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Sample records for black rice

  1. Separation, Purification and Identification of Antioxidant Compositions in Black Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-wei; GUo Bao-jiang; ZHANG Rui-fen; CHI Jian-wei; WEI Zhen-cheng; XU Zhi-hong; ZHANG Yan; TANG Xiao-jun

    2006-01-01

    To separate, purify and identify the antioxidative compositions of black rice, using total antioxidation capacity (TAC) as an activity-monitoring parameter, different fractions of black rice antioxidative extracts were obtained using solvents of different polarities such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and normal butyl alcohol. The main antioxidative components were separated from the strongest antioxidative fractions by using Sephadex LH-20 resin and the structures were analyzed by ultraviolet-vis, infra-red, ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectrums. Results showed that the water fraction and normal butyl alcohol antioxidative extract fraction of black rice had the strongest antioxidation capacities and their TACs reached 383 and 392 ku g-1, respectively. Four main antioxidative components were separated from the water fraction and their TACs reached 976, 878, 1 134 and 1087 ku g-1, respectively. The spectroscopy analysis indicated that the four active components of the antioxidative extract of black rice were four anthocyanin compounds of malvidin, pelargonidin3, 5-diglucoside, cyaniding-3-glucoside and cyaniding-3, 5-diglucoside. It is concluded that the anthocyanin compounds are the most important substantial foundations for antioxidation.

  2. Isolation and identification of phenolic antioxidants in black rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyun-Il; Shin, Jae-Wook; Song, Geun-Seoup; Kim, Young-Soo

    2015-02-01

    Black rice bran contains phenolic compounds of a high antioxidant activity. In this study, the 40% acetone extract of black rice bran was sequentially fractionated to obtain 5 fractions. Out of the 5 fractions, ethyl acetate fraction was subfractionated using the Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in the extracts was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation assay, reducing power. The subfraction 2 from ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenolic contents (TPC) (816.0 μg/mg) and the lowest EC50 values (47.8 μg/mL for DPPH radical assay, 112.8 μg/mL for ABTS radical cation assay, and 49.2 μg/mL for reducing power). These results were 3.1, 1.3, and 2.6 times lower than those of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), respectively. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, the antioxidant activity and TPC of various extracts was closely correlated, with correlation coefficients (R(2) ) higher than 0.86. The major phenolic acid in subfraction 2 was identified as ferulic acid (178.3 μg/mg) by HPLC and LC-ESI/MS/MS analyses. Our finding identified ferulic acid as a major phenolic compound in black rice bran, and supports the potential use of black rice bran as a natural source of antioxidant. PMID:25597516

  3. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

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    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  4. Antioxidations and Their Correlations with Total Flavones and Anthocyanin Contents in Different Black Rice Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The antioxidations and their correlations with total flavones and anthocyanin contents in different black rice varieties were studied. The results indicated that the great differences in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), scavenging free radical capacity (SFRC), total flavones and anthocyanin contents existed among 242 black rice varieties. Comparisons of TAC,SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of different black rice types showed that the differences between black rice and white rice, indica one and japonica one, and nonglutinous one and glutinous one were significant at 0.01 levels,respectively. This showed that the TAC, SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of japonica type were higher than those of indica one, and nonglutinous type were higher than glutinous one. According to the fast clustering procedure, 242 black rice varieties could be clustered into 10 clusters, 184 indica rice varieties into 10 clusters, and 58japonica rice varieties into 6 clusters. Most significant (P<0.01) correlations existed between TAC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents, and between SFRC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents of black rice, respectively. This showed that the antioxidation of black rice was closely correlated with its active compositions of flavones and anthocyanin.

  5. Transmission of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus from Frozen Infected Leaves to Healthy Rice Plants by Small Brown Planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tong; WU Li-juan; WANG Ying; CHENG Zhao-bang; JI Ying-hua; FAN Yong-jian; ZHOU Yi-jun

    2011-01-01

    In order to preserve virus for identifying the resistance of rice varieties against rice black-streaked dwarf disease,a simple and reliable method was developed,through which virus-free small brown planthopper (SBPH) acquired rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) from frozen infected leaves and the virus was transmitted to healthy rice plants.The experimental results showed that SBPH could obtain RBSDV from frozen infected rice leaves and the virus could be transmitted to a susceptible rice variety.For the ability to acquire RBSDV and transmit the virus to healthy plants by SBPH,there was no significant difference between frozen infected leaves and in vitro infected leaves.The novel method could be applied to identification of rice variety resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf disease,facilitating the breeding process for rice black-streaked dwarf disease resistance.

  6. Identification and characterization of seed-specific transcription factors regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in black rice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, C.-K; Cho, M.-A.; Choi, Y.-H.; Kim, J.-A.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kim, Y.-K.; Park, S.-H

    2011-01-01

    Black rice is rich in anthocyanin and is expected to have more healthful dietary potential than white rice. We assessed expression of anthocyanin in black rice cultivars using a newly designed 135 K Oryza sativa microarray. A total of 12,673 genes exhibited greater than 2.0-fold up- or down-regulation in comparisons between three rice cultivars and three seed developmental stages. The 137 transcription factor genes found to be associated with production of anthocyanin pigment were classified ...

  7. Screening of Rice Genes Interacting with p5b of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ying; YANG Jian; ZHANG Heng-mu; CHEN Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) is a recognized member of the genus Fijivirus,family Reoviridae.Its genome has ten double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments (S1-S10),in which the fifth genome segment (S5) contains two open reading frames (ORFs) with a partially overlapping region.The second ORF of RBSDV S5 encodes a viral nonstructural protein named p5b with unknown function.To reveal the function of p5b,its gene was ligated into the bait plasmid pGBKT7 and an expression library containing rice cDNAs was constructed using plasmid pGADT7 for yeast two-hybrid assay.The bait protein p5b was detected in yeast by western blot,and the result of an auto-activation test showed that p5b could not autonomously activate the expression of reporter genes in yeast.Then the bait protein p5b was used for screening the cDNA expression libraries of rice.Gene fragments of some pivotal enzymes involved in photosynthesis,respiration and other important metabolic processes,were identified to interact with p5b in yeast,suggesting that these interactions may play roles in symptom development in infected plants.

  8. Effect of post-harvest treatment on bioactive phytochemicals of Thai black rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkaew, Orranuch; Boontakham, Pittayaporn; Dumri, Kanchana; Noenplab, Acharaporn Na Lampang; Sookwong, Phumon; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya

    2017-02-15

    Because black rice is rich in antioxidants, appropriate methods of post-harvest treatment are necessary for maintaining these bioactive phytochemicals. Drying methods, storage temperatures, storage duration, and packaging methods affected the contents of some bioactive compounds in the two varieties of Thai black rice used in this research. Sun drying reduces the loss of anthocyanins and γ-oryzanols more than does hot air drying. Glutinous black rice stored as paddy at cool room temperature retains more anthocyanins, γ-oryzanols, and vitamin E than does paddy stored at room temperature. Nylon/LLDPE pouches containing N2 are the most suitable packaging for preserving the key aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), total phenolic, and anthocyanin contents of unpolished aromatic black rice. These pouches also retard the formation of some common off-flavor compounds. PMID:27664613

  9. Determination of contents and antioxidant activity of free and bound phenolics compounds and in vitro digestibility of commercial black and red rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Kotásková, Eva; Družbíková, Helena; Mlček, Jiří

    2016-11-15

    Black and red rices (Oryza sativa L.) were analysed for total flavonoids and phenolics and the HPLC profile including both free and bound phenolic fractions. Moreover, antioxidant activity and in vitro digestibility was determined. Content of flavonoids and polyphenols as well as antioxidant activity was higher in free phenolic fractions. Bound flavonoids in black rices were not significant contributors to antioxidant activity. The main free phenolics in black rices were ferulic, protocatechuic and trans-p-coumaric acids, while the major free phenolics in red rices were catechin, protocatechuic and caffeic acids. The main bound phenolics in black rices were ferulic and vanillic acids and quercetin, in red rice types, they were ferulic, syringic, trans-p-coumaric acids and quercetin. Newly, the presence of m-coumaric acid in red rices was detected. Steam cooked rices showed very high levels of organic matter digestibility, whereas red rices were significantly more digestible than black rices (p<0.05). PMID:27283641

  10. Ecological Fitness of Non-vector Planthopper Sogatella furcifera on Rice Plants Infected with Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-chan; XU Hong-xing; ZHENG Xu-song; YANG Ya-jun; GAO Guang-chun; PAN Jian-hong; LU Zhong-xian

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV)-infested rice plants on the ecological parameters and its relevant defensive and detoxification enzymes of white-backed planthopper (WBPH) in laboratory for exploring the relationship between RBSDV and the non-vector planthopper.The results showed that nymph survival rate,female adult weight and fecundity,and egg hatchability of WBPH fed on RBSDV-infested rice plants did not markedly differ from those on healthy plants,whereas the female adult longevity and egg duration significantly shortened on diseased plants.Furthermore,significantly higher activities of defensive enzymes (dismutase,catalase and peroxidase) and detoxification enzymes (acetylcholinesterase,carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase) were found in WBPH adults fed on infected plants.Results implied that infestation by RBSDV increased the ecological fitness of non-vector planlhopper population.

  11. Thermal cooking changes the profile of phenolic compounds, but does not attenuate the anti-inflammatory activities of black rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassy Bhawamai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence on biological activities of cooked black rice is limited. This study examined the effects of washing and cooking on the bioactive ingredients and biological activities of black rice. Methods: Cooked rice was prepared by washing 0–3 times followed by cooking in a rice cooker. The acidic methanol extracts of raw and cooked rice were used for the analyses. Results: Raw black rice, both washed and unwashed, had higher contents of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, but lower protocatechuic acid (PA, than did cooked samples. Similarly, raw rice extracts were higher in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP activities than extracts of cooked samples. Nonetheless, extracts of raw and cooked rice showed similar inhibitory potencies on nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, whereas equivalent amounts of C3G and PA did not possess such inhibitory effects. Conclusions: Thermal cooking decreased total anthocyanin and C3G contents and the FRAP antioxidative capacity, but did not affect anti-inflammatory activities of black rice. Neither C3G nor PA contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of black rice.

  12. Thermal cooking changes the profile of phenolic compounds, but does not attenuate the anti-inflammatory activities of black rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawamai, Sassy; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang; Hou, Yuan-Yu; Chen, Yue-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence on biological activities of cooked black rice is limited. This study examined the effects of washing and cooking on the bioactive ingredients and biological activities of black rice. Methods Cooked rice was prepared by washing 0–3 times followed by cooking in a rice cooker. The acidic methanol extracts of raw and cooked rice were used for the analyses. Results Raw black rice, both washed and unwashed, had higher contents of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), but lower protocatechuic acid (PA), than did cooked samples. Similarly, raw rice extracts were higher in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities than extracts of cooked samples. Nonetheless, extracts of raw and cooked rice showed similar inhibitory potencies on nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, whereas equivalent amounts of C3G and PA did not possess such inhibitory effects. Conclusions Thermal cooking decreased total anthocyanin and C3G contents and the FRAP antioxidative capacity, but did not affect anti-inflammatory activities of black rice. Neither C3G nor PA contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of black rice. PMID:27652685

  13. Effect of Various Types of Herbs on Sensory Properties and Blood Glucosa Response Adan Instant Black Rice

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    Bernatal Saragih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Management based on the carbohydrate diet is very important to do and not to be avoided but how diet and variations of carbohydrate consumed is set mainly the source of rice that does not fast respond to an increase in blood glucose. Therefore, Evaluation of nutritional and instant rice production that is the functional food and have a low glycemic index rice sourced locally as the East Kalimantan native rice black Adan will be very beneficial for health. The aim of this research was to evaluate of the nutritional and effect of various herbal on sensory properties and blood glucose response Adan instant black rice. Adan black rice has a protein content of 8.10%, Fe 3.61 mg/1000g and 3.33 g/100g total dietary fiber and includes a group of rice with low amylose. Organoleptic value of instant rice black Adan produced the most preferred by panellists also from the addition of ginger extract and pandan leaves , water, onion tiwai, tea and last turmeric. The digestibility of starch decreased 19.04 (mg/1000g after being a functional of instant rice black Adan. Difference in reduction of blood glucose levels in volunteers who consumed black Adan instant rice by 14.20 mg/dL, whereas the provision of a reference food (glucose of 71.50 mg/dL, this indicates of instant rice functional black Adan provide availability of glucose in the blood longer available.

  14. Different Localization Patterns of Anthocyanin Species in the Pericarp of Black Rice Revealed by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihiro Yoshimura; Nobuhiro Zaima; Tatsuya Moriyama; Yukio Kawamura

    2012-01-01

    Black rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica) contains high levels of anthocyanins in the pericarp and is considered an effective health-promoting food. Several studies have identified the molecular species of anthocyanins in black rice, but information about the localization of each anthocyanin species is limited because methodologies for investigating the localization such as determining specific antibodies to anthocyanin, have not yet been developed Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imag...

  15. Hairpin RNA Targeting Multiple Viral Genes Confers Strong Resistance to Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

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    Fangquan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV belongs to the genus Fijivirus in the family of Reoviridae and causes severe yield loss in rice-producing areas in Asia. RNA silencing, as a natural defence mechanism against plant viruses, has been successfully exploited for engineering virus resistance in plants, including rice. In this study, we generated transgenic rice lines harbouring a hairpin RNA (hpRNA construct targeting four RBSDV genes, S1, S2, S6 and S10, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the putative core protein, the RNA silencing suppressor and the outer capsid protein, respectively. Both field nursery and artificial inoculation assays of three generations of the transgenic lines showed that they had strong resistance to RBSDV infection. The RBSDV resistance in the segregating transgenic populations correlated perfectly with the presence of the hpRNA transgene. Furthermore, the hpRNA transgene was expressed in the highly resistant transgenic lines, giving rise to abundant levels of 21–24 nt small interfering RNA (siRNA. By small RNA deep sequencing, the RBSDV-resistant transgenic lines detected siRNAs from all four viral gene sequences in the hpRNA transgene, indicating that the whole chimeric fusion sequence can be efficiently processed by Dicer into siRNAs. Taken together, our results suggest that long hpRNA targeting multiple viral genes can be used to generate stable and durable virus resistance in rice, as well as other plant species.

  16. 黑米米粉条的研制%Research and manufacture of black rice noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴素萍

    2011-01-01

    Black rice is rich not only in protein, 17 kinds of amino acids, fat, vitamin, minerals, 14 kinds of elements, such as Fe, Zn and Cu, but also contains the dietary fiber, unsaturated fatty acids, procyanidins, flavonoids and physiologically active substances, such as alkaloids. The technological process and influencing factors of black rice noodles were discussed in this paper. The process conditions for black rice noodles were studied through single-factor test and orthogonal experiment, so the optimum process parameters were obtained, that are: by using the cooking way, grinding degree: 80 meshes; wheat flour addition: 3.5%; water addition: 55%; gelatinization time: 6min; gelatinization temperature: 95℃. The black rice noodles made in this way are tasty and refreshing, with low pistachio soup degree, low ratio of broken noodles and good toughness, which is more conducive to nutrients absorption of black rice.%黑米不仅含有丰富的蛋白质、17种氨基酸、脂肪、维生素、矿物质及Fe、Zn、Cu等14种元素,还含有膳食纤维、不饱和脂肪酸、花青素、黄酮、生物碱等生理活性物质.对黑米米粉条的工艺过程及影响因素进行探讨,通过单因素试验和正交试验研究黑米米粉条的工艺条件,得到最佳工艺参数,即:采用煮制的方式,粉碎粒度80目,小麦粉添加量3.5%,加水量55%,糊化时间6 min,糊化温度95℃.制作出的黑米米粉条口感爽滑,浑汤程度低,断条率低,韧性好,有利于对黑米营养成分的吸收.

  17. Different localization patterns of anthocyanin species in the pericarp of black rice revealed by imaging mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Yoshimura

    Full Text Available Black rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica contains high levels of anthocyanins in the pericarp and is considered an effective health-promoting food. Several studies have identified the molecular species of anthocyanins in black rice, but information about the localization of each anthocyanin species is limited because methodologies for investigating the localization such as determining specific antibodies to anthocyanin, have not yet been developed Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS is a suitable tool for investigating the localization of metabolites. In this study, we identified 7 species of anthocyanin monoglycosides and 2 species of anthocyanin diglycosides in crude extracts from black rice by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS analysis. We also analyzed black rice sections by MALDI-IMS and found 2 additional species of anthocyanin pentosides and revealed different localization patterns of anthocyanin species composed of different sugar moieties. Anthocyanin species composed of a pentose moiety (cyanidin-3-O-pentoside and petunidin-3-O-pentoside were localized in the entire pericarp, whereas anthocyanin species composed of a hexose moiety (cyanidin-3-O-hexoside and peonidin-3-O-hexoside were focally localized in the dorsal pericarp. These results indicate that anthocyanin species composed of different sugar moieties exhibit different localization patterns in the pericarp of black rice. This is the first detailed investigation into the localization of molecular species of anthocyanins by MALDI-IMS.

  18. 掺假黑米家庭中简易鉴别方法%Identification of black rice adulteration by an easy method at home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莉; 薛康; 仲伶俐; 毛建霏; 杨晓凤

    2014-01-01

    Objective Toidentify black rice adulteration by a kind of easy method at home.Methods The method was developed based on the structure and physicochemical properties of black rice anthocyanidins. Because of black rice presented different colors under different alkali circumstance, the adulterated black rice could be identified by qualitative analysis of black rice anthocyanidins. The vinegar and NaHCO3 was added to the treated black rice, respectively.ResultsThe color of black rice presented red in vinegar and blue in NaHCO3, and the reaction is reversible.ConclusionThe adulterated black rice could be identified by an easy method at home.%目的:设计一种在家庭中利用简单易得的材料对掺假黑米进行鉴别的方法。方法根据黑米在酸碱性条件下显不同颜色的性质,在黑米经简单提取溶解后加入白醋,黑米显红色;加入小苏打后显蓝色,而此反应可逆。结果应用该种方法可以在家庭中对假黑米进行鉴别。结论此法简单可靠,适合家庭中对真假黑米的鉴别。

  19. Extraction of anthocyanins and polyphenols from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) by modeling and assessing their reversibility and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Alessandra Cristina; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali

    2016-01-15

    This study was aimed the extraction of total flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolics, as well as the antioxidant activity of black rice (Oryza sativa) and to study the stability in relation to pH, light and copigmentation. Variations in temperature (10-50°C), time (20-80min), and solid-solvent ratio (1:15-1:45) were studied using a Box-Behnken design. The regression models were significant (Pphytic and gallic acids in the optimized extract exposed to light displayed an intermolecular copigmentation. The main anthocyanin identified in black rice was cyanidin-3-glucoside. PMID:26258696

  20. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: A new proposed Fijivirus species in the family Reoviridae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuoHui; WEN JingJung; CAI DeJiang; LI Peng; XU DongLin; ZHANG ShuGuang

    2008-01-01

    For the past several years, a novel dwarf disease has been observed on rice (Oryza sativa) in some regions of Guangdong Province and Hainan Province, southern China. Infected plants showed stunting,dark leaf and small enations on stem and leaf back. Typical Fijivirus viroplasma containing crystalline arrayed spherical virons approximately 70-75 nm in diameter and tubular structures were detected in ultrathin sections by an electron microscope in parenchyma phloem cells of the infected plants. The virus was transmitted to rice seedlings by white-backed planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), collected in the diseased fields. Analysis of dsRNA extracts from infected plants revealed ten linear segments, which were similar to the electrophoretic profile of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). RT-PCR with a single primer which matched to a linker sequence ligated to both 3' ends of the viral genomic dsRNAs resulted in amplification of genome segments 9 (S9) and 10 (S10) cDNA products. The complete nucleotide sequences of S9 and S10 were obtained from clones of the RT-PCR amplicon exhibited characteristic properties of Fijivirus including low GC content (34.5% and 35.6%), genus conserved 5' and 3' termini sequences and similar genome organization. Blast searches indicated that the sequences of S9 and S10 shared 68.8%-74.9% and 67.1 %-77.4% nucleotide identities with those of viruses in the Fijivirus group 2, respectively. These values were similar to those among other viruses in the Fijivirus group 2 and considerably lower than those among RBSDV isolates. Phylogenetic trees based on S9 and S10 nucleotide sequences and their putative amino acid sequences showed that this virus represented a separate branch among other Fijiviruses. The virus was also detected by a nested RT-PCR assay in corn (Zea mays), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), Juncellus serotinus and flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum) in and/or adjacent to the infected rice fields

  1. Effect of cooking on functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012

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    Thapanan Konwatchara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the changes in functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012 after cooking. Black glutinous rice grains were obtained from Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The rough grains were soaked for 12 hrs, then germinated for 30 hrs at 35±2°C (95%RH, dried at 45±2°C for 8 hrs, dehusked and cooked either using a microwave oven or a pressure cooker. The cooked grains were dehydrated in two stages, 85±2°C for 1 hr and 45±2°C for 12 hrs until the final moisture content was 10±2%wb. The antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, GABA and -oryzanol contents, and the microstructure of the dehydrated grains were then characterized. Germination process induced a 2.55 fold increase in GABA content compared to non-germinated KKU-ULR012. The germinated KKU-ULR012 gave DPPH value, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 33.74±0.15 mgTrolox/100gdb, 182.89±0.48 mg/100gdb and 37.72±0.16 mg/100gdb, respectively. Anthocyanins in cooked germinated KKU-ULR012 diminished almost 88-89% after cooking. The cooking methods employed strongly influenced the antioxidant activity and anthocyanins content that the pressure cooking tended to prevent loss of anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The GABA, -oryzanol and antho-cyanins contents and antioxidant activity of germinated grains cooked in the pressure cooker were higher than the samples cooked in the microwave oven (p<0.05. For pressure cooking, the cooked grains gave DPPH, ABTS, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 9.89±0.35 mgTrolox/100gdb, 1.79±0.04 mgTrolox/100gdb, 21.60±0.14 mg/100gdb and 37.16±0.70 mg/100gdb, respectively. The rice grains cooked by pressure cooking were more moist and sticky than the grains cooked by microwave cooking. The microstructure examined by SEM showed that the center of the dehydrated cooked rice grain was smooth indicating starch gelatinization whereas the surface revealed

  2. Site selection and resource depletion in black-tailed godwits Limosa l. limosa eating rice during northward migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, Pedro M.; Mandema, Freek S.; Granadeiro, Jose P.; Piersma, Theunis; Bearhop, Stuart; Hooijmeijer, Jos C.E.W.

    2010-01-01

    P>1. During migratory stopovers, animals are under strong time stress and need to maximize intake rates. We examine how foragers react to resource depletion by studying the foraging ecology and foraging site selection of black-tailed godwits Limosa l. limosa staging in rice fields during their north

  3. Black Rice with Giant Embryo Attenuates Obesity-Associated Metabolic Disorders in ob/ob Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Mi; Han, Sank-Ik; Won, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eunji; Park, Eunju; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2016-03-30

    Obesity is closely associated with metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice (C57BL/6J-ob/ob) and C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to a diet of black rice with giant embryo (BR), white rice (WR), or AIN-93G (control) and pair-fed for 14 weeks. Although there was no significant difference in body weight, BR-fed ob/ob mice had (1) significantly lower body fat mass than WR- and control-fed ob/ob mice determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; (2) significantly lower blood glucose, serum insulin, and triacylglycerol levels than control-fed ob/ob mice; and (3) significantly lower liver weight, hepatic triacylglycerol, and hepatic lipid droplets than both WR- and control-fed ob/ob mice. Furthermore, DNA damage in the liver, determined by phosphorylated H2AX protein, and in the kidney, determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis, was significantly lower in BR-fed than WR- and control-fed ob/ob mice. This study indicates that BR ameliorates obesity and its related metabolic disorders. PMID:26653400

  4. Study on Fermented Glutinous Rice Fermentation Process Mixing with Glutinous Rice and Black Rice%糯米、黑米混合甜酒酿发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄镭; 熊汉国

    2013-01-01

    Taking glutinous rice and black rice as materials,fermentde glutinous rice fermentation process through the single factor and orthogonal experiment in the control was optimized.The results showed that the best technological parameters of fermentation were as followsthe proportion of black rice and the glutinous rice was 1:4,distiller’s yeast dosage was 0.6%,fermentation temperature was 32℃and fermentation time was 60 h.Mix sweet wine had better sweet and sour flavor,fuller smell.%以糯米、黑米为主要原料,通过接种酒曲进行混合甜酒酿发酵,采用单因素和正交试验对混合甜酒酿的发酵工艺进行优化。结果表明:当黑米与糯米的比例为1:4,酒曲添加量为0.6%,发酵温度为32℃,发酵时间为60 h时,产品口感醇甜,色泽晶莹而黑亮,风味独特。

  5. Screening anti-southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus drugs based on S7-1 gene expression in rice suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dandan; Wang, Zhenchao; Liu, Jing; Lv, Mingming; Liu, Jiaju; Li, Xiangyang; Chen, Zhuo; Jin, Linghong; Hu, Deyu; Yang, Song; Song, Baoan

    2013-08-28

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a rice pathogen that had an outbreak in southern China in 2010 and caused significant crop losses. Therefore, screening for effective antiviral drugs against SRBSDV is very important. This study used rice suspension cells infected with SRBSDV by polyethylene glycol-mediated uptake for screening antiviral drugs. SRBSDV P7-1, which is coded by the S7-1 gene, has an intrinsic ability to self-interact to form tubules that play an important role in viral infection. Therefore, relative expression level of the SRBSDV S7-1 gene in infected rice suspension cells was assayed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the antiviral activities of various drugs. Dufulin displayed the highest inhibitory activity against SRBSDV S7-1 expression. In addition, changes in peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were determined in inoculated and noninoculated cells. The results showed that both POD and PPO activities increased upon dufulin treatment. Furthermore, the validity of this approach was confirmed in an in vivo experiment in which dufulin was found to effectively inhibit SRBSDV.

  6. Enzymatic Acylation of Anthocyanin Isolated from Black Rice with Methyl Aromatic Acid Ester as Donor: Stability of the Acylated Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Lixia; Liu, Qin; Ou, Shiyi; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-02-10

    The enzymatic acylation of anthocyanin from black rice with aromatic acid methyl esters as acyl donors and Candida antarctica lipase B was carried out under reduced pressure. The highest conversion of 91% was obtained with benzoic acid methyl ester as acyl donor; cyanidin 3-(6″-benzoyl)-glucoside, cyanidin 3-(6″-salicyloyl)-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6″-cinnamoyl)-glucoside were successfully synthesized. This is the first report on the enzymatic acylation of anthocyanin from black rice with methyl aromatic esters as acyl donors and lipase as biocatalyst. Furthermore, the acylation with aromatic carboxylic acids enhanced both the thermostability and light resistivity of anthocyanin. In particular, cyanidin 3-(6″-cinnamoyl)-glucoside was the most stable among the three acylated anthocyanins synthesized. PMID:26766135

  7. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN ANTOSIANIN BERAS KETAN HITAM SELAMA FERMENTASI [Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanin of Black Glutinous Rice During Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nanik Suhartatik1)*; Muhammad Nur Cahyanto; Sri Raharjo2); Endang S Rahayu1)

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin is a group of bioactive compound found to be abundant in black glutinous rice. It has been widely studied for their health beneficial effect. Hydrolysis of anthocyanin glycoside into anthocyanidin and sugar by β,D-glucosidase is presumed to be the first step in anthocyanin metabolism. Enzymatic degradation of anthocyanin was reported to produce not only more stable compounds, but also healthier compounds with better bioavailability. Some species of Lactic Acid Bacteria showed β,D-...

  8. Evaluation of sulfate resistance of cement mortars containing black rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, black rice husk ashes (BRHAs), which are agrowastes from an electricity generating power plant and a rice mill, were ground and used as a partial cement replacement. The durability of mortars under sulfate attack including expansion and compressive strength loss were investigated. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 30%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55 and 0.65. For the durability of mortar exposed to sulfate attack, 5% sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) solutions were used. As a result, when increasing the percentage replacement of BRHA, the expansion and compressive strength loss of mortar decreased. At the replacement levels of 30% and 50% of BRHA, the expansion of the mortars was less than those mixed with sulfate-resistant cement. However, the expansion of the mortars exposed to Na2SO4 was more than those exposed to MgSO4. Increasing the replacement level of BRHA tends to reduce the compressive strength loss of mortars exposed to Na2SO4 attack. In contrary, under MgSO4 attack, when increasing the replacement level of BRHA, the compressive strength loss increases from 0% to 50% in comparison to Portland cement mortar. Results show that ground BRHA can be applied as a pozzolanic material to concrete and also improve resistance to sodium sulfate attack, but it can impair resistance to magnesium sulfate attack.

  9. Optimization of Processing Technology of Black Rice Wine%黑米酒酿造工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林良魁; 权美平

    2011-01-01

    The processing technology of black rice wine was optimized by using orthogonal experimental design to provide data support and theoretical basis for industrial prodution of black rice wine. The results show that the degree of factors affecting processing technology was fermentation temperature>fermentation time>yeast concentration. The optimum technological conditions were 28℃,48 h and 4% yeast. The black rice wine made under the optimum technological conditions has peculiar aroma, mellow taste and high quality.%为给黑米酒的工业化生产提供数据支持和理论依据,采用正交试验设计对黑米酒酿造工艺进行优化.结果表明,各因素对黑米酒酿造的影响程度为发酵温度>发酵时间>酒曲浓度.最佳工艺条件为发酵温度28℃、发酵时间48h、酒曲浓度4%.在此工艺条件下,酿造出的黑米酒有黑米特有的香气,且酒质醇和、品质良好.

  10. Development of eggless gluten-free rice muffins utilizing black carrot dietary fibre concentrate and xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-02-01

    Gluten-free muffins are generally made from purified flours and starches (from non-gluten sources) which are deficient in dietary fibre and have poor quality attributes. In this regard, the present work was undertaken to explore application of black carrot pomace dietary fibre concentrate (BCF) and xanthan gum (XG) in gluten-free rice muffins. Physicochemical properties of BCF and rice flour were studied. BCF was incorporated at three levels (3, 6 and 9 %) in rice flour, while XG was added at 0.5 % level to study their effect on muffin batters and physicochemical properties of muffins. BCF showed higher water absorption and oil absorption capacities than rice flour. Incorporation of BCF and XG increased flour paste viscosities and batter viscoelasticity. Incorporation of BCF increased total dietary fibre content (TDF) and decreased the L* and b* values, water activity (aw), specific volume and firmness. On the other hand, XG improved appearance and specific volume of the rice muffins prepared with and without BCF. Muffins prepared with 6 % BCF incorporation and XG were the most acceptable. This study demonstrated that BCF and XG can be used as viable functional ingredients in the preparation of gluten-free muffins. PMID:27162407

  11. Improvement of physical properties of gluten-free steamed cake based on black waxy rice flour using different hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthivadhanapong, Pimchada; Jantathai, Srinual; Schleining, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of 1 % addition of four selected hydrocolloids (xanthan, guar, hypdroxypropylmethylcellulose and carrageenan) on quality characteristics of batter and of black waxy rice steamed cake compared to a control without hydrocolloids. Dynamic frequency sweeps of the batters at 25 °C indicated that all formulations exhibited gel-like behaviour with storage moduli (G') higher than loss moduli (G″). Hydrocolloids increased the apparent viscosity and the thixotropic behaviour, depending on the type of hydrocolloids. Xanthan had the greatest effects on both moduli, whereas carrageenan had the smallest effects. During a storage period of 4 days the cakes with xanthan remained softer than control samples. The overall acceptability of cake with xanthan and guar were higher than control. This study is the first report on using black waxy rice flour as a main raw material in gluten free cake. The results of this study provided useful information for selection hydrocolloids as ingredients that can help to improve the physical properties of waxy rice steamed cake.

  12. Improvement of physical properties of gluten-free steamed cake based on black waxy rice flour using different hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthivadhanapong, Pimchada; Jantathai, Srinual; Schleining, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of 1 % addition of four selected hydrocolloids (xanthan, guar, hypdroxypropylmethylcellulose and carrageenan) on quality characteristics of batter and of black waxy rice steamed cake compared to a control without hydrocolloids. Dynamic frequency sweeps of the batters at 25 °C indicated that all formulations exhibited gel-like behaviour with storage moduli (G') higher than loss moduli (G″). Hydrocolloids increased the apparent viscosity and the thixotropic behaviour, depending on the type of hydrocolloids. Xanthan had the greatest effects on both moduli, whereas carrageenan had the smallest effects. During a storage period of 4 days the cakes with xanthan remained softer than control samples. The overall acceptability of cake with xanthan and guar were higher than control. This study is the first report on using black waxy rice flour as a main raw material in gluten free cake. The results of this study provided useful information for selection hydrocolloids as ingredients that can help to improve the physical properties of waxy rice steamed cake. PMID:27478229

  13. 浅谈洋县黑米发展优势及利用%Development Advantages and Utilization of Black Rice in Yangxian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建华; 王继忠; 韩小丽

    2015-01-01

    Black rice is the ancient and precious rice in China. Yangxian black rice has good color, flavor, taste, nutrition and health care function, and gained “the king of world rice” reputation. Yangxian black rice has a long history of cultivation and application, there are six major advantages: human geography advantage of development of organic black rice; nutrition and health advantages, prominent advantages of the propaganda with space breeding;basic advantage of the development of black rice production;the advan-tage of better benefits; the advantages of development and utilization. Production and utilization of black rice products would not only improving the nutritional value of black rice, but also exponentially increasing the added value, and gain obvious economic benefits. Therefore, development and utilization of Yangxian black rice has a very broad market prospects.%黑米是中华古老而珍贵的稻米。洋县黑米集色、香、味、营养和保健于一身,有“世界米中之王”的美称。洋县黑米种植历史悠久,生产应用独居六大优势:一是具有发展有机黑米的人文地理优势;二是具有营养保健优势;三是太空育种具有突出的宣传优势;四是具有发展黑米生产的基础优势;五是具有很大的效益优势;六是具有开发利用优势。黑米产品的生产利用,既提高了黑米营养价值,又成倍增加了附加值,经济效益十分明显。因此,洋县黑米的开发利用,市场前景十分广阔。

  14. Response of different genotypes of wheat, rice and black beans to anther, embryo and other tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the basic studies we have been conducting in our laboratory is to establish callus induction and in vitro plant regeneration protocols starting with several tissues of Guatemalan varieties of wheat (Triticum aesticum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and especially black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in order to obtain disease resistance, earliness, and dwarf plants. Wheat anthers and immature embryos of varieties Patzun, Comalapa, Chocoyo, and Xequijel cultured in N6, Potato II, and MS basal media supplemented with auxin and cytokinin gave the best responses in callus induction and plant regeneration. Anthers and mature embryos of indica rice varieties Precozicta and Virginai, when cultured in MS, B5, N6, and Potato II basal media with different hormonal combinations gave a good response in callus induction. However, a satisfactory response in plant regeneration was not obtained. With black beans, when hypocotyls and mature embryos of black bean varieties Quinack Che and Parramos were cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and kinetin, more than 60% callus induction was produced. When Quinack Che calli were transferred to MS basal medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA plus 0.5 mg/l BAP, green points of regeneration were visible in these calli. (author). 34 refs, 28 tabs

  15. Study on Production Technology of Yam and Black Rice Zongzi%山药黑香米养生肉粽制作工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任红涛; 程丽英; 宋晓燕; 刘夏峰; 张剑

    2012-01-01

    以黑香米、山药、鸡肉等为原料,优化山药黑香米养生肉粽米配方、馅料配方及工艺条件。试验结果表明,山药黑香米养生肉粽最优米配方为白糯米150g、黑香米150g、食盐4.5g、酱油6g、白砂糖2.25g;最优馅料配方为山药100g、鸡肉200g、酱油5g、食盐5.5g、白砂糖2.75g、香菇100g、姜1og、味精0.3g、料酒6g;黑香米预煮30min,肉粽蒸煮3h时,粽子感官品质最佳。%Black rice, yam and chicken as raw materials, rice formula, stuffing formula and technological conditions were optimized. The results showed that optimum rice formula of yam and black rice Zongzi was white glutinous rice 150g, black rice 150g, salt 4.5g, soy sauce 6g, and white granulated sugar 2.25g, the optimum stuffing formula was yam 100g, chicken 200g, soy sauce 5g, salt 5.5g, white granulated sugar 2.75g, shiitake mushroom 100g, ginger 10g, monosodium glutamate 0.3g, cooking wine 6g, and when the optimum process condition was precooking yam for 30 min and boiling Zongzi for 3h, the quality of yarn and black rice Zongzi was the best.

  16. Dot Immunobinding Assay Method with Chlorophyll Removal for the Detection of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhong Jin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, a new virus from Fiji, has seriously damaged rice crops in southern China and northern Vietnam in recent years. This virus is difficult to diagnose in the early stages of infection, and is very destructive at the late stage. In the present study, a dot immunobinding assay (DIBA that has a high sensitivity for diagnosing SRBSDV was developed. Two kinds of treatment for the DIBA were evaluated to determine the most effective one for removing chlorophyll interferences via rice extraction. The first included several reagents to remove chlorophyll, namely, the alkaline reagents like magnesium oxide and alumina oxide, the adsorbent reagents like activated carbon and bentonite, as well as the extraction agent acetone. The second and third treatments, which were used to remove chlorophyll in blot membrane-nitrocellulose and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF, included several organic solvents containing methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, and diethyl ether. The results showed that activated carbon and methanol yielded the best contrasting purple color for the infected samples by decreasing the chlorophyll content.

  17. Brewing technology of golden needle black rice wine%金针菇黑米酒的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班清

    2011-01-01

    Golden needle black rice wine was brewed of black rice, fresh golden needle mushroom, potato. The extraction of Lycium barbarum L., Radix Polygoni multiflori, Cordyceps sinensis, Chinese Yam and honey were added to produce a new type healthy wine. The health functions were: nourishing stomach, curing lung and spleen deficiency, anticancer, anti-fatigue and aging-delay.%金针菇黑米酒是以黑米、鲜金针菇、马铃薯、百合等为主料,采用传统发酵工艺酿造出低度酒后,再辅以枸杞子、何首乌、冬虫夏草、肉苁蓉,山药等多味中药的浸提汁以及蜂蜜,生产出的一种具有养肺虚、健脾养胃、抗癌、抗疲劳、延缓衰老等的新型保健酒。

  18. Effects of Agricultural Management Policies on the Exposure of Black-Winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus Chicks to Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides in Rice Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio M Toral

    Full Text Available Levels of exposure to pesticides in rice fields can be significant depending on the environmental policies practiced. The aim of European Union integrated management policy is to reduce pesticide use and impact on environment. Rice fields provide an alternative breeding habitat for many waterbirds that are exposed to the pesticides used and therefore can be valuable indicators of their risk for wildlife. To evaluate integrated management success we examined exposure of Black-winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in rice fields under different types of management by measuring plasma cholinesterase activity. Cholinesterase activity was lower in birds sampled in (a 2008 after a period of intense pesticide application, than in (b 2005-2007 and 2011 in rice fields subject to integrated management in Doñana (SW Spain and (c in control natural wetlands in Spain and Morocco. During 2009 and 2010, cholinesterase activity was lower in rice fields in Doñana than in rice fields in Larache and Sidi Allal Tazi (NW Morocco. Our results suggest that integrated management successfully reduced the exposure of Black-winged Stilts to pesticides in most of the years. Care should be taken to implement mosquito and pest crop controls on time and with environmentally friendly products in order to reduce its impact on wildlife.

  19. 使用粒径分析仪分析黑米乳稳定性%Using Particle Size Analyzer Analysis the Stability of Black Rice Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令洁; 苗君莅; 张锋华; 龚广予

    2012-01-01

    The stability of the different product was analyzed through laser particle size analyzer detected carrageenan. Xanthan gum, guar gum and gellan gum four stabilizers were used alone or complex pairs in black rice milk. The results showed that the stability of the three samples of black rice milk with 0.08% gellan gum+0.02% xanthan gum, 0.09% gellan gum+0.01% carrageenan, and 0.08% guar+0.02% carrageenan were ideal. The system of black rice milk was under better control and the floating oil was well suppressed. The gellan gum couldn't stabilize black rice milk alone.%通过激光粒径分析仪检测分析卡拉胶、黄原胶、瓜尔豆胶以及结冷胶这四类稳定剂单独或复配对黑米乳产品稳定性的影响。结果发现,0.08%结冷胶+0.02%黄原胶、0.09%结冷胶+0.01%卡拉胶、0.08%瓜尔豆胶+0.02%卡拉胶等黑米乳饮料稳定性较好,单独使用结冷胶效果一般。

  20. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Shanxi black rice It was originally from Yang County, Hanzhong Region.This rice was a world-famous rice variety developed in 140 BC. It had pitch-black surface with the protein and oil contents being 6.8% and 20% higher than that of common rice, respectively. It had 15 kinds of amino acids and many kinds of vitamins. It was praised as" Black pearl" and "The king of the world riee".DongnianThe other names for Dongnian were "Yellow rice" and "Oil rice". It was grown in E City and Huangmei County,Hubei Province. It was characterized by its long-slim shape, milky yellow in color, oily, solid, and sticky quality, fragrant smell, and easiness for digestion.Guizhou black pearl rice

  1. cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of genome segments S8 from rice black-streaked dwarf virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒木; 陈剑平; 薛庆中; 雷娟利

    2002-01-01

    Genome segments S8 of two Chinese isolates of rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), one from Zhejiang Province and another from Hebei Province, were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Both segments consisted of 1936 nts in full length (EMBL accession numbers were AJ297431 and AJ297432, respectively) and contained only one big open reading frame which encoded a polypeptide with molecular weight of 68kD. The two Chinese isolates shared 94.0% and 96.5% identity at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. They shared 94.5-94.9% and 92.5-92.9% homology with S8 of RBSDV Japanese isolate at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively; shared 85.1-87.6% and 91.7-91.9% homology with S7 of Italian MRDV (maize rough dwarf virus).

  2. Bread fortified with anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice as nutraceutical sources: Its quality attributes and in vitro digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Weibiao

    2016-04-01

    Anthocyanin-rich black rice extract powder (ABREP) as a nutraceutical source was fortified into bread. The quality and digestibility behaviors of bread with ABREP were evaluated through instrumental and in vitro digestion studies. The quality of bread with 2% of ABREP was not significantly (p>0.05) different from the control bread; however, increasing the ABREP level to 4% caused less elasticity and higher density of bread. A mathematical model was further developed to systemically describe the trajectory of bread digestion. The digestion rates of bread with ABREP were found to be reduced by 12.8%, 14.1%, and 20.5% for bread with 1%, 2%, and 4% of ABREP, respectively. Results of the study suggest that the fortification of anthocyanins into bread could be an alternative way to produce functional bread with a lower digestion rate and extra health benefits. PMID:26593572

  3. 云南水稻上检测到南方水稻黑条矮缩病毒%Detection of Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) in rice in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁铭; 尹跃艳; 方琦; 韦加贵; 顾中量; 李红祥; 卢训; 赵健; 张仲凯

    2011-01-01

    Rice samples showing symptoms similar to the disease caused by Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, Genus Fijivirus, Family Reoviridae) collected from three municipalities of southern Yunnan were detected by electron microscopy and RT-PCR. Electron microscopy observation of crude infected leaf extracts after negative staining revealed spherical particles of 70 -75 nm, and about 411 bp fragment of RT-PCR shared 97.6% -100% nucleotide identities with reported capsid protein gene of SRBSDV isolates. The phylogenetic tree based on the partial capsid protein gene sequences indicated that the virus causing rice dwarf in Yunnan should be identified as SRBSDV.%南方水稻黑条矮缩病(Southern rice black streaked dwarf disease)是我国南方稻区一种新的水稻病毒病害.自2001年在广东省阳西县首次发现以来,该病危害范围逐年扩大,2009年我国湖南、江西、广东、广西、海南、浙江、福建、湖北和安徽9个水稻主产省(区)及越南北部19个省发病面积约33.33万hm2,基本绝收面积0.67万hm2[1,2],对水稻生产威胁巨大.

  4. Antioxidant activities and free radical scavenging of black rice anthocyanin capsule%黑米花青苷胶囊体外清除自由基及抗氧化作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁引库; 王琦; 李新生

    2012-01-01

    Producing.OH by Fenton reaction, producing 0.2 by pyrogallol in alkaline conditions and phosphomolybdate complex method were used to study free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of Black rice anthocyanin capsulest and Black rice anthocyanin. The study showed that Black rice anthocyanin capsulest and Black rice anthocyanin can effectively eliminate free radicals, has a good antioxidant activity. And ability of free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of Black rice anthocyanin capsulest and Black rice anthocyanin were increasing along with its density. The ability of free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of Black rice anthocyanin capsulest was lower than the ability of free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of Black rice anthocyanin.%利用Fenton反应产生羟自由基、邻苯三酚在微碱条件下自氧化产生O-2、磷钼络合物法分别研究了黑米花青苷胶囊和黑米色素对羟基自由基、超氧阴离子的抑制和其总抗氧化活性。结果表明黑米花青苷胶囊和黑米色素能有效清除自由基,具有良好的抗氧化作用。其中黑米花青苷胶囊和黑米色素对羟自由基、超氧阴离子的抑制和其总抗氧化活性随着样品浓度增高而增加。黑米色素对羟自由基、超氧阴离子的抑制和总抗氧化活性显著高于黑米花青苷胶囊。

  5. Rice Brittleness Mutants: A Way to Open the 'Black Box' of Monocot Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baocai Zhang; Yihua Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Rice is a model organism for studying the mechanism of cell wall biosynthesis and remolding in Gramineae.Mechanical strength is an important agronomy trait of rice(Oryza sativa L.)plants that affects crop lodging and grain yield.As a prominent physical property of cell walls,mechanical strength reflects upon the structure of different wall polymers and how they interact.Studies on the mechanisms that regulate the mechanical strength therefore consequently results in uncovering the genes functioning in cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling.Our group focuses on the study of isolation of brittle culm(bc)mutants and characterization of their corresponding genes.To date,several bc mutants have been reported.The identified genes have covered several pathways of cell wall biosynthesis,revealing many secrets of monocot cell wall biosynthesis.Here,we review the progress achieved in this research field and also highlight the perspectives in expectancy.All of those lend new insights into mechanisms of cell wall formation and are helpful for harnessing the waste rice straws for biofuel production.

  6. High-yielding Cultivation Technology for Middle Rice- succeeded Black Fungus%中稻—袋料黑木耳高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴火金

    2015-01-01

    为充分利用土地闲置田的空间,种植一季水稻后,再放置黑木耳,既发挥土地资源,又提高经济效益,从而增加农民收入.主要阐述了浦城县种植一季中稻后袋料黑木耳的主要高产栽培技术,病虫发生与防治.%In this paper, to make full use of idle land field space, after the rice planting season, again to place black fungus, both play land resources, and improve the economic benefit, increasing farmers' income. In this paper, we mainly expounds middle rice planting season succeeded after black fungus main high-yield culti-vation techniques, the occurrence and prevention of diseases and pests.

  7. Study on radix puerariae,black beans,black rice and honey health steamed bread%葛根黑豆黑米蜂蜜保健馒头研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张首玉; 胡二坤

    2015-01-01

    Theoptimum parameters were studied through the single factor experiments andorthogonal teston radix puerariae,black beans,black rice andhoneyhealth steamed bread.The results showed that the best ratioof radix puerariae,black beans,black rice,honey,wheat powder were radix puerariae 15%,black bean 12%,black rice 10%,wheat flour 100% andhoney 6%.The bestconditionofmaking steamed bread were water 50%,fermentation temperatureof 38℃,humidity 88%,time 40min.After forming,under theconditionof temperature 38℃,humidity 88% the dough rested again for about 15 min and was steamed for 20min by boiled–water,then removed and letitcool to room temperature. Under theseconditions,the steamed breadhadgood quality andhigh nutritional value.%通过单因素试验及正交试验研究了葛根、黑豆、黑米、蜂蜜保健馒头的最佳工艺,结果表明,葛根、黑豆、黑米、蜂蜜、小麦粉混合的最佳配比是葛根粉添加量15%、黑豆粉添加量12%、黑米粉添加量10%、小麦粉添加量100%、蜂蜜添加量6%。馒头制作的最佳工艺条件为加水量50%、发酵温度38℃、湿度88%,发酵时间40 min,成型后在温度38℃、湿度88%条件下再次醒发15min,沸水蒸制20min,取出冷却到室温。此条件下生产的馒头具有较好的品质和较高的营养价值。

  8. Evaluation of nitric and acetic acid resistance of cement mortars containing high-volume black rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents the performance of cement mortar containing black rice husk ash (BRHA) under nitric and acetic acid attacks. The BRHA, collected from an electrical generating power plant that uses rice husk as fuel, was ground using a grinding machine. The compressive strength loss, weight loss, and expansion of mortars under nitric and acetic acid attack were investigated. The test results of BRHA properties in accordance with the ASTM C 618 standard found that the optimal grinding time was 4 h as this achieved a Blaine fineness of 5370 cm(2)/g. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55, 0.60, and 0.65. From test results, when the percentage replacements of BRHA in cement increased, it was observed that the strength loss and weight loss of mortars containing BRHA under acetic acid attack were higher than those of the mortars against nitric acid attack. It was found that, of the various BHRA mortars, the strength loss and weight loss due to nitric and acetic acid attacks were the lowest in the mortar with 10% BRHA replacement. For 10%, 20% and 30% BRHA replacements, the rate of expansion of the BRHA mortar decreased when compared with the control mortar. For the mortars with other percentage replacements of BRHA, the rate of expansion increased. Furthermore, the effective water-to-binder ratios of control and BRHA mortars were the primary factor for determining the durability of mortar mixed with BRHA.

  9. 黑米对小鼠肠道菌群的影响%Effect of black rice on intestinal flora of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰涛; 任玮; 张英; 张晖; 王立; 齐希光; 钱海峰

    2012-01-01

    Effects of black rice on intestinal flora of mice were investigated in this research. 24 KM mice were divided into four groups at random and fed with the regular food(group 1). mixed food(group 2, 70% regular food combined with 30% black rice), mixed food (group 3, 40% regular food combined with 60% black rice), and mixed food(group 4, 10% regular food combined with 90% black rice) respectively. Fecal moisture contents were determined everyday in the 6lh week, and serum total cholesterol(TC)and high density hpoprotein cholestero(HDL-C) were also determined at the end of 6,week. Intestinal Bifidohacterium , Lactobacillus , Enterococcus and Enterobactericaeae were numbered by plate count method. As compared to the group 1, the numbers of bifidohacterium and laclobacillus in other 3 group increased significantly by intake of black rice; the numbers of Enterobacteriuceae and Enterococcus decreased significantly. Serum HDL-C and HDL-C/TC levels were also increased significantly by intake of black rice. Results clearly indicated that intake of black rice can increase the number of intestinal pro-biotics in mice.%研究黑米对小鼠肠道菌群及其相关指标的影响.24只昆明(KM)小鼠随机分成4个组:组1(饲喂基础饲料)、组2(饲喂30%黑米和70%基础饲料的混合饲料)、组3(饲喂60%黑米和40%基础饲料的混合饲料)、组4(饲喂90%黑米和10%基础饲料的混合饲料).第6周收集小鼠粪便测定粪便含水率,第42天测定血清总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)以及肠道双歧杆菌、乳酸杆菌、肠球菌和肠杆菌数量.结果表明,与组1小鼠相比,摄入黑米后,试验组小鼠结肠双歧杆菌数和乳酸杆菌数显著上升(P<0.05),组2最高,其次是组3和组4;肠杆菌科数显著下降(P<0.05),组2最低,组4次之;组2和组4肠球菌数显著低于组1(P<0,05).试验组小鼠的血清HDL-C和HDL-C/TC都显著高于组1(P<0.05),组4的HDL-C最高,组2的HDL-C

  10. Molecular Characterization of Segments S7 to S10 of a Southern Rice Black-streaked Dwarf Virus Isolate from Maize in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yin; Fei-fei Xu; Fang-qiang Zheng; Xiang-dong Li; Bao-shen Liu; Chun-qing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus(SRBSDV)is a novel Fijivirus prevalent in rice in southern and central China, and northern Vietnam. Its genome has 10 segments of double-stranded RNA named S1 to S10according to their size. An isolate of SRBSDV, JNi4, was obtained from naturally infected maize plants from Ji'ning, Shandong province, in the 2008 maize season. Segments S7 to S10 of JNi4 share nucleotide identities of 72.6%-73.1%, 72.3%-73%, 73.9%-74.5% and 77.3%-79%, respectively, with corresponding segments of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus isolates, and identities of 99.7%, 99. 1%-99.7%, 98.9%-99.5%, and 98.6%-99.2% with those of SRBSDV isolates HN and GD. JNi4 forms a separate branch with GD and HN in the phylogenetic trees constructed with genomic sequences of S7 to S10. These results confirm the proposed taxonomic status of SRBSDV as a distinct species of the genus Fijivirus and indicate that JNi4 is an isolate of SRBSDV. Shandong is so far the northernmost region where SRBSDV is found in China.

  11. Molecular characterization of segments S7 to S10 of a southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus isolate from maize in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao; Xu, Fei-fei; Zheng, Fang-qiang; Li, Xiang-dong; Liu, Bao-shen; Zhang, Chun-qing

    2011-02-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a novel Fijivirus prevalent in rice in southern and central China, and northern Vietnam. Its genome has 10 segments of double-stranded RNA named S1 to S10 according to their size. An isolate of SRBSDV, JNi4, was obtained from naturally infected maize plants from Ji'ning, Shandong province, in the 2008 maize season. Segments S7 to S10 of JNi4 share nucleotide identities of 72.6%-73.1%, 72.3%-73%, 73.9%-74.5% and 77.3%-79%, respectively, with corresponding segments of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus isolates, and identities of 99.7%, 99.1%-99.7%, 98.9%-99.5%, and 98.6%-99.2% with those of SRBSDV isolates HN and GD. JNi4 forms a separate branch with GD and HN in the phylogenetic trees constructed with genomic sequences of S7 to S10. These results confirm the proposed taxonomic status of SRBSDV as a distinct species of the genus Fijivirus and indicate that JNi4 is an isolate of SRBSDV. Shandong is so far the northernmost region where SRBSDV is found in China.

  12. Dual transcriptome analysis reveals insights into the response to Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Xu, Zhennan; Duan, Canxing; Chen, Yanping; Meng, Qingchang; Wu, Jirong; Hao, Zhuanfang; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Mingshun; Yong, Hongjun; Zhang, Degui; Zhang, Shihuang; Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Xinhai

    2016-01-01

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is a viral infection that results in heavy yield losses in maize worldwide, particularly in the summer maize-growing regions of China. MRDD is caused by the Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). In the present study, analyses of microRNAs (miRNAs), the degradome, and transcriptome sequences were used to elucidate the RBSDV-responsive pathway(s) in maize. Genomic analysis indicated that the expression of three non-conserved and 28 conserved miRNAs, representing 17 known miRNA families and 14 novel miRNAs, were significantly altered in response to RBSDV when maize was inoculated at the V3 (third leaf) stage. A total of 99 target transcripts from 48 genes of 10 known miRNAs were found to be responsive to RBSDV infection. The annotations of these target genes include a SQUAMOSA promoter binding (SPB) protein, a P450 reductase, an oxidoreductase, and a ubiquitin-related gene, among others. Characterization of the entire transcriptome suggested that a total of 28 and 1085 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected at 1.5 and 3.0 d, respectively, after artificial inoculation with RBSDV. The expression patterns of cell wall- and chloroplast-related genes, and disease resistance- and stress-related genes changed significantly in response to RBSDV infection. The negatively regulated genes GRMZM2G069316 and GRMZM2G031169, which are the target genes for miR169i-p5 and miR8155, were identified as a nucleolin and a NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold superfamily protein in maize, respectively. The gene ontology term GO:0003824, including GRMZM2G031169 and other 51 DEGs, was designated as responsive to RBSDV. PMID:27493226

  13. Dual transcriptome analysis reveals insights into the response to Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Xu, Zhennan; Duan, Canxing; Chen, Yanping; Meng, Qingchang; Wu, Jirong; Hao, Zhuanfang; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Mingshun; Yong, Hongjun; Zhang, Degui; Zhang, Shihuang; Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Xinhai

    2016-08-01

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is a viral infection that results in heavy yield losses in maize worldwide, particularly in the summer maize-growing regions of China. MRDD is caused by the Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). In the present study, analyses of microRNAs (miRNAs), the degradome, and transcriptome sequences were used to elucidate the RBSDV-responsive pathway(s) in maize. Genomic analysis indicated that the expression of three non-conserved and 28 conserved miRNAs, representing 17 known miRNA families and 14 novel miRNAs, were significantly altered in response to RBSDV when maize was inoculated at the V3 (third leaf) stage. A total of 99 target transcripts from 48 genes of 10 known miRNAs were found to be responsive to RBSDV infection. The annotations of these target genes include a SQUAMOSA promoter binding (SPB) protein, a P450 reductase, an oxidoreductase, and a ubiquitin-related gene, among others. Characterization of the entire transcriptome suggested that a total of 28 and 1085 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected at 1.5 and 3.0 d, respectively, after artificial inoculation with RBSDV. The expression patterns of cell wall- and chloroplast-related genes, and disease resistance- and stress-related genes changed significantly in response to RBSDV infection. The negatively regulated genes GRMZM2G069316 and GRMZM2G031169, which are the target genes for miR169i-p5 and miR8155, were identified as a nucleolin and a NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold superfamily protein in maize, respectively. The gene ontology term GO:0003824, including GRMZM2G031169 and other 51 DEGs, was designated as responsive to RBSDV. PMID:27493226

  14. 黑米花青素提取与纯化工艺研究%Study on Extraction and Purification Technology of Anthocyanin from Black Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文佳; 张昊琛; 鲍康胜; 范广伟

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究黑米花青素的提取及纯化工艺.[方法]以黑米为原料,采用水提法提取黑米花青素,通过单因素试验和正交试验,确定花青素的最佳提取工艺;并采用D101大孔吸附树脂对花青素进行纯化.[结果]花青素的最佳提取工艺为料液比1∶8,提取温度50℃,pH 3.2,提取时间120 min;用体积分数为95%的乙醇洗脱,花青素的纯度最高,达95.48%.[结论]该研究为黑米的深加工和花青素的规模化生产提供了依据.%[ Objective] The aim was to study the extraction and purification technology of anthocyanin from black rice. [ Method] Anthocya-nin was obtained from black rice by water extraction. The optimum extraction technology of anthocyanin was determined by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. And then the anthocyanin was purified by D101 macroporous adsorption resin. [Result] The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows; solid-liquid ratio 1: 8, extraction temperature 50 ℃, pH value 3.2, extraction time 120 min . The highest purity reached 95.48% when anthocyanin eluted by 95% ethanol. [Conclusion] The study provided a basis for deep processing of black rice and scale production of anthocyanin.

  15. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  16. Two virus-encoded RNA silencing suppressors, P14 of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and S6 of Rice black streak dwarf virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lingdi; WANG Zhaohui; WANG Xianbing; LI Dawei; HAN Chenggui; ZHAI Yafeng; YU Jialin

    2005-01-01

    Functional analysis for gene silencing suppressor of P14 gene of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and S6 gene of Rice black streak dwarf virus was carried out by agro- infiltration with recombinant vectors of Potato virus X. The phenotype observation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression and Northern blot showed that the gene silencing of gfp transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana induced by homologous sequence was strongly suppressed by the immixture infiltration of either the P14 or the S6. In the suppressed plants, the gfp mRNA accumulation was higher than that in the non-suppressed controls and the symptoms caused by PVX infection became more severe, especially the gfp DNA methylation of plant genome was significantly inhabited when co-infiltrated with RBSDV S6 gene. These results suggested that these two virus genes were potentially to encode for proteins as RNA silencing suppressors.

  17. Detection and assignment of proteins encoded by rice black streaked dwarf fijivirus S7, S8, S9 and S10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, M; Uyeda, I; Lee, B C

    1998-06-01

    The proteins encoded by rice black streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) genomic segments 7-10 (S7-S10) were characterized. Open reading frames (ORFs) from these segments were expressed as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Antibodies raised against the expressed products were used as probes to determine whether the viral ORFs encode structural proteins. In Western blots, antibodies to the expressed S8 and S10 products reacted with a core capsid (65 kDa) and a major outer capsid (56 kDa) protein, respectively, while none of the antibodies to S7 and S9 products reacted with structural proteins. Antisera to RBSDV S7 ORF1 and S9 ORF1 each detected a single protein of the predicted size in total protein extracts from infected rice plants and viruliferous Laodelphax striatellus. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that antibodies to RBSDV S7 ORF1 and RBSDV S9 ORF1 reacted with tubular structures and viroplasm, respectively, in sections of both infected maize plants and viruliferous L. striatellus. Antisera to ORF2 of S7 and S9 failed to detect any proteins in the infected tissue using either Western blotting or immuno-electron microscopic techniques.

  18. Synthesis of Nanoporous TiO2 and Its Potential Applicability for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Antocyanine Black Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Yuliarto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous mesostructure TiO2 powders were synthesized by sol-gel method, with TiCl4 as a precursor in methanol solution. The Pluronic PE 6200 of block copolymer was used as the pores template. It was found from XRD measurements, both at 400∘C and 450∘C calcination temperatures, that the sol-gel technique yielded the nanoporous TiO2 with anatase phase. Based on N2 adsorption characterization using BET method, the TiO2 samples have surface area of 108 m2/g and 88 m2/g for calcination temperatures of 400∘C and of 450∘C, respectively. From small-angle neutron scattering (SANS patterns, TiO2 samples were observed to have nanoporous structures with pore sizes between 22–24 nm. The TiO2 also have order degree which depends on the calcination temperature. The potential applicability of the resulting TiO2 is confirmed for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC, composed of nanoporous anatase TiO2 and natural dye from antocyanine black rice. UV-Vis measurement of dye extracted from the black rice indicated that the antocyanine chelate can propagate into the TiO2 nanoporous network. The short circuit photocurrent density (Jsc under 100 mWcm−2 reached 1.287 mAcm−2 with open circuit photovoltage (Voc of 550 mV and the fill factor of 33.4%. The results show that the hybrid organic-inorganic structures are very attractive for future low-cost devices.

  19. 黑米发酵乳饮料配方的响应面法优化%Optimization of formula of black rice fermented milk beverages by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞春; 季澜洋

    2016-01-01

    With black rice and skimmed milk powder as the main materials,the black rice was gelatinized and liquefied,and then mixed with skimmed milk powder,sugar and pectin. After fermented by the lactic acid bacteria,the milk beverages with living bacteria was made. The formula of black rice fermented milk beverages was optimized by Box–Behnken design based on single factor experiment. The optimal values of the above parameters were obtained as followed:skimmed milk powder content was 5.39 g/100mL,sugar content was 8.16 g/100mL and pectin content was 3.88 mL/100mL. Under these optimal conditions,the black rice fermented milk beverages with superior quality was obtained.%以新鲜黑米和脱脂乳粉为主要原料,黑米经糊化、液化后添加脱脂乳粉、白砂糖和果胶,经乳酸菌发酵后制得含有活菌的乳饮料。在单因素试验的基础上,利用Design–Expert软件进行三因素三水平的Box–Behnken试验设计,并对黑米发酵乳饮料的配方进行优化分析。通过响应面法分析确定黑米发酵乳饮料的最佳配方为脱脂乳粉5.39 g/100mL、白砂糖8.16 g/100mL、果胶3.88 mL/100mL。在此条件下,制备的黑米发酵乳饮料的口感、色泽和质地良好。

  20. Alleviation of Salt Stress in Seedlings of Black Glutinous Rice by Seed Priming with Spermidine and Gibberellic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitahnun CHUNTHABUREE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the spermidine (Spd and gibberellic acid (GA3 priming-induced physiological and biochemical changes responsible for induction of salinity tolerance in two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars, namely ‘Niewdam Gs. no. 00621’ (salt tolerant and ‘KKU-LLR-039’ (salt sensitive. The seeds of the two cultivars were primed separately with distilled water, 1 mM Spd or 0.43 mM GA3. Primed seeds were germinated and the resultant seedlings were hydroponically grown for 14 days before being exposed to salinity stress (150 mM NaCl for 10 days. Seed priming with Spd or GA3 slightly improved salt-induced reductions in growth, anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents of the seedlings. Salt stress induced pronounced increases in Na+/K+ ratio, proline and H2O2 contents, particularly in the sensitive cultivar. The levels of these salt-sensitivity physiological indicators tended to be mitigated by priming with Spd and GA3. Salt-stressed seedlings grown from seeds primed with these growth regulators also possessed higher phenolic contents and greater antioxidant capacity than the control seedlings. Based on all growth and physiological data, Spd tended to be more effective than A3 in improving salt tolerance in both rice cultivars.

  1. 益生菌固态发酵黑米糠抗氧化发酵条件研究%Solid-State Fermented Condition on Antioxidative Activities of Black Rice Bran by Probiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文辉

    2013-01-01

    Fresh black rice bran as experimental materials,solid-state fermented condition of black rice bran were studied by single and mixed probiotics. Conclusions show that the optimal probiotic combination were Bacillus natto and Lactobacillus brevis, inoculation ratio was 1∶1, means of inoculation was that Lactobacillus brevis continue fer-mented for two days after Bacillus natto fermented for three days. Experimental results for logarithmic value of the probiotics is 17.11. The half of total number of logarithmic value and DPPH·clearance rates of the probiotics as icri-terion, solid-state fermented condition on antioxidative activities of black rice bran were studied by single factor re-search and orthogonal test. Conclusions show that inoculated quantity was 8%, fermented temperature was 37℃, supplement water capacity was 0.28mL/g. Verific-ation experiment results were logarithmic value of the probiotics was 17.15, DPPH·clearance rates was 73%, composite score was 45.75. Further through the fermented and unfermented black rice bran DPPH·clearance rates experiments,conclusions show that the probiotics fermentation increased antiox-idant activity of black rice bran. The conclusions of this study show that Bacillus natto and Lactobacillus brevis mixed bacterial solid state fermentation black rice bran is a feasible way to develop high oxidation resistance black rice bran health food.%  以新鲜黑米糠为原料,通过单菌和混合菌发酵实验,确定了固态发酵黑米糠的最适菌株组合为纳豆芽孢杆菌和短乳杆菌,接种比例为1∶1,接种方式为先接入纳豆芽孢杆菌3d后接入短乳杆菌继续发酵2d,测得两菌株组合菌群数的对数值为17.11。设计单因素和正交实验,以菌群数的对数值和DPPH·清除率各占50%的综合评分为指标,确定纳豆芽孢杆菌和短乳杆菌固态发酵黑米糠的最优抗氧化发酵条件为:接种量8%,发酵温度37℃、加水量0.28mL/g。该条

  2. Influence of rice whole-crop silage diet on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics and muscle-related gene expression in Japanese Black steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masahiro; Hikino, Yasuko; Imanari, Mai; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a diet largely comprising rice whole-crop silage (rWCS) on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and expression of genes involved in muscle growth of Japanese Black steers. Steers were randomly separated into rWCS-fed (rWCS ad libitum and restricted feeding of concentrate) and concentrate-fed groups. Total digestible nutrient intake and daily gain (DG) decreased in rWCS-fed steers in comparison with concentrate-fed steers, whereas dressed carcass weight and final body weight did not significantly differ between the groups. Decreases in drip loss in the muscle of rWCS-fed steers may be caused by α-tocopherol and β-carotene in muscle. Feeding large amounts of rWCS to steers may maintain quantitative productivity of beef steers equally to a concentrate-based diet, and improve the qualitative productivity. Results of gene expression suggest that activation of skeletal muscle growth in rWCS-fed steers may occur at the late fattening period owing to a decrease in myostatin and increase in myosin heavy chain gene expression. Preadipocyte factor-1 and myostatin genes may be strongly involved in the control of lipid accumulation. This rearing system would allow beef production to switch to rWCS-based diets from concentrate-based diets.

  3. Identification and profiling of conserved and novel microRNAs in Laodelphax striatellus in response to rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Min Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that play important roles in various biological processes. This study examined microRNA profiles of Laodelphax striatellus using the small RNA libraries derived from virus free (VF and rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV infected (RB insects. A total of 59 mature miRNAs (46 miRNA families were identified as conserved insect miRNAs in both VF and RB libraries. Among these conserved miRNAs, 24 were derived from the two arms of 12 miRNA precursors. Nine conserved L. striatellus miRNAs were up-regulated and 12 were down-regulated in response to RBSDV infection. In addition, a total of 20 potential novel miRNA candidates were predicted in the VF and RB libraries. The miRNA transcriptome profiles and the identification of L. striatellus miRNAs differentially expressed in response to RBSDV infection will contribute to future studies to elucidate the complex miRNA-mediated regulatory network activated by pathogen challenge in insect vectors.

  4. Polishing and parboiling effect on the nutritional and technological properties of pigmented rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Flávia Fernandes; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Berrios, Jose De J; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Pan, James; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2016-01-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of polishing and parboiling on proximate composition, structure, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, cooking time and hardness of IAC-600 black rice cultivar and MPB-10 red rice lineage. Proximate analysis and light micrographs revealed higher migration of red rice proteins than black rice proteins to the endosperm as a result of parboiling. Parboiling reduced the ash content of red rice while no difference was determined in black rice. Gelatinized starch granules from both genotypes showed similar appearance. There was a decrease in relative crystallinity on both black and red rice subjected to parboiling, which was an indicative of crystallites disruption. Polishing removed more than 90% of free phenolics for both genotypes, while parboiling allowed the partial preservation of free phenolics content in polished rice. Parboiling induced an increase in the cooking time of red rice, but a decrease in the cooking time of black rice. PMID:26258708

  5. Polishing and parboiling effect on the nutritional and technological properties of pigmented rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Flávia Fernandes; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Berrios, Jose De J; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Pan, James; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2016-01-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of polishing and parboiling on proximate composition, structure, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, cooking time and hardness of IAC-600 black rice cultivar and MPB-10 red rice lineage. Proximate analysis and light micrographs revealed higher migration of red rice proteins than black rice proteins to the endosperm as a result of parboiling. Parboiling reduced the ash content of red rice while no difference was determined in black rice. Gelatinized starch granules from both genotypes showed similar appearance. There was a decrease in relative crystallinity on both black and red rice subjected to parboiling, which was an indicative of crystallites disruption. Polishing removed more than 90% of free phenolics for both genotypes, while parboiling allowed the partial preservation of free phenolics content in polished rice. Parboiling induced an increase in the cooking time of red rice, but a decrease in the cooking time of black rice.

  6. Developing Black Aromatic Giant-Embryo Rice by Molecular Marker-Assisted Breeding%分子标记辅助育种选育黑色香型巨胚水稻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡治君; 黄菊; 王英存; 王杰; 许燕; 李建粤

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an aromatic japonica rice with giant-embryo, an intermediate material obtained in breed-ing an aromatic giant-embryo rice, and black non-aromatic glutinous rice with normal embryo,“Shang Shi Hei Nuo”(“SSHN”), were selected as the parents to make a cross. Two kinds of new black aromatic giant-embryo rice,“2013-2207”and“2013-2305”respectively, were firstly obtained by using the conventional breeding techni-ques as well as molecular marker-assisted selection. The average of grain weights per plant of the two new black aromatic giant-embryo rices were 21.81 g and 20.10 g, and their theoretical yields were 6 535.75 kg/hm2 and 6 030.75 kg/hm2 respectively. Both of two parameters were significantly higher than that of the“SSHN”rice (P<0.05), which average of grain weights per plant and yield were 15.04 g and 4 512.75 kg/hm2 respectively. By considering embryo trait and setting rate,“2013-2207”rice exceeds the“2013-2305”rice. This research has laid a solid foundation for further market development and application of the black aromatic giant-embryo rice.%本研究分别以本实验室选育的香型巨胚粳型水稻的中间材料和黑色非香正常胚糯性水稻品系“上实黑糯”作为亲本进行杂交,结合分子标记辅助常规育种,首次成功选育出两种黑色香型巨胚水稻新品系:“2013-2207”和“2013-2305”。两种黑色香型巨胚水稻单株重平均分别为21.81 g和20.10 g,理论产量分别为6535.75 kg/hm2和6030.75 kg/hm2,均显著高于“上实黑糯”水稻品系(单株重:15.04 g;理论产量:4512.75 kg/hm2)(P<0.05)。从胚特性和结实率两方面考虑,编号为“2013-2207”品系相对较好。该新品系的成功培育为黑色香型巨胚水稻市场进一步开发应用奠定了重要基础。

  7. TiO2/Chitosan-NH4I(+I2-BMII-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anthocyanin Dyes Extracted from Black Rice and Red Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Buraidah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated using anthocyanin dye and polymer electrolyte with ammonium iodide (NH4I salt. The study was designed to focus on increasing the efficiency of the DSSC. DSSC using 26.9 wt. % chitosan-22 wt. % NH4I(+2.2 wt.% I2-48.9 wt. % IL solid electrolyte, black rice anthocyanin with Pt counter electrode showed Jsc of 172 μA cm−2 and Voc of 195 mV. The performance of the cell with Pt electrode was further improved by coating a blocking layer on the indium tin oxide (ITO substrate. The black rice DSSC using 11 wt. % (chitosan:PEO, wt. ratio 30:70-9 wt. % NH4I-80 wt. % BMII gel electrolyte exhibited Jsc of 1213 μA cm−2, Voc of 400 mV, FF of 0.47, and η of 0.23%. The red cabbage anthocyanin DSSC containing (phthaloyl chitosan-PEO-NH4I-BMII gel electrolyte using tartaric acid to adjust the pH of anthocyanin solution showed the best performance with the fill factor of 0.39, Jsc of 3503 μA cm−2, Voc of 340 mV, and an overall conversion efficiency of 0.46%.

  8. Antioxidants and antioxidant activity of several pigmented rice brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laokuldilok, Thunnop; Shoemaker, Charles F; Jongkaewwattana, Sakda; Tulyathan, Vanna

    2011-01-12

    This study investigated the antioxidant content and activity of phenolic acids, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol in pigmented rice (black and red rice) brans. After methanolic extraction, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity were measured. The pigmented rice bran extract had a greater reducing power than a normal rice bran extract from a long grain white rice. All bran extracts were highly effective in inhibiting linoleic acid peroxidation (60-85%). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of antioxidants in rice bran found that γ-oryzanol (39-63%) and phenolic acids (33-43%) were the major antioxidants in all bran samples, and black rice bran also contained anthocyanins 18-26%. HPLC analysis of anthocyanins showed that pigmented bran was rich in cyanidin-3-glucoside (58-95%). Ferulic acid was the dominant phenolic acid in the rice bran samples. Black rice bran contained gallic, hydroxybenzoic, and protocatechuic acids in higher contents than red rice bran and normal rice bran. Furthermore, the addition of 5% black rice bran to wheat flour used for making bread produced a marked increase in the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity compared to a control bread. PMID:21141962

  9. 玉米粗缩病抗性遗传研究%Genetic analysis of resistance to Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸垫平; 易晓云; 苗洪芹; 路银贵; 田兰芝

    2012-01-01

    本文选用3个抗病自交系(齐319、X178、沈137)和3个感病自交系(掖107、掖478、沈5003)按照NCⅡ交配设计配制9套杂交组合研究了玉米抗粗缩病遗传规律.2009-2010年在曲阳、保定采用田间自然发病方法鉴定亲本、F1、F2群体的玉米粗缩病抗性,并采用灰飞虱人工接种方法鉴定亲本材料的抗病性.运用QGA station软件的加性-显性-上位性(ADAA)遗传模型进行数据分析,结果表明,显性效应和加性效应是控制玉米粗缩病抗性的主要遗传组分,分别占表型变异的44.8%和13.1%,杂合显性效应表现负向杂种优势,抗病育种可加以利用.加性×加性上位性效应在玉米自交系和杂交组合抗粗缩病遗传中普遍存在,但因材料不同而表现负向或正向效应.玉米粗缩病抗性易受环境影响,显性与环境互作效应方差占表型方差的比率为39.8%,达到极显著水平.因此,培育抗粗缩病玉米品种应依据基因型选配适当的亲本材料,抗病品种宜进行多年多点鉴定筛选.%Maize rough dwarf disease caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus(RBSDV) leads to serious economic losses of corn in China. It is an efficient and economical measure to use resistant varieties to control the disease. An experiment was carried out to elucidate the heredity in maize resistance to RBSDV with 9 sets of hybrids crossing between 3 resistant (Qi319, XI78, Shenl37) and 3 susceptible (YelO7, Ye478, Shen5003) lines according to NCII design. The resistance of parents as well as their hybrids F, and F2 populations were identified by natural transmission of planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) in fields of Quyang and Baoding from 2009 to 2010 and the parents were also evaluated with artificial inoculation. The disease indexes were analyzed with software QGA station based on additive dominance and additive x additive (ADAA) genetic model. The results showed that the dominant and additive effects were the main

  10. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...

  11. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus P6 self-interacts to form punctate, viroplasm-like structures in the cytoplasm and recruits viroplasm-associated protein P9-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jialin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae, can infect several graminaceous plant species including rice, maize and wheat, and is transmitted by planthoppers. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, functions of the nonstructural protein P6 are still largely unknown. Results In the current study, we employed yeast two-hybrid assays, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and subcellular localization experiments to show that P6 can self-interact to form punctate, cytoplasmic viroplasm-like structures (VLS when expressed alone in plant cells. The region from residues 395 to 659 is necessary for P6 self-interaction, whereas two polypeptides (residues 580-620 and 615-655 are involved in the subcellular localization of P6. Furthermore, P6 strongly interacts with the viroplasm-associated protein P9-1 and recruits P9-1 to localize in VLS. The P6 395-659 region is also important for the P6-P9-1 interaction, and deleting any region of P9-1 abolishes this heterologous interaction. Conclusions RBSDV P6 protein has an intrinsic ability to self-interact and forms VLS without other RBSDV proteins or RNAs. P6 recruits P9-1 to VLS by direct protein-protein interaction. This is the first report on the functionality of RBSDV P6 protein. P6 may be involved in the process of viroplasm nucleation and virus morphogenesis.

  12. Extraction of Pigment from Black Rice and Its Dyeing Properties on Silk Fabric%黑米色素提取及其对真丝织物的染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周培剑; 余志成

    2012-01-01

    通过正交试验确定黑米色素提取工艺,并对提取液的稳定性进行分析。同时对染色方法、染液浓度、染色温度、染色时间等进行分析并确定最佳的染色工艺。实验结果表明:黑米色素适宜的提取工艺为:提取剂为pH3的50%乙醇溶液,提取温度60℃,时间60min,料液比为1∶20;黑米色素与硫酸亚铁同浴染色可获得较佳的染色效果;适宜的染色工艺为:黑米色素40%,硫酸亚铁4%~6%,染色温度60℃,时间65min,pH4。在此条件下真丝织物表观颜色深度较大,色牢度较好。%Extract process of black rice pigment were studied via orthogonal experiments,and the stability of the extract were investigated.The research studied the effect of dyeing methods,concentration of dyestuff,dyeing temperature and dyeing time on K/S and obtained the optimum dyeing process.The optimum extract condition was pH3,50% ethanol as extractant with ratio of material to liquid 1∶20 for 60min under 60℃;Dyeing of ferrous sulfate and pigment in one bath could achieve deeper color.The satisfactory dyeing effect of silk can be abtained by using concentration of black rice 40%,concentration of ferrous sulfate 4%~6%(owf) for 60min at 60℃,and color fastnesses of the dyed fabrics is satisfactory to some extent.

  13. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Walter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds identified in rice, their antioxidant activity and their potential beneficial effects on health. In vitro and in vivo studies evaluating the rice grains with different pericarp colour (light brown, red and black showed potential beneficial effects on health related to the polyphenol content of the grain, such as reduction of oxidative stress, aid in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and complications of diabetes, among others.

  14. Rice Responses and Resistance to Planthopper-Borne Viruses at Transcriptomic and Proteomic Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Zhao, Wan; Luo, Lan; Kang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world, especially in Asian areas. Rice virus diseases are considered as the most serious threat to rice yields. Most rice viruses are transmitted by hemipteran insects such as planthoppers and leafhoppers. In Asia five rice viruses are transmitted mainly by three planthopper species in a persistent manner: Rice stripe virus, Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, Rice ragged stunt virus, Rice grassy stunt virus, and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus. In rice antivirus studies, several individual genes have been shown to function in rice resistance to viruses. Since plant responses to viral infection are complex, system-level omic studies are required to fully understand the responses. Recently more and more omic studies have appeared in the literatures on relationships between planthoppers and viruses, employing microarray, RNA-Seq, small RNA deep sequencing, degradome sequencing, and proteomic analysis. In this paper, we review the current knowledge and progress of omic studies in rice plant responses and resistance to four planthopper-borned viruses. We also discuss progress in the omic study of the interactions of planthoppers and rice viruses. Future research directions and translational applications of fundamental knowledge of virus-vector-rice interactions are proposed. PMID:26363817

  15. Miracle Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A pioneering agricultural scientist helps China find its way out of a food deficit BIG YIELDS: Despite the remarkable accomplishments he has already achieved, Yuan Longping is still working hard to improve the hybrid rice strain he has developed

  16. Microbial diversity in a continuous system based on rice husks for biodegradation of the azo dyes Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Black 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Jörgen; Pinhassi, Jarone; Lindh, Markus; Welander, Ulrika

    2013-02-01

    In the present study the degradation of two common azo dyes used in dye houses today, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 2 was evaluated in biofilters. In two experiments, bioreactors performed over 80% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of only 28.4h with little production of metabolites. Molecular analyses showed a diverse and dynamic bacterial community composition in the bioreactors, including members of the Bacteroidetes, Acinetobacter (Gammaproteobacteria) and Clostridium (Firmicutes) that possess the capacity to reduce azo dyes. Collectively, the results indicate that the development of mixed bacterial communities from natural biomaterials contributes to an efficient and robust degradation performance in bioreactors even at high concentration of dyes.

  17. The Key Techniques for Comprehensive Control on Southern Rice Black-streaked Dwarf Virus%南方水稻黑条矮缩病综合防控关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟玲; 段德康; 蔡德珍; 赖昌秀; 张国光; 刘方义; 杨迎青; 兰波; 李湘民

    2014-01-01

    为探明南方水稻黑条矮缩病的综合防控关键技术,从品种抗性筛选和药剂防治方法两方面开展了研究。于2011年在全省4个县对54个中、晚稻品种进行了田间抗性鉴定,结果表明:水稻品种之间的抗性有较大的差异,平均病丛率在0.5%以下的有岳优9113等7个品种,为相对抗(耐)病品种;平均病丛率在0.51%~2.99%的有金优77等42个品种;平均病丛率在3.0%以上的有金佳丝苗等5个品种,为相对感病品种。2012年在全省3个县开展了不同药剂及不同使用方法的田间药效试验,结果表明:南方水稻黑条矮缩病防治的有效方法是使用25%吡蚜酮可湿性粉剂药剂拌种(20 g/kg种子)、移栽前2 d和移栽后15 d各使用25%吡蚜酮喷雾1次(每667 m220 g);不采用药剂拌种或者低剂量拌种(25%吡蚜酮10 g/kg种子)的防效均显著地低于该药剂20 g/kg种子剂量拌种的防效;2%宁南霉素水剂单独使用时对南方水稻黑条矮缩病的防效较差,且与25%吡蚜酮混合使用后,并没有显著性地提高防效。%To define the key techniques for comprehensive control on southern rice black -streaked dwarf vi-rus (SRBSDV),the resistance screening of different varieties to SRBSDV was studied .Firstly,the field resistanceidentification of 54 middle-and late rice varieties was carried out in 4 counties in 2011.The result revealed that the resistance of rice cultivars differed greatly .The average diseased bundle rates of 7 cultivars were lower than 0.5%and they were comparatively resistant or tolerant cultivars .The average diseased bundle rates of 5 cultivars were higher than 3.0%and they belonged to susceptible cultivars .In 2012,the field control effects of different pesticides and different application methods were tested in 3 counties .The results showed the effective control method of SRBSDV was a complex one ,including seed soaking with 20 g

  18. The impact of herbicide-resistant rice technology on phenotypic diversity and population structure of United States weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E; Gealy, David R; Caicedo, Ana L

    2014-11-01

    The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. PMID:25122473

  19. Physiological and biochemical parameters for evaluation and clustering of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance at seedling stage

    OpenAIRE

    Sumitahnun Chunthaburee; Anoma Dongsansuk; Jirawat Sanitchon; Wattana Pattanagul; Piyada Theerakulpisut

    2016-01-01

    Salinity tolerance levels and physiological changes were evaluated for twelve rice cultivars, including four white rice and eight black glutinous rice cultivars, during their seedling stage in response to salinity stress at 100 mM NaCl. All the rice cultivars evaluated showed an apparent decrease in growth characteristics and chlorophyll accumulation under salinity stress. By contrast an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase (POX) activity and anthocyanins were observed for all c...

  20. Comparison of 2 culture media, cornmeal agar incorporating caffeic acid and black rice agar, to selectively isolate Cryptococcus neoformans%两种新型隐球菌选择性培养基的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶星辰; 尚秋菊; 罗宗龙; 杨静; 代陆娇; 苏鸿雁

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较咖啡酸玉米琼脂培养基(caffeic acid cornmeal agar medium,CACA)和黑米琼脂培养基(black rice agar medium)对鸽粪中新型隐球菌的分离效果. 方法 用无菌竹签从鸽舍随机采取鸽粪标本,取0.6g与10 ml无菌生理盐水制成悬液,然后按每个平板100μl分别接种咖啡酸玉米琼脂培养基和黑米琼脂培养基,肉眼观察菌落形态、颜色,光学显微镜下观察菌体形态,同时用特异性引物CN4和CN5扩增新型隐球菌URA基因,分别统计两种培养基中出现阳性菌株的平板数目. 结果 黑米琼脂培养基中新型隐球菌菌落呈棕黄色,外观湿润,状似胶汁.共分离获得23株新型隐球菌,检出率32.86%.CACA中新型隐球菌菌落较黑米琼脂培养基上的菌落小,褐色,干燥.共分离出11株新型隐球菌,检出率为15.71%.黑米琼脂培养基的检出率与CACA比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且丝状真菌覆盖性生长的平板数目少于CACA,污染程度低于CACA;通过墨汁染色,在光学显微镜下观察新型隐球菌菌体呈圆形或卵圆形,外有宽厚荚膜,PCR扩增得到了目的条带产物. 结论 黑米琼脂培养基作为新型隐球菌的选择性培养基其分离培养效果(检出效果和检出率)优于CACA.

  1. A Polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against salmonellosis through upregulation of the Th1 immune reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Park, Sun Ok; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2014-03-19

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, it did, however, stimulate uptake of the bacteria into RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, as indicated by increased colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of the contents of the lysed macrophages incubated with Salmonella Typhimurium for 30 and 60 min. Two hours postinfection, the bacterial counts drastically increased in the macrophages, but 4 and 8 h postinfection BPP extract-treated cells showed lower bacterial counts than the vehicle (saline phosphate pH 7.4 buffer, PBS)-treated control. BPP elicited altered morphology and markedly elevated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein expression in the infected macrophage cells. BPP also activated leukocytes in S. Typhimurium-infected mice, as determined by spleen lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ levels in mice sera. ELISA analysis on cytokine production by Th1 and Th2 immune cells from splenocytes of infected mice showed significant increases in the levels of the following Th1 cytokines: IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12. Histology assays of the livers of mice infected with a sublethal dose (1 × 10(4) CFU) of S. Typhimurium showed that BPP, administered daily through an intraperitoneal (ip) or oral route, protected against necrosis of the liver, a biomarker of in vivo salmonellosis. The lifespan of mice similarly infected with a lethal dose of S. Typhimurium (1 × 10(5) CFU) was significantly extended by ip injection or oral administration of the BPP without side effects. These results suggest that the activity of BPP against bacterial infection in mice occurs mainly through the activation of macrophage-mediated immune response resulting from augmented Th1 immunity. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health and further

  2. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Xianggu Rice: The rice originated from Jiangyong County, Hunan Province. Its characteristics were: even in grain shape, white in color, special fragrant in taste, and sticky in quality. Handongzao: It was from Wannian County, Jiangxi Province. The rice had big, fertile, and white grain, which was soft with fragrant smell, and it had high head rice rate. So, the local peasants liked to plant it. It was one of the "Tribute rice " in old time. Shizhu "Imperial Rice": The rice was also called "Fragrant Rice", was from Siyuan Village, Yuelai Town, Shizhu County, Sichuan Province. It was the treasure among the rices. The grain was bright in color. When it was cooked, the smell was fragrant. It was said that the rice was from "Han Dynasty", and has become the "Tribute Rice " since then. Blood Glutinous Rice: Originated from Changshu City, Jiangsu Province, the rice has been cultivated more than one hundred years. It had high nutrition value. Among the people, the Blood Glutinous Rice was often used as health food for lying-in women and patients. Qufu Fragrant Rice: Its characteristics were: clean, bright, and translucent in grain color, sticky in quality. It was suitable for cooking gruel and was also called "Fragrant Rice" in the local due to its strong fragrance. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Taihu Lake Fragrant Japonica: The rice was from the Region of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province. The characteristics were: even and big in grain shape, soft in quality, white in color, fragrant in taste. The local people liked to plant and eat it.□ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice",No.1,1994

  3. The World of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ Pilafs, risottos, soups, snacks, paellas,stuffing, vinegars, wines and desserts-rice is used all over the world in myriad ways as food and drink.Although rice is one of the world's most ancient foods and it is impossible to know exactly where and when cultivation of this marvelous grain began, China is popularly acknowledged as the homeland of rice. Chinese people have many legends about rice. Some describe a benevolent goddess in silk robes whose gown accidentally picked up stray rice grains, which she dropped from the heavens to humans below. It's also said that Shennong, the Divine Farmer in Chinese myth, sowed the first rice on earth.

  4. Interaction between four rice proteins and P7-2, an unstructural viral protein encoded by Rice black streaked dwarf virus S7%四种水稻蛋白与水稻黑条矮缩病毒编码非结构蛋白 P7-2的互作分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张上林; 孙丽英; 陈剑平

    2013-01-01

    Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus, infects maize and rice plants and causes significant yield losses in Asia .RBSDV has a genome of 10 dsRNAs and encodes 12 proteins.Six of these proteins (P1, P2, P3, P4, P8 and P10) are structural components of the viral particle .There are six non-structural proteins, P5, P6, P7-1, P7-2, P9-1, and P9-2.Among those non-structural proteins, P5, P6 and P9-1 have been shown to involve in viroplasm formation and P 7-1 has been identified to form the cytoplasmic tubular-like structures that serve as a conduit for virion movement between cells .The function of P7-2 and P9-2 is still unknow . In this study , we utilized protein Pull-Down assay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS) techniques to identify the proteins from rice ( Oryza sativa) that interact with P7-2.Four proteins were found to bind P7-2 by Pull-Down assay.Two of them are transcription-associated proteins, one is an aminotransferase and the other one is a putative chaperonin 60 beta precursor .Using real-time quantitative PCR , the transcript expression lev-els of transcription-associated protein and putative chaperonin 60 beta precursor were up-regulated by RBSDV infec-tion.In contrast , the transcript expression of aminotransferase protein was suppressed by RBSDV infection .%水稻黑条矮缩病毒( RBSDV)是斐济病毒属的成员之一,可侵染玉米和水稻等作物,给亚洲地区的田间生产带来严重的损失。 RBSDV有10条双链RNA(double strand RNA, dsRNA)基因组,编码12个蛋白。其中6个蛋白是病毒粒子的结构成分(P1,P2,P3,P4,P8,P10),6个非结构蛋白分别为P5,P6,P7-1,P7-2,P9-1, P9-2。在非结构蛋白中,P5,P6和P9-1已被证实参与形成毒质结构,P7-1被认为可在细胞质中形成类似管状的结构作为病毒胞间扩散的通道,P7-2和P9-2的功能目前尚不明确。

  5. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Mingshui Rice: It originated from Zhangqiu County, Shandong Province. The characteristics of Mingshui Rice were: absorbing more water, swelling up greatly after being soaked, and being sticky and smelling fragrant after cooked.

  6. Bioactive compounds and antioxidative activity of colored rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The profiles of bioactive compounds (including phenolics and flavonoids in free and bound fractions, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, vitamin E, and γ-oryzanol of outer and inner rice bran from six colored rice samples collected from local markets were investigated. Proanthocyanidins could only be detected in red rice bran but not in black rice bran. The free fraction of the extracts dominated the total phenolics (72–92% and the total flavonoids (72–96% of colored rice bran. Most of the phenolic acids (83–97% in colored rice bran were present in the bound form. Protocatechualdehyde was identified for the first time in the bound fraction of red rice bran by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The antioxidative activities of the free fraction of the colored rice bran were attributed to the proanthocyanidins in red colored rice and anthocyanins in black rice, while that of the bound fraction was mainly due to the phenolic acids.

  7. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wushan Rice: It grew in hilly land around Wu Mountain in Wang City, Hunan Province. Its grain is bright and transparent, and the cooked rice is soft, sticky, fragrant, and sweet in taste. It was a "Tribute Rice" in old time. Indian Indica: Growing in Wuchang City, Hubei Province, it was also called" Red Flower Rice" . It was characterized by its thin pericarp and soft, sticky, and oily quality. Its taste was delicious. Fragrant Rice 1: It was from Xinxiang and Hui counties, Henan Province. Its characteristics were: long-round in grain shape, white in color, soft and sticky in quality, and agreeable to the taste. It was usually used as a gift in the local. Baiyutang Rice: It originated from Gaozhuang Village, Beijing suburban district. It had good quality due to the irrigation of the spring water. The rice had even grain shape, white color, hard enough quality to be cooked, fragrant and sweet taste. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Tian′e Indica Rice: Xianning and Wuchang counties, Hubei Province were its growing area. It also called "Double Grain" because of its big grain. The hull was red, while the grain was white. When cooked, it needed more water than normal rice, and the rice was agreeable to the taste. Baiyan Rice: It originated from Jishou County, Hunan Province. The grain was even in shape, white in color, and sticky in quality. The rice was easy to be cooked and was fragrant and sweet in taste. It was also a " Tribute Rice" in old time. □ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice", No. 1, 1994

  8. The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil

    OpenAIRE

    Noppawat Pengkumsri; Chaiyavat Chaiyasut; Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi; Chalermpong Saenjum; Sasithorn Sirilun; Sartjin Peerajan; Prasit Suwannalert; Sophon Sirisattha; Khontaros Chaiyasut; Periyanaina Kesika

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO) was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe) methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by H...

  9. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  10. Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sharon V

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the world, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal. With type 2 diabetes increasing, the effect of this traditional diet pattern on glycemic response has not been studied fully. Methods We evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men and women with type 2 diabetes controlled by metformin (n = 14 or diet/exercise (n = 3 aged 35–70 years participated in the randomized 4 × 4 crossover trial. The white long grain rice control, pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, red kidney beans/rice test meals, matched for 50 grams of available carbohydrate, were consumed at breakfast after a 12 hour fast. Capillary blood glucose concentrations at baseline and at 30 minute intervals up to 180 minutes postprandial were collected. MANOVA for repeated measures established glucose differences between treatments. Paired t tests identified differences between bean types and the rice control following a significant MANOVA. Results Postprandial net glucose values were significantly lower for the three bean/rice treatments in contrast to the rice control at 90, 120 and 150 minutes. Incremental area under the curve values were significantly lower for the pinto and black bean/rice meals compared to rice alone, but not for kidney beans. Conclusions Pinto, dark red kidney and black beans with rice attenuate the glycemic response compared to rice alone. Promotion of traditional foods may provide non-pharmaceutical management of type 2 diabetes and improve dietary adherence with cultural groups. Trial registration Clinical Trials number NCT01241253

  11. Extraction of light filth from rice flours, extruded rice products, and rice paper: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, R G

    1982-09-01

    Two new methods were developed for the extraction of rodent hairs and insect fragments from rice products: one for rice flour and one for extruded rice products and rice paper. A 100 g sample of rice flour was extracted with mineral oil-40% isopropanol, followed by a water phase as needed for additional cycles. For extruded rice products and rice paper, a 225 g sample of each was initially extracted as above, followed by a single extraction with mineral oil-20% isopropanol. Both methods used an acid hydrolysis pretreatment followed by wet sieving and a percolator extraction. Average rodent hair recoveries were 77.8% for rice flour and 82.2% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Average insect fragment recoveries were 89.6% for rice flour and 91.9% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Both methods were adopted official first action. PMID:7130079

  12. Functional analysis of the rice rubisco activase promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhipan; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Chen, Fan [Key Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lu, Congming, E-mail: lucm@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice rubisco activase promoter was analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Region conferring tissue specific and light inducible expression of Rca was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer -58 to +43 bp region mediates tissue-specific expression of rice Rca. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light inducible expression of rice Rca is mediated by -297 to -58 bp region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the light inducible region. -- Abstract: To gain a better understanding of the regulatory mechanism of the rice rubisco activase (Rca) gene, variants of the Rca gene promoter (one full-length and four deletion mutants) fused to the coding region of the bacterial reporter gene {beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) were introduced into Arabidopsis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Our results show that a 340 bp fragment spanning from -297 to +43 bp relative to the transcription initiation site is enough to promote tissue-specific and light-inducible expression of the rice Rca gene as done by the full-length promoter (-1428 to +43 bp). Further deletion analysis indicated that the region conferring tissue-specificity of Rca expression is localized within a 105 bp fragment from -58 to +43 bp, while light-inducible expression of Rca is mediated by the region from -297 to -58 bp. Gel shift assays and competition experiments demonstrated that rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the fragment conferring light responsiveness at more than one binding site. This implies that multiple cis-elements may be involved in light-induced expression of the rice Rca gene. These works provide a useful reference for understanding transcriptional regulation mechanism of the rice Rca gene, and lay a strong foundation for further detection of related cis-elements and trans-factors.

  13. 有色稻米Fe、Zn、Cu和Mn含量及与种皮颜色相关分析%Evaluation and Correlation Analysis on Mineral Concentrations and Pigment Content in Pericarp of Color Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭咏梅; 段延碧; 李少明; 黄平; 涂建; 李华慧; 萧凤回; 谭学林

    2011-01-01

    The different color rice were evaluated based on four mineral concentrations of brown rice from 61 accessions harvested from Mile experiment farm under the uniform ecological conditions by A AS method. The results showed that the Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn concentration of the color rice was higher than that of the write rice, and the four mineral concentrations in brown rice was Zn > Fe > Cu > Mn. In addition,Fe and Zn concentration of color rice were affected by pigment content in pericarp of it, Cu and Mn of color rice were not influenced by pigment content in pericarp of it. Fe concentration of the color rice was in turn black rice > green rice > brown rice > red rice > yellow rice, Zn concentration of the color rice was in turn green rice > red rice > black rice > brown rice > yellow rice, Cu concentration of the color rice was in turn black rice > brown rice > red rice > yellow rice > green rice, Mn concentration of the color rice was in turn brown rice > black rice > red rice > yellow rice > green rice. There were some differences among Fe, Zu, Cu and Mn average concentrations in brown rice of the different color rice, black rice and brown rice rich on Fe,Zn,Cu and Mn,green rice rich on Fe and Zn,red rice rich on Zn and Cu. Four concentration of yellow rice were lower than that of the other color rice.%用AAS方法测定了弥勒县相同生态条件下种植的27份有色稻和34份普通稻糙米4种矿质元素含量,并对有色米和普通米Fe、Zn、Cu和Mn含量进行了比较研究.结果表明,有色稻米4种矿质元素含量明显高于无色稻米,其差异均达显著水平,其含量高低依次为Zn> Fe> Cu> Mn;对黑、褐、红、黄、绿5种不同种皮颜色的稻米4种矿质元素含量进行比较研究,发现稻米Fe含量高低依次为黑>绿>褐>红>黄,Zn含量依次为绿>红>黑>褐>黄,Cu含量依次为黑>褐>红>黄>绿,Mn含量依次为褐>黑>红>黄>绿;并且Fe和Mn含量在不同颜色稻

  14. Production of pulse in mono-cropped rice system in the coastal region of Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was undertaken with an objective to increase the yield of black-gram leguminous pulse crop through optimal doses of phosphatic fertilizer with supplemental irrigation in mono-cropped rice-fallow regions of India. Irrigation and phosphorus fertilizer application were introduced for enhancing productivity of black-gram to provide better returns to available water resources

  15. Machine vision inspection of rice seed based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成芳; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect the quality of rice seeds. Five varieties of Jinyou402, Shanyou10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and IIyou were evaluated. The images of both sides of rice seed with black background and white background were acquired with the image processing system for identifying external features of rice seeds. Five image sets consisting of 600 original images each were obtained. Then a digital image processing algorithm based on Hough transform was developed to inspect the rice seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96% for normal seeds, 92% for seeds with fine fissure and 87% for seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was proved to be applicable to different seed varieties and insensitive to the color of the background.

  16. Machine vision inspection of rice seed based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成芳; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect the quality of rice seeds. Five varieties of Jinyou402,Shanyou 10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and Ilyou were evaluated. The images of both sides of rice seed with black background and white background were acquired with the image processing system for identifying external features of rice seeds. Five image sets consisting of 600 original images each were obtained. Then a digital image processing algorithm based on Hough transform was developed to inspect the rice seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96% for normal seeds, 92% for seeds with fine fissure and 87% for seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was proved to be applicable to different seed varieties and insensitive to the color of the background.

  17. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  18. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  19. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  20. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  1. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. PMID:27518034

  2. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  3. Super Rice Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  4. Rice Varietal Improvement and International Exchange of Rice Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Evenson, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Rice is the most important food grain in developing countries. Rapid population growth in developing countries during the 1950s and 1960s presented a massive challenge to rice producers. Rice production would have to be expanded at historically unprecedented rates to maintain per capita rice consumption levels. That challenge was met. Rice production expanded more rapidly than population. The challenge was met primarily by increased yields per hectare of land. This paper documents the role of...

  5. Radioisotopes and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To stimulate research into problems of rice cultivation, the International Atomic Energy Agency has placed several research contracts with agricultural institutes in some of its Member States. Some of these research projects deal with problems of soil-plant relations and fertilization, and rice is one of the main crops on which studies are being made. A panel of experts convened by the Agency met in Vienna in May this year to discuss some of the outstanding problems in the uses of radioisotopes in soil-plant relations and fertilization studies, and problems concerning rice were among the principal subjects considered. In a paper presented at the panel meeting. Professor S. Mitsui, of the University of Tokyo, reviewed some of the main uses of radioisotopes in studying problems of rice soils and rice cultivation and suggested several specific topics in this field which could be investigated by isotope techniques

  6. EFFICACY OF BIOAGENTS AGAINST SEED BORNE FUNGI OF RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Halgekar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different antagonist ’ viz. Trichoderma viride Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus substilis were evaluated against different seed borne fungi of rice by dual culture technique. Among three bio agents Trichoderma viride (42.59 to 73.33% followed by Bacillus subtilis and Psuedomonas fluorescens over control. Significant suppression of radial mycelial growth of Drechslera oryzae by Trichoderma viride, and Trichoderma harzianum in dual culture and Inhibition of Curvularia lunata causing black kernel in rice with Bacillus subtilis (97.77% followed by Trichoderma viride (96.44% and Trichoderma harzianum (93.50% in dual culture method.

  7. Rice Germplasm Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINGCunshan

    1994-01-01

    China is one of the origin countries in Asia of cultiv ated rice (O. sativaL.), and rice is one of the aged-long food crops in the country. The results of the 14C evaluation on the carbonified rice grains unearthed from Hemudu in Yuyao County and Luojiajiao in Tongxiang County of Zhejiang Province indicated that rice in these area has been planted more than 7,000 yrs and indica (hsien) and japonica (keng) rices coexisted with each other.

  8. A Century of Rice Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Halos, Saturnina C.

    2005-01-01

    Rice innovations are technologies and practices extensively adopted so as to change production practices and productivity. This paper documents the changes in rice productivity, policy and institutions in the last 100 years and identifies the technological change that may have affected rice productivity. One hundred years has totally changed rice production practices and improved productivity. Technical innovations that helped improved rice productivity include irrigation, pest management not...

  9. Migration of rice planthoppers and their vectored re-emerging and novel rice viruses in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eOtuka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review examines recent studies of the migration of three rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus, Sogatella furcifera, and Nilaparvata lugens, in East Asia. Laodelphax striatellus has recently broken out in Jiangsu province, eastern China. The population density in the province started to increase in the early 2000s and peaked in 2004. In 2005, Rice stripe virus (RSV viruliferous rate of L. striatellus peaked at 31.3%. Since then, rice stripe disease spread severely across the whole province. Due to the migration of the RSV vectors, the rice stripe disease spread to neighboring countries Japan and Korea. An overseas migration of L. striatellus that occurred in 2008 was analyzed, when a slow-moving cold vortex, a type of low pressure system, reached western Japan from Jiangsu, carrying the insects into Japan. Subsequently the rice stripe diseases struck these areas in Japan severely. In Korea, similar situations occurred in 2009, 2011, and 2012. Their migration sources were also estimated to be in Jiangsu by backward trajectory analysis. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, whose vector is L. striatellus, has recently re-emerged in eastern China, and the evidence for overseas migrations of the virus, just like the RSV’s migrations, has been given. A method of predicting the overseas migration of L. striatellus has been developed by Japanese, Chinese, and Korean institutes. An evaluation of the prediction showed that this method properly predicted migration events that occurred in East Asia from 2008 to 2011. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV was first found in Guangdong province. Its vector is S. furcifera. An outbreak of SRBSDV occurred in southern China in 2009 and spread to Vietnam the same year. This disease and virus were also found in Japan in 2010. The epidemic triggered many migration studies to investigate concrete spring-summer migration routes in China, and the addition of migration sources for early arrivals in

  10. Transfer to rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the critical foods for the intake of radionuclides by humans is rice (Oryza sativa L.), which is the dominant staple food crop in humid tropical and sub-tropical countries across the globe. Cultivation methods have important effects on plant uptake of radionuclides from soil. Most rice is produced under flooded conditions, i.e. in fields with a water layer of 5-15 cm deep on soil. This is unlike the situation in unsaturated fields where the soil conditions are significantly different, meaning that the soil-to-rice transfer factors (Fvs) need to be discussed separately from Fv values of other cereals grown under unsaturated field conditions. In this section, rice refers to the crop grown on wet paddy fields; since water management is the dominant method for rice cultivation this is the most common type. Rice Fv values were collected from papers in international journals, books and proceedings with peer reviewing processes and Fv values based on dry weight rice grain were summarized here. Fv data for fallout isotopes (e.g. 90Sr and 137Cs), neutron activation products (e.g. 54Mn, 60Co, etc.) or naturally existing radionluclides (e.g. 210Pb, 226Ra, 238U, etc.) and those for naturally existing stable elements under agricultural field conditions were listed. (author)

  11. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  12. Glutinous Rice in Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams glutinous rice, one pineapple, 20 grams dried fruits (raisins, walnuts. Chinese wolfberry, Chinese dates, lotus seeds, lily petals, kidney beans and peanuts) Seasonings: 5 grams rock sugar, 5 grams salad oil. Method:

  13. Impact of drought and detection of potential donors for reproductive stage tolerance in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafina Haque, A.Anandan, S.K.Pradhan, and O.N.Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study, 48 drought tolerant lines along with two susceptible genotypes of upland and lowland rice ecologies were tested at Central Rice Research Institute during dry season of 2011 and 2012, to identify the reproductive stage drought tolerant lines and to exploit the genetic variations. In support of various estimates of morpho-physiological parameters, genotypes Nan Te Hao, Purbachi (Chinese 1, Saita, NSIC Rc 222, Binnatoha, CO18, Ai Jiao Nan Te, Brown Gora, Black Gora (NCS 12, Jhona 349, Kalakeri are adjudged as good donors for reproductive stage drought tolerance in rice.

  14. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter.

  15. Combined Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling of Different Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Seeds and Correlation with Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Ryun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine varieties of pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L. seeds that were black, red, or white were used to perform metabolite profiling by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and gas chromatography (GC TOF-MS, to measure antioxidant activities. Clear grouping patterns determined by the color of the rice seeds were identified in principle component analysis (PCA derived from UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimer, proanthocyanidin trimer, apigenin-6-C-glugosyl-8-C-arabiboside, tricin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside, and lipids were identified as significantly different secondary metabolites. In PCA score plots derived from GC-TOF-MS, Jakwangdo (JKD and Ilpoom (IP species were discriminated from the other rice seeds by PC1 and PC2. Valine, phenylalanine, adenosine, pyruvate, nicotinic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, xylose, fructose, glucose, maltose, and myo-inositol were significantly different primary metabolites in JKD species, while GABA, asparagine, xylitol, and sucrose were significantly distributed in IP species. Analysis of antioxidant activities revealed that black and red rice seeds had higher activity than white rice seeds. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidin trimers, and catechin were highly correlated with antioxidant activities, and were more plentiful in black and red rice seeds. These results are expected to provide valuable information that could help improve and develop rice-breeding techniques.

  16. Modeling moisture movement in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice is one of the leading food crops in the world. At harvest, rice normally has higher moisture content than the moisture content considered safe for its storage, which creates the necessity for a drying process before its storage. In addition to drying, moisture movement within the rice kernels a...

  17. Tracking the source regions of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV)occurred in Wuyi county, Zhejiang province, China in 2009, transmitted by Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)(Homoptera: Delphacidae)%浙江武义2009年南方水稻黑条矮缩病的毒源地分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵悦; 吴璀献; 朱旭东; 蒋学辉; 张孝羲; 翟保平

    2011-01-01

    2009年,浙江省境内首次出现南方水稻黑条矮缩病毒(Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus,SRBSDV),且仅武义县有发病现象.因为该病毒病是一种虫媒病毒,且白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)是主要传毒介体,所以本文通过白背飞虱灯下诱虫情况调查、迁飞轨迹模拟、天气学背景分析以及毒源地分析,阐释了2009年浙江省武义县发现的南方水稻黑条矮缩病的供毒源地分布情况,以及白背飞虱携毒的传递路径,并讨论了轨迹模拟中各生物学参数的设定方法,从而为剖析该病毒的宏观流行规律奠定科学基础.结果显示:(1)通过对白背飞虱迁入武义的主要虫源地与经鉴定的南方水稻黑条矮缩病发病区域的叠加分析,明确了浙江武义的可能毒源地分布于两广、闽南、赣南四省区境内;(2)西南低空急流及偏南气流是白背飞虱将我国南方的病毒远距离传送到武义县境内的动力源;(3)白背飞虱随下沉气流和降雨在武义境内的集中降落是南方水稻黑条矮缩病在当地暴发的触发条件.%In 2009, Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) appeared first time in Zhejiang province, while only in Wuyi county morbidity phenomenon occurred. Since this virus is a kind of arbovirus, and the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella fwrcifera (Horvdth) (WBPH), is its main transmitted vector, we used light trap catch data, migration trajectory simulation, synoptic meteorological background and virus infection to study the pathways of WBPH in Wuyi, Zhejiang, 2009. In this way, the possible source regions of SRBSDV transmitted by its vector WBPH were analyzed, and the biological parameters for trajectory analysis were determined based on the numerical simulation. This research aims to establish scientific basis for the macro-epidemic researching of SRBSDV. The results illustrated that:(1) through the overlapping analysis of the virus incidence area and the

  18. 水稻南方黑条矮缩病毒湖南鼎城株系S10片段的基因组序列分析%Sequence Analysis of Genome Segment S10 of Hunan Dingcheng Isolate of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚; 朱俊子; 周倩; 蒋坚; 高必达

    2012-01-01

    运用RT-PCR技术克隆了水稻南方黑条矮缩病毒(southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus,SRBSDV)湖南鼎城株系的基因组S10片段(SRBSDV-HuNDC S10),并对其全序列进行了测定和生物信息学分析.结果显示,SRBSDV-HuNDC S10片段全长为1 797 bp (登录号:JQ337964),含有1个ORF,编码557个氨基酸残基的衣壳蛋白,推测分子量约62.6 kD,推测等电点为7.62,与已报道的广东、海南和云南分离物病毒的S10作比较,它们的核苷酸相似性分别为99.7%、99.0%和98.4%,氨基酸相似性分别为100.0%、99.5%和99.3%.对SRBSDV-HuNDC S10及部分Fijiviruses病毒对应片段在5' URT与3' URT存在的保守序列和互补序列进行了归纳,对其ORF编码的氨基酸序列进行了motif查找,得到该属(Fijiviruses)氨基酸序列的10个保守区段.此外,进行了糖基化位点、磷酸化位点及B细胞抗原表位预测,发现了3个可能的N端豆蔻酰基化位点,可能与病毒的侵染机制有关.%The full-length cDNA of the genome segment S10 of Dingcheng isolate of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus was cloned and the complete nucleotide sequence was determined, as well as its bioinformatics analysis. Results show that the S10 is 1 797 bp (JQ337964), has an open reading frame (ORF), encodes a capsid protein containing 557 amino acid residues. Its molecular weight is about 62.6 kD and its isoelectric point is 7.62. Compared with other known viruses such as Guangdong isolates, Hainan isolates and Yunnan isolates, the nucleotide identities of S10 segment are 99.7%, 99.0% and 98.4%, respectively, and their amino acid identities are 100.0%, 99.5% and 99.3% respectively. Conservative sequence and complementary sequence in the 5' URT and 3' URT of SRBSDV-HuNDC S10 and corresponding segments of the Fijiviruses viruses were analyzed, and 10 conservative segment of Fijiviruses viruses were founded by searching the motif of amino acid sequence encoded by ORF. Moreover, the glycosylation sites

  19. 水稻南方黑条矮缩病毒湖南鼎城株系S10片段的基因组序列分析%Sequence Analysis of Genome Segment S10 of Hunan Dingcheng Isolate of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚; 朱俊子; 周倩; 蒋坚; 高必达

    2012-01-01

    The full-length cDNA of the genome segment S10 of Dingcheng isolate of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus was cloned and the complete nucleotide sequence was determined,as well as its bioinformatics analysis.Results show that the S10 is 1 797 bp(JQ337964),has an open reading frame(ORF),encodes a capsid protein containing 557 amino acid residues.Its molecular weight is about 62.6 kD and its isoelectric point is 7.62.Compared with other known viruses such as Guangdong isolates,Hainan isolates and Yunnan isolates,the nucleotide identities of S10 segment are 99.7%,99.0% and 98.4%,respectively,and their amino acid identities are 100.0%,99.5% and 99.3% respectively.Conservative sequence and complementary sequence in the 5' URT and 3' URT of SRBSDV-HuNDC S10 and corresponding segments of the Fijiviruses viruses were analyzed,and 10 conservative segment of Fijiviruses viruses were founded by searching the motif of amino acid sequence encoded by ORF.Moreover,the glycosylation sites,phosphorylation sites and B cell epitope were predicted.Three possible N-myristoylation sites were found,which may be involved in virus infection.%运用RT-PCR技术克隆了水稻南方黑条矮缩病毒(southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus,SRBSDV)湖南鼎城株系的基因组S10片段(SRBSDV-HuNDCS10),并对其全序列进行了测定和生物信息学分析。结果显示,SRBSDV-HuNDC S10片段全长为1797bp(登录号:JQ337964),含有1个ORF,编码557个氨基酸残基的衣壳蛋白,推测分子量约62.6kD,推测等电点为7.62,与已报道的广东、海南和云南分离物病毒的S10作比较,它们的核苷酸相似性分别为99.7%、99.0%和98.4%,氨基酸相似性分别为100.0%、99.5%和99.3%。对SRBSDV-HuNDCS10及部分Fijiviruses病毒对应片段在5'URT与3'URT存在的保守序列和互补序列进行了归纳,对其ORF编码的氨基酸序列进行了motif查找,得到该属(Fijiviruses)氨基酸序列的10个保守区段。此

  20. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... block your throat or esophagus and may cause choking. Do not take this product if you have ... take enough water. Otherwise, black psyllium might cause choking. Take at least 150 mL water for each ...

  1. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  2. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heartburn, dizziness, ringing in the ears, convulsions, and confusion. Also, people who drink black tea or other ... glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide ( ...

  3. Rice Quality Improvement in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1. Demand for high quality rice in China Rice is the leading cereal crop that contributes about 40% of the national grain production in China. The total output and areas rank the first and the second position in the world, respectively. In recent years, rice production grows steadily, but the quality improvement has been lagged and the quality becomes a limiting factor. As the grain supply exceeding the demand and the grain price plummeted, the State Council put forward expanding China′ s ongoing reform of the grain distribution system in 1998. Along with the foodstuff circulating system reform and market driving, the structure of rice production is adjusted,the planting acreage of early indica rice with poor quality decreased, and that of japonica rice in north China with good quality increased. With the challenge of China joining the WTO, Chinese government starts to pay premium on good quality rice.

  4. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  5. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  6. Glutinous Rice Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CELEBRATING Spring Festival includes making glutinous rice cakes, or niangao in Chinese. Traditional and new methods of making niangao vary in taste according to different areas. No matter poor or rich. niangao is a must for every family during Spring Festival as it symbolizes auspiciousness. In Beijing, both northern and southernstyle niangao are available. After the Beginning of Autumn (13th solar term), the

  7. BASIS RISK FOR RICE

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Yoshie Saito; Turner, Steven C.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a cross hedging model for rice that minimizes basis risk and accounts for the existence of the nonstationary nature of basis. Basis is treated as an endogenous variable and model for basis risk are developed.

  8. Rice: chemistry and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice has taken center stage this last decade, not only as an important provider of nourishment for the world’s population, but as a grain now recognized as having many unique nutritional and functional attributes with potential to be captured in a multitude of value-added food and non-food applicati...

  9. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  10. Study on red rice%赤米考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞为洁

    2005-01-01

    'The red rice grain' recorded in the Chinese ancient books is neither a kind of good rice variety nor old rice grain or rotten rice grain, they are some rice varieties which have red-color grains and poor taste.

  11. Isolation and characterization of pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw in the state of Perlis (Malaysia) is abundant while its utilization is still limited. One of the alternatives for the bagasse and straw utilization is as pulp raw material. This paper reviews on pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw and its suitability for paper production. In this study, the pulp was extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method. The objective of this study was to investigate the cellulose, lignin and silica content of the pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw. For rice straw, the presence of large amount of pentosanes in the pulp and black liquors, which also contain silica were decreased the using of straw in the paper industry. Therefore, formic acid pulping and NaOH treatment are studied to reduce or prevent silica. The isolated pulp samples were further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to investigate their fiber dimensions. (Author)

  12. The Potential of Dark Purple Scented Rice- From Staple Food to Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangabam Rajiv Das

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the rice varieties, Purple Rice has an incredibly rich history and counts among its strains one variety known as Imperial rice as they are reserved for the Emperor’s consumption only. The purple color is due to high anthocyanin content, a trait most typically observed in fruits. There are abundant benefits including medicinal properties of rice. Its medicinal properties being imparted by the phytochemicals present in it, some of the important compounds which are worth mentioning are tocotrienols, gamma amino butyric acid, oryzanol, rice bran saccharide, Lutein, Zeaxanthin, butylate hydroanisole, phytosterol. Chakhao, the aromatic black glutinous rice in Manipur, India has an aesthetic value and nutraceutical properties. There is a huge demand in the domestic market, having possibilities for export, thus, it is a need for the improvement of these cultivars for higher production, productivity without losing grain quality characteristics, and its applications in pharmaceutical sciences. In this review, we focus on the nutritional values of rice with nutritional properties and their impact on human health.

  13. Survey of Recent Innovations in Aromatic Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Napasintuwong, Orachos

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides situations of aromatic rice demand, and international standards. The history and recent developments of traditional and evolved aromatic rice varieties, namely Basmati rice and Jasmine rice, are reviewed. The emerging aromatic rice innovations from developed countries such as the U.S. and other Asian countries generate a threat to these traditional aromatic rice producers such as India, Pakistan, and Thailand. Under WTO Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights...

  14. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  15. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  16. Selenium reduces cadmium uptake and mitigates cadmium toxicity in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Li; Zhou, Weihui; Dai, Huaxin; Cao, Fangbin; Zhang, Guoping [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Wu, Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se alleviated Cd-toxicity, reduced Cd content and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, MDA in rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se counteracted Cd-induced alterations of antioxidant enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se suppressed Cd-induced increase in SOD, APX, but elevated depressed CAT activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se markedly increased H{sup +}-ATPase, Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in roots under Cd exposure. - Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were performed to investigate physiological mechanisms of selenium (Se) mitigation of Cd toxicity in rice. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd concentration in leaves, roots, and stems. Addition or pretreatment of 3 {mu}M Se in 50 {mu}M Cd solution significantly addressed Cd-induced growth inhibition, recovered root cell viability, and dramatically depressed O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. Supplemental Se counteracted 50 {mu}M Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidant enzymes, and uptake of nutrients, e.g. depressed Cd-induced increase in leaf and root superoxide dismutase (SOD) and leaf peroxidase (POD) activities, but elevated depressed catalase (CAT) activity; decreased Cd-induced high S and Cu concentrations in both leaves and roots. External Se counteracted the pattern of alterations in ATPase activities induced by Cd, e.g. significantly elevated the depressed root H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities, but decreased the ascent root Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATP activity. Results indicate that alleviated Cd toxicity by Se application is related to reduced Cd uptake and ROS accumulation, balanced nutrients, and increased H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in rice.

  17. Rice: The First Crop Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Scott A

    2016-12-01

    Rice was the first sequenced crop genome, paving the way for the sequencing of additional and more complicated crop genomes. The impact that the genome sequence made on rice genetics and breeding research was immediate, as evidence by citations and DNA marker use. The impact on other crop genomes was evident too, particularly for those within the grass family. As we celebrate 10 years since the completion of the rice genome sequence, we look forward to new empowering tool sets that will further revolutionize research in rice genetics and breeding and result in varieties that will continue to feed a growing population. PMID:27003180

  18. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  19. Small RNA in rice genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 朱小蓬; 钟兰; 陈润生

    2002-01-01

    Rice has many characteristics of a model plant. The recent completion of the draft of the rice genome represents an important advance in our knowledge of plant biology and also has an important contribution to the understanding of general genomic evolution. Besides the rice genome finishing map, the next urgent step for rice researchers is to annotate the genes and noncoding functional sequences. The recent work shows that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play significant roles in biological systems. We have explored all the known small RNAs (a kind of ncRNA) within rice genome and other six species sequences, including Arabidopsis, maize, yeast, worm, mouse and pig. As a result we find 160 out of 552 small RNAs (sRNAs) in database have homologs in 108 rice scaffolds, and almost all of them (99.41%) locate in intron regions of rice by gene predication. 19 sRNAs only appear in rice. More importantly, we find two special U14 sRNAs: one is located in a set of sRNA ZMU14SNR9(s) which only appears in three plants, 86% sequences of them can be compared as the same sequence in rice, Arabidopsis and maize; the other conserved sRNA XLHS7CU14 has a segment which appears in almost all these species from plants to animals. All these results indicate that sRNA do not have evident borderline between plants and animals.

  20. Amended final report on the safety assessment of Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Oil, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Oil, Rice Bran Acid,Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Wax, Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax, Oryza Sativa (rice)Bran Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Powder, Oryza Sativa (rice) Starch, Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein, Hydrolyzed Rice Extract, and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses the safety of cosmetic ingredients derived from rice, Oryza sativa. Oils, Fatty Acids, and Waxes: Rice Bran Oil functions in cosmetics as a conditioning agent--occlusive in 39 formulations across a wide range of product types. Rice Germ Oil is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in six formulations in only four product categories. Rice Bran Acid is described as a surfactant-cleansing agent, but was not in current use. Rice Bran Wax is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in eight formulations in five product categories. Industry did not directly report any use of Rice Bran Wax. Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax is a binder, skin-conditioning agent--occlusive, and viscosity-increasing agent--nonaqueous in 11 formulations in six product categories. Rice Bran Oil had an oral LD50 of > 5 g/kg in white rats and Rice Wax had an oral LD50 of > 24 g/kg in male mice. A three-generation oral dosing study reported no toxic or teratologic effects in albino rats fed 10% Rice Bran Oil compared to a control group fed Peanut Oil. Undiluted Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were not irritants in animal skin tests. Rice Bran Oil was not a sensitizer. Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, Rice Wax, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were negative in ocular toxicity assays. A mixture of Rice Bran Oil and Rice Germ Oil had a ultraviolet (UV) absorption maximum at 315 nm, but was not phototoxic in a dermal exposure assay. Rice Bran Oil was negative in an Ames assay, and a component, gamma-oryzanol, was negative in bacterial and mammalian mutagenicity assays. Rice oils, fatty acids, and waxes were, at most, mildly irritating in clinical studies. Extracts: Rice Bran Extract is used in six formulations in four product categories. Rice Extract is a hair-conditioning agent, but was not in current use. Hydrolyzed Rice Extract is used in four formulations and current concentration of use data were provided for other uses. Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, described

  1. Rice and Philippine Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Intal, Ponciano S.; Garcia, Marissa C.

    2008-01-01

    Rice has been a pivotal political commodity since the Commonwealth because of its importance as a staple food and calorie source for majority of the population, especially in the low-income groups, as well as a source of employment and income to a wide range of people that comprise the demand and supply chain. As a result, food security and price stability continue as twin priority objectives of the government regimes in the Philippines. Using a political economy perspective, this paper estab...

  2. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  3. Physiological and biochemical parameters for evaluation and clustering of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance at seedling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitahnun Chunthaburee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity tolerance levels and physiological changes were evaluated for twelve rice cultivars, including four white rice and eight black glutinous rice cultivars, during their seedling stage in response to salinity stress at 100 mM NaCl. All the rice cultivars evaluated showed an apparent decrease in growth characteristics and chlorophyll accumulation under salinity stress. By contrast an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase (POX activity and anthocyanins were observed for all cultivars. The K+/Na+ ratios evaluated for all rice cultivars were noted to be highly correlated with the salinity scores thus indicating that the K+/Na+ ratio serves as a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance in rice. Principal component analysis (PCA based on physiological salt tolerance indexes could clearly distinguish rice cultivars into 4 salt tolerance clusters. Noteworthy, in comparison to the salt-sensitive ones, rice cultivars that possessed higher degrees of salt tolerance displayed more enhanced activity of catalase (CAT, a smaller increase in anthocyanin, hydrogen peroxide and proline content but a smaller drop in the K+/Na+ ratio and chlorophyll accumulation.

  4. Morphological Variation of Six Pigmented Rice Local Varieties Grown in Organic Rice Field in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the third richest country for pigmented rice source such as Wojalaka black rice of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT, Manggarai of NTT, Toraja of South Sulawesi, Cempo Ireng of Central Java and red rice of Aek Sibundong (leading variety and Baubau of Southeast Sulawesi. However, the morphological character of pigmented rice in Indonesia is less reported. The objective of research was to compare the morphological variation of root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret and the colour of milk mature grain and mature grain by observing the vegetative and generative parts of six local rice varieties. Research had been conducted from February 2012 to February 2014 in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency. This study type was quasi-experiment with eleven replications. Group Random Design was used. The observation was given upon vegetative, reproductive and maturity phases as groups. Independent variables in this study were six rice varieties, while the dependent variable was morphological variation (root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The analysis of multivariate data in cluster and bip lot was carried out with PAST. The result of the study indicated that there was morphological difference on stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The colour of the stem in Aek Sibundong variety was purple, while that of other varieties was green. Toraja and Manggarai varieties had the highest height with 163-168 cm, followed by Cempo Ireng with 139 cm, Wojalaka and Baubau with 110-112 cm. Aek Sibundong Variety had the lowest height with 99 cm. Aek Sibundong and Wojalaka varieties had 6-7 internodes which were the greatest number of internode, while other varieties only had 4-5 internodes. Some varieties, such as Aek Sibundong, Wojalaka and Baubau had short and small leaf. The leaflet angle of Aek Sibundong and Baubau were 14o and it might be said as upright, while that of Wojalaka was 43o or moderate

  5. Hybrid Rice for Dry Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Luo Lijun, director of the Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, recently announced that Hanyou No. 3 - a genetically modified rice capable of producing high yields in dry areas - has been developed at the center.The hybrid yields 7,571 kilograms per hectare, about the same as ordinary rice.

  6. Fuels and chemicals from rice straw in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, R. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Ramadan, A.B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie]|[Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Cairo (Egypt). National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control

    2007-10-15

    In Egypt rice cultivation in the river Nile Delta produces large amounts of rice straw as residue. Assuming that about 20% were used for other purposes about 2.8 Mt were left on the fields for burning within a period of 30 days to get quickly rid of leftover debris. The resulting emissions give a significant contribution to the air pollution called the ''Black Cloud''. A suitable technology for the use of rice straw is an important contribution to reduce air pollution and gives a significant contribution to use biomass as renewable energy in Egypt. Based on that fact rice straw was studied as possible feedstock for the BIOLIQ process. The BIOLIQ process which is under development at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany) is a two-step process for the production of chemicals, fuels or electricity from lignocellulosic biomass with high ash content. In the first step the biomass is liquefied by fast pyrolysis. The pyrolysis char and the pyrolysis liquid are mixed to form a slurry. In the second step the pumpable slurry is used to produce syngas in a pressurised entrained flow gasifier. After gas cleaning and conditioning the syngas is used for the production of fuels, chemicals and electricity as by-product. In this work rice straw is studied as a possible feedstock for fast pyrolysis and slurry preparation. First the Egyptian rice straw was chemically characterised. Ultimate analysis of rice straw showed an elemental composition of 47,8% C, 6,0 %H and 45,3% O, (daf). According to the elemental composition the HHV was calculated to be about 18,1 MJ/Kg (Dulong) up to 20,5 MJ/kg (Ebeling). Based on the experimental HHV 15,3 MJ/kg (rice straw dry, 18% ash) the HHV on a moisture and ash free basis was calculated to be 18,7 MJ/kg. According to the literature the lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose contents of rice straw were about 12%, 28% and 60%, respectively. The rice straw was chopped and sieved (2 mm sieve) and most of the straw dust was

  7. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  8. Development of hybrid rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Longping; Wu Xiaojin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The success achieved in development of hybrid rice isa great breakthrough in rice breeding which provides aneffective way to markedly enhance rice yield on a largescale. China is the first country in the world to exploit riceheterosis commercially. Research on hybrid rice was initiatedin 1964.

  9. Effect of N level on rice yield, nitrogen accumulation and rice blast occurrence under rice intercropping system

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Li; Lu, Guoli; Cu, Yiou; Zhang, Chaochun; Zhang, Fusuo; Zheng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Plant N nutrition plays an important role on plant metabolisms and crop diseases resistance. Intercropping can increase grain yields greatly and provide an ecological approach to disease control. Field trails of using two rice varieties with different resistance to rice blast, Huangkenuo (HKN) and Hexi-41(HX41), was carried out to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer rate on rice yield, nitrogen accumulation and rice blast occurrence under rice mono-cropping and intercroppi...

  10. The Chinese Market and Thai Fragrant Jasmine Rice: Why does China, the world's largest rice producer, import rice from Thailand? (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the world experienced a sharp increase in rice prices due to destabilization of international rice demand and supply. Under these circumstances, rice exports from Thailand—the world's top rice exporter—and Thai rice export prices increased dramatically, but the amount of high-quality fragrant Jasmine rice exported to China decreased by some 30% over the previous year. This paper examines why, amidst increasing world rice prices and expansion of the Thai rice export market overall, th...

  11. Rice industrial economy and its development strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Xianguo

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the present situation of food grain and rice production in China,countering the beginning tendency to neglect rice production because of rice grain structural surplus and low market price after China's agriculture entering the new development stage,this paper putsforward the concept of rice industrial economy,explains its attribute,connotation,key factors,etc,forms the basic idea of developing the rice industrial economy,and suggests some strategic measures such as regionalized layout of rice production,etc.to develop the rice industrial economy.

  12. The Puzzle of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sang; Song Ge

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades. This is due, at least in part, to the complex evolutionary dynamics in rice cultivars and wild progenitors, particularly rapid adaptive differentiation and continuous gene flow within and between cultivated and wild rice. The long-standing controversy over single versus multiple and annual versus perennial origins of cultivated rice has been brought into shaper focus with the rapid accumulation of genetic and phylogenetic data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed ancient genomic differentiation between rice cultivars, suggesting that they were domesticated from divergent wild populations. However, the recently cloned domestication gene sh4, responsible for the reduction of grain shattering from wild to cultivated rice, seems to have originated only once. Herein, we propose two models to reconcile apparently conflicting evidence regarding rice domestication. The snow-balling model considers a single origin of cultivated rice. In this model, a core of critical domestication alleles was fixed in the founding cultivar and then acted to increase the genetic diversity of cultivars through hybridization with wild populations. The combination model considers multiple origins of cultivated rice. In this model, initial cultivars were domesticated from divergent wild populations and fixed different sets of domestication alleles. Subsequent crosses among these semi-domesticated cultivars resulted in the fixation of a similar set of critical domestication alleles in the contemporary cultivars. In both models, introgression has played an important role in rice domestication. Recent and future introgression of beneficial genes from the wild gene pool through conventional and molecular breeding programs can be viewed as the continuation of domestication.

  13. CURRENT STATUS AND POTENTIAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR RICE BLAST DISEASE IN THE RICE CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petenko A. I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae is a major disease affecting rice production grown in upland and wetland rice. Application of biotechnological approach to protect against the disease may be an alternative strategy to chemical control

  14. CURRENT STATUS AND POTENTIAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR RICE BLAST DISEASE IN THE RICE CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Petenko A. I.; Volkova S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae is a major disease affecting rice production grown in upland and wetland rice. Application of biotechnological approach to protect against the disease may be an alternative strategy to chemical control

  15. Competition Reform in the Philippine Rice Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Briones, Roehlano M.; Dela Pena, Beulah

    2015-01-01

    The rice sector is regulated by the National Food Authority, with imports under a statutory monopoly. Consistent with previous studies done on the rice supply chain, a rapid appraisal finds that the domestic paddy and rice supply chain is highly competitive. Entry into import business is however severely curtailed. Welfare analysis indicates that in 2013, if quantitative restrictions were eliminated and rice imports were allowed to freely enter the country, rice imports would have increased t...

  16. Rice in the Filipino Diet and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Filomeno V. Aguilar; Jr.,

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a basic question : How central is rice to the Filipino, what are its implications for understanding the way we approach and regard rice, and what do they indicate about Filipino culture? To answer this question, the paper focuses on the structural position of most Filipinos vis--vis rice. The paper argues that, at present, most Filipinos relate to rice as consumers rather than as producers of rice. From that perspective, the paper explores certain cultural practices that...

  17. Rice in the Filipino Diet and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Filomeno V. Aguilar

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a basic question: How central is rice to the Filipino, what are its implications for understanding the way we approach and regard rice, and what do they indicate about Filipino culture? To answer this question, the paper focuses on the structural position of most Filipinos vis-à-vis rice. The paper argues that, at present, most Filipinos relate to rice as consumers rather than as producers of rice. From that perspective, the paper explores certain cultural practices that...

  18. Price relations between international rice markets

    OpenAIRE

    John, Adam

    2014-01-01

    International rice markets are seen as volatile due to the thin nature of the market which is believed to be exacerbated by a low level of substitution between major rice export markets. In other words, this perceived lack of price transmission amongst international rice markets is believed to further thin out an already thin world rice market. The paper tests for price transmission between five major rice exporting markets representing Asia and the Americas over the past decade. It uses a ve...

  19. Rice-Map: a new-generation rice genome browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jingchu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concurrent release of rice genome sequences for two subspecies (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica facilitates rice studies at the whole genome level. Since the advent of high-throughput analysis, huge amounts of functional genomics data have been delivered rapidly, making an integrated online genome browser indispensable for scientists to visualize and analyze these data. Based on next-generation web technologies and high-throughput experimental data, we have developed Rice-Map, a novel genome browser for researchers to navigate, analyze and annotate rice genome interactively. Description More than one hundred annotation tracks (81 for japonica and 82 for indica have been compiled and loaded into Rice-Map. These pre-computed annotations cover gene models, transcript evidences, expression profiling, epigenetic modifications, inter-species and intra-species homologies, genetic markers and other genomic features. In addition to these pre-computed tracks, registered users can interactively add comments and research notes to Rice-Map as User-Defined Annotation entries. By smoothly scrolling, dragging and zooming, users can browse various genomic features simultaneously at multiple scales. On-the-fly analysis for selected entries could be performed through dedicated bioinformatic analysis platforms such as WebLab and Galaxy. Furthermore, a BioMart-powered data warehouse "Rice Mart" is offered for advanced users to fetch bulk datasets based on complex criteria. Conclusions Rice-Map delivers abundant up-to-date japonica and indica annotations, providing a valuable resource for both computational and bench biologists. Rice-Map is publicly accessible at http://www.ricemap.org/, with all data available for free downloading.

  20. Fate of 14C-gamma-HCH in rice and its processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice plants were treated at the rate of 2.5 kg AI/ha with 10% HCH dust containing 14C-gamma-HCH. At harvest, the terminal residues (gamma-HCH) were 0.026 mg/kg and 0.042 mg/kg in rice grain and husk, respectively. Rice bran contained 0.187 mg/kg of which 0.129 mg/kg was present in oil. In a laboratory experiment, crude rice bran oil was fortified with 14C-gamma-HCH at 0.1 mg/kg and the fate of the pesticide was followed in the oil during simulated commercial refining procedures. While degumming, dewaxing, alkali treatment and bleaching had not effect, deodorization alone removed 99.5% of 14C-residues from the oil. The rice-black gram dough used for preparing the local rice cake was fortified with 14C-gamma-HCH (1 mg/kg) and the residues were monitored through the fermentation and cooking processes. It was found that there was no loss of residues during fermentation of the dough, while steaming removed 24% of the 14C-residue. (author). (Abstract only)

  1. Response of rice yields in Ghana: some prescriptions for future rice policy

    OpenAIRE

    Boansi, David

    2013-01-01

    With local rice production lagging well behind demand as a result of low productivity of farmers’ fields, this study analyzed the response of rice yields in Ghana to major internal and external factors which have direct and indirect effects on production and to producers. Yield of rice was found to increase with producer price of rice, irrigated area, labor availability and world price of rice to producer price of rice ratio. It however decreases with increases in harvested area and price of ...

  2. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  3. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  4. Absorption and Cooked Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinJialianetal

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Using glucono-8-1actone, sodiumcyclodextrin and proteinase as mainrice under different conditions and theadditivepolyphosphate, emulsifier, 13-the water-absorbing quality ofmethods to improve the edible quality ofcooked rice are systematically investigated. The experimental result indicatesthat the water-absorbing ability of rice at room temperature can be increasedsignificantly by soaking it in a 1:2 mixture of sodium polyphosphate andglucono-8-1actone. The cooked rice quality can be apparently improved bysoaking in a mixture of sodium polyphosphate, glucono-8-1actone, emulsifier, 13-cyclodextrin and protease.

  5. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  6. Effect of leaching with 5–6 N H2SO4 on thermal kinetics of rice husk during pure silica recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk is a potential source for renewable energy and silica. To extract the maximum amount of silica, usually the rice husk is treated with strong acids that burn the organic part leaving behind a black residue. In this research, sulfuric acid is used as an oxidizing agent. Efforts are focused to find out more about the behavior of acid-treated rice husk by using thermal exposure, and results are compared with results for raw rice husk which is thermally exposed but not acid treated. Reaction ratio of rice husk combustion and energy of activation were calculated using the thermogravimetric data. Acid treatment was found influential in initiating degradation earlier compared to raw husk and an overall increase in value of activation energy was observed when heating rate was increased.

  7. Effect of leaching with 5–6 N H2SO4 on thermal kinetics of rice husk during pure silica recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad; Ul Haq, Ehsan; Abdul Karim, Muhammad R.; Ahmed, Sajjad; Ibrahim, Ather; Ahmad, Waheed; Baig, Waqas M.

    2015-01-01

    Rice husk is a potential source for renewable energy and silica. To extract the maximum amount of silica, usually the rice husk is treated with strong acids that burn the organic part leaving behind a black residue. In this research, sulfuric acid is used as an oxidizing agent. Efforts are focused to find out more about the behavior of acid-treated rice husk by using thermal exposure, and results are compared with results for raw rice husk which is thermally exposed but not acid treated. Reaction ratio of rice husk combustion and energy of activation were calculated using the thermogravimetric data. Acid treatment was found influential in initiating degradation earlier compared to raw husk and an overall increase in value of activation energy was observed when heating rate was increased. PMID:26843969

  8. Effect of leaching with 5-6 N H2SO4 on thermal kinetics of rice husk during pure silica recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad; Ul Haq, Ehsan; Abdul Karim, Muhammad R; Ahmed, Sajjad; Ibrahim, Ather; Ahmad, Waheed; Baig, Waqas M

    2016-01-01

    Rice husk is a potential source for renewable energy and silica. To extract the maximum amount of silica, usually the rice husk is treated with strong acids that burn the organic part leaving behind a black residue. In this research, sulfuric acid is used as an oxidizing agent. Efforts are focused to find out more about the behavior of acid-treated rice husk by using thermal exposure, and results are compared with results for raw rice husk which is thermally exposed but not acid treated. Reaction ratio of rice husk combustion and energy of activation were calculated using the thermogravimetric data. Acid treatment was found influential in initiating degradation earlier compared to raw husk and an overall increase in value of activation energy was observed when heating rate was increased. PMID:26843969

  9. The Use of Rice Varietal Diversity for Rice Blast Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU You-yong; LI Zuo-shen; LU Bao-rong; CHEN Hai-ru; FAN Jing-hua; WANG Yun-yue; LI Yan; FAN Jin-xiang; YANG Shi-sheng; MA Guan-liang; CHEN Jian-bin

    2003-01-01

    Field experiments of mixed- (intercropping) and pure-planting (monoculture) of four rice vari-eties, representing improved hybrid varieties (Shanyou63 and Shanyou22) and high-quality traditional varie-ties (Huangkenuo and Zigu) from Yunnan Province, were conducted based on their differences in genetic back-ground and agro-economical characteristics. The results demonstrated that the mixed-planting of the hybridrice and high-quality traditional rice varieties had a significantly greater effect on controlling rice blast diseasethan the monocuiture of these varieties, particularly the traditional ones. It is evident for the highly suscepti-ble traditional varieties in mixed-planting to achieve disease control, with significant decreases in blast inci-dences and severity indexes. The blast control efficiency reached up to 83 - 98 % under such planting model.This suggests that an appropriate mixed-planting of rice varieties with diverse genetic background and agro-e-conomical characteristics is an effective approach for rice blast control. In addition, resistance of the tradi-tional rice varieties to lodging was considerably increased in the plots with mixed-planting, compared with theplots with monoculture. The average rate of grain-yield increase ranged from 6.5 to 9.7 % in the plots withmixed-planting.

  10. Rice Reoviruses in Insect Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Taiyun; Li, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Rice reoviruses, transmitted by leafhopper or planthopper vectors in a persistent propagative manner, seriously threaten the stability of rice production in Asia. Understanding the mechanisms that enable viral transmission by insect vectors is a key to controlling these viral diseases. This review describes current understanding of replication cycles of rice reoviruses in vector cell lines, transmission barriers, and molecular determinants of vector competence and persistent infection. Despite recent breakthroughs, such as the discoveries of actin-based tubule motility exploited by viruses to overcome transmission barriers and mutually beneficial relationships between viruses and bacterial symbionts, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of transmission mechanisms. Advances in genome sequencing, reverse genetics systems, and molecular technologies will help to address these problems. Investigating the multiple interaction systems among the virus, insect vector, insect symbiont, and plant during natural infection in the field is a central topic for future research on rice reoviruses. PMID:27296147

  11. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  12. Gibberellin Signal Transduction in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-Min Fan; Xiaoyan Feng; Yu Wang; Xing Wang Deng

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, significant knowledge has accumulated regarding gibberellin (GA) signal transduction in rice as a result of studies using multiple approaches, particularly molecular genetics. The present review highlights the recent developments in the identification of GA signaling pathway components, the discovery of GA-induced destruction of GA signaling represser (DELLA protein), and the possible mechanism underlying the regulation of GA-responsive gene expression in rice.

  13. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  14. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  15. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  16. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei-long; ZHANG Yu-ping; ZHANG Qian-yuan; ZHU De-feng; CHEN Qi

    2011-01-01

    The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant,however,is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process.Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages.Firstly,the simulations of geometrical shape,the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted.Then,by using an improved model for bending deformation,the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated,and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created.Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures,and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures.Finally,the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved.The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective,and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  17. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ..., Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice standards were last revised in 1993 (58 FR 68015) and appear... Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY... Administration (GIPSA) is reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown...

  18. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  19. Soil tillage, rice straw and flooded irrigated rice yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Nelson Beutler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of management systems and straw in flooded irrigated rice yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three experiments and, 10 replications in experiment 1 and 2 and, 6 replications in experiment 3. The experiments were: E1 – no-till system (E1PD and conventional system with two harrowings at 0.0–0.07 m layer and leveling with remaplam (E1PC, after three years of sowing rice, after fallow of rice tillage, with sowing of rye grass in winter and grazing; E2 – no-till system (E2PD and conventional system after native field (E2PC; E3 – no-till without straw on soil surface (E30P, current straw on soil surface of 3,726 kg ha-1 (E31P, two times current straw of 7,452 kg ha-1 (E32P and three times current straw of 11,178 kg ha-1 (E33P. In soil, were evaluated the average geometric diameter of aggregates, soil bulk density, soil porosity, macro and microporosity, in 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m layer. In harvest were evaluated the panicles number in 0,25 m2 area, number of filled, empty an total grains in 10 panicles, mass of one thousand seeds and rice grains yield in 2 m2. The conventional system presented greater macroporosity and total porosity, compared with no-till system, however, does not result in differences in production components and rice grains yield. Soil tillage in no-till, with rice straw on soil surface up to 11,178 kg ha-1, before sowing, not reduces flooded irrigated rice grains yield.

  20. Genetic diversity of rice sheath blight isolates (Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA) from different rice cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 1 IA, the non specific, soil borne, and plant casual agent of rice sheath blight, occurring world widely in rice fields, has become a major disease to rice. In this study,relationships among R. solani AG 1 IA isolates, collected from different rice cultivars were reported.

  1. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  2. IMPLICATIONS OF RICE BIOTECHNOLOGY ON OPTIMAL RICE CROP ROTATION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Annou, Mamane Malam; Thomsen, Michael R.; Hansen, James M.; Wailes, Eric J.; Cramer, Gail L.

    2001-01-01

    Availability of new herbicide-resistant biotech rice varieties may affect traditional rice rotation practices to control red rice and enhance yields. This research evaluates the adoption of biotech rice and its effects on the current practice of crop rotation in the Mississippi River Delta region. The optimal utilization of biotech rice rotation is analyzed using a nonlinear mathematical programming model with mixed integers. Optimal rotation was found to be sensitive to the technology fee, r...

  3. Perspective Rice 2020:A Call For An I nternational Coordinated Effort In Rice Fu nctional Genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifa Zhang; Jiayang Li; Yongbiao Xue; Bin Han; Xing Wang Deng

    2008-01-01

    We describe a call for an international coordinated effort in rice functional genomics in the form of a project named RICE2020.The mission of the project will be:to determine the function of every gene in the rice genome by the year 2020,to identify functional diversity of alleles for agriculturally useful genes from the primary gene pool of rice,and to apply the findings of functional genomics research to rice genetic improvement.

  4. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by ...

  5. Stuies on histological changing rice during aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian haifeng; Houyiming; Yao huiyuan

    2001-01-01

    The changing of rice endosperm cell during aging was inspected and analyzed by tissue section method in this paper, which was considered as the main causation of the descending of the eating quality of aged rice. A new effective method of improving the eating quality of aged rice was also carried out through enzymatic treatment which was based on the changing of histological structure of aged rice.

  6. The Volatility of Thai Rice Price

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. Baharom; Radam, Alias; Habibullah, M.S.; Hirnissa, M.T

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the varying volatility of world rice price for the period 1961 to 2008 using monthly data. The paper provides estimates of two GARCH models, namely, GARCH and EGARCH which were used to capture the stochastic variation and asymmetries in the world rice price. The results indicate that EGARCH model gives better estimate of the volatility of world rice price. Furthermore the EGARCH model was able to describe the asymmetric volatility in the world price of rice...

  7. IRRI/ADB Project on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Jiming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hybrid rice technology has made a significant progress in recent years in more than twenty rice-growing countries. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided funds for International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to support the project of Sustaining Food Security in Asia through Development of Hybrid Rice Technology 2002-2004 mainly practiced in nine countries, such as Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

  8. Development and validation of an alternative to conventional pretreatment methods for residue analysis of butachlor in water, soil, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaying; Jiang, Wenqing; Liu, Fengmao; Zhao, Huiyu; Wang, Suli; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and effective alternative analytical method for residues of butachlor in water, soil, and rice was established. The operating variables affecting performance of this method, including different extraction conditions and cleanup adsorbents, were evaluated. The determination of butachlor residues in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice was performed using GC/MS after extraction with n-hexane and cleanup with graphite carbon black. The average recoveries ranged from 81.5 to 102.7%, with RSDs of 0.6-7.7% for all of the matrixes investigated. The limits of quantitation were 0.05 mg/kg in water and rice plant, and 0.01 mg/kg in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice. A comparison among this proposed method, the conventional liquid-liquid extraction, the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe method, and Soxhlet extraction indicated that this method was more suitable for analyzing butachlor in rice samples. The further validation of the proposed method was carried out by Soxhlet extraction for the determination of butachlor residues in the husked rice samples, and the residue results showed there was no obvious difference obtained from these two methods. Samples from a rice field were found to contain butachlor residues below the maximum residue limits set by China (0.5 mg/kg) and Japan (0.1 mg/kg). The proposed method has a strong potential for application in routine screening and processing of large numbers of samples. This study developed a more effective alternative to the conventional analytical methods for analyzing butachlor residues in various matrixes.

  9. The revisited levels of free and bound phenolics in rice: Effects of the extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gabriela Hörnke; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Vivian, Patrícia Gomes; Monks, Jander Luis Fernandes; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Vanier, Nathan Levien; de Oliveira, Maurício

    2016-10-01

    The effects of the type of solvolytic solution and number of extraction steps on the recovery of free phenolics, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from different rice samples were evaluated. Moreover, bound phenolic acids were determined as a function of enzymatic and/or alkaline hydrolysis treatment of the rice residue obtained after the extraction of free phenolics. The Acetone/Water (70:30 v/v) was the most effective solvolytic solution for extracting free phenolics from pigmented rice, as well as anthocyanins from black and wild rice, and proanthocyanidins from red rice. The application of three extraction steps increased the recovery of free phenolics up to 10%. The adoption of an enzymatic treatment, with α-amylase in order to reduce the paste viscosity of the residue, increased the extractability of bound phenolics. α-Amylase at 37°C during 15min followed by an alkaline hydrolysis at 37°C was the best treatment for the recovery of bound phenolics. PMID:27132831

  10. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri;

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, stri...

  11. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenZhengxing; YaoHuiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it.The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utillize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  12. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhengxing; Yao Huiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it .The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utilize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  13. Farmers acquire skills in paddy rice cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Huye- A joint initiative that brings Rwanda and China to deepen technology transfer into the economy within agriculture has embarked on training rice farmers for the purposes of boosting rice production. China-Rwanda Agriculture Technology Demonstration Center (RATDC) has trained 43 rice farmers in agricultural technology as a way of helping them improve their productivity.

  14. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jinsheng; Yao Huiyuan; Zhang Hui

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer, whice is in initial stage at home presently, was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods .The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  15. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJinsheng; YaoHuiyuan; 等

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer,whice is in initial stage at home presently,was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods.The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  16. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  17. Retative Factovs for Rice Crackle Duing Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jihuan

    2001-01-01

    The crackle of rice emerges frequently during drying from heating power. Various factors affecting rice crackle were analysed and discussed. It showed that the effective way to reduce the rice drying crackle should be proper drying temperature and speed as well as rational drying technology.

  18. Relative Factors for Rice Crackle During Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJihuan

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: The crackle of rice emerges frequently during drying from heatingpower. Various factors affecting rice crackle were analysed and discussed. Itshowed that the effective way to reduce the rice drying crackle should beproper drying temperature and speed as well as rational drying technology.

  19. STRUCTURE AND CONDUCT OF THE WORLD RICE MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hyunsoo; Kennedy, P. Lynn; Hilbun, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the world rice market through a Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) framework utilizing annual data from 1970 to 2007. Since World War Two, the world rice market has been very unstable, with rice prices experiencing volatile swings in both rice price and rice availability. Therefore, a SCP framework can provide crucial insight into the world rice market for policy makers. Also, this paper describes the effects of total production, export rice price, and...

  20. Rice bran proteins: properties and food uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, J

    1996-07-01

    Rice bran, a good source of protein and fat, is at present underutilized as a food material. The potential of producing rice bran at the global level is 27.3 million t. The presence of enzyme lipase in rice bran causes rapid deterioration of oil to free fatty acids and glycerol. Various stabilization techniques involving heat treatment, low-temperature storage, chemical treatment, control of relative humidity during storage, and simultaneous milling and extraction were evolved to inactivate lipase. Multiple forms of rice bran lipase have been identified. Fractional classification of proteins reveals a high percentage of albumins and globulins. Proteins can be extracted from full-fat or defatted rice bran by alkaline extraction and acid or heat precipitation. Extraction procedures influence the protein content of concentrates, which ranged from 19.4 to 76.1% in concentrates from full-fat rice bran and 17.5 to 85.0% in concentrates from defatted rice bran. The PER of rice bran ranges from 1.59 to 2.04 and that of protein concentrates from 1.99 to 2.19. Available lysine contents of protein concentrates ranged from 54 to 58.8%. The essential amino acid profiles of protein concentrates indicate that threonine and isoleucine are limiting amino acids. Various functional properties of rice bran protein concentrates have also been investigated that are known to be influenced by drying technique and stabilization treatment of rice bran. Rice bran has been used in food as full-fat rice bran, defatted rice bran, and in the form of rice bran oil and protein concentrates. Full-fat and defatted rice bran have been used in bakery products, breakfast cereals, wafers, as a protein supplement, binder ingredients for meats and sausages, and as a beverage base. Incorporation of protein concentrates have been studied in bread, beverages, confections, and weaning foods. PMID:8841730

  1. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  2. Utilization Of Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Nagrale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and / or by gasification. About 20 million tones of Rice Husk Ash (RHA is produced annually. This RHA is a great environment threat causing damage to the land and the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being thought of for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA. RHA can be used as a replacement for concrete (15 to 25%.This paper evaluates how different contents of Rice Husk Ash added to concrete may influence its physical and mechanical properties. Sample Cubes were tested with different percentage of RHA and different w/c ratio, replacing in mass the cement. Properties like Compressive strength, Water absorption and Slump retention were evaluated.

  3. Genetic analysis of rice allelopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A double haploid population derived from anther culture of ZYQ8/JX17, a typical indica and japonica hybrid, was used in this study. The inhibited effect of water-soluble extract of 123 DH pure lines leaves on the lettuce roots growth was investigated, and the QTLs analysis of rice allelopathy was carried out. Totally, four QTLs related to rice allelopathy were detected, and they were on chromosomes 3, 9, 10 and 12, respectively. The LOD scores were 3.40, 2.68. 2.75 and 3.08, respectively. Among them, additive effects of the QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 10 were 1.65 and 1.43, on chromosomes 9 and 12 were ?1.44 and ?1.58, respectively. Allelopathy characteristics of another three common rice varieties were also studied.

  4. FEASIBILITY OF EXPORT OF RICE BY BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Nurun Nabi; Aziz, Abdul

    1992-01-01

    The paper has examined the feasibility of rice export as a dual trade with the import of wheat. It has indicated that the need for such a trade arises from the likely surplus of rice that might be generated in the future due to higher growth of production of rice than its consumption, and deficit of wheat from the stagnancy of production against higher growth rate of its consumption. At the current self sufficiency of rice production, the export of rice is desirable from two stand points: fir...

  5. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewwongwal, Anochar; Kongjaimun, Alisa; Somta, Prakit; Chankaew, Sompong; Yimram, Tarikar; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. The analyses also revealed that cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from West Asia. Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean.

  6. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  7. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  8. Incorporating rice residues into paddy soils affects methylmercury accumulation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huike; Zhong, Huan; Wu, Jialu

    2016-06-01

    Paddy fields are characterized by frequent organic input (e.g., fertilization and rice residue amendment), which may affect mercury biogeochemistry and bioaccumulation. To explore potential effects of rice residue amendment on methylmercury (MMHg) accumulation in rice, a mercury-contaminated paddy soil was amended with rice root (RR), rice straw (RS) or composted rice straw (CS), and planted with rice. Incorporating RS or CS increased grain MMHg concentration by 14% or 11%. The observed increases could be attributed to the elevated porewater MMHg levels and thus enhanced MMHg uptake by plants, as well as increased MMHg translocation to grain within plants. Our results indicated for the first time that rice residue amendment could significantly affect MMHg accumulation in rice grain, which should be considered in risk assessment of MMHg in contaminated areas. PMID:26974480

  9. Rice price instability in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mili, Jobaida Yeasmin

    2012-01-01

    In the 2000s, the global attention was concentrated at the food price stability because of the rapid increase in cereal and other food prices. This rapid increase of food price has become a burden for the developing countries as well as for Bangladesh where households spend a large share of their income on food. Among the cereals rice has a strategic importance because it is the central to food security and economic and political stability of the country. Fluctuation in rice prices is not rar...

  10. Rice-Traditional Medicinal Plant in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umadevi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is rich in genetic diversity, with thousands of varieties grown throughout the world. Rice cultivation is the principal activity and source of income for about 100 million households in Asia and Africa. Rice has potential in a wide range of food categories. Besides having nutritional and medicinal benefits, the by-products of rice are equally important and beneficial. By-products from growing rice create many valuable and worthwhile products. The unedible parts, that are discarded through the milling process, and the edible part could be transformed into some of the following suggested products. Rice can be used to treat skin conditions. The rice is boiled, drained and allowed to cool and mashed. The rice is made into a paste or moulded into balls and these can be applied to boils, sores, swellings and skin blemishes. Other herbs are sometimes added to the rice balls to increase their medicinal effects. Sticky glutinous rice is often taken to treat stomach upsets, heart-burn and indigestion. Extracts from brown rice have been used to treat breast and stomach cancer and warts. They have also been used to treat indigestion, nausea and diarrhoea.

  11. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  12. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  13. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  14. Black Nuns as Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Theresa A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the contributions of Black Roman Catholic nuns to Black education in the United States since the early 1800s. Also shows that, despite declining membership, the three existing religious orders continue to be active in Black education and social change. (GC)

  15. Marketing for Black Alums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  16. Analysis on Rice Production and International Trade in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Liu-qing; JIANG Yun-zhu; LU Li-xiang; LIN Hai; PANG Qian-lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces Vietnam’s climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.%This paper introduces Vietnam's climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.

  17. Insights into molecular mechanism of blast resistance in weedy rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy rice is a serious pest in direct-seeded rice fields in the U.S. and worldwide. Under suitable conditions, weedy rice can reduce crop yields up to 70%. However, weedy rice may carry novel disease resistance genes. Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major disease wo...

  18. The genetics analysis of rice mutant R917 with resistance to rice blast (pyricularia oryza)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice mutant R917 with resistance to rice blast was selected by induced mutation with irradiation. The F2 segregation of R917/NF6, XS11, XS861 crosses with resistance to rice blast ZB15, ZC13, ZE3 showed that the rice blast resistance is controlled by one dominant gene. The identification of the disease resistance for the progenies of R917 crosses with XS11, XS861 showed that R917 could be used as a good material for resistance to rice blast in rice breeding

  19. Trace Element Management in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abin Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements (TEs are vital for the operation of metabolic pathways that promote growth and structural integrity. Paddy soils are often prone to TE limitation due to intensive cultivation and irrigation practices. Apart from this, rice paddies are potentially contaminated with transition metals such as Cd, which are often referred to as toxic TEs. Deficiency of TEs in the soil not only delays plant growth but also causes exposure of plant roots to toxic TEs. Fine-tuning of nutrient cycling in the rice field is a practical solution to cope with TEs deficiency. Adjustment of soil physicochemical properties, biological process such as microbial activities, and fertilization helps to control TEs mobilization in soil. Modifications in root architecture, metal transporters activity, and physiological processes are also promising approaches to enhance TEs accumulation in grains. Through genetic manipulation, these modifications help to increase TE mining capacity of rice plants as well as transport and trafficking of TEs into the grains. The present review summarizes that regulation of TE mobilization in soil, and the genetic improvement of TE acquisition traits help to boost essential TE content in rice grain.

  20. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  1. RiceDB: A Web-Based Integrated Database for Annotating Rice Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Fei; SHI Qing-yun; CHEN Ming; WU Ping

    2007-01-01

    RiceDB, a web-based integrated database to annotate rice microarray in various biological contexts was developed. It is composed of eight modules. RiceMap module archives the process of Affymetrix probe sets mapping to different databases about rice, and aims to the genes represented by a microarray set by retrieving annotation information via the identifier or accession number of every database; RiceGO module indicates the association between a microarray set and gene ontology (GO) categories; RiceKO module is used to annotate a microarray set based on the KEGG biochemical pathways; RiceDO module indicates the information of domain associated with a microarray set; RiceUP module is used to obtain promoter sequences for all genes represented by a microarray set; RiceMR module lists potential microRNA which regulated the genes represented by a microarray set; RiceCD and RiceGF are used to annotate the genes represented by a microarray set in the context of chromosome distribution and rice paralogous family distribution. The results of automatic annotation are mostly consistent with manual annotation. Biological interpretation of the microarray data is quickened by the help of RiceDB.

  2. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  3. Stuffed Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Arbona, A; Carot, J; Mas, L; Massó, J; Stela, J

    1998-01-01

    Initial data corresponding to spacetimes containing black holes are considered in the time symmetric case. The solutions are obtained by matching across the apparent horizon different, conformally flat, spatial metrics. The exterior metric is the vacuum solution obtained by the well known conformal imaging method. The interior metric for every black hole is regular everywhere and corresponds to a positive energy density. The resulting matched solutions cover then the whole initial (Cauchy) hypersurface, without any singularity, and can be useful for numerical applications. The simpler cases of one black hole (Schwarzschild data) or two identical black holes (Misner data) are explicitly solved. A procedure for extending this construction to the multiple black hole case is also given, and it is shown to work for all time symmetric vacuum solutions obtained by the conformal imaging method. The numerical evolution of one such 'stuffed' black hole is compared with that of a pure vacuum or 'plain' black hole in the...

  4. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  5. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  6. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  7. Review and prospect of transgenic rice research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao; LIN YongJun; ZHANG QiFa

    2009-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops as the staple food for more than half of the world's population.Rice improvement has achieved remarkable success in the past half-century,with the yield doubled in most parts of the world and even tripled in certain regions,which has contributed greatly to food security globally.Rapid population growth and economic development pose a constantly increased food requirement.However,rice yield has been hovering in the past decade,which is mainly caused by the absence of novel breeding technologies,reduction of genetic diversity of rice cultivars,and serious yield loss due to increasingly severe occurrences of insects,diseases,and abiotic stresses.To address these challenges,Chinese scientists proposed a novel rice breeding goal of developing Green Super Rice to improve rice varieties and realize the sustainable development of agriculture,by focusing on the following 5 classes of traits:insect and disease resistance,drought-tolerance,nutrient-use efficiency,quality and yield potential.As a modern breeding approach,transgenic strategy will play an important role in realizing the goal of Green Super Rice.Presently,many transgenic studies of rice have been conducted,and most of target traits are consistent with the goal of Green Super Rice.In this paper,we firstly review technical advances of rice transformation,and then outline the main progress in transgenic rice research with respect to the most important traits:insect and disease-resistance,drought-tolerance,nutrient-use efficiency,quality,yield potential and herbicide-tolerance.The prospects of developing transgenic rice are also discussed.

  8. International rice trade and security stocks: Prospects for an expanded Asian international rice reserve:

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Childs, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the recent experience with international rice reserves in Asia and re-examines the roles of national stocks and international trade in stabilizing domestic rice prices and availability in importing countries.

  9. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. directsowing rice 10-20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting), ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting), PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting), and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting), were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002), there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003). Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments. The rice in

  10. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within ± 10% of observed flowering duration and ± 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations

  11. Partial Reform of World Rice Trade: Implications for the U.S. Rice Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, Stephen L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences for the United States of a partial reform of world rice trade. It is argued that likely trade reform would occur in the japonica rice producing countries of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the European Community. Multilateral rice trade liberalization would have strong effects for medium grain rice in the United States. The strength of these effects might not be felt for a couple of years after the liberalization has begun because of minimal Japanese impor...

  12. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, A.; Gore, J; Musser, F.; Cook, D; Catchot, A.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities ...

  13. Commercialization of transgenic rice in China: potential environmental biosafety issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Rong Lu; Qiang Fu; Zhicheng Shen

    2008-01-01

    The development and commercialization of transgenic rice with novel traits in China may offer more opportunities for promoting rice productivity. Owing to the significance of rice as a major food crop in China, the enhancement of rice production is important for national food security. If left unaddressed, the potential biosafety concerns over the extensive release and commercial cultivation of transgenic rice may hamper the development and application of this technology in rice improvement. ...

  14. Uptake of trace element by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of trace element in rice paddy field ecosystem is of great significance as rice is a staple food of India particularly in Meghalaya. In general, cultivating system is an important factor for the plant uptake of trace element from soil. Rice paddy fields have a unique ecosystem from Radioecology point of view. Rice is usually planted under flood conditions in order to provide the best environment for its growth. In the present study, rice grain samples and surface paddy soil samples were collected from the fields to obtain Transfer Factor under equilibrium condition in the field existing around Uranium mineralization zone. Obtaining local soil to rice uptake is important because it depends on climate and soil properties. The objective of the present study is to generate the transfer parameter in the paddy field ecosystem to predict the behaviour of trace elements in the paddy located in the area adjoining the uranium mines in Meghalaya. (author)

  15. Obtaining transgenic rice resistant to rice fungal blast disease by controlled cell death strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Shengji; GU Hongya; QU Lijia; CHEN Zhangliang

    2003-01-01

    The strategy of the two-component system, composed of Barnase and Barstar which encode RNase and a specific inhibitor to the RNase respectively, is adopted to obtain transgenic rice resistant to rice fungal blast disease. In this study, two chimeric promoters, induced by rice blast fungus pathogen (Magnaporthe grisea), are fused with Barnase respectively to construct two plant expression vectors, pWBNBS and pPBNBS together with the Barstar driven by CaMV 35S promoter. The resistance of the transgenic rice lines to rice blast fungus disease and rice blight disease are evaluated. The results show that (1) the expression of Barnase is induced in rice leaves when inoculated with the spores of Magnaporthe grisea; (2) the induced expression level of Barnase surpasses the level of Barstar, which elicits a similar hypersensitive response (HR) in the leaves, and the transgenic plant shows high resistance to the rice fungal blast disease; and (3) transgenic rice plants also show obvious resistance to rice bacterial blight disease. Taken together, these results suggest that the transgenic rice plants harboring this two-component system acquire relatively broad spectrum resistance against pathogens, especially high resistance to rice fungal pathogen.

  16. Soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is the essential component of the diet for the majority of the population of India. However, detailed studies aimed at evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (Fv) for rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant for the field studies. For a comparative study of radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 210Pb varied in the range <1.2 x10-2 to 8.1 x 10-1 with a mean of 1.4 x 10-1. The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (Fr) was 0.03 for 210Pb. Using the processing retention factors the soil to white rice transfer factor was estimated and found to have the mean value of 4.2 x 10-3. The study has shown that the transfer of 210Pb was retained in the root and its transfer to above ground organs of rice plant is significantly lower. (author)

  17. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  18. Relative competitive ability of rice with strawhull and blackhull red rice biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed interference depends largely upon the species composition of the weed community and an ability to compete with the cultured crop. Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. The focus of this study was to evaluate the competitive ability of rice against common, genetically ...

  19. Conservation and utilization of rice genetic resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Rice genetic resources presents variably in China. There are land races and wild species. cultivated lowland rice and upland rice, indica (Hsien) and japonica (Keng) riee. early, middle, and late rice as well as glutinous and non-glutinous rice. Up to February 2000, a total of 76, 646 rice accessions were catalogued,and 67. 444 base accessions were stored in the National Crop Gene Bank in the Institute of Crop Genetic Resources (ICGR) of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (Table 1). About 35,000 rice duplicates were stored in China National Rice Research Institute(CNRRI), Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. China.

  20. Consumers' Preference of Rice Brands in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sounghun; Son, Eun-Young; Park, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    This paper conducts several analyses to discuss about consumers' preference of rice brands and suggest a way to reduce the number that currently stands at about 1,700 in the Korean market. With data collected from 358 survey respondents, a conjoint analysis was conducted to identify consumers' preferences of Korean rice in regard to such aspects as producing area, brand, category, and price. We particularly focused on analyzing the consumers' preference of rice brands, with some scenarios to ...

  1. Rice market integration in southern Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yetty Oktarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates rice market integration among five provinces in southern Sumatra using data from monthly retail rice markets during 2004-2009. The degree of integration was measured across provinces using vector error correction model. Result revealed that there is spatial market integration in southern Sumatra. Province of Bangka Belitung can make price adjustment more quickly compared to others provinces. In the long run period, rice price in Jambi province, Lampung province, and Ba...

  2. Medicinal and nutritional importance of rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice-bran is produced from the outer layer of brown rice and is stabilized through steam-heating. The rice-bran and its products are safe for human and animal consumption. The microbiological safety and rigorous quality-control practices merits its use as nutritional and dietary supplement for overall health-maintenance and as a part of a healthy diet and life-style, as it contributes to the reduction of certain diseases and health-related conditions. Stabilized rice-barn contain 15% of high nutritional- value protein, 20% of high-quality fat with Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, and nutritional dietary fiber. In addition to several phytonutrients, rice-bran contains vitamins and minerals, while over 100 potent antioxidants have been identified to date. Several scientific papers have reported the analysis and bioavailibility of rice-bran nutrients. Various chemical studies demonstrated the biological effects of the nutrients found in rice-bran. So far, more than 250 scientific publications are available on rice-bran, establishing the striking medicinal properties of rice-bran products. The oil-fraction of rice-bran has concentrated all tire fat-soluble phytonutrient in it, making itself an excellent health-promoting edible oil, as well as message oil The fiber-fraction of rice-bran has a profound effect on the gastrointestinal health, and improves bowel function. Rice-bran fiber along with phytonutrients was found to reduce cholesterol and lipid levels and maintain cardiovascular function. It has beneficial effect on tire kidney and urinary tract health and is helpful in weight-management and fiber replacement diets. (author)

  3. Demand analyses of rice in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng; SHAMSUDIN Mad Nasir; Mohamed, Zainalabidin; Abdullah, Amin Mahir; Radam, Alias

    2008-01-01

    As a typical developing Asian county, the growth in per capita income generally brings to diversification in Malaysians food basket. The most significant observation is the falling in per capita consumption of rice with continuous growth of demand for wheat based products. The objective of this study is to estimate the demand elasticities of rice in Malaysia, focusing whether rice is an inferior good. By using data from Household Expenditure Survey 2004/2005, this study obtains demand elastic...

  4. Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Spaans, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.

  5. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  6. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  7. Wheat products as acceptable substitutes for rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B H; Kies, C

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the acceptability to semi-trained US American and Asian palatability panelist, of four wheat products processed to be possible replacers of rice in human diets. Products evaluated using rice as the control standard of excellence were steamed whole wheat, couscous (steamed, extracted wheat flour semolina), rosamarina (rice shaped, extracted wheat flour pasta), and bulgar (steamed, pre-cooked partly debranned, cracked wheat). Using a ten point hedonic rating scale, both groups of panelists gave rosamarina closely followed by couscous, most favorable ratings although these ratings were somewhat lower than that of the positive control, steamed polished rice. Bulgar wheat was given the lowest evaluation and was, in general, found to be an unacceptable replacement for rice by both American and Asian judges because of its dark, 'greasy' color and distinctive flavor. In their personal dietaries, judges included rice from 0.25 to 18 times per week with the Asian judges consuming rice significantly more times per week than did the American judges (10.8 +/- 4.71 vs 1.75 +/- 1.65, p < 0.01). However, rice consumption patterns, nationality, race, or sex of the judges was not demonstrated to affect scoring of the wheat products as rice replacers. PMID:8332588

  8. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1). PMID:24159309

  9. Epigenomic Modification and Epigenetic Regulation in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhao; Dao-Xiu Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Epigenomes including genome-wide histone modification and DNA methylation profiles are important for genome activity and for defining gene expression patterns of plant development and responses to various environmental conditions.Rice is the most important crop plant and serves as a model for cereal genomics.Rice epigenomic landscape is emerging and the function of chromatin modification regulators in gene expression,transposon repression and plant development is being characterized.Epigenomic variation that gives rise to stable or transgenerational heritable epialleles related to variation of important agronomical traits or stress responses is being characterized in rice.Implication of epigenomic variation in rice heterosis is being exploited.

  10. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  11. AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE AND INDONESIAN RICE IMPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Dini Yuniarti

    2011-01-01

    Indonesian economy has been long supported by its agriculture sector. This paper analyzes the influence of the World Trade Organization’s Agreement-on-Agriculture (AoA) to In-donesia’s rice import using a Partial Adjustment Model. The independent variables included in the model are domestic production of rice, domestic income, world rice price, domestic rice price, and a dummy variable of AoA implementation. It estimates secondary annual data from 1979 to 2007. The result suggests that domest...

  12. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh K. Tyagi; Jitendra P. Khurana; Paramjit Khurana; Saurabh Raghuvanshi; Anupama Gaur; Anita Kapur; Vikrant Gupta; Dibyendu Kumar; V. Ravi; Shubha Vij; Parul Khurana; Sulabha Sharma

    2004-04-01

    Rice is an excellent system for plant genomics as it represents a modest size genome of 430 Mb. It feeds more than half the population of the world. Draft sequences of the rice genome, derived by whole-genome shotgun approach at relatively low coverage (4–6 X), were published and the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP) declared high quality (>10 X), genetically anchored, phase 2 level sequence in 2002. In addition, phase 3 level finished sequence of chromosomes 1, 4 and 10 (out of 12 chromosomes of rice) has already been reported by scientists from IRGSP consortium. Various estimates of genes in rice place the number at > 50,000. Already, over 28,000 full-length cDNAs have been sequenced, most of which map to genetically anchored genome sequence. Such information is very useful in revealing novel features of macro- and micro-level synteny of rice genome with other cereals. Microarray analysis is unraveling the identity of rice genes expressing in temporal and spatial manner and should help target candidate genes useful for improving traits of agronomic importance. Simultaneously, functional analysis of rice genome has been initiated by marker-based characterization of useful genes and employing functional knock-outs created by mutation or gene tagging. Integration of this enormous information is expected to catalyze tremendous activity on basic and applied aspects of rice genomics.

  13. Information Commons for Rice (IC4R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lili; Zhang, Huiyong; Zhang, Zhang; Hu, Songnian; Xue, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population and also a key model organism for plant research. Here, we present Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase featuring adoption of an extensible and sustainable architecture that integrates multiple omics data through community-contributed modules. Each module is developed and maintained by different committed groups, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. In the current version, IC4R incorporates a variety of rice data through multiple committed modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures and gene annotations contributed by the rice research community. Unlike extant related databases, IC4R is designed for scalability and sustainability and thus also features collaborative integration of rice data and low costs for database update and maintenance. Future directions of IC4R include incorporation of other omics data and association of multiple omics data with agronomically important traits, dedicating to build IC4R into a valuable knowledgebase for both basic and translational researches in rice.

  14. Information Commons for Rice (IC4R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lili; Zhang, Huiyong; Zhang, Zhang; Hu, Songnian; Xue, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population and also a key model organism for plant research. Here, we present Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase featuring adoption of an extensible and sustainable architecture that integrates multiple omics data through community-contributed modules. Each module is developed and maintained by different committed groups, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. In the current version, IC4R incorporates a variety of rice data through multiple committed modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures and gene annotations contributed by the rice research community. Unlike extant related databases, IC4R is designed for scalability and sustainability and thus also features collaborative integration of rice data and low costs for database update and maintenance. Future directions of IC4R include incorporation of other omics data and association of multiple omics data with agronomically important traits, dedicating to build IC4R into a valuable knowledgebase for both basic and translational researches in rice. PMID:26519466

  15. Dissipation of pencycuron in rice plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAL R.; CHAKRABARTI K.; CHAKRABORTY A.; CHOWDHURY A.

    2005-01-01

    Pencycuron is a non-systemic protective fungicide for controlling sheath blight of rice. However, information on the fate of pencycuron in rice plant is lacking. The degradation of pencycuron in waterlogged tropic rice field was investigated.Pencycuron was applied at recommended field dose (187.5 g a.i./ha) and double recommended dose to cropped plots for three consecutive years. Pencycuron was rapidly degraded in rice plant at all doses of pencycuron application with first order half-lives of 1.57~2.77 d. The study revealed that pencycuron is safe from the human and environmental contamination point of view.

  16. The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by HPLC. The hexane extracted sample accounts for high content of γ-oryzanol and tocols. Besides, all of RBO extracts contain a significantly high amount of γ-tocotrienol. In vitro antioxidant assay results indicated that superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction. The temperature in the extraction process also affects the value of the oil. Superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction, in terms of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties compared to other tested extraction methods. Further, thorough study of factors compromising the quality and quantity of RBO recovery is required for the development of enhanced functional foods and other related products.

  17. Description of Aphelenchoides besseyi from Abnormal Rice with 'Small Grains and Erect Panicles' Symptom in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Mao-song; DING Xiao-fan; WANG Zi-ming; ZHOU Feng-ming; LIN Na

    2005-01-01

    The abnormal rice with small grains and erect panicles were found on a large scale in China, which showed shortend rice panicle and decreased number of grains in comparison with normal rice, and the grain was small and black-brown, and some of them were distorted, while the flag leaf was normal. A kind of nematode of Aphelenchoides was isolated from the grains of rice variety and up to 74 in single grain, 92 percent of the grains tested had nematodes in the infested panicles. The diagnosis characters of nematode include lateral fields about one-fourth as wide as body, with 4 incisures. The terminus bears a mucro of diverse shape with 3-4 pointed processes. The female post-vulval uterine sac extends less than 50% of distance from vulva to anus, no sperm in it.Oocytes usually arrange in 2-4 rows. The male spicules have a moderately developed rostrum. Morphological measurements showed it to be conspecific with Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, 1942.

  18. Cosmic Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Eun-Joo; Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Production of high-energy gravitational objects is a common feature of gravitational theories. The primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities. Cosmic black holes can be used to probe physical properties of the very early universe which would usually require the knowledge of the theory of quantum gravity. They may be the only tool to explore thermalisation of the early universe. Whereas the creation of cosmic black ...

  19. The New Black

    OpenAIRE

    Lettman-Hicks, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The New Black is a documentary that tells the story of how the African American community is grappling with the gay rights issue in light of the recent gay marriage movement and the fight over Civil Rights. The film documents activities, families and clergy on both sides of the campaign to legalize gay marriage and examines homophobia in the Black community's institutional pillar, the Black church, and reveals the Christian right wing's strategy of exploiting this phenomenon in order to pursu...

  20. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  1. Black Branes as Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A

    2012-01-01

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  2. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  3. Tritium concentration in unpolished rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue and Iwakura recently reported that the specific activity ratio of organically-bound 3H to free water 3H in polished rice samples collected in Japan and China was lower than unity. Their paper was the first to report the systematic apparent elimination of 3H for incorporation to organically-bound form in samples collected from the general environment. To confirm their result, seven unpolished rice samples obtained just after harvesting were analyzed for 3H. The mean specific activity ratio of organically-bound 3H to free water 3H was found to be 0.57, somewhat lower than the data by Inoue and Iwakura. This small difference may be caused by the different sampling years and/or the possible replacement of free water by atmospheric water vapor after harvesting. (author)

  4. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Ten shades of black

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    The holographic principle has taught us that, as far as their entropy content is concerned, black holes in $(3+1)$-dimensional curved spacetimes behave as ordinary thermodynamic systems in flat $(2+1)$-dimensional spacetimes. In this essay we point out that the opposite behavior can also be observed in black-hole physics. To show this we study the quantum Hawking evaporation of near-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. We first point out that the black-hole radiation spectrum departs from the familiar radiation spectrum of genuine $(3+1)$-dimensional perfect black-body emitters. In particular, the would be black-body thermal spectrum is distorted by the curvature potential which surrounds the black hole and effectively blocks the emission of low-energy quanta. Taking into account the energy-dependent gray-body factors which quantify the imprint of passage of the emitted radiation quanta through the black-hole curvature potential, we reveal that the $(3+1)$-dimensional black holes effectively behave as p...

  6. Evidence for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2003-06-20

    Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138

  7. Asymptotic Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  8. Black stain - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarise the fundamentals about black stain, its diagnosis and possible differential diagnoses as well as its microbiology and therapy. In addition, various studies investigating the relationship between black stain and dental caries are examined. Many studies report lower caries prevalence in children with black stain, but this finding could not be confirmed by all authors. Also, a negative relation between degree of staining and caries severity has been described. Reasons for these results are not yet clear but it was speculated that they are related to the specific oral microflora described in black stain-affected individuals. PMID:21594205

  9. A Black Hole Levitron

    CERN Document Server

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D

    2009-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilising four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes kept in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al's multi-center solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped in a given volume. This is realised by levitating a black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction resembles a mechanical Levitron.

  10. Deforming regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have deformed regular black holes which possess a general mass term described by a function which generalizes the Bardeen and Hayward mass terms. Using linear constraints in the energy-momentum tensor, the solutions are either regular or singular. That is, with this approach, it is possible to generate singular black holes from regular black holes and vice versa. Moreover, contrary to the Bardeen and Hayward regular solutions, the regular deformed metrics may violate the weak energy condition despite the presence of the spherical symmetry. Some comments on accretion of deformed black holes in cosmological scenarios are made.

  11. Rice's Salt Tolerance Gene Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with US colleagues, CAS researchers have made significant progress in their studies into functional genes for key agronomic traits by cloning SKC1, a salt-tolerant functional gene of rice and making clear its biological functions and mechanisms. This pioneering work,which was reported in the Oct. issue of Nature Genetics (37:1141-1146), is believed to hold promise to increase the output of the crop plant in this country.

  12. Computational Identification of Anthocyanin-Specific Transcription Factors using a Rice Microarray and Maximum Boundary Range Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Kug Kim; Shoshi Kikuchi; Jang Ho Hahn; Soo Chul Park; Yong Hwan Kim; Byun Woo Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies 2,617 candidate genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis in rice using microarray analysis and a newly developed maximum boundary range algorithm. Three seed developmental stages were examined in white cultivar and two black Dissociation insertion mutants. The resultant 235 transcription factor genes found to be associated with anthocyanin were classified into nine groups. It is compared the 235 genes by transcription factor analysis and 593 genes from among clusters of...

  13. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  14. Black holes and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for instance, the UK

  15. Rice Yield Estimation by Integrating Remote Sensing with Rice Growth Simulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O. ABOU-ISMAIL; HUANG Jing-Feng; WANG Ren-Chao

    2004-01-01

    Since remote sensing can provide information on the actual status of an agricultural crop, the integration between remote sensing data and crop growth simulation models has become an important trend for yield estimation and prediction.The main objective of this research was to combine a rice growth simulation model with remote sensing data to estimate rice grain yield for different growing seasons leading to an assessment of rice yield at regional levels. Integration between NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data and the rice growth simulation model ORYZA1 to develop a new software, which was named as Rice-SRS Model, resulted in accurate estimates for rice yield in Shaoxing, China, with an estimation error reduced to 1.03% and 0.79% over-estimation and 0.79% under-estimation for early, single and late season rice, respectively. Selecting suitable dates for remote sensing images was an important factor which could influence estimation accuracy. Thus, given the different growing periods for each rice season, four images were needed for early and late rice, while five images were preferable for single season rice.Estimating rice yield using two or three images was possible, however, if images were obtained during the panicle initiation and heading stages.

  16. Rice Blast Resistance of Transgenic Rice Plants with Pi-d2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN De-xi; CHEN Xue-wei; LEI Cai-lin; MA Bing-tian; WANG Yu-ping; LI Shi-gui

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to rice blast of transgenic rice lines harboring rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2 transformed from three different expression vectors of pCB6.3kb, pCB5.3kb and pZH01-2.72kb were analyzed. Nine advanced-generation transgenic rice lines with Pi-d2 gene displayed various resistance to 39 rice blast strains, and the highest disease-resistant frequency reached 91.7%. Four early-generation homozygous transgenic lines with Pi-d2 gene exhibited resistance to more than 81.5% of 58 rice blast strains, showing the characteristic of wide-spectrum resistance. The transgenic embryonic calli selected by the crude toxin of rice blast fungus showed that the callus induction rate of immature embryo from transgenic rice plants decreased as the concentration of crude toxin in the culture medium increased. When the concentration of crude toxin reached 40%, the callus induction rate of immature embryo from transgenic lines was 49.3%, and that of the receptor control was 5%. The disease incidence of neck blast of the transgenic rice lines in fields under induction was 0% to 50%, indicating that the rice blast resistance of transgenic rice lines is much higher than that of the receptor control.

  17. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  18. A New Mehod to Cook Rice Food,An infant of new Rice Cooker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hanyou

    2002-01-01

    Objective:In order to enhance the rice food nutritional quality and the human quality of life.Method:Summarize my lifeexperiences and my cooking rice experience with present Chinese food cookers but in different way to reach the high quality ricefood. Result:The steaming rice method is easy to do and the rice is tasteful and nutritional,comparing with the previous old generationsfood cookers. Conclusions:(1)This cooking method is worth and easy to be adapted by the rice taking people.(2)Through furtherresearch,the new rice cooker of modem generation can be developed according to these principles.This kind of cooker may well bemarketed and used by the rice taking people.

  19. Residues and accumulation of molinate in rice crops and aquatic weeds in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant and soil residue levels and its accumulation in rice crops and rice aquatic weed plants were studied. Molinate residue levels in rice, weeds and soil were not significantly different between the recycled and the non-recycled area, even though they were higher in the non-recycled area. In the rice plant, the residue level at 10 DAT (days after treatment) was significantly higher than 30 DAT in the recycled area. In rice aquatic weed plants, the residue level was significantly higher at 10 DAT as compared to 30 DAT in the non-recycled area. Molinate residue levels in soil at 10 DAT and 30 DAT were similar. Molinate accumulated (ratio of molinate concentration in plant over soil) more in the rice crop as compared to rice aquatic weeds at 10 DAT, in both the recycled and the non-recycled areas. (Author)

  20. Nutrient management for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nutrient removed by the crops far exceeds the amounts replenished through fertilizer, causing a much greater strain on the native soil reserves. The situation is further aggravated in countries like India, where sub-optimal fertilizer used by the farmers is a common phenomenon rather than an exception. The total consumption of nutrients of all crops in India, even though reached 15 million tons in 1997, remains much below the estimated nutrient removal of 25 million tons (Swarup and Goneshamurthy, 1998). The gap between nutrient removal supplied through fertilizer has widened further in 2000 to 34 million tons of plant nutrients from the soil against an estimated fertilizer availability of 18 million tons (Singh and Dwivedi, 1996). Nitrogen is the nutrient which limits the most the rice production worldwide. In Asia, where more than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced, about 60 percent of the N fertilizer consumed is used on rice (Stangel and De Dutta, 1985). Conjunctive use of organic material along with fertilizer has been proved an efficient source of nitrogen. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Returning residues like green manure to the soil is necessary for maintaining soil organic matter, which is important for favourable soil structure, soil water retention and soil microbial flora and fauna activities. Use of organic manures in conjunction or as an alternative to chemical fertilizer is receiving attention. Green manure, addition to some extent, helps not only in enhancing the yield but also in improving the physical and chemical nature of soils. The excessive application of chemical fertilizers made it imperative that a part of inorganic fertilizer may be substituted with the recycling of organic wastes. Organic manure has been recorded to enhance the efficiency and reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizers. Partial nitrogen substitution through organic

  1. Evolution of massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Volonteri, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I'll discuss black hole formation processes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and how massive black hole evolve in a hierarchical Universe...

  2. Carbon black recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process and apparatus for recovering carbon black from hot smoke which comprises passing the smoke through a cyclone separation zone following cooling, then through aggregate filter beds and regeneration of filter beds with clean off-gas which is recycled to the carbon black reaction zone as quench

  3. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  4. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  5. Arbitrators, Blacks and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Kenneth

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of the handling of disciplinary problems of black employees concludes that management should be concerned because of the effect that grievance resolution may have on the company's overall employee discipline program and the additional appeal alternatives available to the black employee. (Author/EA)

  6. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t - r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  7. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Mehdipour, S.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t — r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  8. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  9. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  10. Utilization of black liquor as concrete admixture and set retarder aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar A. El-Mekkawi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of black liquor, produced by the pulp and paper industry in Egypt, as a workability aid and set retarder admixture has been investigated. This approach may help eliminate the environmentally polluting black liquor waste. It also provides a low cost by-product, which can be widely used in the construction industry. The properties of black liquor and its performance on concrete at two different ratios of water to cement have been studied. The results revealed that black liquor from rice straw pulp increases concrete workability, improves compaction, and reduces honeycombing. Moreover, it retards the initial and final set time and enhances uniform compaction. The effect of incorporating small portions of silica fume has been investigated. The ageing effect of this material over a period of one year, to determine its safe storage period, has been studied. Finally, this admixture was found to comply with the relevant Egyptian standards.

  11. [Amino acid composition of rice grain proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruanskiĭ, Iu V; Savich, I M

    1976-01-01

    The composition of the major reserve proteins of rice grain--globulins, prolamines and glutelins--was examined in four rice varieties (Dubovsky 129, Kuban 3, Alakul, Ushtobinsky). Globulins proved to be most heterogeneous whereas glutelins appeared to be least heterogeneous. In regards to the ratio of components globulins showed high variability and glutelins displayed high stability. PMID:1005365

  12. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  13. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  14. Transfer of radioiodine into rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that 129I levels near the spent fuel reprocessing plants are obviously higher than those in the other areas. At present commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant is under planning in the north of Japan mainland. For the safety assessment before the new-construction of the plant, it is required to obtain transfer factors of the nuclide to rice grains through deposition-translocation and rootuptake routes. Results obtained showed that contribution from dry deposition (I2 gas deposition)-translocation should be more significant than that from wet-deposition-translocation, but sometimes comparable or preferably less significant than that from root uptake route. In this paper, however, discussion is focused on I2 gas deposition translocation to rice grains, gaseous iodine deposition to hull surfaces and subsequent infiltration to brown rice should be more critical than leaf absorption-translocation. Excretion of the nuclide from hull surfaces was hardly recognized. Thus the transfer factor of gaseous 129I to rice grains was successfully obtained by using grain number deposition velocity (Vs) and distribution ratio of I between rough rice and rice grain. Ther Vs is given as following: Vs = the amount of iodine deposited on unit number of rough rice per unit time divided by iodine concentration in unit volume of air. Experimentally obtained Vs is about 5x10-3cm3.(grain.sec)-1. And the transfer factor of gaseous iodine (I2) to polished rice is calculated as about 4x102cm3.(grain)-1

  15. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...

  16. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  17. Progress and Prospect of Functional Rice Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy and the increase of people's living standards, functional foods are being gradually embraced by consumers and have a great growth potential. Rice is the main staple food in China. It plays an important role in promoting people's health and in improving public nutrition, and therefore there is an ever-increasing consumer demand for rice for its functional quality. This study introduces the concept of functional rice and summarizes the current research progress on this topic and the application of breeding strategies including traditional breeding, induced mutagenesis, molecular marker-assisted selection and transgenic engineering in the research of a new generation of functional rice that posses health benefits, therapeutic values, bioreactor properties, and other unique functions. We then point out the prospect of functional rice from the point of view of social development, germplasm innovation,breeding of functional rice by biological technology and the test of active material related functional rice. We conclude that developing and marketing of functional rice is becoming a subject of great importance for research and is to be the focus of research in future.

  18. Low oil-uptake rice batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice starch and flour are popular for use in foods, because they are known to be nutritious, gluten-free, and hypoallergenic – properties which make them particularly desirable for use in infant foods, and in products for people with celiac disease (gluten intolerance). One application for rice sta...

  19. RICE BREAD FOR PEOPLE WITH CELIAC DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical bulletin was written to describe new process to make whole rice bread (WRB) for Celiacs, a disease caused by proteins found in wheat, barley and rye. The rice is free of these proteins and hence an ideal grain to develop foods for Celiacs. Absence of these proteins, however make it ...

  20. Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Under a research project funded by NSFC,Dr.Yang He of College of Life Sciences,Wuhan University obtained functional human blood protein from rice,and published their research findings in an article "Large-scale production of functional human serum albumin from transgenic rice seeds" on PNAS in November 2011.

  1. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  2. Influence of intermittent irrigation, red rice biotype, and rice grain type on outcrossing between red rice and imidazolinone-resistant rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether outcrossing rates between red rice and imazethapyr resistant rice are affected as a function of irrigation management is unclear. Potentially, differences between conventionally-flooded (CNV) and intermittently flooded (INT) systems could affect plant water deficits, as well as vegetative a...

  3. Rice mutant resources for gene discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirochika, H.; Guiderdoni, E.; An, G.; Hsing, Y.I.; Eun, M.Y.; Han, C.D.; Upadhyaya, N.; Ramachandran, S.; Zhang, Q.F.; Pereira, A.B.; Sundaresan, V.; Leung, H.

    2004-01-01

    With the completion of genomic sequencing of rice, rice has been firmly established as a model organism for both basic and applied research. The next challenge is to uncover the functions of genes predicted by sequence analysis. Considering the amount of effort and the diversity of disciplines requi

  4. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  5. Fluctuating Black Hole Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.

  6. Lifshitz Topological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, R B

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  7. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  8. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  9. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels...

  10. Rice blast research: improving our arsenal and using it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease is a constant threat to U.S. rice production, and there have been sporadic outbreaks of the disease for many decades. However, the U.S. southern rice growing area has been fortunate because the pathogen population has been relatively stable compared to other rice producing areas i...

  11. The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the te

  12. Factors Affecting Methane Emission from Rice Paddies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于心科; 王卫东; 等

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of rice paddies and the uncovered water field in Taoyuan(Hunan) showed that methane emission from rice-vegetated paddy fields in 1993 was different from that in 1992(I,e,lower in rates and irregular in pattern).Climate has obvious influence on methane emission .And ebullition made a considerable contribution to the total flux of methane emission from rice paddies (45%).This implies that the intensification of paddy cultivation of rice might not be,as was proposed,the main con-tributor to the observed gradual increasing of atmospheric methane.24-hour automatic measurements of atmospheric temperature,air temperature and methane concentration in the static sampling boxes revealed that temperature,in addition to fertilization and irrigation style,is one of the most important factors that control the emission of methane from rice paddies.

  13. In vitro studies on rice bran wax as skin moisturizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabale Vidya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Waxes have been used in many cosmetic preparations and pharmaceuticals as formulation aids. Rice bran wax is a byproduct of rice bran oil industry. Present study aims to investigate possible use of rice bran wax as occlusive moisturizer. The rice bran wax obtained was purified and its physicochemical characteristics were determined. In vitro studies were carried out to determine trans epidermal water loss through stratum corneum and water holding capacity of stratum corneum of human cadaver skin treated with pure rice bran wax and formulation of rice bran wax. The results show that rice bran wax can be used as a promising occlusive moisturizer.

  14. Black Youth Unemployment and the Black Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Linus A.

    This paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted to ascertain the attitudes of 400 employers, youth, and academic/community professionals in Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D.C., toward an approach to Black youth unemployment centered on the creation of jobs and training among minority businesses in selected metropolitan areas. Minority…

  15. Black Hole Critical Phenomena Without Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liebling, S L

    2000-01-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  16. Characteristics of Growth and Yield Formation of Rice in Rice-Fish Farming System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong; ZHANG Hong-cheng; HU Xiao-jun; DAI Qi-gen; ZHANG Yong-jiang

    2006-01-01

    By using single rice cultivation as a control, the effect of rice-fish culture on growth dynamic, plant type and yield formation of rice was studied. The results showed as follows: rice-fish culture improved the physical-chemical properties of arable layer soil of paddy field, extended growth period of rice, increased dry matter and LAI of different growth stages,improved three top leaves area, deterred the degeneration of leaves function, increased the diameter of stem, promoted the growth of roots and the formation of roots in the extended stem. At the same time, rice-fish culture extended the length of basal internodes, increased the number of internodes, uplifted the gravity of plant, and depressed the root vigor. For the grain yield and yield structure of rice, rice-fish culture decreased ear/tillering ratio, spikelet/panicle and seed set percentage,increased grain weight. If variety choice and cultivation technology were controlled appropriately, rice-fish culture could increase the effective panicles and improve grain yield of rice.

  17. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world’s population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one “rice-fish system” (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers’ net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability. PMID:27349875

  18. Estimate of CH4 Emissions from Year-Round Flooded Rice Fields During Rice Growing Season in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zu-Cong; KANG Guo-Ding; H. TSURUTA; A. MOSIER

    2005-01-01

    A special kind of rice field exists in China that is flooded year-round. These rice fields have substantially large CH4emissions during the rice-growing season and emit CH4 continuously in the non-rice growing season. CH4 emission factors were used to estimate the CH4 emissions from year-round flooded rice fields during the rice-growing season in China.The CH4 emissions for the year-round flooded rice fields in China for the rice growing season over a total area of 2.66Mha were estimated to be 2.44 Tg CH4 year-1. The uncertainties of these estimations are discussed as well. However,the emissions during the non-rice growing season could not be estimated because of limited available data. Nevertheless,methane emissions from rice fields that were flooded year-round could be several times higher than those from the rice fields drained in the non-rice-growing season. Thus, the classification of "continuously flooded rice fields" in the IPCC(International Panel on Climate Change) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories is suggested to be revised and divided into "continuously flooded rice fields during the rice growing season" and "year-round flooded rice fields".

  19. Consumer Preferences and Buying Criteria in Rice: A Study to Identify Market Strategy for Thailand Jasmine Rice Export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries decreased, but it is consumed more in non-rice-eating countries. This study aimed to investigate consumer preferences and attitudes toward Jasmine rice among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic implicat

  20. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  1. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongli He; Chao Han; Xiaojian Yin; Hui Zhang; Pingfang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Seed germination is a complex physiological which starts from the uptake of water by the dry seeds and ends at the protrusion of the radicle.In order to elucidate the mechanism of rice seed germination,we have conducted a systematic proteomic analyses combining with 1-D via LC MS/MS,comparative 2-DE and iTRAQ techniques using the whole seed or dissected embryos and endosperm.During rice seed germination,the embryo and endosperm played different roles.The seed weight increased and complied by a triphasic model.Phase I accompanied with rapid seed water-up-take,the embryo produced gibberellic acid (GA) and diffused to aleurone and then prepared to initiate a signaling cascade to drive the reserves degradation in the starchy endosperm.Phase II is the most important stage for metabolic reactions reactivation,the reserves mobilization,cell construction respiration,cell wall loosening and coleoptile elongation,most of the metabolism related proteins sorted to different pathways were identified at 24 h after imbibition,but the metabolism of nucleotides was not active at this stage for few related proteins have been involved.The degradation of seed maturation and desiccation-associated proteins seemed to be earlier than that of the storage proteins and starch.The glycolysis was the main pathway for energy and substance providing.Phase III is another rapid water-uptake stage accompanying with TCA and aerobic respiration strengthening,cell division initiation and the radical protrusion.Interesting,both biosynthesis and degradation of the same macromolecule were concurrence even in the dry seed,which implied the sequentially matabolic and regulatory events triggered by water uptake during rice seed germination have been programmed during seed maturation.

  2. Research on the development of weed-suppressing rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaochuan ZHOU; Decheng LU; Hong LI; Daoqiang HUANG; Ruowei MIAO

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop weed-suppressing rice varieties in a weed-suppressing nursery by specific secondary metabolite markers of allelopathic potential. Weed-suppressing rice variety Feng-Hua-Zhan was screened out by a specific secondary metabolite marker of allelopathic potential. Weed-suppressing rice No. 1, a new rice line with good quality, was also developed using this method. The genetic backgrounds and research directions of weed-suppressing rice varieties are discussed in this paper.

  3. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 108 tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high...

  4. Utilization of Probiotic-Fermented Rice Straw as Ruminant Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Amlius Thalib

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture in Indonesia is dominated by a rice-based farming system where ruminants are kept as saving and to provide draft power. The productivity of ruminants under this farming system is relatively low. The low productivity is mainly due to inadequate supply of feed. As the agriculture is a rice-based farming system, rice straws become potential crop residues existing in almost all areas in Indonesia. Many studies on the utilization of rice straw as ruminant feed have been conducted. Rice...

  5. Studies on Rice Bran and its benefits- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Renu Sharma; Tanuja Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Rice bran, a by-product of rice milling industry is rich in micronutrients like oryzanols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and dietary fibers. The high nutritional profile of rice bran has not been utilized due to problems associated with lipase enzyme, which reduces the quality of rice bran and makes it unfit for human consumption. After the stabilization of lipase enzyme, it is possible to derive highly nutritious value-added products of rice bran. Due to the presence of...

  6. Development in Rice Genome Research Based on Accurate Genome Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops in the world. Although genetic improvement is a key technology for the acceleration of rice breeding, a lack of genome information had restricted efforts in molecular-based breeding until the completion of the high-quality rice genome sequence, which opened new opportunities for research in various areas of genomics. The syntenic relationship of the rice genome to other cereal genomes makes the rice genome invaluable for understanding how cereal genomes...

  7. Use AMMI model to analyze adaptability of rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENXihang; WANGLei; YANGShihua; XIEFuxian

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of rice varieties is one of the most concerned questions to rice breeders. In rice breeding, combined variety test and regional trials which included multiple genotypes and environments were conducted to identify the adaptability of new rice varieties. In most regional trials, interaction between genotype and environment is significant, so it is important to analyze the interaction for estimating the adaptability of rice varieties.

  8. Rice formulas and Gaussian waves

    CERN Document Server

    Azaïs, Jean-Marc; Wschebor, Mario

    2011-01-01

    We use Rice's formulas in order to compute the moments of some level functionals which are linked to problems in oceanography and optics: the number of specular points in one and two dimensions, the distribution of the normal angle of level curves and the number of dislocations in random wavefronts. We compute expectations and in some cases, also second moments of such functionals. Moments of order greater than one are more involved, but one needs them whenever one wants to perform statistical inference on some parameters in the model or to test the model itself. In some cases we are able to use these computations to obtain a Central Limit Theorem.

  9. Arsenic compounds toxic to rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epps, E.A.; Sturgis, M.B.

    1939-01-01

    A study has been made of the kinds of arsenic compounds that may be toxic to rice and of means for correcting the toxicity. Some of the arsenic compounds in flooded soils are reduced, with consequent increase in soluble arsenic content of the soil and decrease in total arsenic content due to liberation of gaseous compounds of arsenic. It was demonstrated that some of the arsenic was lost as arsine. Many of the naturally-occurring compounds of arsenic are not attacked by the micro-organisms and do not become more soluble. Additions of sulfur to soils containing toxic amounts of arsenic decreased the amount of soluble arsenic in the soil.

  10. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  11. Scalarized Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  12. Noncommutative Solitonic Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Chang-Young, Ee; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2012-01-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field using the Moyal product expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in the two noncommutative spatial directions. By numerical simulation we look for black hole solutions by increasing the non- commutativity parameter value starting from regular solutions with vanishing noncommutativity. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.

  13. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  14. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Kleihaus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  15. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  16. Scalarized hairy black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn

  17. Identification of Thai Hom Mali rice using a refractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Suwansukho, Kajpanya; Buranasiri, Prathan

    2009-05-01

    Because Thai Hom Mali, also known as Thai Dawk Mali (KDML105), rice is very popular and its price is high compared to other Thai rice varieties, there is an increase in mixing KDML105 milled and unmilled rice grains with other rice varieties, leading to unqualified KDML105 milled rice products for export and unqualified KDML105 unmilled rice seeds for next plants. Instead of using traditional time- and energy- consuming procedures such as alkaline spreading value and pasting property tests, this paper proposes a fast refractometry-based method to analyze ground milled rice grains dissolved in an alkaline solution. Our idea comes from the fact that due to differences in the amount of amylose content in each rice variety, the refractive index of the milled rice powder dissolved in an alkaline solution can be used to distinguish the desired KDML105 rice from others. In our approach, only 0.1 grams of milled rice powder is ground, it is then dissolved in a 10% potassium hydroxide, and its refractive index is investigated. Our experiment using a temperature-controlled optical refractometer and four Thai rice varieties (KDML105, Pathumthani1, Chainat1, and a Thai sticky rice) shows that the milled KDML105 rice can be distinguished from the remaining three rice varieties with a total false error rate of 6.7% and the required measurement time of < 20 seconds. Key advantages include simplicity, moderate accuracy, and less waste produced.

  18. The Price of "Black Dominance."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…

  19. On Noncommutative Black Holes Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Faizal, Mir; Ulhoa, S C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze noncommutative deformation of the Schwarzschild black holes and Kerr black holes. We will perform our analysis by relating the commutative and the noncommutative metrics using an Moyal product. We will also analyze the thermodynamics of these noncommutative black hole solutions. We will explicitly derive expression for the corrected entropy and temperature of these black hole solutions.

  20. The Thermodynamics of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wald Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.

  1. Relation between Rice Crop Quality (Protein Content) and Fertilizer Amount as Well as Rice Stump Density Derived from Helicopter Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Masanoori Sakashita; Osamu Shigetomi; Yuko Miura

    2015-01-01

    Relation between protein content in rice crops and fertilizer amount as well as rice stump density is clarified with a multi-spectral camera data mounted on a radio-wave controlled helicopter. Estimation of protein content in rice crop and total nitrogen content in rice leaves through regression analysis with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: NDVI derived from camera mounted radio-controlled helicopter is already proposed. Through experiments at rice paddy fields which is situated at Sa...

  2. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  3. Topics in black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two major aspects of particle creation by gravitational fields of black holes are studied: the neutrino emission from rotating black holes; and interactions between scalar particles emitted by a black hole. Neutrino emission is investigated under three topics: The asymmetry of the angular dependence of neutrino emission from rotating black holes; the production of a local matter excess by rotating black holes in a baryon symmetric universe; and cosmological magnetic field generation by neutrinos from evaporating black holes. Finally the author studies the effects of interactions on the black hole evaporation process

  4. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In four space-time dimensions black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory satisfy a number of theorems. In more than four space-time dimensions, however, some of the properties of black holes can change. In particular, uniqueness of black holes no longer holds. In five and more dimensions black rings arise. Thus in a certain region of the phase diagram there are three black objects with the same global charges present. Here we discuss properties of higher-dimensional vacuum and charged black holes, which possess a spherical horizon topology, and of vacuum and charged black rings, which have a ringlike horizon topology

  5. Induced mutants for rice functional genomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutations have been playing important roles in both crop germplasm enhancement and new variety development. With the completion of the rice genome sequence, the study on functional genomics in rice has become a major task. Construction of rice mutant library is an essential approach for rice functional genomics study. This paper briefly reviewed several common techniques for generation of rice mutant library and its application in rice functional research, taking examples of developing rice chloroplast development related mutant library to provide the basic materials for functional genes cloning. A rice Chlorophyll (Chl) deficient mutant, yellow-green leaf1 (ygl1), was isolated, which showed yellow-green leaves in young plants with decreased Chl synthesis, increased level of tetrapyrrole intermediates, and delayed chloroplast development. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the phenotype of ygl1 was caused by a recessive mutation in a nuclear gene. The ygl1 locus was mapped to chromosome 5. A missense mutation was found in a highly conserved residue of YGL1 in the ygl1 mutant, resulting in reduction of the enzymatic activity. Another green-revertible albino leaf (gral) mutant involved in chloroplast development was screened from a M2 population induced by 300Gy 60Co gamma rays irradiation to the seeds of rice male sterile line PA64S with the collaboration of Zhejiang University. The mutant seedling leaves exhibit albino firstly but turn to normal green after the sixth leaf extended thoroughly. Systematical research including photosynthetic pigment, chloroplast microscopic observation and gene cloning was carried out on the gral mutant. (author)

  6. Output supply and yield response of rice in Nigeria: implications for future rice policy

    OpenAIRE

    Boansi, David

    2013-01-01

    With the local rice industry of Nigeria been hindered by inconsistent government policies, improper methods of production, high cost and scarcity of vital inputs of production among other constraints, domestic production of rice has failed to catch up with the increasing pace of consumption. In spite of the strong agricultural and natural resource base it hauls, Nigeria spends a total of about US$11 billion annually on importation of rice, wheat, sugar and fish. Attempts by previous regimes a...

  7. Incorporating Regional Rice Production Models in Rice Importation Simulation Model: a Stochastic Programming Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalina G. de Guzman; Mina, Christian D.; Crean, Jason; Parton, Kevin; Reyes, Celia M.

    2009-01-01

    In the Philippines, importation has remained as one of the most feasible options for the government to meet the growing demand for rice. It is thus imperative for the government to develop a strategy that would ensure adequate supply and minimum importation costs. One of the critical factors in import decisionmaking is rice production. The Inter-Agency Committee on Rice and Corn (IACRC), where the National Food Authority (NFA) and Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) are members, decides o...

  8. Influences of the Paddy Rices with Different Moistures on the Head Rice Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A major component rice variety of Xiangwanxian 9 (a late lndica variety) with 13.1%, 15.6% and 18. 3% of the moisture was respectively mixed with three ad ditive varieties in 13% of moisture at ration of 7:3 for processing assorted rices. Head rice recovery of the treatments was determined 24 hours later. Analysis indicated sig nificant differences exist in the effects produced by the component varieties, their moistures and the component variety moisture.

  9. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  10. Janus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.

  11. Black Widow Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dling boxes, firewood, lumber, and rocks, etc. The black widow is commonly found in the following places: • Outdoors - woodpiles, rubble piles, under stones, in hol- low stumps, and in rodent burrows, privies, sheds ...

  12. Endosperm Development in Autotetraploid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; LIU Xiang-dong; LU Yong-gen; FENG Jiu-huan; XU Xue-bin; XU Shi-xiong (S.Y.Zee)

    2005-01-01

    By using the laser scanning confocal microscope and plastic (Leica 7022 historesin embedding kit) semi-thin sectioningtechnique, comparative studies on the development of endosperm were carried out between autotetraploid and diploid rices. Aboutone third of the ovaries in the autotetraploid showed normal endosperm development as those in the diploid. In these ovaries, one ofthe polar nuclei would fuse with the sperm nucleus, and the primary endosperm nucleus formed and underwent the first division in 4hours after pollination; the anticlinal wall began to grow centripetally between the free nuclei starting from the wall ingrowths of theembryo sac near the micropylar end, and some of the phragmoplasts formed transformed into periclinal walls. In addition, some of thecell wall situated in the middle of the endosperm appeared to originate from phragmoplasts, whereas others seemed to developrandomly without the obvious formation of phragmoplasts. Cellulose began to accumulate in the wall of aleurone cell layer at 6 daysafter pollination. The cellulose wall of the cells of the aleurone cell layer appeared to have completely formed within 7 to 8 days afterpollination. On the other hand, about two thirds of the ovaries in the autotetraploid showed abnormality in endosperm developmentwith various types, such as non-fertilization, abnormal fertilization, endosperm development-delay and non-synchronization in thedevelopment of cellulose wall of cells of the aleurone layer. These abnormalities usually resulted in decreased seed setting inautotetraploid rice.

  13. Elemental Content in Brown Rice by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Reveals the Evolution of Asian Cultivated Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen Zeng; Luxiang Wang; Juan Du; Jiafu Liu; Shuming Yang; Xiaoying Pu; Fenghui Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship for classification traits and eight mineral elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Yunnan Province in China was carried out using microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and the analytical procedures were carefully controlled and validated. In general, the results show that the mean levels of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in brown rice for 789 accessions of rice landraces was distinctly lower than that of improved cultivars. They further demonstrate that Ca plays an important role in the differentiation of subspecies indica-japonica, especially to enhance adaptation of cold stress, and that five mineral elements in brown rice enhance the eurytopicity from landrace to improved cultivar. Hierarchical cluster analysis, using average linkage from SPSS software based on eight mineral elements in brown rice, showed that Yunnan rice could be grouped into rice landrace and improved cultivar, with the rice landrace being further clustered into five subgroups, and that, interestingly, purple rice does not cluster with either of the groups. Our present data confirm that indica is the closest relative of late rice and white rice, and that they constitute rice landraces together, whereas japonica is the closest relatives of non-nuda, early-mid and glutinous rice. It is further shown that japonica, non-nuda, early-mid, glutinous, white and red rice might be more primitive than indica, nuda, late, non-glutinous and purple rice, respectively.

  14. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  15. AGROCHEMISTRY OF HUMIC GROWTH REGULATORS IN RICE

    OpenAIRE

    Sheudghen A. H.; Bondareva T. N.; Shtuts R. V.; Yesipenko S. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article shows prospects of the use of growth regulators on the nature of humic culture of rice in the first place due to the low field germination of seeds, rice crops lodging. Effect of humate on the growth, development and photosynthetic activity of plants, as well as the consumption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium results in increased grain yield of rice. Depending on the type of humate yield increased by 5,0-6,4 с/ha. Seed treatment caused a change humates biochemical and techno...

  16. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    OpenAIRE

    H ERSIN SAMLI; NIZAMETTIN SENKOYLU; HASAN AKYUREK; AYLIN AGMA

    2006-01-01

    Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipp...

  17. Chemical Looping Combustion of Rice Husk

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmeet Singh Monga; Ganesh R. Kale

    2015-01-01

    A thermodynamic investigation of direct chemical looping combustion (CLC) of rice husk is presented in this paper. Both steam and CO2 are used for gasification within the temperature range of 500–1200˚C and different amounts of oxygen carriers. Chemical equilibrium model was considered for the CLC fuel reactor. The trends in product compositions of the fuel reactor, were determined. Rice husk gasification using 3 moles H2O and 0 moles CO2 per mole carbon (in rice husk) at 1 bar pr...

  18. Cosmological Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model for the formation of the cosmological voids. We show that cosmological voids can form directly after the collapse of extremely large wavelength perturbations into low-density black holes or cosmological black holes (CBH). Consequently the voids are formed by the comoving expansion of the matter that surrounds the collapsed perturbation. It follows that the universe evolves, in first approximation, according to the Einstein-Straus cosmological model. We discuss...

  19. Quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references

  20. Black Is Cool!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1997-01-01

    Do you remember the colors the college freshmen dyed their hair when you were here? Turquoise, orange, bright yellow.... Things have changed. Black has (?)ome the color of choice among the young people. Young men and women alike dye their hair coal black. The women let their hair grow very long. and it hangs straight and stringy down their backs. The young men leave it long on

  1. Modelling quantum black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R

    2016-01-01

    Novel bound states are obtained for manifolds with singular potentials. These singular potentials require proper boundary conditions across boundaries. The number of bound states match nicely with what we would expect for black holes. Also they serve to model membrane mechanism for the black hole horizons in simpler contexts. The singular potentials can also mimic expanding boundaries elegantly, there by obtaining appropriately tuned radiation rates.

  2. Cosmic censorship inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Thorlacius, L

    2006-01-01

    A simple argument is given that a traversable Cauchy horizon inside a black hole is incompatible with unitary black hole evolution. The argument assumes the validity of black hole complementarity and applies to a generic black hole carrying angular momentum and/or charge. In the second part of the paper we review recent work on the semiclassical geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes.

  3. Preparation and characterization of solid biomass fuel made from rice straw and rice bran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chuen-Shii; Lu, Wen-Chung [Powder Technology R and D Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 1, Hseuh Fu Road, Nei-Pu Hsiang, Pingtung 91201 (China); Lin, Sheau-Horng [Department of Wood Science and Design, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 1, Hseuh Fu Road, Nei-Pu Hsiang, Pingtung 91201 (China)

    2009-07-15

    This study investigated the preparation and characterization of the solid fuel briquette, which was made from rice straw and rice bran. This work included: (1) developing a machine to smash the rice straw into pieces; (2) compressing the smashed rice straws and the rice bran into the biomass briquette; and (3) characterizing the properties of the briquette (such as the percentage of change in briquette volume, the percentage of loss of briquette mass, the air-dry density, the compressive strength, and the heating value) at room temperature. The hot-pressing temperature strongly affects the compressive strength of the briquette. As the percentage of the rice bran increases, the compressive strength and the heating value of the biomass briquette increase. Most interestingly, the thermo-energy, which is used to compress the briquette of the rice straw, will be minimized if a certain percentage of the binder (such as rice bran, sawdust, or the other biomass waste) is mixed with the smashed rice straw. (author)

  4. Current progress on genetic interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulin JIA; Guangjie LIU; Stefano COSTANZO; Seonghee LEE; Yuntao DAI

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of genetic interactions between rice and its pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani should lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of host resistance, and the improvement of strategies to manage rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Currently, dozens office resistance (R) genes against specific races of the blast fungus have been described. Among them, ten were molecularly characterized and some were widely used for breeding for genetic resistance. The Pi-ta gene was one of the best characterized rice R genes. Following the elucidation of its molecular structure, interaction, distribution, and evolution, user friendly DNA markers were developed from portions of the cloned genes to facilitate the incorporations of the Pi-ta mediated resistance into improved rice varieties using marker assisted selection (MAS). However, rice blast is still a major threat for stable rice production because of race change mutations occurring in rice fields, which often overcome added resistance based on single R genes, and these virulent races of M. oryzae pose a continued challenge for blast control. For sheath blight, progress has been made on the exploration of novel sources of resistance from wild rice relatives and indica rice cultivars. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL), named qSB9-2, was recently verified in several mapping populations with different phenotyping methods, including greenhouse methods. The ability to identify qSB9-2 using greenhouse methods should accelerate the efforts on the qSB9-2 fine mapping and positional cloning.

  5. Invastigation influence of Additives to RiceWater Absorption and cooked rice quaitity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jialian; Yang Ronghua

    2001-01-01

    Using glucono-δ-lactone, sodium polyphosphate, emulsifier, 3- cyclodextrin and proteinase as main additive, the water-absorbing quality of rice under different conditions and the methods to improve the edible quality of cooked rice are systematically investigated. The experimental result indicates that the water-absorbing ability of rice at room temperature can be increased significantly by soaking it in a 1:2 mixture of sodium polyphosphate and glucono-δ-lactone. The cooked rice quality can be apparently improved by soaking in a mixture of sodium polyphosphate, glucono-δ-lactone, emulsifier, β -cyclodextrin and protease.

  6. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steven L Liebling

    2000-10-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  7. Charged Galileon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  8. Ultramassive Black Hole Coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Fazeel; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gr...

  9. Effects of aleurone layer on rice cooking: A histological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Zhong, Yejun; Luo, Dawen; Li, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-15

    Understanding how aleurone layer (AL) affects rice cooking behaviour is important for rice processing. Individual effects of AL on rice cooking behaviour were evaluated and histological characters of AL before and after cooking were investigated. AL slightly affected rice cooking quality (optimum cooking time, water absorption, volume expansion ratio and total solids loss) while remarkably affected rice texture (hardness and adhesiveness) and peak viscosity. Histological investigation showed that channels were formed in AL during cooking. The channels facilitated the penetration of water, which could explain why AL exhibited slight effects on rice cooking quality. In addition, thick cell walls and thermally stable aleurone grains were widely distributed in AL. Leached components accumulated on them and formed a reinforced coated film on rice surface during cooking, which may be a possible mechanism accounting for the remarkable effect of AL on rice texture. Histological characters of AL are closely related with rice cooking behaviour.

  10. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  11. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  12. Rapid Determination of Silicon Content in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Wei-min; ZHANG Ke-qin; DUAN Bin-wu; SUN Cheng-xiao; ZHENG Kang-le; CAI Run; ZHUANG Jie-yun

    2005-01-01

    A method for rapid determination of silicon content in rice was introduced. The reliability of this method was verified byusing a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of rice cross Zhenshan 97B / Milyang 46. Two hundred and forty-nine RILs weretransplanted in two replications. Simple correlation coefficients on the silicon content in the hull, flag leaf and stem in rice betweenduplicate samples of 498 rice materials were 0.97954, 0.97026 and 0.98848, respectively. Ten representative samples wereselected for measurement using the high-temperature alkaline fusion method. Simple correlation coefficient between the siliconcontents determined by the high-temperature alkaline fusion method and by the present method is 0.9993.

  13. Stamen specification and anther development in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG DaBing; WILSON Zoe A

    2009-01-01

    Male reproductive development is a complex biological process which includes the formation of the stamen with differentiated anther tissues, in which microspores/pollens are generated, then anther dehiscence and subsequently pollination. Stamen specification and anther development involve a number of extraordinary events such as meristem transition, cell division and differentiation, cell to cell communication, etc., which need the cooperative interaction of sporophytic and gametophytic genes. The advent of various tools for rice functional gene identification, such as complete genome sequence, genome-wide microarrays, collections of mutants, has greatly facilitated our understanding of mechanisms of rice stamen specification and anther development. Male sterile lines are critical for hybrid rice breeding, therefore understanding these processes will not only contribute greatly to the basic knowledge of crop developmental biology, but also to the development of new varieties for hybrid rice breeding in the future.

  14. Hunting Plan : Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this hunting plan for Rice Lake NWR are to: provide a method of removing white-tailed deer from the area population to maintain the general health...

  15. Rice saabus Euroopat taltsutama / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    USA välisminister Condolezza Rice alustas ringreisi Euroopas, eesmärgiks anda vastulöök USA-d tabanud kriitikale sõjavangide kohtlemise ja teistes riikides oma luuretalituse salavanglate pidamise pärast

  16. 稻文化的再思考(11):古今科技--煮饭:从万家炊烟到一键按下饭来香%Rice Culture Rethinking(11)---Ancient and Modern Sci-techniques:Rice Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞乾林; 林海; 王志刚

    2015-01-01

    回顾了从万家炊烟的传统煮饭到一键按下饭来香的现代电饭煲煮饭的发展,包括煮饭蒸饭用的锅从釜到钢精锅到现代的高压锅、电饭煲、电压力锅,灶从柴灶到煤炉再到现代的燃气灶、电磁炉,火(热源)从木柴到煤、煤气、天然气再到电的发展,介绍了养生养体的饭粥和几种特色饭如扬州炒饭、乌米饭和社饭。%The development of rice cooking from traditional cooking by fire to modern cooking by electric rice cooker are reviewed, including pot from reactor to aluminium pot, to modern pressure cooker, rice cooker, electric pressure cooker;stove from tandir to coal stove, to modern fuel gas stove, induction cooker;fire (heat source) from wood to coal, to fuel gas, to modern electricity. Some cooked rice and gruel such as Yangzhou fried egg rice, black rice, shefan, are described in the paper.

  17. Impact of six transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on four nontarget thrips species attacking rice panicles in the paddy field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Z R; Tian, J C; Chen, Y; Fang, Q; Hu, C; Peng, Y F; Ye, G Y

    2013-02-01

    As a key component of ecological risk assessments, nontarget effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice have been tested under laboratory and field conditions for various organisms. A 2-yr field experiment was conducted to observe the nontarget effects of six transgenic rice lines (expressing the Cry1Ab or fused protein of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac) on four nontarget thrips species including Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), F. tenuicornis (Uzel), Haplothrips aculeatus (F.), and H. tritici (Kurd), as compared with their rice parental control lines. Two sampling methods including the beat plate and plastic bag method were used to monitor the population densities of the four thrips species for 2 yr. The results showed that the seasonal average densities of four tested thrips species in Bt rice plots were significantly lower than or very similar to those in the non-Bt rice plots depending on rice genotypes, sampling methods, and years. Among all six tested Bt rice lines, transgenic B1 and KMD2 lines suppressed the population of these tested thrips species the most. Our results indicate that the tested Bt rice lines are unlikely to result in high population pressure of thrips species in comparison with non-Bt rice. In some cases, Bt rice lines could significantly suppress thrips populations in the rice ecosystem. In addition, compatibility of Bt rice, with rice host plant resistance to nontarget sucking pests is also discussed within an overall integrated pest management program for rice. PMID:23339799

  18. Rice prices and poverty in Liberia

    OpenAIRE

    Tsimpo, Clarence; Wodon, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    When assessing the impact of changes in food prices on poverty, it is important to consider food producers (who may benefit from an increase in prices) as well as consumers (who loose out when the price increases), with a focus on poor consumers and producers. In the case of rice in Liberia however, the impact of a change in price is not ambiguous because a large share of the rice consumed ...

  19. THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT OF RICE TRANSPLANTING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Chetan Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    As in India, the plantation cost is increasing day by day. As such time the efficiency of production is decreases. One of the reason behind this is the cost of labourship, availability of labours and the expenses during the farming. So my project is basically on the modification on such processes. For that I have designed the mechanical rice-transplanter machine which will be replacement of manual plantation process. My study is based on theoretical development of mechanical rice-transplanter...

  20. Rice Consumption Patterns and Quantity Demand Elasticities

    OpenAIRE

    Isavilanonda Somporn; Kongrithi Weerasak

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores rice consumption patterns of Thai households and estimates income and price elasticities of quantity demand. The study found that the average annual consumption of rice for Thai households was 101 kilogram per person. The income elasticity of quantity demand is positive and inelastic (close to zero). The households in urban areas tend to have less income elasticity than those in rural areas. The households in the highest income rank of 25% had negative income elasticity. T...

  1. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  2. Rice Tariffs and Their Impact on the Japanese Market (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KEIDA Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how the volume of rice imports would be affected if the Japanese government were to reduce tariffs on rice by looking at the current state of the Simultaneous Buy-and-Sell (SBS) system for rice imports. The Japanese government is required to import 770,000 tons of rice per year to maintain minimum access. However, a large portion of minimum access rice is not used for domestic consumption—only 100,000 tons of SBS rice is used for human consumption. Under the SBS syst...

  3. Selection of Thai starter components for ethanol production utilizing malted rice from waste paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilux Chaijamrus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of mixed herbs in Thai rice wine starter (Loog-pang were investigated in order to directly maintain theefficiency of the microbial community (Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Amylomyces sp., Gluconobacter sp. and Pediocccuspentosaceus. The optimum formula was galanga, garlic, long pepper, licorice, and black pepper at the ratio of 0.5:8:1:4:1,respectively. Previously, waste paddy has been used directly as a renewable resource for fuel ethanol production using solidstate fermentation (SSF with Loog-pang. In this study, hydrolyzed malted rice starch was used as the sole nutrient source insubmerged fermentation (SmF to enhance the process yield. The maximum ethanol productivity (4.08 g/kg waste paddy h-1and the highest ethanol concentration (149±7.0 g/kg waste paddy were obtained after 48 hrs of incubation. The resultsindicated that starch saccharification provided a higher ethanol yield (48.38 g/100g sugar consumed than SSF. In addition,the efficiency of ethanol fermentation was 67% which is similar to that of the malted rice made from normal paddy (68%.This result suggests that waste paddy could be used as an alternative raw material for ethanol production.

  4. Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyda Chhinh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu and (i damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI. In seven of the years between 1994 and 2006 droughts damaged >1000 ha of rice in the Kampong Speu province. Furthermore, in 11 years >200 ha of rice were damaged. A critical success index of 0.66 obtained for an analysis of SPI-defined drought and area rice damage in the province indicates a strong statistical relationship. A statistically significant correlation (r = −0.455 was achieved between Niño 3.4 and 12-month SPI values lagged by three months, this indicates the importance of ENSO linkages in explaining drought in this region. Late season droughts lead to greater rice damage than early- and mid-season droughts.

  5. Recent Progress on Rice Genetics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Jiang; Long-Biao Quo; Qian Qian

    2007-01-01

    Through thousands of years of evolution and cultivation, tremendously rich genetic diversity has been accumulated in rice (Oryza sativa L.), developing a large germplasm pool from which people can select varieties with morphologies of interest and other important agronomic traits. With the development of modern genetics, scientists have paid more attention to the genetic value of these elite varieties and germplasms, and such rich rice resources provide a good foundation for genetic research in China. Approximately 100 000 accessions of radiation-, chemical- or insertion-induced mutagenesis have been generated since the 1980s, and great progress has been made on rice molecular genetics. So far at least 16 variant/mutant genes including MOC1, BC1, SKC1, and Rf genes have been isolated and characterized in China. These achievements greatly promote the research on functional genomics, understanding the mechanism of plant development and molecular design breeding of rice in China. Here we review the progress of three aspects of rice genetics in China: moving forward at the molecular level, genetic research on elite varieties and germplasms, and new gene screening and genetic analysis using mutants. The prospects of rice genetics are also discussed.

  6. Characterization of Rice Husk for Cyclone Gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Yusof, I.; Farid, N. A.; Zainal, Z. A.; Azman, M.

    The characterization of rice husk from local rice mills has been studied and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as a biomass fuel for a cyclone gasifier. The raw rice husk was pre-treated throughout a grinding process into smaller sizes of particles which is within a range of 0.4 to 1 mm and the sample of ground rice husk was analyzed for its fuel characteristics. The result of proximate analysis shows that the ground rice husk with size distribution within 0.4 to 1 mm contains 13.4% of fixed carbon, 62.95% of volatile matter and 18.5% of ash on dry basis. The moisture content of the sample was measured and determined as 10.4% (wet basis) and the calorific value was found to be approximately 14.8 MJ kg-1 with bulk density of 91.46 kg m-3. The result of ultimate analysis validates both ash and moisture content which are found to be 18.15 and 10.4%, respectively. Other elemental compositions determined by the ultimate analysis are carbon (37.9%), hydrogen (5.2%), nitrogen (0.14%), sulfur (0.61%) and oxygen (27.7% by difference). The study has identified that the fuel characteristics of the ground rice husk is comparable with other types of biomass and thus, making it another potential source of fuel for the cyclone gasification system.

  7. Radiosensitivity studies in basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three Basmati rice varieties (Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, and Super Basmati)were used to examine varietals differences in radiosensitivity to gamma radiation. Dry seeds of rice varieties were exposed to 150, 200, 250 and 300 Gy of gamma rays. Sensitivity to dose was determined by various measurements on the M1 generation and on the basis of frequency of various types of chlorophyll mutations obtained in the M2 generation. With the increase in radiation dose a decrease in germination, seedling height, root length and emergence under field conditions was observed in M1 generation. In contrast,the gamma rays doses had some stimulatory effects on total spike lets at the maturity stage. These effects were observed in all the gamma radiation treatments in case of Basmati 370 where total spike lets increased above the non-irradiated control. Plant height and seed fertility decreased with increase in gamma radiation dose in an approximately linear fashion. The LD50 values for seed fertility were 238, 232 and 223 Gy for Basmati 370, Basmati Pak and Super Basmati, respectively. The effectiveness of the dose in inducing genetical changes was estimated by counting the number of chlorophyll mutations in the M2 generation. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations increased with the radiation dosage up to 250 Gy which sharply decreased thereafter. Gamma ray dose of 200 and 250 Gy produced the highest mutation frequency for Basmati 370 followed by Basmati Pak and Super Basmati. The albina type of mutation was most frequent in all the three varieties

  8. Charged Galileon black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...

  9. Black Afrikaans: An alternative use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P. Maritz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a first look at the nature of the alternative functions of Black Afrikaans. These functions realise when Black Afrikaans is imitated by Afrikaans mother-tongue speakers. The functions of the alternative use of Black Afrikaans centre on: the social nature of the variety, sensitivity as a deciding role-player, identity, humour, inclusivity and exclusivity, language repertoire and similar variety. Furthermore, because of the direct relationship between Black Afrikaans, Pidginised Afrikaans and the imitation of Black Afrikaans, these varieties are compared to establish a starting point description for the imitation of Black Afrikaans, as the variety has not yet been described.

  10. The Origin of Flooded Rice Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rice cultivation has long been considered to have originated from seeding of annual types of wild ricesomewhere in subtropics, tropics or in the Yangtze River basin. That idea, however, contains a fatally weak point, when we consider the tremendous difficulty for primitive human to seed any cereal crop in the warm and humid climate, where weed thrives all year round. Instead of the accepted theory, we have to see a reality that vegetative propagation of edible plants is a dominant form of agriculture in such regions. The possibility is discussed that Job's tears and rice, two cereal crops unique to the region, might have been developed via vegetative propagation to obtain materials for medicine or herb tea in backyard gardens prior to cereal production. This idea is supported by the fact that rice in temperate regions is still perennial in its growth habit and that such backyard gardens with transplanted taro can still be seen from Yunnan Province of China to Laos. Thanks to detailed survey of wild rice throughout China for 1970-1980, it is now confirmed that a set of clones of wild rice exist in shallow swamps in Jiangxi Province, an area with severe winter cold. In early summer ancient farmers may have divided the sprouting buds and spread them by transplanting into flooded shallow marsh. Such way of propagation might have faster improved less productive rice through a better genetic potential for response to human interference than quick fixation in seed propagation, because vegetative parts are heterogeneous. Obviously, such a primitive manner of rice cultivation did include the essential parts of rice farming, i.e., nursery bed, transplanting in flooded field of shallow marsh like. Transfer from the primitive nursery to true nursery by seed may have later allowed rice cultivation to be extended to northern regions. In thus devised flooded cultivation there were a series of unique advantages, i.e.; continuous cropping of rice in a same plot, no soil erosion

  11. Rice-eating quality among consumers in different rice grain preference countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    More rice is eaten nowadays in traditionally nonrice-eating countries. This study investigated consumer eating quality preferences among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic implications. A quantitative study with 1,128 consumers of target nationalities w

  12. Transporters of arsenite in rice and their role in arsenic accumulation in rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian Feng; Yamaji, Naoki; Mitani, Namiki; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Su, Yu-Hong; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2008-07-22

    Arsenic poisoning affects millions of people worldwide. Human arsenic intake from rice consumption can be substantial because rice is particularly efficient in assimilating arsenic from paddy soils, although the mechanism has not been elucidated. Here we report that two different types of transporters mediate transport of arsenite, the predominant form of arsenic in paddy soil, from the external medium to the xylem. Transporters belonging to the NIP subfamily of aquaporins in rice are permeable to arsenite but not to arsenate. Mutation in OsNIP2;1 (Lsi1, a silicon influx transporter) significantly decreases arsenite uptake. Furthermore, in the rice mutants defective in the silicon efflux transporter Lsi2, arsenite transport to the xylem and accumulation in shoots and grain decreased greatly. Mutation in Lsi2 had a much greater impact on arsenic accumulation in shoots and grain in field-grown rice than Lsi1. Arsenite transport in rice roots therefore shares the same highly efficient pathway as silicon, which explains why rice is efficient in arsenic accumulation. Our results provide insight into the uptake mechanism of arsenite in rice and strategies for reducing arsenic accumulation in grain for enhanced food safety.

  13. Effect of red rice interference in fourth densities of commercial rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García de la Osa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were carried out in The Regional Research Grain Station “Sur del Jíbaro”, Sancti Spíritus, in order to study the infestation effect of 0, 12, 25, 50, 100 and 200 red rice plants per square meter (m2 on growth and yields of commercial variety J-104, seeded at 50, 100, 200 and 300 plants/m². Yield of J-104 rice variety decreased with the increase in red rice density. Crop yield decrease in the dry season ranged from 10.7 to 94.8% with infestations of 12 and 200 red rice plants /m², respectively; while in the wet season changed from 11.4 to 91.5 % with similar level in infestations. In both seasons 12 red rice plants were enough to cause a significant reduction in commercial rice yields in relation to the control treatment (without red rice infestation. The lost in crop yield was due to the decreased in panicles/ m² and filled grains per panicle, caused by the interference with red rice.

  14. Characteristics of Resistance to Rice Sheath Blight of Zhongda 2, a Transgenic Rice Line as Modified by Gene "RC24"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hong-xu; XU Xin-ping; ZHANG Jian-zhong; GUO Jian-fu; LI Bao-jian

    2004-01-01

    The transgenic rice, Zhongda 2, which was genetically modified from an indica rice line Zhuxian B by rice chitinase gene (RC24), had high resistance to rice sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) in laboratory and a two-year field experiment. The pathogen could invade sheath of Zhongda 2 and induce symptoms of the disease. No difference was noted in time of penetration or incubation period between Zhongda 2 and non-transgenic rice control, Zhuxian B, but the hyphae lysate could be observed earlier five non-transgenic rice lines showed higher resistance than donor non-transgenic parents, but the resistance was different along with the different maternal parents.

  15. Analysis of the Demand for Rice in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oyinbo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The kernel of this study was to ascertain the determinants of rice consumption and the compensated as well as the uncompensated demand for rice in Kaduna State using household consumption data obtained from a sample of 310 households through the instrumentality of a structured questionnaire. LA-AIDS model was employed to analyse the data and the result of the data analysis showed that the price of rice, price of beans, price of maize, price of yam, food expenditure, age of household head, household income and number of household income earners were all significant in influencing the households demand for rice. The estimated compensated (-0.7921 and uncompensated(-0.8887 own price elasticities of rice indicated that rice was price inelastic and the estimated expenditure(0.69 elasticity of rice indicated that rice is not a luxury in the households food basket but a necessity. From the findings of the study, it is recommended that efforts at increasing supply of local rice should be intensified as this will reduce the prices of local rice brands and invariably enhance demand for local rice by households as rice was estimated to be own-price inelastic and also, rice should be prioritized as a core food crop in food security programmes as it was found to be a necessity in households food basket.

  16. Comparison of Ileal Digested Production of Parental Rice and Rice Genetically Modified With Cowpeas Trypsin Inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in parental rice and rice genetically modified with sck gene. Methods Six experimental swines were surgically fixed with a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum and fed with parental rice and rice genetically modified with sck gene alternately. The ileum digesta were collected and analyzed for determination of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids. Results The apparent and true digestibility of protein was similar in these two types of rice. Except for the apparent digestibility of lysine, there was no difference in the apparent and true digestibility of the other 17 amino acids. Conclusion The digestibility of protein and amino acids is not changed by the insertion of foreign gene, so it can meet the request of "substantial equivalence" in digestibility of protein and amino acids.

  17. Evidence for Non-Transmission of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV through Rice Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy, AA.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An indexing of the organs (radicle and plumule and components (husk, endosperm and embryo of rice seeds using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was carried out to detect Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV and establish the exact location of the virus in the rice seed. RYMV was detected only in the husk (seed coat but not in the endosperm, plumule, radicle, nor embryo. None of the seedlings raised from the seeds expressed RYMV symptoms. No virus particle was detected by the ELISA test in the leaves of the screenhouse-reared plants obtained from seeds of infected plants. The results indicate that RYMV is apparently not transmitted through rice seed probably because the virus is seed-borne in the husk (seed coat of mature rice seeds.

  18. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  19. Black hole entropy quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Corichi, A; Fernandez-Borja, E; Corichi, Alejandro; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernandez-Borja, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the pioneer works of Bekenstein and Hawking, black hole entropy has been known to have a quantum origin. Furthermore, it has long been argued by Bekenstein that entropy should be quantized in discrete (equidistant) steps given its identification with horizon area in (semi-)classical general relativity and the properties of area as an adiabatic invariant. This lead to the suggestion that black hole area should also be quantized in equidistant steps to account for the discrete black hole entropy. Here we shall show that loop quantum gravity, in which area is not quantized in equidistant steps can nevertheless be consistent with Bekenstein's equidistant entropy proposal in a subtle way. For that we perform a detailed analysis of the number of microstates compatible with a given area and show that an observed oscillatory behavior in the entropy-area relation, when properly interpreted yields an entropy that has discrete, equidistant values that are consistent with the Bekenstein framework.

  20. Photon Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, X; Mendoza, S; Sussman, R A

    2005-01-01

    We study the relationship between the energy and entropy of a black body photon gas, within an idealised spherical adiabatic enclosure of radius R, as this is compressed into a self-gravitating regime. We show that this regime approximately coincides with the black hole regime for the system, i.e., R ~ R_{s}, where R_{s} denotes the Schwarzschild radius of the system. The entropy of this system is always below the suggested Holographic bound, even as R \\to R_{s}. A plausible quantum configuration for the photon gas at R \\to R_{s} is suggested, which satisfies all energy, entropy and temperature black hole conditions. Finally we examine our results from the point of view of recent Loop Quantum Gravity ideas.

  1. Black Hole Bose Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2013-12-01

    General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a "cold", stable remnant.

  2. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids. PMID:25768746

  3. Noncommutative black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a general derivation, for any static spherically symmetric metric, of the relation Th=(K/2π) connecting the black hole temperature (Th) with the surface gravity (K), following the tunneling interpretation of Hawking radiation. This derivation is valid even beyond the semi-classical regime, i.e. when quantum effects are not negligible. The formalism is then applied to a spherically symmetric, stationary noncommutative Schwarzschild space-time. The effects of backreaction are also included. For such a black hole the Hawking temperature is computed in a closed form. A graphical analysis reveals interesting features regarding the variation of the Hawking temperature (including corrections due to noncommutativity and backreaction) with the small radius of the black hole. The entropy and tunneling rate valid for the leading order in the noncommutative parameter are calculated. We also show that the noncommutative Bekenstein-Hawking area law has the same functional form as the usual one

  4. Tunneling Through Black Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liu

    2007-01-01

    Hawking radiation of black ring solutions to 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory is analyzed by use of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. To get the correct tunneling amplitude and emission rate, we adopt and develop the Angheben-Nadalini-Vanzo-Zerbini covariant approach to cover the effects of rotation and electronic discharge all at once, and the effect of back reaction is also taken into account. This constitutes a unified approach to the tunneling problem. Provided the first law of thermodynamics for black rings holds, the emission rate is proportional to the exponential of the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Explicit calculation for black ring temperatures agrees exactly with the results obtained via the classical surface gravity method and the quasi-local formalism.

  5. Uruguayan rice (Oritza sativa L. oils characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rodríguez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The rice crop is one of the most developed agricultural activities in Uruguay, having become the third item of export. Although the main product of the rice chain is the elaborated rice, in the recent years several industries have begun to produce co-products of rice: crude rice oil and refined oil, rice flour and cookies. The production of crude oil begins with ground, peeled and polished rice grain. This product can be used in animal nourishment or in oil extraction. Refinement from the crude rice oil takes the same steps than any other vegetable oil. As any other vegetable oil, rice oil is very prone to oxidation, this is due to the high percentage of polyinsaturated acids, despite the vitamin E content and its role of antioxidant. Therefore, sometimes additional stabilization is needed. The main purpose of this work is to characterize the Uruguayan Rice Oils by determining the following parameters: profile of fatty acids, alpha tocopherol, Iodine Index, Refraction Index, Saponification Index, Unsaponifiable Matter and Density at 20ºC. The Norm used as reference was the American Oil Chemistry Society. In this condition the statistical analysis performed shows that there is not a model that could explain the variability of the studied factors nor reduce the number of factors that must be taken into consideration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, performed according to Lillieford correction to verify normality, showed that distribution of fluctuations that correspond to the three most abundant fatty acids studied (16:0, 18:1 and 18:2 can be considered as normal. The obtained values for the insaturated fatty acids were from15.6 to18.2 for 16:0, from 42.1 to 43.8 for 18:1 and from 34.8 to 37.4 for 18:2. These results obtained were correlated with the high values of the Iodine Index: 100.6 - 101.8. Results of vitamin E expressed as alpha tocopherol are between 7 and 35 mg/100g, but in 75% of the cases the results oscillated between 18 and 26 mg/100g

  6. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ∞≅2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  7. Slowly balding black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-10-01

    The “no-hair” theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively “frozen in” the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πcℏ), where Φ∞≈2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole’s magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  8. Are Black Holes Springy?

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2014-01-01

    A $(3+1)$-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed $\\Omega_+$ can be used to define an effective spring constant, $k=m\\Omega_+^2$. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, $k = \\kappa $, which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: $2\\pi T = \\kappa - k$. Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force $F = 1/4$, which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  9. Noncommutative solitonic black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value. (paper)

  10. Noncommutative solitonic black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2012-05-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.

  11. Horndeski black hole geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyakova, D A

    2016-01-01

    We examine geodesics for the scalar-tensor black holes in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits may not be present within some model parameters range. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations. We also present a new (although very similar to those previously known) solution, which contains the orbits we expect from a compact object, admits regular scalar field at the horizon and and can fit into the known stability criteria.

  12. Dancing with black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Aarseth, Sverre J

    2007-01-01

    We describe efforts over the last six years to implement regularization methods suitable for studying one or more interacting black holes by direct N-body simulations. Three different methods have been adapted to large-N systems: (i) Time-Transformed Leapfrog, (ii) Wheel-Spoke, and (iii) Algorithmic Regularization. These methods have been tried out with some success on GRAPE-type computers. Special emphasis has also been devoted to including post-Newtonian terms, with application to moderately massive black holes in stellar clusters. Some examples of simulations leading to coalescence by gravitational radiation will be presented to illustrate the practical usefulness of such methods.

  13. Modeling black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this book is two-fold: the first part gives a fully detailed and pedagogical presentation of the Hawking effect and its physical implications, and the second discusses the backreaction problem, especially in connection with exactly solvable semiclassical models that describe analytically the black hole evaporation process. The book aims to establish a link between the general relativistic viewpoint on black hole evaporation and the new CFT-type approaches to the subject. The detailed discussion on backreaction effects is also extremely valuable.

  14. Black-pigmented sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Martínez-Girón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black-pigmented sputum, also called "melanoptysis," is a symptom that may be observed in certain pathologies such us coal workers′ pneumoconiosis (anthracosis. The cavitation and liquefaction of a fibrosed mass by an infectious process (tuberculosis, infections by anaerobes, etc. or by ischemic necrosis may cause expectoration of a blackish secretion. We report the case of a patient with labor precedents as a coal worker, from whom abundant black sputum was obtained in the course of an incidental expectoration. Cyto-histological findings are shown and a differential diagnosis is established.

  15. Superfluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hennigar, Robie A; Tjoa, Erickson

    2016-01-01

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "$\\lambda$-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid $^4$He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically AdS hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  16. Silicon-mediated resistance in a susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Han

    Full Text Available The rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée, is one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries. Rice varieties resistant to the rice leaf folder are generally characterized by high silicon content. In this study, silicon amendment, at 0.16 and 0.32 g Si/kg soil, enhanced resistance of a susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder. Silicon addition to rice plants at both the low and high rates significantly extended larval development and reduced larval survival rate and pupation rate in the rice leaf folder. When applied at the high rate, silicon amendment reduced third-instars' weight gain and pupal weight. Altogether, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase and net reproduction rate of the rice leaf folder population were all reduced at both the low and high silicon addition rates. Although the third instars consumed more in silicon-amended treatments, C:N ratio in rice leaves was significantly increased and food conversion efficiencies were reduced due to increased silicon concentration in rice leaves. Our results indicate that reduced food quality and food conversion efficiencies resulted from silicon addition account for the enhanced resistance in the susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder.

  17. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China.

  18. Evaluating Welfare Effects of Rice Import Quota in Japan: Based on Measuring Non-Tariff Barriers of SBS Rice Imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhui Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this study is to analyze welfare effects of Japan’s rice import quota focusing on the simultaneous buy and sell (SBS of the rice importation minimum access (MA policy. Based on the utility function specified in this study, the constructed model is adopted to measure consumption patterns through estimating elasticity of substitution between imported rice and Japan’s domestic rice, and consumers’ preference parameters for different kinds of rice. The results showed that Japanese households prefer domestic rice to the imported rice. Besides, three scenarios of adjusting rice quota volumes were carried out to examine the changes in consumer prices of imported rice and Japanese consumers’ welfares. The results revealed that tariff equivalents of the SBS import quota almost doubled the scale of the mark-up, and the intervention by the Ministry of Agriculture of Japan did cause non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs. Finally, if the SBS rice quota quantity was fixed at or larger than 180 thousand tons every fiscal year, the consumer prices of imported rice in Japan’s market would decrease to be less than the prices of Japan’s domestic rice, and therefore the imported rice would have more price advantages in this scenario.

  19. Decreasing Rice Supply as the Impact Of The Government’s Policy on Rice Grain Purchasing Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Lantarsih

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at examining: (1 rice supply adjustment for the long-term equilibrium (2 the impact of the government’s policies on rice grain purchasing price to the rice supply, (3 and factors influencing the long-term and short-term rice supply in the rice-producing regions in Indonesia. This research used the panel data regression with the error correction model approach. The data were the yearly time series data of 1987 through 2008. The results showed that (1 the rice supply adjustment for the long-term equilibrium was at 68%, (2 in the long term, the government’s policies on rice grain purchasing price reduced the rice supply, (3 in the long term, the rice retail price, the rain fall, and the technology had a positive influence on the rice supply, while the cassava and soybean prices had a negative influence. In the short term, the rice retail price and technology had a positive influence, while the cassava and soybean prices and the monetary crisis dummy had a negative influence to the rice supply in the rice-producing regions in Indonesia.

  20. NEWS:Introduction of Brazil upland rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINantian

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the government of Brazil presented nine crop varieties to China. One of them is Brazil upland rice IAPAR9. It was evaluated for commercial usage in China by China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI).

  1. Improving Drought Tolerance of Rice by Designed QTL Pyramiding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.K. Li; Y. Sun; L.H. Zhu; D. Dwivedi; Y.M. Gao; T.Q. Zheng; R. Lafitte; J.L. Xu; D. Mackill; B.Y. Fu; J.Domingo

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drought is the most important factor limiting rice yields in the rainfed areas of Asia. To overcome the problem, we developed a new strategy 'designed QTL pyramiding' to more efficiently develop drought tolerant (DT)rice cultivars.

  2. Fisheries Management Plan: Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge provides a sport fishery on three of the four refuge lakes. Fishing is restricted to designated areas. Rice Lake, though not open...

  3. Status and Prospects of Hybrid Rice Breeding in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cai-lin

    2005-01-01

    Research on hybrid rice in Jiangsu Province, China began in 1970. Great progress has been made since then, which can be divided into three stages according to the development of hybrid rice breeding and production in Jiangsu Province. The first stage was beginning stage from 1970 to 1980, when progress was mainly made in cytoplasmic male sterile line breeding. The second stage could be described as developing stage, from 1980 to 1995, when indica hybrid rice was rapidly popularized, and japonica hybrid rice became popular later. From 1996, hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province entered the third stage, when both indica and japonica hybrid rice breeding in the three-line system or intersubspecific hybrid rice breeding in the two-line system made a great breakthrough with the successful breeding of the hybrids Teyou 559, 9 You 138 and Liangyoupeijiu. The developing trend of hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province is also discussed.

  4. Screening for Rice Germplasms with Specially-Elongated Mesocotyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ming-guo; ZHANG Guang-heng; LIN Jian-rong; CHENG Shi-hua

    2005-01-01

    The lengths of mesocotyl in the seedlings of 84 lowland rice varieties and 12 upland rice varieties were measured following the treatments of daylight and darkness during germination. The elongation of mesocotyl in the varieties tested was inhibited under daylight condition, and the mesocotyl of all the varieties elongated variably under darkness condition. The elongated lengths of the mesocotyl in upland rice, ranging from 0.36 cm to 1.61 cm with an average of 0.81 cm, was obviously longer than those in lowland rice, ranging from 0.12 cm to 1.56 cm with an average of 0.42 cm. Among 14 rice varieties with over 1 cm of mesocotyl length, five belonged to upland rice, and nine to lowland rice. The possible utilization of the elongated-mesocotyl rice germplasm in varietal improvement, direct-seeded planting and seed purity testing were discussed.

  5. Neolithic rice paddy from the Zhaojiazhuang site, Shandong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To identify and study the Neolithic rice paddy in Shandong, eastern China, is not only an important issue in the development of Chinese rice agriculture, but also a key part of the study on rice spread in East Asia. Due to the limitation of archaeological materials and the research methods, there have been no discoveries about the Neolithic rice paddy in Shandong Province for a long time. Based on the identification of possible rice paddy by archaeological excavation, phytolith analysis of soil samples from this "paddy" has been systematically carried out and the results have shown a 4600-4300 years old rice paddy preserved at the Zhaojiazhuang site. This is the first examination and study of the rice paddy in North China by systematic phytolith analysis, which is very important for the Neolithic archaeological research and the study of the eastward spread of rice agricultural techniques in East Asia.

  6. Can transgenic rice cause ecological risks through transgene escape?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Alien transgene escape from genetically engineered rice to non-transgenic varieties or close wild relatives (including weedy rice) may lead to unpredictable ecological risks. However, for transgene escape to occur three conditions need to be met: (i) spatially, transgenic rice and its non-transgenic counterparts or wild relatives should have sympatric distributions; (ii) temporally, the flowering time of transgenic rice and the non-transgenic varieties or wild relatives should overlap; and (iii) biologically, transgenic rice and its wild relative species should have such a sufficiently close relationship that their interspecific hybrids can have normal generative reproduction. This paper presents research data on the geographic distribution, flowering habits, interspecific hybridization, and gene flow of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and its closely related wild relatives containing the AA genome. The objective is to estimate the possibility of transgene escape to non-transgenic rice varieties and wild relatives of rice, which may result in unpredictable ecological risks.

  7. Reflections on a Black Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2016-01-01

    A black mirror is an accelerated boundary that produces particles in an exact correspondence to an evaporating black hole. We investigate the spectral dynamics of the particle creation during the formation process.

  8. The black hole final state

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Maldacena, Juan

    2003-01-01

    We propose that in quantum gravity one needs to impose a final state boundary condition at black hole singularities. This resolves the apparent contradiction between string theory and semiclassical arguments over whether black hole evaporation is unitary.

  9. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  10. Meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvesteijn, R.G.E.; Kohrman, E.

    2008-01-01

    In de vollegrondsrozenteelt zorgde Black Mold in 2007 voor een groot aantal mislukte oculaties. In 2008 waren er aanzienlijk minder problemen. Uit onderzoek is meer bekend over de oorzaak en bestrijding van Black Mold.

  11. Conquering the Black Girl Blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lani Valencia; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly

    2015-10-01

    An examination of the literature on epidemiology, etiology, and use of services for this population reveals an insufficient application of culturally congruent approaches to intervening with black women. An exploration of the social work practice literature and other relevant fields indicate that black feminist perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a clearer understanding of the intersection and influence of oppression among black women struggling with psychiatric issues and provide a useful framework for mental health practice with this population. This article discusses the evolving black feminist thought and summarizes the scholarship on black women's mental health services needs and utilization issues. The article includes a discussion of black feminisms as an emerging mental health perspective, arguing that black feminist perspectives in therapy provide an ideal framework for services that are responsive to the values and health needs of black women. The article concludes with a case vignette that illustrates some of its points.

  12. Conquering the Black Girl Blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lani Valencia; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly

    2015-10-01

    An examination of the literature on epidemiology, etiology, and use of services for this population reveals an insufficient application of culturally congruent approaches to intervening with black women. An exploration of the social work practice literature and other relevant fields indicate that black feminist perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a clearer understanding of the intersection and influence of oppression among black women struggling with psychiatric issues and provide a useful framework for mental health practice with this population. This article discusses the evolving black feminist thought and summarizes the scholarship on black women's mental health services needs and utilization issues. The article includes a discussion of black feminisms as an emerging mental health perspective, arguing that black feminist perspectives in therapy provide an ideal framework for services that are responsive to the values and health needs of black women. The article concludes with a case vignette that illustrates some of its points. PMID:26489355

  13. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  14. Black Hole Evaporation. A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Benachenhou, Farid

    1994-01-01

    This thesis is a review of black hole evaporation with emphasis on recent results obtained for two dimensional black holes. First, the geometry of the most general stationary black hole in four dimensions is described and some classical quantities are defined. Then, a derivation of the spectrum of the radiation emitted during the evaporation is presented. In section four, a two dimensional model which has black hole solutions is introduced, the so-called CGHS model. These two dimensional blac...

  15. Black Hole: The Interior Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2016-01-01

    The information loss paradox is often discussed from the perspective of the observers who stay outside of a black hole. However, the interior spacetime of a black hole can be rather nontrivial. We discuss the open problems regarding the volume of a black hole, and whether it plays any role in information storage. We also emphasize the importance of resolving the black hole singularity, if one were to resolve the information loss paradox.

  16. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  17. Towards noncommutative quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole

  18. Towards Noncommutative Quantum Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Dominguez, J. C.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.; Sabido, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole.

  19. The Black Ring is Unstable

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We study non-axisymmetric linearised gravitational perturbations of the Emparan-Reall black ring using numerical methods. We find an unstable mode whose onset lies within the "fat" branch of the black ring and continues into the "thin" branch. Together with previous results using Penrose inequalities that fat black rings are unstable, this provides numerical evidence that the entire black ring family is unstable.

  20. Comparative properties of bamboo and rice straw pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Xianmiao Liu; Zhijia Liu,; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Zehui Jiang,; Xing’e Liu

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential major bio-energy resource. Tests were carried out to compare and evaluate the property of bamboo and rice straw pellets, rice straw being the other main source of biomass solid fuel in China. All physical properties of untreated bamboo pellets (UBP), untreated rice straw pellets (URP), carbonized bamboo pellets (CBP), and carbonized rice straw pellets (CRP) met the requirements of Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification for Residential/Commercial Densified includin...

  1. Natural conditions and cropping regionalization of rice area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUXianzhang

    1994-01-01

    The formation of rice distribution is based on certain natural ecological conditions and social economic environments. In China, rice cropping is distributed in a vast area extending across 5 temperature belts, the northernmost of rice growing area in the world being in China. Distribution of rice cropping is characterized by a gradual decrease from south to north, from large and concentrated regions in Southeast to small and separated areasin Northwest.

  2. Microbial community structure in the rhizosphere of rice plants

    OpenAIRE

    Björn eBreidenbach; Judith ePump; Marc Gregory Dumont

    2016-01-01

    The microbial community in the rhizosphere environment is critical for the health of land plants and the processing of soil organic matter. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which rice plants shape the microbial community in rice field soil over the course of a growing season. Rice (Oryza sativa) was cultivated under greenhouse conditions in rice field soil from Vercelli, Italy and the microbial community in the rhizosphere of planted soil microcosms was characterized...

  3. Microbial Community Structure in the Rhizosphere of Rice Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Breidenbach, Björn; Pump, Judith; Dumont, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    The microbial community in the rhizosphere environment is critical for the health of land plants and the processing of soil organic matter. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which rice plants shape the microbial community in rice field soil over the course of a growing season. Rice (Oryza sativa) was cultivated under greenhouse conditions in rice field soil from Vercelli, Italy and the microbial community in the rhizosphere of planted soil microcosms was characterized...

  4. RICE EXCHANGE ENTITLEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LABOUR IN RURAL BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Keya; Rahman, Pk. Md. Motiur

    2009-01-01

    In this paper efforts have been made to estimate coarse rice exchange entitlement of agricultural labour. Rice entitlement has been calculated for male and female in terms of labour wage earned by selling their labour power that they own. Sharp gender disparity is observed in rice exchange entitlement. The sharpest decline in entitlement is observed in 2008. Seasonality in rice exchange entitlement of labour power has also been examined.

  5. Weather Sensitivity of Rice Yield: Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    ANUBHAB PATTANAYAK; K.S. Kavi Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates the weather sensitivity of rice yield in India, using disaggregated (district) level information on rice and high resolution daily weather data over the period 1969-2007. Compared to existing India specific studies on rice which consider only the effects of nighttime (minimum) temperature, the present study takes into account the effects of both nighttime and daytime (maximum) temperatures along with other weather variables on rice yield. The results suggest that both nig...

  6. Popularising Direct Seeded Rice: Issues and Extension Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K.M.; Shahi, Brajesh

    2015-01-01

    Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) is the technology which is water, labour and energy efficient along with eco-friendly characteristics. Flooded rice is a major source of methane emission, while the use of nitrogen fertilizers produces nitrous oxide; both are greenhouse gases linked to global warming. The dominant method of rice establishment is transplanting in the rice-wheat growing areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). However, rising labour costs for establishing a nursery, puddling fields, and...

  7. Genetic improvement of rice for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    ANSARI, MAHMOOD UR RAHMAN; Shaheen, Tayyaba; BUKHARI, SHAZAI; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is among the most important food crops that provide a staple food for nearly half of the world's population. Rice crops are prone to various types of stresses, both biotic and abiotic. Biotic stresses include insect pests, fungus, bacteria, viruses, and herbicide toxicity. Among abiotic stresses, drought, cold, and salinity are also well studied in rice. Various genes have been identified, cloned, and characterized to combat these stresses and protect rice crops. T...

  8. Basmati Rice Fraud under the Magnifying Glass of DNA Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridez, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Basmati rice is a perfumed rice of high commercial value which is easily adulterated. A list of rice varieties accepted as true Basmati is the subject of an agreement between Europe, Pakistan and India. Each rice variety can be characterized by DNA profiling, thus offering to the control authorities a powerful tool to detect fraud. Mixtures of authentic Basmati and non-Basmati varieties can be quantified. During the last six years, about one third of the analysed samples proved to be fraudulent.

  9. Control of Echinochloa sp. in the Irrigated Rice Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Eduardo Panozzo; Dirceu Agostinetto; Pedro Valério Dutra de Moraes; Deivid Araújo Magano; Adilson Harter; Luciana Barros Pinto

    2014-01-01

    The species of Echinochloa (barnyardgrass) stand out among major weeds infesting rice cropping and damages are variable depending on the weed population, rice cultivar, and management practices adopted by rice farmers. The objective of this work was to measure the control of barnyardgrass in rice cropping, cultivar Qualimax 1, due to the early times of flood irrigation, application times, and doses of penoxsulam. The experiment was conducted in the field, where the experimental design used a ...

  10. Weed competitiveness and yielding ability of aerobic rice genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:    Broad-sense heritability; Crop vigour; Genetic correlation; Indirect selection index; Plant erectness; Rice germplasm; Seeding rate; Vegetative growth; Weed-suppressive ability.Aerobic rice, grown under aerobic soil conditions like maize or wheat, is an innovative way to cope with the growing demand for rice and the increasing water scarcity. Weeds are the most severe constraint to aerobic rice. The use of herbicides causes environmental pollution and induces the proliferation of...

  11. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF RICE BRAN WAX AS OINTMENT BASE

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalekar, M; Manish, Lavhale; Krishna, Sini

    2004-01-01

    Rice Bran wax is obtained from natural sources and is abundantly available in the country. Rice bran wax is suitable for use in chocolate enrobes, as an enteric coating for candy and lozenges, as a plasticizing material in chewing gums etc. Present study attempts to find if rice bran wax is useful as ointment base. The oleaginous type ointment base is prepared by using rice bran wax and evaluated for speardabililty, water number and active ingredient diffusibility. The results obtained in the...

  12. Detecting QTLs for rice panicle length under different N levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Rice panicle length is a quantitative trait controlled not only by genetic factors but also by environment conditions, especially by nitrogen supply level. It is supposed that genes of rice panicle length could be fully expressed under sufficient N supply and be restricted by low N stress. Determination of QTL× N level interaction associated with the rice panicle length would be helpful for revealing the genetic basis of rice N efficiency at low N level.

  13. Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Belewu, Moshood Adewale; Abdulsalam, Khadijat O.; Belewu, Kafayat; Belewu, Nosimot

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A) while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk), C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk) and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk) .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for T...

  14. Study on the black fungus nutrient powder%黑木耳营养粉的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李次力; 张月团; 王润生

    2011-01-01

    New product rich in nutrients was developed based on black fungus and sticky rice,the optimal technology and formulation were determined. The optiaml extrusion technology was determined through orthogonal experiment,which was as follows,ratio of black fungus to sticky rice was 1∶ 1,glycerel monostearte was 1. 0%,the grinding granularity of black fungus was 40 sieve. The optimal formulation of the nutrient powder was as follows:extruded black fungus powder 50%,sugar 40%,baked black sesame 10%,ethyl maltol 0. 75%.%以黑木耳和糯米为主要原料,经挤压与调配工艺,研制出一种营养丰富的食品,确定了工艺条件和配方。实验采用正交实验方法,得出挤压工艺条件为:木耳与糯米的比例为1∶1,单甘酯添加量为1.0%,木耳的粉碎粒度为40目。以挤压膨化的黑木耳为主料,得到黑木耳营养粉配方为:黑木耳膨化物粉末50%,白砂糖40%,烤熟的黑芝麻10%,乙基麦芽酚0.75%。

  15. Warped products and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes

  16. Blacks and the Women's Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, Stephanie

    1989-01-01

    Although Black female leaders were influential in creating the modern women's movement, feminism has evolved differently for both Black and White women. Suggests that, although Black women have struggled largely against racial and economic inequalities, women of all colors and backgrounds should embrace their diversity and unite to oppose racism…

  17. Black carbon in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Van Breugel, P.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of black carbon were determined for a number of marine sediments. A comparison of black carbon based on thermal oxidation and hot concentrated nitric acid pretreatments revealed that the latter significantly overestimates combustion derived carbon phases. Black carbon accounts for abo

  18. Warped products and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, S T

    2005-01-01

    We apply the warped product spacetime scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes.

  19. Black Progress: Convergence or Cleavage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    The popular view of a permanent Black underclass falling farther behind an expanding Black middle class is disputed by empirical evidence that the underclass is experiencing upward mobility. The discrepancy stems from social scientists' overreliance on cross-sectional data rather than longitudinal data in analyzing economic change among Blacks.…

  20. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  1. Effect of waxy rice flour and cassava starch on freeze-thaw stability of rice starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Preechathammawong, Nutsuda

    2012-10-01

    Repeatedly frozen and thawed rice starch gel affects quality. This study investigated how incorporating waxy rice flour (WF) and cassava starch (CS) in rice starch gel affects factors used to measure quality. When rice starch gels containing 0-2% WF and CS were subjected to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, both WF and CS reduced the syneresis in first few cycles. However CS was more effective in reducing syneresis than WF. The different composite arrangement of rice starch with WF or CS caused different mechanisms associated with the rice starch gel retardation of retrogradation, reduced the spongy structure and lowered syneresis. Both swollen granules of rice starch and CS caused an increase in the hardness of the unfrozen and freeze-thawed starch gel while highly swollen WF granules caused softer gels. These results suggested that WF and CS were effective in preserving quality in frozen rice starch based products.

  2. Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in rice using solid-phase extraction and RP-HPLC with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irakli, Maria N; Samanidou, Victoria F; Biliaderis, Costas G; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N

    2012-07-01

    An analytical method based on an optimized solid-phase extraction procedure and followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with diode array detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxy-benzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and cinnamic acids), flavanols (catechin and epicatechin), flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, hyperoside, and rutin), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and flavanones (naringenin and hesperidin) in rice flour (Oryza sativa L.). Chromatographic separation was carried out on a PerfectSil Target ODS-3 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) column at temperature 25°C using a mobile phase, consisting of 0.5% (v/v) acetic acid in water, methanol, and acetonitrile at a flow rate 1 mL min(-1) , under gradient elution conditions. Application of optimum extraction conditions, elaborated on both Lichrolut C(18) and Oasis HLB cartridges, have led to extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids from rice flour with mean recoveries 84.3-113.0%. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, and sensitivity. Repeatability (n = 5) and inter-day precision (n = 4) revealed relative standard deviation (RSD) acids and flavonoids in pigmented (red and black rice) and non-pigmented rice (brown rice) samples. PMID:22761138

  3. Empowering Young Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafele, Baruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

  4. Black History Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  5. Black holes and qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, M J

    2012-01-01

    Quantum entanglement lies at the heart of quantum information theory, with applications to quantum computing, teleportation, cryptography and communication. In the apparently separate world of quantum gravity, the Hawking effect of radiating black holes has also occupied centre stage. Despite their apparent differences, it turns out that there is a correspondence between the two.

  6. Trichomicosis pubis: black variety.

    OpenAIRE

    Neri, I.; Frassetto, A; Pasquinelli, G.; Patrizi, A.

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 25 year old man with the black variety of trichomicosis pubis is presented on account of its extreme rareity. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that trichomicosis pubis is caused by bacterial colonisation of the pubic hair and shows that bacteria are able to penetrate cuticular horny cells directly through their free plasma membrane.

  7. Rotating regular black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn; Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: lmodesto@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-04-25

    The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this Letter, we apply the Newman–Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer–Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type D, they are singularity free, but they violate the weak energy condition for a non-vanishing spin and their curvature invariants have different values at r=0 depending on the way one approaches the origin. We propose a natural prescription to have rotating solutions with a minimal violation of the weak energy condition and without the questionable property of the curvature invariants at the origin.

  8. Moulting Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2012-03-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no black holes were thought to exist.

  9. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  10. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  11. Is there a second fragrance gene in rice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzgerald, M.A.; Hamilton, N.R.S.; Calingacion, M.N.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Butardo, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Aromatic rice is highly prized by most rice consumers, and many countries cultivate traditional and improved aromatic varieties. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is the major aromatic compound in rice, and is believed to accumulate because of an eight-base-pair (8-bp) deletion in an allele at the fragranc

  12. 7 CFR 457.141 - Rice crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Rice including, but not limited to, protein and oil content or milling quality will not be... stem and grain head from the ground without removal of the rice kernels from the plant and placing in a... health, the samples are analyzed by a laboratory approved by us. (4) Rice production that is eligible...

  13. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1234

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Guangwen; Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G.; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetically engineered “Golden Rice” contains up to 35 μg β-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice β-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status.

  14. Registration of 'RU9101001'/'Katy' recombinant inbred lines of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cross of RU9101001/'Katy' rice (Oryza sativa L.) was used to develop a mapping population consisting of 238 F9 generation recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) (GSOR100361 to GSOR100600). This population has been used to map major genes that provide resistance to the rice blast pat...

  15. New technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUPeiliang

    1994-01-01

    After 8 yrs lab experiments and field tests, an advanced technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast was developed by a research group in Plant Protection Institute, Zhejiang Academy of AgricuLltural Sciences. With this technique, the inoculum was prepared on a maizc-rice-straw-agar media which was suitable for sporulation of most rice blast pathogen isolates.

  16. Advances in rice breeding for the functional components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current paper, the major functional components in grain of rice were briefly introduced and research progresses in rice breeding for high Iron, Zinc content, amino acids, LCG, and novel endosperms were briefly reviewed. The need and strategies for rice breeding with the functional components in China were discussed. (authors)

  17. Extracting silica from rice husk treated with potassium permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an agro-waste material the rice husk is abundantly available is rice growing areas. In many areas rice husk after burning involves disposal problems because of higher quantities of silica present in it. Rice husk contains about 20 per cent silica, which is present in hydrated amorphous form. On thermal treatment the silica converts into crystobalite, which is a crystalline form of silica. However amorphous silica can be produced under controlled conditions ensuring high reactivity and large surface area. Leaching the rice husk with organic acids and alkalies removes the metallic impurities from its surface. How a dilute solution of potassium permanganate affects the rice husk is the subject of this research paper. The rice husk was treated with the dilute solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature and then analyzed by SEM, TGA and the ash by analytical treatment after burning under controlled temperature. The SEM results revealed that the protuberances of the rice husk were eaten away by the solution of potassium permanganate. Pyrolysis of rice husks showed that the thermal degradation of the treated rice husk was faster than the untreated rice husk where as analytical results confirmed the presence of more amorphous silica than untreated rice husk. (author)

  18. Philippine Rice Supply Demand: Prospects and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    David, Cristina C.; Balisacan, Arsenio M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the changes in the Philippine rice economy during the past three and a half decades and evaluates the policy options in light of the prospective rice supply and demand situation over the next decade and beyond. The changing nature and trends in rice production, trade and consumption are presented here. Projections of demand, supply and trade gap are provided as well.

  19. Taste of Super-Dwarf Rice Cultured in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-01

    The interest of food production for lunar base and manned Mars mission has increased recently. So far, plants cultured long duration in space were leafy vegetables, arabidopsis, wheat, barley and so on. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. Rice symbolizes the rice-eating culture of Japan, is extremely useful as a specific cultured plant candidate of Japan in space. In the previous report, 'Kozo-no-sumika' found from seedlings in raising of seedling was introduced as a super-dwarf rice to culture in space. Considering this rice as food in space, we investigate the taste characteristics of this rice. At present, waxy 'Kozo-no-sumika' and nonwaxy 'Hosetsu dwarf' of super-dwarf rice and 'Nipponbare' of previous standard rice for sensory test are cultured in paddy field. Hereafter, we will harvest rice, investigate yield, evaluate taste.

  20. Arsenic burden of cooked rice: Traditional and modern methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, M K; Hossain, M A; Mukherjee, A; Ahamed, S; Das, B; Nayak, B; Pal, A; Chakraborti, D

    2006-11-01

    Arsenic contamination of rice by irrigation with contaminated groundwater and secondarily increased soil arsenic compounds the arsenic burden of populations dependent on subsistence rice-diets. The arsenic concentration of cooked rice is known to increase with the arsenic concentration of the cooking water but the effects of cooking methods have not been defined. We tested the three major rice cooking procedures followed globally. Using low-arsenic water (As rice: water::1:6; discard excess water) removed up to 57% of the arsenic from rice containing arsenic 203-540 microg/kg. Approximately half of the arsenic was lost in the wash water, half in the discard water. A simple inexpensive rice cooker based on this method has been designed and used for this purpose. Despite the use of low-arsenic water, the contemporary method of cooking unwashed rice at rice:water::1:1.5-2.0 until no discard water remains did not modify the arsenic content. Preliminary washing until clear did remove 28% of the rice arsenic. The results were not influenced by water source (tubewell, dug well, pond or rain); cooking vessel (aluminium, steel, glass or earthenware); or the absolute weight of rice or volume of water. The use of low-As water in the traditional preparation of arsenic contaminated rice can reduce the ingested burden of arsenic. PMID:16876928

  1. Increasing yield potential of hybrid rice through molecular breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Qiyun; Yuan Longping; Liang Fengshan; Zhuang Wen; Li Jiming; Wang Yueguang; Duan Meijuan; Xiong Yuedong; Wang Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world population. The utilization of the wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in 1970s has significantly raised rice yield potential. But the world's annual rice production will have to increase 70 percent over the next 30 years, to keep up with the demends of the growing population.

  2. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  3. Processing and functionality of rice bran protein and peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran comprises approximately 10% of the rough rice kernel. Its germ is a rich source of oil; while defatted bran consists of proteins, minerals, vitamins and fibers, or the indigestible carbohydrates. About 61% of the minerals are located in the bran. The rice bran proteins have shown great pot...

  4. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Hamm; Srinivas Lanka; Michael Stout

    2014-01-01

    Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determ...

  5. Fractionation of the rice bran layer and quantification of vitamin E, oryzanol, protein, and rice bran saccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Zhimin; Hua Na; Abadie Alicia; Schramm Rebecca; Lima Marybeth

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Value-added processing with respect to rice milling has traditionally treated the rice bran layer as a homogenous material that contains significant concentrations of high-value components of interest for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. Investigators have shown that high-value components in the rice bran layer vary from differences in kernel-thickness, bran fraction, rice variety, and environmental conditions during the growing season. The objectives of this study were...

  6. MicroRNAs in Rice Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrich, Patricia; San Segundo, Blanca

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short regulatory non-coding RNAs that guide gene silencing in most eukaryotes. They regulate gene expression by triggering sequence-specific cleavage or translational repression of target transcripts. Plant miRNAs are known to play important roles in a wide range of developmental processes. Increasing evidence also supports that the modulation of miRNA levels plays an important role in reprogramming plant responses to abiotic stress (drought, cold, salinity and nutrient deficiency) and biotic stress (antibacterial resistance). Most of these studies were carried out in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. During the last years, the adoption of high-throughput sequencing technologies has significantly contributed to uncover multiple miRNAs while allowing miRNA profiling in plants. However, although a plethora of rice miRNAs have been shown to be regulated by pathogen infection, the biological function remains largely unknown for most of them. In this review, we summarize our current understanding on the contribution of miRNAs to rice immunity and discuss their potential applications in rice biotechnology. A better understanding of the miRNA species controlling rice immunity may lead to practical biotechnological applications leading to the development of appropriate strategies for rice protection. PMID:26897721

  7. Arsenic biotransformation and volatilization in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Yan; Qin, Jie; Wang, Li-Hong; Duan, Gui-Lan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Hui-Lan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Ling, Hong-Qing; Rosen, Barry P; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-07-01

    • Biotransformation of arsenic includes oxidation, reduction, methylation, and conversion to more complex organic arsenicals. Members of the class of arsenite (As(III)) S-adenosylmethyltransferase enzymes catalyze As(III) methylation to a variety of mono-, di-, and trimethylated species, some of which are less toxic than As(III) itself. However, no methyltransferase gene has been identified in plants. • Here, an arsM gene from the soil bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was expressed in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cv Nipponbare, and the transgenic rice produced methylated arsenic species, which were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). • Both monomethylarsenate (MAs(V)) and dimethylarsenate (DMAs(V)) were detected in the roots and shoots of transgenic rice. After 12 d exposure to As(III), the transgenic rice gave off 10-fold greater volatile arsenicals. • The present study demonstrates that expression of an arsM gene in rice induces arsenic methylation and volatilization, theoretically providing a potential stratagem for phytoremediation. PMID:21517874

  8. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  9. Production of a saccharifying rice malt for brewing using different rice varieties and malting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Heidi; Marconi, Ombretta; Regnicoli, Gian Franco; Perretti, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2014-06-11

    This study was conducted to produce rice malt suitable for beer brewing. An all-rice beer would be particularly appealing to individuals with celiac disease because rice does not contain gluten proteins. Furthermore, rice malt could also contribute to new beer flavors and brands. A screening of 10 rice varieties was conducted. The varieties Balilla and Centauro were found to be suitable for the production of an all-rice malt beer without the need of exogenous enzymes. They were characterized by a low diastatic power but nevertheless they saccharified well, likely due to other endogenous amylolytic enzymes such as limit dextrinase and α-glucosidase. The addition of CaCl2 and lactic acid during mashing lowered the pH value and increased saccharification. However, the Balilla variety saccharified without the need of these additives. We also show that the soluble nitrogen and free amino nitrogen content of rice malt wort can be increased by the incorporation of the acrospires and rootlets during mashing.

  10. Influence of Nitrogen Containing Wastes Addition on Natural Aerobic Composting of Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Suchinun Kiepukdee; Prawit Towatana

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Rice straw is an agricultural residue. Typically, the rice straw can be burn in the rice field after the harvesting process. The burning can cause air pollution. Another alternative rice straw management method is animal feed. The amount of rice straw is enormus in Thailand. Another sustainable way to manage rice straw is required. Rice straw is used as main waste to compost with nitrogen containing wastes such as golden apple snail, cattle dung and urea in natural aerobic ...

  11. The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us The Rice Growth...e Site Policy | Contact Us The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive ...

  12. Observational Evidence for Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Ramesh; McClintock, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have discovered two populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range 10^6 to 10^{10} solar masses, one each in the nucleus of every galaxy. There is strong circumstantial evidence that all these objects are true black holes with event horizons. The measured masses of supermassive black hole are strongly corr...

  13. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  14. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  15. Growth of Primordial Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomohiro

    Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.

  16. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine §...

  17. Analysis of an SFP marker in the Rice fgr/BAD2 gene and fragrance in US rice germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fgr gene on rice chromosome 8 has been identified to control the presence of grain fragrance/aroma in rice. An eight base pair deletion in the fgr gene was found by Bradbury et al. (2005) in aromatic rice accessions, with this recessive mutation causing a loss in function of the betaine aldehyde...

  18. Evolutionary and social consequences of introgression of nontransgenic herbicide resistance from rice to weedy rice in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merotto, Aldo; Goulart, Ives C G R; Nunes, Anderson L; Kalsing, Augusto; Markus, Catarine; Menezes, Valmir G; Wander, Alcido E

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have expressed concerns about the effects of gene flow from transgenic herbicide-resistant crops to their wild relatives, but no major problems have been observed. This review describes a case study in which what has been feared in transgenics regarding gene flow has actually changed biodiversity and people's lives. Nontransgenic imidazolinone-resistant rice (IMI-rice) cultivars increased the rice grain yield by 50% in southern Brazil. This increase was beneficial for life quality of the farmers and also improved the regional economy. However, weedy rice resistant to imidazolinone herbicides started to evolve three years after the first use of IMI-rice cultivars. Population genetic studies indicate that the herbicide-resistant weedy rice was mainly originated from gene flow from resistant cultivars and distributed by seed migration. The problems related with herbicide-resistant weedy rice increased the production costs of rice that forced farmers to sell or rent their land. Gene flow from cultivated rice to weedy rice has proven to be a large agricultural, economic, and social constraint in the use of herbicide-resistant technologies in rice. This problem must be taken into account for the development of new transgenic or nontransgenic rice technologies. PMID:27468302

  19. The politics of Golden Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubock, Adrian

    2014-07-01

    Genetic knowledge applicable to crop improvement has erupted over the past 60 years, and the techniques of introducing genes from one organism to another have enabled new varieties of crops not achievable by previously available methodologies of crop breeding. Research and particularly development of these GMO-crops to a point where they are useful for growers and consumers in most countries is subject to complex national and international rules arising out of the UN's Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, with 167 country signatories. (The USA and Canada are not signatories.) The Protocol was developed based on concerns initially expressed in the 1970's that such technology presented unusual risks to man and the environment. Those ideas have comprehensively and authoritatively been proven to be wrong. The Protocol has nevertheless spawned significant regulatory obstacles to the development of GMO-crop technology at great cost to global society and in conflict with many other UN objectives. The suspicion induced by the Protocol is also widely used, overtly or covertly, for political purposes. These points are illustrated by reference to the not-for-profit Golden Rice project. PMID:25437240

  20. The politics of Golden Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubock, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic knowledge applicable to crop improvement has erupted over the past 60 years, and the techniques of introducing genes from one organism to another have enabled new varieties of crops not achievable by previously available methodologies of crop breeding. Research and particularly development of these GMO-crops to a point where they are useful for growers and consumers in most countries is subject to complex national and international rules arising out of the UN's Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, with 167 country signatories. (The USA and Canada are not signatories.) The Protocol was developed based on concerns initially expressed in the 1970's that such technology presented unusual risks to man and the environment. Those ideas have comprehensively and authoritatively been proven to be wrong. The Protocol has nevertheless spawned significant regulatory obstacles to the development of GMO-crop technology at great cost to global society and in conflict with many other UN objectives. The suspicion induced by the Protocol is also widely used, overtly or covertly, for political purposes. These points are illustrated by reference to the not-for-profit Golden Rice project. PMID:25437240