003-08-01

    We studied the white sea bream (Diplodus sargus), a protandrous hermaphroditic fish, in two protected and unprotected areas in southwestern France. We observed a significant difference in the demographic structure between the two areas. Females were present in two different age distributions inside and outside the marine reserve with younger females outside. This suggests plasticity in the age of sexual inversion in the case of an exploited population. Genetic differentiation was weak and apparent at only one locus of 26 surveyed (FST = 0.007, p = 0.04). Our data suggest that gene flow between the two areas is important, or the separation between the two sites is recent. Our data on the white sea bream show that fishes inside and outside the marine reserve are very similar genetically, which means that the 'reserve effect' is truly a demographic one, not the result of genetic differences.

  1. Effects of replacing monocalcium phosphate with phytase on growth and phosphorus utilization in black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegelii%中性植酸酶替代磷酸二氢钙对黑鲷生长和磷利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐树德; 王树启; 游翠红; 张敏智; 张婷; 杜红方; 史宝军

    2014-01-01

    coefficients (ADCs) of crude protein and phosphorus increased when fish were fed with the diets in which MCP was replaced by phytase. Additionally, phosphorus discharge was significantly reduced in fish fed diets in which MCP was replaced by phytase. Our results suggest that the dietary phosphorus requirement for meeting normal growth in black sea bream is≥0.51%. MCP can partially be replaced by phytase without affecting the growth of black sea bream. A diet containing 200 mg/kg phytase is equivalent to 1%MCP. The partial substitution of MCP by phytase not only reduces inorganic phosphorus addition to the surrounding waters, but also improves use of phosphorus in the feed.%以鱼粉、豆粕、菜粕等为蛋白原料设计配方,磷酸二氢钙的添加量分别为1.5%、1.0%、0.5%和0(对应的饲料组为P1.5、PP1.0、PP0.5和PP0组),其中PP1.0、PP0.5和PP0组中均添加200 mg/kg的中性植酸酶,开展为期8周的黑鲷(Acanthopagrus schlegelii)养殖实验,以探讨中性植酸酶替代磷酸二氢钙对黑鲷生长和磷利用的影响。结果显示,黑鲷摄食实验饲料8周后,各组间成活率无显著差异(P>0.05);摄食饲料PP1.0、PP0.5和对照组(P1.5组)实验鱼的增重率无显著差异(P>0.05),但均显著高于 PP0处理组,饲料系数则显著低于 PP0处理组(P0.05)。添加植酸酶的各组鱼磷的表观消化率均显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。随着磷酸二氢钙添加量的降低,黑鲷对干物质和蛋白质的表观消化率呈升高的趋势,当饲料中磷酸二氢钙的添加量降到0时,黑鲷对干物质和蛋白质的表观消化率显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。以上结果说明,在本研究配方下,黑鲷正常生长对饲料有效磷的需求量≥0.51%;磷酸二氢钙可部分被植酸酶替代,当黑鲷饲料中含有20%鱼粉、32%豆粕和12%菜粕,且植酸酶添加量为200 mg/kg时,与饲料中添加1%的磷酸二氢钙相当;在不影响黑鲷生长的前提下,植

  2. Dietary differences are reflected on the gut prokaryotic community structure of wild and commercially reared sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormas, Konstantinos A; Meziti, Alexandra; Mente, Eleni; Frentzos, Athanasios

    2014-10-01

    We compared the gut prokaryotic communities in wild, organically-, and conventionally reared sea bream (Sparus aurata) individuals. Gut microbial communities were identified using tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. There were distinct prokaryotic communities in the three different fish nutritional treatments, with the bacteria dominating over the Archaea. Most of the Bacteria belonged to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The number of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was reduced from the wild to the conventionally reared fish, implying a response of the gut microorganisms to the supplied food and possibly alterations in food assimilation. The dominant bacterial OTU in all examined fish was closely related to the genus Diaphorobacter. This is the first time that a member of the β-Proteobacteria, which dominate in freshwaters, are so important in a marine fish gut. In total the majority of the few Archaea OTUs found, were related to methane metabolism. The inferred physiological roles of the dominant prokaryotes are related to the metabolism of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds. This study showed the responsive feature of the sea bream gut prokaryotic communities to their diets and also the differences of the conventional in comparison to the organic and wild sea bream gut microbiota.

  3. Effects of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Peres, Helena; Rubio, Vera Cruz; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2013-06-01

    A growth trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata) to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on fish performance and lipid metabolism. For that purpose, four diets were formulated: a fish meal-based diet (Control) and diets identical to the control diet but supplemented with 2.9 % white tea (Tea), 0.3 % methionine (Met) or 2.9 % white tea plus 0.3 % methionine (Tea + Met). Growth performance and feed efficiency parameters, whole-body and liver composition, plasma metabolites concentration and liver glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) activities were determined. Feed intake was higher in fish fed methionine-supplemented diets, whereas this parameter and growth was decreased in fish fed white tea supplementation. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were not affected by diet composition. Plasma HDL cholesterol and total lipids concentration were higher in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Whole-body lipid, plasma glucose, liver glycogen concentration and liver G6PDH, ME and FAS activities were lower in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Results of the present study indicate that methionine seems to act as a feed attractant in diets for sea bream juveniles. Additionally, white tea is an important modulator of lipid metabolism in sea bream juveniles.

  4. Partial replacement of fish meal by T-Iso in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata juveniles diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of microalga Isochrysis sp. T-Iso in partial substitution of fish meal and the study of the effects on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata perform- ances and chemical composition of fillets. The results show that the microalga T-Iso nutrients support growth better than control diets, and the chemical composition of sea bream fillets also meets the needs of consumers for healthy diets. T-Iso resulted highly digestible, and support the best perform- ances of fish fed on 70% alga diet probably due to its high protein efficiency in comparison to other diets. The presence of a high quantity of cyclic isoprenoid could explain this high efficiency of T-Iso. Gilthead sea bream fed on 70% T-Iso showed fillets with a low level of protein and a high level of fat; moreover, their somatic indexes were higher than those of fish fed other diets. Highest percentage T- Iso diet showed the highest amount of the sum of saturated fatty acids, mainly due to myristate and palmitate. On the contrary, the sum of polyunsaturated decreases, mainly because of the reduction of EPA and DHA amounts. If the mass production economical problems are solved, T-Iso will represent a good solution in partial substitution of fish meal.

  5. Supplementation with imuno-2865® in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758): Effects on hematological and antioxidant parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Župan, Ivan; Tkalčić, Suzana; Šarić, Tomislav; Čož-Rakovac, Rozalindra; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Topić-Popović, Natalija; Kardum, Matko; Kanski, Danijel; Ljubić, Blanka Beer; Matijatko, Vesna; Poljičak-Milas, Nina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of IMUNO-2865(®) on hematological and antioxidative parameters in sea bream. Total of 640 sea bream were fed with diets containing 0 (Group 1), 1 (Group 2), 10 (Group 3) and 25 (Group 4) g of IMUNO-2865(®) kg(-1) feed during 90 days. Samples were taken each month and three months after the supplementation. A significant heterophils increase was observed in group 4 compared to group 1 after two months, and an increase in monocytes number was observed in group 4 compared to the other groups after one month. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) were significantly increased in groups 3 and 4 compared to the control group three months into the experiment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased in group 4 compared to the control group from day 60 until the end of the experiment, and in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control after three months. Based on the differences in the cellular immunity and oxidative stress parameters, with an overall absence of mortality, the results of this study suggest that the use of IMUNO-2865(®) in aquaculture is safe and possess a cumulative immunostimulatory effect on sea bream.

  6. UTILIZATION OF CORN GLUTEN MEAL AS A PROTEIN SOURCE IN DIETS FOR GILTHEAD SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata L. JUVENILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yiğit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of corn gluten meal (CGM was evaluated as a partial fish meal (FM substitute in practical diets for gilthead sea bream juveniles. Four test diets (isonitrogenous and isoca¬loric, 52% protein and 10% lipid, 19 kJ/g diet containing increasing levels of CGM were for¬mulated to replace anchovy meal at levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. Triplicate groups of ju¬venile sea bream (initial body weight of 1.5 g were reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS over 45 days at 18±2°C. Fish fed a diet containing 10% of CGM showed com¬parable growth performance similar to the control diet containing FM as the sole protein source. No mortality was observed in all treatment groups. Dietary CGM inclusion levels of 20% and 30% showed lower growth performance, feed utilization, and protein efficiency com¬pared to the control and the 10% CGM inclusion diets. However these values were not signifi¬cantly different among fish fed the CGM10 and CGM20 diets. Economical analyses also con¬firmed the growth related experimental results in terms of best profit obtained with the 10% CGM inclusion diet. Results in the present study showed that CGM alone without any amino acid supplements can substitute FM up to 10% with no adverse effects on growth performance, feed utilization, or economical inputs in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

  7. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  8. Metallothionein (MT: a good biomarker in marine sentinel species like sea bream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigers Bakiu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an overview of the significance of the use of molecular biomarkers as diagnostic and prognostic tools for marine pollution monitoring. In order to assess the impact of highly persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB, polychlorinated dibenzo–dioxins (PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzo–furans (PCDF, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, tributyltin (TBT and other toxic metals on the marine ecosystem a suite of biomarkers are being extensively used worldwide. Among the various types of biomarkers, like cytochrome P4501A induction, DNA integrity, and acetylcholinesterase activity, metallothionein induction represents an excellent biomarker. MTs are induced by toxic metals such as Cd, Hg, and Cu by chelation through cysteine residues and are used in both vertebrates and invertebrates as a biomarker of metal exposure. Sea bream is sentinel fish of its native sandy costal habitat as it is widely distributed throughout the entire Mediterranean Sea. Many studies, which results are further shown in this paper, has proposed metallothionein as a biomarker of heavy metal exposure in Sparus aurata. Recently MT expression profiles have been used as perfect diagnostic instruments to determine the physiological impact of aquaculture systems in S. aurata. All these knowledge could be very helpful to improve fish productivity and the aquaculture production system quality

  9. PREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO SPP. ISOLATED ON AQUACULTURED GILTHEAD SEA BREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scarano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp isolated from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata farmed on sea cages and to identify and characterize the pathogen by molecular techniques. Eighty fish were collected from two hatcheries located on the North-Est Sardinian Mediterranean coast, and microbiological analysis were performed on different body parts such as skin, gills, muscle and intestinal tract. Subsequently 100 pure colonies with typical morphology and phenotypic characteristics were selected and submitted to the molecular identification. The analysis on the prevalence of Vibrio spp showed the effect of the hatchery rearing system (P<0.001, of the date of sampling (P<0.001, and of the body part (P<0.001. All the strains selected were confirmed to be members of the genus Vibrio spp by the molecular method/techinique/identification, whereas the rpoA gene sequence analyses allowed to identify 89 strains belonging to the species Vibrio harveyi, 6 to V. diabolicus, 2 to V. parahaemolyticus and 1 to V. mediterranei.

  10. Second generation genetic linkage map for the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigenopoulos, Costas S; Louro, Bruno; Chatziplis, Dimitrios; Lagnel, Jacques; Vogiatzi, Emmanouella; Loukovitis, Dimitrios; Franch, Rafaella; Sarropoulou, Elena; Power, Deborah M; Patarnello, Tomaso; Mylonas, Constantinos C; Magoulas, Antonios; Bargelloni, Luca; Canario, Adelino; Kotoulas, Georgios

    2014-12-01

    An updated second linkage map was constructed for the gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., a fish species of great economic importance for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry. In contrast to the first linkage map which mainly consisted of genomic microsatellites (SSRs), the new linkage map is highly enriched with SSRs found in Expressed Sequence Tags (EST-SSRs), which greatly facilitates comparative mapping with other teleosts. The new map consists of 321 genetic markers in 27 linkage groups (LGs): 232 genomic microsatellites, 85 EST-SSRs and 4 SNPs; of those, 13 markers were linked to LGs but were not ordered. Eleven markers (5 SSRs, 5 EST-SSRs and 1 SNP) are not assigned to any LG. The total length of the sex-averaged map is 1769.7cM, 42% longer than the previously published one, and the number of markers in each LG ranges from 2 to 30. The inter-marker distance varies from 0 to 75.6cM, with an average of 5.75cM. The male and female maps have a length of 1349.2 and 2172.1cM, respectively, and the average distance between markers is 4.38 and 7.05cM, respectively. Comparative mapping with the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus acuulatus) chromosomes and scaffolds showed conserved synteny with 132 S. aurata markers (42.9% of those mapped) having a hit on the stickleback genome.

  11. Insulin, IGF-I, and muscle MAPK pathway responses after sustained exercise and their contribution to growth and lipid metabolism regulation in gilthead sea bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gurmaches, J; Cruz-Garcia, L; Ibarz, A; Fernández-Borrás, J; Blasco, J; Gutiérrez, J; Navarro, I

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we studied whether sustained exercise positively affects growth of gilthead sea bream by alterations in a) plasma concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, b) signaling pathways in muscle, or c) regulation of lipid metabolism. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of moderated swimming (1.5 body lengths per second; BL/s) on the circulating concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, morphometric parameters, and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in gilthead sea bream (80-90 g BW). Exercise increased the specific growth rate (P exercised fish (P = 0.037), suggesting a role for this endocrine factor in the control of muscular growth and metabolic homeostasis during swimming. The observed decrease in plasma insulin concentrations (P = 0.016) could favor the mobilization of tissue reserves in exercised fish. In this sense, the increase in liver fatty acid content (P = 0.041) and the changes in expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors PPARα (P = 0.017) and PPARγ (P = 0.033) indicated a hepatic lipid mobilization. Concentration of glycogen in both white and red muscles was decreased (P = 0.021 and P = 0.017, respectively) in exercised (n = 12) relative to control (n = 12) gilthead sea bream, whereas concentrations of glucose (P = 0.016) and lactate (P = 0.0007) were decreased only in red muscle, indicating the use of these substrates. No changes in the glucose transporter and in lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression were found in any of the tissues studied. Exercised sea bream had decreased content of PPARβ mRNA in white and red muscle relative to control sea bream expression (P = 0.001 and P = 0.049, respectively). Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was significantly down-regulated in both white and red muscles of exercised sea bream (P = 0.0374 and P = 0.0371, respectively). Tumor necrosis factor-α expression of white muscle was down-regulated in exercised gilthead sea bream (P = 0.045). Collectively, these results contribute

  12. 团头鲂饲料磷需要量%Phosphorus Requirement of Bluntnose Black Bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉超; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 姚林杰; 陈科全; 黄雨薇; 龚志

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲料中不同磷水平对团头鲂生长性能及体组成不同部位中磷含量的影响,以确定团头鲂饲料中磷的需要量。选取480尾平均初始体重为35 g的团头鲂为试验对象,随机分为6个试验组,每组4个重复,每个重复20尾,试验期为85 d。采用半纯化饲料,以磷酸二氢钙为磷源,设置磷水平为3.8、6.9、10.1、13.2、16.4、19.5 g/kg共6个梯度的试验饲料。结果表明:1)团头鲂试验中饲料磷水平为13.2 g/kg的试验组增重率显著高于其他各组( P 0.05),且磷水平为3.8 g/kg试验组全鱼粗灰分含量显著低于其他组(P0 . 05 ) , and the ash content in experimental group with 3 . 8 g/kg phosphorus was significantly lower than that in other groups ( P<0 . 05 );3 ) with dietary phosphor-us level increasing, phosphorus content in whole body, vertebra, opercle and scale was significantly increased (P<0. 05). Dietary phosphorus level had significant effects on phosphorus content in whole body, muscle, vertebra, opercle and scale (P <0. 05). In conclusion, under the conditions of this experiment, not only growth performance, but also contents of phosphorus in whole body and tissues are affected by dietary phos-phorus level. Quadratic model analysis results show that the optimum dietary phosphorus requirements for max-imum growth of bluntnose black bream is 12. 98~13. 18 g/kg.

  13. IGF-I and amino acids effects through TOR signaling on proliferation and differentiation of gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Emilio J; Lutfi, Esmail; Jiménez-Amilburu, Vanesa; Riera-Codina, Miquel; Capilla, Encarnación; Navarro, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle growth and development is controlled by nutritional (amino acids, AA) as well as hormonal factors (insulin-like growth factor, IGF-I); however, how its interaction modulates muscle mass in fish is not clearly elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development of gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes to describe the effects of AA and IGF-I on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression, as well as on the transduction pathways involved in its signaling (TOR/AKT). Our results showed that AA and IGF-I separately increased the number of PCNA-positive cells and, together produced a synergistic effect. Furthermore, AA and IGF-I, combined or separately, increased significantly Myogenin protein expression, whereas MyoD was not affected. These results indicate a role for these factors in myocyte proliferation and differentiation. At the mRNA level, AA significantly enhanced PCNA expression, but no effects were observed on the expression of the MRFs or AKT2 and FOXO3 upon treatment. Nonetheless, we demonstrated for the first time in gilthead sea bream that AA significantly increased the gene expression of TOR and its downstream effectors 4EBP1 and 70S6K, with IGF-I having a supporting role on 4EBP1 up-regulation. Moreover, AA and IGF-I also activated TOR and AKT by phosphorylation, respectively, being this activation decreased by specific inhibitors. In summary, the present study demonstrates the importance of TOR signaling on the stimulatory role of AA and IGF-I in gilthead sea bream myogenesis and contributes to better understand the potential regulation of muscle growth and development in fish.

  14. Toxicity of short-term copper exposure to early life stages of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Jinhu; Ye, Zhenjiang; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-09-01

    Acute (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 mg Cu/L) and chronic (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12 mg Cu/L) toxicity tests of Cu with embryonic and larval red sea bream, Pagrus major, were carried out to investigate their biological responses to Cu exposure in static water at 18 +/- 1 degrees C (dissolved organic carbon, 1.8 +/- 0.65 mg C/L; hardness, 6,183 +/- 360 mg CaCO3/L; salinity, 33 +/- 1 per thousand). The 24- and 48-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) values of Cu for embryos were 0.23 and 0.15 mg/L, whereas the 48-, 72-, and 96-h LC50 values for larvae were 0.52, 0.19, and 0.13 mg/L, respectively, suggesting that embryos were more sensitive to Cu toxicity than larvae. Copper exposures at > or =0.06 mg concentrations caused low hatching success, a delay in the time to hatching of embryos, and reductions in the growth and yolk absorption of the larvae, whereas high mortality and morphological malformations occurred in the embryos and larvae at > or =0.08 mg/L concentrations. Copper concentration did not significantly affect the heart rate of the embryos, but it significantly decreased the heart rate of the newly hatched larvae when the Cu concentration was > or =0.08 mg/L, suggesting that Cu at high concentrations could induce heartbeat disturbances in red sea bream more easily at the larval stage than at the embryonic stage. Hatching success, time to hatching, growth rate, morphological abnormality, yolk absorption, and heart rate were Cu concentration-dependent and could be effective endpoints for evaluating Cu toxicity to the early life stages of red sea bream in nature.

  15. Occurrence and potential transfer of mycotoxins in gilthead sea bream and Atlantic salmon by use of novel alternative feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Beltrán, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Silva, Joana; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2015-06-01

    Plant ingredients and processed animal proteins (PAP) are suitable alternative feedstuffs for fish feeds in aquaculture practice, although their use can introduce contaminants that are not previously associated with marine salmon and gilthead sea bream farming. Mycotoxins are well known natural contaminants in plant feed material, although they also could be present on PAPs after fungi growth during storage. The present study surveyed commercially available plant ingredients (19) and PAP (19) for a wide range of mycotoxins (18) according to the EU regulations. PAP showed only minor levels of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 and the mycotoxin carry-over from feeds to fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon and gilthead sea bream (two main species of European aquaculture) was performed with plant ingredient based diets. Deoxynivalenol was the most prevalent mycotoxin in wheat, wheat gluten and corn gluten cereals with levels ranging from 17 to 814 and μg kg(-1), followed by fumonisins in corn products (range 11.1-4901 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1+B2+B3). Overall mycotoxin levels in fish feeds reflected the feed ingredient composition and the level of contaminant in each feed ingredient. In all cases the studied ingredients and feeds showed levels of mycotoxins below maximum residue limits established by the Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC. Following these guidelines no mycotoxin carry-over was found from feeds to edible fillets of salmonids and a typically marine fish, such as gilthead sea bream. As far we know, this is the first report of mycotoxin surveillance in farmed fish species.

  16. Trace elements and metals in farmed sea bass and gilthead bream from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Jalilli, A; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hernández, F; Melón, E; Burgos, A; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of metals (Ca, K, Na, Mg) and trace metals (Ni, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd) in two fish species (gilthead bream [Sparus aurata] and sea bass [Dicentrarchus labrax]) collected from fish farms located along the coast of Tenerife Island. Ca, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas Pb, Cd, and Ni were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn contents were 3.09, 0.59, 0.18, and 8.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in S. aurata and 3.20, 0.76, 0.24, and 10.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in D. labrax, respectively. In D. labrax, Ca, K, Na, and Mg levels were 1,955, 2,787, 699.7, and 279.2 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively; in S. aurata, they were 934.7, 3,515, 532.8, and 262.8 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively. The Pb level in S. aurata was 7.28 ± 3.64 μg/kg (wet weight) and, in D. labrax, 4.42 ± 1.56 μg/kg (wet weight). Mean Cd concentrations were 3.33 ± 3.93 and 1.36 ± 1.53 μg/kg (wet weight) for D. labrax and S. aurata, respectively. All Pb and Cd levels measured were well below the accepted European Commission limits, 300 and 50 μg/kg for lead and cadmium, respectively.

  17. Prebiotics effect on immune and hepatic oxidative status and gut morphology of white sea bream (Diplodus sargus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Inês; Couto, Ana; Machado, Marina; Castro, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on immune and hepatic oxidative status, and gut morphology of white sea bream juveniles. Four diets were formulated: a control diet with fish meal (FM) and plant feedstuffs (PF) (30FM:70PF) and three test diets similar to the control but supplemented with 1% of scFOS, XOS or GOS. Dietary prebiotic incorporation did not affect total blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood indices or differential white blood cell counts. Fish fed GOS had lower ACH50 and nitric oxide than fish fed control diet. XOS enhanced immune status through the increase in alternative complement pathway (ACH50), lysozyme and total immunoglobulin. The higher activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in fish fed FOS compared to the other dietary groups was the only related antioxidant enzyme affected by prebiotics in the liver. GOS ameliorated the precocious adverse effects of PF based diet on gut histomorphology, as denoted by the lower incidence of histological alterations in fish fed GOS for 15 days. In conclusion, XOS and GOS at 1% might have potential to be used as prebiotics in white sea bream juveniles.

  18. Labeling and label free shotgun proteomics approaches to characterize muscle tissue from farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesana, Susy; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; La Barbera, Giorgia; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    The proteome characterization of fish muscle tissues, together with the relative expression of each individual protein, provides knowledge on the biochemical response of the organisms and allows to assess the effect of different types of feeding, growth site and nutritional quality of the investigated species. This type of study is usually performed by gel-based proteomics approaches, however shotgun proteomics can serve as well, reducing analysis time and improving sample high-throughput. In this work, a shotgun proteomics method was thus developed and then applied to the characterization of gilthead sea bream edible muscle. The sarcoplasmic protein fraction was extracted, in-solution digested by trypsin and finally analyzed by nanoHPLC high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Two different quantification strategies were also tested. One was based on chemical dimethyl labeling and the other one on label free quantification. A comparison between these two analytical workflows was performed, to evaluate their individual performance in the analysis of fish samples and assess the differences induced by farming practice on the final commercial product with respect to wild gilthead sea bream. Quantitative differences were detected, and the most relevant one regarded the common fish allergen parvalbumin, found overexpressed in farmed fish samples.

  19. Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila in sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets packaged under enriched CO(2) modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provincial, Laura; Guillén, Elena; Alonso, Verónica; Gil, Mario; Roncalés, Pedro; Beltrán, José A

    2013-08-16

    The ability to survive of two pathogens (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila) spread over sea bream fillets packaged under different modified atmospheres (MAPs) was studied at 0°C and 4°C under refrigerated storage. The atmospheres used were 60% CO2/40% N2, 70% CO2/30% N2 and 80% CO2/20% N2 and a control batch packaged in air. Head space gas analyses, microbial counts and confirming test of pathogenic bacteria were carried out during 16days. The results obtained showed that all the modified atmospheres studied were effective to reduce the microbial load of sea bream fillets when compared with air packaged samples although small differences were found among MAPs. Temperature storage was the main factor to reduce microbial growth. V. parahaemolyticus was unable to grow at both temperatures, 0°C and 4°C (except air batches) while A. hydrophila showed significant growth at 4°C and microbial inactivation at 0°C.

  20. Probiotics as an environment-friendly approach to enhance red sea bream, Pagrus major growth, immune response and oxidative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; El-Sabagh, Mabrouk; Esteban, M Angeles; Zaineldin, Amr I

    2016-10-01

    A usual strategy in modern aquaculture to combat production bottlenecks associated with intensification is preventive health care through the use of consumer and environment-friendly alternatives including probiotics. The current study evaluates the influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), a lyophilized probiotic bacterium, on health status and performance of red sea bream (Pagrus major). Probiotics were incorporated in the diets at four different concentrations: 0 (control diet, LR0), 10(2) (LR1), 10(4) (LR2) and 10(6) (LR3) cells g(-1) and diets were administered to the fish for a period of 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, final body weight, body weight gain, specific growth rate, protease activity, protein digestibility, Lactobacillus sp. intestinal count, and superoxide dismutase were significantly higher in all probiotic-fed groups (P probiotic supplementations being the effects dose-dependent. All growth, feed utilization, immune and oxidative parameters were significantly improved following probiotic administration. Present results revealed that L. rhamnosus is a promising probiotic candidate employed to help red sea bream protect themselves, thus promoting safe farming that would be less dependent on chemotherapy against infectious diseases.

  1. Development temperature has persistent effects on muscle growth responses in gilthead sea bream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia de la serrana

    Full Text Available Initially we characterised growth responses to altered nutritional input at the transcriptional and tissue levels in the fast skeletal muscle of juvenile gilthead sea bream. Fish reared at 21-22°C (range were fed a commercial diet at 3% body mass d(-1 (non-satiation feeding, NSF for 4 weeks, fasted for 4d (F and then fed to satiation (SF for 21d. 13 out of 34 genes investigated showed consistent patterns of regulation between nutritional states. Fasting was associated with a 20-fold increase in MAFbx, and a 5-fold increase in Six1 and WASp expression, which returned to NSF levels within 16h of SF. Refeeding to satiation was associated with a rapid (<24 h 12 to 17-fold increase in UNC45, Hsp70 and Hsp90α transcripts coding for molecular chaperones associated with unfolded protein response pathways. The growth factors FGF6 and IGF1 increased 6.0 and 4.5-fold within 16 h and 24 h of refeeding respectively. The average growth in diameter of fast muscle fibres was checked with fasting and significant fibre hypertrophy was only observed after 13d and 21d SF. To investigate developmental plasticity in growth responses we used the same experimental protocol with fish reared at either 17.5-18.5°C (range (LT or 21-22°C (range (HT to metamorphosis and then transferred to 21-22°C. There were persistent effects of development temperature on muscle growth patterns with 20% more fibres of lower average diameter in LT than HT group of similar body size. Altering the nutritional input to the muscle to stimulate growth revealed cryptic changes in the expression of UNC45 and Hsp90α with higher transcript abundance in the LT than HT groups, whereas there were no differences in the expression of MAFbx and Six1. It was concluded that myogenesis and gene expression patterns during growth are not fixed, but can be modified by temperature during the early stages of the life cycle.

  2. GROWTH PROMOTION OF RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR, BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF RECOMBINANT EEL AND SALMON GROWTH HORMONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGH and rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer matrix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containing reGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium alginate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulate fish growth.

  3. GROWTH PROMOTION OF RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR, BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF RECOMBINANT EEL AND SALMON GROWTH HORMONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐迎利; 苗宏志; 刘振辉; 邓勇; 兰山; 王尧; 张培军; 徐斌; 麦康森

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGHand rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer ma-trix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containin greGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium algi-nate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulato fish growth.

  4. Characterization and endocrine regulation of proliferation and differentiation of primary cultured preadipocytes from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, C; Acerete, L; Gutiérrez, J; Navarro, I; Capilla, E

    2013-07-01

    A preadipocyte primary cell culture was established to gain knowledge about adipose tissue development in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), one of the most extensively produced marine aquaculture species in the Mediterranean. The preadipocytes obtained from the stromal-vascular cell fraction of adipose tissue proliferated in culture, reaching confluence around day 8. At that time, the addition of an adipogenic medium promoted differentiation of the cells into mature adipocytes, which showed an enlarged cytoplasm filled with lipid droplets. First, cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed under control and adipogenic conditions during culture development. Next, the effects of insulin, GH, and IGF-I on cell proliferation were evaluated at day 8. All peptides significantly stimulated proliferation of the cells after 48 h of incubation (P differentiation when added to growth medium were studied at day 11, after 3 d of induction with adipogenic medium. The results showed that IGF-I is more potent than insulin enhancing differentiation (P product in aquaculture.

  5. Proximate Composition, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Attributes of Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and Emperor Sea Bream (Lethrinus spp. Fillets Sold on Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Nicoleta Boițeanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The variety of seafood on the European market has considerably increased in recent years. This study presents data to the main nutritional values and the sensory properties of two exotic fish species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and emperor sea bream (Lethrinus spp., sold on retail market in Germany. Information on the quality of frozen and glazed fillets is still missing, but is important to characterize these products. This also includes details on the substances added to increase the water-binding ability. Aims: The paper aims to assess the quality of exotic fish fillets sold on the German market, through the evaluation of physical and chemical parameters, microbiological quality and sensory attributes. Materials and methods: 10 samples of each fish species were analysed after homogenisation to determine the following parameters:  pH-value (with a pH meter; water (gravimetrically; ash (in  a muffle furnace at 550 °C; salt (NaCl; by auto-titration; fat (by a modified Smedes method; protein (with a LECO TruSpecN based on the principles of the Dumas combustion method; total phosphorus content (photometrically; total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, using the EU reference method; total viable bacteria count (TVC and specific fish spoiling bacteria (SSO (by decimal dilutions method. The sensory assessments were done with cooked and fried fillets by a panel consisting of 6 specialists, using a descriptive method. Results: Lipid, ash and salt contents of mahi-mahi were comparable to the emperor sea bream values. Due to low lipid content, both species can be classified as lean species. The protein amount of emperor sea bream was significantly higher compared to mahi-mahi and many other common fish species. In mahi-mahi samples, slightly higher values of total phosphates content were found. The pH values of emperor sea bream were in a normal range for fresh fish, whereas in mahi-mahi significantly higher values were determined which

  6. Potential use of high levels of vegetal proteins in diets for market-sized gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Ortiz, Raquel; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Márquez, Lorenzo; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Jover-Cerdá, Miguel; Tomás-Vidal, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The effect of partial or total dietary substitution of fishmeal (FM) by vegetal protein sources on growth and feed efficiency was carried out in on-growing gilthead sea bream (mean initial weight 131 g). The Control diet (FM 100) contained FM as the primary protein source, while in Diets FM 25 and FM 0 the FM protein was replaced at 75% and 100%, respectively, by a vegetable protein mixture consisting of wheat gluten, soybean meal, rapeseed meal and crystalline amino acids. Diets FM 25 and FM 0 also contained krill meal at 47 g/kg in order to improve palatability. At the end of the trial (after 158 d), fish survival was above 90%. Final weight and the specific growth rate were statistically lower in fish fed the Control diet (361 g and 0.64%/d), compared with 390-396 g and 0.69-0.70%/d after feeding vegetal diets. No significant differences were found regarding feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The digestibility of protein and amino acids (determined with chromium oxide as indicator) was similar in all diets. The blood parameters were not significantly affected by treatments. The activity of trypsin and pepsin was significantly reduced after feeding Diet FM 0. In the distal intestine, the villi length in fish fed Diet FM 25 was significantly longer and the intestine of the fish fed the FM 100 diet showed a smaller number of goblet cells. In conclusion, a total FM substitution by a vegetal mix supplemented with synthetic amino acids in on-growing sea bream is feasible.

  7. On The Black Sea Surozhian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Corneliu, Cerchia

    2016-04-01

    Some Black Sea researchers still support the idea of no other connection to the Mediterranean Sea between LGM and Karangatian Stage (Riss - Wurm). We try to clarify the source of these disagreements. C14 AMS age data (HERAS Project) made on undisturbed samples from a new Mamaia drilling hole where compared with the classical Black Sea stratigraphic schemes. A first transgressive event (Zone D) is found between 38.00 - 20.20 m depth. Zone D4 shows a fairly rapid rise of sea level, about 10 m below the present one indicating an inner shelf marine polyhaline environment. AMS age data show 14C ages between 53690 - 47359 y (MIS 1), corresponding to the "Surozhian Beds" of Popov. The "beach rock" from Zone E marks the decrease of the sea level after the maximum reached in Zone D4. Zone E mollusc shells AMS data, indicate 14C ages of 48724 - 44604 y, suggesting a long-time reworked material from the previous D4 zone sediments, and represents the beginning of the "regressive Tarkankutian" sequence.The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) led to the retreat of the sea level down to about 100 m below the current one (27-17 ky BP), followed by an retreat of the shoreline to the present position. At the beginning of the Holocene - MIS 1 (8408-8132 cal. y BP), Black Sea brackish water level grew rapidly, up to -14 m below the present one (Zone F: 22, 57-20, 20 m). Zone F deposits could be correlated with the Bugazian strata. Then, a continuous rising of the Black Sea level is recorded up to a maximum of -2 m under the present one, about 6789 - 7063 cal. y BP, when a transgressive spurt ("Neolithic transgression") may have taken place. After that, given a weak Danubian sedimentary input, coastal erosion intensified. The coarse sandy sediments were reworked and pushed over the previous peat deposits, and suggest a classical "sedimentary regression", not a sea-level decrease. During the last 1.5 ky, sea level has risen towards the current one. Previous C14 dates from "Karangatian

  8. Preliminary Investigation on the Use of Allyi Isothiocyanate to Increase the Shelf-Life of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus Aurata) Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Crinò, Chiara; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against fish spoilage bacteria (specific spoilage organisms; SSOs) as well as its possible use in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets to extend their shelf-life. In this regard, in vitro tests are carried out in order to evaluate the inhibitory activity of AITC and its vapours on several strains of SSOs. The AITC effect on the shelf-life of sea bream fillets was made by putting them in plastic trays hermetically closed with the addition AITC. Microbiological and sensorial evaluations were made on fish fillets during storage. Treated fillets maintained microbial populations at a significantly lower level compared with the control samples during storage, showing better sensorial characteristics. Therefore, the use of AITC's vapours seems to be a new and interesting alternative way to increase fish product shelf-life.

  9. ANTILISTERIAL ACTYVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM GILTHEAD BREAMS AND SEA BASSES FILLETS PACKAGED MAP AGAINST PRIMITIVE STRAINS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Barile; A. Mormile; R Mercogliano; N. Murru

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis typically caused by ready-to-eat processed food that have a refrigerated shelf-life, but lightly preserved fish products also belong to a high-risk category. Aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity linked bacteriocin-producing of LAB isolated from gilthead breams and sea basses fillets packaged in modified atmospheres. Fifty-five LAB strains were screened against 21 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, 1 Listeria innocu...

  10. Activity of R(+) limonene on the maximum growth rate of fish spoilage organisms and related effects on shelf-life prolongation of fresh gilthead sea bream fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2016-11-21

    R(+)limonene (LMN) is the major aromatic compound in essential oils obtained from oranges, grapefruits, and lemons. The improvement of preservation techniques to reduce the growth and activity of spoilage microorganisms in foods is crucial to increase their shelf life and to reduce the losses due to spoilage. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of LMN on the shelf life of fish fillets. Its effectiveness was preliminarily investigated in vitro against 60 strains of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) and then on gilt-head sea bream fillets stored at 2±0.5°C for 15days under vacuum. LMN showed a good inhibitory effect against tested SSOs strains. On gilt-head sea bream fillets, LMN inhibited the growth SSOs effectively, and its use resulted in a shelf-life extension of ca. 6-9days of treated fillets, compared to the control samples. The LMN addition in Sparus aurata fillets giving a distinctive smell and like-lemon taste to fish fillets that resulted pleasant to panellists. Its use contributed to a considerable reduction of fish spoilage given that the fillets treated with LMN were still sensory acceptable after 15days of storage. LMN may be used as an effective antimicrobial system to reduce the microbial growth and to improve the shelf life of fresh gilt-head sea bream fillets.

  11. Dietary glutamine supplementation effects on amino acid metabolism, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity and antioxidant response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, F; Castro, C; Rufino-Palomares, E; Ordóñez-Grande, B; Gallardo, M A; Oliva-Teles, A; Peres, H

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate dietary glutamine supplementation effects on gilthead sea bream performance, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity, hepatic and intestinal glutamine metabolism and oxidative status. For that purpose gilthead sea bream juveniles (mean weight 13.0g) were fed four isolipidic (18% lipid) and isonitrogenous (43% protein) diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% glutamine for 6weeks. Fish performance, body composition and intestinal nutrient absorption capacity were not affected by dietary glutamine levels. Hepatic and intestinal glutaminase (GlNase), glutamine synthetase (GSase), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were also unaffected by dietary glutamine supplementation. In the intestine GlNase activity was higher and GSase/GlNase ratio was two-fold lower than in the liver, suggesting a higher use of glutamine for energy production by the intestine than by the liver. The liver showed higher catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, while the intestine presented higher glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and oxidised glutathione content, which seems to reveal a higher glutathione dependency of the intestinal antioxidant response. Total and reduced glutathione contents in liver and intestine and superoxide dismutase activity in the intestine were enhanced by dietary glutamine, though lipid peroxidation values were not affected. Overall, differences between liver and intestine glutamine metabolism and antioxidant response were identified and the potential of dietary glutamine supplementation to gilthead sea bream's antioxidant response was elucidated.

  12. Garlic Bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:One whole bream weighing about750g,100g garlic,3g salt,15g cookingwine,2g pepper,3g MSG,5g sugar,10g soy sauce,5g sesame oil,optionalamount of clear stock,minced scallionand ginger root and 1000g cooking oil(actual consumption only 100g).Method:1.Clean the bream,slit open bothsides,then smear over the soy sauceand soak for a while.2.Heat the wok and add in cookingoil.Put in the bream when the oil is80% hot.Fry the fish until it turnsgolden yellow.Remove.leaving someoil in the wok.3.Stir-fry the scallion and ginger until

  13. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  14. PTHrP regulates water absorption and aquaporin expression in the intestine of the marine sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Canário, Adelino V M; Power, Deborah M; Fuentes, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Water ingestion by drinking is fundamental for ion homeostasis in marine fish. However, the fluid ingested requires processing to allow net water absorption in the intestine. The formation of luminal carbonate aggregates impacts on calcium homeostasis and requires epithelial HCO3(-) secretion to enable water absorption. In light of its endocrine importance in calcium handling and the indication of involvement in HCO3(-) secretion the present study was designed to expose the role of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in HCO3(-) secretion, water absorption and the regulation of aqp1 gene expression in the anterior intestine of the sea bream. HCO3(-) secretion rapidly decreased when PTHrP(1-34) was added to anterior intestine of the sea bream mounted in Ussing chambers. The effect achieved a maximum inhibition of 60% of basal secretion rates, showing a threshold effective dose of 0.1 ng ml(-1) compatible with reported plasma values of PTHrP. When applied in combination with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) or the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)) the effect of PTHrP(1-34) on HCO3(-) secretion was reduced by about 50% in both cases. In parallel, bulk water absorption measured in intestinal sacs was sensitive to inhibition by PTHrP. The inhibitory action conforms to a typical dose-response curve in the range of 0.1-1000 ng ml(-1), achieves a maximal effect of 60-65% inhibition from basal rates and shows threshold significant effects at hormone levels of 0.1 ng ml(-1). The action of PTHrP in water absorption was completely abolished in the presence of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) and was insensitive to the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)). In vivo injections of PTHrP(1-34) or the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) evoked respectively, a significant decrease or increase of aqp1ab, but not aqp1a. Overall the present results suggest that PTHrP acts as a key

  15. Skin Mucus of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.). Protein Mapping and Regulation in Chronically Stressed Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Terova, Genciana; Simó-Mirabet, Paula; Rimoldi, Simona; Folkedal, Ole; Calduch-Giner, Josep A.; Olsen, Rolf E.; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2017-01-01

    The skin mucus of gilthead sea bream was mapped by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer. More than 2,000 proteins were identified with a protein score filter of 30. The identified proteins were represented in 418 canonical pathways of the Ingenuity Pathway software. After filtering by canonical pathway overlapping, the retained proteins were clustered in three groups. The mitochondrial cluster contained 59 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. The second cluster contained 79 proteins related to antigen presentation and protein ubiquitination pathways. The third cluster contained 257 proteins where proteins related to protein synthesis, cellular assembly, and epithelial integrity were over-represented. The latter group also included acute phase response signaling. In parallel, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis methodology identified six proteins spots of different protein abundance when comparing unstressed fish with chronically stressed fish in an experimental model that mimicked daily farming activities. The major changes were associated with a higher abundance of cytokeratin 8 in the skin mucus proteome of stressed fish, which was confirmed by immunoblotting. Thus, the increased abundance of markers of skin epithelial turnover results in a promising indicator of chronic stress in fish. PMID:28210224

  16. Cholecystokinin in white sea bream: molecular cloning, regional expression, and immunohistochemical localization in the gut after feeding and fasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Micale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK, secreted by the midgut, plays a key role in digestive physiology of vertebrates including teleosts, by stimulating pancreatic secretion, gut motility, and gallbladder contraction, as well as by delaying gastric emptying. Moreover, CCK is involved in the regulation of food intake and satiation. Secretion of CCK by the hindgut is controversial, and its biological activity remains to be elucidated. The present paper addresses the regional distribution of intestinal CCK in the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus, as well as the possible involvement of hindgut CCK in digestive processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full-lengths mRNAs encoding two CCK isoforms (CCK-1 and CCK-2 were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. CCK gene and protein expression levels in the different gut segments were measured 3 h and 72 h after feeding, by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Moreover, endocrine CCK cells were immunoistochemically detected. Fasting induced a significant decrease in CCK-2 in all intestinal segments, including the hindgut. On the other hand, no significant difference was induced by fasting on hindgut CCK-1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrated two CCK isoforms in the hindgut of D.sargus, one of which (CCK-2 may be involved in the feedback control of uncompleted digestive processes. On the other hand, a functional role alternative to regulation of digestive processes may be inferred for D.sargus CCK-1, since its expression was unaffected by feeding or fasting.

  17. Skin mucus proteome of gilthead sea bream: A non-invasive method to screen for welfare indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanahuja, Ignasi; Ibarz, Antoni

    2015-10-01

    In teleosts, the skin mucus is the first physical barrier against physical and chemical attacks. It contains components related to metabolism, environmental influences and nutritional status. Here, we study mucus and composition based on a proteome map of soluble epidermal mucus proteins obtained by 2D-electrophoresis in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Over 1300 spots were recorded and the 100 most abundant were further analysed by LC-MS/MS and identified by database retrieval; we also established the related specific biological processes by Gene Ontology enrichment. Sixty-two different proteins were identified and classified in 12 GO-groups and into three main functions: structural, metabolic and protection-related. Several of the proteins can be used as targets to determine fish physiological status: actins and keratins, and especially their catabolic products, in the structural functional group; glycolytic enzymes and ubiquitin/proteasome-related proteins in the metabolic functional group; and heat shock proteins, transferrin and hemopexins, in the protection-related group. This study analyses fish mucus, a potential non-invasive tool for characterising fish status, beyond defence capacities, and we postulate some putative candidates for future studies along similar lines.

  18. Characterization of the cellular damage induced by Aflatoxin B1 in sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Crescenzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. is one of the most intensively farmed fish spe- cies in the Mediterranean, greatly studied for the relevant economic value, although its sensitivity to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 has to be investigated, yet. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro evalua- tion of cytotoxic potential of AFB1 on S. aurata hepatocytes in order to grade the range of AFB1 toxicity, and the boundary between acute and long-term toxicity. Primary monolayer cultures of hepatocytes from S. aurata juveniles were treated with a wide range of concentrations from 5x103 ng/ml to 2x10 2x10-5 ng/ml of AFB1 for a different period of exposure (24, 48, 72 hours. The cytotoxic activity was characterized by MTT reduction assay. After each exposition hepatocytes were examined for morphologic alterations and apoptosis induction. AFB1 exposure significantly reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-depend- ent manner. Dose-response curves obtained after 24, 48 and 72 hrs revealed that prolonged exposure times lead to a significant increase of the toxicpotencyofAFB toxic potency of AFB AFB1. Ourresultsdemonstratethat Our results demonstrate that S. aurata hepatocytes are highly sensitive to AFB1 exposure. Such scientific findings could provide new insights to investigate the real impact of aflatoxin on marine farmed fish.

  19. Modulation of leukocytic populations of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) by the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa: Myxosporea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estensoro, Itziar; Mulero, Iván; Redondo, María J; Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Mulero, Victoriano; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2014-03-01

    SUMMARY The cellular mucosal and systemic effectors of gilthead sea bream (GSB) (Sparus aurata) involved in the acute immune response to the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei were studied in fish experimentally infected by the anal route. In the intestinal inflammatory infiltrates and in lymphohaematopoietic organs (head kidney and spleen) of parasitized fish, the number of plasma cells, B cells (IgM immunoreactive) and mast cells (histamine immunoreactive) were significantly higher, whereas the number of acidophilic granulocytes (G7 immunoreactive) decreased, compared with non-parasitized and unexposed fish. These differences were stronger at the posterior intestine, the main target of the parasite, and no differences were found in the thymus. In non-parasitized GSB, the percentage of splenic surface occupied by melanomacrophage centres was significantly higher. These results suggest that the cellular response of GSB to E. leei includes proliferation of leukocytes in lymphohaematopoietic organs and recruitment into intestines via blood circulation involving elements of innate and adaptive immunity. Acidophilic granulocytes and mast cells presented opposite patterns of response to the parasite infection, with an overall depletion of the former and an increased amount of the latter. Some differences between both cell types were also detected in regard to their granule density and cell morphology.

  20. Suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) and macroarray techniques reveal differential gene expression profiles in brain of sea bream infected with nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dios, S; Poisa-Beiro, L; Figueras, A; Novoa, B

    2007-03-01

    Despite of the impact that viruses have on aquatic organisms, relatively little is known on how fish fight against these infections. In this work, the brain gene expression pattern of sea bream (Sparus aurata) in response to nodavirus infection was investigated. We used the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method to generate a subtracted cDNA library enriched with gene transcripts differentially expressed after 1 day post-infection. Some of the ESTs from the infected tissues fell in gene categories related to stress and immune responses. For the reverse library (ESTs expressed in controls compared with infected tissues) the most abundant transcripts were of ribosomal and mitochondrial nature. Several ESTs potentially induced by virus exposure were selected for in vivo expression studies. We observed a clear difference in expression between infected and control samples for two candidate genes, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 7 interacting protein, which seems to play an important role in apoptosis and the interferon induced protein with helicase C domain 1 (mda-5) that contributes to apoptosis and regulates the type I IFN production, a key molecule of the antiviral innate response in most organisms.

  1. Skin Mucus of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.). Protein Mapping and Regulation in Chronically Stressed Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Terova, Genciana; Simó-Mirabet, Paula; Rimoldi, Simona; Folkedal, Ole; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Olsen, Rolf E; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2017-01-01

    The skin mucus of gilthead sea bream was mapped by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer. More than 2,000 proteins were identified with a protein score filter of 30. The identified proteins were represented in 418 canonical pathways of the Ingenuity Pathway software. After filtering by canonical pathway overlapping, the retained proteins were clustered in three groups. The mitochondrial cluster contained 59 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. The second cluster contained 79 proteins related to antigen presentation and protein ubiquitination pathways. The third cluster contained 257 proteins where proteins related to protein synthesis, cellular assembly, and epithelial integrity were over-represented. The latter group also included acute phase response signaling. In parallel, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis methodology identified six proteins spots of different protein abundance when comparing unstressed fish with chronically stressed fish in an experimental model that mimicked daily farming activities. The major changes were associated with a higher abundance of cytokeratin 8 in the skin mucus proteome of stressed fish, which was confirmed by immunoblotting. Thus, the increased abundance of markers of skin epithelial turnover results in a promising indicator of chronic stress in fish.

  2. Untargeted metabolomics approach for unraveling robust biomarkers of nutritional status in fasted gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Gil-Solsona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A metabolomic study has been performed to identify sensitive and robust biomarkers of malnutrition in farmed fish, using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata as a model. The metabolomic fingerprinting of serum from fasted fish was assessed by means of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. More than 15,000 different m/z ions were detected and Partial Least Squares–Discriminant analysis allowed a clear differentiation between the two experimental groups (fed and 10-day fasted fish with more than 90% of total variance explained by the two first components. The most significant metabolites (up to 45 were elucidated on the basis of their tandem mass spectra with a broad representation of amino acids, oligopeptides, urea cycle metabolites, L-carnitine-related metabolites, glutathione-related metabolites, fatty acids, lysophosphatidic acids, phosphatidylcholines as well as biotin- and noradrenaline-related metabolites. This untargeted approach highlighted important adaptive responses in energy and oxidative metabolism, contributing to identify robust and nutritionally-regulated biomarkers of health and metabolic condition that will serve to assess the welfare status of farmed fish.

  3. Water absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine of the sea bream are regulated by transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclase stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

    2012-12-01

    In the marine fish intestine luminal, HCO₃⁻ can remove divalent ions (calcium and magnesium) by precipitation in the form of carbonate aggregates. The process of epithelial HCO₃⁻ secretion is under endocrine control, therefore, in this study we aimed to characterize the involvement of transmembrane (tmACs) and soluble (sACs) adenylyl cyclases on the regulation of bicarbonate secretion (BCS) and water absorption in the intestine of the sea bream (Sparus aurata). We observed that all sections of sea bream intestine are able to secrete bicarbonate as measured by pH-Stat in Ussing chambers. In addition, gut sac preparations reveal net water absorption in all segments of the intestine, with significantly higher absorption rates in the anterior intestine that in the rectum. BCS and water absorption are positively correlated in all regions of the sea bream intestinal tract. Furthermore, stimulation of tmACs (10 μM FK + 500 μM IBMX) causes a significant decrease in BCS, bulk water absorption and short circuit current (Isc) in a region dependent manner. In turn, stimulation of sACs with elevated HCO₃⁻ results in a significant increase in BCS, and bulk water absorption in the anterior intestine, an action completely reversed by the sAC inhibitor KH7 (200 μM). Overall, the results reveal a functional relationship between BCS and water absorption in marine fish intestine and modulation by tmACs and sAC. In light of the present observations, it is hypothesized that the endocrine effects on intestinal BCS and water absorption mediated by tmACs are locally and reciprocally modulated by the action of sACs in the fish enterocyte, thus fine-tuning the process of carbonate aggregate production in the intestinal lumen.

  4. Characterisation and expression of calpain family members in relation to nutritional status, diet composition and flesh texture in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salmerón

    Full Text Available Calpains are non-lysosomal calcium-activated neutral proteases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including muscle proteolysis linked to post-mortem flesh softening. The aims of this study were (a to characterise several members of the calpain system in gilthead sea bream and (b to examine their expression in relation to nutritional status and muscle tenderisation. We identified the complete open reading frame of gilthead sea bream calpains1-3, sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapn3, and two paralogs of the calpain small subunit1, sacapns1a and sacapns1b. Proteins showed 63-90% sequence identity compared with sequences from mammals and other teleost fishes, and the characteristic domain structure of vertebrate calpains. Transcripts of sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapns1a and sacapns1b had a wide tissue distribution, whereas sacapn3 was almost exclusively detected in skeletal muscle. Next, we assessed transcript expression in skeletal muscle following alteration of nutritional status by (a fasting and re-feeding or (b feeding four experimental diets with different carbohydrate-to-protein ratios. Fasting significantly reduced plasma glucose and increased free fatty acids and triglycerides, together with a significant increase in sacapns1b expression. Following 7 days of re-feeding, plasma parameters returned to fed values and sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapns1a and sacapns1b expression was significantly reduced. Furthermore, an increase in dietary carbohydrate content (11 to 39% diminished growth but increased muscle texture, which showed a significant correlation with decreased sacapn1 and sacapns1a expression, whilst the other calpains remained unaffected. This study has demonstrated that calpain expression is modulated by nutritional status and diet composition in gilthead sea bream, and that the expression of several calpain members is correlated with muscle texture, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for flesh quality in aquaculture production.

  5. PRL and GH synthesis and release from the sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) pituitary gland in vitro in response to osmotic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Juan; Brinca, Lilia; Guerreiro, Pedro M; Power, Deborah M

    2010-08-01

    The endocrine factors prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) are believed to have counteracting effects in the adaption of fish to changes in environmental salinity. In order to further investigate this interaction sea bream were challenged with full seawater (SW) or freshwater (FW) for 7 days and the response of pituitary glands cultured in vitro to an osmotic challenge (230, 275 and 320 mOsm/kg) was assessed. In vitro PRL secretion from pituitaries of SW-adapted fish was unaltered in response to an osmotic challenge, while GH secretion increased in the lowest osmolality (230 mOsm/kg). In contrast, both GH and PRL secretion by pituitaries from FW challenged fish was significantly increased (pPRL content and de novo synthesised and released PRL were significantly increased (pPRL secretion was not different from SW animals. GH pituitary content decreased in FW animals while total secretion and secretion of de novo synthesised protein were significantly increased (pPRL and GH increased 3- and 2-fold, respectively. Despite the increase in PRL expression, no increase in total PRL secretion occurred and although in gills a 2-fold increase in the osmoregulatory marker, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was detected, profound haemodilution and a cumulative mortality of 40% occurred in sea bream placed in FW. Taken together the results suggest that the sea bream pituitary gland fails to respond appropriately to the osmotic challenge caused by low salinity and the physiological response evoked in vivo is not enough to allow this species to withstand and adapt to FW.

  6. Dietary Lipid and Carbohydrate Interactions: Implications on Lipid and Glucose Absorption, Transport in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Basto, Ana; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-06-01

    A digestibility trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (IBW = 72 g) fed four diets differing in lipid source (fish oil, FO; or a blend of vegetable oil, VO) and starch content (0 %, CH-; or 20 %, CH+) to evaluate the potential interactive effects between carbohydrates and VO on the processes involved in digestion, absorption and transport of lipids and glucose. In fish fed VO diets a decrease in lipid digestibility and in cholesterol (C), High Density Lipoprotein(HDL)-C and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-C (only in CH+ group) were recorded. Contrarily, dietary starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia and time related alterations on serum triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipid (PL) and C concentrations. Fish fed a CH+ diet presented lower serum TAG than CH- group at 6 h post-feeding, and the reverse was observed at 12 h post-feeding for TAG and PL. Lower serum C and PL at 6 h post-feeding were recorded only in VOCH+ group. No differences between groups were observed in hepatic and intestinal transcript levels of proteins involved in lipid transport and hydrolysis (FABP, DGAT, GPAT, MTP, LPL, LCAT). Lower transcript levels of proteins related to lipid transport (ApoB, ApoA1, FABP2) were observed in the intestine of fish fed the CH+ diet, but remained unchanged in the liver. Overall, transcriptional mechanisms involved in lipid transport and absorption were not linked to changes in lipid serum and digestibility. Dietary starch affected lipid absorption and transport, probably due to a delay in lipid absorption. This study suggests that a combination of dietary VO and starch may negatively affect cholesterol absorption and transport.

  7. CYTOTOXICITY AND GENOTOXICITY OF POLYETHYLENIMINE AND NICKEL CHLORIDE IN RED SEA BREAM (Pagrosomus major) FIN CELL LINE RSBF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀

    2002-01-01

    A continuous marine fish cell line RSBF (i.e. Red Sea Bream Fin) w as utilized to screen the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of polyethylenimine (PEI) and nickel chloride (NiCl2) in this study on the deleterious effects of aquatic genotoxins on fish. At the 0.01 to 1 μg/ml concentration tested, PEI had acute toxicity to the treated RSBF cells (IC50 =1.12, 0.92, 0.88 and 0.64 μg/ml PEI for time 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after treatment, respectively ) and markedly inhibited their proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. At the 0.001 to 5 μ mol/L concentration tested, NiCl2 posed no acute toxicity but significantly stimulated their growt h (107%-214% of control). Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to detect the genotoxic effects of PEI and NiCl2 by comparing the RAPD banding patterns of t he control and treated cells. RAPD analysis indicated that at the concentrations tested, PEI w as more genotoxic than NiCl2 to RSBF cells; that there was a slight dose-dep endent response in the genotoxic effect of PEI but not NiCl2; and that RAPD technique might provide a sensitive, non -specific genotoxic endpoint. And the potent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PEI on fish cells sho wed that we should be cautious in utilizing it as gene vector in fish gene transfer and human gene therapy.

  8. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of polyethylenimine and nickel chloride in red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major) fin cell line RSBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua-Rong; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2002-12-01

    A continuous marine fish cell line RSBF (i. c. Red Sea Bream Fin) was utilized to screen the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of polyethylenimine (PEI) and nickel chloride (NiCl2) in this study on the deleterious effects of aquatic genotoxins on fish. At the 0.01 to 1 μg/ml concentration tested, PEI had acute toxicity to the treated RSBF cells (IC50=1.12, 0.92, 0.88 and 0.64 μg/ml PEI for time 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after treatment, respectively) and markedly inhibited their proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. At the 0.001 to 5 μmol/L concentration tested, NiCl2 posed no acute toxicity but significantly stimulated their growth (107% 214% of control). Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to detect the genotoxic effects of PEI and NiCl2 by comparing the RAPD banding patterns of the control and treated cells. RAPD analysis indicated that at the concentrations tested, PEI was more genotoxic than NiCl2 to RSBF cells; that there was a slight dose-dependent response in the genotoxic effect of PEI but not NiCl2; and that RAPD technique might provide a sensitive, non-specific genotoxic endpoint. And the potent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PEI on fish cells showed that we should be cautious in utilizing it as gene, vector in fish gene transfer and human gene therapy.

  9. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I. [National Inst. for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, PO Box 10, Rm. Valcea, 24050 (Romania)

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  10. Identification of Vibrio harveyi as a causative bacterium for a tail rot disease of sea bream Sparus aurata from research hatchery in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, S; Maharajan, A; Chatterjee, S; Hunter, S A; Chowdhury, N; Hinenoya, A; Asakura, M; Yamasaki, S

    2010-10-20

    A bacterial disease was reported from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) within a hatchery environment in Malta. Symptoms included complete erosion of tail, infection in the eye, mucous secretion and frequent mortality. A total of 540 strains were initially isolated in marine agar from different infected body parts and culture water sources. Subsequently 100 isolates were randomly selected, identified biochemically and all were found to be Vibrio harveyi-related organisms; finally from 100 isolates a total of 13 numbers were randomly selected and accurately identified as V. harveyi by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR. Ribotyping of these strains with HindIII revealed total of six clusters. In vivo challenge study with representative isolates from each cluster proved two clusters each were highly pathogenic, moderately pathogenic and non-pathogenic. All 13 isolates were positive for hemolysin gene, a potential virulence factor. Further analysis revealed probably a single copy of this gene was encoded in all isolates, although not in the same locus in the genome. Although V. harveyi was reported to be an important pathogen for many aquatic organisms, to our knowledge this might be the first report of disease caused by V. harveyi and their systematic study in the sea bream hatchery from Malta.

  11. Changes in adipocyte cell size, gene expression of lipid metabolism markers, and lipolytic responses induced by dietary fish oil replacement in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garcia, Lourdes; Sánchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Bouraoui, Lamia; Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by 66% vegetable oils in a diet with already 75% vegetable protein (66VO) on adipose tissue lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream were analysed after a 14-month feeding trial. In the last 3 months of the experiment, a FO diet was administrated to a 66VO group (group 66VO/FO) as a finishing diet. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity was measured in adipose tissue and adipocyte size, and HSL, lipoprotein lipase and liver X receptor gene expression in isolated adipocytes, on which lipolysis and glucose uptake experiments were also performed. Lipolysis was measured after incubation with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), linoleic acid, and two conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Glucose uptake was analysed after TNFα or insulin administration. Our results show that FO replacement increased lipolytic activity and adipocyte cell size. The higher proportion of large cells observed in the 66VO group could be involved in their observed lower response to fatty acid treatments and lower insulin sensitivity. The 66VO/FO group showed a moderate return to the FO conditions. Therefore, FO replacement can affect the morphology and metabolism of gilthead sea bream adipocytes which could potentially affect other organs such as the liver.

  12. Effect of seasonal variation in seawater dissolved mercury concentrations on mercury accumulation in the muscle of red sea bream (Pagrus major) held in Minamata Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akito; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Kindaichi, Michiaki; Sonoda, Ikuko; Koyama, Jiro

    2013-09-01

    Japanese stingfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) and Bambooleaf wrasse (Pseudolabrus japonicas) are monitored annually for mercury pollution in Minamata Bay, Japan. The average total mercury concentration in the muscle of these two species in Minamata Bay was 0.36 mg kg(-1) wet weight and 0.20 kg(-1) wet weigh, respectively, between 2008 and 2010. This is higher than levels elsewhere in Japan (0.125 mg kg(-1) wet weight and 0.038 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively). The FDA (2001) and EPA (2004) suggested that a proportion of mercury accumulated in fish is derived from seawater. We reared young red sea bream (Pagrus major) over a 2-year period in Minamata Bay and Nagashima (control) to evaluate the uptake of mercury from seawater and dietary sources. Fish were fed a synthesized diet that did not contain mercury. There was no difference in mercury accumulation in the muscle of red sea bream between Minamata Bay and Nagashima. Thus, our results suggest that the majority of mercury accumulated in fish muscle is not from seawater.

  13. Changes in intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezuela, Rebeca; Fumanal, Milena; Tapia-Paniagua, Silvana Teresa; Meseguer, José; Moriñigo, Miguel Ángel; Esteban, Ma Ángeles

    2013-05-01

    Changes produced in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis have been studied. Gilthead sea bream specimens were fed diets containing 0 (control), inulin (10 g kg(-1)), B. subtilis (10(7) cfu g(-1)), or B. subtilis + inulin (10(7) cfu g(-1) + 10 g kg(-1)) for four weeks. Curiously, fish fed the experimental diets (inulin, B. subtilis, or B. subtilis + inulin) showed the same morphological alterations when studied by light and electron microscopy, while significant differences in the signs of intestinal damage were detected by the morphometric study. All of the observed alterations were present only in the gut mucosa, and intestinal morphometric study revealed no effect of inulin or B. subtilis on the intestinal absorptive area. Furthermore, experimental diets cause important alterations in the intestinal microbiota by significantly decreasing bacterial diversity, as demonstrated by the specific richness, Shannon, and range-weighted richness indices. The observed alterations demonstrate that fish fed experimental diets had different signs of gut oedema and inflammation that could compromise their body homeostasis, which is mainly maintained by the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study regarding the implications of the use of synbiotics (conjunction of probiotics and prebiotics) on fish gut morphology and microbiota.

  14. Comparison among Different Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata Farming Systems: Activity of Intestinal and Hepatic Enzymes and 13C-NMR Analysis of Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Zonno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate differences in general health and nutritional values of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, the effects of semi-intensive, land-based tanks and sea-cages intensive rearing systems were investigated, and results compared with captured wild fish. The physiological state was determined by measuring the activity of three different intestinal digestive enzymes: alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP and maltase; and the activity of the hepatic ALP. Also, the hepatic content in protein, cholesterol, and lipid were assessed. 13C-NMR analysis for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the lipid fraction extracted from fish muscles for semiintensive and land based tanks intensive systems was performed. The lipid fraction composition showed small but significant differences in the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio, with the semi-intensive characterized by higher monounsaturated and lower saturated fatty acid content with respect to land based tanks intensive rearing system.

  15. Dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-09-01

    Our study explored the dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (AMP-0.1), 0.2% (AMP-0.2), 0.4% (AMP-0.4) and 0.8% (AMP-0.8) purified AMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The results indicated that dietary AMP supplements tended to improve growth performances. One of the best ones was found in diet group AMP-0.2, followed by diet groups AMP-0.1, AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. The Apparent digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein and lipid) also improved by AMP supplementation and the significantly highest dry matter digestibility was observed in diet group AMP-0.2. Fish fed diet groups AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 had significantly higher peroxidase and bactericidal activities than fish fed the control diet. Nitro-blue-tetrazolium (NBT) activity was found to be significantly (P AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. Total serum protein, lysozyme activity and agglutination antibody titer were also increased (P > 0.05) by dietary supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with AMP supplementation. Moreover, the fish fed AMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 showed the least oxidative stress condition. Finally it is concluded that, dietary AMP supplementation enhanced the growth, digestibility, immune response and stress resistance of red sea bream. The regression analysis revealed that a dietary AMP supplementation between 0.2 and 0.4% supported weight gain and lysozyme activity as a marker of immune functions for red sea bream, which is also inline with the most of the growth and health performance parameters of fish under present experimental conditions.

  16. A gene-based radiation hybrid map of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata refines and exploits conserved synteny with Tetraodon nigroviridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsalavouta Matina

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative teleost studies are of great interest since they are important in aquaculture and in evolutionary issues. Comparing genomes of fully sequenced model fish species with those of farmed fish species through comparative mapping offers shortcuts for quantitative trait loci (QTL detections and for studying genome evolution through the identification of regions of conserved synteny in teleosts. Here a comparative mapping study is presented by radiation hybrid (RH mapping genes of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, a non-model teleost fish of commercial and evolutionary interest, as it represents the worldwide distributed species-rich family of Sparidae. Results An additional 74 microsatellite markers and 428 gene-based markers appropriate for comparative mapping studies were mapped on the existing RH map of Sparus aurata. The anchoring of the RH map to the genetic linkage map resulted in 24 groups matching the karyotype of Sparus aurata. Homologous sequences to Tetraodon were identified for 301 of the gene-based markers positioned on the RH map of Sparus aurata. Comparison between Sparus aurata RH groups and Tetraodon chromosomes (karyotype of Tetraodon consists of 21 chromosomes in this study reveals an unambiguous one-to-one relationship suggesting that three Tetraodon chromosomes correspond to six Sparus aurata radiation hybrid groups. The exploitation of this conserved synteny relationship is furthermore demonstrated by in silico mapping of gilthead sea bream expressed sequence tags (EST that give a significant similarity hit to Tetraodon. Conclusion The addition of primarily gene-based markers increased substantially the density of the existing RH map and facilitated comparative analysis. The anchoring of this gene-based radiation hybrid map to the genome maps of model species broadened the pool of candidate genes that mainly control growth, disease resistance, sex determination and reversal, reproduction as well

  17. Black Sea Traffic and European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Urucu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea is a major component of the MeditetmneanSea. It is a bridge between two continents and a factor of cohesionamong ancient neighbouring spaces of civilisation. Someof its geographical peculiatities make of it a half-closed sea betweenEurope and Asia. Its link with the Mediterranean is securedby the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles Straits and thencewith the planetaty ocean. So, the Black Sea ports represent actualgateways to the world for its tiverain countries. These portsboomed or waned in terms of the riverain regions' hist01y. After1990, and moreover after the Soviet Union fell apatt and newsovereign states came into being, the Pontic space has been undergoingmajor geopolitical changes. Traffic suffered radicalchanges, being governed by fresh criteria and directions. Thereis growing competition among the city-ports and, under the1992 Black Sea Economic Co-operation Treaty, new regionaldevelopment opportunities have been cropping up for the individualstates. Viewed at global scale, the Black Sea might play,if integrated into an adequate programme, an essential role ofcohesion and stability in a complex European zone with a histOtyfull of turmoil.

  18. Predicting Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata Freshness by a Novel Combined Technique of 3D Imaging and SW-NIR Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Ivorra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A technique that combines the spatial resolution of a 3D structured-light (SL imaging system with the spectral analysis of a hyperspectral short-wave near infrared system was developed for freshness predictions of gilthead sea bream on the first storage days (Days 0–6. This novel approach allows the hyperspectral analysis of very specific fish areas, which provides more information for freshness estimations. The SL system obtains a 3D reconstruction of fish, and an automatic method locates gilthead’s pupils and irises. Once these regions are positioned, the hyperspectral camera acquires spectral information and a multivariate statistical study is done. The best region is the pupil with an R2 of 0.92 and an RMSE of 0.651 for predictions. We conclude that the combination of 3D technology with the hyperspectral analysis offers plenty of potential and is a very promising technique to non destructively predict gilthead freshness.

  19. Effects of dietary tert-butylhydroquinone on domoic acid metabolism and transcription of detoxification-related liver genes in red sea bream Pagrus major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shan; LIANG XuFang; SHEN Dan; ZHANG WenBing; MAI KangSen

    2013-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neuroexcitatory amino acid that is produced by Pseudo-nitzschia during harmful algal blooms (HAB).Accumulation of DA can be transferred through food chain and cause neuronal damage in marine animal and in human.Like other algal toxins,DA was suggested to increase the oxidative stress and increase the detoxification-related gene expression in fish.The widely used food antioxidant,tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ),was known to induce a wide range of antioxidative potentials such as elevation of the glutathione levels and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs),via the activation of antioxidant response elements (AREs).In this study,the influences of dietary tBHQ on domoic acid (DA) metabolism and detoxification-related gene transcription were investigated both in vivo and in vitro.Oral administration of tBHQ resulted in significant decreases of DA accumulation of liver tissues in which red sea bream were fed with a single dose of 10 mg DA and 100 mg tBHQ per kg body weight per fish.Real-time PCR further revealed that the mRNA levels of AHR/ARNT/CYP1A1/GSTA1/GSTR were up-regulated in the above liver tissues at 72 h post tBHQ treatment.In consistence,tBHQ exposure also resulted in increased mRNA transcription of GSTA1,GSTA2 and GSTR in cultured red sea bream hepatocytes.Collectively,our findings in this research suggested that the dietary intake of tBHQ accelerated DA metabolism in fish,through mechanisms involving altered transcription of detoxificationrelated liver genes.

  20. Physiological response, blood chemistry profile and mucus secretion of red sea bream (Pagrus major) fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus under low salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; El-Sabagh, Mabrouk; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Wang, Wei-Long; Yukun, Zhang; Olivier, Adissin

    2017-02-01

    Environmental stressors caused by inadequate aquaculture management strategies suppress the immune response of fish and make them more susceptible to diseases. Therefore, efforts have been made to relieve stress in fish by using various functional feed additives in the diet, including probiotics. The present work evaluates the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) on physiological stress response, blood chemistry and mucus secretion of red sea bream (Pagrus major) under low salinity stress. Fish were fed four diets supplemented with LR at [0 (LR0), 1 × 10(2) (LR1), 1 × 10(4) (LR2) and 1 × 10(6) (LR3) cells g(-1)] for 56 days. Before stress, blood cortisol, urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), whereas plasma glucose and triglyceride (TG) of fish-fed LR2 and LR3 diets were significantly lower (P salinity stress test, plasma cortisol, glucose, T-CHO and TG contents in all groups showed an increased trend significantly (P salinity stress (P > 0.05). In addition, the fish that received LR-supplemented diets showed significantly higher tolerance against low salinity stress than the fish-fed LR-free diet (P < 0.05). The physiological status and the detected immune responses, including total plasma protein and mucus myeloperoxidase activity in red sea bream, will provide a more comprehensive outlook of the effects of probiotics to relieve stress in fish.

  1. Magnetite in Black Sea Turtles (Chelonia agassizi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Garduño, V.; Sanchez, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have reported experimental evidence for magnetoreception in marine turtles. In order to increase our knowledge about magnetoreception and biogenic mineralization, we have isolated magnetite particles from the brain of specimens of black sea turtles Chelonia agassizi. Our samples come from natural deceased organisms collected the reserve area of Colola Maruata in southern Mexico. The occurrence of magnetite particles in brain tissue of black sea turtles offers the opportunity for further studies to investigate possible function of ferrimagnetic material, its mineralogical composition, grain size, texture and its location and structural arrangement within the host tissue. After sample preparation and microscopic examination, we localized and identified the ultrafine unidimensional particles of magnetite by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Particles present grain sizes between 10.0 to 40.0Mm. Our study provides, for the first time, evidence for biogenic formation of this material in the black sea turtles. The ultrafine particles are apparently superparamagnetic. Preliminary results from rock magnetic measurements are also reported and correlated to the SEM observations. The black turtle story on the Michoacan coast is an example of formerly abundant resource which was utilized as a subsistence level by Nahuatl indigenous group for centuries, but which is collapsing because of intensive illegal commercial exploitation. The most important nesting and breeding grounds for the black sea turtle on any mainland shore are the eastern Pacific coastal areas of Maruata and Colola, in Michoacan. These beaches are characterized by important amounts of magnetic mineral (magnetites and titanomagnetites) mixed in their sediments.

  2. Crustal seismicity of the Black Sea areal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, Mihail; Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Petruta Constantin, Angela

    2014-05-01

    The main target of the study is to decipher the seismicity of the Black Sea areal from the tsunami-genetic potential. From the seismotectonical point of view the earthquakes which are responsible for tsunami are those associated with thrust faults (subduction zones), normal and inverse faults and less strike slip faults (only if the oblique-slip and deep slip components are predominant), with magnitude higher than 6.5 (even the USGS cited tsunami at 5.1 magnitude) and depth, a shallow one, less than 20 km depth. In order to delimit the seismic sources from Black Sea and to discrimate among them the tsunamigenic ones, the following elements have been taken into account: - depth of the earthquakes foci, that allow separation of two major categories: deeper than 40 km depth and crustal, normal, (less than 40 km deep); - development of the earthquakes epicenters in the orogen zone or in zones with active tectonics (fault systems); - establishment of the areas of active faults along which the earthquakes epicenters are aligned; - the absence of a recent or actual tectonic activity; the epicenters recorded in these tectonically stable zones are considered as the result of a diffuse, accidental seismicity. The studies on active tectonics have clearly shown the position of the seismic sources (connected to well define active fault) which do not interfere and do not result in alternatives of other seismotectonic model constructions. According to the distribution map of earthquakes and as well as to the map of the areas with active tectonics, ten seismic sources were established: Central Dobrogea(S1), Shabla(S2), Istanbul(S3), North Anatolian Fault(S4), Georgia(S5), Novorossjsk(S6), Crimea(S7), West Black Sea Fault(S8) and Mid Black Sea Ridge(S9). The maximum possible magnitude of each seismic source was obtained through three aproaches: (i) using seismotectonics and geological database (the length of the faults, possible apparition on surface, geomorphology, etc

  3. Black Sea Energy Security - Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We chose this theme to highlight the need for continuous and sustained human society to secure energy resources needed to survive, needs reflected in an increasingly in recent years in the strategies adopted at both states, as at the level of international organizations. Achieving security and stability in the wider Black Sea area has been among the priorities of each country's interests in this region. In this context, state and non-state actors were being called to come up with new solutions to achieve those interests. Certainly not in all cases the negotiations were completed or not yet found a generally accepted formula for others to apply, but most of them show off their values. The main environmental threats to security environment in the Black Sea region are represented by ethnic conflicts and territorial secessionism. A significant contribution to the security environment of the Black Sea region has the phenomenon of globalization, which in this region is manifested by a steady increase in traffic and volume of shipping passage of communication, which largely affects the security in the region. Globalization and the need for energy resources in the Black Sea was an important area not only as energy transport route, but as a potential supplier of material energy (oil and natural gas. Black Sea Basin can be stabilized and secured only by the will and input from all States and interested international organizations in pragmatic and effective institutional frameworks, meant to promote and protect the common interests of countries decided to participate in actions aimed at ensuring a stable environment security.

  4. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  5. Black Sea GIS developed in MHI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, E.; Khaliulin, A.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Isaeva, E.

    2016-08-01

    The work aims at creating the Black Sea geoinformation system (GIS) and complementing it with a model bank. The software for data access and visualization was developed using client server architecture. A map service based on MapServer and MySQL data management system were chosen for the Black Sea GIS. Php-modules and python-scripts are used to provide data access, processing, and exchange between the client application and the server. According to the basic data types, the module structure of GIS was developed. Each type of data is matched to a module which allows selection and visualization of the data. At present, a GIS complement with a model bank (the models build in to the GIS) and users' models (programs launched on users' PCs but receiving and displaying data via GIS) is developed.

  6. Paleomagnetic research on Black Sea Quaternary sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcheva, V.; Nozharov, P.; Kovacheva, M.; Shopov, V.

    1990-10-01

    The paper reports the first paleomagnetic study of a Black Sea Quaternary sediment core made by a Bulgarian research group. The experimental results show an important difference in magnetic behaviour between the samples from the Holocene part and those from the Pleistocene part of the core. Suggestions are made for the character of the remanent magnetization and the main carriers of it. The presence of greigite (Fe 3S 4) and pyrite (FeS 2) is discussed. A rough correlation is established between the variation of inclination for the Holocene part of the sediment and for the Bulgarian archeomagnetic curve. On the basis of the comparison of inclination data obtained from the Pleistocene part of the core and previously studied Black Sea core (related to the absolute time scale), it is suggested that the lower boundary of the Pleistocene part is ˜ 16000 years old (BP).

  7. ANTILISTERIAL ACTYVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM GILTHEAD BREAMS AND SEA BASSES FILLETS PACKAGED MAP AGAINST PRIMITIVE STRAINS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barile

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis typically caused by ready-to-eat processed food that have a refrigerated shelf-life, but lightly preserved fish products also belong to a high-risk category. Aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity linked bacteriocin-producing of LAB isolated from gilthead breams and sea basses fillets packaged in modified atmospheres. Fifty-five LAB strains were screened against 21 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, 1 Listeria innocua held in the culture collection of Department of Zootechnical Sciences and Food Ispection (SIA and submitted to antagonistic activity using the spot on lawn and the agar well diffusion assay. Lactococcus lactis sub. lactis Sa31 was able to produce bacteriocin in agar and different broth medium. The bacteriocin man31 showed sensitivity to trypsin, pronase E and papain, inactivation at temperatures ≥ 100°C, bactericidal mode of action and antilisterial act, rapidly. The bacteriocin man31 caused a reduction of L. monocytogenes ½ c growth about log10 > 3 UFC/ml, when was applied on indicator strain at 20,480 AU/ml concentration, in vitro.

  8. Vessel noise pollution as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of boat noise pollution on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background noise) and 10 days of noise derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel noise treatment). The exposure to noise produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p pollutant. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this pollutant phenomenon.

  9. The effect of sea bream (Sparus aurata) broodstock and larval vaccination on the susceptibility by Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida and on the humoral immune parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, A; Bakopoulos, V; Leonardos, I; Dimitriadis, G J

    2005-10-01

    Sea bream broodstock were immunised 1 or 2 months before spawning with a novel photobacteriosis vaccine. Sixty-seven-day-old larvae (mean weight 22.3 mg) originating from immunised and non-immunised parents were experimentally infected with the Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida (Phdp). Larvae from immunised fish showed delayed onset and lower mortality (66.67%) compared with larvae from control fish (80%). Eighty-nine-day-old larvae (mean weight 162.2 mg) from both groups were bath vaccinated with Phdp and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and larval samples were collected for measurement of humoral parameters. Larvae vaccinated with Phdp and LPS showed significantly higher anti-protease activity, lysozyme activity and total immunoglobulin compared to the controls. One-hundred-and-twenty-day-old larvae (mean weight 297.85 mg) from both parental groups were challenged with (LD70) virulent Phdp bacterial cells. Vaccinated larvae from both groups showed significantly less mortality compared to the respective controls. The RPS values of larvae from immunised parents vaccinated with Phdp and LPS was 95.83% and 72.22%, respectively. The RPS values of larvae from non-immunised parents vaccinated with Phdp and LPS was 62.5% and 70.83%, respectively. Results are discussed with respect to the beneficial effect of broodstock immunisation prior to spawning and the immunisation of larvae on their survival against photobacteriosis.

  10. Effects of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or/and Lactococcus lactis on the growth, gut microbiota and immune responses of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Nhu, Truong H; Dossou, Serge; Moss, Amina S

    2016-02-01

    Pagrus major fingerlings (3·29 ± 0·02 g) were fed with basal diet (control) supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactococcus lactis (LL), and L. rhamnosus + L. lactis (LR + LL) at 10(6) cell g(-1) feed for 56 days. Feeding a mixture of LR and LL significantly increased feed utilization (FER and PER), intestine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, plasma total protein, alternative complement pathway (ACP), peroxidase, and mucus secretion compared with the other groups (P growth performance (Fn wt, WG, and SGR) and protein digestibility than the groups fed an individual LR or the control diet. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in LR and LR + LL groups when compared with the other groups. Moreover, the fish fed LR or LL had better improvement (P growth, feed utilization, body protein and lipid contents, digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein, and lipid), protease activity, total intestine and LAB counts, hematocrit, total plasma protein, biological antioxidant potential, ACP, serum and mucus LZY and bactericidal activities, peroxidase, SOD, and mucus secretion than the control group. Interestingly, fish fed diets with LR + LL showed significantly lower total cholesterol and triglycerides when compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). These data strongly suggest that a mixture of LR and LL probiotics may serve as a healthy immunostimulating feed additive in red sea bream aquaculture.

  11. Kinetics of Ce and Nd scavenging in Black Sea waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Millero, Frank J.

    1994-01-01

    Mixing experiments were performed during Leg 5 of the 1988 Black Sea Expedition in order to learn more about the mechanism and kinetics of rare earth element (REE) scavenging at the oxic-anoxic interface of anoxic basins and, more specifically, in the suboxic zone of the Black Sea. Water from the de

  12. Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2013-04-14

    The effect of ration size on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism have been addressed in juveniles of gilthead sea bream fed a practical diet over the course of an 11-week trial. The experimental setup included three feeding levels: (i) full ration until visual satiety, (ii) 70 % of satiation and (iii) 70 % of satiation with the last 2 weeks at the maintenance ration. Feed restriction reduced lipid content of whole body by 30 % and that of fillet by 50 %. In this scenario, the FA composition of fillet TAG was not altered by ration size, whereas that of phospholipids was largely modified with a higher retention of arachidonic acid and DHA. The mRNA transcript levels of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and FA desaturase 2 were not regulated by ration size in the present experimental model. In contrast, mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturases were markedly down-regulated by feed restriction. An opposite trend was found for a muscle-specific lipoprotein lipase, which is exclusive of fish lineage. Several upstream regulatory transcriptions were also assessed, although nutritionally mediated changes in mRNA transcripts were almost reduced to PPARα and β, which might act in a counter-regulatory way on lipolysis and lipogenic pathways. This gene expression pattern contributes to the construction of a panel of biomarkers to direct marine fish production towards muscle lean phenotypes with increased retentions of long-chain PUFA.

  13. Extending Immunological Profiling in the Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, by Enriched cDNA Library Analysis, Microarray Design and Initial Studies upon the Inflammatory Response to PAMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Boltaña

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge. The developed microarray was further validated by analysing monocyte/macrophage activation profiles after challenge with two Gram-negative bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs; lipopolysaccharide (LPS and peptidoglycan (PGN. Of the approximately 10,000 EST sequenced, we obtained a total of 6837 EST longer than 100 nt, with 3778 and 3059 EST obtained from the bacterial-primed and from the viral-primed cDNA libraries, respectively. Functional classification of contigs from the bacterial- and viral-primed cDNA libraries by Gene Ontology (GO showed that the top five represented categories were equally represented in the two libraries: metabolism (approximately 24% of the total number of contigs, carrier proteins/membrane transport (approximately 15%, effectors/modulators and cell communication (approximately 11%, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism (approximately 7.5% and intracellular transducers/signal transduction (approximately 5%. Transcriptome analyses using this enriched oligonucleotide platform identified differential shifts in the response to PGN and LPS in macrophage-like cells, highlighting responsive gene-cassettes tightly related to PAMP host recognition. As observed in other fish species, PGN is a powerful activator of the inflammatory response in S. aurata macrophage-like cells. We have developed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (SAQ that provides a platform enriched for the study

  14. Extending Immunological Profiling in the Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, by Enriched cDNA Library Analysis, Microarray Design and Initial Studies upon the Inflammatory Response to PAMPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Castellana, Barbara; Goetz, Giles; Tort, Lluis; Teles, Mariana; Mulero, Victor; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Goetz, Frederick W.; Gallardo-Escarate, Cristian; Planas, Josep V.; Mackenzie, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ) to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST) from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge. The developed microarray was further validated by analysing monocyte/macrophage activation profiles after challenge with two Gram-negative bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN)). Of the approximately 10,000 EST sequenced, we obtained a total of 6837 EST longer than 100 nt, with 3778 and 3059 EST obtained from the bacterial-primed and from the viral-primed cDNA libraries, respectively. Functional classification of contigs from the bacterial- and viral-primed cDNA libraries by Gene Ontology (GO) showed that the top five represented categories were equally represented in the two libraries: metabolism (approximately 24% of the total number of contigs), carrier proteins/membrane transport (approximately 15%), effectors/modulators and cell communication (approximately 11%), nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism (approximately 7.5%) and intracellular transducers/signal transduction (approximately 5%). Transcriptome analyses using this enriched oligonucleotide platform identified differential shifts in the response to PGN and LPS in macrophage-like cells, highlighting responsive gene-cassettes tightly related to PAMP host recognition. As observed in other fish species, PGN is a powerful activator of the inflammatory response in S. aurata macrophage-like cells. We have developed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (SAQ) that provides a platform enriched for the study of gene

  15. The Taxonomic Status of Japanese Threadfin BreamNemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Perciformes:Nemipteridae) with a Redescription of this Species from the South China Sea Based on Morphology and DNA Barcodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Ping; SHA Zhongli; Paul DN HEBERT; Barry RUSSELL

    2015-01-01

    Because of its importance as a food source,Nemipterus japonicus(Bloch, 1791) (Nemipteridae) or Japanese threadfin bream is the best studied of these taxa, and numerous investigations have examined its fisheries, its biology and biochemistry. De-spite such intensive work, the taxonomic status ofN. japonicushas never been seriously questioned and itis regarded as a common species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean. In fact, Bloch’s description of the type specimen ofN. ja-ponicus has ambiguous collection data and lacks a designation for the type locality, though it is probably Java. In this paper, DNA barcode results based on COI gene support the existence of two geographically separated lineages of the Japanese threadfin bream, both being an Indian Ocean and western Pacific lineage, with 2.7% sequence divergence, and the results indicate a possible existing of some cryptic species. The two lineages also possess a diagnostic difference in their belly color, with specimens in the South China Sea having a silver belly, while those from the Indian Ocean isolate specimen have a yellow coloration. Based upon new collections from the South China Sea, this species from the western Pacific is morphologically redescribed and its details of DNA barcode diver-sity are shown for the future investigations.

  16. A Novel Approach to Limit Chemical Deterioration of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fillets: Coating with Electrospun Nanofibers as Characterized by Molecular, Thermal, and Microstructural Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Zafer; Sengor, Gulgun F Unal; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2017-03-27

    Coating of sea bream fillets with thymol loaded chitosan based electrospun nanofibers (TLCN) and chitosan based nanafibers (CN) has been presented a novel approach to delay chemical deterioration. We assessed CN and TLCN with respect of scanting of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), trimethylamine (TMA), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) deterioration during cold storage condition. Electrospinning process was applied to obtain TLCN and CN. Both of nanofibers obtained from biopolymer and bioactive material were cylindrical, smooth, beadless. Thermal, molecular, zeta potential (ZP), and surface properties of the groups were investigated, revealing that CN indicated molecular interactions with thymol in nanofibers, reduce in physical properties of these structures, thermal decomposition (an alteration in mass of CN and TLCN at temperatures below 190 °C, corresponding to 20.53% and 19.97%, respectively) and also dispersion stabilities (ζ potential) of CN and TLCN were determined 33.68 ± 3.35 and 21.85 ± 1.96 mV, respectively. TVBN and TMA stability analyses demonstrated that CN and TLCN were both effective in delaying chemical deterioration of fish fillets, furthermore TLCN was more effective against chemical deterioration. TBA analyses results of fish fillets indicated that CN and TLCN delayed rancidity in fish meat as compared to control group samples. The presented study results suggested that coating of the sea bream fillets with CN and TLCN would be a promising approach to delay the chemical deterioration of fish fillets.

  17. Geopolitical Interests in the Black Sea / Caspian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    conquest was focused on reaching step by step the Carpathian Mountains and the Baltic Sea in the west and northwest, the Black Sea and Caspian Sea in...Plain, Ural Mountains and the Barents Sea in the North), determined an offensive and aggressive political stance towards the neighboring countries...the south, then, the Tien Shan and Pamir Mountains range in the south east, and later the Pacific Ocean coast in the Far East (natural boundaries).9

  18. Reducing future nutrient inputs to the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, M.; Kroeze, C.; Kopilevych, V.A.; Voytenko, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Rivers export increasing amounts of dissolved inorganic (DIN, DIP) and organic (DON, DOP) nitrogen and phosphorus to the Black Sea causing coastal eutrophication. The aim of this study is to explore future trends in river export of these nutrients to the sea through a sensitivity analysis. We used t

  19. Introduction: The Black Sea as region and horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphrey, Caroline; Skvirskaja, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The introduction first outlines different perspectives on the Black Sea: in history, as a site of imperial conflicts and a buffer zone; in area studies, as a “region”; and in anthropology, as a sea crisscrossed by migration, cultural influences, alternative visions, and often a mutual turning of ...... brought about by migration and trade. In the concluding section we discuss how the Black Sea has appeared as a “horizon” and imaginary of the beyond for the peoples living around its shores....

  20. Recent decline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that from 1955 to 2013, the inventory of oxygen in the Black Sea has decreased by 36 % and the basin-averaged oxygen penetration depth has decreased from 140 m in 1955 to 90 m in 2013, which is the shallowest annual value recorded during that period. The oxygenated Black Sea surface layer separates the world's largest reservoir of toxic hydrogen sulphide from the atmosphere. The threat of chemocline excursion events led to hot debates in the past decades arguing on the vertical stability of the Black Sea oxic/suboxic interface. In the 1970s and 1980s the Black Sea faced severe eutrophication. Enhanced respiration rates reduced the thickness of the oxygenated layer. The consecutive increase of oxygen inventory in 1985–1995 supported arguments in favor of the stability of the oxic layer. Concomitant with a reduction of nutrient loads, this increase also supported the perception of a Black Sea recovering from eutrophication. More recently, atmospheric warming was shown to reduce the ventilation of the lower oxic layer by lowering Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL formation rates. The debate on the vertical migration of the oxic interface also addressed the natural spatial variability affecting Black Sea properties when expressed in terms of depth. Here we show that using isopycnal coordinates does not free from a significant spatial variability of oxygen penetration depths. Considering this spatial variability, the analysis of a composite historical set of oxygen profiles evidenced a significant shoaling of the oxic layer, and showed that the transient "recovery" of the 1990s was mainly a result of increased CIL formation rates during that period. As both atmospheric warming and eutrophication are expected to increase in the near future, monitoring the dynamics of the Black Sea oxic layer is required to assess the threat of further shoaling.

  1. Subcrustal structure of the black sea basin from seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovskaya, T. B.; Gobarenko, V. S.; Yegorova, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    The P-wave travel time data from the earthquakes offshore and onshore around the Black Sea are used for the tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) velocity distribution in the lithosphere of the region. The preliminary refinement of the foci parameters (the coordinates and origin time) has reduced the random errors in the travel-time data. The earthquake data were supplemented by the previous deep seismic sounding (DSS) data on the profiles in Crimea and offshore off the Black Sea. The dataset included more than 4000 travel times overall. In order to eliminate the crustal effect, the travel times were reduced to a surface at a depth of 35 km corresponding to the mean Moho depth in the region. The improved crustal model was used for removing the contribution of the crust from the initial data. The new tomography method, which was recently developed by one of the authors and which relies on the assumption of smoothness of the lateral velocity variations, was applied for reconstructing the velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Black Sea up to a depth of 95 km. The lateral velocity variation maps at different depths and the vertical velocity distributions along the meridional and sublatitudinal cross sections across the Black Sea were constructed. High velocities were revealed in the subcrustal lithosphere, and the structural difference below two subbasins—the West Black Sea (WBS) and the East Black Sea (EBS) ones—was established. It shows that the high-velocity body below the WBS is located deeper than below the EBS and is distinguished by higher velocities. Based on these results, it is concluded that the lithosphere beneath the Black Sea has a continental origin.

  2. Coastal benthic diversity in the Black and Aegean Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative data pertaining to the composition of macrobenthic communities of soft bottoms along the coastal zones of the Black and Aegean Seas are reviewed. The study area includes one site in the Russian coastal zone, four sites in Ukraine (at depths 3-125 m, four sites in Bulgaria (at depths 12-83 m, and four sites in Greece (at depths 9-90 m. The species variety, population density and community diversity are compared between Seas, among regions and among stations. The fluctuation of these parameters in connection to anthropogenic impact (ranging from open undisturbed sites to those receiving heavy organic and chemical effluent are discussed. The low species number of benthic fauna in the Black Sea, as opposed to the richness of the Aegean Sea (three times higher a ratio well established for other marine groups, is not reflected in the overall abundance. Thus, the average population density of benthic organisms may reach 12352 ind per m2 in the Black Sea (Cocketrice sandy bank while in the Aegean it did not exceed 4,000 ind per m2 (Saronikos Gulf. Community diversity was always lower in the Black Sea than similar sites in the Aegean Sea. Within the various regions examined, the protected areas exhibited the most complex community structure.

  3. Effects of dietary energy density and digestible protein:energy ratio on de novo lipid synthesis from dietary protein in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    was applied to quantify the 13C enrichment of whole-body lipid from dietary DP. Between 18·6 and 22·4% of the carbon derived from protein was recovered in the lipid fraction of the fish, and between 21·6 and 30·3% of the total lipid deposited could be attributed to dietary protein. DP retention...... was significantly improved by reductions in dietary DP:DE ratio, while the opposite was true for apparent digestible lipid retention. Both overall DE retention and whole-body proximate composition of whole fish were largely unaffected by dietary treatments, while feed conversion ratios were significantly improved...... with increasing dietary energy density. The present study suggests that gilthead sea bream efficiently utilises dietary nutrients over a wide range of DP:DE ratios and energy densities. In addition, they appear to endeavour a certain body energy status rather than maximising growth, which in the present trial...

  4. Potential and challenges for the Black Sea regional cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galya VLADOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early nineties, the Black Sea region has witnessed fundamental geopolitical changes and significant shifts in its regional context and dynamics. In an attempt to react to the altered circumstances after the collapse of the Soviet Union and to address an increasing number of common challenges, the Black Sea states have jointed efforts in various regional cooperation activities. Throughout the years, the Black Sea cooperation has evolved with different speed and success, reflecting the difficult regional circumstances and attracting increasing external involvement. Today, more than twenty years after the first cooperation activities have been launched, the Black Sea cooperation is still shadowed by persisting historical rivalries, unrecognized territorial entities, ‘frozen conflicts’ and security threats. As a result, despite the many pressing problems of regional character, the cooperation efforts are currently showing rather limited outcomes. Seen against this background, the current paper presents a study of the main challenges and the existing potential for further development of the Black Sea regional cooperation.

  5. Extreme waves at Filyos, southern Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bilyay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A wave measurement project was carried out for a new port planned in Filyos, in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. The measurement at a depth of 12.5 m lasted for a period of two years and 7949 records were obtained. During the analysis, it was noticed that there were 209 records in which H/Hs ratio was higher than 2.0. These higher waves in a record are called extreme waves in this study. Although the purpose of wave measurement is not to investigate extreme waves, it is believed that studying these unexpected waves could be interesting. Therefore, detailed statistical and spectral analyses on the extreme waves were done for the records. The analyses results show that the distribution of surface profiles of the records containing extreme waves deviates from Gaussian distribution with the negative skewness changing between –0.01 and –0.4 and with the high kurtosis in the range of 3.1–4.2. Although the probability of occurrence of the extreme waves is over-predicted by the Rayleigh distribution, a higher ratio of Hsrms indicates that the wave height distribution can be represented by Rayleigh. The average value of the slope of the frequency spectrum at the high frequency range is proportional to f–9 which is much steeper than the typical wind-wave frequency power law, f–4, –5. The directional spreading is measured with the parameter Smax and it is in the range of 5–70 for the extreme wave records. The wave and current interaction was also investigated and it was found that in most cases, extreme waves occur when the wave and the current are almost aligned. Furthermore, it is observed that extreme waves appear within a group of high waves.

  6. On the wave energy potential of Western Black Sea shelf

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we evaluate the approaches to estimate the wave energy potential of the western Black Sea shelf with numerical models. For the purpose of our evaluation and due to the lack of long time series of measurements in the selected area of the Black Sea, we compare the modeled mean wave power flux output from the SWAN wave model with the only available long term measurements from the buoy of Gelendzhik for the period 1997-2003 (with gaps). The forcing meteorological data for the numerical wave models for the selected years is extracted from the ERA Interim reanalysis of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium range Forecasts). For the year 2003 we also compare the estimated wave power with the modeled by SWAN, using ALADIN regional atmospheric model winds. We try to identify the shortcomings and limitations of the numerical modeling approach to the evaluation of the wave energy potential in Black Sea.

  7. Nutrient exchange fluxes between the Aegean and Black Seas through the Marmara Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TUGRUL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term data obtained in the Turkish Strait System (TSS including the Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles and Bosphorus straits, during 1990-2000, have permitted us to calculate seasonal and annual fluxes of water and nutrients (nitrate, phosphate exchanged between the Aegean and Black Seas through the TSS. Two-layer flow regimes in the TSS introduce the brackish waters of the Black Sea into the Aegean basin of the northeastern Mediterranean throughout the year. A counter flow in the TSS carries the salty Mediterranean water into the Black Sea via the Marmara deep basin. The annual volume influx from the Black Sea to the Marmara upper layer is nearly two-fold the salty water exported from the Marmara to the Black Sea via the Bosphorus underflow. The brackish Black Sea inflow is relatively rich in nitrate and phosphate in winter, decreasing to the lowest levels in late summer and autumn. Biologically labile nutrients of Black Sea origin are utilized in photosynthetic processes in the Marmara Sea and are partly exported to the Marmara lower layer. Eventually, the brackish Black Sea waters reach the Dardanelles Strait, with modified bio-chemical properties. On the other hand, the salty Mediterranean waters with low concentrations of nutrients enter the Marmara deep basin. During threir 6-7 year sojourn in the Marmara basin, the salty waters become enriched in nitrate (DIN and phosphate (DIP, due to oxidation of planktonic particles sinking from the Marmara surface layer. The annual nutrient inputs from the Black Sea to the Marmara basin were estimated as 8.17x108 moles of DIN and 4.25x107 moles of DIP, which are much less than the importation from the Marmara lower layer via the Bosphorus undercurrent. The salty Aegean water introduces nearly 6.13x108 moles of DIN and 2.79x107 moles of DIP into the Marmara lower layer. The estimated DIP outflux from the Aegean Sea is nearly 2 times less than the importation from the Marmara Sea via the Dardanelles

  8. Storm surges in the Western Black Sea. Operational forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. MUNGOV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of the storm surges in the Black Sea is lower than that in other regions of the World Ocean but they cause significant damages as the magnitude of the sea level set-up is up to 7-8 times greater than that of other sea level variations. New methods and systems for storm surge forecasting and studying their statistical characteristics are absolutely necessary for the purposes of the coastal zone management. The operational forecasting storm surge model of Meteo-France was adopted for the Black Sea in accordance with the bilateral agreement between Meteo-France and NINMH. The model was verified using tide-gauge observations for the strongest storms observed along the Bulgarian coast over the last 10 years.

  9. Satellite Survey of Inner Seas: Oil Pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mityagina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses our studies of oil pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas. The research was based on a multi-sensor approach on satellite survey data. A combined analysis of oil film signatures in satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR and optical imagery was performed. Maps of oil spills detected in satellite imagery of the whole aquatic area of the Black Sea and the Middle and the Southern Caspian Sea are created. Areas of the heaviest pollution are outlined. It is shown that the main types of sea surface oil pollution are ship discharges and natural marine hydrocarbon seepages. For each type of pollution and each sea, regions of regular pollution occurrence were determined, polluted areas were estimated, and specific manifestation features were revealed. Long-term observations demonstrate that in recent years, illegal wastewater discharges into the Black Sea have become very common, which raises serious environmental issues. Manifestations of seabed hydrocarbon seepages were also detected in the Black Sea, primarily in its eastern part. The patterns of surface oil pollution of the Caspian Sea differ considerably from those observed in the Black Sea. They are largely determined by presence of big seabed oil and gas deposits. The dependence of surface oil SAR signatures on wind/wave conditions is discussed. The impact of dynamic and circulation processes on oil films drift and spread is investigated. A large amount of the data available allowed us to make some generalizations and obtain statistically significant results on spatial and temporal variability of various surface film manifestations.The examples and numerical data we provide on ship spills and seabed seepages reflect the influence of the pollution on the sea environment.

  10. Dissolved rare earth elements in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Landing, William M.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of rare earths in the deep anoxic Black Sea are about one order of magnitude higher than in normal open ocean waters. From a minimum at the suboxic-anoxic interface at about 107 m depth, concentrations increase strongly to a maximum at about 300–400 m depth. Concentrations of Ce range

  11. Collision processes at the northern margin of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobarenko, V. S.; Murovskaya, A. V.; Yegorova, T. P.; Sheremet, E. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extended along the Crimea-Caucasus coast of the Black Sea, the Crimean Seismic Zone (CSZ) is an evidence of active tectonic processes at the junction of the Scythian Plate and Black Sea Microplate. A relocation procedure applied to weak earthquakes (mb ≤ 3) recorded by ten local stations during 1970-2013 helped to determine more accurately the parameters of hypocenters in the CSZ. The Kerch-Taman, Sudak, Yuzhnoberezhnaya (South Coast), and Sevastopol subzones have also been recognized. Generalization of the focal mechanisms of 31 strong earthquakes during 1927-2013 has demonstrated the predominance of reverse and reverse-normal-faulting deformation regimes. This ongoing tectonic process occurs under the settings of compression and transpression. The earthquake foci with strike-slip component mechanisms concentrate in the west of the CSZ. Comparison of deformation modes in the western and eastern Crimean Mountains according to tectonophysical data has demonstrated that the western part is dominated by strike-slip and normal- faulting, while in the eastern part, reverse-fault and strike-slip deformation regimes prevail. Comparison of the seismicity and gravity field and modes of deformation suggests underthusting of the East Black Sea Microplate with thin suboceanic crust under the Scythian Plate. In the Yuzhnoberezhnaya Subzone, this process is complicated by the East Black Sea Microplate frontal part wedging into the marginal part of the Scythian Plate crust. The indentation mechanism explains the strong gravity anomaly in the Crimean Mountains and their uplift.

  12. Variational data assimilation system "INM RAS - Black Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmuzin, Eugene; Agoshkov, Valery; Assovskiy, Maksim; Giniatulin, Sergey; Zakharova, Natalia; Kuimov, Grigory; Fomin, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for Data Assimilation Procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The problems discussed above are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for Personal Computers (PC). Special problems and questions arise while effective ICS versions for PC are being developed. These problems and questions can be solved with applying modern methods of numerical mathematics and by solving "parallelism problem" using OpenMP technology and special linear algebra packages. In this work the results on the ICS development for PC-ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the work the following problems and questions are discussed: practical problems that can be studied by ICS; parallelism problems and their solutions with applying of OpenMP technology and the linear algebra packages used in ICS "INM - Black Sea"; Interface of ICS. The results of ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" testing are presented. Efficiency of technologies and methods applied are discussed. The work was supported by RFBR, grants No. 13-01-00753, 13-05-00715 and by The Ministry of education and science of Russian Federation, project 8291, project 11.519.11.1005 References: [1] V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 5-31 [2] E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 [3] V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V

  13. The effects of additional black carbon on Arctic sea ice surface albedo: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon in sea ice will decrease sea ice surface albedo through increased absorption of incident solar radiation, exacerbating sea ice melting. Previous literature has reported different albedo responses to additions of black carbon in sea ice and has not considered how a snow cover may mitigate the effect of black carbon in sea ice. Sea ice is predominately snow covered. Visible light absorption and light scattering coefficients are calculated for a typical first year and multi-year sea ice and "dry" and "wet" snow types that suggest black carbon is the dominating absorbing impurity. The albedo response of first year and multi-year sea ice to increasing black carbon, from 1–1024 ng g−1, in a top 5 cm layer of a 155 cm thick sea ice was calculated using the radiative transfer model: TUV-snow. Sea ice albedo is surprisingly unresponsive to black carbon additions up to 100 ng g−1 with a decrease in albedo to 98.7% of the original albedo value due to an addition of 8 ng g−1 of black carbon in first year sea ice compared to an albedo decrease to 99.6% for the same black carbon mass ratio increase in multi-year sea ice. The first year sea ice proved more responsive to black carbon additions than the multi-year ice. Comparison with previous modelling of black carbon in sea ice suggests a more scattering sea ice environment will be less responsive to black carbon additions. Snow layers on sea ice may mitigate the effects of black carbon in sea ice. "Wet" and "dry" snow layers of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm were added onto the sea ice surface and the snow surface albedo calculated with the same increase in black carbon in the underlying sea ice. Just a 0.5 cm layer of snow greatly diminishes the effect of black carbon on surface albedo, and a 2–5 cm layer (less than half the e-folding depth of snow is enough to "mask" any change in surface albedo owing to additional black carbon in sea ice, but not thick enough to ignore the underlying sea ice.

  14. On the Bioeconomic potential of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian

    2015-04-01

    The paper is a plea for the need to engage in more intensive researches on the Black Sea region bioeconomy so that they should keep pace with the researches taking place in other European seas. Bioeconomy offers Europe a unique opportunity to address complex inter-connected challenges, while achieving economic growth. Bioeconomy refers to the set of economic activities relating to the invention, development, production and use of biological products and processes. According to the European Commission, bioeconomy can be found in societal challenge category entitled "Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine, maritime and inland water research, and the Bioeconomy" (http://ec.europa.eu/research/bioeconomy/h2020/index_en.htm); a transition is needed towards an optimal and renewable use of biological resources and towards sustainable primary production and processing systems. The author makes a brief overview of the European preoccupations concerning scientific research into bioeconomy and, equally, presents Romanian thinking in the field, launched several decades ago, but never applied and developed in practice. In 1933 Dr. Gr. Antipa, former outstanding student of Ernst Haeckel at Jena, expounded his conception of general biology and the biological structure of the Black Sea introducing the concepts of "biosociology" and "bioeconomy", drawing conclusions on the natural mechanism of fish production in this sea and specifying the determining factors in functioning. Antipa notes the lack of uniformity of the living conditions in the Black Sea and draws conclusions based on indices and faunal aspects found in different areas and at different depths: 1. The Black Sea, to an even greater extent than the Baltic Sea, with which it has some similarity both of them having a continuous surface and homogeneous appearance, is divided into more zones or biotypes, bounded horizontally and vertically - i.e. depending on areas and depths - each with distinct and well

  15. An Introduction to the Black Sea Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Kuyalnitsky liman nearly Odessa wth salinity up to 100‰. The bright red larvae of С. salinarius are cultivated and used as food for aquarium fish...Comparing with the open sea, the blue mussel was growing better in the Khadzhibeyskiy liman and it was successfully cultivated . At the market, the...Modiolus phaseolinus. On this background, like tangerines that have been spread by somebody, the orange-red sponges Suberites carnosus with a diameter up

  16. Black carbon in deep-Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello; Druffel

    1998-06-19

    Black carbon (BC) enters the ocean through aerosol and river deposition. BC makes up 12 to 31 percent of the sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) at two deep ocean sites, and it is 2400 to 13,900 carbon-14 years older than non-BC SOC deposited concurrently. BC is likely older because it is stored in an intermediate reservoir before sedimentary deposition. Possible intermediate pools are oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and terrestrial soils. If DOC is the intermediate reservoir, then BC is 4 to 22 percent of the DOC pool. If soils are the intermediate reservoir, then the importance of riverine carbon in the ocean carbon cycle has been underestimated.

  17. Black carbon in deep-sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) enters the ocean through aerosol and river deposition. BC makes up 12 to 31 percent of the sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) at two deep ocean sites, and it is 2400 to 13,900 carbon-14 years older than non-BC SOC deposited concurrently. BC is likely older because it is stored in an intermediate reservoir before sedimentary deposition. Possible intermediate pools are oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and terrestrial soils. If DOC is the intermediate reservoir, then BC is ...

  18. First evaluation of neustonic microplastics in Black Sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytan, Ulgen; Valente, Andre; Senturk, Yasemen; Usta, Riza; Esensoy Sahin, Fatma Basak; Mazlum, Rahsan Evren; Agirbas, Ertugrul

    2016-08-01

    The Black Sea has a high risk of plastic pollution given the high river discharge of several industrialized countries into this semi-enclosed sea. Here, for the first time, the occurrence and distribution of microplastics are reported for the Black Sea. Microplastics were assessed from zooplankton samples taken during two cruises along the south eastern coast of the Black Sea in the November of 2014 and February of 2015. In each cruise neuston samples were collected at 12 stations using a WP2 net with 200 μm mesh. Microplastics (0.2-5 mm) were found in 92% of the samples. The primary shapes were fibres (49.4%) followed by plastic films (30.6%) and fragments (20%), and no micro beads were found. Average microplastic concentration in November (1.2 ± 1.1 × 10(3) par. m(-3)) was higher than in February (0.6 ± 0.55 × 10(3) par. m(-3)). Reduced concentrations in February were possibly caused by increased mixing. The highest concentrations of microplastics were observed in offshore stations during November sampling. The heterogeneous spatial distribution (0.2 × 10(3)-3.3 × 10(3) par. m(-3) for all samples) and accumulation in some stations could be associated to transport and retention mechanisms linked with wind and the dynamics of the rim current, as well by different sources of plastic. There were no statistically significant differences in MP concentration between sampling stations and sampling periods (t-test, p microplastic concentrations suggest that Black Sea is a hotspot for microplastic pollution and there is an urgency to understand their origins, transportation and effects on marine life.

  19. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19 by multiple Soviet Union institutes (NODC Accession 0077413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19...

  20. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C Tsikliras

    Full Text Available The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W, central (C and eastern (E Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS, with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.

  1. Transient up- and down-regulation of expression of myosin light chain 2 and myostatin mRNA mark the changes from stratified hyperplasia to muscle fiber hypertrophy in larvae of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stella; Alami-Durante, Hélène; Power, Deborah M; Sarropoulou, Elena; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A

    2016-02-01

    Hyperplasia and hypertrophy are the two mechanisms by which muscle develops and grows. We study these two mechanisms, during the early development of white muscle in Sparus aurata, by means of histology and the expression of structural and regulatory genes. A clear stage of stratified hyperplasia was identified early in the development of gilthead sea bream but ceased by 35 dph when hypertrophy took over. Mosaic recruitment of new white fibers began as soon as 60 dph. The genes mlc2a and mlc2b were expressed at various levels during the main phases of hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The genes myog and mlc2a were significantly up-regulated during the intensive stratified formation of new fibers and their expression was significantly correlated. Expression of mstn1 and igf1 increased at 35 dph, appeared to regulate the hyperplasia-to-hypertrophy transition, and may have stimulated the expression of mlc2a, mlc2b and col1a1 at the onset of mosaic hyperplasia. The up-regulation of mstn1 at transitional phases in muscle development indicates a dual regulatory role of myostatin in fish larval muscle growth.

  2. Crustal underthrusting in the Crimea - Northern Black Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorova, Tamara; Gobarenko, Valentina; Murovskaya, Anna; Sheremet, Yevgeniya

    2016-04-01

    The southern Crimean Mountains and the Greater Caucasus form a fold and thrust belt located on the northern margin of the Black Sea, south of Precambrian East European Craton. It is limited to the south by the Main Caucasus Thrust that runs along the whole of the northern margin of the Black Sea and is related to a zone of present day seismicity along the southern Crimea-Caucasus coast of the Sea (Crimean Seismogenic Zone). Strong seismic activity in the region indicates active on-going tectonic processes caused by collision of Eurasian and Arabian plates. In the vicinity of the seismogenic zone there is a transition from thick continental crust on the north to thin suboceanic one on the south in the sea. However, type and structural relations between them are known poorly. To understand better geodynamic processes, there were collected data on the earthquakes that were analyzed together with focal mechanisms of strong earthquakes, new results of geological structural analysis and paleostress reconstructions by kinematic method. These allowed drawing the following conclusions. Seismic activity in the study region, evidenced of active tectonic processes under compression and transpression at the transition from the southern margin of the East European Craton (Scythian Platform) to the Black Sea, is confirmed by predominance of reverse mechanisms among 31 focal mechanisms. In the seismogenic zone, much of which is located along the continental slope, there are three subzones (from east to west): 1) Kerch-Taman one dipping northwards at angle 30 degrees to the depth of 90 km; 2) South-Coast subzone gently dipping to the southeast at angle of 18 degrees with foci depth range 10-45 km, and 3) orthogonal to the latter and confining it from the west the Sevastopol one, characterized by scattered seismicity. The earthquake foci are located in the gradient zone that separates intense Crimea gravity high and positive anomaly of Northern Caucasus from negative gravity field

  3. Light Absorption in Arctic Sea Ice - Black Carbon vs Chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunro, O. O.; Wingenter, O. W.; Elliott, S.; Hunke, E. C.; Flanner, M.; Wang, H.; Dubey, M. K.; Jeffery, N.

    2015-12-01

    The fingerprint of climate change is more obvious in the Arctic than any other place on Earth. This is not only because the surface temperature there has increased at twice the rate of global mean temperature but also because Arctic sea ice extent has reached a record low of 49% reduction relative to the 1979-2000 climatology. Radiation absorption through black carbon (BC) deposited on Arctic snow and sea ice surface is one of the major hypothesized contributors to the decline. However, we note that chlorophyll-a absorption owing to increasing biology activity in this region could be a major competitor during boreal spring. Modeling of sea-ice physical and biological processes together with experiments and field observations promise rapid progress in the quality of Arctic ice predictions. Here we develop a dynamic ice system module to investigate discrete absorption of both BC and chlorophyll in the Arctic, using BC deposition fields from version 5 of Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and vertically distributed layers of chlorophyll concentrations from Sea Ice Model (CICE). To this point, our black carbon mixing ratios compare well with available in situ data. Both results are in the same order of magnitude. Estimates from our calculations show that sea ice and snow around the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay has the least black carbon absorption while values at the ice-ocean perimeter in the region of the Barents Sea peak significantly. With regard to pigment concentrations, high amounts of chlorophyll are produced in Arctic sea ice by the bottom microbial community, and also within the columnar pack wherever substantial biological activity takes place in the presence of moderate light. We show that the percentage of photons absorbed by chlorophyll in the spring is comparable to the amount attributed to BC, especially in areas where the total deposition rates are decreasing with time on interannual timescale. We expect a continuous increase in

  4. Simulations of The Extreme Precipitation Event Enhanced by Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly over the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakan Doǧan, Onur; Önol, Barış

    2016-04-01

    Istanbul Technical University, Aeronautics and Astronautics Faculty, Meteorological Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey In this study, we examined the extreme precipitation case over the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey by using regional climate model, RegCM4. The flood caused by excessive rain in August 26, 2010 killed 12 people and the landslides in Rize province have damaged many buildings. The station based two days total precipitation exceeds 200 mm. One of the usual suspects for this extreme event is positive anomaly of sea surface temperature (SST) over the Black Sea where the significant warming trend is clear in the last three decades. In August 2010, the monthly mean SST is higher than 3 °C with respect to the period of 1981-2010. We designed three sensitivity simulations with RegCM4 to define the effects of the Black Sea as a moisture source. The simulation domain with 10-km horizontal resolution covers all the countries bordering the Black Sea and simulation period is defined for entire August 2010. It is also noted that the spatial variability of the precipitation produced by the reference simulation (Sim-0) is consistent with the TRMM data. In terms of analysis of the sensitivity to SST, we forced the simulations by subtracting 1 °C (Sim-1), 2 °C (Sim-2) and 3 °C (Sim-3) from the ERA-Interim 6-hourly SST data (considering only the Black Sea). The sensitivity simulations indicate that daily total precipitation for all these simulations gradually decreased based on the reference simulation (Sim-0). 3-hourly maximum precipitation rates for Sim-0, Sim-1, Sim-2 and Sim-3 are 32, 25, 13 and 10.5 mm respectively over the hotspot region. Despite the fact that the simulations signal points out the same direction, degradation of the precipitation intensity does not indicate the same magnitude for all simulations. It is revealed that 2 °C (Sim-2) threshold is critical for SST sensitivity. We also calculated the humidity differences from the simulation and these

  5. 真鲷虹彩病毒实时定量PCR检测方法的建立与应用%Development and application of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of red-sea bream iridovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉然; 岳志芹; 谭乐义; 刘荭; 赵巍; 梁成珠; 史秀杰; 徐彪; 朱来华; 何俊强

    2011-01-01

    以真鲷虹彩病毒(Red-sea bream iridovirus,RSIV)主要衣壳蛋白(Major capsid protein,MCP)的基因保守片段为靶序列,利用Primer Express 3.0软件设计定量PCR引物,建立了RSIV的SYBR Green I实时定量PCR检测方法.将RSIV MCP基因连接pMD18-T载体,构建重组质粒,经过梯度稀释后作为标准品,根据标准品拷贝数(X)与Ct值的关系绘制了标准曲线,为Ct=-3.184 1gX+40.270,相关系数R2=0.996 9.熔解曲线分析表明,定量PCR产物的Tm值为82.5℃.该方法的检测限为2.20×102拷贝/反应,对流行性造血器官坏死病毒、淋巴囊肿病毒、蛙病毒3、甲鱼虹彩病毒都没有扩增反应,具有特异性.利用该方法对84批海水鱼类(石鲽、大菱鲆、鲈鱼)进行检测,其中5批鱼样品感染RSIV,并利用标准曲线对病毒含量进行了定量分析.%A sensitive and specific SYBR Green Ⅰ real-time PCR assay for the detection of red-sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) was established.The real-time PCR primers were designed according to the conserved region of major capsid protein (MCP) gene by using Primer Express 3.0 software.The RSIV MCP gene was inserted into pMD18-T vector to construct the recombinant plasmid.The resulted plasmid was serially diluted and used as the standards.The relationship between plasmid copy number(X)and Ct value was described as a standard curve: Ct=-3.184 lgX+40.270(with an R2 value of 0.996 9).The detection limit of the assay was 2.20×102 virus copies per reaction.The assay showed specificity and could not be amplified with RSIV and epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), frog virus 3 (FV 3) ,or soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV).The Tm of the specific product was obtained as 82.5 ℃ through the melting curve analysis.This assay was applied in detecting whether the sea fish samples (stone flounder, turbot, and weever) of 84 batches were infected by RSIV.It was found that the samples of 5 batches presented positive

  6. A wave prediction system for real time sea state forecasting in Black Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Kortcheva, Anna; Galabov, Vasko

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the existing operational system for wind waves forecasting in the Black Sea. It is a system of coupled atmospheric and wave numerical models aiming at a detailed and accurate sea state forecast on an operational level. The system was created at the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH-BAS) in collaboration with the Meteorological Office of France - Meteo-France. The present work introduces the use of wave models at NIMH-BAS and shows the model results, as well as an intercomparison. The numerical wave models VAG, WAVEWATCH III and WAM, developed by the research groups of Meteo-France, NCEP and WAMDI, have been adopted for the Black Sea area and implemented at the NIMH-BAS to allow real-time forecasts and hindcasts of the waves in the Black Sea. The coupling of two atmospherics models ARPEGE and ALADIN has been used to force the wave models. The operational use has indicated that the system is suitable for general purposes and the resu...

  7. Differences In Skull Size Of Harbour Porpoises, Phocoena phocoena (Cetacea, In The Sea Of Azov And The Black Sea: Evidence For Different Morphotypes And Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldin P. E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two porpoise stocks in the northern Black Sea: the north-western (Odessa Gulf and northeastern (Crimean and Caucasian waters; in addition, another stock is in the Sea of Azov. The Azov porpoises are distinct in their body size and biology. This research was conducted on the skulls of stranded sexually mature porpoises from the north-eastern Black Sea, north-western Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. In the north-eastern Black Sea samples, both present-day and old-time, the sexual dimorphism of the skull size was not significant, whereas in the Sea of Azov the females were significantly larger than males. The Azov skulls were strongly different from those from the Black Sea: they were larger, proportionally wider and had the wider rostra; also, there was no significant chronological variation within the Black Sea. The Azov and Black Sea samples were classified with the 100 % success with four variables. The northwestern Black Sea skulls were somewhat intermediate in their characteristics between the Azov and northeastern Black Sea samples, but they were classify ed together with other Black Sea specimens. The difference between the Azov and Black Sea skulls was greater than between many North Atlantic populations, despite the extreme geographical proximity of the two stocks. The low variation within the Black Sea supports the earlier conclusions on the lack of genetic variation: all the Black Sea stocks are expected to be genetically similar sub-populations, whereas the Azov and Marmara stocks possibly represent the genetically distant populations. The porpoises from the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov equally show the traits which characterize the subspecies Phocoena phocoena relicta, but the Black Sea porpoises appear to be more paedomorphic in terms of ontogenetic trajectories.

  8. Feeding ecology of the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus cadenati (Perciformes: Sparidae) and the ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta (Perciformes: Labridae), from Faial Island – Azores

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Copyright © 2005 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved To make a first approach in the assessment of the sea urchin predators in the Azores, the diet of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) and ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta), were studied by the analyses of their stomach contents. The white seabream is a diurnal omnivore, feeding on algae, sea-urchins, worms, gastropods and amphipods, while ballan wrasse fed mainly on echinoderms (sea-urchins), gastropods and decapods. Both species tended...

  9. Regional higher education co-operation: a research proposal to compare the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ewert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the Baltic Sea Region is considered to be a pioneer region in the development of regional integration and identity, the Black Sea Region is regarded to be a laggard in terms of regionali¬zation and region building. My paper summarizes the role of regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea regionalization process in theory and analyzes the empirical background of these assumptions. Yet, inasmuch an evaluation of the regions` status as a pioneer is possible only in a comparative perspective, I propose to compare the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea Region regarding their higher education networks systematically. My paper asks for the transferability of arguments in favor of a strong regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region since the 1990s to today’s situation of the Black Sea Region. It concludes with some fundamental considerations on a comparative research project.

  10. Bioecology of tulip trees at the Ajara Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Tskhoidze

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tulip trees (Liriodendron tulipifera L. andLiriodendron chinense(Hemsl. Sarg. grow well along the Batumi coastline, develop, bloom, produce fruit, give natural revival. There they already have blooming and fruiting self-seeds. Chinese tulip poplar sometimes reaches here bigger sizes than in natural habitat. It resists winter temperatures very well. Both species can be jointly used along the Caucasian Black Sea coast as ornamental trees because there are the most favorable conditions for their vegetation. Due the great resistance American tulip trees can grow along the coastline as well as inland of Ajara.

  11. The water mass variability on the Romanian Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, Luminita; Mihailov, Maria-Emanuela; Malciu, Viorel; Stefan, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    The long-term trends in the water mass thermohaline structure and the effect of Danube River freshwater discharge into the western Black Sea during the last four decades (1971 - 2010) are analyzed using the data collected on the Romanian shelf (NIMRD data base). The variations of the temperature and salinity over the studied period are relatively small. The temperature data reveal a slightly warming trend for the upper mixed layer (UML) while for the shelf cold water (SCW) - identified by the 8˚C upper isotherm depth - thermohaline structure remains practically constant. At the same time the salinity exhibits a decreasing trend in the entire water column.

  12. Changing Coastal oceanography of the Black Sea. I: Northwestern Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmazin, D.

    This article describes the hydrography of the Northwestern Shelf (NWS), of the Black Sea emphasizing the changes induced by water management in the Dniejer and Dniester river basins. The existing literature and previously unpublished data have been reviewed and synthesized to describe water property fields and transport mechanisms of the NWS and the Dnieper and Dniester estuaries before the early 1960s, or the so-called precontrol period, when the effect of artificial river flow control upon the coastal waters was insignificant. After the hydroenergy complexes and water withdrawal and disposal systems on rivers became fully operational in the early 1970s (the so-called postcontrol period), the annual river discharge from the Dnieper and Dniester had noticeably decreased and seasonal river flow patterns had been artificially modified. Instead of a powerful and short early spring flood, typical for the natural conditions in the Dnieper river, the hydrographs in the postcontrol period exhibit two smaller peaks of river discharge of much longer period. One of them (winter-early spring) is caused by intense hydroenergy generation and weir discharges through the cascade of storage reservoirs. Another is associated with spring flood, modified by intense water consumption and storage in this period. High average river discharge in late May-early June strengthened the summer pycnocline which inhibits vertical mixing in the estuaries and coastal waters. Owing to a slow summer circulation, the rate of natural purification of the entire coastal system has been reduced. This coupled with the increased nutrient, organic and pollutant transport, decreased the dissolved-oxygen concentration and led to anoxic events and mass mortalities of marine organisms in the previously productive regions. These effects have primarily plagued the benthic communities along the entire western coast of the NWS since 1973. Winter convective overturn in the Black Sea reaches its maximum depth at the

  13. A survey on osmoregulatory potential of Bream, Abramis brama (Berg, 1949 fry for restocking management programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Asgari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bream (Abramis brama, Berg, 1949; Family: Cyprinidae is commercially valuable fish in the Caspian Sea fishing industry. Iranian Fisheries Organization annually produces and release up to 19 million Bream fries size for recruiting of this species. Its fries are mostly released into the Anzali wetland with 4 ppt salinity. Meanwhile, they sometimes are released into Sefidrood River (0.5 ppt, Sefidrood River estuary (8 ppt and directly into the Caspian Sea (12 ppt. To determine whether these alternative locations are suitable for release, sixty fingerling size Bream (0.5±0.13 g b.w. were exposed to four salinity levels of these locations i.e. 0.5, 4, 8 and 12 ppt, for 120 hrs. The results displayed that accumulated mortality rate was significantly lower in exposed fish to 4 ppt (PPP

  14. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming

  15. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Christian Svendsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: 1 gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e. burst-assisted swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC; 2 variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit correlates with metabolic scope (MS or anaerobic capacity (i.e. maximum EPOC; 3 there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus and minimum cost of transport (COTmin; and 4 variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e. the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance travelled. Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e. EPOC increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg-1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and optimum

  16. Attributing extreme precipitation in the Black Sea region to sea surface warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Edmund; Semenov, Vladimir; Maraun, Douglas; Park, Wonsun; Chernokulsky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs) warm and moisten the overlying atmosphere, increasing the low-level atmospheric instability, the moisture available to precipitating systems and, hence, the potential for intense convective systems. Both the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions have seen a steady increase in summertime SSTs since the early 1980s, by over 2 K in places. This raises the question of how this SST increase has affected convective precipitation extremes in the region, and through which mechanisms any effects are manifested. In particular, the Black Sea town of Krymsk suffered an unprecedented precipitation extreme in July 2012, which may have been influenced by Black Sea warming, causing over 170 deaths. To address this question, we adopt two distinct modelling approaches to event attribution and compare their relative merits. In the first, we use the traditional probabilistic event attribution approach involving global climate model ensembles representative of the present and a counterfactual past climate where regional SSTs have not increased. In the second, we use the conditional event attribution approach, taking the 2012 Krymsk precipitation extreme as a showcase example. Under the second approach, we carry out ensemble sensitivity experiments of the Krymsk event at convection-permitting resolution with the WRF regional model, and test the sensitivity of the event to a range of SST forcings. Both experiments show the crucial role of recent Black Sea warming in amplifying the 2012 Krymsk precipitation extreme. In the conditional event attribution approach, though, the explicit simulation of convective processes provides detailed insight into the physical mechanisms behind the extremeness of the event, revealing the dominant role of dynamical (i.e. static stability and vertical motions) over thermodynamical (i.e. increased atmospheric moisture) changes. Additionally, the wide range of SST states tested in the regional setup, which would be

  17. Need Of Intercultural Dialogue Between Black Sea Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ahmet SALGÜR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In human history, living together in peace without violence and problem has been a challenge for all humanity. Sometimes it has achieved, but it has just as frequently failed. It means that human beings prefer living together with people who are like them rather than with people who are different in appearance, speaking, eating, dressing, behaviour and beliefs, i.e. people from different cultures. However, cultural diversity and difference is a standard characteristic of modern societies. In these societies, individuals have to live with the people from different nations, colors, religions, languages and cultures. Black Sea Region is one of the most diverse regions in the world in terms of all these differences. Ethnic and religious diversity is an historical reality in this part of the world. There are Christians, Muslims and Jewish populations living together over centuries in a peaceful atmosphere. The States in Black Sea Region should develop cultural, educational and social policies to maintain this coexistence for the future generations.

  18. Damages to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea by the invader comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eker Develi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study changes in ecosystems of the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea after the invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were investigated. Excessive increase in plant plankton as a result of antrophogenic eutrophication leads to a shift in mesozooplankton com¬position, which is the main food item of these comb jellies. For instance, while some mesozoo¬plankton species disappeared from the environment or substantially decreased in number, some others increased in quantity. These changes in food chain may promote the rise of jellyfishes rather than fish in the environment. In addition, decrease in planktivorous fish abundance as a consequence of overfishing also triggers the increase of newly introduced comb jellies, which were possibly introduced via ballast waters of ships, in the ecosystem. Increase in abundance of M. leidyi, which compete with planktivorous fishes (anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus in the Black Sea, kilka, Clupeonella spp. in the Caspian Sea for their food, causes to decrease of planktivorous fish stocks which have already been vulnerable due to overfishing. Another reason for successfully adaption of M. leidyi to its new ecosystems could be linked to global warming which provides favourable temperature ranges for reproduction and growth of this ctenophore. Although there are still many debates related to possible negative effects, one of the ways to reduce harmful impacts of invaders might be the transport of natural predators of these invaders to the new ecosystems of invaders. For example, it was reported that the abun¬dance of Mnemiopsis leidyi decreased to very low levels during 1999-2004 in the Black Sea following the introduction of another comb jelly, Beroe ovata, which feed on this ctenophore.

  19. Hillmen of the Black Sea Province (Early XIX Century: Geography, Demography, Antropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, using the materials by the travellers, considers geographical and demographical aspects of the lives of hillmen of the Black Sea Region in early XIX century. The notion hillmen includes the tribes of the Ubykhi, Shapsugi, Natukhaevtsy, Abazin, Dzhigets, Medoveevtsy and Sadzy. Special attention is attached to the antropologic image of a hillman of the Black Sea Region.

  20. Black sea annual and inter-annual water mass variations from space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Simav, M.;

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of two widely used GRACE solutions (CNES/GRGS RL02 and CSR RL04) in deriving annual and inter-annual water mass variations in the Black Sea for the period 2003–2007. It is demonstrated that the GRACE derived water mass variations in the Black Sea are heavily i...

  1. Flood risk on the Black sea coast of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseevsky, Nikolay; Magritsky, Dmitry; Koltermann, Peter; Krylenko, Inna; Umina, Natalya; Aybulatov, Denis; Efremova, Natalya; Lebedeva, Seraphima

    2013-04-01

    The data of unique database "Floods in the coastal zones of Europeans part of Russia", developed by authors, are shown, that frequency of floods and damage in the coastal zones are growing. There is most dangerous situation on the Black sea coast of Russia. Here the main part of settlements, resorts and industry is situated in the river valleys and mouths. All main roads and pipelines cross the river channels. The Black sea rivers have flood regime with high intensity of flood formations and huge destructive flood power. Despite prevalence of floods during the cold period of year the most part of high floods in 100 years of supervision was noted here in the summer-fall (65% in July-October). Usually they were induced by the showers connected with passing of powerful cyclones, atmospheric fronts, and water tornadoes. The insignificant part of floods was connected with snow melting, backwater phenomena, showers in the cities and dam breaks. Thus shower induced floods here are the most widespread and destructive. Usually they arise within two-three watersheds simultaneously. Formation catastrophic heavy rain flood is possible on any site of a river valley of the Black Sea coast. The wave of a high water moves with very high speed, carrying a large number of deposits and garbage. To the mouth the flood can be transformed into debris flow. The water levels during a high water period rise on 3-6 m in the channels, and up to 11-12 m in the river canyons; the maximum depths of flow on the floodplains are 3 m and more. Flooding depths, induced by slope streams, can be to 0,5 m and higher. Flooding proceeds only some hours. After that water rather quickly flows down from a floodplains to the bed of the rivers and into the sea, leaving traces of destructions, a powerful layer of deposits (to 10-20 cm and more) and garbage. In the mouth river deposits quite often form the river mouth bar which is washed away during next storms. The damage from river floods on the Black Sea

  2. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTEMENTS FLOWS IN BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU-MARCEL JOIA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We live in a time when the world’s economy is in a constantly change. Foreign direct investments flows are in actual economy one of the most dynamic and prospective part of the world’s economy being in a continuous globalization. These international financial flows determine the traders who take part at the world’s economy to know to adopt a specific management in the international affairs field. We are viewers of an unprecedented expansion of foreign direct investments. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the foreign direct investments flows in Black Sea Economic Cooperation. This study is based on UNCTAD reports and on an econometrical model which gives us the possibility to create different analysis concerning FDI flow in this cooperation. So we defined a simple regression model, in which the dependent variable is represented by Nominal and real GDP, total and per capita, variable explicated by FDI flows, using as method the Least Squared, including 19 observations. Through this paper, we tried to illustrate the relation between the FDI flows and the economic growth rate in the past years inRomania, member of Black Sea Economic region. In line with a general upward trend in FDI to Central and Eastern Europe, inward FDI to the Russian Federation held steady between 1998 and 2001, at an annual average of $2.8 billion. In Black Sea Economic region, Russian average is the biggest one, Russia being a leader country in warding FDI. The Russian Federation is by far the leading investor country in the region, accounting for more than 75% of its annual outflows. Inward and outward direct investments flows in Russia have reached in 2009 an amount of $38,722 billion. In Romania, following years of stagnation at very low levels, 1991 to 1997, FDI flows reached $1.1 billion in 2002. Inflows to Bulgaria peaked at $1 billion in 2000; the surge is largely due to flows from developed countries. Inward and outward direct investments flows in

  3. Air-sea exchange over Black Sea estimated from high resolution regional climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velea, Liliana; Bojariu, Roxana; Cica, Roxana

    2013-04-01

    Black Sea is an important influencing factor for the climate of bordering countries, showing cyclogenetic activity (Trigo et al, 1999) and influencing Mediterranean cyclones passing over. As for other seas, standard observations of the atmosphere are limited in time and space and available observation-based estimations of air-sea exchange terms present quite large ranges of uncertainty. The reanalysis datasets (e.g. ERA produced by ECMWF) provide promising validation estimates of climatic characteristics against the ones in available climatic data (Schrum et al, 2001), while cannot reproduce some local features due to relatively coarse horizontal resolution. Detailed and realistic information on smaller-scale processes are foreseen to be provided by regional climate models, due to continuous improvements of physical parameterizations and numerical solutions and thus affording simulations at high spatial resolution. The aim of the study is to assess the potential of three regional climate models in reproducing known climatological characteristics of air-sea exchange over Black Sea, as well as to explore the added value of the model compared to the input (reanalysis) data. We employ results of long-term (1961-2000) simulations performed within ENSEMBLE project (http://ensemblesrt3.dmi.dk/) using models ETHZ-CLM, CNRM-ALADIN, METO-HadCM, for which the integration domain covers the whole area of interest. The analysis is performed for the entire basin for several variables entering the heat and water budget terms and available as direct output from the models, at seasonal and annual scale. A comparison with independent data (ERA-INTERIM) and findings from other studies (e.g. Schrum et al, 2001) is also presented. References: Schrum, C., Staneva, J., Stanev, E. and Ozsoy, E., 2001: Air-sea exchange in the Black Sea estimated from atmospheric analysis for the period 1979-1993, J. Marine Systems, 31, 3-19 Trigo, I. F., T. D. Davies, and G. R. Bigg (1999): Objective

  4. Evaluatıon Of Tourism Opportunies in the Black Sea Region With Swot Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat YEŞİLTAŞ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, tourism activities are generally based on sea-sand-sun trio. Although it has an outstanding place in tourism supply and potential, Turkey has not realized the value of it yet. In this study, the Black Sea Region is analysed for alternative tourism activities and possible tourism activities are explained. In parallel with this, the tourism assests of the Black Sea Region are evaluated by SWOT analysis.

  5. Megafloods in Marginal Basins: New Data from the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, L.; Mart, Y.; McHugh, C. M.; Vachtman, D.; Cagatay, N. M.; Kadir, E. K.; Ryan, W. B.

    2005-12-01

    One of Jim Kennett's long-standing scientific interests has been the study of abrupt events ranging from destabilization of the gas hydrate reservoir, to volcanism, to megafloods. In appreciation to his contribution to the study of catastrophes in paleoceanography, we present new data on the Holocene reconnection of the Black Sea basin to the ocean, resulting from a July 2005 survey aboard the R/V Mediterranean Explorer of the EcoOcean Foundation. The survey included tightly-spaced Chirp subbottom profiling on the outer shelf northwest of the Bosporus outlet (Istanbul Bogazi), combined with precisely targeted gravity coring. Subbottom horizons are calibrated by radiocarbon and optical luminescence ages on cores. Chirp profiles reveal channels and ridges nearly transversal to the bathymetric contours. Ridges have grown on a seaward-dipping erosion surface that truncates the top of older prograding clinoforms. The ridges are up 12 m in height and have an asymmetrical cross-section, gentler on the west and steeper on the east. Sediment drifting is apparent on the gentler side. In the interiors of the ridges we found highly reflective mounds that are rooted directly on the erosion surface. The mounds organize in both elongated and circular to oval features. Shell-bearing marine mud drapes the mounds. Between the ridges and mounds the drape rests directly on the erosion surface that can be traced seaward to beyond -120 m. High abundance of exceptionally large shells of Mytilus sp. at the base of the drape suggests that bedforms were seeded by a colonization of mollusks building bioherms right on top of the erosion surface beginning at the time of the Mediterranean connection. The Black Sea lacustrine stage experienced an evaporative drawdown below its outlet and has only tracked the global sea level rise since 8.4 ky bp. The saltwater megaflood from the Mediterranean led to dramatic morphologic reorganization of the shelf sea-floor close to the Bosporus and exceptional

  6. Vertical diffusion processes in the Eastern Mediterranean - Black Sea System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioroglou, Sotiris; Tragou, Elina; Zervakis, Vassilis; Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Herut, Barak; Gertman, Isaak; Kovacevic, Vedrana; Özsoy, Emin; Tutsak, Ersin

    2014-07-01

    The identification and examination of ‘complete' potential density overturns in CTD profiles, within the framework of SESAME project, are employed to assess vertical eddy diffusivities, mostly in the top 100 m of the water column, for a broad area covering the East Mediterranean, the Turkish Straits and the Black Sea. The implementation of this method shows that, mixing induced by mechanical turbulence is enhanced in frontal areas, in the proximity of straits and inside anticyclones; furthermore, that mechanical turbulence is insignificant, down to the scale of CTD resolution, within areas of double diffusive staircases, encountered in deep layers of the water column. Consequently, only laminar theories about double diffusion are applied for assessing diffusivities therein. Susceptibility to different types of double diffusion seems to be related to the interaction of different types of water masses.

  7. IMPACT OF FINANCIAL CRISIS ON BLACK SEA TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA TRANDAFIR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight, using a linear regression model, how the antisocial measures (reducing wages, taxation of pensions, increased VAT rate, adopted by the government amid the global financial crisis, affect various aspects of life in Romania. In this respect, using a simple linear correlation, we analyzed the impact of the average wage in Romania on the number of days of accommodation and on the number of tourists staying in southern Black Sea coast hotel during 2004-2011. Analysis revealed a strong correlation (as detected by the correlation matrix between the variables mentioned above and also a strong impact of the independent variable (average salary on the two dependent variables (number of days of stay and the number of Romanian tourists staying in unit from 2004-2011.

  8. Isotopic characterisation of the methane plumes in the Black Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allais, E. [ISO4 s.s., Torino (Italy); Delalande, M.; Bergonzini, L.; Massault, M. [Paris-11 Univ., FRE-CNRS, 2566 Orsay Terre, 91 - Orsay (France); Sacchi, E. [Pavia Univ., Dipt. di Scienze della Terra (Italy); Zuppi, G.M. [Universita Ca' Foscari di Venezia (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    The EU CRIMEA project aims at evaluating the contribution of high-intensity gas seeps in the Black Sea to methane emission to the atmosphere. This is achieved through the investigation of the physical and chemical interfaces (sediment-water, oxi-anoxic and water-atmosphere boundaries) that control mass transfer rates from one level to another through phase changes, chemical reactions or biological consumption/production pathways. In addition, work is also being conducted to quantify the flux of seep-produced methane to the atmosphere and to compare this amount with other sources in the area, such as upper-water column production and riverine run-off. In this framework, stable isotope analyses were conducted on pore water and water samples ({sup 18}O and {sup 2}H), dissolved gases ({sup 13}C and {sup 2}H in dissolved CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) and dissolved compounds ({sup 13}C in DIC). (authors)

  9. Dynamics of macrozoobenthos in the Southern Bulgarian Black Sea coastal and open-sea areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STOYKOV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of analysis of 96 macrozoobenthic samples, collected on a seasonal basis in Bourgas Bay and in open-sea areas offshore Cape Emine (Bulgarian Black Sea in 1996 and 1998. In total 96 taxa were established, distributed in four groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and “Diversa”. The average density of populations was 1756 ind.m-2 with a predominating abundance of Polychaeta species. The average biomass estimated was 183.02 g.m-2, formed mainly by representatives of Mollusca. The latter species were measured together with the shells, which appraised their individual weights. Seven of the species found had a coefficient of constancy more than 50%. These were the most adapted species to the environmental conditions of the investigated areas. The quantitative and qualitative assessments in this study demonstrate an increasing tendency in the parameters obtained (density, biomass, species diversity in comparison with previous investigations in the early 1990-s, when intensive anthropogenic influence was widely perceived to misbalance the Black Sea ecosystem.The method of Warwick (1986 applied to characterize the water quality of the studied areas allowed us to define them as rather clean or moderately polluted aquatories.

  10. Radioisotopes in sedimentary study of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, Gennady; Voitsekhovych, Oleg V.

    2013-04-01

    Natural archives, such as lake or marine sediment, are widely used in erosion/sedimentation, water quality, climate change and eutrophication study alongside with the retrospective reanalysis of contaminants fluxes (trace metals, organic pollutants or radionuclides). In order to "read" information stored in sediment sequences a chronostatigraphic method have been developed and used since 1950s which is based upon variation of activity of 210Pb over the sediment profile, natural radioisotope of Uranium decay series with half-life 22 years, and hence valid for the last 100-150 years of recent sedimentation history. The 210Pb chronology is prone to be validated by other time-markers, such as artificial radionuclides globally dispersed after the nuclear weapons tests of 1960s or major accidents on NPP (the Chernobyl accident of 1986 or latest on the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011). In the last decade an intensive study using sediment cores collected from shelf and deep-sea areas in the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea have been undertaken within the framework of a number of international research projects organized by IAEA and UNOPS-GEF and devoted to environmental problems of this enclosed, and therefore sensitive to environmental impact, marine systems. Elaborative analysis of the experimental data and sediment age calculation have been done by application of CRS and CIC dating models to unsupported 210Pb activity over the sediment profile. Measured in sediment 137Cs and 241Am clearly showed well resolved Bomb test and Chernobyl fallout peaks and were used as markers in order to corroborate radiometrically determined age of sediment. Geochronological reconstruction of the fallout radionuclides inventory, fluxes and accumulation rate in the sediment of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea by application of combined radiometric dating technique proved to be very consistent with the historical data of atmospheric fallout observations of that artificial radionuclides recorded worldwide

  11. Zooplankton of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean: Similarities and dissimilarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. KOVALEV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of data on abundance and biomass of zooplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean (EMED and the Black Sea shows major differences in the composition and structure of pelagic communities in the two basins. Few Mediterranean planktonic animals have invaded and acclimatised in the Black Sea. The great bulk of Black Sea species is represented by coastal inhabitants that spread throughout the whole basin. This process has been called “neritization” of the Black Sea fauna. Peculiarities in zooplankton assemblages of the Black Sea have been further strengthened over the last few decades due to increasing eutrophication and the massive invasion of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. The relative contribution of copepods, cladocerans, chaetognaths, and appendicularians to total zooplankton biomass has notably decreased , whereas gelatinous groups (mainly represented by Mnemiopsis and Aurelia aurita contributed up to 99% of total wet weight in 1995 in the Black Sea.The basic features of planktonic fauna in the Black Sea are mainly due do the geo-morphological characters of the basin and the limited exchanges with the EMED, that are confined to the surface-subsurface layers in the Dardanelles and Bosphorus Straits. However, the dramatic changes that recently occurred in the structure of zooplankton assemblages seem to have been caused by heavy anthropogenic impact on the pelagic system.

  12. Dissolved Black Carbon in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z.; Yang, W.; Chen, M.; Ma, H.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved black carbon (DBC) has been ubiquitously reported in dissolved organic matter (DOM). However, the abundance and provenance of DBC in the ocean are not well understood. Here, DBC in the South China Sea (SCS) was determined at molecular level using the benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) method. DBC showed high concentrations in the upper 100 m seawater with the average of 1.13 μmol l-1 (n=55). In the intermediate seawater (200-1500 m), DBC ranged from 0.67 to 0.89 μmol l-1 with the average of 0.78 μmol l-1 (n=9), exhibiting nearly homogeneous distributions. The vertical distribution pattern indicated that DBC significantly degraded in the photic zone, corresponding to an attenuate constant of 12.5±4.9 km-1. The ratios of B6CA/B3CAs increased downward, implying that aromatic condensation degree of DBC increase during transport from surface to deep water. Using the standing crops of DBC in the upper 200 m and the residence time of seawater, atmospheric deposition of DBC was estimated to be 1.94 TgC yr-1, accounting for around 16% of the global BC deposition. Our study highlights that DBC could be an important component of ocean carbon cycling in Pacific Asia Marginal Seas.

  13. Late Miocene evolution of the Black Sea: insights from palynology and strontium isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Arjen; van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Stoica, Marius; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    During the late Miocene, the connection(s) between the Mediterranean Basin and the Atlantic Ocean deteriorated, which ultimately culminated in thick evaporite deposits and a water level drop in the Mediterranean Basin during the so-called Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97 - 5.33 Ma). It has been claimed that Black Sea, in response to the MSC, also desiccated but these claims have been proven incorrectly. Here we present palynological (dinoflagellate cysts and pollen) and strontium isotope ratios from two Black Sea records: the Zheleznyi Rog outcrop section and Deep Sea Drilling Project Hole 380A. Organic walled cyst-producing dinoflagellates are highly sensitive to even small changes in surface waters and strontium isotope ratios are excellent recorders of changing connectivity. Our records provide therefore more insights in the sensitivity of the Black Sea to Messinian Salinity Crisis and the general evolution of the late Miocene Black Sea.

  14. Assessment of Tsunami Hazard for Western coast of the Black sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Yalciner, Ahmet; Ionescu, Constantin; Iren, Moldovan

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami hazard in the Black Sea is considered low to moderate but not negligible. At present, New European Tsunami Catalogue counts 29 historical tsunami events in the Black Sea, 22 of which are considered as reliable. Some of them can be affected Romanian coast including a strong neares earthquakes event 544/545 of offshore Varna (Bulgaria). In this study we discuss a forecast of possible tsunami wave heights at Romanian coasts of the Black Sea. In the analysis, the prognostic numerical simulations are performed by using 55 tsunami events. In the simulations non-linear Boussinesq equation model in the Black Sea is used. All tsunami sources are selected as uniformly distributed in the Black Sea basin. The results of prognostic numerical simulations are compared with the results of numerical modelling of two instrumentally measured tsunami events (1939 and 1966). On this basis a preliminary forecast of tsunami inundation map along the Romanian coast of the Black Sea is developed. As the summary the level of tsunami risk is discussed by considering recent development of the coastal utilization in the Black sea.On this basis a preliminary forecast of tsunami inundation map along the Western coast of the Black Sea is given developed. Certainly a the tsunami the risk in the Black Sea is not too high but considering development of the European coastal infrastructure and utilization it becomes important. This work is funded by project ASTARTE-Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839

  15. Modeling the buoyancy-driven Black Sea Water outflow into the North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kokkos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate the Black Sea Water (BSW outflux and spreading over the North Aegean Sea, and its impact on circulation and stratification–mixing dynamics. Model results were validated against satellite-derived sea surface temperature and in-situ temperature and salinity profiles. Further, the model results were post-processed in terms of the potential energy anomaly, ϕ, analyzing the factors contributing to its change. It occurs that BSW contributes significantly on the Thracian Sea water column stratification, but its signal reduces in the rest of the North Aegean Sea. The BSW buoyancy flux contributed to the change of ϕ in the Thracian Sea by 1.23 × 10−3 W m−3 in the winter and 7.9 × 10−4 W m−3 in the summer, significantly higher than the corresponding solar heat flux contribution (1.41 × 10−5 W m−3 and 7.4 × 10−5 W m−3, respectively. Quantification of the ϕ-advective term crossing the north-western BSW branch (to the north of Lemnos Island, depicted a strong non-linear relation to the relative vorticity of Samothraki Anticyclone. Similar analysis for the south-western branch illustrated a relationship between the ϕ-advective term sign and the relative vorticity in the Sporades system. The ϕ-mixing term increases its significance under strong winds (>15 m s−1, tending to destroy surface meso-scale eddies.

  16. The European Eel Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Anguillidae. Native or Alien in the Black Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos I. Apostolou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STEFC of EU suggested the Black Sea region should be excluded from the list of natural areas, where the European eel (Anguilla anguilla is distributed. The basic conception of this idea was that the eels caught in the Black Sea region represent escaped specimens from fish farming in some Danubian countries. This article illustrates an effort to be given an indirect answer on the question if Black Sea is the end of natural distribution of European eel. The species is present but never been abundant in the region and do not represent an object of commercial fishing.

  17. Development of Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection of Red Sea Bream Iridovirus (RSIV)%一种真鲷虹彩病毒实时荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旻; 景宏丽; 方珍珍; 高隆英; 江育林; 林祥梅

    2011-01-01

    Red sea bream iridovirus(RSIV) is a pathogen causing high mortalities of red sea bream(Pagrosomus major) and more than 30 other species of culture marine fish belongs mainly to the orders Perciformes and Pleuronectiformes.So the red sea bream iridovirus disease had been in diseases list by OIE(World Organisation for Animal Health).At genetic level,RSIV cannot been distinguished from Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus(ISKNV) which is the representative species of Megalocytivir and both of them could be detected by PCR using same primers.A number of diagnostic methods on detection of RSIV are used in Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animal diseases,such as the histopathological observation of smears or tissue sections,IFAT using a MAb,and polymerase chain reactions(PCR).In order to establish a high efficient and reliable diagnostic method,a Real-time PCR assay for detection of RSIV was developed in this paper.The primers and TaqMan probes were designed according to the conserved regions of major capsid protein(MCP) gene of ISKNV.And the MCP gene was ligated into the pGEM-T plasmid vector to prepare of recombinant plasmid pGEM-T/RSIV as positive control.The Real-time PCR was carried out with viral DNA template in a 25-μL reaction mixture under the conditions of 45 cycles of denaturation(95 ℃ for 30 s),annealing(60 ℃ for 30 s).A good linear correlation was demonstrated in the standard curve for the Real-time PCR assay at the range of 102-106 copies of recombinant plasmid pGEM-T/RSIV template.The slope of standard curve was-3.496,correlation coefficient was 0.991,and efficiency was 93.2%.The detection limit of this Real-time PCR assay was 100 copies of viral gene segment(in pGEM-T/RSIV),and there was no cross reaction with other 6 aquatic viruses such as Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis(EHNV),Softshell turtle iridovirus(STIV) and Tiger frog virus(TFV) etc.In contrast,the cell culture method for

  18. RETHINKING THE BLACK SEA: BETWEEN THE TRANS-ATLANTIC AND THE EURASIAN PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerban Filip Cioculescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea region as a buffer between great powers and cordon sanitaire was and still is important in European history. After the 18th century, the Russian empire began a gradual but unstoppable move towards the conquest of the region, leading to a setback for Turkish influence. The Crimean War enabled Western powers to contain Russian expansion for some decades. For small and medium-sized countries like Romania, it is difficult to erase historic experiences from their collective memory. During the Cold War, the Black Sea was a virtual “Soviet lake” from a military point of view. The West controlled only the straits “owned” by Turkey following the Montreux Convention. After the implosion of the USSR, this strategic area was neglected by the Western powers and viewed by the Russian Federation as a traditional sphere of influence. Since 1991, Ukraine holds about 30% of the northern shore of the Black Sea, Georgia controls roughly 12% of the maritime littoral (including the separatist territories while Russia owns about 13% of the Black Sea shores. Turkey and Ukraine hold the biggest share of the Black Sea shore. Generally speaking, during the two last decades, there have been two competing visions about the future: the Euro-Atlantic one, which insists on opening and internationalising the sea, and the Eurasian vision, which wants the Black Sea to remain closed and impenetrable to foreign interferences. This article deals with these issues.doi: 10.5787/41-1-1051

  19. Black Sea Abyss: Chaos and Writing in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Prescott-Steed

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This discussion explores the intersection of chaos and writing in the context of the Eridu Genesis, a Sumerian cuneiform text dating back to the 18th century BC and containing three narratives : the Creation of humankind, the building of cities, and a flood myth. Researchers analyze the extent to which conceptions of chaos, found in this text, recount the Black Sea deluge that scientists agree occurred around 5500 BC. Having authored the world’s oldest known historical texts, Sumerian writings simultaneously mark the beginning of written literature and the birth pangs of chaos ‘in’ writing. Thus the Eridu Genesis, as the archetype for these narratives, deserves critical attention when affording ‘writing and chaos’ a historical context. The question of whether or not the Black Sea flood continues to underpin late modern notions of chaos remains open. However, this geo-cultural reading shows that writing about chaos can provide insight into the human condition, by giving expression to what it means for a civilization to exist in an unpredictable world.Esta discusión examina la intersección del caos y la escritura en el contexto del Eridu Genesis, un texto cuneiforme Sumerio que data del siglo XVlll AC y que contiene tres narraciones : la creación de la humanidad, la construcción de las ciudades, y un mito sobre una inundación. Los investigadores consideran hasta qué punto las concepciones sobre el caos halladas en este texto, hablan sobre el diluvio del Mar Negro, que los científicos están de acuerdo en afirmar que ocurrió aproximadamente 5500 AC. Las escrituras Sumerias son los más antiguos textos históricos conocidos del mundo, y marcan simultáneamente el principio de la literatura escrita y el nacimiento del caos en la escritura. Así, el Génesis de Eridu, como arquetipo de estas narrativas, merece una atención crítica cuando mencionamos ‘escritura y caos’, en un contexto histórico. La pregunta de si el diluvio

  20. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic coast....

  1. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  2. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Stancheva, M; Galunska, B.; Dobreva, A. D.; Merdzhanova, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus), Round Goby (Neogobius rattan), Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus) and Shad (Alosa pontica). Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously usi...

  3. Proximate composition of plant origin traditional foods from Black Sea Area Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, T.G.; Costa, H. S.; A. Sanches-Silva; Fontes, T.; Mota, C.; Santos, M; Vasilopoulou, E; Trichopoulou, A.; D’Antuono, F.; Alexieva, I.; Fedosova, K.; Karpenko, D.; Kilasonia, Z.; Kocaoglu, B.; Koval, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the frame of the European Project BaSeFood (Sustainable Exploitation of Bioactive Components Black Sea Area traditional foods), thirty-three traditional foods from six Black Sea Area Countries (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey and Ukraine) were selected and prepared according to the traditional recipe, ingredients and traditional preparation methods. The aim is to promote and preserve traditional foods and to produce new and reliable data of the overall nutritiona...

  4. Marine fish diversity and habitat use along the western coast of the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Viorel Dumitru Gavril

    2015-01-01

    Over the years the conditions of the Black Sea marine habitats have been modified due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change, and it is likely that the diversity of fish fauna changed as a result. This study provides new data regarding marine fish population diversity and habitat use along the western coast of the Black Sea. I recorded fish species and habitat data between 2011 and 2014 in two locations: Constanta, Romania and Shabla-Tyulenovo coast, Bulgaria, using fishing (only in R...

  5. Sensitivity of the N. AEGEAN SEA ecosystem to Black Sea Water inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. PETIHAKIS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Black Sea Water (BSW inputs on the North Aegean Sea productivity and food web dynamics was investigated, by means of sensitivity simulations, investigating the effect of the inflowing BSW, in terms of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic matter. The model used has been successfully applied in the area in the past and extensively presented. Considering the importance of the microbial loop in the ecosystem functioning, the role of the dissolved organics and in order to achieve a more realistic representation of the Dissolved Organic Matter pool, the bacteria sub-model was appropriately revised. The importance of the microbial loop is highlighted by the carbon fluxes where almost 50% of carbon is channelled within it. The impact of dissolved organic matter (DOM (in the inflowing to the Aegean Sea, BSW appears to be stronger than the impact of dissolved inorganic nutrients, showing a more extended effect over the N Aegean. Bacterial production and biomass is more strongly affected in the simulations by modified DOM, unlike phytoplankton biomass and production, which are more dependent on the inflowing nutrients and particularly phosphorus (inorganic and dissolved organic. In the phytoplankton composition, the dinoflagellates appear to be mostly affected, being favoured by higher nutrient availability at the expense of all other groups, particularly picoplankton, indicating a shift to a more classical food chain.

  6. Sulfide Oxidation in the Anoxic Black-Sea Chemocline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; FOSSING, H.; WIRSEN, CO;

    1991-01-01

    The depth distributions of O2 and H2S and of the activity of chemical or bacterial sulfide oxidation were studied in the chemocline of the central Black Sea. Relative to measurements from earlier studies, the sulfide zone had moved upwards by 20-50 m and was now (May 1988) situated at a depth of 81......-99 m. Oxygen in the water column immediately overlying the sulfide zone was depleted to undetectable levels resulting in a 20-30-m deep intermediate layer of O2- and H2S-free water. Radiotracer studies with S-35-labelled H2S showed that high rates of sulfide oxidation, up to a few micromoles per liter...... to a maximum of 200 nmol l-1 at the top of the sulfide zone. Sulfide oxidation was stimulated by particles suspended at the chemocline, probably by bacteria. Green phototrophic sulfur bacteria were abundant in the chemocline, suggesting that photosynthetic H2S oxidation took place. Flux calculations showed...

  7. Can Overfishing be Responsible for the Successful Establishment of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Black Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucu, A. C.

    2002-03-01

    It is widely known that in 1989 a tremendous biomass of Mnemiopsis leidyi was reported in the Black Sea. At the same time, drastic declines in the pelagic fish stocks were reported. Several authors, overlooking the rapid development of the fisheries industry in the Black Sea, pointed out that the new invader was the major factor responsible for the fisheries collapse in the Black Sea. This study examines the development of the Black Sea fisheries industry, along with the ecological changes that were taking place, and evaluates its effect on the ecosystem. A set of balanced steady-state models, corresponding to the periods of the 1960s to 1970s, the 1980s, before the outburst of the Mnemiopsis leidyi, and the 1990s, which reflect the present state of the ecosystem, are used to study the successful establishment of the gelatinous organisms in the Black Sea. Using these models, a series of experiments are performed in order to explore the role of each major ecological group within the Black Sea ecosystem at different stages in time over the last 30 years. The budget calculations suggest a minimal role of gelatinous species on the decline of the fish stocks, contrary to the general belief. More interestingly, the model results indicate that the decline in the fish stocks was as a consequence of overfishing and that ever-increasing plankton productivity associated with eutrophication during the 1980s led to the outburst of gelatinous organisms.

  8. Comparison of heavy metal concentration of some marine fishes from Black and Aegean Seas

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    Makedonski Lubomir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Major part of healthy human diet consist of marine fish and seafood products. And it is not surprising that there are numerous studies based on metal accumulation in various fish species. Fish may also be used for heavy metal monitoring programs of marine environments due to their easy sampling, sample preparation and chemical analysis. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, manganese, zinc, iron, chromium, total mercury and total arsenic were determined in edible part of two commercially valuable fish Greek aquaculture species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata purchased from Bulgarian market during 2011. The concentration of metals was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The concentration of the heavy metals in examined fish species ranged as follow: Pb 0.008 - 0.013; Cd 0.0017 - 0.022; Ni 0.007 - 0.012; Cu 0.054 - 0.115; Mn 0.043 - 0.09; Zn 0.14 - 0.15; Fe 0.17 - 0.19; Cr 0.05 - 0.07; Hg 0.11 - 0.13; As 1.6 - 1.8 mg kg-1 wet weight, respectively.

  9. Modes of sedimentary basin formation in the north-eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Randell; Starostenko, Vitaly; Sydorenko, Grygoriy; Yegorova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus and Black Sea sedimentary basins developed in a Mesozoic back-arc setting, the former older than the latter (Jurassic v. Cretaceous). Compressional shortening of the former and accompanying ongoing development of marginal basin depocentres in the north-eastern Black Sea - which is closely tied to the formation of the Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogen - is a Cenozoic phenomenon, starting in the Eocene and proceeding until the present day. Recently, the sedimentary basin/crust/lithosphere geometry of the study area has been characterised across a range of scales using regional seismic reflection profiling, long-offset refraction/wide-angle reflection profiling and local earthquake tomography. These provide a new integrated image of the present-day crustal structure and sedimentary basin architecture of the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea, north across the Azov Sea and provide evidence of the deeper expression of sedimentary basins and the processes controlling the geometry of their inversion during the Cenozoic. It is inferred that the Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, lying stratigraphically below the Black Sea and younger sedimentary successions, extends further to the west than previously known. This basin has significant thickness in the area between the Azov and Black seas and probably forms the deeper core of the Crimea-Caucasus inversion zone. The Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogenic belt is the expression of "basin inversion" of the Jurassic Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, the degree of inversion of which varies along strike. The Greater Caucasus foredeep basins - Indolo-Kuban and Sorokin-Tuapse troughs -represent syn-inversional marginal troughs to the main inversion zone. The Shatsky Ridge - the northern flank of the main East Black Sea Basin - may also be mainly a syn-inversional structure, underlain by a blind thrust zone expressed as a northward dipping zone of seismicity on the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea.

  10. The Use of Tritiated Wastewater from NPP Cernavoda in Agigea Black Sea Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Faurescu, I.; Vagner, I.; Dobrinescu, D.

    2009-04-01

    Danube-Black Sea Channel is situated in the south east part of Romania. It takes its waters from Danube upstream of Cernavoda town, and flows into the Black Sea at Agigea. The main uses of the channel are numerous, but it can be mentioned navigation and nuclear power generation - Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. Maximum weigh carrying of the canal is 70 million t/year. Agigea is the most important harbor of the Channel and due to intensive activity the accidents can happened any time. In this study we propose to use tritiated liquid effluents from CANDU type NPP Cernavoda as a tracer, to study dilution factor between fresh water of the canal and the Black Sea waters. Tritiated water can be used to simulate the transport and dispersion of solutes in Danube-Black Sea Channel because they have the same physical characteristics as water. Measured tracer-response curves produced from injection of a known quantity of soluble tracer provide an efficient method of obtaining necessary data. We established tritium level in monitored zone Agigea-Black Sea by monthly samples and precipitation during may 2005- may 2006. The average tritium concentration for Black Sea near Agigea location was 12.5 +/- 2.2 TU. During the NPP evacuation we establish inside Agigea canal lock a well mixed tritium concentration of 174.07 +/- 6.2 TU. Using waters lock as a tracer we establish dilution factor of 1: 4.28 inside Agigea harbor, and dilution factor of 1:2.17 in open sea. This experimental parameter can be used in dispersion simulation for Agigea - Black Sea area.

  11. Ecological state of the Romanian Black Sea littoral lacustrine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, M.-T.

    2009-04-01

    The author uses the results of his own researches as well as data from specialty literature to assess the ecological state of some typical lacustrine ecosystems considered, about 50 years ago, of major importance by their functions, services and researches, for the human populations in the settlements nearby. Based on this assessment the author recommends a few criteria which can be taken into account when programs of integrated management of these coastal ecosystems are initiated. The paper focuses on the study cases regarding the following major ecosystems: 1. Razelm-Sinoie Lagoon Complex - tightly linked to the Danube River and Delta systems, 2. Taşaul Lake - interfered in the last two decades by a branch of the DanubeRiver - Black Sea Canal and 3. Techirghiol Lake - for a long time under the sea level, a hyperhaline lake with therapeutic, sapropelic mud, disturbed by huge quantities of freshwaters infiltrated from the irrigation system. At present, the state of the lacustrine ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea Coast can be characterized, mainly, by the following aspects: · Increase in the quantities of nutrients and chemical toxicants; · Rise in the level and frequency of eutrophication and pollution phenomena; · Drastic reduction of specific diversity; · Simplification of communities' structure - biocoenosis homogeneity; · Decrease in numerical abundance and biomass of benthic populations and consequently, low biofilter power by the decrease of the filter-feeder populations; · Worsening of the qualitative and the quantitative state of the biological benthic resources; · Thriving opportunistic forms (e.g. the worms causing sediment bioturbation); · Invasion by some exotic species, with harmful, unexpected consequences; · All populations undergo quantitative fluctuations; · Decrease in the fish population and in the use values of lacustrine assets, with strong impact on the welfare of the human society. Almost all pressure forms associated with the

  12. New records of five sponge species (Porifera) for the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcen, Alper; Çinar, Melih Ertan; Zengin, Mustafa; Süer, Serdar; Rüzgar, Melih

    2016-04-13

    The present study deals with five sponge species [Chalinula renieroides, Haliclona (Halichoclona) fulva, H. (Rhizoniera) rosea, Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) pansa and Ircinia variabilis] belonging to 3 families (Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, and Irciniidae) found at one locality (near the opening of Kızılırmak River) on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. All these species are new records for the Black Sea. Three species (Chalinula renieroides, H. (R.) rosea and H. (H.) pansa] are also new records for the marine fauna of Turkey. All these species were previously reported from Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The morphological and distributional features of these species are presented.

  13. Spawning of bluefin tuna in the black sea: historical evidence, environmental constraints and population plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity...... and possibly spawned in the Black Sea. Loss of a locally-reproducing population would represent a decline in population richness, and an increase in species vulnerability to perturbations such as exploitation and environmental change. Here we identify the main genetic and phenotypic adaptations...

  14. A 6,000-year sedimentary molecular record of chemocline excursions in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Wakeham, S. G.; Kohnen, M. E.; Hayes, J. M.; de Leeuw, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic basin; it is also a contemporary analogue of the environment in which carbonaceous shales and petroleum source beds formed. Recently, Repeta et al. reported that anoxygenic photosynthesis may be an important component of carbon cycling in the present Black Sea, owing to a shoaling of the chemocline and consequent penetration of the photic zone by anaerobic waters in the past few decades. It has been suggested that this was due to an anthropogenic decrease in freshwater input to the Black Sea, although natural causes were not ruled out. Here we report the distributions of sequestered photosynthetic pigments in eight core samples of sediments from the Black Sea ranging in age from zero to 6,200 years before the present. Our results show that photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae [correction of Clorobiaceae]) have been active in the Black Sea for substantial periods of time in the past. This finding indicates that the penetration of the photic zone by anaerobic waters is not a recent phenomenon, and suggests that natural causes for shoaling of the chemocline are more likely than anthropogenic ones.

  15. Potential economic impacts of achieving good environmental status in Black Sea fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C. Goulding

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD mandates that European Union (EU member states achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS based on an ecosystem-based approach to management. For commercial fisheries, the primary target under the MSFD is one of maximum sustainable yield. Of Black Sea riparian nations, only Romania and Bulgaria are EU member states. Focusing at the supranational level, we review institutions and instruments relevant to management of the Black Sea. The economic values of current fish catches are assessed, and the results of a recent analytical assessment of fish stocks are used to estimate potential future values based on maximum sustainable yields. In the Black Sea region, despite long-standing attempts to improve fisheries management, there remains a lack of effective regional cooperation. Evidence from the scenario analysis suggests that achieving GEnS would not have an undue negative impact on overall fishery sector incomes, and could, with appropriate investments in processing and marketing, deliver increased economic benefits for Black Sea countries. The ongoing policy debate between and within Black Sea coastal states needs to be extended to include recognition of the potential economic and social benefits of effective fisheries management. More work is required to assess returns on investment in interim management measures to deliver GEnS.

  16. Lead pollution and its sources along the Turkish coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. UNSAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution and its sources have been investigated in the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea. Surficial sediments and mussels were collected in different seasons of the year from the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea and analysed for their lead contents.In the south-eastern Black Sea sediments from the easternmost and from the central stations contained the highest lead concentrations. Sediments contained 8 to 10 times the lead concentrations of sediments from the south-west. Samples taken from rivers, streams and effluents had especially high lead concentrations. The highest lead concentrations were found in sediments collected in October and December.Lead concentrations in mussels from the south-eastern coast were comparatively lower compared to those from the south-western coast. The highest average values occurred in December and in October.In the south-western Black Sea, the highest lead concentrations in sediments were obtained in those from Inebolu, followed by those from around Zonguldak. The concentrations increased from the middle to the west of the southern Black Sea coast, possibly due to the effect of the Danube River. Sediments taken in September had the highest lead concentrations, followed by samples taken in December.Very high lead concentrations (> 10 μ g g-1 were observed in mussels from those stations where the sediments also contained high concentrations. Mussels had their highest lead concentrations in January and April.

  17. The Karangatian epoch in the Neopleistocene history of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko-Hombach, Valentina; Motnenko, Irena

    2016-04-01

    Black Sea Quaternary history shows an alternation of transgressive and regressive stages that are related to global climate change and pronounced due to semi-isolation from the World Ocean. In warm epochs, the Black Sea is connected to the Mediterranean Sea (i.e., World Ocean) via connecting seas and straits. In cold epochs, it becomes isolated or connects to the Caspian Sea via the Manych outlet. During transgressions, sea level rises as does salinity. During regressions, when it drops below the Bosphorus sill, the basin transforms into an isolated lake. During transgressions, organisms migrate into the Black Sea from either the Mediterranean or Caspian. Such migrations affect assemblage structure and increase the number of species, especially in case of Mediterranean transgressions. During regressive stages, the number of species drops, and only holeuryhaline Mediterranean species can survive the lowering of salinity (Yanko-Hombach, 2007). The most powerful Mediterranean transgression in the Black Sea occurred during the Mikulino (MIS 5e) interglacial, corresponding to the central European Eemian interglacial; it is usually compared with the Alpine Riss-Würm interglacial. Clear traces of this transgression are preserved in coastal outcrops exposed in tectonically elevated terraces of the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, and Caucasus. They are also found in numerous cores and drill holes recovered from the Black Sea bottom. These traces contain numerous Mediterranean organisms (molluscs, foraminifera, ostracoda, etc.), many of which do not live in the Black Sea today. These sediments were first described by N.I. Andrusov (1925) on Cape Karangat, Kerch peninsula, in the early XX century. He called them "Tyrrenean" as they were similar to those in the "Tyrrenean" beds that form a coastal terrace in the Mediterranean. This similarity enabled him to conclude that the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins were connected to each other. Later, the "Tyrrenian" beds were renamed

  18. Sea surface Ka-band radar cross-section from field observations in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovsky, Yury; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Grodsky, Semyon; Chapron, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    An interest in Ka-band radar backscattering from the ocean surface is growing due to better spatial resolution and more accurate Doppler anomaly estimate. But, available empirical models of Ka-band cross-section are quite scarce and sometime controversial. Here we present multi-year (2009-2015) field measurements of Ka-band co-polarized (VV and HH) sea surface normalized radar cross-section (NRCS) from research platform in the Black sea collected in a wide range of observation and sea state conditions. The data are fitted by polynomial function of incidence angle, azimuth and wind speed with accounting for measured radar antenna pattern. This empirical NRCS is compared with published Ka- and Ku-band data. Our Ka-band NRCS is close to Ku-band, but is 5-7 dB higher than 'pioneer' measurements by Masuko et al. (1986). Following the two-scale Bragg paradigm, the NRCS is split into polarized (Bragg) and non-polarized components and analyzed in terms of polarization ratio (VV/HH) and polarization difference (VV-HH) to estimate wave spectra at the Bragg wave number. Non-polarized component dominates at low incidence angles 60°) NRCS azimuth dependency is unimodal (upwind peak) for HH and bimodal (with up- and downwind peaks) for VV polarization. This again can be attributed to different backscattering mechanisms for VV and HH polarizations. With decreasing of incidence angle, up- to downwind ratio tends to 1, and under light wind conditions (4-6 m/s) can be less than 1. The same situation is observed for polarization difference, which reflects Bragg backscattering properties only. This effect can be explained by enhanced roughness on upwind (windward) face of the tilting wave. Retrieval of Bragg roughness properties shows that omni-directional saturation spectra at ~1000 rad/m are 2-3 times higher (0.01 at 10 m/s wind speed) than the spectra obtained from optical measurements of regular sea surface without wave breaking. This suggests that observed difference can arise

  19. THE OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN GAS PIPELINES IN THE BLACK SEA REGION: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GRIBINCEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is very dynamic in terms of economic development, security problems and interstate relations. All of the countries in this region are heterogeneous but energy issue plays a pivotal role in their foreign policy priorities. It is the only one common denominator that can both foster cooperation and catalyze conflict in the Black Sea basin. The problem of transporting energy has an impact not only on the Black Sea countries, but also on the Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caspian Sea, Middle East, and ultimately the European consuming markets. Thus, the issue of energy transition needs the experts’ and scientists’ attention fixed on the Black Sea region in order to come together facing the latter-day challenges. The energy challenge has a multi-dimensional nature. Aim. Thus, this paper aims to provide an overview of the energy transaction issues focusing on the economic effects of the most important gas pipelines within the Black Sea region. Particular attention is going to be paid to the problem of the energy routes’ diversification and pipelines which connect the carbon-rich countries of the Middle East and Caspian region and Europe. Also, it is aimed to give a comprehensive analysis of the energy challenge within the Black sea region, focusing on energy efficiency of the gas pipelines which go through this extremely important energy hub. Methods - scientific methods of data analysis, historical and statistical overview, predictive analysis qualitative indicators, comparative method, method of description, case study. Results. The creation of a stable markets, interconnected and transparent natural gas supply would largely counteract the risks. The flexibility transport infrastructure, numerous and capable pipelines, underground storage capacities and their management may play an important role in the sector’s ability to manage supply shocks.

  20. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Bradley, Lee R.; Takano, Yoshihito

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of salinity in the Holocene Black Sea has been an ongoing debate over the past four decades. Here we calibrate summer surface water salinity in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea with the process length of the dinoflagellate cyst Lingulodinium machaerophorum. We then apply...... this calibration to make a regional reconstruction of paleosalinity in the Black Sea, calculated by averaging out process length variation observed at four core sites from the Black Sea with high sedimentation rates and dated by multiple mollusk shell ages. Results show a very gradual change of salinity from ∼14...... ± 0.91 psu around 9.9 cal ka BP to a minimum ∼12.3 ± 0.91 psu around 8.5 cal ka BP, reaching current salinities of ∼17.1 ± 0.91 psu around 4.1 cal ka BP. The resolution of our sampling is about 250 years, and it fails to reveal a catastrophic salinization event at ∼9.14 cal ka BP advocated by other...

  1. The effects of additional black carbon on the albedo of Arctic sea ice: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of the albedo of bare sea ice and snow-covered sea ice to the addition of black carbon is calculated. Visible light absorption and light-scattering cross-sections are derived for a typical first-year and multi-year sea ice with both "dry" and "wet" snow types. The cross-sections are derived using data from a 1970s field study that recorded both reflectivity and light penetration in Arctic sea ice and snow overlying sea ice. The variation of absorption cross-section over the visible wavelengths suggests black carbon is the dominating light-absorbing impurity. The response of first-year and multi-year sea ice albedo to increasing black carbon, from 1 to 1024 ng g−1, in a top 5 cm layer of a 155 cm-thick sea ice was calculated using a radiative-transfer model. The albedo of the first-year sea ice is more sensitive to additional loadings of black carbon than the multi-year sea ice. An addition of 8 ng g−1 of black carbon causes a decrease to 98.7% of the original albedo for first-year sea ice compared to a decrease to 99.7% for the albedo of multi-year sea ice, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The albedo of sea ice is surprisingly unresponsive to additional black carbon up to 100 ng g−1 . Snow layers on sea ice may mitigate the effects of black carbon in sea ice. Wet and dry snow layers of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth were added onto the sea ice surface. The albedo of the snow surface was calculated whilst the black carbon in the underlying sea ice was increased. A layer of snow 0.5 cm thick greatly diminishes the effect of black carbon in sea ice on the surface albedo. The albedo of a 2–5 cm snow layer (less than the e-folding depth of snow is still influenced by the underlying sea ice, but the effect of additional black carbon in the sea ice is masked.

  2. The Evolution of Public Views of the Black Sea Province During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the evolution of public views of the Black Sea province during the First World War. The materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals of the Black Sea province became the main source of work. This article employs the records of personal origins. As a result of study, the authors come to the conclusion the First World War began for Russian society with massive patriotic speeches, but at the end of 1916 year for both in Russia in general and in the Black Sea province comes a complex social process that can be described as war weariness. To the reasons for war weariness the authors referred: the protracted war, and as a consequence – the complexity of an economic nature.

  3. Coccolithophores and calcite saturation state in the Baltic and Black Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tyrrell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic and Black Seas are both brackish, that is to say both have salinities intermediate between freshwater and seawater. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is abundant in one, the Black Sea, but absent from the other, the Baltic Sea. Here we present summertime coccolithophore measurements confirming this difference, as well as data on the calcium carbonate saturation state of the Baltic Sea. We find that the Baltic Sea becomes undersaturated (or nearly so in winter, with respect to both the aragonite and calcite mineral forms of CaCO3. Data for the Black Sea are more limited, but it appears to remain strongly supersaturated year-round. The absence of E. huxleyi from the Baltic Sea could therefore potentially be explained by dissolution of their coccoliths in winter, suggesting that minimum annual (wintertime saturation states could be most important in determining future ocean acidification impacts. In addition to this potential importance of winter saturation state, alternative explanations are also possible, either related to differences in salinity or else to differences in silicate concentrations.

  4. Total antioxidant capacity in the black mussel ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Black Sea coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncheva, S.; Trakhtenberg, S.; Katrich, E.; Zemser, M.; Goshev, I.; Toledo, F.; Arancibia-Avila, P.; Doncheva, V.; Gorinstein, S.

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the total antioxidant radical scavenging capacity (TARSC) in tissue extracts for understanding biochemical adaptations involving the antioxidant defense system of a bivalve mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, sampled in polluted (Pol) and non-polluted (Npol) sites from Black Sea coasts. Antioxidant-rich polyphenol fractions were extracted from whole dry mussel tissue with methanol and water in different proportions. The extracts were screened for polyphenol content and their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ), β-carotene-linoleate (β-carotene) and nitric oxide (NO rad ). The total polyphenol extract of the whole mussel tissue from polluted site (TPMEPol) showed the highest antioxidant capacity among all of the extracts with the tested methods and was comparable with the antioxidant capacity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antioxidant capacities of this extract determined by DPPH rad , β-carotene and NO rad methods and polyphenol content showed the highest correlation coefficients ( R2) such as 0.9985, 0.9915 and 0.9895, respectively. The free polyphenol extracts (FPMEPol and FPMENPol) had lower antioxidant capacity than the two others of total polyphenols (TPMEPol and TPMENPol) with three scavenging methods. Responses were linear in all tested methods and the antioxidant capacity values of soluble antioxidants showed the following relative order: Trolox>BHA>TPMEPol>TPMENPol>FPMEPol>FPMENPol. Nutritional antioxidants, such as polyphenols, were probably the main antioxidant contribution to mussel antioxidants. The mussel extracts from the polluted site exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than from the non-polluted one. The results presented in this report indicate that the antioxidant capacity of the whole tissue of the mussel extract could possibly be a useful biomarker for aquatic environments.

  5. Spatiotemporal variability of the Black Sea wave climate in the last 37 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divinsky, B. V.; Kosyan, R. D.

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of our work is analysis of spatiotemporal variability of the Black Sea wave climate from 1979 to 2015. The analysis is based on mathematical modeling using the modern DHI MIKE 21 SW spectral wave model. Verification of the wave model was performed using numerous data of instrumental observations of wind wave parameters in the Black and Azov seas. Our studies revealed climatic trends in the spatial distribution of wave energy and made possible determining the main frequencies of wave energy fluctuations.

  6. Variability of mesozooplankton spatial distribution in the North Aegean Sea, as influenced by the Black Sea waters outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siokou-Frangou, Ioanna; Zervoudaki, Soultana; Christou, Epaminondas D.; Zervakis, Vassilis; Georgopoulos, Dimitrios

    2009-11-01

    The North Aegean Sea constitutes an important region of the Mediterranean Sea since in its eastern part the mesotrophic, low salinity and relatively cold water from the Black Sea (outflowing from the Dardanelles strait) meets the oligotrophic, warm and very saline water of Levantine origin, thus forming a thermohaline front. Mesozooplankton samples were collected at discrete layers according to the hydrology of the upper 100 m, during May 1997 and September 1998. In May highest biomass and abundance values (up to 66.82 mg m - 3 and 14,157 ind m - 3 ) were detected in the 10-20 m layer (within the halocline) of the stations positioned close to the Dardanelles strait. The front moved slightly southwards in September, characterized by high biomass and abundance values within the halocline layer. The areas moderately or non influenced by Black Sea water revealed lower standing stock values than the frontal area in both cruises and maxima were detected in the uppermost low salinity layer. Samples collected at the stations and/or layers more influenced by Black Sea water were distinguished from those collected at layers and/or stations more affected by Levantine waters in both periods. In May the former samples were characterized by the copepods Acartia clausi, Centropages typicus, Paracalanus parvus. The abundance of the above species decreased gradually with increasing salinity, in the horizontal and/or in the vertical dimension, with a parallel increase of the copepods Oithona plumifera, Oithona copepodites, Oncaea media, Ctenocalanus vanus, Farranula rostrata. During September the frontal area as well as that covered by the modified Black Sea water, were highly dominated by the cladoceran Penilia avirostris and doliolids. For both seasons, MDS plots, issued from the combination of mesozooplankton and water-type data, revealed the gradual differentiation of zooplankton composition from the frontal area towards the area covered by Levantine water, following the

  7. On experience in recording the voice of the sea in the water area of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelkin, V. G.; Kulichkov, S. N.; Chunchuzov, I. P.; Repina, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    Some data on a high-frequency infrasound recorded within a range of 2-16 Hz (voice of the sea) in the water area of the Black Sea are given. Different parameters of the recorded infrasonic signal—the direction and phase velocity of arriving infrasonic waves, spectral composition, and coherence—have been studied. In the course of measurements, both wind and wave conditions in the water area of the Black Sea have been studied in detail. The collision of two atmospheric vortices was observed a few hours before the first arrivals of infrasonic waves, and the collision of differently directed sea waves was observed during infrasound recording. The direction of the arrivals of infrasonic waves coincides with the direction between the zone of collision of sea waves and the point of infrasound recording. The assumption was made that, in order to explain the observed infrasonic waves, it is necessary to use the mechanism responsible for the emission of infrasound into the atmosphere by standing surface waves formed due to the nonlinear interaction of surface waves propagating in opposite directions and to take into account the frequency-filtering properties of both wind-velocity and temperature stratifications of the atmosphere itself along the path of infrasound propagation. This assumption calls for additional verification.

  8. Connecting export fluxes to plankton food web efficiency in the Black Sea waters inflowing into the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The short-time scale evolution of plankton carbon partitioning and downward flux of the modified Black Sea Water (BSW) mass entering the northeast Aegean Sea was studied using a Lagrangian approach (6-10/04/2008). The free-drifting sediment trap positioned at the bottom of the BSW layer and the control drifter, followed the same path within the anticyclone that circulates the BSW in the area. ?ooplankton biomass increased (from 159 to 292 mg C m-2), as did faecal pellet pr...

  9. Air-Sea Fluxes and River Discharges in the Black Sea With a Focus on the Danube and Bosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    ANSI Std Z39.18 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ELSEVIER ScienceDirect Journal of Marine Systems 74 (2008) 74 95 J () li R N A 1...response to the annual 20090306221 Ill Karaetal. / Journal of Marine Systems 74 iJ(H)S) 74 95 ’> cycle of buoyancy fluxes at the sea surface (e.g...al. Journal of Marine Systems 74 COOS) 74 l>5 is to discuss monthly and annual mean river flow values discharged into the Black Sea as

  10. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  11. First description of programmed cell death10 (PDCD10) in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Potential relations to the regulation of apoptosis by several pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Jeong, Ji-Min; Bae, Jin-Sol; Cho, Dong-Hee; Jung, Sung Hee; Hwang, Jee-Youn; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Seo, Jung Soo; Baeck, Gun-Wook; Park, Chan-Il

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized programmed cell death10 (PDCD10), which is known to be related to apoptosis, from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). The full-length rock bream PDCD10 (RbPDCD10) cDNA (1459 bp) contains an open reading frame of 633 bp that encodes 210 amino acids. Furthermore, multiple alignments revealed that the six of the α-helix bundles were well conserved among the other PDCD10 sequences tested. RbPDCD10 was significantly expressed in the liver, RBC (red blood cell), gill, intestine, trunk kidney and spleen. RbPDCD10 gene expression was also examined in several tissues, including the kidney, spleen, liver, and gill, under bacterial and viral challenges. Generally, all of the examined tissues from the fish that were infected with Edwardsiella tarda and the red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) exhibited significant up-regulations of RbPDCD10 expression compared to the controls. However, RbPDCD10 expression exhibited dramatic down-regulations in all of the examined tissues following injections of Streptococcus iniae, which is major bacterial pathogen that is responsible for mass mortality in rock bream. Our results revealed that rock bream PDCD10 may be involved in the apoptotic regulation of rock bream immune responses.

  12. REGIONAL BLACK SEA ARCHITECTURE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Homorozean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes considered an asset, other times a liability, the Black Sea started recently to be regarded as a region. However, the Black Sea Region lacks a common vision, often due to the complicated and often inefficient nexus of regional cooperation initiatives. Following the logic of finding regional solutions for regional problems, this paper aims to assess existing institutional and regional initiatives, reflecting on the implications for the success of Black Sea regionalism in creating patterns of sustained and sustainable development and a high degree of actors' involvement.This paper concentrates on two complementary research questions: What is the regional order in the BSR and what does it imply for its future? What is the current contribution of the most significant cooperation initiatives and what are the consequences for regional institutionalism? For the purpose of this paper, I draw on best-practices from other two regions: the Northern Dimension and South- East Asia. Through a comparative perspective, I suggest an analysis of the most important initiatives: BSEC, CDC, Black Sea Synergy, Eastern Partnership, Baku Initiative and the BSF. This paper argues that a possible strategic solution for successful policy development lies in the creation of an integrated regional cooperation package, functioning on the principles of multi-speed and multi-dimensional cooperation in several policy fields, in a context in which the BSR seems to be caught between two paradigms: a European and a Russian-oriented one.

  13. PS-InSAR Monitoring of Landslide Activity in the Black Sea Coast of the Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, E.; Mikhailov, V.; Smolyaninova, E.; Dmitriev, P.; Golubev, V.; Timoshkina, E.; Hooper, A.; Samiei-Esfahany, S.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    The landslide activity in the area of Bolshoy Sochi (Big Sochi) situated at the Black Sea coast of the Great Caucasus has been studied using the StaMPS PS-InSAR method. We incorporated three sets of radar images from the satellites with different wavelengths ALOS, Envisat and Terra-SAR-X from both a

  14. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: Sea otters and black abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter T.; Jurgens, Laura J.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  15. On the Development of an Operational SWAN Model for the Black Sea (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, A.; Van Vledder, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the results of some studies performed on the development of an efficient and operational SWAN model for the Black Sea. This model will be used to study the wind-wave climate and wave energy potential in the region and will provide boundary conditions for coastal engineering and

  16. Sulfur and iron speciation in surface sediments along the northwestern margin of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Middelburg, J.J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Bottcher, M.E.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2001-01-01

    The speciation of sedimentary sulfur (pyrite, acid volatile sulfides (AVS), S-0 H2S, and sulfate) was analyzed in surface sediments recovered at different water depths from the northwestern margin of the Black Sea. Additionally, dissolved and dithionite-extractable iron were quantified, and the sulf

  17. The spiritual culture of the Black sea and linear cossack. A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina U. Goroganina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article a main place is devoted to coverage of major components spiritual culture of the Black Sea Cossacks and Linear Cossacks. The author points out the factors that influenced the development of this culture. Identified as common features so and specifics. It is proposed periodization of the development of spiritual culture of the Kuban Cossacks.

  18. Low levels of toxic elements in Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmad; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2009-08-01

    Natural muds used as or in cosmetics may expose consumers to toxic metals and elements via absorption through the skin, inhalation of the dried product, or ingestion (by children). Despite the extensive therapeutic and cosmetic use of the Dead Sea muds, there apparently has been no assessment of the levels of such toxic elements as Pb, As, or Cd in the mud and mud-based products. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of eight toxic elements in samples collected from three black mud deposits (Lisan Marl, Pleistocene age) on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea in Jordan revealed no special enrichment of toxic elements in the mud. A similar analysis of 16 different commercial Dead Sea mud cosmetics, including packaged mud, likewise revealed no toxic elements at elevated levels of concern. From a toxic element standpoint, the Dead Sea black muds and derivative products appear to be safe for the consumer. Whatever the therapeutic benefits of the mud, our comparison of the elemental fingerprints of the consumer products with those of the field samples revealed one disturbing aspect: Dead Sea black mud should not be a significant component of such items as hand creams, body lotions, shampoo, and moisturizer.

  19. Spatial patterns of biodiversity in the Black Sea: An assessment using benthic polychaetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surugiu, Victor; Revkov, Nikolai; Todorova, Valentina; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Valavanis, Vasilis; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2010-06-01

    The current study broadens the biodiversity information available for the Black Sea and neighbouring regions and improves our knowledge about the polychaete biogeographic patterns to be discerned in them. There appears to be a well-defined zoogeocline from the Marmara Sea and Bosphorus Strait to the inner parts of the region (Azov Sea), depicted both as a multivariate pattern and in terms of species (or taxa) numbers. The emergent multivariate pattern complies, to a certain extent, with Jakubova's (1935) views: three main sectors can be defined in the basin: (a) Prebosphoric, (b) the Black Sea and, (c) the Azov Sea, whereas the Bosphorus Strait and Marmara Sea show less faunal affinities with the afore-mentioned sectors. Patterns derived both from the cosmopolitan and Atlanto-Mediterranean species closely follow the one coming from the polychaete species and genera inventories. As a general trend, species numbers decrease along with the decrease in salinity towards the inner parts of the region. The trend is homologous to that seen in the benthic invertebrate inventories of all the major European semi-enclosed regional seas. Salinity and food availability appear to be the dominant abiotic factors correlated, though weakly, with the various patterns deriving from the taxonomic/zoogeographic categories. With the exception of the Anatolia, polychaete inventories from all sectors appear to be random samples of the total inventory of the region, in terms of taxonomic distinctness values. Therefore, these sectoral inventories can be used for future biodiversity/environmental impact assessment studies. A massive invasion of Mediterranean species after the opening of the Black Sea, in the lower Quaternary period, appears to be the likely biogeographic mechanism through which the old Sarmatic fauna was almost completely replaced by species of marine origin.

  20. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  1. Exchanges between the open Black Sea and its North West shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zhou, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Exchanges between the vast NW shelf and the deep basin of the Black Sea play a significant role in maintaining the balance of nutrients, heat content and salinity of the shelf waters. Nearly 87 % of the Black Sea is entirely anoxic below 70 to 200m and contains high levels of hydrogen sulphide (Zaitsev et al, 2001), and this makes the shelf waters particularly valuable for maintaining the Black Sea ecosystem in good health. The increase in salinity of shelf waters occurs partially due to exchanges with more saline open sea waters and represents a threat to relics and endemic species. The shelf-break is commonly considered the bottle-neck of the shelf-deep sea exchanges (e.g. (Huthnance, 1995, Ivanov et al, 1997). Due to conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic currents flow along the contours of constant depth. However the ageostrophic flows (Ekman drift, mesoscale eddies, filaments, internal waves) are not subject to the same constraints. It has been shown that during the winter well mixed cold waters formed on the North West shelf propagate into the deep sea, providing an important mechanism for the replenishment of the Cold Intermediate Layer ( Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However, much less is known about exchanges in the warm season. In this study, the transports of water, heat and salt between the northwestern shelf and the adjacent deep basin of the Black Sea are investigated using a high-resolution three-dimensional primitive equation model, NEMO-SHELF-BLS (Shapiro et al, 2013). It is shown that during the period from April to August, 2005, both onshore and offshore cross-shelf break transports in the top 20 m were as high as 0.24 Sv on average, which was equivalent to the replacement of 60% of the volume of surface shelf waters (0 - 20 m) per month. Two main exchange mechanisms are studied: (i) Ekman transport, and (ii) transport by mesoscale eddies and associated meanders of the Rim Current. The Ekman drift causes nearly uniform onshore or

  2. STUDIES ON THE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SPECIES Mytilus galloprovincialis OF THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Sirbu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that, among the marine organisms, mollusks are highly appreciated in many European, Asian and North American countries. In the Romanian area of the Black Sea, mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis can be found in deep areas which form a belt around the sea on the continental platform. There are significant variations of the main environmental factors which directly influence the physiological behavior of the organisms and the accumulation of the biochemical components with nutritional value. This paper correlates the study of the dynamics of the main biochemical compounds with the environmental factors and the annual ontogenetic phases of the organisms. There are also presented comparative studies concerning the rock mollusks and mollusks of deep from the Black Sea. It was found variations in quantitative results for biochemical composition. Cases are due to seasonal variations of physical-chemical conditions of seawater.

  3. [Study of the new settler Beroe ovata in the Black sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiganova, T A; Bulgakova, Iu V; Sorokin, P Iu; Lukashev, Iu F

    2000-01-01

    Primary data on population, size, and distribution of a new settler--comb jelly Beroe ovata--in the Black Sea are presented. We studied certain aspects of its nutrition, consumed organisms, and digestion time. Comb jellies Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobachia pileus were established as the nutritional targets of B. ovata. Mnemiopsis proved to be more accessible and assimilable. Preliminary data on metabolic level and threshold oxygen content in B. ovata were obtained; proportions of dry and wet weight of B. ovata were determined. Population changes of new settler Mnemiopsis and other jellylike animals in the Northeast part of the sea induced by B. ovata were analyzed. We observed sharp decrease in population of Mnemiopsis, a species that induced degradation of the Black Sea ecosystem within the last decade.

  4. Long-term variations of the Black Sea dynamics and their impact on the marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubryakov, Arseny A.; Stanichny, Sergey V.; Zatsepin, Andrey G.; Kremenetskiy, Viacheslav V.

    2016-11-01

    Satellite altimetry data are used to study the long-term dynamics variability of the Black Sea from 1993 to 2013, its dependence on wind forcing and its impact on the marine ecosystem. Basin-scale dynamics have significant interseasonal and interannual variability. The most distinctly observed feature of the interannual dynamics variability is an almost twofold increase of the current kinetic energy from 2002 to 2012, based on anomaly weak values from 1998 to 2001. The amplitudes of a seasonal cycle of current velocity variability from 2002 to 2102 were two times higher than the amplitudes from 1998 to 2001. The seasonal variability of the current Mean Kinetic Energy (MKE) significantly varies among the years. Although usually maximal values of MKE are observed in winter and minimal values are observed in summer, the seasonal variability may exhibit two distinct peaks in spring and autumn, or even can be opposite with maximum values observed in warm period of a year. The variability of wind stress curl (or the Ekman pumping velocity) averaged over the basin is the main factor for the observed changes in the Black Sea dynamics. The analysis shows that the integral effect of the cyclonic wind curl causes water divergence in the centre of the basin, rising sea level gradients and Rim current intensification. The mean kinetic energy of the Black Sea currents follows the variability of Ekman pumping on seasonal and interannual time scales with a time delay of approximately two weeks. This lag is consistent with the estimated time that is required for water particles to drift from the central part to the basin periphery due to rising Ekman divergence. We employ an eddy-identification method to show that the interannual variability of the number of mesoscale eddies in the basin and their energy are opposite to the variability of the mean kinetic energy of the Black Sea currents and Ekman pumping over the basin. The number of eddies and their total energy decreased after

  5. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from ERNST KRENKEL, MUSSON and other platforms in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea from 1978-02-11 to 1979-12-20 (NCEI Accession 9000266)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Station data in this accession was collected in Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea as part of the International Council for the Exploration of Seas (ICES)...

  6. Inter-annual variability of exchange processes at the outer Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Yuan, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    The advection of cold water below the surface mixed layer has a significant role in shaping the properties of the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) in the Black Sea, and thus the horizontal redistribution of nutrients. The minimal temperature of the CIL in the southwest deep region of the sea in summer was shown to be lower than the winter surface temperature at the same location, indicating the horizontal advective nature of CIL formation in the area (Kolesnikov, 1953). In addition to advection in the deep area of the sea, the transport of cold waters from the northwest Black Sea shelf across the shelf break in winter was shown to contribute to the formation of the CIL (Filippov, 1968; Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However less is known of the exchanges between the CIL waters and the outer shelf areas in summer, when a surface mixed layer and the underlying seasonal thermocline are formed. Ivanov et al. (1997) suggested that the cross frontal exchange within the CIL is strongly inhibited, so that CIL waters formed in the deep sea (i.e. offshore of the Rim Current) do not replenish the CIL waters onshore of the Rim Current (also known as near-bottom shelf waters, or BSW), due to strong cross frontal gradients in potential vorticity (PV). To the contrary, Shapiro et al. (2011) analysed in-situ observations over the period of 1950-2001 and showed a high correlation between the CIL temperatures in the open sea and outer shelf. However, the statistical methods alone were not able to clearly establish the relation between the cause and the consequences. In this study we use a 3D numerical model of the Black Sea (NEMO-SHELF-BLS) to quantify the exchange of CIL waters between the open sea and the outer northwest Black Sea shelf and to assess its significance for the replenishment of BSW on the outer shelf. The model has a resolution of 1/16º latitude × 1/12º longitude and 33 levels in the vertical. In order to represent near-bottom processes better, the model uses a hybrid

  7. Nutritional evaluation of aquaculture mussels (M. galloprovincialis from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merdzhanova Albena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years black mussels are one of the most commercially important species from the Bulgarian Black Sea. The marine mollusks are valuable healthy food, low in calories and fats and high in proteins. They are a major dietary source of fat soluble pigments - astaxanthin, carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. To our knowledge the information about the nutritional quality of mussels from the Bulgarian Black Sea waters, based on chemical composition, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and PUFA content is very limited. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy values, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and fatty acid composition in farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Bulgarian northern and southern parts of the Black Sea coast. The mussel samples were analyzed for lipids (Bligh & Dyer method, crude proteins (Kjeldahl method, carbohydrates and moistures according to the AOAC (1990 methods. Fatty acids were analyzed by the GC-MS system. Fat soluble pigments and cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously by the RP-HPLC system. Lipid and protein content were found to be higher in mussels from the northern region. In accordance with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 116/2010 all analyzed mussel samples can be classified as high in protein and low in fats and carbohydrates. The amount of cholesterol, contained in all mussel populations is significantly low, while the omega-3 (n-3 is significantly higher than the omega-6 PUFA. A portion of 100 g edible tissue provides 0.500 g more of the required amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3 PUFA according to EFSA (2012. It can be concluded that the studied mussel aquaculture in the Black Sea is beneficial food for the human health and it is advisable to be part of a proper or a preventive diet of Bulgarian consumers.

  8. DNA and lipid molecular stratigraphic records of haptophyte succession in the Black Sea during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Saenz, James P.; Giosan, Liviu; Trowbridge, Nan Y.; Dimitrov, Petko; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2009-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that the coccolithophorid haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi entered the Black Sea ~ 3400 yrs ago and since then a coccolith ooze defined as Unit I has developed. Unit I sediments contain long-chain alkenones derived from E. huxleyi whereas the alkenone distribution of the deeper coccolith-free sapropel (Unit II) is rather unusual. Alkenone-derived past sea surface temperature (SST) estimates suggest a large difference between Unit II and Unit I, which is likely a result of unusual biological precursors of the alkenones in Unit II. Here, we report a high-resolution stratigraphic analysis of ancient haptophyte DNA to establish the Holocene succession of haptophytes as sources of the alkenones in the Black Sea. Haptophytes related to brackish Isochrysis spp. were the initial sources of alkenones, and appeared immediately after the onset of sapropel deposition (~ 7550 yrs before present [a BP]). As salinity increased, Isochrysis-related haptophytes were slowly replaced by a complex suite of E. huxleyi strains as sources of alkenones. Our paleogenetic data showed that E. huxleyi colonized the Black Sea shortly after the onset of sapropel deposition, ~ 4000 yrs earlier than previously recognized based on their preserved coccoliths. E. huxleyi strains were the most likely source of the previously reported abundant and unusual C 36 di-unsaturated "Black Sea alkenone". Strong haptophyte species and strain-specific effects were observed on the level of unsaturation of alkenones which resulted in spurious alkenone-derived SST estimates before 5250 a BP. In contrast, from ~ 5250 a BP onwards a relatively stable haptophyte assemblage dominated by a different suite of E. huxleyi strains yielded robust alkenone-SST values and indicated a gradual cooling from 19 °C to ~ 15 °C at the top of the record (~ 450 a BP).

  9. Impact of winter cooling on the northern part of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Anatolii

    2016-07-01

    Climate change in the future may have a negative impact on many countries due to the increasing surface temperature and sea level rise. Probably, unprecedented largest positive trend of surface temperature, which observed since the mid XX century, has associated with increasing human activities around the world. Moreover, this warming will continue in this century, and at the end of the XXI century will be 2 - 5 ºC. Thus, investigation and monitoring of current climate are very important and necessary tasks. Regional model data (downscaling) and satellite data are used, because of underdeveloped network of meteorological stations in the northern part of the Black Sea region. Experiment of downscaling was carried out for the Black Sea region with a high spatial resolution of 0.22° x 0.22° for 1958 - 2007(daily values). For the Black Sea were also used satellite data of sea surface temperature(SST) from MyOcean-2 Project, which CNR(Rome) has reprocessed Pathfinder V5.2 (PFV52) AVHRR data over period 1981 - 2012 with daily gap-free maps (L4) at the original PFV52 resolution at 0.04° x 0.04°. Correlation between satellite SST and surface temperature from regional model climate are amounted 0,99. Thus, surface temperature of model and satellite data for the Black Sea is much correlated between yourself. The following integral characteristics of the Black Sea are referred to the area of sea limited by the 44 - 47º N and 28 - 34º E. Maximum cooling of the north-western part of the Black Sea in winter is occurs after invasion of cold air across the northern border of the basin. In addition, this water area is also interesting in the presence of her huge oil and gas reserves, as well as the construction of liquefied gas (crude oil) terminals. The maximum values of total heat flux (sensible + latent heat fluxes= Q) corresponding to the minimum values of SST are observed during the periods of the negative phase of the NAO. Besides, fluxes with extreme days P (Q) = 95

  10. Persistent thermal fronts in the Black Sea: Existence, variability, and response to atmospheric forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmin, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution satellite sea surface temperature (SST) measurements (PATHFINDER dataset) have been used to confirm an existence of persistent thermal frontal zones in the Black Sea. Fronts have been revealed in the winter season between the intensively cooling shallow northwestern area and warmer waters of central part, and in spring-summer season between the actively warming waters of the southeastern part and cooler central area. Interannual and quasi-decadal variability of the northwestern front have been documented, as well as a high negative correlation of its intensity with the winter-mean SST.

  11. Ukraine’s trade and economic priorities in the Black sea economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Goncharuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of trade and economic priorities of Ukraine’s integration into the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC. The country’s integration options have been analyzed including the Western European vs. pro-Russian integration vector, the bidirectional gravity model, and an alte — native subregional cooperation direction. Ukraine’s sectoral priorities for deepening economic cooperation with the BSEC member countries in the context of implementation of the national interests have been identified, in particular in the field of goods, transport and tourism services, and energy trading. The ways of and instruments for improving Ukraine’s trade activities within the framework of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation have been offered for the various working groups of the Organization that are focused on such areas of cooperation as macroeconomics, policy and law, finance and economics, science and technology, culture and society, infrastructure, and institutional renewal.

  12. NW Black Sea ecosystems recovery from former severe seasonal hypoxia and effect on macrofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian; Begun, Tatiana; Teaca, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The benthos researches carried out in the last decade on the NW Black Sea shelf established the transitional process of the bottom communities, from the severe disturbed state resulted from seasonal hypoxia of high eutrophication from 1970-2000 period towards a new state. The authors, with their expertise achieved in the framework of several national and EU FP6&7 projects (SESAME, HYPOX, PERSEUS), analyzing more than 600 quantitative samples, consider the benthic associations influenced mainly by the Danube River discharge being characterized as follows: • decrease in the specific diversity (e.g. Mollusca - from 170 species in the 1960s - 1970s to 70 species in the present in NW Black Sea); • loss or diminishing of some habitat areas (typical habitat with Zostera, Phyllophora, Cystoseira, Barnea, Donacilla etc.); • increase in the numeric abundance and biomass of some specific benthic populations (Melinna, Alitta, Dipolydora etc.); • loss or reduction of some specific populations (Abra prismatica, Spisula subtruncata, Chamelia gallina etc.); • replacement of some strong and quite large benthic populations by metapopulation of small extension; • diminution of the biofilter strength by reduction of the filter - feeder populations; • qualitative and quantitative worsening of benthic biological resources, especially molluscs - forms playing an important ecological part and with great economic importance (mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, soft-shell clam Mya arenaria, veined rapa whelk Rapana venosa); • thriving of opportunistic forms (especially worms populations causing sediment bioturbation - Melinna palmata, Heteromastus filiformis) and, temporarily, some exotic species recently pervading Black Sea (Mya, Anadara, Rapana etc.); • great quantitative fluctuations of all benthic populations; • occurrence of some weak sing of ecosystem recovery. However, recovery of the benthic ecosystem appears to be less certain although an improvement on

  13. Microbial reefs in the Black Sea fueled by anaerobic oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelis, W.; Seifert, R.; Nauhaus, K.

    2002-01-01

    Massive microbial mats covering up to 4-meter-high carbonate buildups prosper at methane seeps in anoxic waters of the northwestern Black Sea shelf. Strong (13)C depletions indicate an incorporation of methane carbon into carbonates, bulk biomass, and specific lipids. The mats mainly consist of d...... precipitation and substantial biomass accumulation, which has implications for our understanding of carbon cycling during earlier periods of Earth's history.......Massive microbial mats covering up to 4-meter-high carbonate buildups prosper at methane seeps in anoxic waters of the northwestern Black Sea shelf. Strong (13)C depletions indicate an incorporation of methane carbon into carbonates, bulk biomass, and specific lipids. The mats mainly consist...

  14. The Fight Against Emissaries across the Black Sea Coastline Area (1834–1847 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Karataev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article on the basis of archival sources examines the work of foreign emissaries on the Black Sea coastline in 1834-1847 years. The significant part of sources is introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The importance is given to the activities of foreign agents, their life among the hillmen, and methods of fighting of the Russian administration with foreign agents. The author comes to the conclusion that in the period of 1834-1847 years, on the Black Sea coastline the emissaries were carried out the diverse activities aimed against the Russian Empire. This activity was shown at the instigation of the hillmen for the war against Russia, the spread of false information, work as instructors, as well as to the personal involvement of emissaries in fighting.

  15. Numerical studies on the dynamics of the Northwestern Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. KOURAFALOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northwestern Black Sea shelf dynamics are studied with numerical simulations based on the Princeton Ocean Model. The study focus is on buoyancy and wind driven flows and on the transport and fate of low salinity waters that are introduced through riverine sources (the Danube, Dnestr and Dnepr Rivers, under the seasonal changes in atmospheric forcing. The study is part of the DANUBS project (NUtrient management in the DAnube basin and its impact on the Black Sea. The numerical simulations show that the coastal circulation is greatly influenced by river runoff and especially that of the Danube, which is dominant with monthly averaged values ranging from 5,000 m3 to 10,000 m3. The transport of low-salinity waters associated with the Danube runoff is greatly influenced by wind stress, topographic effects and basin-scale circulation patterns, such as changes in the position of the Rim Current.

  16. SOZOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF VEGETATION OF FORESTS AND SHRUBS OF THE NORTHERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Solomakha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of sociological analysis found that in the vegetation cover of forests and shrubs in the Northern Black Sea found 88 view of rare and endangered plants. For 37 species, there are phytocoenotic table, the data on the other - are induced for that literary materials herbarium. They have a different distribution in the classes of the vegetation on the study territory: Pulsatillo-Pinetea sylvestris (13 species, Dactilydo glomeratae-Populetea tremulae (13, Festuco-Brometea (9, Rhamno-Prunetea (8, Nerio-Tamaricetea (7, Salicetea purpureae (5, Robinietea (3, Alnetea glutinosae (3, Franguletea (3. Some rare and endangered communities of the territory need to be included in the «Green Book of Ukraine». Key words: vegetation, syntaxonomy, forests, shrubs, sozological characteristic, Northen Black Sea region.

  17. Causes and consequences of hypoxia on the Western Black Sea Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jana; Gomoiu, Marian-Trajan; Naeher, Sebastian; Secrieru, Dan; Teaca, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The Black Sea, containing the world's largest natural anoxic basin since ca 7500 years (Jones & Gagnon 1994), suffers from combined effects of anthropogenic eutrophication, overfishing and climate variability (Oguz & Gilbert 2007). We discuss causes for hypoxia in western shelf waters. Freshwater runoff by the large rivers Danube, Dniester and Dnieper results in strong thermohaline stratification that limits bottom water ventilation on the north-western shelf during warm seasons. This makes the western shelf generally prone to oxygen deficiency. During autumn and winter, the thermohaline stratification is eroded by frequent storms and the water column is re-oxygenated. The causal chain of anthropogenic eutrophication since the 1970s led to seasonal hypoxia on the western shelf for more than 20 years causing the catastrophic decline of key shelf habitats (Mee et al. 2005). More frequent and intense algal blooms, red tides (i.e. Noctiluca, Prorocentrum cordatum) and changes in species composition in phytoplankton resulted in deposition of surplus organic matter on the seafloor increasing the oxygen demand, with serious consequences for pelagic and benthic ecosystem structure and functioning. During hypoxia, release of reduced substances like ammonia and phosphate from the sediment to the water fuelled eutrophication internally (Friedrich et al. 2002). The combination of existing data with those gained during EU FP7 HYPOX on the Romanian shelf enables to assess the development of bottom water hypoxia and changes in benthic community and hence, the current state and trends in recovery of the Romanian Black Sea shelf ecosystem. Mud worms are the winners of eutrophication and hypoxia, whereas filter feeders like Mytilus galloprovincialis and Acanthocardia paucicostata are the losers. The western shelf benthic ecosystem showed a significant reduction in species diversity, a reduction of biofilter strength due to the loss of filter-feeder populations and flourishing of

  18. Palaeoceanography & Palaeoclimate during the penultimate Glacial-Interglacial transition in the Black Sea - Termination II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwerth, Antje; Dellwig, Olaf; Kaiser, Jérôme; Bard, Edouard; Ménot, Guillemette; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Plessen, Birgit; Schnetger, Bernhard; Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila; Arz, Helge

    2013-04-01

    The epicontinental Black Sea is very sensitive to environmental changes thus forming an ideal archive of regional climate change and teleconnective responses to the coupled North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere system. Here we focus on the climatic and hydrological evolution of the SE Black Sea during the glacial-interglacial transition of Termination II to the Eemian (~134-122 ka BP) by using different geochemical and sedimentological proxies. Long-term cold conditions during the ending penultimate glacial are provided by TEX86 derived summer sea-surface temperatures (SST) of around 9°C and are thus considerable lower than present values of about 23°C. Coastal ice formation during extreme winters accounted for huge discharge of ice rafted debris (IRD) until 130.5 ka BP. Milder more humid conditions during this period are indicated for instance by elevated Cr/Al values typical for an ultramafic Pontic Mountain source (Piper and Calvert, 2011) thereby suggesting an increased sediment load mainly from the east-Anatolian rivers Kizilirmak and Yesilirmak. The abrupt disappearance of IRD along with increasing δ18O, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca of benthic ostracods (Candona spp.) resulted from slightly rising temperatures (SST 11°C) until 128.8 ka BP. Thereafter, SST rapidly increased within less than 500 years to about 25°C revealing a dramatic change from glacial to interglacial conditions. First analyses of U/Ca-ratios of ostracods show sharply increasing values not before ~128.3 ka BP, synchronous to the appearance of larval Mytilus galloprovincialis shells, due to the Mediterranean transgression into the Black Sea. The simultaneous increase of TOC and Mo/Al of the bulk sediment indicates the development of oxygen-deficient bottom waters and Eemian sapropel formation favoured by the establishment of a halocline shortly after the Mediterranean-Black Sea reconnection. About 500 years after the temperature maximum, the continental environment responded to the warming by elevated

  19. Operative forecast of hydrophysical fields in the Georgian Black Sea coastal zone within the ECOOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kordzadze

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the part of the Black Sea Nowcasting/Forecasting System is the regional forecasting system for the Easternmost part of the Black Sea (including the Georgian water area, which have been developed within the context of the EU International projects ARENA and ECOOP. A core of the regional system is a high-resolution baroclinic regional model of the Black Sea dynamics developed at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics (RM-IG. This model is nested in the basin-scale model (BSM of Marine Hydrophysical Institute (MHI, Sevastopol/Ukraine. The regional area is limited to the Caucasian and Turkish coastal lines and the western liquid boundary coinciding with a meridian 39.36° E. Since June 2010 we regularly compute 3 days' forecasts of current, temperature and salinity for the Easternmost part of the Black Sea with 1 km spacing. In this study results of two forecasts are presented. The first forecast corresponds to Summer season and covers the prognostic interval from 00:00 h, 6 August to 00:00 h, 9 August 2010. The second one corresponds to Autumn season and covers the prognostic interval from 00:00 h, 26 October to 00:00 h, 29 October 2010. Data needed for the forecasts – the 3-D initial and prognostic hydrophysical fields, also 2-D prognostic meteorological fields at the sea surface, wind stress, heat fluxes, evaporation and precipitation rates for the our regional area are placing on the MHI server every day and we are available to use these data operatively. Prognostic hydrophysical fields are results of forecast by BSM of MHI and 2-D meteorological boundary fields represent results of forecast by regional atmospheric model ALADIN. All these fields are given on the grid of BSM with 5 km spacing and with one-hour time step frequency for the integration period. The analysis of predicted fields shows that to use the model with high resolution is very important factor for identification of nearshore eddies of small sizes. It should be noted very

  20. Stability of the Black Sea Littoral Region: Focus on the Montreux Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    agreements and a proposed Eurasian- Balkan region,9 as it continues to experience economic development and rapid gravitation to NATO.10 BSLR countries...major oil spills and Kruppa 12 tanker collisions in the Black Sea have strengthened Turkey’s concerns over ecological dangers to its shoreline and...reach record in 2012. 20 Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits signed at Montreux, July 20th, 1936, American Journal of International Law

  1. THE PHENOTYPIC STRUCTURE OF A MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS LMK POPULATION FROM THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA SHORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona Novac

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available : Among the specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. from the Black Sea, function of the color of the ostracum (brown, dark blue or brown with blue stripes, one can differentiate several forms. These colors are genetically determined (Stolbova, Pirkova, Ladyghina, 1996; Scherban, 2000; Shurova, 2001. The present paper analyzes the situation of these phenotypic groups, using specimens sampled at different depths in the area of Agigea dike.

  2. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) – Black Sea assessments (STECF-15-16).

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Expert Working Group meeting of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries EWG 15-12 was held from 28 Sep-02 Oct 2015 in Ispra, Italy to assess the status of Black Sea against the proposed FMSY reference points. The meeting was preceded by a two-day data preparatory meeting held at JRC premises during 24-25 Sep 2015. The report was reviewed by written procedure in October 2015.

  3. Numerical Simulation of a Quasi-Tropical Cyclone over the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Efimov; Shokurov, M. V.; Yarovaya, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes results of numerical experiments on the simulation of a mesoscale quasi-tropical cyclone, a rare event for the Black Sea, with the MM5 regional atmospheric circulation model. General characteristics of the cyclone and its evolution and physical formation mechanisms are discussed. The balances of the momentum components have been estimated, and sensitivity experiments have been performed. It is shown that, according to its main physical properties and energy supply mechanis...

  4. Dynamics of the population phenological structure of Polistes dominulus in the black sea biosphere reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Rusina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The change in the phenotypic population structure of Polistes dominulus (Christ (Hymenoptera, Vespidae paper-wasp nested in the Black Sea Reserve was analysed. It was shown that colour patterns of clypeus, mesoscutum and first tergite vary considerably in different phases of the population number. The impact of factors of different nature on the relationship between the colour patterns and mode of colony foundation is discussed.

  5. Dynamics of the population phenological structure of Polistes dominulus in the black sea biosphere reserve

    OpenAIRE

    L. Y. Rusina; Е. S. Orlova

    2009-01-01

    The change in the phenotypic population structure of Polistes dominulus (Christ) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) paper-wasp nested in the Black Sea Reserve was analysed. It was shown that colour patterns of clypeus, mesoscutum and first tergite vary considerably in different phases of the population number. The impact of factors of different nature on the relationship between the colour patterns and mode of colony foundation is discussed.

  6. The Analysis Regarding the Building of a Hydraulic Power Plant on the Black Sea Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Samoilescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents the result of a research project regarding the construction of a wave driven hydraulic plant that is going to be installed on the Black Sea shore in the area of the city of Constanta. Several phases were analyzed: numerical simulations for the micro plant – wave energy theory; finite element simulation – results and conclusions; generating the blueprint for the construction of the plant.

  7. Stimulation of autotrophic denitrification by intrusions of the Bosporus Plume into the anoxic Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara A. Fuchsman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Autotrophic denitrification was measured in the southwestern coastal Black Sea, where the Bosporus Plume injects oxidized chemical species (especially O2 and NO3- into the oxic, suboxic and anoxic layers. Prominent oxygen intrusions caused an overlap of NOx- and sulfide at the same station where autotrophic denitrification activity was detected with incubation experiments. Several bacteria that have been proposed to oxidize sulfide in other low oxygen environments were found in the Black Sea including SUP05, Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter, and BS-GSO2. Comparison of TRFLP profiles from this mixing zone station and the Western Gyre (a station not affected by the Bosporus Plume indicate the greatest relative abundance of Sulfurimonas and Arcobacter at the appropriate depths at the mixing zone station. The autotrophic gammaproteobacterium BS-GSO2 correlated with ammonium fluxes rather than with sulfide fluxes and the maximum in SUP05 peak height was shallower than the depths where autotrophic denitrification was detected. Notably, anammox activity was not detected at the mixing zone station, though low levels of DNA from the anammox bacteria Candidatus Scalindua were present. These results provide evidence for a modified ecosystem with different N2 production pathways in the southwest coastal region compared to that found in the rest of the Black Sea. Moreover, the same Sulfurimonas phylotype (BS139 was previously detected on >30 μm particles in the suboxic zone of the Western Gyre along with DNA of potential sulfate reducers, so it is possible that particle-attached autotrophic denitrification may be an overlooked N2 production pathway in the central Black Sea as well.

  8. Towards a system for sea state forecasts in the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone: the case of the storm of 07-08 february 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Galabov, Vasko; Kortcheva, Anna; Dimitrova, Marieta

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the existing operational sea state forecast system of NIMH- BAS for sea state in the Black Sea and our current progress on the implementation of an additional component for the forecasts of wind waves in the Bulgarian coastal zone. Wind Waves and especially the extreme ones, occurring during severe storms are a major hazard for the coastal zone, causing significant damages to the infrastructure, threat for the human lives and also causing significant damages to the protect...

  9. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Shapiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of temperature as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the temperature anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May–November due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May–November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980–2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was

  10. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  11. Molecular Diversity and Predictability of Vibrio parahaemolyticus along the Georgian coastal zone of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradd J. Haley

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-related gastroenteritis and is also an autochthonous member of marine and estuarine environments worldwide. One hundred seventy strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from water and plankton samples collected along the Georgian coast of the Black Sea during 28 months of sample collection. All isolated strains were tested for presence of tlh, trh, and tdh. A subset of strains were serotyped and tested for additional factors and markers of pandemicity. Twenty-six serotypes, five of which are clinically relevant, were identified. Although all 170 isolates were negative for tdh, trh, and the Kanagawa Phenomenon, 7 possessed the GS-PCR sequence and 27 the 850 bp sequence of V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strains. The V. parahaemolyticus population in the Black Sea was estimated to be genomically heterogeneous by rep-PCR and the serodiversity observed did not correlate with rep-PCR genomic diversity. Statistical modeling was used to predict presence of V. parahaemolyticus as a function of water temperature, with strongest concordance observed for Green Cape site samples (Percent of total variance = 70, P < 0.001. Results demonstrate a diverse population of V. parahaemolyticus in the Black Sea, some of which carry pandemic markers, with increased water temperature correlated to an increase in abundance of V. parahaemolyticus.

  12. The Black Sea Wave Energy: The Present State and the Twentieth century Changes

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of the present state of the Black Sea wave energy. The studies of other authors are based on the use of input data from atmospheric reanalysis or a downscaling of such reanalysis. Instead of reanalysis data, we use input data from the operational limited area numerical weather prediction model ALADIN. We showed that the estimations of the Black Sea wave energy based on reanalyses deviate significantly from the real potential. We showed also that the highest values of the mean annual wave power flux is between 4.5 and 5.0 kW/m2 and the near shore areas with the highest wave energy potential are the southernmost Bulgarian coast and the coast of Turkey north of Istanbul. While we showed that the wind data from the reanalysis are not useful for the estimation of the actual wave energy potential, we claimed that the reanalysis data is useful to study the long term changes of the wave energy of the Black Sea. We used the 10m winds from the recent ERA-20C reanalysis, which covers the...

  13. Distribution and biological turnover of dissolved organic compounds in the water column of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mopper, Kenneth; Kieber, David J.

    Water column concentrations and turnover rates were determined for a suite of low molecular weight organic compounds in the Black Sea. The classes of compounds studied included amino acids, simple sugars, α-keto acids, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, flavins and thiols. Our study yielded some new insights, as well as a few surprising discoveries, regarding the composition and cycling of organic matter in the Black Sea. (1) Uptake rates of organic compounds were from 2 to 4640 times faster in oxic surface waters than in anoxic waters. (2) Sharp maxima or minima in concentrations of organic compounds coincided with zones of enhanced microbial activities, especially in the vicinity of the oxic-suboxic and suboxic-anoxic interfaces. (3) The benthic boundary layer, 300-400 m thick, had a markedly different organic composition and substantially higher concentrations of organic acids, and to a lesser extent sugars and thiols, than the overlying water. (4) A dramatic change in the composition and concentration of dissolved free amino acids occurred in the water column during the cruise and appeared to be related to biological patchiness. (5) Organic thiols constituted a significant portion (e.g. 10-20%) of the total reduced sulfur near the top of the sulfidic zone, and may contribute to the origin of hydrogen sulfide in this zone. (6) Major unknown amine and carbonyl compounds were discovered in the anoxic zone, providing evidence that the Black Sea contains unique anaerobic bacteria with possibly new biochemical pathways.

  14. Sedimentary records of black carbon in the sea area of the Nansha Islands since the last glaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Core 17962 taken from the sea area of the Nansha Islands recorded a sedimentary history of more than 30 000 years. The black carbon data from the core, which can inform us of the history of vegetation fires, show that during the last glaciation, especially during the last glacial maximum at about 18 kaBP, the fluctuation of the concentration and accumulation rate of the black carbon was relatively great, whereas it was small during the Holocene. The isotope composition of the black carbon indicates that the precursors of black carbon were mainly grasses from the last glaciation to the Holocene. The sub-alpine and alpine vegetation zones covered mainly with grass and bush on the lands around the southern South China Sea were probably the sources of black carbon. The altitudinal vegetation changes from the last glaciation to the Holocene gave rise to the changes of the sedimentary characteristics of black carbon.

  15. Risk Assessment in the Istanbul Strait Using Black Sea MOU Port State Control Inspections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Gül Emecen Kara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Istanbul Strait has intense maritime traffic while, at the same time, it poses significant navigational challenges. Due to these properties, there is always a high risk arising from maritime shipping in this region. Especially, substandard ships threaten life, as well as the marine environment. In this aspect, Black Sea Memorandum of Understanding (MOU Port State Control Inspections are important for maritime safety in the Istanbul Strait, because they directly reflect the performance of ships passing through the Istanbul Strait. Stringent and effective inspections assist in the enhancement of navigation safety and help to develop sustainable environment management. In this context, this study aims to assess maritime safety for the Strait region concerning passing flag states. Firstly, to assess the performance of flag states in general, the Black Sea MOU Black-Grey-White lists were generated for the period 2004–2014 and the change in the performance of these flags was examined. Secondly, the risk level of each flag state passing from the Strait region was determined using the method of weighted points based on the Black-Grey-White List, deficiency index level, casualty index level, and passing index level.

  16. State of the benthic ecosystem on western Black Sea shelf in spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J.; Aleynik, D.; Eulenburg, A.; Kusch, St.; Mee, L. D.; Minicheva, G.; Stevens, T. F.; Teaca, A.; Shapiro, G. I.; Soloviev, D.

    2009-04-01

    Since the changes in the economies in the Black Sea countries in the 1990's, the momentarily associated decrease in anthropogenic pressures has put the ecosystem of Black Sea western shelf on a trajectory to recovery. However, the suspected non-linearity of recovery and the ecological instability of the benthic shelf ecosystem in particular became evident in the field surveys supported by the BSERP in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, e.g. in the spread of opportunistic species taking new niches and the re-occurrence of large-scale bottom water hypoxia like in 2001. The temporal dynamics of the recovery (as well as of the decline) may also be tied to climatic effects. The Black Sea is known to respond to north Atlantic oscillation (NAO) forcing and decadal climate changes. The target of the 363th cruise of R/V Poseidon in March 2008 has been to map the current state of the benthic ecosystem in a quasi-winter situation. We assessed: a) the current state of the benthic ecosystem on the north-western shelf; to what degree it recovered during the past decade from its collapse in the 1980's. In this respect, we investigated the role of the seabed as storage media of nutrients from past eutrophication, and the role of the sediments as internal source of nutrients to the pelagic system. We focused on zoo- and phytobenthos distribution, the interaction of benthic biota with the sediment, accumulation of nutrients in the sediment, and the flux of nutrients from the sediments to the water. b) The benthic-pelagic coupling, i.e. how the nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and silica for algal growth are transported from the seafloor to the sea surface and thus fuel biologic productivity. c) The exchange of water between the shelf and the open Black Sea, and hence the transport of nutrients, i.e. the fertilization of the open Black Sea with nutrients from the shelf. Here, we are presenting results from the spring 2008 survey and compare them to findings from a summer survey in 2006

  17. Arabian Sea tropical cyclones intensified by emissions of black carbon and other aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Amato T; Kossin, James P; Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V

    2011-11-02

    Throughout the year, average sea surface temperatures in the Arabian Sea are warm enough to support the development of tropical cyclones, but the atmospheric monsoon circulation and associated strong vertical wind shear limits cyclone development and intensification, only permitting a pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period for cyclogenesis. Thus a recent increase in the intensity of tropical cyclones over the northern Indian Ocean is thought to be related to the weakening of the climatological vertical wind shear. At the same time, anthropogenic emissions of aerosols have increased sixfold since the 1930s, leading to a weakening of the southwesterly lower-level and easterly upper-level winds that define the monsoonal circulation over the Arabian Sea. In principle, this aerosol-driven circulation modification could affect tropical cyclone intensity over the Arabian Sea, but so far no such linkage has been shown. Here we report an increase in the intensity of pre-monsoon Arabian Sea tropical cyclones during the period 1979-2010, and show that this change in storm strength is a consequence of a simultaneous upward trend in anthropogenic black carbon and sulphate emissions. We use a combination of observational, reanalysis and model data to demonstrate that the anomalous circulation, which is radiatively forced by these anthropogenic aerosols, reduces the basin-wide vertical wind shear, creating an environment more favourable for tropical cyclone intensification. Because most Arabian Sea tropical cyclones make landfall, our results suggest an additional impact on human health from regional air pollution.

  18. Black shale deposition during Toarcian super-greenhouse driven by sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hermoso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most elusive aspects of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE is the paradox between carbon isotopes that indicate intense global primary productivity and organic carbon burial at a global scale, and the delayed expression of anoxia in Europe. During the earliest Toarcian, no black shales were deposited in the European epicontinental seaways, and most organic carbon enrichment of the sediments postdated the T-OAE (defined by the overarching positive trend in the carbon isotopes. In the present studied, we have attempted to establish a sequence stratigraphy framework for Early Toarcian deposits recovered from a core drilled in the Paris Basin using a combination of mineralogical (quartz and clay relative abundance and geochemical (Si, Zr, Ti and Al measurements. Combined with the evolution in redox sensitive elements (Fe, V and Mo, the data suggest that expression of anoxia was hampered in European epicontinental seas during most of the T-OAE due to insufficient water depth that prevented stratification of the water column. Only the first stratigraphic occurrence of black shales in Europe corresponds to the "global" event. This interval is characterised by > 10% Total Organic Carbon (TOC content that contains relatively low concentration of molybdenum compared to subsequent black shale horizons. Additionally, this first black shale occurrence is coeval with the record of the major negative Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE, likely corresponding to a period of transient greenhouse intensification likely due to massive injection of carbon into the Atmosphere–Ocean system. As a response to enhanced weathering and riverine run-off, increased fresh water supply to the basin may have promoted the development of full anoxic conditions through haline stratification of the water column. In contrast, post T-OAE black shales were restricted to epicontinental seas (higher Mo to TOC ratios during a period of relative high sea level, and carbon

  19. Numerical modeling of roll structures in mesoscale vortexes over the Black Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Iarova, D A

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a case study of horizontal atmospheric rolls that formed over the Black Sea on 16 August 2007. The rolls were discovered in WRF modeling results for a mesoscale cyclone that originated over the sea on 15 August 2007. The roll formation mechanisms, such as Rayleigh-Benard convective instability, dynamic instability, advection and stretching of vertical velocity field inhomogeneities, are considered. It is shown that indeed convective instability played an important role in the roll formation but dynamic instability did not occur. In order to distinguish other possible mechanisms of the roll formation numerical experiments were performed. In these experiments sea surface temperature in the initial conditions was decreased in order to prevent convective instability. Even though convective instability was suppressed roll-like structures still appeared in the modeling results, although their height and circulation velocity were smaller than in the control run. It was found that these structures were ...

  20. Causes and systematics of inundations of the Krasnodar territory on the Russian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeevsky, Nikolay; Magritsky, Dmitry V.; Koltermann, Klaus Peter; Krylenko, Inna; Toropov, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The inundation situations on the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar territory for the period from 1945 until 2013 were analysed and the main types of inundations at the coast are described. Synoptic factors of the formation of extreme precipitation and rainfall floods, features and regularities of the downstream flood wave transformation in the rivers are also studied. Therefore, assessments of seasonal and maximum flow of the Black Sea coast rivers for the period of hydrometric measurements were done. Regularities of change of the occurrence of inundations and their characteristics on the coastal terrain were analysed, for a year and on a perennial timescale. Most catastrophic and exceptional inundations arise in the summer and in early autumn. Small inundations during the remaining year reflect the seasonal distribution of river flow and floods in the Black Sea rivers. Extensive and sometimes extreme precipitation dominates the river flow regimes. The seasonal distribution of small and moderately dangerous inundations reflects, on average, a water regime of two groups of rivers of the coast - to the north and to the south of the Tuapse River. To the north of the Tuapse River, floods prevail from November until March (up to 70 % of observed floods took place in this period) as a result of precipitation and winter snowmelt during frequent thaw periods. In winter, high waters often overlap to form a multi-peak high water of 2-3 weeks' duration. In the summer and in early autumn we observe a steady low flow. The total amount of runoff increases both in a southeast direction, and with the altitude of the river basins. Interannual variability of mean annual runoff, as well as maximum runoff, on the contrary decreases in the southern direction and with an increasing area of the river basins. The coastal high waters of the rivers of the Sochi part of the coast are typical at any time of the year, but more often floods in the cold season result from incessant rain, and

  1. Nitrogen Cycling in the Black Sea on Glacial-Interglacial Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, T. M.; Wright, J. D.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    On geological time scales, the nitrogen cycle consists of three main processes: nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification/anammox, all of which are affected by the amount of oxygen present in the water column. The balance between nitrogen fixation and denitrification/anammox controls the pool of fixed inorganic nitrogen, and can be traced using nitrogen isotopes. We have previously proposed a conceptual model that relates sedimentary δ15N to deep water oxygen concentrations using a simple, non-linear curve. Provided that the sediment record is well-preserved, the nitrogen isotopic profile at a given location reflects history of the relative contributions of nitrogen fixation to denitrifiation and thus the past redox environment. Our goal was to test this model using deep sea sediments from the Black Sea, which alternates from an anoxic, stratified, marine water body during interglacial periods to a less saline, oxygenated lake during glacial events. We find that the measured δ15N profile in general corresponds to the changes in redox state as determined by trace metal concentrations and micropaleontology. Higher δ15N values occur during suboxic transitional periods, with lower δ15N values appearing under anoxic and oxic conditions, supporting our hypothesis that the nitrogen cycle is regulated by oxygen concentration. We also identify some intervals where the correlation between redox proxies appears to fail. While the lack of ancillary data from the paleo-Black Sea makes interpretation difficult, we believe analysis of these intervals may provide more information about Black Sea paleoenvironmental and paleoredox conditions.

  2. Genetic divergence between the scad subspecies Trachurus Mediterraneus (Carangidae, pisces from the Black Sea and the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. DOBROVOLOV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of myogen and eleven enzymes (AAT, ADH, EST, GPI, IDHP, LDH, MDH, MEP, PGDH, PGM and SOD were carried out by using starch gel and isoelectric focusing electrophoresis on thinlayer and ultrathin polyacrylamide ampholine and servalite gels in scad species from the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara, the Aegean Sea, and the Mediterranean. Data from electrophoretic investigations was used to clarify the population structure of the scad migrating in the Bulgarian aquatory of the Black Sea and consisting of two main subpopulations: a a "Black Sea" one hibernating in this sea only, and b a "Sea of Marmara" one hibernating in that sea and contiguous Black Sea regions around the Bosporus. Non-specific muscular esterases were used, because they were appropriate for identification of both subspecies: Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus Aleev and Tr.m.mediterraneus Steindachner. Nei's genetic distance (D=0,0113 was used as an indication of their isolation dated back to the Carangate Period. An attempt was made to check the hypothesis of the origin of "large" ("giant" scad in the Black Sea as a result of the heterozygotic interbreeding between Tr.m.ponticus Aleev and Tr.m.mediterraneus Steindachner. A new allele Est-1E as well as the previously known alleles Est-1A and Est-1-B, were found in Mediterranean scad Tr.m.mediterraneus caught off Nice (France. It's proposed that the presence of the large form of large scat in this area is also a consequence of the heterozytic efect from the interbreeding between a population marked by Est-1-A and Est-1-B and a population marked by Est-1-E, probably inhabiting the waters around Gibraltar in the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Anaerobic oxidation of methane alters sediment records of sulfur, iron and phosphorus in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Matthias; Kraal, Peter; Jilbert, Tom; Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Sapart, Célia J.; Röckmann, Thomas; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-09-01

    The surface sediments in the Black Sea are underlain by extensive deposits of iron (Fe)-oxide-rich lake sediments that were deposited prior to the inflow of marine Mediterranean Sea waters ca. 9000 years ago. The subsequent downward diffusion of marine sulfate into the methane-bearing lake sediments has led to a multitude of diagenetic reactions in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ), including anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate. While the sedimentary cycles of sulfur (S), methane and Fe in the SMTZ have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about the diagenetic alterations of the sediment record occurring below the SMTZ.Here we combine detailed geochemical analyses of the sediment and porewater with multicomponent diagenetic modeling to study the diagenetic alterations below the SMTZ at two sites in the western Black Sea. We focus on the dynamics of Fe, S and phosphorus (P), and demonstrate that diagenesis has strongly overprinted the sedimentary burial records of these elements. In line with previous studies in the Black Sea, we show that sulfate-mediated AOM substantially enhances the downward diffusive flux of sulfide into the deep limnic deposits. During this downward sulfidization, Fe oxides, Fe carbonates and Fe phosphates (e.g., vivianite) are converted to sulfide phases, leading to an enrichment in solid-phase S and the release of phosphate to the porewater. Below the sulfidization front, high concentrations of dissolved ferrous Fe (Fe2+) lead to sequestration of downward-diffusing phosphate as authigenic vivianite, resulting in a transient accumulation of total P directly below the sulfidization front.Our model results further demonstrate that downward-migrating sulfide becomes partly re-oxidized to sulfate due to reactions with oxidized Fe minerals, fueling a cryptic S cycle and thus stimulating slow rates of sulfate-driven AOM ( ˜ 1-100 pmol cm-3 d-1) in the sulfate-depleted limnic deposits. However, this process is

  4. Arctic sea ice a major determinant in Mandt's black guillemot movement and distribution during non-breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoky, G J; Douglas, D C; Stenhouse, I J

    2016-09-01

    Mandt's black guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandtii) is one of the few seabirds associated in all seasons with Arctic sea ice, a habitat that is changing rapidly. Recent decreases in summer ice have reduced breeding success and colony size of this species in Arctic Alaska. Little is known about the species' movements and distribution during the nine month non-breeding period (September-May), when changes in sea ice extent and composition are also occurring and predicted to continue. To examine bird movements and the seasonal role of sea ice to non-breeding Mandt's black guillemots, we deployed and recovered (n = 45) geolocators on individuals at a breeding colony in Arctic Alaska during 2011-2015. Black guillemots moved north to the marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas immediately after breeding, moved south to the Bering Sea during freeze-up in December, and wintered in the Bering Sea January-April. Most birds occupied the MIZ in regions averaging 30-60% sea ice concentration, with little seasonal variation. Birds regularly roosted on ice in all seasons averaging 5 h d(-1), primarily at night. By using the MIZ, with its roosting opportunities and associated prey, black guillemots can remain in the Arctic during winter when littoral waters are completely covered by ice.

  5. Disposal of solid waste in Istanbul and along the Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkun, Mehmet; Aras, Egemen; Nemlioglu, Semih

    2005-01-01

    The increasing amount of solid waste arising from municipalities and other sources and its consequent disposal has been one of the major environmental problems in Turkey. Istanbul is a metropolitan city with a current population of around 14 million, and produces about 9000 ton of solid waste every day. The waste composition for Istanbul has changed markedly from 1981 to 1996 with large decreases in waste density, much of which is related to decreased amounts of ash collected in winter. In recent years, the Istanbul region has implemented a new solid waste management system with transfer stations, sanitary landfills, and methane recovery, which has led to major improvements. In the Black Sea region of Turkey, most of the municipal and industrial solid wastes, mixed with hospital and hazardous wastes, are dumped on the nearest lowlands and river valleys or into the sea. The impact of riverside and seashore dumping of solid wastes adds significantly to problems arising from sewage and industry on the Black Sea coast. Appropriate integrated solid waste management systems are needed here as well; however, they have been more difficult to implement than in Istanbul because of more difficult topography, weaker administrative structures, and the lower incomes of the inhabitants.

  6. Seasonal and Interannual Variability of the North-Western Black Sea Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Staneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the coupling between physical and biogeochemical models and analyses the response of the ecosystem in the north-western Black Sea to nutrient loads and climate changes. The basic physical and biological dynamics of the upper north-western Black Sea is illustrated as well. The physical model is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM; additionally, a parameterisation of mixed layer is included. The biogeochemical model is based on the European Regional Sea Ecosystem Model (ERSEM and consists of five modules: (1 primary producers, (2 microbial loop, (3 mesozooplankton, (4 benthic nutrients, and (5 benthic biology. The ecosystem in ERSEM is subdivided into three functional types, producers (phytoplankton, decomposers (pelagic and benthic bacteria and consumers (zooplankton and zoobenthos. Model-data comparisons have been performed for both calibrating and verifying coupled model simulations. We address here the impact of nutrient discharge from the Danube River on the functioning of the biological system. The evolution of the mixed layer, as well as the response of the biological system to variability of the nutrient discharge from the Danube River is described in detail. Several scenarios have been developed to study the impact which nutrient reduction has on the coastal marine system. The model predictions indicate that the biological system is very sensitive to the changes in nutrient concentrations, as well as to their ratios.

  7. Northwestern Black Sea coastal zone environmental changes detection by satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.

    2004-02-01

    The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, climatic change effects. A multitemporal data set consisting of LANDSAT MSS, TM and SAR ERS-1 images was used for comparing and mapping landcover change via change detection. Synergetic use of quasi-simultaneously acquired multi-sensor data may therefore allow for a better approach of change detection of coastal area. The main aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive analysis based on existing historical and more recent in situ and remote sensing data to establish the link between phytoplankton bloom development, increasing erosion and diminishing of beaches and related coastal zone harmful phenomena.

  8. Filter-feeding in common bream (Abramis brama), white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and roach (Rutilus rutilus); structures, functions and ecological significance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den C.

    1993-01-01

    bream
    In this thesis the retention mechanism of the branchial sieve of three sympatric cyprinid fish species, the common bream (Abramis brama), the white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and the roach (Rutilus rutilus) , is studied. In eutrophic lakes zooplankton is an im

  9. Multiscale wind cycles and current pulses at the Black Sea eastern boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Vasiliy; Moskalenko, Lidija; Piotoukh, Vladimir; Zatsepin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The goal of the research is to examine meteorological descriptive elements, sea-water properties, regional hydrodynamics and energy conversion fluxes in order to study sea responses to the local and far-field weather system. The Black Sea is situated in the chain of internal basins between the North Atlantic and Central Asia deserts in the marginal interaction zone and, accordingly, is under the influence of the Azores and Siberian anticyclones, Arctic cold-air surges and subtropical desert belt to the south. The analysis is based on the data of modern oceanographic measuring network "Hydro-physical Polygon" of the Institute of oceanology, using contact and remote sensing methods, weather stations around the Black Sea coasts, including long-term (1938-2014) measurements at the Gelendzhik weather station. Various satellite and Reanalysis databases are used. Currently, there are three long-time measuring moored stations (each contains ADCP and thermistor chain) and scanning profiling system "Akvalog". Hydrological sections and field surveys using towed ADCP and CTD are performed on a regular basis. The data are accumulated in the coastal archive which allows calibration of satellite measurements and testing results of numerical modeling. Data processing includes data sets preparation, editing, time series statistical calculations using histograms, progressive vector diagrams, traditional Fourier spectral analysis including auto- and cross spectra, auto and mutual wavelet diagrams, moving spectrograms, vector data methods using rotary components, spectral invariants, empirical modes, hodograph and pre-specified spectrum representations on the basis of stochastic models with imposed dynamical assumptions. Due to the intermittent nature of the time rows, spectral representation is misleading, often. In order to identify the individual evolving dynamical phenomenon, typical background (seasonal) three-dimensional structures of the hydrological field, as well as

  10. The Contemporary State of Development of Free-living Nematodes of the Northwestern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakova, I.

    2007-05-01

    The work was carried out on samples taken during an expedition on the Black Sea Western shelf (Bulgarian, Romanian, Ukrainian) in October, 2003 in the framework of the UNDP-GEF Black Sea, Ecosystem Recovery Project. Nematodes due to specific biological characteristics (high productivity, short life cycles) quickly respond to environmental changes by reducing species diversity, increasing abundance and decreasing biomass. Our studies have confirmed this. For the western Black Sea shelf 67 nematode species of 6 orders have been recorded. Of the 12 groups of meiobenthos encountered on the western Black Sea shelf the frequency of the dominating group of nematodes made up 93.8-100%. Results show that quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nematodes in the study areas on the Black Sea shelf are heterogeneous. This is due to hydrological conditions. The Bulgarian and Romanian zone have great depths (from 15 to 125m), while 15-45m depths prevail on the Ukrainian shelf. Each shelf has specific sediment type. As observed earlier sediment type and depth determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nematodes. For the Bulgarian and Romanian shelves there is a tendency for increasing diversity from shallows to deep water. On the Ukrainian shelf the species composition of nematodes is higher at small depth. Quantitative characteristics of nematodes increase from the Bulgarian to the Ukrainian shelf. The nematode fauna on the Bulgarian shelf has the greatest species similarity with that the Romanian. Under the influence of river runoff the species diversity is low in those areas of close proximity. In more distant areas the diversity increases. Key species communities are formed under the influence of the abiotic environmental factors and interrelations between organisms. The study of these key communities around which other species assemble is interesting. Sabatieria abissalis dominates among all key species on the Bulgarian shelf transects making up 37

  11. Southern Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black Sea level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Southern Dobrogea is a typical geologic platform unit, placed in the south-eastern part of Romania, with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. It is bordered to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault and by the Black Sea to the east. A regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system divides the Southern Dobrogea structure in several tectonic blocks. Four drinking water sources have been identified: surface water, phreatic water, medium depth Sarmatian aquifer, and deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer. Surface water sources are represented by several springs emerged from the base of the loess cliff, and a few small rivers, barred by coastal beaches. The phreatic aquifer develops at the base of the loess deposits, on the impervious red clay, overlapping the Sarmatian limestones. The medium depth aquifer is located in the altered and karstified Sarmatian limestones, and discharges into the Black Sea. The Sarmatian aquifer is unconfined where covered by silty loess deposits, and locally confined, where capped by clayey loess deposits. The aquifer is supplied from the Pre-Balkan Plateau. The Deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer, located in the limestone and dolomite deposits, is generally confined and affected by the regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system. In the south-eastern Dobrogea, the deep aquifer complex is separated from the Sarmatian aquifer by a Senonian aquitard (chalk and marls). The natural boundary of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault. The piezometric heads show that the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is supplied from the Bulgarian territory, where the Upper Jurassic deposits crop out. The aquifer discharges into the Black Sea to the east and into Lake Siutghiol to the northeast. The cyclic Upper Quaternary climate changes induced drastic remodeling of the Black Sea level and the corresponding shorelines. During the Last Glacial

  12. Environmental policy in the north-eastern sector of the Black sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, Ruben; Godin, Evgenii; Kosyan, Alisa

    2015-04-01

    Active economic development of the Black Sea East coastal zone has started in the beginning of 20-th century. Those days the pebble taken from beaches was used for construction of buildings, rail and motor roads. Active consumption of pebble from the beaches and river banks had caused a sharp increase of sea shores abrasion and washout rate, number of landslides had also increased. Contemporary Caucasian shores of Black Sea are being developed under increasing man-caused load. Favorable natural conditions, their variety and uniqueness determine the exceptional role of these shores as very important recreational zone of Russian South. Waste urbanized areas, agricultural territories and National Parks are located in immediate neighborhood with the sea. Important industrial facilities and federal and international communi- cations, including major seaports are located in the shore zone. At present time major gas and oil transportation facilities are commissioned and being constructed in the area. Due to the change of geopolitical situation the Russian shoreline had significantly reduced in comparison with Soviet period, especially in most developed regions. Large resort complexes in Georgia, Crimea and Baltic area were lost. Russia had also lost many major seaports that, under conditions of structural change of economy and export growth, had caused the necessity of building new industrial facilities in the Black Sea coastal zone, and, consequently, had stimulated active human invasion into natural coastal processes. At the time being, a major part (three hundred nine kilometers) of Black Sea coast within Russian sector is subject to abrasion and landslide processes. Abrasion process and beaches wash-out, landslides cause destruction of industrial and transport facilities, living and public buildings, resort complexes and valuable agricultural areas. In this light, the challenge of estimation of effective methods of shores protection against wave-induced erosion

  13. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin from R/Vs GORIZONT and OKEANOGRAF, 1960 - 1969 (NODC Accession 0074609)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin of the Mediterranean...

  14. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  15. Recent sedimentation in the Black Sea: New insights from radionuclide distributions and sulfur isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Mustafa; Moore, Willard S.; Butler, Ian B.; Boyce, Adrian; Luther, George W., III

    2012-08-01

    The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic-sulfidic marine basin and has unique sedimentation conditions. Recent studies suggested that mass accumulation rates (MAR) in this environment have increased in the past century when compared to the last 2000 years (Unit 1 period). In this paper we test this hypothesis with new MAR data and further explore the relationship between the depositional pattern and pyrite-sulfur isotopic signature. Based on 15 cores sampled in 2001 and 2003, our dataset comprises radioactive isotopes (210Pb, 226Ra, 137Cs) and sulfur stable isotopes (δ34SVCDT) along with organic, inorganic carbon and pyrite-sulfur. We calculated MARs using 210Pb profiles and/or Chernobyl-derived 137Cs horizon buried in the sediment column. Our turbidite-free deep basin sediment MARs (61 to 76 g m-2 yr-1) agreed with the previous results (50-100 g m-2 yr-1) and confirm the view that MARs of the deep Black Sea basin have been increasing. A unique feature of our dataset was the presence of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides below up to 20 cm thick turbidite layers (deposited between 1986 and 2003), which enabled us to compute MARs for these coring locations. MARs were 1120±103 and 5230±125 g m-2 yr-1 for the last two decades in two turbidite-impacted western central basin cores, 20-100 times the long-term rates of the deep basin. This fast depositional pattern was reflected in the geochemical and isotopic data as well. Turbidites had isotopically heavier pyrite-sulfur compared to the Unit 1-type water column formed pyrite. This is probably because the turbidites originated from slope and transported slope pyrite isotopic signature to the deep basin. Diagenetic effects within the turbidite can make pyrite-sulfur even heavier. These tightly linked results demonstrate the importance of turbidites in recent sedimentation of the Black Sea.

  16. Decrease of the Black Sea Oxygen Inventory through the second half of the XXth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, Arthur; Stanev, Emil; Gregoire, Marilaure

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the dynamics of the oxygen inventory and penetration depth in the Black Sea over the period 1955-2013 using CTD and ARGO profiles. Several authors (e.g. Codispoti et al., 1991; Konovalov and Murray, 2001; Stanev et al., 2013) have proposed that the upper interface of the suboxic layer has shoaled on a density scale during the last decades in answer to eutrophication. Those studies are based on the assumption that oxygen vertical properties are sufficiently stable, spatially and seasonally, when expressed on a density scale to permit representative interannual statistics. We used the Data Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) software and in particular the de-trending algorithm (Capet et al. 2014) to explicitly evaluate the spatial, seasonal and interannual variabilities of the total Oxygen vertical content and penetration depth (in depth and density scales). The most striking result is the strong and quasi-monotonous decrease of the Black Sea total oxygen inventory which, in 2013, only amounts to 70% of what it was in 1955. The study also confirms a shoaling of the [O2]=20 mmol/m3 iso-surface, on the order of 8m (0.06 kg/m3) per decade. Profiles obtained from two Argo float (2010-2012) confirmed the present status of the properties obtained from CTD cast, and were used to assess the role of the Cold Intermediate Layer in ventilating the upper part of the Black Sea open basin. It effectively appears that the important dense water formation in the period 1985-1995 refrained the upper-mentioned trends and that the lower formation in 1995-2010 has contributed to their more recent increases.

  17. Cetacean stranding records in the Turkish Western Black Sea coast during October 2012 - September 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda M. Tonay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Between October 2012 and September 2013, a research has been conducted on marine mammal strandings on Turkish western Black Sea coast. In total, 54 stranded cetaceans were found, which included 22 bottlenose dolphins (41%, 19 harbour porpoises (35%, 11 common dolphins (20%, and 4% unidentified individuals. Most strandings were observed in May and June. Bycaught carcases were found especially in April, June and July. The aim of the study is to collect first-hand data on the monthly stranding rates in order to understand the seasonal variation of stranding cases in a year.

  18. Marine fish diversity and habitat use along the western coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Dumitru Gavril

    2015-11-01

    I identified 34 species of fish in the Shabla-Tyulenovo area and 39 species in the Constanta area, of which 19 species preferred sandy bottoms, 21 rocky bottoms, 16 rocky habitats with Cystoseira sp., 19 man-made structures and 9 were pelagic. For 7 species habitat preferences could not be determined as a result of capture only by fishing. In conclusion, the scuba visual transects along with fishing methods provide a relevant image to the current state of the fish diversity along the western coast of the Black Sea.

  19. Modelling the coastal processes at the mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen; Zanopol, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    The mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea represent the main southern entrance in the seventh Pan European transportation corridor that links the Black and the Northern seas and is the most important inland navigable waterway in Europe. For this reason the coastal area close to the Danube Delta is subjected to high navigation traffic, which is crucially affected by the strong processes mainly induced by the interactions between the waves and the currents generated by the Danube River outflow. From this perspective, the objective of the present work is to develop a computational framework based on numerical models able to evaluate properly the effects of these interactions and to provide reliable predictions concerning the wave and current conditions corresponding to various environmental patterns. Following this target, a wave modelling system, SWAN based, was implemented in the entire basin of the Black Sea and focused on the coastal sector at the entrance of the Danube Delta. As a next step of the modelling process, SWAN simulations were performed at two different computational levels, considering in parallel the situations without and with the current fields for the main environmental conditions characteristic to the target area. The first level covers the entire coastal area at the mouths of the Danube River and has a resolution in the geographical space of 500m. The second is a computational domain with the resolution of 50m that is focused on the Sulina channel, which is the main navigation gate at the mouths of the Danube River. The results show that the presence of the currents induces relevant enhancements in terms of significant wave heights. Additionally, the Benjamin Feir index (BFI) was also evaluated. This is a spectral shape parameter that is related to the kurtosis of the distribution and indicates the risk of the freak wave occurrence. The enhanced values for BFI in the case when the current fields are considered in the modelling process

  20. Regulation of anaerobic methane oxidation in sediments of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Knab

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM and sulfate reduction (SRR were investigated in sediments of the western Black Sea, where methane transport is controlled by diffusion. To understand the regulation and dynamics of methane production and oxidation in the Black Sea, rates of methanogenesis, AOM, and SRR were determined using radiotracers in combination with pore water chemistry and stable isotopes. On the shelf of the Danube paleo-delta and the Dnjepr Canyon, AOM did not consume methane effectively and upwards diffusing methane created an extended sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ that spread over more than 2.5 m and was located in formerly limnic sediment. Measurable AOM rates occurred mainly in the lower part of the SMTZ, sometimes even at depths where sulfate seemed to be unavailable. The inefficiency of methane oxidation appears to be linked to the limnic history of the sediment, since in all cores methane was completely oxidized at the limnic-marine transition. The upward tailing of methane was less pronounced in a core from the deep sea in the area of the Dnjepr Canyon, the only station with a SMTZ close to the marine deposits. Sulfate reduction rates were mostly extremely low, and in the SMTZ were even lower than AOM rates. Rates of bicarbonate-based methanogenesis were below detection limit in two of the cores, but δ13C values of methane indicate a biogenic origin. The most depleted δ13C-signal was found in the SMTZ of the core from the deep sea, most likely as a result of carbon recycling between AOM and methanogenesis.

  1. Source identification of hydrocarbon contaminants and their transportation over the Zonguldak shelf, Turkish Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, S.; Alpar, B.

    2009-04-01

    Under great anthropogenic pressure due to the substantial freshwater input from the surrounding industrial and agricultural areas, especially central and middle-Eastern Europe, the Black Sea basin is ranked among the most ecologically threatened water bodies of the world. Oil levels are unacceptable in many coastal areas perilously close to polluted harbors and many river mouths; the places presenting the highest levels of bio-diversity and having a high socio-economic importance due to human use of coastal resources. There are about sixty sources of pollution which resulted in "hot spots" having disastrous impacts on sensitive marine and coastal areas and needing immediate priorities for action. Beyond such land-based sources, trans-boundary pollution sources from Black Sea riparian countries, heavy maritime traffic, particularly involving petroleum transports and fishing boats, and the improper disposal of ballast and bilge waters and solid waste are also important marine sources of pollution. Found in fossil fuels such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are generated by incomplete combustion of organic matter. In order to estimate their distribution in sediment and their sources, they were monitored from the bottom samples offshore the Zonguldak industry region, one of the most polluted spots in the Turkish Black Sea. There the budget of pollutants via rivers is not precisely known due to an evident lack of data on chemical and granulometric composition of the river runoff and their fluxes. Therefore the marine sediments, essential components of marine ecosystems, are very important in our estimating the degree of the damage given to the ecosystem by such inputs. Realization of the sources and transport of these contaminants will be a critical tool for future management of the Zonguldak industry region and its watershed. The sea bottom in study area is composed of mainly sand and silt mixtures with small amount of clay. Geochemical analyses have shown that oil

  2. Comparative analysis of Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) from different biotopes of the Black Sea based on its morphological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos'yan, A. R.

    2013-02-01

    The Asian whelk Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda: Muricidae), being tolerant to wide variations in the temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentration, successfully settled down in the Black Sea and eventually became one of the dominant species in the benthic ecosystems. The whelk inhabits all types of grounds all over the Black sea demonstrating a wide spectrum of morphological modifications. The objective of this research is to compare 10 samples of R. venosa from different biotopes of the Black Sea coast from the western Crimea to Sochi. The results of the statistical comparison based on 15 morphological characteristics showed that most of the samples differed from each other with high statistical significance ( p Mytilus galloprovincialis, Anadara sp., Chamelea gallina), the prevailing prey size, and its abundance.

  3. Measurement of single-fish target strength in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guobao; LI Yongzhen; CHEN Pimao; ZHANG Jun; FANG Lichen; LI Nana

    2012-01-01

    We measured the target strength (TS) of three commercial fish species:whitespotted spinefoot (Siganus canaliculatus),black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegelii),and creek red bream (Lutjanus argentimaculatus),in the South China Sea.The TS of caged or tethered fish (n=76 total) was measured using a Simrad EY60 portable scientific echosounder at 120 kHz.We evaluated the relationship between TS and total length (TL,cm) for the three species.This is the first attempt to use split-beam acoustics to measure single-fish TS in the South China Sea by Chinese researchers.Our results will improve the accuracy and precision of acoustic abundance estimates of commercially important species and further the development of underwater acoustic survey techniques in fisheries in the South China Sea.

  4. Trace Metal Levels in Lichen Samples From Roadsides in East Black Sea Region, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OZGUR DOGAN ULUOZLU; KADIR KINALIOGLU; MUSTAFA TUZEN; MUSTAFA SOYLAK

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the metal contents of lichen species from East Black Sea region of Turkey for investigation of trace metal pollution sourced traffic.Methods The levels of copper,cadmium,lead,zinc,manganese,iron,chromium,nickel,cobalt,palladium in lichen samples collected from East Black Sea region of Turkey were determined by flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion method.The accuracy of the method was corrected by standard reference material(NIST SRM IAEA-336 Lichen). Results The contents of investigated trace metals in lichen samples were 7.19-22.4 μg/g for copper,0.10-0.64 μg/g for cadmium,4.03-44.6 μg/g for lead,14.5-41.8 1.μg/g for zinc,25.8-208 μg/g for manganese,331-436 μg/g for iron,1.20-3.01 μg/g for chromium,1.48-3.90 μg/g for nickel,0.20-3.55 μg/g for cobalt.0.11-0.64 μg/g for palladium.The results were compared with the literature values.Conclusion Some lichen species such as Xanthoparmelia conspersa,Xanthoria calcicola,Peltigera membranacea,and Physcia adscendens are accumulated trace metals at a high ratio.

  5. Toxic and essential elements in butter from the Black Sea region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Guvenc, Dilek; Atmaca, Enes; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 88 randomly selected samples of butter produced in the Black Sea region of Turkey were purchased from different retail markets during different periods and investigated for toxic and essential elements content. Quantitative analyses of elements in the samples were performed using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Mean concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn in the butter samples were 18.93, 100.32, 384.66, 4199.1, 887.47, 168.64, 56.13, 16.34 and 384.66 µg kg(-1), respectively. Cd and Co were detected in 19 (mean content 0.29 µg kg(-1)) and 81 (mean content 3.81 µg kg(-1)) samples of 88 butter samples, respectively. However, the dietary intake of these elements by the population of the Black Sea region is currently well below the dietary reference intake (DRI) and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) levels of essential and toxic elements.

  6. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF BLACK SEA CYSTOSEIRA BARBATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Panayotova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Cystoseira barbata is the most widely distributed seaweed in the Black Sea. There is limited information about fat soluble vitamins content and fatty acids composition of this specie from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The aim of this study was to determine fat soluble vitamins, pigments, total lipid and fatty acid composition of Cystoseira barbata. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin E and D, pigments (β-carotene and astaxanthin and total cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously using HPLC/UV/FL system equipped with RP analytical column. Sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Brown seaweed Cystoseira barbata contained high amounts of α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Lipids were extracted by following the method of Bligh and Dyer. The residual lipid fraction was methylated using base-catalyzed transmethylation with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Cystoseira barbata was rich in linoleic (C18:2n6 and eicosopentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 although total lipid content was generally low. High levels of α-tocopherol correlate with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. As an antioxidant α-tocopherol preserves tissue PUFA from oxidation.

  7. Occurency of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in river water sources of Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloren, Zeynep; Seferoğlu, Onuralp; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-12-01

    A total of 420 environmental water samples and 120 drinking water samples from 45 different sampling sites of the Black Sea in Turkey were collected between 2012 and 2014. Genomic DNA was isolated from all the investigated water samples and comparativelly analyzed by Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the elongation factor 1 Alfa (EF1α) gene, and by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nPCR) of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA and semi-nested PCR (snPCR) of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GDH). 141 (58.7%), 125 (52.1%) and 120 (50%) samples respectivelly were positive by each method. Out of 240 environmental samples collected from 25 sites of Samsun Province have been found positive for G. duodenalis by LAMP, nPCR and snPCR, respectively. 55 (30.5%), 50 (27.8%) and 47 (26.1%) of 180 environmental samples collected from 20 other sampling sites of Giresun Province were positive for Giardia by LAMP, nPCR and snPCR, respectively. Five PCR products from different samples of the Giresun Province and 10 other samples from the Samsun Province were found positive for G. duodenalis assemblage B. Five PCR products from Giresun Province and 5 samples from Samsun Province were found positive for G. duodenalis assemblage A. This is the first report about G. duodenalis assemblages A and B from water samples investigations in Black Sea of Turkey.

  8. Romania – an International Actor in the Context of the Extensive Region of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world of the 21st century, the international relations are presented as a mandatory element for maintaining the balance of world power and peace. Although the international actors, such as states or international organizations, are trying to establish as many relationships as possible of various kinds (economic, political, military through diplomacy, all over the world, at macro level, the international actors should first achieve a harmony or a general state of good understanding at the micro level, i.e. in a certain geographic region to which they belong. Romania, as an actor of international relations, has as own purpose, and also imposed upon accession to the European Union, maintaining the diplomatic relations in the region of Central-Eastern Europe, both with its neighbors and with the states in the proximity of the Black Sea region. The article aims at outlining better the role that they have, in the geopolitical context, the countries from the extensive region of the Black Sea, in the consolidation of economic and political cooperation relationships, which would lead to stability in the region.

  9. PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS - PCBs AND DDTs IN FISH FROM DANUBE RIVER AND FROM BLACK SEA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Stancheva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and DDT residues (DDTs can still be a problem for the aquatic environment and the human health. PCBs and DDTs were determined in three freshwater fish species: common carp (Cyprinus carpio, catfish (Silurus glanis, pike-perch (Sander lucioperca and two marine fish: shad (Alosa pontica pontica and grey mullet (Mugil cephalus. The freshwater fish samples were collected from the Danube River and from Black Sea, Bulgaria in 2010. The POPs were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of PCBs and DDTs in fish species from Danube River and compared the results to the levels in marine fish species from Black Sea. The fifteen congeners of PCBs, p,p’-DDT and its two main metabolites p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. DDTs were the predominant contaminants in investigated species, with the p,p’- DDE contributing to more than 67% to the total DDTs. In freshwater fish concentrations of DDTs were found from 19.2 to 30.3 ng/g ww and PCBs concentrations - from 6.2 to 12.6 ng/g ww. The highest levels of PCBs and DDTs were determined in shad. The levels of DDTs and PCBs were determined lower than those found in similar fish species from other aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Investigating Potential Strategies for Increasing Tourism Competiveness at the Black Sea Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Roxana Munteanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2009-2011 the tourism industry at the Black Sea shore experienced a significant downturn as a direct result of the global economic crisis and a shy growth in 2012-2013 period. In this context of difficult macroeconomic conditions and a hardly predictable number of tourists, the suppliers of tourism services need a constant revision of strategy in order to increase their competitiveness and adapt to external market conditions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that hotels managers in Mamaia resort, Romania, could adopt considering customers` expectations and hospitality industry best practices. In order to achieve this, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed considering several locations on the seaside in France, Italy, Spain and Turkey. Following this analysis, several strategies are drafted, such as: use of social media, creation of packaged deals, targeting the business segment and advertising by using the cultural and historical context of the location. Moreover, a short survey among social media users revealed some of the tourists` expectations regarding their holidays at the Romanian Black Sea shore, such as quality of accommodation facilities, personalized services and entertainment possibilities.

  11. Geophysical Imprints of the Geodynamic Evolution of Moesia Following the Black Sea Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besutiu, Lucian

    2014-05-01

    Genesis of the two types of the Moesia basement (the so called Walachian, and Dobrogean sectors) along with the complex fault system affecting its cover and basement are still debated issues. Besides, there are two other intriguing aspects raised by the seismicity map of Romania: the sub-crustal events in the bending zone of East Carpathians, and the crust seismicity of the eastern Moesian Plate (MoP). Both the intermediate-depth earthquakes within full intra-continental environment and the intense craton seismicity are unusual aspects, and their apparent association difficult to explain. The paper proposes an integrated geodynamic model of MoP able to justify its current tectonics and both the crustal events in front of Carpathians, and the intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Vrancea zone within the frame of a unique geodynamic process. It starts from the idea that tectonic and geodynamic evolution of the E MoP and the bending zone of East Carpathians has been strongly affected by the opening of the W Black Sea basin, and is currently maintained by active rifting in SW Arabian Plate. The model is supported by geophysical and geodetic evidence. Unlike some previous geology-based models assuming that Black Sea opened during a singular geodynamic event (northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean floor), the pattern of the gravity and geomagnetic field, along with off-shore seismics bring convincing evidence on the distinct timing of the W and E Black Sea basins opening. Fingerprints of the lithosphere expelled by the W Black Sea rifting in the NW inland may be seen in the distribution of compression (P) wave velocity. In-depth development of NW striking major faults (splitting MoP into numerous vertical compartments) is also well revealed by seismic tomography (e.g. Peceneaga-Camena Fault, as the limit between MoP and East European Plate (EEP), still separates two distinct P wave velocity domains at 150 km depth). A second major fault system was created by the

  12. Education and Raising Awareness of Seismic Risk in the Black Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Balan, Stefan; Alcaz, Vasile; Trifonova, Petya; Uker, Nalan; Tataru, Dragos

    2014-05-01

    The Project "Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work)" ESNET has the intention to educate and raise awareness of seismic risk in the Black Sea Basin in four countries: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. The project is financed through "The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme", an EU operational programmes under European Neighborhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The programme is financed by ENPI. The participation of Turkey is financed by Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. It is implemented during the period 2007 - 2013. The project wants to contribute to the prevention of natural disasters generated by earthquakes in Black Sea Basin by developing a joint monitoring and intervention concept. All the countries involved in the project have their own studies, strategies, prevention and intervention systems in case of earthquakes, but until now there has not been an integrated approach so far in the Black Sea Basin. Given the cross-border character of seismic activity, it is necessary to have a cross-border approach on prevention, monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes. Main objectives : 1. The assessment of the disaster potential, with accent on the seismic risk degree and the earthquakes effects in the intervention area. For achieving the main objective is to have an accurate and up-to-date assessment of the potential of disasters provoked by earthquakes in the project area/regions. This assessment will be carried out at national level and will be used in designing the common concept/approach for dealing with earthquakes at regional level, thus ensuring the cross-border character of the objective. 2.To develop an integrated seismic monitoring and intervention concept. This integrated concept, built on the basis of the previous objective, will have a cross-border relevance and is at the core of the action. The monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes will be coordinated among the participating countries based on this, thus a

  13. Using very high resolution satellite images to identify coastal zone dynamics at North Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Zoran, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The availability of updated information about the extension and characteristics of land cover is a crucial issue in the perspective of a correct landscape planning and management of marine coastal zones. Satellite remote sensing data can provide accurate information about land coverage at different scales and the recent availability of very high resolution images definitely improved the precision of coastal zone spatio-temporal changes. The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, and climatic change effects. Use of satellite images is of great help for coastal zone monitoring and environmental impact assessment. Synergetic use of in situ measurements with multisensors satellite data could provide a complex assessment of spatio-temporal changes. In this study was developed a method for extracting coastal zone features information as well as landcover dynamics from IKONOS, very high resolution images for North-Western Black Sea marine coastal zone. The main objective was obtaining reliable data about the spatio-temporal coastal zone changes in two study areas located in Constanta urban area and Danube Delta area. We used an object-oriented approach based on preliminary segmentation and classification of the resulting object. First of all, segmentation parameters were tested and selected comparing segmented polygons with

  14. Apparent digestibility of proteins, amino acids and phosphorus of seven feed ingredients for bluntnose black bream%团头鲂对7种饲料的蛋白质、氨基酸及磷的表观消化率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雪姣; 梁丹妮; 刘文斌; 蒋广震; 王晶晶

    2011-01-01

    The apparent digestibility(AD) of dry matter, protein, amino acids and phosphorus of seven feed ingredients for bluntnose black bream( Megalobrama amblycephala Yih ) were determined by using 0.5%Cr2O3 as an indicator. The test diets consisted of 70% basal diet and 30% test feed ingredients, including fish meal, meat and bone meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles(DDGS) and rapeseed meal. The fish averaging (296.54±1.71) g were reared in indoor aquarium tanks(3.0 m ×0.8 m ×0.8 m), and the fecal samples were collected by abdominal pressure method after five weeks. The results showed that apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein, amino acids and phosphorus of seven feed ingredients were 53.65%-77.48%,78.66%-93.63%, 80.12%-94.83% and 3.21%-48.02%, respectively. Among the seven feed ingredients, the highest apparent digestibility of protein and total amino acids was in rapeseed meal; then the apparent digestibility of fish meal was close to that of peanut meal and soybean meal; and the lowest was in meat and bone meal. Apparent digestibility of phosphorus was the highest in DDGS, and the lowest in rapeseed meal and meat and bone meal,and others were 11.81%-29.10%. In conclusion, rapeseed meal, soybean meal, peanut meal can be used as high quality plant protein source to serve as alternative fishmeal for bluntnose black bream in production. The apparent digestibility of protein of DDGS was higher than that of meat and bone meal, and the apparent digestibility of phosphorus was the highest in seven feed ingredients. Therefore, DDGS can be used as a high quality fish feed ingredient.[Journal of Fishery Sciences of China, 2011, 18(1): 119-126]%本实验以0.5%的三氧化二铬(Cr2O3)为指示剂,研究分别以鱼粉、肉骨粉、豆粕、花生粕、棉粕、酒精糟及其残液干燥物(DDGS)和菜粕作为蛋白饲料,将这7种饲料原料与基础日粮按照3:7的比例组成实

  15. Special data base of Informational - Computational System 'INM RAS - Black Sea' for solving inverse and data assimilation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Piskovatsky, Nicolay; Gusev, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for data assimilation procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The above problems are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for personal computers. In this work the results on the Special data base development for ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the presentation the input information for ICS is discussed, some special data processing procedures are described. In this work the results of forecast using ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" with operational observation data assimilation are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No 13-01-00753) and by Presidium Program of Russian Academy of Sciences (project P-23 "Black sea as an imitational ocean model"). References 1. V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 5-31. 2. E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 69-94. 3. V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V.V. Fomin, S.N. Moshonkin, S.G. Demyshev, Numerical model of the circulation of Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 95-111. 4. Agoshkov V.I.,Assovsky M.B., Giniatulin S. V., Zakharova N.B., Kuimov G.V., Parmuzin E.I., Fomin V.V. Informational Computational system of variational assimilation of observation data "INM RAS - Black sea"// Ecological

  16. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of China's marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Yanju; WANG Xuchen; DAI Minhan; FENG Huan; LI Anchun; SONG Qian

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution of black carbon (BC) and its correlation with total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH) in the surface sediments of China's marginal seas. BC content ranges from <0.10 to 2.45 mg/g dw (grams dry weight) in the sediments studied, and varied among the different coastal regions. The Bohai Bay sediments had the highest BC contents (average 2.18 mg/g dw),which comprises a significant fraction (27%-41%) of the total organic carbon (TOC) preserved in the sediments. In comparison, BC in the surface sediments of the North Yellow Sea, Jiaozhou Bay, East China Sea and the South China Sea is less abundant and accounted for an average of 6%, 8%, 14% and 5%,respectively, of the sedimentary organic carbon pool. The concentration of ΣPAH in the surface sediments ranges from 41 to 3 667 ng/g dw and showed large spatial variations among the sampling sites of different costal regions. The Bohai Bay has the highest ΣPAH values, ranging from 79 to 3 667 ng/g dw. This reflects the high anthropogenically contaminated nature of the sediments in the bay. BC is positively correlated to TOC but a strong correlation is not found between BC and ΣPAH in the surface sediments studied, suggesting that BC and PAHs preserved in the sediments are derived from different sources and controlled by different biogeochemical processes. Our study suggests that the abundance of BC preserved in the sediments could represent a significant sink pool of carbon cycling in China's marginal seas.

  17. Crimea and the quest for energy and military hegemony in the Black Sea region: governance gap in a contested geostrategic zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2015-01-01

    Russia’s annexation of Crimea and its destabilization of Eastern Ukraine have radically altered the European security order, with the Black Sea region becoming an acutely contested geostrategic zone. Russia’s strategic interests in the Black Sea region, especially in terms of energy and military pre

  18. Climatic aspects of the variability of extreme storm occurrence and intensity in the western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, Nikolay; Trifonova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Nataliya; Eftimova, Petya

    2010-05-01

    The study considers potential changes in the storm occurrence and intensity over the western Black Sea through analysis of long term series of wind and wave conditions simulated with relatively high resolution. It is a result of coupling of atmospheric and wave models and spans period of more than 62 years (1948-2009). The wave hincast is driven with the global reanalysis data produced by ECMWF and NCEP/NCAR. The continuous dataset is reduced to a series of storms of considerable intensity and/or destructive potential through application of thresholds for filtration of weak seas. They are primarily based on storm impact on the coastal environment and principles for statistical representativeness. The climatic variability of occurrence and intensity of the selected extreme events is analyzed using different criteria such as number of stormy days, wind speed and wave height extremes. Particular consideration is paid to the mean wave energy per storm season and specific storm energy that are found to be more indicative for understanding of the storm pattern variability. Despite of the overall tendency for storminess decrease, there are no incontestable evidences corroborating a marked reduction of the storm intensity. While the total number of stormy hours diminishes, an increase of the mean wave energy is discernible. This is found to be caused by a change of the storm pattern: storms with short growth stage, energetic stage of full development and fast decay are more frequently observed. This storm type still provides significant energy input in the coastal zone and is able of producing considerable morphological impact, including damages. Such storms develop abruptly, therefore, timely prediction and mitigation of hazard effects become more complex to tackle with. Hence, little potential seems to exist for reducing the vulnerability to storms in the western Black Sea. That means the societies must begin to take such far-reaching implications into serious

  19. Optimising the vertical grid for numerical simulations of the Black Sea dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G. I.; Pickering, J.; Luneva, M. V.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to analytical methods which deal with continuous functions, solutions obtained using numerical methods depend on the type of discretisation used in the model. It is known that not only different classes of discretisation (such as finite difference, finite element, finite volume etc.) result in different numerical outputs but also variations within the same class may have significant effect on the quality of simulation. When it comes to discretization in the vertical, examples include z- or terrain-following coordinate systems all of which have their advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study is to identify how sensitive modelling results are to changes in the vertical grid structure, under condition that all other parameters, both physical (e.g. initial temperature and salinity field and meteo forcing) and numerical ( e.g. time step, horizontal resolution, number of vertical layers) are kept the same. The simulations were carried out using the NEMO ocean model at 6 km resolution for the Black Sea which has both deep (more than 2 km) areas and an extensive (hundreds of kilometres) continental shelf. The shelf break, where the slope changes abruptly, is traditionally a difficult location for many types of models. The terrain-following coordinate systems (such as s- and sigma-) are prone the pressure gradient (PG) errors, while z-coordinate systems create a serrated edge near the bottom. Some improvements are provided by z-coordinates with partial steps; however this approach has its own limitations. In this study we compare 4 vertical coordinate system: z-, s-, hybrid (s- on top of z-), and advanced hybrid (modified s- on top of z-). The latter two are the new systems, not yet implemented in the standard NEMO code and developed specifically for this study. The hybrid system uses s-coordinates in the upper layer of the ocean, from the sea surface to the depth of the shelf break and z-coordinate below this level. Such configuration minimizes the PG

  20. Comparative study of the hydrochemical regime in the Gelendzhik and Golubaya Bays, northeastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyleva, A.; Chasovnikov, V.; Chjoo, V.; Menshikova, N.; Kuprikova, N.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of this work was to study the hydrochemical regime in the coastal waters of the northeastern Black Sea. The observations were performed in influenced by significant anthropogenic stress Gelendzhik Bay and at the open coast region (Golubaya Bay). A sampling program has been initiated by the Southern Branch of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, (SB SIO RAS) on a weekly basis at the shore line area of «Chernomorets» beach (Gelendzhik Bay) and from the head of pier in the Golubaya Bay. Studies were carried out during a period from January 2001 to December 2008. List of measured parameters includes following: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), pH, alkalinity, phosphate, organic phosphorus, silicates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, urea, organic nitrogen, oil products. The Gelendzhik bay in its different parts is characterized with strong variability of concentrations of hydrochemical parameters. Above all, it relates to complex structure caused by wind impact. Parts of the bay filled with nearshore and sea waters are legibly differ from each other. The bay itself is rather isolated from the open sea, and its liability to man's impact leads to forming of next features of its seasonal variability of physical-chemical state: • On the base of Si/P and Si/N ratios analysis it was shown that the Gelendzhik Bay waters are significantly enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. • Unlike the Golubaya bay, phosphates are always present in the water of the Gelendzhik Bay and development of photosynthesis is not limited with nutrients. It may lead to processes of intensive eutrophication. • The oxygen saturation in the Gelendzhik Bay periodically descend lower than 80% during the summer period. That means, that even the Bay's surface layer formally corresponds to the hypoxic conditions that testify to the degradation of the ecosystem there. The conclusions obtained during our studies testify that the pollution from

  1. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  2. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Tsangaris; Vanessa, Moschino; Evangelia, Strogyloudi; Valentina, Coatu; Andreja, Ramšak; Rana, Abu Alhaija; Susana, Carvalho; Serena, Felline; Alisa, Kosyan; Yiota, Lazarou; Ioannis, Hatzianestis; Andra, Oros; Daniela, Tiganus

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  3. Preservation of black carbon in the shelf sediments of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations and carbon isotopic (14C, 13C) compositions of black carbon (BC) were measured for three sediment cores collected from the Changjiang River estuary and the shelf of the East China Sea. BC concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.14 mg/g (dry weight), and accounted for 5% to 26% of the sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) pool. Among the three sediment cores collected at each site, sediment from the Changjiang River estuary had relatively high BC contents compared with the sediments from the East China Sea shelf, suggesting that the Changjiang River discharge played an important role in the delivery of BC to the coastal region. Radiocarbon measurements indicate that the ages of BC are in the range of 6910 to 12250 years old B.P. (before present), that is in general, 3700 to 9000 years older than the 14C ages of TOC in the sediments. These variable radiocarbon ages suggest that the BC preserved in the sediments was derived from the products of both biomass fire and fossil fuel combustion, as well as from ancient rock weathering. Based on an isotopic mass balance model, we calculated that fossil fuel combustion contributed most (60%―80%) of the BC preserved in these sediments and varied with depth and locations. The deposition and burial of this "slow-cycling" BC in the sediments of the East China Sea shelf represent a significant pool of carbon sink and could greatly in-fluence carbon cycling in the region.

  4. Implementation of Black Sea numerical model based on NEMO and 3DVAR data assimilation scheme for operational forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Peneva, Elisaveta; Storto, Andrea; Rostislav, Kandilarov; Lecci, Rita; Yang, Chunxue; Coppini, Giovanni; Masina, Simona; Pinardi, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    This study describes a new model implementation for the Black Sea, which uses data assimilation, towards operational forecasting, based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean, Madec et al., 2012). The Black Sea domain is resolved with 1/27°×1/36° horizontal resolution (~3 km) and 31 z-levels with partial steps based on the GEBCO bathymetry data (Grayek et al., 2010). The model is forced by momentum, water and heat fluxes interactively computed by bulk formulae using high resolution atmospheric forcing provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecast (ECMWF). The initial condition is calculated from long-term climatological temperature and salinity 3D fields. Precipitation field over the basin has been computed from the climatological GPCP rainfall monthly data (Adler et al., 2003; Huffman et al., 2009), while the evaporation is derived from the latent heat flux. The climatological monthly mean runoff of the major rivers in the Black Sea is computed using the hydrological dataset provided by SESAME project (Ludvig et al., 2009). The exchange with Mediterranean Sea through the Bosporus Straits is represented by a surface boundary condition taking into account the barotropic transport calculated to balance the fresh water fluxes on monthly bases (Stanev and Beckers, 1999, Peneva et al., 2001). A multi-annual run 2011-2015 has been completed in order to describe the main characteristics of the Black Sea circulation dynamics and thermohaline structure and the numerical results have been validated using in-situ (ARGO) and satellite (SST, SLA) data. The Black Sea model represents also the core of the new Black Sea Forecasting System, implemented at CMCC operationally since January 2016, which produces at daily frequency 10-day forecasts, 3-days analyses and 1-day simulation. Once a week, the system is run 15-day in the past in analysis mode to compute the new optimal initial condition for the forecast cycle. The assimilation is performed by a

  5. Sulfur speciation and sulfide oxidation in the water column of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, George W., III; Church, Thomas M.; Powell, David

    We have applied sulfur speciation techniques to understand the chemistry and cycling of sulfur in Black Sea waters. The only reduced dissolved inorganic sulfur species detected (above the low minimum detection limits of the voltammetric methods employed) in the water column was hydrogen sulfide. The maximum concentration of sulfide (423 μM) is similar to previous reports. Using a cathodic stripping square wave voltammetry (CSSWV) method for nanomolar levels of sulfide, we determined the precise boundary between the "free" hydrogen sulfide (sulfidic) zone and the upper (oxic/suboxic) water column at the two stations studied. This boundary has apparently moved up by about 50 m in the past 20 years. Our results help demonstrate three chemically distinct zones of water in the central basin of the Black Sea: (1) the oxic [0-65 m], (2) the anoxic/nonsulfidic [65-100 m] and (3) the sulfidic [>100 m]. Sulfide bound to metals ("complexed" sulfide) is observed in both the oxic and anoxic/nonsulfidic zones of the water column. This supports previous studies on metal sulfide forms. From the electrochemical data, it is possible to estimate the strength of the complexation of sulfide to metals (log K = 10 to 11). Thiosulfate and sulfite were below our minimum detectable limit (MDL) of 50 nM using CSSWV. Elemental sulfur (MDL 5 nM) was detected below the onset of the hydrogen sulfide zone (90-100 m) with a maximum of 30-60 nM near 120 m. The sulfur speciation results for the Black Sea are lower by one order of magnitude or more than other marine systems such as the Cariaco Trench and salt marshes. New HPLC techniques were applied to detect thiols at submicromolar levels. The presence of thiols (2-mercaptoethylamine, 2-mercaptoethanol, N-acetylcysteine and glutathione) is correlated with the remineralization of organic matter at the oxic and anoxic/nonsulfidic interface. Water samples collected from the upper 50 m of the sulfidic zone showed significant sulfide oxidation on

  6. Contributions to the knowledge of the Danube waters impact on the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian; Oaie, Gheorghe; Secrieru, Dan; Vasiliu, Dan; Begun, Tatiana; Caraus, Ioan

    2013-04-01

    Rivers usually have a positive impact on marine areas where they discharge their waters, fertilizing them and supporting high biological productivity, the Danube River being a good example in this respect. Given the conditions of chaotic industrialization and the discharge into rivers of many chemicals, some of high toxicity, the eutrophication influence changed its beneficial nature, turning into a toxic polluting influence, with catastrophic effects on the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems, which is a situation well-known and in the area of the Danube mouths for the period 1970-1990. After 1990, under major political changes in socio-economic systems, the environmental pressures with impact on marine coastal ecosystems diminished; these pressures had been maintained by hydrological systems opening to the marine areas. What is the current situation of these pressures? What are the major characteristics of the organisms associations under the direct influence of the Danube? In this paper, the authors try to give some answers to these questions. In the framework of the lower Danube monitoring program, conducted by GeoEcoMar during 2009-2012, measurements were made and samples collected in more than 230 stations along the Romanian sector of the Danube River. The main aspects related to the ecological state of the River were: - Physico-chemical and biological (phytoplankton); - Sediment granulometry and inorganic chemistry - CaCO3, Fe2O3, TiO2, Zr, Ba, Rb, Zn, Ni, MnO, Cr, V, Co, Pb; - Ammonia, TOC, total cyanide, organochlorine pesticides in sediments; - Physico-chemical analyses of water samples. According to the results, the areas suspected of pollution from anthropogenic sources and also from other activities, could be outlined as follows: - The stretch between km 1072 (Danube entry to Romania) and km 1039 - downstream the mining sector Moldova Veche; - Sector between km 957-947, near the Iron Gates I dam; - Danube - Black Sea Canal (the NPP

  7. Towards a system for sea state forecasts in the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone: the case of the storm of 07-08 february 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko; Dimitrova, Marieta

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the existing operational sea state forecast system of NIMH- BAS for sea state in the Black Sea and our current progress on the implementation of an additional component for the forecasts of wind waves in the Bulgarian coastal zone. Wind Waves and especially the extreme ones, occurring during severe storms are a major hazard for the coastal zone, causing significant damages to the infrastructure, threat for the human lives and also causing significant damages to the protected areas around the coast. The numerical model WAVEWATCH III is in use for wind waves forecasts for the entire Black Sea with horizontal resolution of 1/8 degree (roughly 14 kilometers), which is sufficient for the open Sea, but not enough for a detailed coastal forecast. For the purposes of the coastal forecasts and early warnings in case of severe storms we decided to implement SWAN (Simulating the Waves Near Shore)- development of TU- DELFT. In this paper we will describe the brief details about the coastal sea state f...

  8. The timing of the Black Sea flood event: Insights from modeling of glacial isostatic adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Samuel L.; Lau, Harriet C. P.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Latychev, Konstantin

    2016-10-01

    We present a suite of gravitationally self-consistent predictions of sea-level change since Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the vicinity of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits that combine signals associated with glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and the flooding of the Black Sea. Our predictions are tuned to fit a relative sea level (RSL) record at the island of Samothrace in the north Aegean Sea and they include realistic 3-D variations in viscoelastic structure, including lateral variations in mantle viscosity and the elastic thickness of the lithosphere, as well as weak plate boundary zones. We demonstrate that 3-D Earth structure and the magnitude of the flood event (which depends on the pre-flood level of the lake) both have significant impact on the predicted RSL change at the location of the Bosphorus sill, and therefore on the inferred timing of the marine incursion. We summarize our results in a plot showing the predicted RSL change at the Bosphorus sill as a function of the timing of the flood event for different flood magnitudes up to 100 m. These results suggest, for example, that a flood event at 9 ka implies that the elevation of the sill was lowered through erosion by ∼14-21 m during, and after, the flood. In contrast, a flood event at 7 ka suggests erosion of ∼24-31 m at the sill since the flood. More generally, our results will be useful for future research aimed at constraining the details of this controversial, and widely debated geological event.

  9. Stratigraphy and Chronology of the Lake Sediments from Crimea as a Basis for Reconstructing the Black Sea Level Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolba, Vladimir; Subetto, D.A.; Kuznetsov, D.D.;

    2007-01-01

    Two long sediment sequences have been recovered from two lakes in Western Crimea (Lakes Saki and Dzharylgach) within a frame of the joint Danish-Russian-Ukrainian interdisciplinary project "Northern Black Sea in the 1st millennium BC: Human history and climate changes". A detailed examination...

  10. Impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis on Black Sea hydrology: Insights from hydrogen isotopes analysis on biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, I.; Reichart, G.-J.; Krijgsman, W.

    2013-01-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.96–5.33 Ma ago) was a dramatic oceanographic event, when evaporites kilometers thick precipitated in a desiccating Mediterranean basin, trapping more than 5% of the world's oceanic salt. Hydrological changes in the adjacent Black Sea and water exchange with the Medit

  11. Modeling the nitrogen cycling and plankton productivity in the Black Sea using a three-dimensional interdisciplinary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Nezlin, N.; Kostianoy, A.

    2004-01-01

    A six-compartment ecosystem model defined by a simple nitrogen cycle is coupled with a general circulation model in the Black Sea so as to examine the seasonal variability of the ecohydrodynamics. Model results show that the annual cycle of the biological productivity of the whole basin is character

  12. Comparison of genetic variation of wild and farmed Bream (Abramis brama orientalis; berg, 1905 using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Hosseinnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bream (Abramis brama orientalis is one of the most commercially valuable fish in the Caspian Sea. The aim of this study was to compare levels of genetic polymorphism between wild and farmed Bream populations using seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was investigated by studying samples collected from two regions; Chaboksar and the Artificial Propagation Center of Guilan province. Allele frequency was found to have declined in wild and cultured fish due to inbreeding and genetic drift. Significant population differentiation (Fst was observed between wild and farmed populations, which could be explained by the low number of alleles in two populations. Significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found at more loci. Beyond the null alleles' hypothesis, heterozygote deficiency may have arisen due to inbreeding. Both populations showed lowest genetic diversity according to the number of alleles and genotypes per each locus. This approach was carried out for the first time and could provide information regarding the genetic variability of farmed and wild abramis brama fish using microsatellite markers. Results could be used for the management and conservation of artificial Bream propagation programs.

  13. Response of the Black Sea methane budget to massive short-term submarine inputs of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmale, O.; Haeckel, M.; McGinnis, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    A steady state box model was developed to estimate the methane input into the Black Sea water column at various water depths. Our model results reveal a total input of methane of 4.7 Tg yr(-1). The model predicts that the input of methane is largest at water depths between 600 and 700 m (7......% of the total input), suggesting that the dissociation of methane gas hydrates at water depths equivalent to their upper stability limit may represent an important source of methane into the water column. In addition we discuss the effects of massive short-term methane inputs (e. g. through eruptions of deep......-water mud volcanoes or submarine landslides at intermediate water depths) on the water column methane distribution and the resulting methane emission to the atmosphere. Our non-steady state simulations predict that these inputs will be effectively buffered by intense microbial methane consumption...

  14. Trace element content in marine algae species from the Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Verep, Bulent; Ogretmen, A Omur; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-01

    Trace element content of marine algae species collected from the Black Sea coasts were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave digestion. Trace element content in marine algae species were 1.70-17.1 microg/g for copper, 3.64-64.8 microg/g for zinc, 9.98-285 microg/g for manganese, 99-3,949 microg/g for iron, 0.50-11.6 microg/g for chromium, 0.27-36.2 microg/g for nickel, 11-694 microg/kg for selenium, 0.50-44.6 microg/kg for cadmium, 1.54-3,969 microg/kg for lead, 1.56-81.9 microg/kg for cobalt. While iron was the highest trace element concentration, cadmium was the lowest in samples. Most of the analyzed samples were edible. The samples are consumed for human diet in several countries.

  15. Trace elements in the organs and tissues of bivalves in the northwestern Black Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkevich, T.A.; Gorbyleva, T.P.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was made of the distribution of 16 trace elements (copper, manganese, iron, aluminum, zinc, barium, strontium, lead, tin, silver, vanadium, nickel, chromium, lithium, titanium and cobalt) in the organs and tissues of bivalves in the northwestern Black Sea and in the Sukhoy and Berezanskiy estuaries. These elements were selected because they are constituents of enzymes, vitamins and other metal-protein complexes, or activate enzymes, and are involved in redox reactions in the transfer of electrons and hydrogen. We investigated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) and oysters (Ostrea edulis), analyzing the mantle, gills, liver, gonads, adductor muscles, foot and shell, and also in Mya the siphon and its outer epithelial layer, the cuticle. Similar data on Anodonta, a freshwater bivalve of the Dniester estuary, were used for comparison.

  16. Data Assimilation and Sensitivity of the Black Sea Model to Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    An adjoint based technique is applied to a Shallow Water Model in order to estimate influence of the model's parameters on the solution. Among parameters the bottom topography, initial conditions, boundary conditions on rigid boundaries, viscosity coefficients and the amplitude of the wind stress tension are considered. Their influence is analyzed from different points of view. Two configurations have been analyzed: an academic case of the model in a square box and a more realistic case simulating Black Sea currents. It is shown in both experiments that the boundary conditions near a rigid boundary influence the most the solution. This fact points out the necessity to identify optimal boundary approximation during a model development.

  17. Molecular insights into the taxonomy of Hypanis (Bivalvia, Cardiidae, Lymnocardiinae) in the Black Sea lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Luis; Popa, Oana; Iorgu, Elena; Kelemen, Beatrice; Murariu, Dumitru

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we used data from morphology and three DNA markers to assess the taxonomic status of the putative bivalve species Hypanis colorata and Hypanis angusticostata in a Black Sea lagoon, the Razelm Lake in Romania. The morphological data (the shape of shell ribs and the multivariate analysis of morphometric variance of three variables constructed as the ratios between the main dimensions of the shell) confirmed that the two analyzed species are distinct morphological entities. Three molecular markers, one from the nuclear genome (18S rRNA) and two from the mitochondrial genome (16S rRNA and COI), showed extremely reduced sequence divergence (0-0.1%) between the two putative species. Based on these results, we suggest that H. angusticostata and H. colorata are morphotypes of a single species.

  18. Participation in ICZM initiatives: critical aspects and lessons learnt from the Mediterranean and Black Sea experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriani, Stefano; Buono, Fabrizia; Tonino, Marco; Camuffo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Public participation is recognized as a necessary tool to ensure a successful implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) strategies and plans. This paper, based on the experiences carried out in the Mediterranean and in the Black Sea within the EU FP7 project PEGASO, presents some critical aspects and lessons learnt regarding participation in ICZM projects. The research shows that data availability, the complexity of data interpretation, an inadequate legal and cultural framework and the difficulties in promoting integration of all the components of coastal management within short term projects are all elements that if not properly considered since the beginning of the participatory process may hinder public participation effectiveness. Moreover the definition of the spatial scale of coastal phenomenon as well as the discrepancy between the local scale of coastal governance and the complex multi-scale nature of coastal systems remain highly critical aspects to be addressed.

  19. Duct occurrence and characteristics for Bulgarian Black sea shore derived from ECMWF data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkova, I.

    2015-12-01

    Non-standard propagation due to sharp gradients in tropospheric refraction is known to have significant impact on radar and communication systems working in microwave range. The formation of tropospheric ducts is the most severe deviation from the standard propagation conditions. The presented study reports results on the tropospheric ducts' occurrence and properties along the Bulgarian Black sea shore. The meteorology needed to reconstruct the refractivity profiles is derived from ECMWF current operational model, TL799L91, and refers to two-year period. Statistics of essential duct parameters for surface, surface-based and elevated ducts are reported for the summer months and overall duct statistics are given for the other seasons.

  20. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  1. Viral surveillance of cultured Rainbow Trout in the eastern Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, H; Altuntas, C; Parlak, R

    2013-03-01

    To study the presence and spread of viral fish pathogens in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey, 172 pooled samples (seven fish per pool) of Rainbow Trout fry from 28 hatcheries were examined from December 2006 to July 2007. Forty-three pools (seven broodfish per pool) of seminal and ovarian fluids from 182 female and 119 male brood Rainbow Trout were also sampled during spawning. Moreover, reproductive fluids (22 pools) of wild trout (Salmo trutta labrax, S. t. caspius, S. t. abanticus, and S. t. macrostigma), captured by electroshocking in the rivers in and around the region, were sampled. Triplicate groups of 40 or 80 Rainbow Trout fry was also challenged with two similar isolates to determine their virulence on trout fry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on the samples producing cytopathic effect on CHSE-214 cells. The positive results were confirmed with a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. Neither infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) nor viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was detected during the survey. Of the 28 hatcheries sampled in the Black Sea region, 15 from six provinces tested positive for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in trout fry. Unexpectedly, all reproductive fluids from both male and female cultured and wild broodstock tested negative for IPNV. Nucleotide sequences of the VP2/NS region of IPNV showed that all isolates collected (n = 38) in the region and surrounding areas belonged to the genogroup III. The findings strongly suggest that IPNV is endemic in the fry of farmed Rainbow Trout within the region. Virus prevention measures should be taken to prevent in-farm spread of these highly contagious, low-virulence isolates.

  2. Landslide susceptibility assessment of SE Bartin (West Black Sea region, Turkey by artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ercanoglu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are significant natural hazards in Turkey, second only to earthquakes with respect to economic losses and casualties. The West Black Sea region of Turkey is known as one of the most landslide-prone regions in the country. The work presented in this paper is aimed at evaluating landslide susceptibility in a selected area in the West Black Sea region using Artificial Neural Network (ANN method. A total of 317 landslides were identified and mapped in the area by extensive field work and by use of air photo interpretations to build a landslide inventory map. A landslide database was then derived automatically from the landslide inventory map. To evaluate landslide susceptibility, six input parameters (slope angle, slope aspect, topographical elevation, topographical shape, wetness index, and vegetation index were used. To obtain maps of these parameters, Digital Elevation Model (DEM and ASTER satellite imagery of the study area were used. At the first stage, all data were normalized in [0, 1] interval, and parameter effects on landslide occurrence were expressed using Statistical Index values (Wi. Then, landslide susceptibility analyses were performed using an ANN. Finally, performance of the resulting map and the applied methodology is discussed relative to performance indicators, such as predicted areal extent of landslides and the strength of relation (rij value. Much of the areal extents of the landslides (87.2% were classified as susceptible to landsliding, and rij value of 0.85 showed a high degree of similarity. In addition to these, at the final stage, an independent validation strategy was followed by dividing the landslide data set into two parts and 82.5% of the validation data set was found to be correctly classified as landslide susceptible areas. According to these results, it is concluded that the map produced by the ANN is reliable and methodology applied in the study produced high performance, and satisfactory results.

  3. Time series analysis of recent (1 ky) sediments of the euxinic slope of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, O. G.; Oaie, G.; Preoteasa, F.

    2012-04-01

    To reconstruct the past history of the euxinic environment of the Black Sea, a 0.5 m core containing unconsolidated sediments was collected at a dept of 600 m on the slope of Continental Platform of the Black Sea. The vertical profiles of both Cs-137 and Pb-210, as radiometricaly measured, allowed us to calculate a sedimentation ratio of 0.49 ± 0.03 mm/y, thus giving to the entire stratigraphic column an age of about 1 ky. By means of a fourth generation Computer Tomograph we have obtained a high resolution tomographic image of a longitudinal section through entire core evidencing the presence of about 250 parallel laminae (1 to 2.5 mm thick) consisting of an alternation of coccolithic and argillaceous mud. After image digitization, we have obtained the corresponding 3550 equidistant points time series (TS). After detrending, TS was analyzed by means of the Blackman-Tukey correlogram and subsequently decomposed in wavelet functions. The resulted correlogram evidenced multiple maxima, the most important ones corresponding to 307, 125, 35, 18, 9 and 7 years (at p <0.001). At the same time, the Morlet wavelet evolutionary spectra showed the presence of a bundle of cycles whose age, estimated to be between A.D. 1600 and 1800, could indicate some significant changes of the European environment, the end of the Little Ice Age being one of the possible explanations. At the same time, the relative constancy of the laminae thickness along entire sedimentary column testifies to a long term stationarity of the euxinic environment during the last thousand years, in concordance with the experimental data regarding both Mo and U vertical profiles, two important proxies of the euxinic medium.

  4. Ventilation of the Black Sea pycnocline on seasonal and interannual time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. IVANOV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a description of temporal variability of winter cooling conditions and estimation of effective cross-isopycnal mixing rates in the Black Sea. Data averaging versus salinity / sigma-t scale was used to filter effects of local dynamics. It is shown that traces of winter mixing events appear well preserved in the temperature-salinity structure, due to the peculiarities of the Black Sea where temperature often acts as a passive tracer with a smaller contribution to density as compared to salinity. Vertical distribution of the magnitudes of temperature oscillations indicates that the convection events have limited effects in modifying the structure of the middle and lower pycnocline on a seasonal time scale. However, long-term fluctuations are well recognised. The magnitudes of the seasonal and long-term temperature fluctuations are comparable only in the upper pycnocline. Three major cooling events can be distinguished from the record of the pycnocline temperature for the past 75 years. The intensive cooling occurred in the late 1920s - early 1930s, early 1950s and late 1980s - early 1990s. Partial renewal of the water of the cold intermediate layer core took place approximately once in two years. The period when convection causes erosion of the pycnocline lasts for only a week. It is shown that a lateral source of heat and salt exists for the upper pycnocline, where it is the cold intermediate water, and for the lower pycnocline, the layer below S@ 20.5, where this lateral source of salt and heat is maintained by disintegrating Bosphorus plume.

  5. Digenean parasites of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus in the Turkish Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkay Öztürk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the digenean parasites of Atlantic horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (L., 1758, in the Turkish Black Sea coast for the first time. Fish were collected throughout a year period from local fishermen in Sinop. A total of 256 fish specimens were weighed and measured, subsequently examined for parasites using conventional methods under an Olympus microscope (BX53 equipped with a digital camera (DP50. The examination included gills, pharynx, body cavity and visceral organs (stomach, intestine, liver, swim bladder and gonads. Parasites recovered were fixed and preserved using methods commonly applied. A total of five species including adults of Prodistomum polonii (Molin 1879 Bray and Gibson 1990, Ectenurus lepidus Looss, 1907, Monascus filiformis (Rudolphi, 1819 Looss, 1907, Lasiotocus typicus (Nicoll, 1912 and metacercaria of Stephanostomum cesticillum (Molin, 1858 Looss, 1899 were identified. Each parasite species were counted, their prevalence (% and mean intensity values were determined according to Bush et al. (1997. Kruskal-Wallis test (Non-parametric ANOVA was performed to find out the significant differences in the mean intensity values of the parasite for two length classes of fish as well as for the seasons. All the statistical tests were performed at the significance level of 5%. The calculated overall infection prevalence (% and mean intensity values were 48.8% and 3.78±0.34, respectively. This data is the first on the digenean parasite fauna of the Atlantic horse mackerel collected from the Turkish Black Sea coast. Lasiotocus typicus and Stephanostomum cesticillum are new parasite records for Turkey.

  6. Climate-physics-chemistry-biology: connected changes in the Black Sea regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, Svetlana; Silkin, Vladimir; Podymov, Oleg; Chasovnikov, Valery

    2016-04-01

    The ratio of nutrients in the water is a significant regulator of community structure. This control is very important, both in coastal waters that are exposed to river runoff and in the open Sea, where the development of the phytoplankton community depends on the intensity of the vertical exchange. This is valid also for the northeastern Black Sea. Since there are no big rivers in this region, vertical mixing becomes the main process that supplies nutrients from the nutrient-rich deep layers to the surface layer. Vertical mixing depends on winter cooling and is characterized by a cold intermediate layer (CIL) temperature. Since 1984, both the sea-surface and CIL temperatures have shown a tendency to increase, which leads to relatively weak winter mixing. The coldest winters during last two decades were observed in 2006 and 2012, when the CIL temperature decreased to 7.3oC and 6.8oC, respectively. According to the observed density dynamic, the maximum elevation of cold, high density water occurred in the second half of May. In 2012, the waters from the upper part of the CIL reached a depth of 20-30 m. All the other years were characterized by a weak winter mixing, with the CIL temperature varying from 7.8oC to 8.3oC, and CIL waters raised to the depths no shallow than 60 m. Elevation of CIL waters resulted in an increase in nutrient concentration in the surface layer from the end of March to the beginning of June, before the thermocline starts to form, with maxima in May. An increase in the nutrient concentrations is more pronounced for silicon and phosphorus and less for nitrogen. After a severe winter, the silicon concentration can reach 8 μM, whereas after warm ones, only 4 μM. For phosphorus, this amounts to 0.4 and 0.1 μM, respectively. This leads to decrease of N/P ratio below the Redfild theoretical value after a severe winter. It was found that variation in N/P ratio is the main regulator of phytoplankton community structure in the NE Black Sea. At low N

  7. Severe fish mortality associated with 'red tide' observed in the sea off Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; George, M; Narvekar, P.V.; Jayakumar, D.A; Shailaja, M; Sardessai, S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Shenoy, D.M; Naik, H.; Maheswaran, P.A.; KrishnaKumari, L.; Rajesh, G.; Sudhir, A.K.; Binu, M.S.

    Severe fish mortality associated with the "red tide" phenomenon caused by Noctiluca blooms was observed in the sea off Cochin, Kerala, India at depths less than 40 m. The dead fish, almost entirely comprised of the threadfin bream (Nemipterus...

  8. In situ autonomous optical radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zibordi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of primary satellite ocean color data products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on-board Aqua (MODIS-A and the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, is investigated in the Western Black Sea using in situ measurements from the Gloria site included in the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC. The analysis is also extended to an additional well-established AERONET-OC site in the northern Adriatic Sea characterized by optically complex coastal waters exhibiting similarities with those observed at the Gloria site. Results from the comparison of normalized-water leaving radiance LWN indicate biases of a few percent between satellite derived and in situ data at the center-wavelengths relevant for the determination of chlorophyll a concentration (443–547 nm, or equivalent. Remarkable is the consistency among the annual cycle determined with time series of satellite-derived and in situ LWN ratios at these center-wavelengths. Contrarily, the differences between in situ and satellite-derived LWN are pronounced at the blue (i.e., 412 nm and red (i.e., 667 nm, or equivalent center-wavelengths, suggesting difficulties in confidently applying satellite-derived radiometric data from these spectral regions for quantitative analysis in optically complex waters.

  9. AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL IN WESTERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas UYGUR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main energy sources which are natural, clean, environmentally friendly, and renewable are wind power, solar energy, biomass energy, hydro energy, and wave energy. The wave energy has no cost except for the first investment and maintenance. There is also no cost for input energy. Besides these, it has no pollution effect on the environment, it is cheap and there is a huge potential all around the world. Wave energy is a good opportunity to solve the energy problem for Turkey which is surrounded by seas. Concerning all these facts, it has been conducted some studies which included five years of observation in the Western Black Sea Region (Akçakoca. The wave energy potential has also been calculated. From this sutdy results, it can be concluded that the wave energy potential of this region is inefficient. It is believed that by the improvement of the new energy converter devices in future, this low potential can be used more efficiently and as a result this study might be used as a basis for the future researches.

  10. Analysis of prestorm situations in the Florida Straight and Golubaya Bay in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grankov, A. G.; Marechek, S. V.; Milshin, A. A.; Novichikhin, E. P.; Shelobanova, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    We consider some peculiarities of the behavior of thermal and radio thermal (microwave radiation) characteristics of the atmosphere during prestorm situations in water areas monitored directly and remotely. The objects of research are (a) a region of the SMKF1 station (Sombrero Key) in the Florida Straight in August 2005 and (b) Golubaya Bay in the Black Sea (Gelendzhik, the territory of the Southern Branch of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences) in September 2010, several days before an intensive storm. Using meteorological and satellite microwave radiometric data, we have studied some common and specific features in the behavior of surface air temperature and humidity, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, total heat and water vapor content of the atmosphere, and microwave radiation characteristics of the "water surface-atmosphere" system during time periods preceding the approach of Hurricane Katrina to the region of SMKF1 and development of the sea storm near the Golubaya Bay. In both cases the effect of the accumulation of the latent heat of water vapor in the atmosphere was observed during the prestorm periods (of several days).

  11. STUDY REGARDING TO AGGRESSIONS ON THE ECOSYSTEM DANUBE DELTA – BLACK SEA AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gr. IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Danube Delta has suffered damages of habitat and species loss caused by factors, including: construction of dams upstream have degraded obviously flooding regime; creation of agricultural and fishing enclosures which decreased the natural and original surfaces; extending artificial navigation channels that negatively affected the hydrological regime and water quality of lakes; increase of nutrients in the water, industrial pollution and accumulate effluents that led to the reduction of plant and bird species; attempt to exploit quartz sand, very pure and fine, the sea levees, although they were protected as nature reserves because of the specific morphology and sub-Mediterranean vegetation covering them; tourism and illegal fishing; mismanagement of resources of reed and fish. The fact is that there was a slight improvement for the marine ecosystem, reported since the early 90s. At present, the area of the Danube Delta - Black Sea is developing sustainable, in terms of medium and economic perspective. In my study I used comparative methods, investigations, direct observations, measurements, calculations and actual data, obtained from surveys and direct observations, from prestigious, specialized and authorized institutions.

  12. Are iron-phosphate minerals a sink for phosphorus in anoxic Black Sea sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Nikki; Kraal, Peter; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Schnetger, Bernhard; Slomp, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a key nutrient for marine organisms. The only long-term removal pathway for P in the marine realm is burial in sediments. Iron (Fe) bound P accounts for a significant proportion of this burial at the global scale. In sediments underlying anoxic bottom waters, burial of Fe-bound P is generally assumed to be negligible because of reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides and release of the associated P. However, recent work suggests that Fe-bound P is an important burial phase in euxinic (i.e. anoxic and sulfidic) basin sediments in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we investigate the role of Fe-bound P as a potential sink for P in Black Sea sediments overlain by oxic and euxinic bottom waters. Sequential P extractions performed on sediments from six multicores along two shelf-to-basin transects provide evidence for the burial of Fe-bound P at all sites, including those in the euxinic deep basin. In the latter sediments, Fe-bound P accounts for more than 20% of the total sedimentary P pool. We suggest that this P is present in the form of reduced Fe-P minerals. We hypothesize that these minerals may be formed as inclusions in sulfur-disproportionating Deltaproteobacteria. Further research is required to elucidate the exact mineral form and formation mechanism of this P burial phase, as well as its role as a sink for P in sulfide-rich marine sediments.

  13. Investigation of the shelf break and continental slope in the Western part of the Black Sea using acoustic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutu, F.; Ion, G.; Jugaru Tiron, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Black Sea is a large marginal sea surrounded by a system of Alpine orogenic chains, including the Balkanides-Pontides, Caucasus, Crimea and North Dobrogea located to the south, northeast, north and northwest, respectively (Dinu et al., 2005). The north-western part of the Black Sea is the main depocentre for sediment supply from Central Europe via the Danube River, but also from Eastern Europe through the Ukrainian rivers Dniepr, Dniestr and Southern Bug (Popescu et al., 2004). The shelfbreak is located at water depths of 120-140 m southward of the Danube Canyon, and up to 170 m northward of the canyon possibly due to recent faulting which is very common in this area. The continental slope is dissected by numerous canyons, each of which is fed by several tributaries. The Danube Canyon (also known as Viteaz Canyon) is a large shelf-indenting canyon located in the north-western Black Sea and connected to the youngest channel-levee system of the Danube Fan (Popescu et al., 2004). The acoustic methods are a useful way for investigate the shelf break and the continental slope giving us information about landslides on the continental slope, the topography of the investigated area, the sedimentary zones affected by instability and to quantify the geometry of the underwater landslides. The measurements made on the continental slope from north-western part of the Black Sea gave us the possibility to make a digital terrain model. After processing the data the model offer information about the main access ways of the sediments through gravitational slide on the submarines canyons, with forming of turbidity currents, debris flows and also other transport/transformation phenomena of the sediments on the continental slope like submarine landslides and submarine collapse. References Dinu, C., Wong, H.K., Tambrea, D., Matenco, L., 2005. Stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the Romanian Black Sea shelf. Tectonophysics 410, 417-435. Popescu, I., Lericolais, G., Panin

  14. Progress of KOERI Tsunami Warning System for the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Yilmazer, Mehmet; Cokacar, Tulay; Comoglu, Mustafa; Pinar, Ali; Kekovali, Kivanc

    2016-04-01

    This presentation provides a progress report on the activities of the Bogazici University / Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute - Regional Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring Center (KOERI-RETMC) which provides services as a Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) of ICG/NEAMTWS in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas since 1 July 2012. KOERI continues to operate 178 BB and 97 strong motion and 6 short period sensors and the regional coverage includes 77 stations from GFZ and additional 16 stations through bilateral agreements. One radar-type tide-gauge has been installed in Fethiye within the framework of "Inexpensive Device for Sea-Level Measurement" (IDSL) initiative offered as donation by the EC/JRC and planning is in progress for the possible installation of three more IDSLs in selected locations in the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey. The capabilities and the limitations of HF Radar technology for the purpose of tsunami detection in the Eastern Mediterranean has been identified and the maturity and the applicability of these systems for the possible use under the Tsunami Warning System has been determined. The development of the TsuComp as a user-friendly interface to be used in the assessment of tsunamigenic potential and as a single-point entry for message dissemination has been finalized. The work towards the creation of Tsunami Inundation Maps at the Tsunami Forecast Points in Turkey is near finalization. This work is partially funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839. The authors would like to thank EC/JRC and Mr. Alessandro Annunziato for their continuous support in the operational activities of RETMC and IDSL initiative.

  15. Release of hydrogen sulfide by asteroid impacts in Black Sea and risks for inland human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Viorel

    2007-10-01

    The hydrogen sulfide rich waters of the Black Sea pose a potential danger for the surrounding land regions. The impact of an asteroid may cause a catastrophic poisonous gas release in the atmosphere. Some effects of this last phenomenon on the Eastern Black Sea coastal regions are evaluated in this article. Two simple models are proposed to describe the generation of the H(2)S cloud. The initial diameter of the cloud depends on asteroid size. The initial thickness of the cloud depends, in addition, on sea depth at impact location. The wind speed plays an important role in H(2)S cloud dynamics. At 10 m/s wind-speed the cloud margins may be seen at about 150 km from impact location in about 3.2 h. The maximum distance traveled by the hydrogen sulfide cloud increases by increasing the asteroid size and wind speed. The influence of the impact position on the distance traveled by hydrogen sulfide clouds is rather weak, as far as the seawater depth does not change significantly. Two values are considered when referring to the effect of hydrogen sulfide concentrations on humans: the lower concentration limit of 19.88 ppm (which corresponds to fatigue, loss of appetite, headache, irritability, poor memory, dizziness) and the upper concentration limit of 497 ppm (which corresponds to death after single exposures). The land surface area covered by the H(2)S cloud generated by a 1000 m size asteroid during the run-in ranges between about 6080 and 11,520 km(2). This may affect between 145,000 and 276,000 people. When a 250 m size asteroid is considered, the covered land surface area ranges between about 840 and 1,890 km(2) and between 20,000 and 45,000 people may be affected. In case of a 70 m size asteroid, the cloud covers up to 105 km(2) of land during the run-in. This may affect about 2500 people. These are moderate estimates. They do not include the urban population and may be 10 times underestimated for some particular wind directions. General recommendations to diminish

  16. Climatic variability of the sub-surface sea temperatures in the Aegean-Black Sea system and relation to meteorological forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontoyiannis, H.; Papadopoulos, V.; Georgopoulos, D. [Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Attica (Greece); Kazmin, A.; Zatsepin, A. [P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    Non-smoothed yearly temperature records with minimal statistical uncertainties are constructed for winter and summer of the period 1950-2000 in two areas in the Aegean Sea, for the sub-surface layer of 80-120 m, and two areas in the Black Sea, for the sub-surface layer of sigma-theta isopycnals between 14.5 and 15.4. The specific areas are selected mostly because of the dense hydrographic-data coverage they have during the period 1950-2000. Two trend regimes appear in both Seas: a period of decreasing sea temperatures from the early/mid 1960s to the early/mid 1990s and an apparent warming afterwards. Trends in sea temperatures correlate with trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and partly the East Atlantic West Russian (EAWR) indexes, but the signs of NAO and/or EAWR cannot sufficiently justify the winter-to-winter temperature changes in the entire study area. In examining the wind flows in the sea-level-pressure maps for characteristic winters in which local peaks in the sea-temperature records occur, we identify particular sea-level-pressure structures that are not accounted for by the typical North-Atlantic or East Atlantic-West Russia positive or negative dipoles. In addition, there are winters when the Siberian High induces local maxima in sea-temperatures in the study area. A spectral-coherence analysis of the unfiltered winter sea-temperature and the corresponding teleconnection NAO/EAWR records, shows that common spectral and coherence peaks exist at {proportional_to}5-6, {proportional_to}9-10 and {proportional_to}15-17 years. (orig.)

  17. Climatic variability of the sub-surface sea temperatures in the Aegean-Black Sea system and relation to meteorological forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoyiannis, H.; Papadopoulos, V.; Kazmin, A.; Zatsepin, A.; Georgopoulos, D.

    2012-09-01

    Non-smoothed yearly temperature records with minimal statistical uncertainties are constructed for winter and summer of the period 1950-2000 in two areas in the Aegean Sea, for the sub-surface layer of 80-120 m, and two areas in the Black Sea, for the sub-surface layer of sigma-theta isopycnals between 14.5 and 15.4. The specific areas are selected mostly because of the dense hydrographic-data coverage they have during the period 1950-2000. Two trend regimes appear in both Seas: a period of decreasing sea temperatures from the early/mid 1960s to the early/mid 1990s and an apparent warming afterwards. Trends in sea temperatures correlate with trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and partly the East Atlantic West Russian (EAWR) indexes, but the signs of NAO and/or EAWR cannot sufficiently justify the winter-to-winter temperature changes in the entire study area. In examining the wind flows in the sea-level-pressure maps for characteristic winters in which local peaks in the sea-temperature records occur, we identify particular sea-level-pressure structures that are not accounted for by the typical North-Atlantic or East Atlantic-West Russia positive or negative dipoles. In addition, there are winters when the Siberian High induces local maxima in sea-temperatures in the study area. A spectral-coherence analysis of the unfiltered winter sea-temperature and the corresponding teleconnection NAO/EAWR records, shows that common spectral and coherence peaks exist at ~5-6, ~9-10 and ~15-17 years.

  18. Numerical modeling of the central Black Sea ecosystem functioning during the eutrophication phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, M.; Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.

    2008-03-01

    A one-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the central Black Sea at the end of the 1980s when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and dynamics of the system. The physical model is the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and the biogeochemical model describes the foodweb from bacteria to gelatinous carnivores through 24 state variables including three groups of phytoplankton: diatoms, small phototrophic flagellates and dinoflagellates, two zooplankton groups: micro- and mesozooplankton, two groups of gelatinous zooplankton: the omnivorous and carnivorous forms, an explicit representation of the bacterial loop: bacteria, labile and semi-labile dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter. The model simulates oxygen, nitrogen, silicate and carbon cycling. In addition, an innovation of this model is that it explicitly represents processes in the anoxic layer. Biogeochemical processes in anaerobic conditions have been represented using an approach similar to that used in the modeling of diagenetic processes in the sediments lumping together all the reduced substances in one state variable [Soetaert, K., Herman, P., 1996. A model of early diagenetic processes from the shelf to abyssal depths. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60 (6) 1019-1040]. In this way, processes in the upper oxygenated layer are fully coupled with anaerobic processes in the deep waters, allowing to perform longterm simulations. The mathematical modeling of phytoplankton and zooplankton dynamics, detritus and the microbial loop is based on the model developed by Van den Meersche et al. [Van den Meersche, K., Middelburg, J., Soetaert, K., van Rijswijk P.H.B., Heip, C., 2004. Carbon-nitrogen coupling and algal-bacterial interactions during an experimental bloom: Modeling a 13c tracer experiment. Limnology and Oceanography 49 (3), 862-878] and tested in the modeling of mesocosm

  19. Crust to Upper Mantle Echoes of the Black Sea Opening and Seismotectonic Consequences on the NW Inland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besutiu, L.

    2007-05-01

    The paper aims at revealing some tectonic and geodynamic imprints of the Black Sea opening mainly inferred from the potential fields analysis. DSS lines and seismic tomography are added in order to strengthen the interpretation and/or deepen the depth of investigation. Crust structure and dynamics (1) The presence of the oceanic crust in the central part of the basin is well reflected in the geomagnetic anomaly pattern. (2) Unlike some previous hypotheses postulating the existence of an unique rifting, up to date filtering techniques pointed out an unexpected pattern of the gravity and geomagnetic anomalies, trending almost perpendicular each-other within eastern and western basin, thus advocating for a distinct opening of the W and E Black Sea. (3) Correlation with the magnetostratigraphic scale revealed a geomagnetic reversal and seems to indicate a later opening of the eastern basin; off-shore seismics confirm the model by showing a slight overthrusting of the E Pontides over W Pontides. (4) It seems that the W Black Sea opening split the Moesian Plate into several slivers by creating/reactivating older faults trending north-westward. (5) Crust expelled by the Black Sea opening accommodated in various circumstances: (i) East Carpathians it met the inclined outer flank of the TTZ and came into an oblique subduction to which specific peculiarities of the South Harghita Mts. volcanism might be associated; (ii) South Carpathians, crustal slivers facing the vertical contact of the Intra-alpine sub-plate could not subduct, but went into a lithosphere buckling to which the lowest gravity low on the Romanian territory, located in front and not beneath the highest mountains in Romania, seems to be related; (iii) within the bending area of East Carpathians, where three tectonic plates met each other, the speed excess provided by the W Black Sea opening created an unstable triple junction. Upper mantle echoes Fingerprints of the Black Sea opening are well reflected in some

  20. State of bream populations in reconstructed water bodies of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian USATYI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bream, Abramis brama L., is a key species in fish communities of Moldovian Rivers and a main component of bottom food chains of river and lake ecosystems. With the reconstruction of water bodies, mainly for hydroelectric power stations needs, the ecological conditions changed substantially, which results in modifications in population state of biota. The negative effects of water bodies’ reconstruction upon population status of bream in several Moldovian Rivers and reservoirs were studied. These effects manifest in detrimental changes in bream growth, age composition and reproductive success. The conclusion is made that the economical gain after the regulation of large and middle-size rivers is opposed by the negative impact upon fish community as a whole, as well as upon the ecology of individual species as applied to the indicator species Abramis brama.

  1. Evaluation of cytotoxic compounds in different organs of the sea bream Sarpa salpa as related to phytoplankton consumption: an in vitro study in human liver cell lines HepG2 and WRL68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Hamza, Asma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the cytotoxic effects of not-yet identified compounds present in organ extracts of Sarpa salpa, collected in autumn, the period with a peak in health problems. In addition, we studied the cytotoxicity of extracts of epiphytes found in the stomach content of S. salpa collected in summer and of epiphytes collected from the sea in the Sfax area at the end of spring. We tested these fractions in two human hepatic cell lines: HepG2 and WRL68. We observed a significant loss of viable cells when HepG2 cells were exposed for 72 h to acetone extracts of livers of S. salpa at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml protein. Proteins extracted from brain or muscle did not significantly induce cell death at the studied concentrations (≤10 mg/ml). There was a significant loss of viable cells when treated with liver extract of S. salpa dissolved in DMSO. Extracts of epiphytes collected in late spring showed a cytotoxic effect in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we observed a significantly decreased cell viability of HepG2 at a dilution (1/40) of epiphyte extracts from stomach contents of two fish we had collected. The cytotoxic effect of the observed epiphyte extracts confirms the transfer of toxins originating from toxic dinoflagellates which live in epiphyte on the Posidonia oceanica leaves to fish organs by grazing. Hence, the liver of this fish can cause a threat to human health and consumption should for this reason be dissuaded.

  2. Genetic Differentiation between Mullus barbatus from the Western Part of the Black Sea andMullus surmuletus (Pisces, Mullidae from the Mediterranean Sea

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    Petya P. Ivanova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of two species Mullus barbatus from the western part of Black Sea (Varna and M. surmuletus from the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki were investigated using the electrophoretic data from enzymatic systems, codifying for 15 putative loci, and the patterns of general muscle proteins (PROT coded from nine loci. Several loci PROT- 4*, PROT-5* and PROT-8* as well as two mMDH and two sMDH loci, and LDH-A* showed different electrophoretic patterns among species and can be used as species-specific markers. Only one esterase locus (EST-9* was found to be polymorphic for both species. The remaining enzymes and proteins were monomorphic. In this study for the first time existence of hybrids between two species were reported. Hybrids were registered in the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki as well in the northeastern part of Black Sea (Balshoj Utrish using electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing methods. Genetic distance D Nei (0.526 and time of divergence (tNei = 3 215 000 years between M. barbatus (Varna Bay and M. surmuletus (Thessaloniki give evidence for existence of these two well diverged species in one genus.

  3. Mo-Isotopes in the Oceans and a Case Study From the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, C.; Nagler, T. F.; Boettcher, M.; Kramers, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    Because of an increasing number of Mo isotope fractionation data, the geochemical cycle of Mo especially in the recent oceans is now better understood. Data presented here were determined using a Nu instruments MC-ICPMS and double spike techniques (external reproducibility generally below 0.1 permil (2s.d.) on 98Mo/95Mo). Mo isotopes are homogenous in the oceans (+2.3 delta 98Mo/95Mo relative to JMC in-house standard) at present day resolution. All data are therefore given in delta notation relative to Mean Ocean water Mo (MOMO). Mo-Sources: Continental rocks, assumed to represent the riverrhine input, show a narrow range of Mo isotope compositions (-2.0 to -2.3 permil) close to the in-house standard solution. Oxic Mo-sinks: Pelagic sediments and recent Fe-Mn crust surfaces show lighter Mo isotope compositions (-2.7 to -3.2 permil). In addition, to depth profiles through thick sections of Fe-Mn crusts also yield uniform Mo isotope compositions (average of -2.9 and -3.2) over the last 60Ma implying a homogenous isotope composition in ocean water over this time period. This makes Mo different from other oceanic proxies since the large variations in environmental parameters seem to have not affected Mo. We explain the observed general offset of about 3 permil from ocean water with an equilibrium fractionation between major and minor Mo species in the water column, of which the latter are lighter and can be scavenged more efficiantly due to higher coordination numbers. Suboxic Mo-sinks: The balancing heavier Mo isotope composition with respect to the input can be found in recent suboxic sediments from open ocean basins, which display variable values but are all heavier than the input (-0.7 to -1.6 permil). The influence of Low-T hydrothermal activity on the Mo isotope budget in the oceans is still to be tested. Mo isotopes in the Black-Sea: Because of its limited water exchange with the open oceans, the high surface freshwater content (1/3) and its widespread bottom

  4. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

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    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  5. Effect of diesel fuel pollution on the lipid composition of some wide-spread Black sea algae and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nechev, J.T.; Stefanov, K.L.; Popov, S.S. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Khotimchenko, S.V. [Inst. of Marine Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Ivanova, A.P. [Inst. of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova-Konaklieva, S.D. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Higher Medical School, Sofia (Bulgaria); Andreev, S. [Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2002-04-01

    Two green algae (Ulva rigida and Cladophora coelothrix), the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the snail Rapana thomasiana from the Bulgarian Black Sea shore have been treated with diesel fuel (100 mg l{sup -1}) in an aquarium with sea-water for three days. The lipids and their fatty acid changes have been examined. Significant changes have been observed mainly in the polar lipids and in the saturation of the fatty acids. These changes appeared to be bigger in the evolutionary less advanced species from both groups of marine organisms - algae and invertebrates (Ulva rigida and Mytilus galloprovincialis respectively). The data obtained could be used for a biomonitoring of the pollution. (orig.)

  6. Multidisciplinary experiment on studying short-period variability of the sedimentary process in the northeastern part of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Ostrovskii, A. G.; Novigatskii, A. N.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    The principal aim of this work is to reveal the regularities of short-period synoptic variability of vertical flows and the composition of settling sedimentary material, to obtain information on the quantitative characteristics of the processes that influence sound-scattering layers in the water layer above the continental slope behind the shelf edge in the northeastern part of the Black Sea. The results were obtained due to improvement of the equipment and the procedures for performing sea experiments on studying physicogeological, biological, and hydrophysical processes in the upper illuminated layer of phytoplankton development.

  7. Buried paleo-sedimentary basins in the north-eastern Black Sea-Azov Sea area and tectonic implications (DOBRE-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Tolkunov, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    A number of independent but inter-related projects carried out under the auspices of various national and international programmes in Ukraine including DARIUS were aimed at imaging the upper lithosphere, crustal and sedimentary basin architecture in the north-eastern Black Sea, southern Crimea and Kerch peninsulas and the Azov Sea. This region marks the transition from relatively undisturbed Precambrian European cratonic crust and lithosphere north of the Azov Sea to areas of significant Phanerozoic tectonics and basin development, in both extensional as well as compressional environments, to the south, including the eastern Black Sea rift, which is the main sedimentary basin of the study area. The wide-angle reflection and refraction (WARR) profile DOBRE-2, a Ukrainian national project with international participation (see below), overlapping some 115 km of the southern end of the DOBREfraction'99 profile (that crosses the intracratonic Donbas Foldbelt) in the north and running to the eastern Black Sea basin in the south, utilised on- and offshore recording and energy sources. It maps crustal velocity structure across the craton margin and documents, among other things, that the Moho deepens from 40 km to ~47 km to the southwest below the Azov Sea and Crimean-Caucasus deformed zone. A regional CDP seismic profile coincident with DOBRE-2, crossing the Azov Sea, Kerch Peninsula and the north-eastern Black Sea southwest to the Ukraine-Turkey border, acquired by Ukrgeofisika (the Ukrainian national geophysical company) reveals in its inferred structural relationships the ages of Cretaceous and younger extensional and subsequent basin inversion tectonic events as well as the 2D geometry of basement displacement associated with post mid-Eocene inversion. A direct comparison of the results of the WARR velocity model and the near-vertical reflection structural image has been made by converting the former into the time domain. The results dramatically demonstrate that

  8. Survival of the fittest: phosphorus burial in the sulfidic deep Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Peter; Dijkstra, Nikki; Behrends, Thilo; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    The Black Sea is characterized by permanently anoxic and sulfidic deep waters. Studies of the mechanisms of P burial in such a setting can be used to improve our understanding of P cycling in modern coastal systems undergoing eutrophication and ancient oceans during periods of anoxia in Earth's past. Here, we present phosphorus and iron (Fe) pools as determined in surface sediments along a transect from oxic shallow waters to sulfidic deep waters in the northwestern Black Sea, using a combination of bulk chemical analyses and micro-scale X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μXAS). We show that under oxic bottom water conditions, ferric iron oxides (Fe(III)ox) in surficial sediment efficiently scavenge dissolved phosphate from pore waters. Under these conditions, Fe(III)ox-bound P constitutes the main P pool at the sediment surface, but rapidly declines with depth in the sediment due to anoxic diagenesis. The transition from shallow (oxic) to deep (sulfidic) waters along the depth transect is reflected in a slight increase in the fraction of organic P. We also show evidence for authigenic calcium phosphate formation under sulfidic conditions at relatively low dissolved PO4 concentrations. Furthermore, we provide spectroscopic evidence for the presence of Fe(II)-Mn(II)-Mg-P minerals in sediments of the sulfidic deep basin. We hypothesize that these minerals are formed as a result of input of Fe(III)ox-P from shallower waters and subsequent transformation in either the water column or sediment. This finding suggests an unexpected strength of Fe-P shuttling from the shelf to the deep basin. While the presence of Fe-P species in such a highly sulfidic environment is remarkable, further analysis suggests that this P pool may not be quantitatively significant. In fact, our results indicate that some of the P that is interpreted as Fe-bound P based on chemical extraction may in fact be Ca-associated PO4 consisting of a combination of fish debris

  9. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  10. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990 (NODC Accession 0002717)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990

  11. To the Issue of Gendarme Activities on the Territory of Black Sea Province During the First World War (1914–1917 years

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    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article on the basis of first introduced into the scientific circulation documents of the State archive of the Krasnodar region covers the activities of the gendarmerie staff management in the Black Sea province during the First World War. The author comes to the conclusion that the activities of the gendarmerie were conducted professionally during the 1914-1917 years in the Black Sea province. The expulsion of the prominent representatives of the revolutionary movement from the border area, which was the Black Sea province, led to political stability in the region. Further the tasks of the gendarmerie included only the maintaining of order and the prevention of the penetration of anti-social element in the Black Sea province.

  12. Inorganic nutrients, sulfide and oxygen profiles from R/V KNORR in the Black Sea from 19880514 to 19880725 (NODC Accession 9400101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection contains inorganic nutrient chemistry, sulfide and oxygen data collected during cruises 2 through 5 of the 1988 Black Sea Oceanographic...

  13. Temperature, salinity, nutrient, and ammonia profiles collected by bottle in the Black Sea from 5/5/1955 - 4/16/1989 (NODC Accession 0000131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts from the FIOLENT and other platforms in the Black Sea. Data were collected from 05 May 1955...

  14. Geothermal structure of the eastern Black Sea basin and the eastern Pontides orogenic belt: Implications for subduction polarity of Tethys oceanic lithosphere

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    Nafiz Maden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The numerical results of thermal modeling studies indicate that the lithosphere is cold and strong beneath the Black Sea basin. The thermal lithospheric thickness increases southward from the eastern Pontides orogenic belt (49.4 km to Black Sea basin (152.2 km. The Moho temperature increases from 367 °C in the trench to 978 °C in the arc region. The heat flow values for the Moho surface change between 16.4 mW m−2 in the Black Sea basin and 56.9 mW m−2 in the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. Along the southern Black Sea coast, the trench region has a relatively low geothermal potential with respect to the arc and back-arc region. The numerical studies support the existence of southward subduction beneath the Pontides during the late Mesozoic–Cenozoic.

  15. Mass evolution of Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas from GRACE and altimetry: accuracy assessment and solution calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, B. D.; Luthcke, S. B.

    2017-02-01

    We present new measurements of mass evolution for the Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas as determined by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) GRACE time-variable global gravity mascon solutions. These new solutions are compared to sea surface altimetry measurements of sea level anomalies with steric corrections applied. To assess their accuracy, the GRACE- and altimetry-derived solutions are applied to the set of forward models used by GSFC for processing the GRACE Level-1B datasets, with the resulting inter-satellite range-acceleration residuals providing a useful metric for analyzing solution quality. We also present a differential correction strategy to calibrate the time series of mass change for each of the seas by establishing the strong linear relationship between differences in the forward modeled mass and the corresponding range-acceleration residuals between the two solutions. These calibrated time series of mass change are directly determined from the range-acceleration residuals, effectively providing regionally-tuned GRACE solutions without the need to form and invert normal equations. Finally, the calibrated GRACE time series are discussed and combined with the steric-corrected sea level anomalies to provide new measurements of the unmodeled steric variability for each of the seas over the span of the GRACE observation record. We apply ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to adaptively sort the mass and steric components of sea level anomalies into seasonal, non-seasonal, and long-term temporal scales.

  16. Methane budget of a large gas hydrate province offshore Georgia, Black Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeckel, M.; Reitz, A.; Klaucke, I. [Leibniz Inst. of Marine Sciences, Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Methane is the most common hydrocarbon in marine sediments. As such, all seas and oceans have methane seepage that comprises the flow of gases and natural fluids from rocks and sediments through the seabed into the water column. The main effect of methane seepage on the biosphere is the support of cold seep communities by methane and the production of hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is produced in the subsurface sediments by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) by a consortia of microbes and is then utilized by sulfide-oxidizing microbes. This paper reported on a study that investigated methane turnover in the surface sediments in the Batumi methane seep area in the Black Sea, offshore Georgia. The methane flux budget was determined by connecting the calculated methane sinks and sources to the gas bubble motion through the surface sediments. The calculation of methane sinks included benthic flux, AOM and hydrate formation, while the sources included the gas dissolution rate. Geochemical analyses revealed a microbial origin of the methane and a shallow fluid source. Although anaerobic methane oxidation rapidly consumed the SO4{sup 2-} within the top 5-20 cm, a large upward fluid advection was not observed in the porewater profiles. Therefore, it was determined that the Batumi seep area is dominated by methane gas seepage. 1-D transport-reaction modelling constrains the methane flux needed to support the observed SO4{sup 2-} flux as well as the rate of near-surface hydrate formation. The model results were in good agreement with the hydro-acoustic backscatter intensities observed at the bubble release sites using the sonar of a ROV. 52 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  17. PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME GREEN AND RED MACROPHYTE ALGAE FROM THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA LITTORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Negreanu-Pîrjol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Algae are a group of organisms, Thallophytes, containing specific bioactive compounds (i.e. brominated phenols, heterocyclic oxygen compounds, sterols, terpenes, polysaccharides. Their excessive growth has negative consequences on marine organisms; on the other hand, they have a crucial role in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agriculture. In this paper were studied the main physical-chemical characteristics correlated with the biological specificity of three species of multicellular algae, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva rigida (green, Ceramium rubrum (red, frequently encountered along the Romanian Black Sea coast. Generally mixtures of thallophytes algae from the Black Sea were collected, processed and characterized. Density, pH, conductivity, anions, loss on drying, ash, total nitrogen, protein, lipids, carbohydrates, carotenoids were determined. The results emphasized the possibility of using these marine resources as biofertilizer in agriculture.

  18. Sulina and Danube-Black Sea Channels: Competitors or Allies on Cargo Transport in South-Eastern Europe?

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    Ionica Soare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The two river channels which connect the Black Sea to the inland Romanian area, have constituted since the beginning of their building two very important transport routes for the cargo and passenger traffic (Sulina that have connected Black Sea to the internal ports of Romania, thus representing ”transport highways” of the Romanian economy. The present study tries to present the chronological evolution of these two shipping routes, regarding their importance to the cargo traffic, as well as the financial policy imposed by the administration of these channels. We will present and analyze retrospectively the major elements regarding the administration of these channels, a comparative analysis of the role of these two channels in the river cargo transport, consequently trying to predict a future evolution of these two river communication routes.

  19. STRATEGY MAKING WITH QUANTIFIED SWOT APPROACH: A CASE ANALYSIS ON TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BLACK SEA REGION OF TURKEY Nermin Celik

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    Nermin Celik

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing demand, service competitiveness requirements, and customer expectations in tourism sector in Turkey, satisfactorily solutions and development strategies are required for the ongoing problems to keep the business performance in desired level. Recent researches indicate that the popularity of Black Sea Region, located in the north side of Turkey, has been raised, however, the enterprises and infrastructural quality of service facilities are dramatically seemed to be insufficient. Hence, this paper proposes development strategies on tourism industry by utilizing the Quantified SWOT Analysis. The outcomes of this paper originally contribute strategic vision of Turkish tourism industry subsequently. The extension of this research can be performed to cover the collaborative research programs towards tourism sector under unique implementation plan of Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC.

  20. The Factors Affecting Information Technology Usage Behavior of Tax Office Employees in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Yilmaz,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting information technology usage behavior of tax office employees in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. To accomplish this purpose, the data is gathered from 133 tax office employees who work in Black Sea Region of Turkey through a questionnaire that is formed with 5-point Likert-type scale. Research model is developed in the light of Theory of Reasoned Action, and a series of analyses is conducted. The predicted hypotheses are tested thought regression analyses. According to results, intention of tax office employees has the high predictive power on information technology usage. Additionally, attitude and subjective norms of tax office employees have an impact on their intention towards information technology usage. However, their attitude has the more predictive power than their subjective norms on their intentions towards information technology usage.

  1. Monitoring of Radionuclide Concentrations in Marine Algae from the Turkish Black Sea Coast and Bosphorus During the Period of 1984-2001

    OpenAIRE

    Topcuoglu, Sayhan

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations were reviewed in macroalgae species were collected from Black Sea and Bosphorus stations in 1984 to 2001. The results showed that the Sinop region was more contaminated than the Sile region on the Black Sea coast of Turkey from the Chernobyl accident. The highest concentration of 137Cs radionuclide was found after Chernobil accident in C. linum as 34 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) during July 1986. The concentrations of the 137Cs activity in 1987 a...

  2. Factors influencing 14C concentrations of algal and archaeal lipids and their associated sea surface temperature proxies in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Stephanie; Rethemeyer, Janet; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Wacker, Lukas; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the preservation and deposition history of organic molecules is crucial for the understanding of paleoenvironmental information contained in their abundance ratios such as Uk‧37 and TEX86 used as proxies for sea surface temperature (SST). Based on their relatively high refractivity, alkenones and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) can survive postdepositional processes like lateral transport, potentially causing inferred SSTs to be misleading. Likewise, selective preservation of alkenones and GDGTs may cause biases of the SST proxies themselves and can lead to decoupling of both proxy records. Here we report compound-specific radiocarbon data of marine biomarkers including alkenones, GDGTs, and low molecular weight (LMW) n-fatty acids from Black Sea sediments deposited under different redox regimes to evaluate the potentially differential preservation of both biomarker classes and its effect on the SST indices Uk‧37 and TEX86. The decadal Δ14C values of alkenones, GDGTs, and LMW n-fatty acids indicate similar preservation under oxic, suboxic, and anoxic redox regimes and no contribution of pre-aged compounds, e.g., by lateral supply. Moreover, similar 14C concentrations of crenarchaeol, alkenones, and LMW n-fatty acids imply that the thaumarchaeotal GDGTs preserved in these sediments are produced in the euphotic zone rather than in subsurface/thermocline waters. However, we observe biomarker-based SSTs that strongly deviate (ΔSST up to 8.4 °C) from in situ measured mean annual SSTs in the Black Sea. This is not due to redox-dependent differential biomarker preservation as implied by their Δ14C values and spatial SST pattern. Since contributions from different sources can largely be excluded, the deviation of the Uk‧37 and TEX86 proxy-derived SSTs from in situ SSTs requires further study of phylogenetic and other yet unknown environmental controls on alkenone and GDGT lipid distributions in the Black Sea.

  3. Mapping cold seeps with high-resolution deep water multibeam echosounders in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintersteller, P.; dos Santos Ferreira, C.; Klaucke, I.; Ivanov, M.; Sahling, H.; Bohrmann, G.

    2011-12-01

    Cold seeps are locations at the seafloor where gas and/or fluids are emitting. In contrast to mud volcanoes, which distinctly change the seafloor morphology, cold seeps often lack significant relief. However, in comparison with surrounding sediments seep locations on the sea floor are often characterized by high acoustic backscatter intensity. This was documented during several investigations with deep towed side-scan sonar (SSS) systems in recent years. Authigenic carbonates, free gas and gas hydrates, as evidenced by ground truthing, are responsible for the high backscatter values. Last year's upgrade of the 1°x2° KONGSBERG deep water echosounder EM120 to EM122 on RV Meteor enhanced the system to almost 4 times the previous resolution due to multi-ping and high density signal processing. Based on the physics of sound propagation in the water column, multibeam echosounders (MBES) for deep water use relatively low frequencies of about 12-15 kHz. Apparently highly water-saturated sediments are penetrated by these signals and can cause artificial offsets in bottom detection in comparison to high-frequency echosounders. Nevertheless the effect of the slightly penetrating signal has a useful side effect on the backscatter. Investigations on several seep sites in the Black Sea, carried out with both EM122 and EM710 during Meteror cruise M84-2, resulted in maps of remarkable bathymetric resolution but also showed multibeam backscatter information of a 12 kHz signal to be an excellent tool to map seep-influenced seafloor areas. New seep locations have been mapped in regions of the western Turkish continental margin close to Eregli and of the eastern Turkish margin off Samsun. In both areas high backscatter patches were mapped with nearly comparable resolution as achieved by deep-tow SSS systems. At Eregli the new data is compared with data from a deep-towed EdgeTech SSS system recorded with a frequency of 75 kHz. At Samsun the results are compared with data from a MAK-1

  4. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

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    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  5. A new record of Ratan goby - Ponticola ratan (Nordmann, 1840 (Pisces: Gobiidae in the Black Sea, Romanian coastal waters

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    Daniel Cocan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In August 2015 we managed to capture a specimen of ratan goby (Ponticola ratan in the Romanian coastal waters of the Black Sea, near the locality of Sf. Gheorghe (Tulcea County. This is the 7-th signaling for this species in Romanian coastal waters. The previous 6 specimens were recorded in the period 1960-1993, between Mangalia (Constanţa County and Sulina (Tulcea County. The species was identified by means of meristic characters (number of scales on medial line, number of spiny and soft rays, and morphological particularities (cycloid scales on the nape area and pectoral fin joint. Also, the measurements made, confirmed that the ratio between the head length and total length, which was 33% (TL=8.70 cm vs. Head Length=2.61cm. Another morphological character, specific to this species, is the lower jaw, which exceeds in length the upper jaw. Being a Ponto-Caspian endemite, with low population along the Bulgarian and Romanian coastline, we considered it important to point out this new record. Noting that, being known the trend of sporadic migration of this species, would not be excluded that global warming causes a shift from its normal distribution area, from northern and northeastern (Black Sea to south-west. Therefore, future research may bring more notifications regarding this species in south-western area of the Black Sea

  6. Toxic and essential trace elemental contents in fish species from the Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa

    2009-08-01

    Toxic and essential element content of ten different fish species from the Black Sea were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion method. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference materials (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The relative standard deviations were found to be lower than 10%. Toxic element content in fish samples were found 25-84 microg/kg for mercury, 0.11-0.32 microg/g for arsenic, 0.28-0.87 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.35 microg/g for cadmium, 1.14-3.60 microg/g for nickel. Trace element content in fish samples were found 36.2-145 microg/g for iron, 0.65-2.78 microg/g for copper, 2.76-9.10 microg/g for manganese, 38.8-93.4 microg/g for zinc, 0.19-0.85 microg/g for selenium, 0.63-1.74 microg/g for chromium. The levels of lead and cadmium in fish samples were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

  7. Usage and the economic potential of the medicinal plants in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoglu, Mahmut; Hacisalihoglu, Sezgin

    2010-09-01

    Medically used plant species in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey was determined in this study. Totally 50 species within 24 families have been designated in 25 research points, using the face to face polling method with the herbs sellers and purchasers. 14 species of studied plants are endemic and pointed out as endangered species according to the IUCN list (The World Conservation Union). In which health problem the medicinal plants are used, their usage art, area and the used parts have been determined too. The research results show that 12.58% of the species are used in intestinal problems and 8.60% for diuretic. Evaluating from this point of view the region includes very rich species could be used in different health problems. The results shows that average annual income of the medically used plant selling companies is about 33,333$. Increasingly demands for the medically used plants have been raised the medically used plant companies about 60% in the last decade. The relevance of Ethnopharmacologically used plants is increasing in Turkey and in the World. Important is to meet the demand without endanger the rich plant species resources.

  8. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

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    Aysen Koc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66, while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84 in terms of morphology.

  9. The water clock of the Bronze Age (Northern Black Sea Coast)

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa N; Nevsky, Mikhail Yu

    2015-01-01

    In the article presents the results of the multidisciplinary study conducted with the help of archaeological, physical and astronomical methods. The aim of the study was to analyze and interpret marks and drawings applied to the surface of the vessel of the Bronze Age (Srubna culture) found near the Staropetrovsky village (Donetsk region, Ukraine) near the border between the Donetsk and Lugansk regions. The carried out calculations and measurements possible to prove that staropetrovsky vessel is the most ancient water clock, discovered on the territory of Europe, and have approximately the same age as the oldest known ancient Egyptian water clock. Such vessels - water clocks were needed for Srubna population to mark sundial, which had recently been discovered in the Northern Black Sea Coast. Based on the analysis of marks on the outside of the vessel, it was revealed that Staropetrovsky vessel is unique ancient complex device for measuring time and at the same time using a water clock, and with the help of a ...

  10. Analemmatic and Horizontal Sundials of the Bronze Age (Northern Black Sea Coast)

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of unique plate with images of Srubna burial of tumuli group Popov Yar-2 (Ukraine) and plate of Srubna burial of tumulus field Tavriya-1 (Russia). A distinctive feature of the images is the orderliness and symmetry of the composition, as well as the location of elliptical cupped depressions. With the help of mathematical and astronomical methods we prove in this paper that the plates with the images are the ancient sundials. At the Popov Yar-2 plate located two sundials, which worked at the same time: the analemmatic sundial and the horizontal sundial with two gnomons and the linear scale. At the Tavriya-1 plate located analemmatic sundial. On the basis of the reconstruction of the linear parameters of the gnomon of both Popov Yar-2 plate sundials and given the scale value of horizontal sundial, in the article that the potential indirect impact protoscientific knowledge of ancient Egypt to the Srubna population in the Northern Black Sea coast. Srubna burial, plate, we...

  11. ANALYSIS OF HUNTING STRATEGY OF UPPER PALEOLITHIC IN THE NORTHERN BLACK SEA COAST

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    Plohenko B. G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the studying of one of the most important aspects of learning of life-support and wildlife management systems of hunting of ancient inhabitants of the Northern Black Sea Coast. Such researches are one of the main directions in sphere of studying prehistory of humankind in our country and abroad. The main aim of the research was to create the hunting pattern and to learn the chronological changes, by studying same time materials of Kamennaya Balka II, Tretij Mys, Anetolka II and Amvrosievka. During this research, the complex analysis of faunistic remainders was conducted with the help of new methods, which were developed by Russian and foreign authors. This led to a number of new high-quality results. The article shows the meaning of data which can be learnt by studying faunistic remainders and importance of such type of sources. The continuation of such research can extend our conception of life of our ancient ancestors

  12. Sloping beach with wave breaking and moving shoreline on Romanian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, F. V.; Panaitescu, M.; Anton, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose of the work: wave breaking and wave run-up on a gently sloping plane beach from Romanian Black Sea Coast. That coast has a length of 244 km and an almost linear configuration with the exception of build-up areas. The paper concentrates on shoaling of regular waves and spilling type of wave breaking running with a simulation on software MIKE 21. Research and methodology: the paper contents the measurements for spilling and plunging type of breakers on a plane sloping beach with a slope of 1/45 starting in depth of 0.23 m to 0.46 m. A moving shoreline is included in the simulations. With respect to the parameters of the breaker model the standard values are applied. An explicit filter is introduced near the still water shoreline to remove short-wave instabilities and to dissipate the wave energy in the model. Results: the obtained values indicate the wave breaking and wave run-up processes, the spatial variation of a number of phase-averaged quantities and the shoreline motion converted intro a vertical and a horizontal displacement.

  13. The impact of climate variability on the production of Black Sea anchovy: a modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraslan, Ceren; Fach, Bettina A.; Oguz, Temel I.; Salihoglu, Baris

    2010-05-01

    The influence of climate variability on anchovy eggs and larvae production and the interaction with gelatineous zooplankton in the Black Sea is studied with a one-dimensional, lower trophic level and anchovy bioenergetics model including parameterizations for a gelatineous predator. Stochastic climate variability in the form of fifty-year interannual temperature and nutrient entrainment rate variability is used to simulate how climate-mediated effects cascade across trophic levels and how the anchovy population production responds to such disturbances. Model results reveal a high correlation of egg production and recruitment success in response to changes in temperature and nutrient entrainment rates and complex and highly nonlinear interactions between anchovy and gelatineous populations. Moreover, it is indicated in the results that temperature variation has strong long-term effects on anchovy population production and its signal propagates through successive adult year classes. Although, temperature has a direct effect on anchovy egg and larvae production via influencing mortality rates, it indirectly influences anchovy production by modulating the mixed layer depth, which affects phytoplankton blooms and zooplankton availability, the major food source of anchovy.

  14. Water resources of the Black Sea Basin at high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Srinivasan, Raghvan; Bacu, Victor; Lehmann, Anthony

    2014-07-01

    The pressure on water resources, deteriorating water quality, and uncertainties associated with the climate change create an environment of conflict in large and complex river system. The Black Sea Basin (BSB), in particular, suffers from ecological unsustainability and inadequate resource management leading to severe environmental, social, and economical problems. To better tackle the future challenges, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of the BSB coupling water quantity, water quality, and crop yield components. The hydrological model of the BSB was calibrated and validated considering sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. River discharges, nitrate loads, and crop yields were used to calibrate the model. Employing grid technology improved calibration computation time by more than an order of magnitude. We calculated components of water resources such as river discharge, infiltration, aquifer recharge, soil moisture, and actual and potential evapotranspiration. Furthermore, available water resources were calculated at subbasin spatial and monthly temporal levels. Within this framework, a comprehensive database of the BSB was created to fill the existing gaps in water resources data in the region. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of building a large-scale model in fine spatial and temporal detail. This study provides the basis for further research on the impacts of climate and land use change on water resources in the BSB.

  15. Diverse origin of mitochondrial lineages in Iron Age Black Sea Scythians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juras, Anna; Krzewińska, Maja; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Ehler, Edvard; Chyleński, Maciej; Łukasik, Sylwia; Krenz-Niedbała, Marta; Sinika, Vitaly; Piontek, Janusz; Ivanova, Svetlana; Dabert, Miroslawa; Götherström, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Scythians were nomadic and semi-nomadic people that ruled the Eurasian steppe during much of the first millennium BCE. While having been extensively studied by archaeology, very little is known about their genetic identity. To fill this gap, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Scythians of the North Pontic Region (NPR) and successfully retrieved 19 whole mtDNA genomes. We have identified three potential mtDNA lineage ancestries of the NPR Scythians tracing back to hunter-gatherer and nomadic populations of east and west Eurasia as well as the Neolithic farming expansion into Europe. One third of all mt lineages in our dataset belonged to subdivisions of mt haplogroup U5. A comparison of NPR Scythian mtDNA linages with other contemporaneous Scythian groups, the Saka and the Pazyryks, reveals a common mtDNA package comprised of haplogroups H/H5, U5a, A, D/D4, and F1/F2. Of these, west Eurasian lineages show a downward cline in the west-east direction while east Eurasian haplogroups display the opposite trajectory. An overall similarity in mtDNA lineages of the NPR Scythians was found with the late Bronze Age Srubnaya population of the Northern Black Sea region which supports the archaeological hypothesis suggesting Srubnaya people as ancestors of the NPR Scythians. PMID:28266657

  16. Eolianite and coquinite as evidence of MIS 6 and 5, NW Black Sea coast, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginal, Ahmet Evren; Kıyak, Nafiye Güneç; Selim, Hamit Haluk; Bozcu, Mustafa; Öztürk, Muhammed Zeynel; Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Demirci, Alper; Elmas, Elmas Kırcı; Öztürk, Tuğba; Çakır, Çağlar; Karabıyıkoğlu, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    This paper discusses the implications of a lowstand carbonate eolianite and overlying transgressive sequence of coquinite at Şile on the Turkish Black Sea coast based on composition, depositional characteristics and optical age estimations. The cross-bedded eolianite is a mixed ooid quartz grainstone in composition, yielding a depositional age matching MIS 6. It formed at the backshore of the paleobeach with the supply of sediment the from the beach face and offering insights into the drift of mixed shallow marine carbonates and siliciclastics together with radial ooids by onshore winds from a subaerially exposed high- to low-energy ooid shoals and oolitic sand complexes which developed parallel to the shoreline on the shallow shelf margin. During this lowstand, a low-relief dune retaining a record of opposing paleowind directions than that of prevalent northeasterly winds of today appears to have been lithified to form dune rock (aeolinite) under drier conditions compared to the present. Coinciding with MIS 5e, shallow marine coquina beds resting unconformably on the eolianite indicate the occurrence of the Mediterranean transgression during the last interglacial, as confirmed by benthic foraminifera within the high-salinity tolerant coquina shells.

  17. The environmental impact of a Wave Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  18. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Diaconu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  19. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401

  20. Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification, demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems.

  1. Phytoplankton taxonomy based on CHEMTAX and microscopy in the northwestern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker-Develi, Elif; Berthon, Jean-François; Canuti, Elisabetta; Slabakova, Natalya; Moncheva, Snejana; Shtereva, Galina; Dzhurova, Boryana

    2012-06-01

    Abundance and carbon biomass of different phytoplankton groups obtained by microscopy were compared with taxonomy derived from pigment measurements and CHEMTAX analysis of samples collected in June 2006 in the NW Black Sea. The diatom Chaetoceros curvisetus was dominant in terms of carbon biomass based on cell volume at inshore stations, while the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi was prevalent at offshore. Emiliania huxleyi reached bloom abundance of 3.3 × 106 cells L- 1. The chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration within phytoplankton groups as allocated by CHEMTAX was in agreement with microscopy derived carbon biomasses of the taxonomic groups diatoms, dinoflagellates and cryptophytes only. Carbon biomass of less abundant phytoplankton taxa (cyanophytes, euglenophytes and chlorophytes) did not correlate with group-specific chl a. It was not possible to detect E. huxleyi bloom by CHEMTAX analysis probably due to much higher biomass of other species containing 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin. Nutrient concentrations were generally high in the waters where diatom and dinoflagellates dominated the community but low in the area of E. huxleyi bloom. A good correlation between total carbon biomass of phytoplankton and chl a was found and the estimated C:chl a ratio of phytoplankton varied between 36 and 256 (in average 124 ± 50).

  2. Diagenetic alteration of iron and phosphorus records below the sulfate-methane-transition-zone in Black Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Matthias; Kraal, Peter; Jilbert, Tom; Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    The sediments of the Black Sea are characterized by vast deposits of iron oxide-rich lake sediments below the current marine sediments. The lake sediments were deposited until ca. 9000 years ago when the former giant lake became connected to the Mediterranean Sea through post-glacial sea level rise. The subsequent downward diffusion of marine sulfate into the methane-bearing lake sediments has led to a multitude of diagenetic reactions in the sulfate-methane-transition zone (SMTZ), including anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate. While the cycles of sulfur, methane and iron in the SMTZ have been extensively studied (e.g. Jorgensen et al., 2004), relatively little is known about the diagenetic alterations of the sediment record occurring directly below the SMTZ. Here, we combine detailed geochemical analyses of the sediment and pore water with multicomponent diagenetic modeling to study the diagenetic alterations below the SMTZ at two sites in the Black Sea. We focus on the dynamics of iron and phosphorus and demonstrate that downward sulfidization leads to dissolution of Fe-oxide bound P, Fe-carbonate and vivianite in the lake sediments. Below the sulfidization front, downward diffusing phosphate is bound again in vivianite. Trends in total sediment P with depth are significantly altered highlighting that diagenesis may strongly overprint burial records of P below a lake-marine transition. We also demonstrate that cryptic sulfur cycling cannot explain the observed release of dissolved Fe below the SMTZ. Instead, we suggest that organoclastic Fe-oxide reduction and/or AOM coupled to the reduction of Fe-oxides are the key processes explaining the high concentrations of dissolved Fe at depth in the sediment. Reference Jørgensen, B. B., Böttcher, M. E., Lüschen, H., Neretin, L. N. and Volkov, I. I.: Anaerobic methane oxidation and a deep H2S sink generate isotopically heavy sulfides in Black Sea sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 68(9), 2095-2118, 2004.

  3. Black carbon in deep-sea sediments from the northeastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Hyeong, K.; Yoo, C.

    2011-12-01

    Deep-sea sediment core is a good archive for understanding the land-ocean interactions via atmosphere, due to it is little influenced by fluvial and continental shelf processes. This study dealt with black carbon(BC) in a 328 cm-long piston core collected from the northeastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (16°12'N, 125°59'W), covering the last 15 Ma (Hyeong at al., 2004). BC is a common name of carbon continuum formed by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and plant materials. Though it may react with ozone and produce water-soluble organic carbon, BC has commonly refractory nature. Thus BC in preindustrial sediment can be a tracer of forest-fire events. BC is purely terrestrial in origin, and is transported to marine environments by atmospheric and fluvial processes. Therefore, distribution of BC in deep-sea sediments could be used to understand atmospheric circulation. Chemical oxidation was used to determine BC in this study following Lim and Cachier (1996). Concentration of BC varies from 0.010% to 0.233% of total sediments. Mass accumulation rate (MAR) of BC ranged between 0.077 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs and 47.49 mg/cm^21000 yrs. It is noted that MAR in sediments younger than 8 Ma (av. 9.0 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs) is higher than that in sediments older than 8 Ma (av. 3.2 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs). Stable carbon isotope value of BC increases with time from the low δ13C value near 13 Ma until it reaches the highest value near 4 Ma. Change of MAR seems to be related to the meridional migration of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) at around 8 Ma in the study area (cf., Hyeong at al., 2004). Accordingly, higher BC content in sediment younger than 8 Ma seems to be accounted for by its derivation from the Northern Hemisphere compared to that from the Southern Hemisphere in older sediment. Increase of carbon isotope value with time seems to be related to expansion of C4 grassland. C4 grassland expansion might have been caused by change of atmosphreic cycle, which moved dry subtropical

  4. Uranium stable isotope fractionation in the Black Sea: Modern calibration of the 238U/235U paleo-redox proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, John M.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Middag, Rob; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.

    2017-04-01

    The isotopic compositions of redox-sensitive metals, including uranium (U), in marine sediments have recently emerged as powerful diagnostic tracers of the redox state of the ancient ocean-atmosphere system. Reliable interpretation of sedimentary isotopic information requires a thorough understanding of the environmental controls on isotopic fractionation in modern anoxic environments before being applied to the paleo-record. In this study, the relationship between ocean anoxia and the isotopic fractionation of U was investigated in the water column and sediments of the Black Sea, the world's largest anoxic basin. Paired measurements of 238U/235U and U concentration, supported by other redox parameters, were obtained for water column and sediment samples collected during the 2013 GA04N GEOTRACES expedition to the Black Sea. Removal of U from the water column occurs during the redox transition of soluble U(VI) to relatively insoluble U(IV), resulting in up to 43% of U being removed from solution in euxinic bottom waters. Uranium reduction and removal is accompanied by a progressive shift in 238U/235U towards isotopically light values in the water column as heavier 238U is preferentially exported to sediments over lighter 235U. This gives rise to apparent isotope enrichment factors of ε = -0.63 ± 0.09‰ and ε = -0.84 ± 0.11‰ when U removal is modelled by Rayleigh and closed system equilibrium isotope fractionation, respectively. These ε values fall within the range determined for bacterial U reduction experiments, and together with a striking correlation between the distributions of U and H2S, implicate microbially-mediated U(VI)-U(IV) reduction as the primary mechanism controlling U isotopic shifts in the Black Sea. The 238U/235U of underlying sediments is related to the the 238U/235U of Black Sea bottom waters through the isotope enrichment factor of the U reduction reaction but the relationship between sedimentary and water column 238U/235U is complicated

  5. Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfide budgets in the Black Sea : a biogeochemical model of the whole water column coupling the oxic and anoxic parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfide budgets are derived for the Black Sea water column from a coupled physical–biogeochemical model. The model is applied in the deep part of the sea and simulates processes over the whole water column including the anoxic layer that extends from similar, equals115 m

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE BLACK SEA ECOSYSTEM POLLUTION WITH COPPER AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED BAYS OF SEVASTOPOL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Niemiec

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A high level of anthropopressure has been registered in Sevastopol region, connected with its strategic role as the main city in the region, but also due to Russian Black Sea Fleet stationing there for many years. A significant source of the Black Sea contamination in Sevastopol area is the industry located in this city, municipal waste and agriculture. Implementing measures aimed at protection of the Black Sea and the evolution of their results requires monitoring conducted in the regions with various levels of anthropopressure. The work was aimed at the assessment of copper and cadmium content in water and algae in selected bays of the Black Sea in the vicinity of Sevastopol. Samples of water and algae were collected in August 2012 from eight Sevastopol bays (Galubaja, Kozacha, Kamyshova, Kruhla, Strieletska, Pishchana, Pivdenna and Sevastopolska and from the open sea in the vicinity of Fiolent. Algae (Cystoseira barbata and Ulva rigida were collected from the same places. Collected water was preserved on the sampling place and brought to the laboratory where its copper and cadmium concentrations were assessed. Collected algae were rinsed in distilled water, dried, then homogenised and mineralised. Copper and cadmium content were determined in the mineralizates using ASA method with electrothermal atomisation. Cadmium concentration in water ranged from 0.13 to 1.74 µg Cd∙dm-3, and copper from 7.07 to 22.56 µg Cd∙dm-3. Considerable differences in the content of the analysed elements were registered in individual bays. The highest content was assessed in Galubaja and Sevastopolska bays, whereas the lowest one in the water collected in the open sea and in Pivdenna bay. Copper concentrations in the analysed algae fluctuated from 3.375 to 14.96 mg Cu∙kg-1 d.m. No differences were noted in this element content between the algae species. Cadmium content in the algae ranged from 0.133 to 1.133 mg Cd∙kg-1 d.m. Higher accumulation of cadmium

  7. Results of the Joint Project (NASU-TUBITAK) "The Thermal Structure of the Crust in the Black Sea Analysis of Magnetic and Heat Flow Data"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Dolmaz, M. Nuri; Kutas, Roman; Rusakov, Oleg; Oksum, Erdinc; Tutunsatar, H. Evrim; Hisarli, Z. Mumtaz; Okyar, Mahmut; Kalyoncuoglu, U. Yalcin; Legostaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    The interest in the Black Sea crust is based on its key role in understanding the tectonic evolution of the middle Tethyan Realm and its hydrocarbon potential. There is still a need to obtain quantitative data for determining the thermal regime which is one of the most important energetic factors controlling the geodynamics of the lithosphere and intensity of oil and gas fields of the Black Sea. The Joint Project by the NASU and TUBITAK started in May 2011 comprises the Cuie Point Depth (CPD) determinations of the Black Sea and modeling thermal sources from heat flows. The CPD map of the Black Sea was constituted from spectral analysis of total field magnetic data. The isotherm of CPD of the Black Sea shows a distribution at a range of 22 and 36 km. Deepening of CPDs (ca. 30-36 km) are observed in the western and eastern Black Sea basins correspond with the thickest sediment areas. A NNW-SSE trending belt of shallow CPD zone (ca. 22-28 km) separates these two deep CPD basins correspond with the Mid-Black Sea Ridge. The other shallow CPDs are related to the thin sediment areas at the costal side of the Black Sea. Moreover, the cross-sections oriented in approx. north-south direction named as 18, 25 and 29 Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) were used to construct the geothermal models. The thermal regime of the crust was inferred from these profiles in the western, central and eastern parts of the Black Sea. The CPD of profile 18 changes from 22 to 28 km. The CPD isotherms show depths of 26-32 kms along the profile 25. The CPD along the profile 29 occurs at depths of 27-35 kms. The obtained CPD results along the profiles have been compared with results from the traditional geothermal studies based on heat flow determinations in the subsurface layer and model computations of temperature distribution. The isotherm of CPD from magnetic and heat flow data strongly evidences the efficiency of such an approach and the results of two methods are compatible with the anomalous areas

  8. Hydro-engineering and environmental problems in Poti Black Sea region and ways of their solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana; Kodua, Manoni; Gagoshidze, Shalva

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation) Work is dedicated to the development of hydro-engineering and environmental protection measures in the Black Sea regions, the main Georgian port of Poti at the mouth of the Rioni, which will minimize the region geomorphological changes caused by the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors, and will over a long period protect coastal areas of these regions from washouts and large scale silting processes. The research objects are: 1. Poti seashore, which has retreated for hundreds of meters, promoted with the existence of underwater canyon along the southern pier of the port; 2. The Rioni river watershed dam, the tail race of which in time was subjected to destruction and substantial washout. Currently the stability of the dam is endangered; 3. "City Canal" - the Rioni river old bed, which is greatly silted up and is virtually unable to perform its function - to feed Poti seashore with solid matter. The work for the hydrodynamics solutions using high-precision mathematical methods. In particular, for the establishment of coastal longshore migrations of sediment and deformations of the coastal zone is used finite element method, Crank-Nicolson scheme and method of upper relaxation in the calculation of wave propagation in the estuarine areas of the Rioni River uses direct and asymptotic (particularly WKB) Methods of mathematical analysis. The results obtained using these models will be put as a base of development of such engineering measures and design proposals which: a) will provide sustained increase of Poti coastal line on the basis of working out of exploitation regimes of the Rioni watershed hydro complex and as a result of performing additional engineering measures in "City Canal"; b) will thoroughly protect the Rioni watershed hydro complex dam tail-water from destruction and washouts. The packets of mathematical programs and analytical methods of calculation

  9. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    of erosion and coastal landslides. Among human activities that might have direct or indirect adverse impact on cultural heritage the main are coastal and underwater developments and infrastructures. These are building of coast- and shore-protection structures, roads, placing different types of pipeline (a recent case from Bulgaria is envisaged construction of gas pipeline "South Stream"). Other categories of anthropogenic impacts, such as coastal tourism and expansion of settlements, etc. are less negative factors, but locals and visitors can accidentally damage monuments, or in most of the cases by not being aware of the presence and importance of a archeological site. Finally, insufficient decision-making and management of coastal and underwater cultural heritage can also have potential adverse impact. Recommendations for mitigation and protection measures are also outlined in the end. This work is a part of the Project "Submarine Archaeological Heritage on the Western Black Sea Shelf - HERAS", financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria.

  10. Formation of methane fields in the Golubaya bay of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Study of formation of methane fields in water environments is essential for search of oil and gas in bottom sediments of the aquatories [Egorov et al., 2008]. Methane acts as a tracer of various biogeochemical processes in freshwater and marine waters as well. Moreover, in recent years estimation of methane emission is one of tasks of current climate research because of high contribution of methane in the greenhouse effect [Bazhin, 2000]. The Black Sea is the largest methane reservoir in the world [Lein, Ivanov, 2005]. The Golubaya Bay of the Black Sea acts as a peculiar model of formation and variability of methane fields in the marine environment. The main purpose of our study is to identify factors that influence the high methane saturation in the aerobic coastal waters. Data collection took place in the Golubaya and the Gelendzhikskaya bays and in the Ashamba River since 1999 to 2013. Water samples were analyzed by the head-space method with further gas chromatographic determination of methane concentrations [Bolshakov, Egorov, 1987]. Methane saturation in the Golubaya Bay waters exceeds the equilibrium with the atmosphere value 10-100 times. According to the simultaneous measurements of methane in two bays in different seasons, methane saturation in the Golubaya Bay is higher than in the Gelendzhikskaya Bay. The smaller bottom depth and accordingly the larger biological productivity in the Golubaya Bay may be the reason of it. Microbial production of methane in aerobic waters of the bay is associated with zone of zooplankton concentration and products of its vital activity [Lein, Ivanov, 2009]. It is known that formation of methane is intense in periodically flooded soils where anaerobic conditions are formed. That causes development of methanogenic bacteria [Alekseev et al., 1978]. Distribution of methane in marine and river waters illustrates that the river runoff and groundwater supply are some of the sources of high methane saturation in the Golubaya Bay

  11. Palaeoecology and geoarchaeology of the Varna Lake, northern Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana FILIPOVA-MARINOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal lakes are rich sources of biostratigraphic information that is very useful in palaeoecological reconstructions of climate changes and human impact on the natural vegetation. This information is of great importance for the archaeological descriptions of submerged praehistorical settlements found in the northern Bulgarian Black sea area. There are 4 archaeological sites in this area that have been palynologically studied for the last 30 years: the Durankulak Lake, the Shabla-Ezeretz Lake system, the Lake Bolata, as well as the Varna-Beloslav Lake system. Because of the lack of AMS radiocarbon dates for these sites, it was not possible to correlate adequately all palaeoenvironmental results with the available archaeological chronology.Aimed to receive additional information on the Holocene vegetation dynamics and lake level changes, as well as on the anthropogenic impact during the Late Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age, the high-resolution spore-pollen analysis of AMS dated laminated sediments from a new Core 3 – Varna Lake was combined with analyses of dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, and other non-pollen palynomorphs.The location of the core is close to several sites of submerged praehistorical settlements and the Varna Late Eneolithic (Chalcolithic Necropolis, which is famous with the oldest hand-made gold treasure in the Worlds, and permits the palaeoenvironmental correlations of obtained results with available archaeological and geochronological data. The core is 995 cm long, but its palynologically investigated length is 870 cm. It contains dark grey clay and laminated sediments (varves. Seven samples of sediments were submitted for radiocarbon dating to the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (NOSAMS Facility of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI. The dates have been calibrated using the program CALIB version 6.1.0 of using the IntCal09 curve. An Age Model for the sedimentation rate was created by the

  12. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  13. Results of many-year subsatellite measurements of current fine structure in northeastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga; Krayushkin, Evgeny; Kalashnikova, Nina

    Results of subsatellite measurements of coastal currents in the shelf zone of northeastern Black Sea are presented. The measurements have been performed every year since 2006 in June and September-October months near the Gelendzhik Bay. The main instruments used are Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) and CTD probes. Ground and ship measurements were conducted simultaneously with satellite imaging in microwave (ASAR Envisat, ERS-2, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X), visible and infrared (OLI Landsat-8, ETM+ Landsat-7, TM Landsat-5, MODIS Terra/Aqua, AVHRR NOAA) ranges. The investigations performed revealed spatial, depth and temporal variability of current direction and velocity in the shelf zone. Multiple instances of counter-currents opposing to the Ring Current were registered. In our view, they are associated with a passage of small-scale anticyclonic eddies across the region of interest. The 3D structure of the eddies in the upper quasi-uniform layer was analyzed based on ADCP data. The use of high resolution (3 m) SAR data in combination with ADCP measurements at the resolution of 0.5 m allowed us to detect a number of internal wave trains. Form ADCP and thermistors records, their amplitudes were estimated to reach 5-8 m. Joint analysis of satellite SAR and subsatellite data gave an assessment of their typical wavelength at 90-100 m. Generation mechanisms of these internal waves are suggested. Another phenomenon of interest observed in the region of the measurements is surface manifestations of ring waves near localized natural and anthropogenic generation sources. Such ring waves are most frequently found in the anchor area for ships, whose oscillations can be the source of their generation. The work was in part supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects #14-05-00520-а, and 13-07-12017-ofi_m). SAR data from RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X were obtained under SOAR RADARSAT-2/TerraSAR-X Project #5074.

  14. Quantification of microbial communities in subsurface marine sediments of the Black Sea and off Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eSchippers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-rich subsurface marine sediments were taken by gravity coring up to a depth of 10 meters below seafloor at six stations from the anoxic Black Sea and the Benguela upwelling system off Namibia during the research cruises R/V Meteor 72/5 and 76/1, respectively. The quantitative microbial community composition at various sediment depths was analyzed using total cell counting, CARD-FISH and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR. Total cell counts decreased with depths from 109 – 1010 cells /mL at the sediment surface to 107 – 109 cells /mL below one meter depth. Based on CARD-FISH and Q-PCR analysis overall similar proportions of Bacteria and Archaea were determined. The down core quantitative distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was successfully revealed by Q-PCR. Crenarchaeota and the bacterial candidate division JS-1 and the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi were as highly abundant as Archaea and Bacteria, respectively. Less abundant but detectable in most of the samples in high gene copy numbers were Eukarya and the Fe(III- and Mn(IV-reducing bacterial group Geobacteriaceae (off Namibia as well as the functional genes cbbL encoding for the large subunit of Rubisco, the functional genes dsrA and aprA of sulfate-reducers and the gene mcrA of methanogens. Overall the high organic carbon content of the sediments goes along with high cell counts and high gene copy numbers, as well as an equal abundance of Bacteria and Archaea.

  15. Trophic structure of the fouling community in Odessa Bay (Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Varigin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The trophic structure of the coastal fouling community of Odessa Bay (Black Sea, which was composed of 10 species of macrophytes, 57 invertebrate species and 4 species of fish, was determined. The basic trophic relationship between organisms composing the community is shown. A minimization of interspecific trophic competition within the community is noted. The main sources of food material entering the fouling community were determined. We show that a significant proportion of food in the form of detritus, dissolved organic matter and small planktonic organisms enters the community from the water column. Filtration and pumping activity of sestonophage-organisms, particularly mussels, helps to attract food material to the community. Primary producers of the community are macrophytes and microphytes, which develop on account of their photosynthetic activity and ensure the provision of food to herbivores. The trophic group of detritophages consumes different fractions of the detritus which accumulates in the byssus threads of bivalve molluscs. In this context, mussel druses act as sediment traps, collecting detritus. Numerous polyphages, which are essentially omnivores and do not usually lack food material, were noted in the community. A small group of carnivorous invertebrates, whose representatives actively attack small animals, was identified. The abundance of these species in the community was about 1%, and their biomass less than 0.6%. Fish living in macrophyte weeds are the consumers in the community. We determined that the highest relative abundance (over 36% in the fouling community was reached by sestonophages and polyphages. We found that the undisputed leader in the relative biomass (over 97% in the fouling community ofOdessaBaywas the sestonophages (mainly composed of mussels. We determined that the trophic structure index of the community was 0.94, which confirms the significant dominance in biomass of bivalves over other species in

  16. A.V. Vereshchagin’s Work «Travel Notes on the Black Sea Okrug» as a Historical Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Ivantsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes and analyses the source data on the history of the Black Sea Coast of the North-Western Caucasus after the Caucasian War, found in the work by A.V. Vereshchagin, issued in 1874, namely the statistics of population size, including ethnicity and confession, criticism of the findings by the commission, examining the Black Sea Region, historical and ethnographical data, concerning the remained mountain dwellers and their households, characteristics of migrants’ households and their problems analysis, description and criticism of the adopted system of the state-owned lands acquisition and sale and its implementation, data on the day-labour prices, review of the sea traffic prospects and the state of the road network in the region, analysis of the Black Sea Region state and commercial development, etc

  17. {sup 137}Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve [IRSN, LERCM, Centre Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M. [International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (CIESM), 16 Blvd de Suisse, MC-98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Andral, Bruno [Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Barisic, Delko [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto [Inst. Espanol de Oceanografi' a (IEO), Centro Oceanografico de Murcia - Calle Varadero No. 1, 30740 San Pedro del Pinatar (Spain); Bologa, Alexandru S. [National Institute for Marine Research and Development ' Grigore Antipa' , RO-900581, Constantza (Romania); Boudjenoun, Redouane [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Delfanti, Roberta [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia, e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Egorov, Victor N. [Inst. of Biology of the Southern Seas (IBSS), National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 2 Porspekt Nakhimova, 99 011 Sevastopol, Crimea (Ukraine); El Khoukhi, Tahar [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CNESTEN), BP 1382 RP Rabat 10001 (Morocco); Florou, Heleni [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 153 10, P.O. Box 60228, Athens (Greece); Kniewald, Goran [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Noureddine, Abdelkader [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify {sup 137}Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured {sup 137}Cs levels were found to be very low (usually <1 Bq kg{sup -1} wet wt) {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area.

  18. Feeding ecology of black scorpionfish (Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus, 1758 from the Romanian Black Sea (Agigea – Eforie Nord area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mihaela Arteni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the variations in the feeding ecology of the black scorpionfish(Scorpaena porcus. The index of relative importance indicated opportunistic feeding on macrobenthic fauna.The fish fed mainly on bivalves, fishes, amphipods and isopods. There were differences in diet compositionduring the years, seasons and sexes. Scorpaena porcus exhibited a generalistic feeding strategy with arelative broad niche width.

  19. Oceanographic and meteorological data from meteorological sensors and bottle/rosette/net and CTD taken from Russian vessels in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas from 1897 to 2012 (NODC Accession 0117429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from May 1897 to December 2012 in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas. Russian vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Small boats were...

  20. Oceanographic and meteorological data from various meteorological sensors and bottle/rosette/net taken from several Russian vessels in Caspian, Black and Azov Seas from 18 April, 1952 to 7 December, 2012 (NCEI Accession 0117731)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from 18 April 1952 to 7 December 2012 in Caspian, Black and Azov Seas. Various vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Data collection...

  1. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, alkalinity, silicate, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate profiles from bottle and CTD taken from Russian vessels in the Black Sea from 1890-06-27 to 2005-08-06 (NODC Accession 0119566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from June 1890 to August 2005 in the Black Seas. Russian vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Small boats were used to collect data...

  2. Determining change of bathymetry with GPR method in Ordu-Giresun, a sea-filled airport in the Black Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Ordu-Giresun (OGU) is a newly-constructed airport, the first sea-filled airport in Turkey and in Europe, and the second airport in the world after Osaca-Japan. The airport is between Gulyalı district in Ordu city and Piraziz district in Giresun city in Black Sea -Turkey. A protection breakwater has been constructed by filling a rock approximately 7.435-m long and with an average height of 5.5 m. Then, the Black Sea has been filled until 1 m over the sea level, approximately the area is 1.770.000 m2 wide and includes a runway, aprons and taxiway covered by breakwater. The runway has a 1-m thickness, 3-km length and 45-m width, PCN84 strength, and stone mastic asphalt surface. The aprons has a 240 x 110 m length and PCN110 strength, the taxiway is 250 x 24 m wide. The airport was started to be constructed in July 2011 and it began to serve on 22th May 2015. The aim of this study was to determine the depth of the rock-filled layer and the amount of sinking of the bathymetry which has been determined before filling processing. In addition, before bathymetry determination, unconsolidated sediments had been removed from the bottom of the sea. There were four drilling points to control the sinking of the bathymetry. Therefore, six suitable Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) profiles were measured, crossing these points with runway and aprons, using 250-MHz and 100-MHz shielded antennas. Starting points of the profiles were in the middle of the runway to merge between depth and thickness changing of the filled layer and bathymetry along the profiles. Surface topography changing was measured spaced 1 m apart with 1 cm sensitivity on each profile. At the same time, similarly the topography changing, bathymetry coordinates was re-arranged along the each profile. Topography corrections were applied to the processed radargrams and then the bottom boundary lines of the rock-filled layer were determined. The maximum height was 3.5 m according to the sea level, which was on the

  3. Selected heavy metals and selenium in the blood of black sea turtle (Chelonia mydas agasiizzi) from Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley-Quiñónez, C P; Zavala-Norzagaray, A A; Réndon-Maldonado, J G; Espinosa-Carreón, T L; Canizales-Román, A; Escobedo-Urías, D C; Leal-Acosta, M L; Hart, C E; Aguirre, A A

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, Mn) and selenium (Se) was analyzed in blood collected from 12 black turtles (Chelonia mydas agasiizzi) captured in Canal del Infiernillo, Punta Chueca, Mexico. The most abundant metals were Zn (63.58 μg g(-1)) and Se (7.66 μg g(-1)), and Cd was the lower (0.99 μg g(-1)). The sequential concentrations of trace metals were Zn > Se > Cu > Mn > Ni > Cd. In conclusion, this information is important as a baseline when using blood as tissue analysis of heavy metals; however, these levels could represent recent exposure in foraging grounds of black turtles in the Sea of Cortez.

  4. Modeling the response of top-down control exerted by gelatinous carnivores on the Black Sea pelagic food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Temel; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2001-03-01

    Recent changes in structure and functioning of the interior Black Sea ecosystem are studied by a series of simulations using a one-dimensional, vertically resolved, coupled physical-biochemical model. The simulations are intended to provide a better understanding of how the pelagic food web structure responds to increasing grazing pressure by gelatinous carnivores (medusae Aurelia aurita and ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi) during the past 2 decades. The model is first shown to represent typical eutrophic ecosystem conditions of the late 1970s and early 1980s. This simulation reproduces reasonably well the observed planktonic food web structure at a particular location of the Black Sea for which a year-long data set is available from 1978. Additional simulations are performed to explore the role of the Mnemiopsis-dominated ecosystem in the late 1980s. They are also validated by extended observations from specific years. The results indicate that the population outbreaks of the gelatinous species, either Aurelia or Mnemiopsis, reduce mesozooplankton grazing and lead to increased phytoplankton blooms as observed throughout the 1980s and 1990s in the Black Sea. The peaks of phytoplankton, mesozooplankton, Noctiluca, and gelatinous predator biomass distributions march sequentially as a result of prey-predator interactions. The late winter diatom bloom and a subsequent increase in mesozooplankton stocks are robust features common to all simulations. The autotrophs and heterotrophs, however, have different responses during the rest of the year, depending on the nature of grazing pressure exerted by the gelatinous predators. In the presence of Mnemiopsis, phytoplankton have additional distinct and pronounced bloom episodes during the spring and summer seasons. These events appear with a 2 month time shift in the ecosystem prior to introduction of Mnemiopsis.

  5. Anaerobic methane oxidation and a deep H2S sink generate isotopically heavy sulfides in Black Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, BB; Bottcher, ME; Luschen, H.

    2004-01-01

    to isotopically heavy pyrite in a sediment open to diffusion. These results have general implications for the marine sulfur cycle and for the interpretation of sulfur isotopic data in modern sediments and in sedimentary rocks throughout earth's history. Copyright (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd......The main terminal processes of organic matter mineralization in anoxic Black Sea sediments underlying the sulfidic water column are sulfate reduction in the upper 2-4 m and methanogenesis below the sulfate zone. The modern marine deposits comprise a ca. 1-m-deep layer of coccolith ooze...... and underlying sapropel, below which sea water ions penetrate deep down into the limnic Pleistocene deposits from >9000 years BP. Sulfate reduction rates have a subsurface maximum at the SO42--CH4 transition where H2S reaches 4 maximum concentration. Because of an excess of reactive iron in the deep limnic...

  6. Hydrocarbons in waters and bottom sediments of coastal areas in the northeastern part of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    Data on the content and composition of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface layer of water and bottom sediments are presented. The data were compared to the distribution of the total organic carbon, particulate matter, lipids, and chlorophyll in the Gelendzhik and Golubaya bays, as well as in the Greater Sochi area. The intense transformation processes of organic compounds within the water mass and water-bottom interface have resulted in the prevalence of natural components in the alkane composition of the bottom sediments in the areas of the Black Sea considered. The riverine and marine water mixing zone acts as a geochemical barrier preventing the supply of the bulk of river-transferred pollutants to the open sea areas.

  7. Size Distribution and Chemical Characteristic of Aerosols in Northwestern Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Fatma; Keles, Melek; Halif Ngagine, Soulemane

    2016-04-01

    Size segregated PM samples were collected at the city center of Bolu, which is northwestern part of the Black Sea region of Turkey between 2015 and 2016. A cascade impactor was used for the collection of weekly PM samples on pre-fired quartz filters in eight different size ranges (9.0-10.0 μm, 5.8-9.0 μm, 4.7-5.8 μm, 3.3-4.7 μm, 2.1-3.3 μm, 1.1-2.1 μm, 0.65-1.1 μm, 0.43-0.65 μm). The collected samples were divided in three parts and each part was analyzed with different analytical technique. The first part of the filter was analyzed in terms of major ions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+). A large suit of metals from Li to U were determined in the second fraction of the filter by means of ICPMS. Lastly, the third part of the filter was analyzed in terms of EC and OC. The preliminary results indicated that the PM mass depicted bimodal distribution and the average concentration of PM10 was about 100 μg/m3for a five week period. Both EC and OC showed bi-modal distribution while these two parameters were more enriched on smaller particles. The average concentrations of EC and OC in PM1 were determined as 4.1 and 40.6 μg/m3, respectively, indicating the secondary organic aerosol formation in Bolu ambient air. Among the major ions, SO42- and NH4+ depicted unimodal distribution having significantly higher concentrations in fine particles (< 1 μm) while the rest of the ions present bimodal distribution. Mass closure analysis will be applied to the generated data set and sources will be evaluated by applying PMF. This project was supported financially by Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council (TÜBİTAK) with a project number 114Y429.

  8. Anatomy of methane-derived carbonate concretions and associated microbial communities in Black Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitner, J.; Peckmann, J.; Reimer, A.; Schumann, G.; Blumenberg, M.; Thiel, V.

    2003-04-01

    Methane seeps on the northwestern shelf and slope of the Black Sea were investigated during the GHOSTDABS expedition with RV "Professor Logachev" and the research submersible "Jago" in July/August 2001. Seep areas close to the Dniepr Canyon are sites of intense carbonate formation. In anoxic waters, at depths between 200 and 400m, we found different modes of carbonate precipitation, such as cavernous chimney-like buildups projecting up to 4 m into the anoxic water column (Michaelis et al., Science 297, 813-815) and, lenticular concretions abundantly forming within the sediment. Isotope analyses of the concretionary Mg-calcite yielded δ13C values as low as -31 ppm PDB, suggesting that the carbonate predominantly derives from the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The concretions are surrounded by grey, pink, or orange colored microbial mats. These mats apparently mediate the formation of ca. 100 μm sized aggregates of fibrous calcite that fuse together to form the concretions. Surrounding sediment and concretional carbonates are clearly distinguishable by a strong UV-epifluorescence induced by large amounts of organic matter enclosed in the calcite aggregates. The conspicious angular arrangement of the crystallites appears to be controlled by the spatial organization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Fluorescence in situ hybridization, TEM, and field emission electron microscopy reveal that the microbial mats harbour numerous types of microorganisms. Prominent members are large colonies of sulfate reducing bacteria (DSS 658 probe, Desulfosarcina group), surrounded by sheeted, rod-shaped archaea (ANME-1 probe, Methanosaeta group) and further ones. Three different types of AOM consortia are distinguishable. The metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria apparently accounts for the observed, significant enrichment of the concretions in framboidal Fe-sulfides. In organic extracts from mat samples and concretional carbonate, we found distinctive, isoprene

  9. Radiological significance of coal, slag and fly ash samples from the Eastern Black Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damla, Nevzat [Batman Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Cevik, Ugur [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Kara, Ayhan [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    This work presents a study of natural radioactivity levels in coal and its combustion residues (fly ash and slag) used in the houses in Black Sea Region, Turkey. Coal, fly ash and slag samples were provided from different locations of the region and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Also, chemical analyses of these samples were carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 83, 99 and 38 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean {sup 232}Th activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 108, 113 and 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean {sup 40}K activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were found to be 366, 381 and 204 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The potential radiological hazards associated to these materials were evaluated by calculating the radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the air absorbed gamma dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (AED), the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) and internal hazard index (H{sub in}) and compared with the internationally accepted or reference values. The mean Ra{sub eq} values of the coal, fly ash and slag samples were lower than the recommended maximum values 370 Bq kg{sup -1} by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The overall mean outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate in coal, fly ash and slag samples are 119, 129 and 62 nGy h{sup -1} and the corresponding outdoor annual effective doses are 0.60, 0.32 and 0.64 mSv y{sup -1}, which is higher than the worldwide average (0.07 mSv y{sup -1}), respectively. Moreover, the enrichment factors relative to the input coal are calculated for the radionuclide contents observed. Calculated enrichment factor values for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found 1.14 and 1.01, respectively. (orig.)

  10. An AeroCom assessment of black carbon in Arctic snow and sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; De Luca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; van Noije, T.; Yun, Y.; Zhang, K.

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. In this paper, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng g-1 for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng g-1 for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng g-1. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model–measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60–90° N) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with

  11. An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Bernsten, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; DeLuca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Tkemura, T.

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. Here, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng/g for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng/g for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng/g. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model-measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60-90degN) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with the fact that most Arctic BC deposition originates

  12. Seasonal variation of meat yield and nutritional composition of sea snail (Rapana venosa Valenciennes, 1846 captured from Eastern Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Koral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, changes in meat yield, nutritional and fatty acid composition depending on seasons of sea snail (Rapana venosa captured commercially in the Eastern Black Sea Region were investigated. The samples were collected from total twelve stations in Giresun, Trabzon, Rize and Artvin by scuba and free diving. Sea snail length and weight ranged from 52.85 to 74.27 mm, and from 66.71 to 78.97 g. Meat yields (% in summer and autumn were higher than spring and winter. Average meat yields were determined as 19.50 %. Amounts of dry matter, crude ash, crude protein and crude fat percent in biochemical parameters were changed depending on seasons and stations, minimum - maximum values of the seasons were found as 23.87-25.36 %, 2.23-2.35 %, 15.36-17.16 %, 0.46-0.73 %, respectively. The lowest and highest seasonal average ratio of palmitic (C16:0 and stearic (C18:0 acids in saturated fatty acids (SFA were determined in summer and winter, respectively. There were no statistical differences (p>0.05 among seasonal changes in total saturated fatty acid (SFA values. Total monounsaturated fatty acid (ΣMUFA values ranged from 30.45 mg/100g to 54.84 mg/100g, and values in summer and spring had statistically significant difference (p<0.05 from other seasonal values. The highest value among fatty acid groups was found in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA as 119.05 mg/100g. Arachidonic (C20:4n6, eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n3 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6n3 acids had highest values in PUFA. Changes in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA values in summer and autumn were statistically different (p<0.05 from other seasonal values. While total EPA+DHA values were between 27.40 and 93.42 mg/100 g, Σn6/Σn3 ratio was found as 1.10 and 0.90. In conclusion, it was determined that nutritional composition of sea snail in Eastern Black Sea Region was affected by differences between station and seasonal changes.

  13. Investigation Of The Hydro-Meteorological Hazards Along The Bulgarian Coast Of The Black Sea By Reconstructions Of Historical Storms

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko; Bogatchev, Andrey; Tsenova, Boryana

    2015-01-01

    Information about the hydro-meteorological parameters during the extreme sea storms is of significant importance for the sustainable development in the context of flood risk for the coastal areas. Usually there is a lack of sufficiently long history of instrumental measurements of the extreme winds, waves and storm surges. Simulation of historical storms is an important tool to evaluate the potential coastal hazards. In the absence of measured data hindcasts can satisfy the need for historical data. The wave and storm-surge regional numerical simulations have been carried out for the ten most severe storms over the Bulgarian coast of the Black Sea from the period 1972-2012. The ERA-Interim and ERA-40 reanalysis of wind at 10 m and mean sea level pressure have been downscaled with a high resolution atmospheric model ALADIN to the horizontal and time scales suitable for precise evaluation of hydro-meteorological parameters during the storms. The downscaled fields of wind and sea level pressure have been used as...

  14. On the feeding of the biology of the bream (Abramis brama)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboezem, W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes some studies on feeding mechanisms in common bream, Abramis brama (L., 1758), living in eutrophic waters of the Netherlands. Different feeding modes and the present ideas on the particle retention mechanism in bream are discussed. Particles, mainly zooplankton, retained in the

  15. Seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal zone of the North-Eastern Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishina, A. B.; Arashkevich, E. G.; Louppova, N. E.; Soloviev, K. A.

    2009-04-01

    The phenological response of zooplankton community is a result of simultaneous effect of several factors: feeding conditions, predation abundance, periods of reproduction of common species and hydrodynamic regime. The Black sea ecosystem is one of the best studied in the world, otherwise there is still some illegibility about ecosystem functioning and especially about environmental factors influence on zooplankton dynamics. For the last twenty years pelagic system of the Black Sea has changed dramatically. The invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the middle of eighties caused significant decrease in zooplankton biomass. It also altered plankton structure and shifted periods of mass reproduction of the abundant species and biomass maximums. For instance, before the invasion of Mnemiopsis the maximum of zooplankton biomass was observed in autumn (data by A. Pasternak, 1983), and after that the maximum moved to the spring (data by V.S. Khoroshilov, 1999). The incursion of ctenophore Beroe ovata feeding on Mnemiopsis in the nineties has led to the enhancement of zooplankton community. Although the detailed analysis of seasonal zooplankton dynamics wasn't performed in the recent years. The object of our research was to study seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal area of the North-Eastern Black Sea. Analysis of interannual, seasonal and spatial changes in zooplankton distribution, abundance and species composition along with age structure of dominant populations were performed based on investigations during 2005-2008 years in the North-Eastern Black Sea. Plankton samples were obtained monthly since June 2005 till December 2008. Plankton was collected at three stations at depths 25m, 50m and 500-1000m along the transect from the Blue Bay to the open sea. Sampling of gelatinous animals was conducted in parallel to the zooplankton sampling. Simultaneously with plankton sampling CTD data were obtained. The feeding conditions were

  16. Forest Resources of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast: Problems and Prospects of Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bebia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70 % of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast (CBSC forests grow in mountainous conditions of the Colchis phytogeographical province and perform primary environmental functions. In these forests for a long period of time excessively intense logging has been in practice, which caused serious damage to their health. The main issues of forestry here are the introduction of effective methods of harvesting, using rational technology in logging operations, restoring native forest types at past logging sites, increasing the productivity and sustainability of forests on the bioecological biogeocenotical level, and preserving the riparian-protective role of forests. In the article, the author analyzes the results of many years of research in forests of the CBSC, that consider the question of condition of forests, peculiarity the multifunctional values and priority direction forestry in them. The author also considers the basic conformity of structure and com-position of forest stands, and presents evidence about the natural renewal of logging sites in fir and beech forests. It has been established that high intensity selective logging more than 50 % canopy cover and bringing the stand after logging 0.5 and below leads to degradation of forests, except for the possibility of natural regeneration felling areas for over 70 years. The study substantiates the effectiveness of selective forms of forest management in the uneven-aged stands and the importance of a multi-purpose and sustainable use of forest resources. The study emphasizes the need for a rational technology of logging operations and silvicultural demands strict compliance with the development of cutting areas and suggests ways to improve the productivity of forests, using introduced valuable tree species. For example, Sequoia sempervirens Endl. in the plantings of forest monocultures on the Abkhazian Research Forest Experimental Station (Ochamchira at age of 50 years forms a valuable timber of

  17. Determination of potential hazelnut plantation areas based GIS model case study: Samsun city of central Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could be created. Samsun city is one of the most important hazelnut production centres in Central Black Sea region. The main objective of this study is to determine potential hazelnut areas in Samsun city located Central Black Sea Region according to current regulations using geographic information system technique regarding to support hazelnut policy developers and organizations. According to the criteria dictated by government regulations, potential hazelnut area in Samsun province was determined and 86973 ha of the total area is suitable hazelnut area which is about 9.3% of whole province.

  18. Contribution of remote sensing data to oil spills monitoring. A pilot study in the Black and Azov Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, T.

    Oil pollution belongs to the most widespread man-caused emergency situations considerably harming natural ecosystems and different types of economic activity fishing tourism and other About 50 of oil pollution of the World Ocean is on transportation where 75 is on the ordinary process of transportation related to the illicit vessel discharges such as ballasts water tank washings flowing of engine-room and other But this type of pollution can be considerably decreased due to the effective monitoring and penalty system For monitoring of marine pollution the state inspections as a rule use marine or aviation facilities which are quite expensive limited by a day light and weather conditions and cover only a territorial waters The satellites SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar images instead can be used for studding the large equatorials and does not depend on cloud coverage season and daytime Oil discharged in the water damps gravity-capillary waves and changes the slope angle Thus oil spills could be viewed on the SAR images as black spots on an unpolluted sea surface However one of the problems in odder to create an operational integrated space-based monitoring system is an absence of various pilot researches to develop methodological principles for the unified algorithm of monitoring on international level To contribute to this need a pilot research on Oil Spills Monitoring in the Black and Azov Seas was conducted by SSPC Pryroda with a support of European Space Agency under the ERUNET project within the framework of

  19. Developmental abnormalities and neurotoxicological effects of CuO NPs on the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula by embryotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisano, Maria; Cappello, Tiziana; Catanese, Eva; Vitale, Valeria; Natalotto, Antonino; Giannetto, Alessia; Barreca, Davide; Brunelli, Elvira; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    The embryotoxicity of CuO NPs was evaluated in the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula embryos, by using 24-well plates. Fertilized eggs were exposed to five doses of CuO NPs ranging from 0.07 to 20 ppb, until pluteus stage. CuO NPs suspensions in artificial seawater formed agglomerates of 80-200 nm size, and copper uptake was 2.5-fold up in larvae exposed to high NP concentrations in respect to control. Developmental delay and morphological alteration, including skeletal abnormalities, were observed, as well as impairment in cholinergic and serotonergic nervous systems. These findings suggest the potential of CuO NPs to interfere with the normal neurotransmission pathways, thus affecting larval morphogenesis. Overall, the embryotoxicity tests are effective for evaluation of nanoparticle effects on the health of aquatic biota. Furthermore, as the black sea urchin A. lixula demonstrated to be vulnerable to NP exposure, it may be a valid bioindicator in marine biomonitoring and ecotoxicological programmes.

  20. Black Sea mud volcanoes and their relation to the search for methane gas hydrates and environmental security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnyukov, Evgeny; Yanko-Hombach, Valentina; Motnenko, Irena

    2016-04-01

    As of today, the number of known offshore mud volcanoes in the Black Sea is 68. The areas possessing the greatest abundance include the northern part of the Black Sea (Sorokin trough, Tuapsinskaya trough, Shatskiy arch) and the Kerch downfold (the area south of the Kerch peninsula). An intensive study of mud volcanoes has been performed in the course of on-shore and off-shore expeditions carried out by Ukrainian scientists since 1990. They brought to light new geological, geophysical, and geochemical data on the properties of mud volcanoes by (1) high resolution hydro-acoustic, seismic-acoustic, and gravity methods, (2) geothermal observations of the thermal regime of the water and uppermost sediments, (3) gravity core sampling of bottom deposits, (4) dredges and buckets, and (5) study of these samples by lithological, geochemical, paleontological, and biological methods. Methane gas hydrates have been recovered in about 28 localities largely associated with mud volcanoes below 600-700 m water depth, which suggests their close genetic relationships. Age of the sediments hosting methane gas hydrates as well as their lithological properties (e.g., grain-size) vary significantly. Relatively coarse-grained sediments make better hydrate reservoirs than fine-grained sediments. The area of the Black Sea suitable for gas hydrate formation is estimated at 288,100 km2, representing about 68% of the total Black Sea, or almost 91% of the deep-water basin; the volume of gas hydrates has been set at 4.8 km3 corresponding to 0.1-11012 m3 of free methane. A peculiar morphological structure of the sea bottom - conical hills (anticlinals) with low geostatic pressure and subsidence in their central part - provide a target in the search for underwater mud volcanoes. Our data show that such structures are formed by mud breccia and rock debris that are brought to the surface by methane flows, which escape along tectonic ruptures from the deep part of the lithosphere located beneath a

  1. Biogeochemical and physical controls on concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and plankton of the Mediterranean and Black Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Dachs, Jordi; Ojeda, MaríA. José; Valle, MaríA. Carmen; Castro-JiméNez, Javier; Wollgast, Jan; Ghiani, Michela; Hanke, Georg; Zaldivar, José Manuel

    2011-12-01

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are unique marine environments subject to important anthropogenic pressures due to atmospheric and riverine inputs of organic pollutants. They include regions of different physical and trophic characteristics, which allow the studying of the controls on pollutant occurrence and fate under different conditions in terms of particles, plankton biomass, interactions with the atmosphere, biodegradation, and their dependence on the pollutant physical chemical properties. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been measured in samples of seawater (dissolved and particulate phases) and plankton during two east-west sampling cruises in June 2006 and May 2007. The concentrations of dissolved PAHs were higher in the south-western Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean than in the Western Mediterranean, reflecting different pollutant loads, trophic conditions and cycling. Particle and plankton phase PAH concentrations were higher when lower concentrations of suspended particles and biomass occurred, with apparent differences due to the PAH physical chemical properties. The surface PAH particle phase concentrations decreased when the total suspended particles (TSP) increased for the higher molecular weight (MW) compounds, consistent with controls due to particle settling depletion of water column compounds and dilution. Conversely, PAH concentrations in plankton decreased at higher biomass only for the low MW PAHs, suggesting that biodegradative processes in the water column are a major driver of their occurrence in the photic zone. The results presented here are the most extensive data set available for the Mediterranean Sea and provide clear evidence of the important physical and biological controls on PAH occurrence and cycling in oceanic regions.

  2. Falia strategică Marea Neagră – Marea Baltică (The strategic Black Sea – Baltic Sea ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe VĂDUVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There was a moment when it seemed that the East-West dimension of the ontology of Euro-Asian space was beginning to emerge out of its traditional conflicting character and do something in order to bridge the gaps. This would have been excellent, since Western Europe has finance and technology, while Asia is rich in resources. The civilizations to be found on the largest geophysical platform of the Earth are not contradictory and conflicting; they are just different, by area, culture, and interests. Many of the truths that sounded like dogmata or things which were well known and had become chronic were ignored both by the triumphalist and the pessimist analysts. Whatever had happened seemed to be water under the bridge. The Summit of the Eastern Partnership in Vilnius, in the autumn of 2013, showed, however, the real face of things. The undercurrents were revealed, frustrations became evident, the strategic Black Sea – Baltic Sea ridge was reactivated and, consequently, the forces, the means, the plans and the resources were re-positioned. The war started again. Actually, it had never stopped because the war between the East and the West is unfortunately a continuous one. Like a road without beginning, without end, and with no exit.

  3. Mineralogy of Holocene Sediments from the Southwestern Black Sea Shelf (Turkey) in Relation to Provenance, Sea-level and Current Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emel BAYHAN; Mustafa ERG(I)N; Abidin TEMEL; Seref KESK(I)N

    2005-01-01

    Grain size and mineral composition of core sediments were used to investigate influences of various terrestrial and marine conditions,which have prevailed on the southwestern Black Sea shelf during the Holocene.Siliciclastic mud with small amounts of sand and gravel from nearby coastal hinterland is the principal sediment type,whereas sediments deposited near the shelf edge and the (I)stanbul Strait and off the Duru Lake (a paleo-river mouth)constitued large quantities of sand and gravel of both biogenic and terrigenic origin.Variable amounts of aragonite,1 nm-micas,quartz,feldspars,calcite and dolomite constitute the dominant non-clay minerals in bulk sediments.The clay mineral assemblage in the < 2 μm fraction is made up of smectite,illite,kaolinite and chlorite.Aragonite and calcite are mainly derived from benthic accumulations,whereas feldspars (mainly plagioclase) and smectite reflect magmaticvolcanic provenance and the distribution of 1 nm-micas and chlorite correlate with nearby metamorphic sources onland.Nevertheless,grain size and mineral distribution generally indicate a combination of effects of wind and wave climate,longshore and offshore cyclonic currents,changing sea-level stands and nearby source rock and morphological conditions.It is also suggested that at least part of clay minerals could be derived from the northwesterly Danube River input.

  4. Albania – as the Bridge of Routes and Transport Corridors between the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Albania is located in the Western Balkans. Its location in the midst of crossroads for major transit corridors in Europe places Albania in a strategic geographic position. Albania links the western Mediterranean countries with the Balkans and Asia. Its biggest valleys situated in Drin, Shkumbin and Vjose rivers, facilitate the connection of the Balkans with the Adriatic Sea. In the Balkan territory are situated some of the most important Pan - European transport corridors, consisting of: Pan - European Corridor IV, V, VII, VIII, IX and X. Main objective of this paper is the analysis of the development of transport routes and corridors in the Balkans in the context of Pan-European corridors; evaluation of national policy, priorities of Transport, directions of Albania’s main road and their compatibility with the needs of Pan - European connectivity.

  5. Magnetostratigraphy and radio-isotope dating of upper Miocene-lower Pliocene sedimentary successions of the Black Sea Basin (Taman Peninsula, Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, I.; Iosifidi, A.G.; Khramov, A.N.; Krijgsman, W.; Kuiper, K.; Langereis, C.G.; Popov, V.V.; Stoica, M.; Tomsha, V.A.; Yudin, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new chronology for the upper Miocene to Pliocene deposits of the Black Sea basin based on highresolution magnetostratigraphic data coupled with 40Ar/39Ar dating from the 475 m long Zheleznyi Rog section on the Taman Peninsula (Russia). This section comprises the stratigraphic interval o

  6. Modeling the nitrogen fluxes in the Black Sea using a 3D coupled hydrodynamical-biogeochemical model: transport versus biogeochemical processes, exchanges across the shelf break and comparison of the shelf and deep sea ecodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Beckers, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A 6-compartment biogeochemical model of nitrogen cycling and plankton productivity has been coupled with a 3D general circulation model in an enclosed environment (the Black Sea) so as to quantify and compare, on a seasonal and annual scale, the typical internal biogeochemical functioning of the she

  7. Biomarker and 16S rDNA evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane and related carbonate precipitation in deep-sea mud volcanoes of the Sorokin Trough, Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Muyzer, G.; Abbas, B.; Coolen, M.J.L.; Hopmans, E.C.; Baas, M.; Weering, T.C.E. van; Ivanov, M.K.; Poludetkina, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Many mud volcanoes were recently discovered in the euxinic bottom waters of the Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea). Three of them, i.e., NIOZ, Odessa, and Kazakov, were selected for a detailed biogeochemical investigation. Four methane-related carbonate crusts covered with microbial mats, and sediments (

  8. Investigations on struggling with Ricania simulans (Walker 1851 (Hemiptera: Ricaniidae an important pest of the Eastern Black Sea Coastlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Göktürk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricania simulans has been causing damage in agricultural areas in the Eastern Black Sea coastline since 2006. Due to the lack of studies on struggling against this harmful species, it continues to spread day after another. In this study, which was carried out in Kemalpaşa region of Hopa town in Artvin province of Turkey in 2013-2014, the mature Ricania simulans population density was aimed to be decreased using light traps and sticky traps in agricultural areas in 2013-2014. The results of statistical analysis conducted based on the numbers of captured Ricania simulans in each trap, it was found that there were significant differences between light traps and sticky traps. Light traps captured more mature individual than sticky traps. As a result, we suggest that light traps can be used as important tools in the fight against R. simulans

  9. Seasonal anomalies of water salinity in the Gelendzhik region of the Black Sea according to shipborne monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podymov, O. I.; Zatsepin, A. G.

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents results of analyzing the data on the variability of salinity in the upper layer of the coastal zone (including the seasonal thermocline) of the Black Sea during the 2010-2013 warm seasons (April-November). The data for the analysis were obtained from the regularly conducted CTD probing the by R/V Ashamba on a cross section abeam the Golubaya Bay (Gelendzhik). The relationship between salinity anomalies, coastal precipitation, and wind forcing is analyzed. It is shown that the contribution of thermal stratification to the density stratification in the seasonal thermocline is almost always greater than the contribution of salinity stratification, and the ratio of the former to the latter increases from April to November.

  10. Revisiting the Issue of Far-Left Political Parties in 1907–1909 (through the Example of Black Sea Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Taran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the activity of far-left organizations across Black Sea Governorate in 1907–1909. During this period, the bodies of internal affairs detected in the region a subversive activity of SR Maximalists, Communist Anarchists, and other terrorist groups. The activity of these destructive forces would come down to the physical liquidation of government officials, representatives of right parties, as well as extortion of money from merchants. The author comes to the conclusion that in Novorossiysk the two-year period following the end of the First Russian Revolution saw the party organizations of Social Democrats, Socialist Revolutionaries, Maximalists, Anarchists, etc., to virtually degrade and take on forms of organized criminal groups.

  11. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations.

  12. A study on ovine tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir; Aktas, Munir

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the frequency of Theileria and Babesia species was assessed via reverse line blotting and blood smear-based diagnostic methods in small ruminants. A total of 201 apparently healthy animals from 26 randomly selected herds located in 4 locations (Artvin, Giresun, Gumushane, and Tokat) of East Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated for the blood protozoans. In a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified with a set of general primers specific for all Theileria and Babesia species. The PCR products were hybridized against catchall and species-specific (Theileria spp., Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria ovis, Theileria sp. OT1, Theileria sp., OT3, Theileria sp., MK, Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Babesia spp., Babesia ovis, Babesia motasi, and Babesia crassa) probes. Theileria piroplasms were identified in nine (4.47%) samples by microscopic examination. Reverse line blotting (RLB) detected the infection in 19.90% of the samples. The infection rate of sheep (28.90%) was higher than goats (4.10%). T. ovis, Theileria sp., MK, and Theileria sp. OT3 were detected by RLB. The most prevalent Theileria species was T. ovis (18.90%) followed by Theileria sp. MK (0.99%). Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in one sample (0.43%). A single animal was infected as mix with T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK. The other Theileria (T. lestoquardi, Theileria sp. OT1, T. luwenshuni, and T. uilenbergi) and Babesia (B. ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa) species were not detected. This study is the first molecular survey on ovine tick-borne protozoans in East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  13. BLACK SEA REGION AND RIGHT FLANK OF THE CAUCASUS LINE WITHIN FRAMEWORK OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND POLITICAL ACTIVITY OF E.A. GOLOVIN IN THE CAUCASUS (1838-1842

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kondusov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an attempt is made to characterise the military, administrative and political activity of General E.A. Golovin in the Black Sea Region and at the Right Flank of the Caucasus Line during the period of his administration of the region in 1838–1842. In the North-Western Caucasus E.A. Golovin had to solve several important issues one of which was fight against mountain dwellers’ raids against the Black Sea Border Line and Caucasus Line.The Black Sea Cossack Host was strengthened. They defeated the Circassians’ attacks more successfully, which is confirmed with the battle on January 23, 1842. On that day the Black Sea Cossacks under the command of lieutenant colonel Yaroshenko battered the group of mountain dwellers consisting of several thousands of people which was trying to attack the Vasyurinskiy Kuren Settlement. In the years of his administration of the Caucasus E.A. Golovin paid a lot of attention to improving the defensive capacity of villages of the Black Sea and Caucasus Line Cossack Hosts and provided for the Cossacks’ wealth. At the same time he had to coordinate the offensive actions from Kuban which the general did not support. However, within the framework of the existing bureaucratic system of military administration all he could do was play at the established rules and obey the ambitious borders chiefs. Peaceful initiatives had few chances under such circumstances. The author comes to the conclusion that E.A. Golovin assisted improvement of defence of the Russian borders, supported the flexible approach to solution of the Circassian issue, but peaceful initiatives had few chances owing to the existing military bureaucratic institutions and political framework.

  14. Deviation of Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea level from the global mean during the 20th century: analysis of the main factors involved and a high-end projection to the end of 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to investigate which are the main factors determining interannual sea level variability of Baltic, Adriatic and Black seas, and to which extent the sea level of these three basins can deviate from the global mean. The three basins selected are semi-enclosed marginal seas connected with the adjacent seas by narrow straits. 13 sea level timeseries in Baltic Sea, 7 in Adriatic Sea and 5 in Black Sea provided by PSMSL, allowed us to compute a single seamless sea level timeseries representative for each basin from 1900 and for the entire 20th century, using statistical tools (PCA and Least Square method). Comparison with satellite data in the period 1993-2009, confirms that timeseries so computed are good representations of the observed sea level, with correlation values of 0.97, 0.87 and 0.72 for Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. At basin scale the sea level has been decomposed in various contributions that have been separately analyzed: local effect of pressure, steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation, boundary forcing, wind effect and river discharge. The annual cycles and their variability, show that the largest contribution is due to the wind for the Adriatic Sea and for the Baltic Sea. In these two basins the inverse Barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric factor is almost negligible. The wind seems to play a negligible role on Black Sea, where the Danube river discharge plays an important role. A linear regression model, built considering large scale sea level pressure distribution as predictor, is capable to explain a further percentage of sea level variability variability (about 20%) left after subtracting all the factors considered above. Sea level of the Baltic and Black Sea show a significant positive correlation (0.3 about) revealing the likely influence of an external common forcing. Past sea level variability shows no strong evidences of large deviation from the global mean sea level

  15. Distribution and preservation of black carbon in the East China Sea sediments: Perspectives on carbon cycling at continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Ying; Wang, Jinlong

    2016-02-01

    We determined the concentrations and radiocarbon (14C) compositions of black carbon (BC) in the sediments of the East China Sea (ECS). The BC concentrations, which were in the range of 0.30-1.52 mg/g, accounted for 12-65% of the total organic carbon (TOC). The distribution of BC in ECS sediments was controlled by factors such as grain size, distance from the coast, and deposition rate. Radiocarbon measurements of BC yielded ages of 6350-10,440 years before present (BP), suggesting that the percentage of BC derived from biomass combustion was in the range of 29-48%. The BC burial flux in sediments of the ECS was estimated to be ∼1.39×106 t/yr, which was similar to burial fluxes reported for shelf sediments in other areas. However, the magnitude of the total BC sink was far greater than that of any other shelf regions studied to date, indicating the global importance of BC accumulation in the ECS, and the magnitude of BC input from large rivers (e.g., the Changjiang). The riverine delivery of BC to the ECS (73%) was far greater than that of atmospheric flux (27%). Further study of the BC cycle and the interactions of BC with other organic compounds in marginal seas was required to better understand the role of BC in the global carbon cycle.

  16. Advances of Fine Resolution SSTs for Small Ocean Basins: Evaluation in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-07

    daily temporal resolution much colder than those over the sea. For example, clima - with improved transitions in time and space across cloud- tological...SST differences and mean biases for each zero in comparison to the finest resolution PATHF clima - climatology are calculated with respect to the inter

  17. Defining Mediterranean and Black Sea biogeochemical subprovinces and synthetic ocean indicators using mesoscale oceanographic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieblas, Anne-Elise; Drushka, Kyla; Reygondeau, Gabriel;

    2014-01-01

    (2002-2010) of a variety of both "classical'' (i.e., sea surface temperature, surface chlorophyll-a, and bathymetry) and "mesoscale'' (i.e., eddy kinetic energy, finite-size Lyapunov exponents, and surface frontal gradients) ocean features that we use to characterize the surface ocean variability. We...

  18. Seasonal variation of black carbon over the South China Sea and in various continental locations in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is an important atmospheric constitute as an air pollutant and as a climate forcer. To our knowledge, field measurements of BC have not been reported over the South China Sea. Observation of light absorption coefficients (σabs and BC concentrations by Aethalometer were conducted on Yongxing Island in the South China Sea and at five continental sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, South China during the South China Sea monsoon period (rainy season, 16 May–20 June 2008 and the northeast monsoon period (dry season, 12 December 2008–8 January 2009. At the oceanic site, the daily average BC concentrations vary from 0.28 to 2.14 μg m−3 and seasonal variations of BC were small (0.67 in dry season and 0.54 μg m−3 in rainy season. Similarly, little seasonal difference was found at a background site in PRD (2.88 in dry season and 2.62 μg m−3 in rainy season. At PRD urban sites, the daily average concentration of BC ranges from 1.56 to 37.9 μg m−3, higher in the dry season (12.6 μg m−3 and lower in the rainy season (6.4 μg m−3. The observed average σabs values in rainy vs. dry seasons are 119 vs. 62 Mm−1 at the PRD urban sites, 29 vs. 26 Mm−1 at the PRD background site, and 8.4 vs. 7.2 Mm−1 at the marine site. A bi-peak pattern in diurnal BC variation was observed at all sites while this pattern is the most prominent at the urban sites. The first peak appears in the early morning rush hour and the second peak in early evening, with the evening peak more pronounced in dry season.

  19. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Stegniy, Borys; Rula, Oleksandr; Shutchenko, Pavlo

    2012-12-01

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September 2010 to September 2011, a wild bird surveillance study was conducted in these regions to identify avian influenza viruses. Biological samples consisting of cloacal and tracheal swabs and fecal samples were collected from wild birds of different ecological groups, including waterfowl and sea- and land-based birds, in places of mass bird accumulations in Sivash Bay and the Utlyuksky and Molochniy estuaries. The sampling covered the following wild bird biological cycles: autumn migration, wintering, spring migration, nesting, and postnesting seasons. A total of 3634 samples were collected from 66 different species of birds. During the autumn migration, 19 hemagglutinating viruses were isolated, 14 of which were identified as low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus subtypes H1N?, H3N8, H5N2, H7N?, H8N4, H10N7, and H11N8. From the wintering samples, 45 hemagglutinating viruses were isolated, 36 of which were identified as LPAI virus subtypes H1N1, H1N? H1N2, H4N?, H6N1, H7N3, H7N6, H7N7, H8N2, H9N2, H10N7, H10N4, H11N2, H12N2, and H15N7. Only three viruses were isolated during the spring migration, nesting, and postnesting seasons (serotypes H6, H13, and H16). The HA and NA genes were sequenced from the isolated H5 and N1 viruses, and the phylogenetic analysis revealed possible ecological connections between the Azov and Black Sea regions and Europe. The LPAI viruses were isolated mostly from mallard ducks, but also from shellducks, shovelers, teals, and white-fronted geese. The rest of the 14 hemagglutinating viruses isolated were identified as different serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (APMV-1, APMV-4, APMV-6, and APMV-7). This information furthers our understanding

  20. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  1. Linking benthic biodiversity and environmental conditions at the sea floor combining statistical and mechanistic modeling. Case study on the Black Sea's northwestern shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drion, Roxanne; Capet, Arthur; Gregoire, Marilaure

    2014-05-01

    The preservation of the health and biodiversity of benthic ecosystems is a crucial priority in order to achieve the Good Environmental Status (GES) of marine waters. The multiple pressures acting on the ocean, and in particular, on the coastal zone may prevent the maintenance of biodiversity either directly (e.g. trawling, dredging) or indirectly by modifying environmental conditions at the sea floor (e.g. eutrophication, pollution, acidification, warming). The management of the GES of the benthos in a changing environment and the definition of management strategies (e.g. nutrient reduction) that would preserve GES require tools able to predict the modifications of environmental conditions and to link these modifications to the status of the benthic system. Coupled biogeochemical-circulation models provide a large amount of information on physical (e.g. currents, salinity, temperature, shear stress) and biochemical conditions (e.g. oxygen, inorganic nutrients, sinking detritus) but cannot provide an information on species richness. We propose to link these aspects by applying canonical ordination techniques (e.g. Redundancy Analysis, CoInertia Analysis) on a large data set on macrobenthos collected on the Black Sea's north-western shelf with in-situ sediment data (e.g. granulometry, carbon and nitrogen content, C/N ratio, CaCO3 content) and bottom conditions (e.g. shear stress, level of oxygen stress, flux of organic matter to the sediments) provided by a three dimensional model. Beyond taxonomic description, the analysis is performed on the functional composition of the macrobenthos: A trait-based approach is used to assess the functional composition of the macrobenthos by associating the considered species to a list of biological, ecological and behavioral traits. This approach allows to appraise how local conditions determine the functional and taxonomical diversity and provides a mean to evaluate the impact of habitat alteration on the ecological role of

  2. The first observations of oocyte diameters for the pipefish from the southern Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRKAN, Şule; Taylan, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Syngnathid specimens sample between July 2001˗May 2002 was examined about measurements of oocyte diameter in the coastal waters of Sinop peninsula, southern Back Sea. The specimens of Syngnathid fishes (Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle, Syngnathus variegatus, Syngnathus tenuirostris, Nerophis ophidion) catched with using hand dredge from the vegetated coastal area. According to results, the mean of hydrated oocyte diameter was calculated as, respectively: Syngnathus acus: 1.96 mm, ...

  3. Advantages of Fine Resolution SSTs for Small Ocean Basins: Evaluation in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    slope determined over 1993–2001 (0.008C/month) were extrapolated over the Pathfinder interval, the warm bias of MODAS clima - tology relative to...temperatures over land are typically much colder than those over the sea. For example, clima - tological mean of PATHF SST is >6C in the easternmost part of...well. In particular, annual mean SST bias for a given SST product is almost zero in comparison to the finest resolution PATHF clima - tology. RMS SST

  4. Development of a WebGIS-based monitoring and environmental protection and preservation system for the Black Sea: The ECO-Satellite project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2013-04-01

    The ECO-Satellite project has been approved in the frame of the Joint Operational Program "Black Sea Basin 2007-2013" and it is co-financed by the European Union through the European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument and the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance and National Funds. The overall objective of the project is to contribute to the protection and preservation of the water system of the Black Sea, with its main emphasis given to river deltas and protected coastal regions at the seaside. More specifically, it focuses on the creation of an environmental monitoring system targeting the marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black Sea, thus strengthening the development of common research among the involved partners and increasing the intraregional knowledge for the corresponding coastal zones. This integrated multi-level system is based on the technological assets provided by satellite Earth observation data and Geo-Informatics innovative tools and facilities, as well as on the development of a unified, easy to update geodatabase including a wide range of appropriately selected environmental parameters. Furthermore, a Web-GIS system is under development aiming in principle to support environmental decision and policy making by monitoring the state of marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black Sea and managing all the aforementioned data sources and derived research results. The system is designed in a way that is easily expandable and adaptable for environmental management in local, regional national and trans-national level and as such it will increase the capacity of decision makers who are related to Black Sea environmental policy. Therefore, it is expected that administrative authorities, scientifically related institutes and environmental protection bodies in all eligible areas will show interest in the results and applications of the information system, since the ECO-Satellite project could serve as a support tool for the

  5. Black-legged kittiwakes as indicators of environmental change in the North Sea: Evidence from long-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, S.; Frederiksen, M.; Daunt, F.; Scott, B. E.; Harris, M. P.

    2007-01-01

    Top predators, particularly seabirds, have repeatedly been suggested as indicators of marine ecosystem status. One region currently under pressure from human fisheries and climate change is the North Sea. Standardized seabird monitoring data have been collected on the Isle of May, an important seabird colony in the northwestern North Sea, over the last 10-20 years. Over this period oceanographic conditions have varied markedly, and between 1990 and 1999 a major industrial fishery for sandlance ( Ammodytes marinus), the main prey of most seabird species, was prosecuted nearby. Sandlance fishing grounds close to seabird colonies down the east coast of the UK were closed in 2000 in an attempt to improve foraging opportunities for breeding seabirds, particularly black-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla). Initially this closure seemed to be beneficial for kittiwakes with breeding success recovering to pre-fishery levels. However, despite the ban continuing, kittiwakes and many other seabird species in the North Sea suffered severe breeding failures in 2004. In this paper, we test the predictive power of four previously established correlations between kittiwake breeding success and climatic/trophic variables to explain the observed breeding success at the Isle of May in 2004. During the breeding season, kittiwakes at this colony switch from feeding on 1+ group to 0 group sandlance, and results up until 2003 indicated that availability of both age classes had a positive effect on kittiwake breeding success. The low breeding success of kittiwakes in 2004 was consistent with the late appearance and small body size of 0 group sandlance, but at odds with the two variables likely to operate via 1 group availability (lagged winter sea surface temperature and larval sandlance cohort strength in 2003). The reason for the discrepancy is currently unknown, but analysis of 1 group sandlance body composition indicated that lipid content in 2004 was extremely low, and thus fish

  6. Fossil DNA Stratigraphy revealed Multiple Sources of Alkenones in the Holocene Black Sea at the Strain Level: Implications for UK37 Paleothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, M. J.; Saenz, J. P.; Trowbridge, N.; Eglinton, T.

    2007-12-01

    The fossil distribution of long-chain alkenones is now a widely accepted tool to reconstruct past sea surface temperatures (SST) (i.e. UK37-index). In most studies, the UK37 index is calibrated for the main source of alkenones, the coccolithophorid haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi. Besides temperature, additional factors such as salinity, growth conditions, or different or multiple biological sources seem to influence the level of unsaturation of alkenones and the reliability of the UK37-inferred SST. The Black Sea is an interesting setting to study such factors since unreliable SST were reconstructed from the Holocene sapropel with high concentrations of an unusual "Black Sea" alkenone (C36:2 ethyl ketone) whereas calcium-bearing microfossils (coccoliths) of haptophytes are lacking. To identify Holocene sources for alkenones in the Black Sea at the unprecedented strain-level and to refine paleoenvironmental conditions, we searched for multiple fossil genetic signatures of haptophytes. This revealed that the slow increase in salinity as a result of post-glacial introduction of Mediterranean waters in the paleo lacustrine Black Sea, caused a succession between alkenone-biosynthesizing haptophytes from Isochrysis spp. (which do not produce coccoliths), to a mixture of Isochrysis and E huxleyi strains, then only E. huxleyi strains, and when the salinity reached a threshold of 18 per mille at 3000 years BP, the fossilized calcium-bearing E. huxleyi strain was introduced. At least 11 E. huxleyi strains were identified and the first non-fossilizing strains already colonized the Black Sea 4000 years before the fossilized calcium-bearing strain appeared. Most E. huxleyi strains were likely sources of C36:2 eK but the presence of one fossil "phylotype" coincided with the highest levels of this unusual alkenone ( more than 80 percent of the total alkenone content) and unreliable past SST (varying between 5 and 30 degrees C; 7500-5500 years BP). C36:2 eK was not biosynthesized by

  7. On the interpretation of millennium-scale level variations of the Black Sea during the first quarter of the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Introduction. During the first quarter of the Holocene, the Black Sea (BS) experienced large changes: amid the gradually rising water surface, Black Sea level (BSL) fluctuations occurred. We calculated based on records (e.g., Balabanov, 2007) that the standard deviation is ˜3.5 ÷ 5 m. Their typical duration was ˜1000 years. Time of occurrence of positive and negative anomalies of the BS is different in different reconstructions. The source of these discrepancies could be tectonically induced vertical motions. Before ˜7 ka BP the BSL was higher than the level of the World Ocean. The rising BS spilled over a rocky sill at the Bosphorus (Chepalyga, 2007). It is clear that if the water discharge were quite large, the long-term BSL anomalies could not be. This study focuses on the quantification of this concept. Methodology. I use the equation of the water balance of the BS in term of the annual averaged level anomalies. Time scales of the BSL fluctuations were determined based on the BS basin morphology and averaged volumes of rivers runoff and water discharge via the Bosphorus Sill. The short-term (1-2 year) contribution (like random white noise) to level changes are due to variations of river runoff and precipitation mines evaporation. From this perspective, the water balance equation is represented as a stochastic Langevin equation (Kislov, 2015). In another case, the BSL anomaly could be destructed due to relation "BSL anomaly - value of water discharge via the Bosphorus Sill" which acts as a negative feedback. Results. To quantify the parameters, I use the present day information about hydrological regime of the BS. It should not lead to serious errors, because the first and last quarters of the Holocene exhibit similarity in their hydroclimatic regimes (Panin, Matlakhova, 2014). As well, the paleohydrological data about dynamics of the Dnieper River runoff was used (Swetc, 1978). It was found that the time scale of the BSL fluctuations due to water discharge

  8. Reply to Discussion: a critique of Possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the late Quaternary: evidence from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Geo-Marine Letters, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Atike; Meriç, Engin; Avşar, Niyazi

    2012-06-01

    In their discussion of our 2011 paper dealing with possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the "late" Quaternary, based on data from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Yaltırak et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 32:267-274, 2012) essentially reject the idea of any links whatsoever, be they between the Marmara Sea and the lakes İznik and Sapanca, or further to the Black Sea via the valley of the Sakarya River. The evidence they provide in support of their view, however, is essentially circumstantial, in part conjectural, and also inconclusive considering the findings in favour of linkage between the Marmara Sea and the lakes at the very least, while the proposed connection with the Sakarya River valley remains speculative because of the lack of unambiguous data. On the other hand, Yaltırak et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 32:267-274, 2012) do raise valid points of concern which deserve careful future investigation, the most important being the possibility of sample contamination from dumped marine sediment used for construction purposes along some parts of the shore of Lake İznik. We agree that a concerted multidisciplinary effort is required to address the many unresolved issues in connection with the potential waterways proposed by us and others before us.

  9. Assessment of height variations by GPS at Mediterranean and Black Sea coast tide gauges from the SELF projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Zerbini, S.; Baker, T.; Bürki, B.; Galanis, J.; Garate, J.; Georgiev, I.; Kahle, H.-G.; Kotzev, V.; Lobazov, V.; Marson, I.; Negusini, M.; Richter, B.; Veis, G.; Yuzefovich, P.

    2002-09-01

    In the framework of the European Union SEa Level Fluctuations (SELF) I and the SELF II Projects designed to study sea level variations around the Mediterranean and Black Seas, the Global Positioning System (GPS) technique was adopted to measure the ongoing crustal movements at tide gauge stations. Tide gauges measure sea-level variations with respect to a ground benchmark. In order to determine true sea-level variations of a few millimeters per year, it is necessary to estimate the ground vertical movement to a high degree of accuracy. Countries involved in the projects were Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Bulgaria and Russia. In the period from 1993 to 1998 repeated observations at more than 28 tide gauges and at a number of reference and intermediate stations were conducted. GPS measurements were complemented by Water Vapor Radiometers (WVR) at selected sites. Individual campaigns were evaluated and analyzed and showed height variations in the millimeter-centimeter range. All data were processed following common standards using the Bernese Software in a unified analysis to generate a combined solution. Based on the normal equations of all of the campaigns, a combined solution for the SELF Projects sites was generated. In the analysis of multi-technique anchor sites to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame ITRF97, it is shown that vertical rates of different techniques may be of different sign with respect to each other and also with respect to the ITRF97 combination. Vertical rates are not reliable in general and even the restriction to the use of long the long-time series sites KOSG, ONSA, WTZR, MADR, GRAZ and MATE did not ensure significant and unique vertical rates. Nevertheless, they had to be used for the reference frame definition. The results of repeated gravity observations and the continuous GPS observations at Porto Corsini and Medicina were compared to the epoch-wise GPS campaigns and revealed that the vertical rates are in conformance with each

  10. Ligophorus llewellyni n. sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from the redlip mullet Liza haematocheilus (Temminck & Schlegel) introduced into the Black Sea from the Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Evgenija V; Gerasev, Pavel I; Pron'kina, Nataliya V

    2007-05-01

    Ligophorus llewellyni n. sp. (Ancyrocephalidae: Ligophorus Euzet & Suriano, 1977) is described from the gills of Liza haematocheilus (Temminck & Schlegel) introduced into the Black Sea from the Far East. Ligophorus llewellyni is closely related to L. pilengas Sarabeev & Balbuena, 2004, which parasitises the same host species. The two species differ in the morphology of the accessory piece of the copulatory organ and in some of the characters of the haptoral hard-parts. The morphometric variability of L. llewellyni and in its morphologically most similar congeners from the Black Sea is studied. Correlations between 30 morphometric characters of the haptoral hard-parts and the significance of each for species differentiation are examined. It is suggested that only 22 characters are useful as diagnostic criteria permitting the differentiation of morphologically similar species of Ligophorus.

  11. [Diurnal dynamics of thyroid and sex steroid hormones in the blood of yearlings of the resident form of Black Sea trout Salmo trutta labrax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzha, E V; Pavlov, E D; Kostin, V V; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal dynamics of the content of thyroid and sex steroid hormones is investigated in the blood of the resident form of Black Sea trout in summer. The maximums and minimums of concentration of the investigated hormones do not coincide over 24 h, except for the decrease in the level of T3 and testosterone before dawn. The dynamics of the investigated hormones is controlled to a high extent by the sex of fish in the morning and in the daytime.

  12. HEAVY METALS IN EDIBLE TISSUES OF BENTHIC ORGANISMS FROM SAMSUN COASTS, SOUTH BLACK SEA, TURKEY AND THEIR POTENTIAL RISK TO HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Levent BAT; Arıcı, Elif; Sezgin, Murat; Şahin, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aim to determine the concentrationsof copper,cobalt, lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese, nickel and iron in the edible tissuesof Liocarcinusdepurator (decapoda), Rapanavenosa (gastropoda) and Mytilusgalloprovincilais (mollusca) collected from Samsun coasts of the Black Sea,Turkey in 2010. These biomonitor species are major food sources of benthicecosystem. Exposing to heavy metals at higher concentrations might be toxic todemersal fish species and also humans. The concentrat...

  13. Determination of Some Agronomıcal Characteristics of Local Flint Corn (Zea mays L. indurata) Genotypes in The Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 84 flint corn (Zea mays L. indurata) genotypes were used. Twelwe agronomical characteristics of 84 flint local corn genotypes were examined. Local corn genotypes were collected from 12 cities in the Black Sea Region in 2008 and field and laboratuary studies were completed in 2009. Variance analysis showed that there were high variations in most of the agronomical characteristics. At this study, plant height, ear height, stalk diameter, number of leaf per plant, ear length, ear ...

  14. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Panaiotov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected—24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012–2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported.

  15. The Black Sea coastal zone in the high resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovskaya, Maria; Dulov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Landsat data with spatial resolution of 30-100 m provide the ability of regular monitoring of ocean phenomena with scale of 100-1000 m. Sentinel-1 is equipped with C-band synthetic aperture radar. The images allow recognizing the features that affect either the sea surface roughness, or its color characteristics. The possibilities of using the high spatial resolution satellite data are considered for observation and monitoring of Crimean coastal zone. The analyzed database includes all Landsat-8 (Level 1) multi-channel images from January 2013 to August 2015 and all Sentinel-1 radar images in May-August 2015. The goal of the study is to characterize the descriptiveness of these data for research and monitoring of the Crimean coastal areas. The observed marine effects are reviewed and the physical mechanisms of their signatures in the satellite images are described. The effects associated with the roughness variability are usually manifested in all bands, while the subsurface phenomena are visible only in optical data. Confidently observed structures include internal wave trains, filamentous natural slicks, which reflect the eddy coastal dynamics, traces of moving ships and the oil films referred to anthropogenic pollution of marine environment. The temperature fronts in calm conditions occur due to surfactant accumulation in convergence zone. The features in roughness field can also be manifested in Sentinel-1 data. Subsurface processes observed in Landsat-8 images primarily include transport and distribution of suspended matter as a result of floods and sandy beach erosion. The surfactant always concentrates on the sea surface in contaminated areas, so that these events are also observed in Sentinel-1 images. A search of wastewater discharge manifestations is performed. The investigation provides the basis for further development of approaches to obtain quantitative characteristics of the phenomena themselves. Funding by Russian Science Foundation under grant 15

  16. Geostatistical Analysis of Winter Rainfall for 2013 in Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey (comparison of the past status and future projections)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaoglu, Beyza

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall is one of the most important climatic factor for environmental studies. Several methods (Thiessen polygon, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) and Kriging etc.) have been used by researchers for spatial interpolation of rainfall data. Kriging is a geostatistical method which is based on spatial correlation between neighbouring observations to predict attribute values at unsampled locations. The study area, Eastern Black Sea Basin is one of the highest rainfall accumulations in Turkey according to the measured station data (1942 - 2011). Eastern Black Sea Basin is the only basin in Turkey with an increase amount of winter (October, November, December) rainfall for 2013 in comparison to the long term mean and previous year winter rainfall. Regarding to the future projections (Ustaoglu, 2011), this basin has one of the strongest increasing trend according to the A2 scenario analysis obtained from RegCM3 regional climate model during the ten years periods (2011 - 2100). In this study, 2013 winter rainfall in the basin is highlighted and compared with the past and future rainfall conditions of the basin. Keywords: Geostatistical Analysis, Winter Rainfall, Eastern Black Sea Basin

  17. Combined use of PAH levels and EROD activities in the determination of PAH pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution by measuring PAH levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 PAHs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured PAHs had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of PAHs were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of PAHs in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to PAHs. The chemical analyses of PAHs and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of PAH pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  18. Spring diet and feeding strategy of the European sprat Sprattus sprattus (L., 1758 from the Black Sea coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayhan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the spring diet composition and feeding strategy of the European sprat, Sprattus sprattus. Diet composition of European sprat was investigated for the first time in the central Black Sea coast of Turkey. Examined of the 115 specimens (6 - 9.1 cm total length of stomach, 12 (10.4% had emty. Diet analysis was described based on gravimetric percentages (W%, frequency of abundance (N%, frequency of occurrence (%F and relative importance index (IRI%. Feeding strategy was analyzed and graphically (Costello represented, considering the frequency of abundance (N% and frequency of occurrence (%F indexes and grouping prey into higher taxonomic categories. Twenty species were identified, belonging to four prey groups: Polychaeta, Crustacea, Mollusca and Chaetognatha. Finally copepods proved to be the most important food item considering the above-cited indexes. All other prey taxa were identified as accidental preys. At least seven copepod species were identified, where Calanus euxinus appeared all round with %IRI≥50. Also results of feeding strategy analyses revealed a trophic specialization toward a single prey.

  19. Rebuilding Socio-Economic Cooperation in South East Europe and the Black Sea for Restarting European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoris Zarotiadis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In our paper “Feraios Revised: Inter-Regional Trans-National Socioeconomic Cooperation in South and Eastern Europe”, published in International Relations and Diplomacy Journal (December 2014, we analyzed the prospects of an inter-regional cross-national cooperation (in economic, social and political patterns in South and Eastern Europe through the structural reorganization of the existing institutions (local, national or cross-national in the area and we expressed the need for the reintroduction of Rigas Feraios’ perspective of socioeconomic and ultimately of political integration in this region. The present paper is an attempt to explain the reasons why working on the regional socioeconomic cooperation and integration constitutes a necessary condition before going into a wider amalgamation. Contemporary systemic, global crisis brought out internal and transnational aberrations and the fact of the asymmetrical financial integration of the EU countries. The Union consists of a multilevel system were social conflicts, different rates of economic development and various demographic dynamics dominate. The increasing territorial inequalities in the enlarged Europe and the “suspended step” of a monetary unification might establish the need to revert to regional socioeconomic cooperation, on the basis of the existing cultural, economic and historical bonds, like those of South-East Europe and the Black Sea, for restarting European integration and succeed inter-union stability and prosperity.

  20. Determination of copper pollution and associated ecological risk in coastal sediments of southeastern Black Sea region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozseker, Koray; Eruz, Coskun; Cılız, Sadi

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the natural and anthropogenic copper (Cu) pollution in coastal sediments near the city Trabzon which exhibits an increasing population and industrial activity in the Southeastern Black Sea Region, were investigated spatially and temporally. The sediment along the coast of Trabzon is influenced by three rivers called Degirmendere, Yanbolu and Solakli resulting in a spatial separation. The highest Cu sediment concentration was measured in the section influenced by Solakli (88.07 μg g(-1)) and the lowest at the sites affected by Yanbolu (56.86 μg g(-1)). Also a strong temporal trend was observed displaying the highest Cu concentration in autumn (107.06 μg g(-1)) and the lowest in spring (52.06 μg g(-1)). Based upon the results of this study and; according to the Sediment Quality Guideline, Cu is the major contributor to toxicity in the coastal zones of all regions.