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Sample records for black rice

  1. Separation, Purification and Identification of Antioxidant Compositions in Black Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-wei; GUo Bao-jiang; ZHANG Rui-fen; CHI Jian-wei; WEI Zhen-cheng; XU Zhi-hong; ZHANG Yan; TANG Xiao-jun

    2006-01-01

    To separate, purify and identify the antioxidative compositions of black rice, using total antioxidation capacity (TAC) as an activity-monitoring parameter, different fractions of black rice antioxidative extracts were obtained using solvents of different polarities such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and normal butyl alcohol. The main antioxidative components were separated from the strongest antioxidative fractions by using Sephadex LH-20 resin and the structures were analyzed by ultraviolet-vis, infra-red, ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectrums. Results showed that the water fraction and normal butyl alcohol antioxidative extract fraction of black rice had the strongest antioxidation capacities and their TACs reached 383 and 392 ku g-1, respectively. Four main antioxidative components were separated from the water fraction and their TACs reached 976, 878, 1 134 and 1087 ku g-1, respectively. The spectroscopy analysis indicated that the four active components of the antioxidative extract of black rice were four anthocyanin compounds of malvidin, pelargonidin3, 5-diglucoside, cyaniding-3-glucoside and cyaniding-3, 5-diglucoside. It is concluded that the anthocyanin compounds are the most important substantial foundations for antioxidation.

  2. Antioxidations and Their Correlations with Total Flavones and Anthocyanin Contents in Different Black Rice Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The antioxidations and their correlations with total flavones and anthocyanin contents in different black rice varieties were studied. The results indicated that the great differences in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), scavenging free radical capacity (SFRC), total flavones and anthocyanin contents existed among 242 black rice varieties. Comparisons of TAC,SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of different black rice types showed that the differences between black rice and white rice, indica one and japonica one, and nonglutinous one and glutinous one were significant at 0.01 levels,respectively. This showed that the TAC, SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of japonica type were higher than those of indica one, and nonglutinous type were higher than glutinous one. According to the fast clustering procedure, 242 black rice varieties could be clustered into 10 clusters, 184 indica rice varieties into 10 clusters, and 58japonica rice varieties into 6 clusters. Most significant (P<0.01) correlations existed between TAC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents, and between SFRC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents of black rice, respectively. This showed that the antioxidation of black rice was closely correlated with its active compositions of flavones and anthocyanin.

  3. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Heng-mu; WANG Hua-di; YANG Jian; Michael J. ADAMS; CHEN Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV). Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurrence and spread in the province.

  4. Screening of Rice Genes Interacting with p5b of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ying; YANG Jian; ZHANG Heng-mu; CHEN Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) is a recognized member of the genus Fijivirus,family Reoviridae.Its genome has ten double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments (S1-S10),in which the fifth genome segment (S5) contains two open reading frames (ORFs) with a partially overlapping region.The second ORF of RBSDV S5 encodes a viral nonstructural protein named p5b with unknown function.To reveal the function of p5b,its gene was ligated into the bait plasmid pGBKT7 and an expression library containing rice cDNAs was constructed using plasmid pGADT7 for yeast two-hybrid assay.The bait protein p5b was detected in yeast by western blot,and the result of an auto-activation test showed that p5b could not autonomously activate the expression of reporter genes in yeast.Then the bait protein p5b was used for screening the cDNA expression libraries of rice.Gene fragments of some pivotal enzymes involved in photosynthesis,respiration and other important metabolic processes,were identified to interact with p5b in yeast,suggesting that these interactions may play roles in symptom development in infected plants.

  5. Ecological Fitness of Non-vector Planthopper Sogatella furcifera on Rice Plants Infected with Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-chan; XU Hong-xing; ZHENG Xu-song; YANG Ya-jun; GAO Guang-chun; PAN Jian-hong; LU Zhong-xian

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV)-infested rice plants on the ecological parameters and its relevant defensive and detoxification enzymes of white-backed planthopper (WBPH) in laboratory for exploring the relationship between RBSDV and the non-vector planthopper.The results showed that nymph survival rate,female adult weight and fecundity,and egg hatchability of WBPH fed on RBSDV-infested rice plants did not markedly differ from those on healthy plants,whereas the female adult longevity and egg duration significantly shortened on diseased plants.Furthermore,significantly higher activities of defensive enzymes (dismutase,catalase and peroxidase) and detoxification enzymes (acetylcholinesterase,carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase) were found in WBPH adults fed on infected plants.Results implied that infestation by RBSDV increased the ecological fitness of non-vector planlhopper population.

  6. Thermal cooking changes the profile of phenolic compounds, but does not attenuate the anti-inflammatory activities of black rice

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    Sassy Bhawamai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence on biological activities of cooked black rice is limited. This study examined the effects of washing and cooking on the bioactive ingredients and biological activities of black rice. Methods: Cooked rice was prepared by washing 0–3 times followed by cooking in a rice cooker. The acidic methanol extracts of raw and cooked rice were used for the analyses. Results: Raw black rice, both washed and unwashed, had higher contents of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, but lower protocatechuic acid (PA, than did cooked samples. Similarly, raw rice extracts were higher in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP activities than extracts of cooked samples. Nonetheless, extracts of raw and cooked rice showed similar inhibitory potencies on nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, whereas equivalent amounts of C3G and PA did not possess such inhibitory effects. Conclusions: Thermal cooking decreased total anthocyanin and C3G contents and the FRAP antioxidative capacity, but did not affect anti-inflammatory activities of black rice. Neither C3G nor PA contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of black rice.

  7. Thermal cooking changes the profile of phenolic compounds, but does not attenuate the anti-inflammatory activities of black rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawamai, Sassy; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang; Hou, Yuan-Yu; Chen, Yue-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence on biological activities of cooked black rice is limited. This study examined the effects of washing and cooking on the bioactive ingredients and biological activities of black rice. Methods Cooked rice was prepared by washing 0–3 times followed by cooking in a rice cooker. The acidic methanol extracts of raw and cooked rice were used for the analyses. Results Raw black rice, both washed and unwashed, had higher contents of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), but lower protocatechuic acid (PA), than did cooked samples. Similarly, raw rice extracts were higher in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities than extracts of cooked samples. Nonetheless, extracts of raw and cooked rice showed similar inhibitory potencies on nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, whereas equivalent amounts of C3G and PA did not possess such inhibitory effects. Conclusions Thermal cooking decreased total anthocyanin and C3G contents and the FRAP antioxidative capacity, but did not affect anti-inflammatory activities of black rice. Neither C3G nor PA contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of black rice. PMID:27652685

  8. Effect of Various Types of Herbs on Sensory Properties and Blood Glucosa Response Adan Instant Black Rice

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    Bernatal Saragih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Management based on the carbohydrate diet is very important to do and not to be avoided but how diet and variations of carbohydrate consumed is set mainly the source of rice that does not fast respond to an increase in blood glucose. Therefore, Evaluation of nutritional and instant rice production that is the functional food and have a low glycemic index rice sourced locally as the East Kalimantan native rice black Adan will be very beneficial for health. The aim of this research was to evaluate of the nutritional and effect of various herbal on sensory properties and blood glucose response Adan instant black rice. Adan black rice has a protein content of 8.10%, Fe 3.61 mg/1000g and 3.33 g/100g total dietary fiber and includes a group of rice with low amylose. Organoleptic value of instant rice black Adan produced the most preferred by panellists also from the addition of ginger extract and pandan leaves , water, onion tiwai, tea and last turmeric. The digestibility of starch decreased 19.04 (mg/1000g after being a functional of instant rice black Adan. Difference in reduction of blood glucose levels in volunteers who consumed black Adan instant rice by 14.20 mg/dL, whereas the provision of a reference food (glucose of 71.50 mg/dL, this indicates of instant rice functional black Adan provide availability of glucose in the blood longer available.

  9. Protective effects of black rice bran against chemically-induced inflammation of mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of black rice (cv. LK1-3-6-12-1-1) bran against 12-O-tetradecanolylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin edema and 2,4-dinitroflurobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in inflammatory mouse models. We also determined the effects of the bran...

  10. Hairpin RNA Targeting Multiple Viral Genes Confers Strong Resistance to Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

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    Fangquan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV belongs to the genus Fijivirus in the family of Reoviridae and causes severe yield loss in rice-producing areas in Asia. RNA silencing, as a natural defence mechanism against plant viruses, has been successfully exploited for engineering virus resistance in plants, including rice. In this study, we generated transgenic rice lines harbouring a hairpin RNA (hpRNA construct targeting four RBSDV genes, S1, S2, S6 and S10, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the putative core protein, the RNA silencing suppressor and the outer capsid protein, respectively. Both field nursery and artificial inoculation assays of three generations of the transgenic lines showed that they had strong resistance to RBSDV infection. The RBSDV resistance in the segregating transgenic populations correlated perfectly with the presence of the hpRNA transgene. Furthermore, the hpRNA transgene was expressed in the highly resistant transgenic lines, giving rise to abundant levels of 21–24 nt small interfering RNA (siRNA. By small RNA deep sequencing, the RBSDV-resistant transgenic lines detected siRNAs from all four viral gene sequences in the hpRNA transgene, indicating that the whole chimeric fusion sequence can be efficiently processed by Dicer into siRNAs. Taken together, our results suggest that long hpRNA targeting multiple viral genes can be used to generate stable and durable virus resistance in rice, as well as other plant species.

  11. 黑米米粉条的研制%Research and manufacture of black rice noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴素萍

    2011-01-01

    Black rice is rich not only in protein, 17 kinds of amino acids, fat, vitamin, minerals, 14 kinds of elements, such as Fe, Zn and Cu, but also contains the dietary fiber, unsaturated fatty acids, procyanidins, flavonoids and physiologically active substances, such as alkaloids. The technological process and influencing factors of black rice noodles were discussed in this paper. The process conditions for black rice noodles were studied through single-factor test and orthogonal experiment, so the optimum process parameters were obtained, that are: by using the cooking way, grinding degree: 80 meshes; wheat flour addition: 3.5%; water addition: 55%; gelatinization time: 6min; gelatinization temperature: 95℃. The black rice noodles made in this way are tasty and refreshing, with low pistachio soup degree, low ratio of broken noodles and good toughness, which is more conducive to nutrients absorption of black rice.%黑米不仅含有丰富的蛋白质、17种氨基酸、脂肪、维生素、矿物质及Fe、Zn、Cu等14种元素,还含有膳食纤维、不饱和脂肪酸、花青素、黄酮、生物碱等生理活性物质.对黑米米粉条的工艺过程及影响因素进行探讨,通过单因素试验和正交试验研究黑米米粉条的工艺条件,得到最佳工艺参数,即:采用煮制的方式,粉碎粒度80目,小麦粉添加量3.5%,加水量55%,糊化时间6 min,糊化温度95℃.制作出的黑米米粉条口感爽滑,浑汤程度低,断条率低,韧性好,有利于对黑米营养成分的吸收.

  12. 黑米酒的营养保健功效%Health Function of the Black Rice Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑向华; 叶宁; 程朝平; 杨德卫; 叶新福

    2014-01-01

    论述了黑米酒的酿制工艺,着重阐述了其中的营养成分及其保健功效,并介绍了目前市场上较有代表性的新型保健黑米酒。%This paper discussed the black rice wine brewing process, emphatically elaborated the nutrition and health care effect, and finally introduced the market at present is representative of the new health care black rice wine.

  13. Effect of cooking on functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012

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    Thapanan Konwatchara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the changes in functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012 after cooking. Black glutinous rice grains were obtained from Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The rough grains were soaked for 12 hrs, then germinated for 30 hrs at 35±2°C (95%RH, dried at 45±2°C for 8 hrs, dehusked and cooked either using a microwave oven or a pressure cooker. The cooked grains were dehydrated in two stages, 85±2°C for 1 hr and 45±2°C for 12 hrs until the final moisture content was 10±2%wb. The antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, GABA and -oryzanol contents, and the microstructure of the dehydrated grains were then characterized. Germination process induced a 2.55 fold increase in GABA content compared to non-germinated KKU-ULR012. The germinated KKU-ULR012 gave DPPH value, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 33.74±0.15 mgTrolox/100gdb, 182.89±0.48 mg/100gdb and 37.72±0.16 mg/100gdb, respectively. Anthocyanins in cooked germinated KKU-ULR012 diminished almost 88-89% after cooking. The cooking methods employed strongly influenced the antioxidant activity and anthocyanins content that the pressure cooking tended to prevent loss of anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The GABA, -oryzanol and antho-cyanins contents and antioxidant activity of germinated grains cooked in the pressure cooker were higher than the samples cooked in the microwave oven (p<0.05. For pressure cooking, the cooked grains gave DPPH, ABTS, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 9.89±0.35 mgTrolox/100gdb, 1.79±0.04 mgTrolox/100gdb, 21.60±0.14 mg/100gdb and 37.16±0.70 mg/100gdb, respectively. The rice grains cooked by pressure cooking were more moist and sticky than the grains cooked by microwave cooking. The microstructure examined by SEM showed that the center of the dehydrated cooked rice grain was smooth indicating starch gelatinization whereas the surface revealed

  14. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: A new proposed Fijivirus species in the family Reoviridae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuoHui; WEN JingJung; CAI DeJiang; LI Peng; XU DongLin; ZHANG ShuGuang

    2008-01-01

    For the past several years, a novel dwarf disease has been observed on rice (Oryza sativa) in some regions of Guangdong Province and Hainan Province, southern China. Infected plants showed stunting,dark leaf and small enations on stem and leaf back. Typical Fijivirus viroplasma containing crystalline arrayed spherical virons approximately 70-75 nm in diameter and tubular structures were detected in ultrathin sections by an electron microscope in parenchyma phloem cells of the infected plants. The virus was transmitted to rice seedlings by white-backed planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), collected in the diseased fields. Analysis of dsRNA extracts from infected plants revealed ten linear segments, which were similar to the electrophoretic profile of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). RT-PCR with a single primer which matched to a linker sequence ligated to both 3' ends of the viral genomic dsRNAs resulted in amplification of genome segments 9 (S9) and 10 (S10) cDNA products. The complete nucleotide sequences of S9 and S10 were obtained from clones of the RT-PCR amplicon exhibited characteristic properties of Fijivirus including low GC content (34.5% and 35.6%), genus conserved 5' and 3' termini sequences and similar genome organization. Blast searches indicated that the sequences of S9 and S10 shared 68.8%-74.9% and 67.1 %-77.4% nucleotide identities with those of viruses in the Fijivirus group 2, respectively. These values were similar to those among other viruses in the Fijivirus group 2 and considerably lower than those among RBSDV isolates. Phylogenetic trees based on S9 and S10 nucleotide sequences and their putative amino acid sequences showed that this virus represented a separate branch among other Fijiviruses. The virus was also detected by a nested RT-PCR assay in corn (Zea mays), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), Juncellus serotinus and flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum) in and/or adjacent to the infected rice fields

  15. 一种快速鉴别黑米真伪的方法%A Rapid Identification Method of Authenticity of Black Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包娜; 谭红; 杨昌彪; 谢锋; 赵红波; 何锦林

    2011-01-01

    A rapid method to identify the authenticity of black rice is proposed in this paper based on the fact that the black rice pigment which is the characteristic component of black rice shows different colors at various pH values and its main component anthocyanin can form complexes with ferrous. The method is described as follows: drop the extracting solution of black rice on the blank qualitative filter paper and alkaline filter paper respectively, and observe the colour changes of the above filter paper with the naked eye. After a few seconds, drop ferrous sulfate solution on the above filter paper which has extracting solution of black rice, and observe the colour changes on the above filter paper. Black rice Pigment shows fuchsia spots on the blank filter paper and blue spots on the alkaline filter paper. When the ferrous sulfate solution is dropped on them, the above filter papers show black spots. The method is reliable, simple, convenient and rapid, which can be used to identify the authenticity of black rice rapidly.

  16. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Black Rice Grain Development Reveals Metabolic Pathways Associated with Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

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    Linghua Chen

    Full Text Available Black rice (Oryza sativa L., whose pericarp is rich in anthocyanins (ACNs, is considered as a healthier alternative to white rice. Molecular species of ACNs in black rice have been well documented in previous studies; however, information about the metabolic mechanisms underlying ACN biosynthesis during black rice grain development is unclear.The aim of the present study was to determine changes in the metabolic pathways that are involved in the dynamic grain proteome during the development of black rice indica cultivar, (Oryza sativa L. indica var. SSP. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ MS/MS were employed to identify statistically significant alterations in the grain proteome. Approximately 928 proteins were detected, of which 230 were differentially expressed throughout 5 successive developmental stages, starting from 3 to 20 days after flowering (DAF. The greatest number of differentially expressed proteins was observed on 7 and 10 DAF, including 76 proteins that were upregulated and 39 that were downregulated. The biological process analysis of gene ontology revealed that the 230 differentially expressed proteins could be sorted into 14 functional groups. Proteins in the largest group were related to metabolic process, which could be integrated into multiple biochemical pathways. Specifically, proteins with a role in ACN biosynthesis, sugar synthesis, and the regulation of gene expression were upregulated, particularly from the onset of black rice grain development and during development. In contrast, the expression of proteins related to signal transduction, redox homeostasis, photosynthesis and N-metabolism decreased during grain maturation. Finally, 8 representative genes encoding different metabolic proteins were verified via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis, these genes had differed in transcriptional and translational expression during grain development.Expression analyses

  17. Study on Fermented Glutinous Rice Fermentation Process Mixing with Glutinous Rice and Black Rice%糯米、黑米混合甜酒酿发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄镭; 熊汉国

    2013-01-01

    Taking glutinous rice and black rice as materials,fermentde glutinous rice fermentation process through the single factor and orthogonal experiment in the control was optimized.The results showed that the best technological parameters of fermentation were as followsthe proportion of black rice and the glutinous rice was 1:4,distiller’s yeast dosage was 0.6%,fermentation temperature was 32℃and fermentation time was 60 h.Mix sweet wine had better sweet and sour flavor,fuller smell.%以糯米、黑米为主要原料,通过接种酒曲进行混合甜酒酿发酵,采用单因素和正交试验对混合甜酒酿的发酵工艺进行优化。结果表明:当黑米与糯米的比例为1:4,酒曲添加量为0.6%,发酵温度为32℃,发酵时间为60 h时,产品口感醇甜,色泽晶莹而黑亮,风味独特。

  18. Screening anti-southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus drugs based on S7-1 gene expression in rice suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dandan; Wang, Zhenchao; Liu, Jing; Lv, Mingming; Liu, Jiaju; Li, Xiangyang; Chen, Zhuo; Jin, Linghong; Hu, Deyu; Yang, Song; Song, Baoan

    2013-08-28

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a rice pathogen that had an outbreak in southern China in 2010 and caused significant crop losses. Therefore, screening for effective antiviral drugs against SRBSDV is very important. This study used rice suspension cells infected with SRBSDV by polyethylene glycol-mediated uptake for screening antiviral drugs. SRBSDV P7-1, which is coded by the S7-1 gene, has an intrinsic ability to self-interact to form tubules that play an important role in viral infection. Therefore, relative expression level of the SRBSDV S7-1 gene in infected rice suspension cells was assayed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the antiviral activities of various drugs. Dufulin displayed the highest inhibitory activity against SRBSDV S7-1 expression. In addition, changes in peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were determined in inoculated and noninoculated cells. The results showed that both POD and PPO activities increased upon dufulin treatment. Furthermore, the validity of this approach was confirmed in an in vivo experiment in which dufulin was found to effectively inhibit SRBSDV.

  19. Extraction of anthocyanins and polyphenols from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) by modeling and assessing their reversibility and stability.

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    Pedro, Alessandra Cristina; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali

    2016-01-15

    This study was aimed the extraction of total flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolics, as well as the antioxidant activity of black rice (Oryza sativa) and to study the stability in relation to pH, light and copigmentation. Variations in temperature (10-50°C), time (20-80min), and solid-solvent ratio (1:15-1:45) were studied using a Box-Behnken design. The regression models were significant (Panthocyanins, 520.17mg 100g(-1) of phenolics and 46.50% inhibition of the DPPH radical. A decrease in the color intensity was observed when pH values were changed while anthocyanins were reversible in the process of protonation/deprotonation. The addition of glucose, phytic and gallic acids in the optimized extract exposed to light displayed an intermolecular copigmentation. The main anthocyanin identified in black rice was cyanidin-3-glucoside.

  20. Evaluation of sulfate resistance of cement mortars containing black rice husk ash.

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    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, black rice husk ashes (BRHAs), which are agrowastes from an electricity generating power plant and a rice mill, were ground and used as a partial cement replacement. The durability of mortars under sulfate attack including expansion and compressive strength loss were investigated. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 30%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55 and 0.65. For the durability of mortar exposed to sulfate attack, 5% sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) solutions were used. As a result, when increasing the percentage replacement of BRHA, the expansion and compressive strength loss of mortar decreased. At the replacement levels of 30% and 50% of BRHA, the expansion of the mortars was less than those mixed with sulfate-resistant cement. However, the expansion of the mortars exposed to Na2SO4 was more than those exposed to MgSO4. Increasing the replacement level of BRHA tends to reduce the compressive strength loss of mortars exposed to Na2SO4 attack. In contrary, under MgSO4 attack, when increasing the replacement level of BRHA, the compressive strength loss increases from 0% to 50% in comparison to Portland cement mortar. Results show that ground BRHA can be applied as a pozzolanic material to concrete and also improve resistance to sodium sulfate attack, but it can impair resistance to magnesium sulfate attack.

  1. Optimization of Processing Technology of Black Rice Wine%黑米酒酿造工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林良魁; 权美平

    2011-01-01

    The processing technology of black rice wine was optimized by using orthogonal experimental design to provide data support and theoretical basis for industrial prodution of black rice wine. The results show that the degree of factors affecting processing technology was fermentation temperature>fermentation time>yeast concentration. The optimum technological conditions were 28℃,48 h and 4% yeast. The black rice wine made under the optimum technological conditions has peculiar aroma, mellow taste and high quality.%为给黑米酒的工业化生产提供数据支持和理论依据,采用正交试验设计对黑米酒酿造工艺进行优化.结果表明,各因素对黑米酒酿造的影响程度为发酵温度>发酵时间>酒曲浓度.最佳工艺条件为发酵温度28℃、发酵时间48h、酒曲浓度4%.在此工艺条件下,酿造出的黑米酒有黑米特有的香气,且酒质醇和、品质良好.

  2. THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW

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    Nyoman Jaya Wistara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%, kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan

  3. Improvement of physical properties of gluten-free steamed cake based on black waxy rice flour using different hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthivadhanapong, Pimchada; Jantathai, Srinual; Schleining, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of 1 % addition of four selected hydrocolloids (xanthan, guar, hypdroxypropylmethylcellulose and carrageenan) on quality characteristics of batter and of black waxy rice steamed cake compared to a control without hydrocolloids. Dynamic frequency sweeps of the batters at 25 °C indicated that all formulations exhibited gel-like behaviour with storage moduli (G') higher than loss moduli (G″). Hydrocolloids increased the apparent viscosity and the thixotropic behaviour, depending on the type of hydrocolloids. Xanthan had the greatest effects on both moduli, whereas carrageenan had the smallest effects. During a storage period of 4 days the cakes with xanthan remained softer than control samples. The overall acceptability of cake with xanthan and guar were higher than control. This study is the first report on using black waxy rice flour as a main raw material in gluten free cake. The results of this study provided useful information for selection hydrocolloids as ingredients that can help to improve the physical properties of waxy rice steamed cake.

  4. Study of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverage%黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马先红; 许海侠; 孙丽卓

    2016-01-01

    The types and process formula of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverage were reviewed. The current situation and development prospect of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverages were also analyzed,in order to provide some theoretical reference for the research of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverage.%对国内黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料的种类和工艺配方进行了综述。对黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料目前的状况与发展前景进行了分析,以期为黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料的研究提供一些理论参考。

  5. Characterization of rice black-streaked dwarf virus- and rice stripe virus-derived siRNAs in singly and doubly infected insect vector Laodelphax striatellus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Li

    Full Text Available Replication of RNA viruses in insect cells triggers an antiviral defense that is mediated by RNA interference (RNAi which generates viral-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs. However, it is not known whether an antiviral RNAi response is also induced in insects by reoviruses, whose double-stranded RNA genome replication is thought to occur within core particles. Deep sequencing of small RNAs showed that when the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus was infected by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV (Reoviridae; Fijivirus, more viral-derived siRNAs accumulated than when the vector insect was infected by Rice stripe virus (RSV, a negative single-stranded RNA virus. RBSDV siRNAs were predominantly 21 and 22 nucleotides long and there were almost equal numbers of positive and negative sense. RBSDV siRNAs were frequently generated from hotspots in the 5'- and 3'-terminal regions of viral genome segments but these hotspots were not associated with any predicted RNA secondary structures. Under laboratory condition, L. striatellus can be infected simultaneously with RBSDV and RSV. Double infection enhanced the accumulation of particular genome segments but not viral coat protein of RBSDV and correlated with an increase in the abundance of siRNAs derived from RBSDV. The results of this study suggest that reovirus replication in its insect vector potentially induces an RNAi-mediated antiviral response.

  6. Brewing technology of golden needle black rice wine%金针菇黑米酒的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班清

    2011-01-01

    Golden needle black rice wine was brewed of black rice, fresh golden needle mushroom, potato. The extraction of Lycium barbarum L., Radix Polygoni multiflori, Cordyceps sinensis, Chinese Yam and honey were added to produce a new type healthy wine. The health functions were: nourishing stomach, curing lung and spleen deficiency, anticancer, anti-fatigue and aging-delay.%金针菇黑米酒是以黑米、鲜金针菇、马铃薯、百合等为主料,采用传统发酵工艺酿造出低度酒后,再辅以枸杞子、何首乌、冬虫夏草、肉苁蓉,山药等多味中药的浸提汁以及蜂蜜,生产出的一种具有养肺虚、健脾养胃、抗癌、抗疲劳、延缓衰老等的新型保健酒。

  7. 使用粒径分析仪分析黑米乳稳定性%Using Particle Size Analyzer Analysis the Stability of Black Rice Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令洁; 苗君莅; 张锋华; 龚广予

    2012-01-01

    The stability of the different product was analyzed through laser particle size analyzer detected carrageenan. Xanthan gum, guar gum and gellan gum four stabilizers were used alone or complex pairs in black rice milk. The results showed that the stability of the three samples of black rice milk with 0.08% gellan gum+0.02% xanthan gum, 0.09% gellan gum+0.01% carrageenan, and 0.08% guar+0.02% carrageenan were ideal. The system of black rice milk was under better control and the floating oil was well suppressed. The gellan gum couldn't stabilize black rice milk alone.%通过激光粒径分析仪检测分析卡拉胶、黄原胶、瓜尔豆胶以及结冷胶这四类稳定剂单独或复配对黑米乳产品稳定性的影响。结果发现,0.08%结冷胶+0.02%黄原胶、0.09%结冷胶+0.01%卡拉胶、0.08%瓜尔豆胶+0.02%卡拉胶等黑米乳饮料稳定性较好,单独使用结冷胶效果一般。

  8. Bread fortified with anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice as nutraceutical sources: Its quality attributes and in vitro digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Weibiao

    2016-04-01

    Anthocyanin-rich black rice extract powder (ABREP) as a nutraceutical source was fortified into bread. The quality and digestibility behaviors of bread with ABREP were evaluated through instrumental and in vitro digestion studies. The quality of bread with 2% of ABREP was not significantly (p>0.05) different from the control bread; however, increasing the ABREP level to 4% caused less elasticity and higher density of bread. A mathematical model was further developed to systemically describe the trajectory of bread digestion. The digestion rates of bread with ABREP were found to be reduced by 12.8%, 14.1%, and 20.5% for bread with 1%, 2%, and 4% of ABREP, respectively. Results of the study suggest that the fortification of anthocyanins into bread could be an alternative way to produce functional bread with a lower digestion rate and extra health benefits.

  9. cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of genome segments S8 from rice black-streaked dwarf virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒木; 陈剑平; 薛庆中; 雷娟利

    2002-01-01

    Genome segments S8 of two Chinese isolates of rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), one from Zhejiang Province and another from Hebei Province, were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Both segments consisted of 1936 nts in full length (EMBL accession numbers were AJ297431 and AJ297432, respectively) and contained only one big open reading frame which encoded a polypeptide with molecular weight of 68kD. The two Chinese isolates shared 94.0% and 96.5% identity at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. They shared 94.5-94.9% and 92.5-92.9% homology with S8 of RBSDV Japanese isolate at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively; shared 85.1-87.6% and 91.7-91.9% homology with S7 of Italian MRDV (maize rough dwarf virus).

  10. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Shanxi black rice It was originally from Yang County, Hanzhong Region.This rice was a world-famous rice variety developed in 140 BC. It had pitch-black surface with the protein and oil contents being 6.8% and 20% higher than that of common rice, respectively. It had 15 kinds of amino acids and many kinds of vitamins. It was praised as" Black pearl" and "The king of the world riee".DongnianThe other names for Dongnian were "Yellow rice" and "Oil rice". It was grown in E City and Huangmei County,Hubei Province. It was characterized by its long-slim shape, milky yellow in color, oily, solid, and sticky quality, fragrant smell, and easiness for digestion.Guizhou black pearl rice

  11. Rice Brittleness Mutants: A Way to Open the 'Black Box' of Monocot Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baocai Zhang; Yihua Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Rice is a model organism for studying the mechanism of cell wall biosynthesis and remolding in Gramineae.Mechanical strength is an important agronomy trait of rice(Oryza sativa L.)plants that affects crop lodging and grain yield.As a prominent physical property of cell walls,mechanical strength reflects upon the structure of different wall polymers and how they interact.Studies on the mechanisms that regulate the mechanical strength therefore consequently results in uncovering the genes functioning in cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling.Our group focuses on the study of isolation of brittle culm(bc)mutants and characterization of their corresponding genes.To date,several bc mutants have been reported.The identified genes have covered several pathways of cell wall biosynthesis,revealing many secrets of monocot cell wall biosynthesis.Here,we review the progress achieved in this research field and also highlight the perspectives in expectancy.All of those lend new insights into mechanisms of cell wall formation and are helpful for harnessing the waste rice straws for biofuel production.

  12. Changes in properties of starch isolated from whole rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp after storage at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Valmor; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Goebel, Jorge Tiago Schwanz; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Santetti, Gabriela Soster; Gutkoski, Luiz Carlos; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical, morphological, crystallinity, thermal, and pasting properties of starches isolated from rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp. Starch was isolated from the rice grains at initial storage time, and after 6months of storage at different storage temperatures (16, 24, 32 and 40°C). Starch isolated from the grains stored for 6months at 40°C showed darker coloration, surface deformation of granules, and a significant reduction in the extraction yield, final viscosity, enthalpy, and crystallinity, independent of the grain pericarp coloration. The time and storage temperature not influence the swelling power and solubility of starch isolated from grains with brown pericarp, while for the grains with black and red pericarp there was reduction in swelling power and solubility of starches isolated of grains stored at 40°C. Grains stored at 16°C showed minimum changes in starch properties.

  13. High-yielding Cultivation Technology for Middle Rice- succeeded Black Fungus%中稻—袋料黑木耳高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴火金

    2015-01-01

    为充分利用土地闲置田的空间,种植一季水稻后,再放置黑木耳,既发挥土地资源,又提高经济效益,从而增加农民收入.主要阐述了浦城县种植一季中稻后袋料黑木耳的主要高产栽培技术,病虫发生与防治.%In this paper, to make full use of idle land field space, after the rice planting season, again to place black fungus, both play land resources, and improve the economic benefit, increasing farmers' income. In this paper, we mainly expounds middle rice planting season succeeded after black fungus main high-yield culti-vation techniques, the occurrence and prevention of diseases and pests.

  14. Study on radix puerariae,black beans,black rice and honey health steamed bread%葛根黑豆黑米蜂蜜保健馒头研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张首玉; 胡二坤

    2015-01-01

    Theoptimum parameters were studied through the single factor experiments andorthogonal teston radix puerariae,black beans,black rice andhoneyhealth steamed bread.The results showed that the best ratioof radix puerariae,black beans,black rice,honey,wheat powder were radix puerariae 15%,black bean 12%,black rice 10%,wheat flour 100% andhoney 6%.The bestconditionofmaking steamed bread were water 50%,fermentation temperatureof 38℃,humidity 88%,time 40min.After forming,under theconditionof temperature 38℃,humidity 88% the dough rested again for about 15 min and was steamed for 20min by boiled–water,then removed and letitcool to room temperature. Under theseconditions,the steamed breadhadgood quality andhigh nutritional value.%通过单因素试验及正交试验研究了葛根、黑豆、黑米、蜂蜜保健馒头的最佳工艺,结果表明,葛根、黑豆、黑米、蜂蜜、小麦粉混合的最佳配比是葛根粉添加量15%、黑豆粉添加量12%、黑米粉添加量10%、小麦粉添加量100%、蜂蜜添加量6%。馒头制作的最佳工艺条件为加水量50%、发酵温度38℃、湿度88%,发酵时间40 min,成型后在温度38℃、湿度88%条件下再次醒发15min,沸水蒸制20min,取出冷却到室温。此条件下生产的馒头具有较好的品质和较高的营养价值。

  15. Evaluation of nitric and acetic acid resistance of cement mortars containing high-volume black rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents the performance of cement mortar containing black rice husk ash (BRHA) under nitric and acetic acid attacks. The BRHA, collected from an electrical generating power plant that uses rice husk as fuel, was ground using a grinding machine. The compressive strength loss, weight loss, and expansion of mortars under nitric and acetic acid attack were investigated. The test results of BRHA properties in accordance with the ASTM C 618 standard found that the optimal grinding time was 4 h as this achieved a Blaine fineness of 5370 cm(2)/g. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55, 0.60, and 0.65. From test results, when the percentage replacements of BRHA in cement increased, it was observed that the strength loss and weight loss of mortars containing BRHA under acetic acid attack were higher than those of the mortars against nitric acid attack. It was found that, of the various BHRA mortars, the strength loss and weight loss due to nitric and acetic acid attacks were the lowest in the mortar with 10% BRHA replacement. For 10%, 20% and 30% BRHA replacements, the rate of expansion of the BRHA mortar decreased when compared with the control mortar. For the mortars with other percentage replacements of BRHA, the rate of expansion increased. Furthermore, the effective water-to-binder ratios of control and BRHA mortars were the primary factor for determining the durability of mortar mixed with BRHA.

  16. 黑米对小鼠肠道菌群的影响%Effect of black rice on intestinal flora of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰涛; 任玮; 张英; 张晖; 王立; 齐希光; 钱海峰

    2012-01-01

    Effects of black rice on intestinal flora of mice were investigated in this research. 24 KM mice were divided into four groups at random and fed with the regular food(group 1). mixed food(group 2, 70% regular food combined with 30% black rice), mixed food (group 3, 40% regular food combined with 60% black rice), and mixed food(group 4, 10% regular food combined with 90% black rice) respectively. Fecal moisture contents were determined everyday in the 6lh week, and serum total cholesterol(TC)and high density hpoprotein cholestero(HDL-C) were also determined at the end of 6,week. Intestinal Bifidohacterium , Lactobacillus , Enterococcus and Enterobactericaeae were numbered by plate count method. As compared to the group 1, the numbers of bifidohacterium and laclobacillus in other 3 group increased significantly by intake of black rice; the numbers of Enterobacteriuceae and Enterococcus decreased significantly. Serum HDL-C and HDL-C/TC levels were also increased significantly by intake of black rice. Results clearly indicated that intake of black rice can increase the number of intestinal pro-biotics in mice.%研究黑米对小鼠肠道菌群及其相关指标的影响.24只昆明(KM)小鼠随机分成4个组:组1(饲喂基础饲料)、组2(饲喂30%黑米和70%基础饲料的混合饲料)、组3(饲喂60%黑米和40%基础饲料的混合饲料)、组4(饲喂90%黑米和10%基础饲料的混合饲料).第6周收集小鼠粪便测定粪便含水率,第42天测定血清总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)以及肠道双歧杆菌、乳酸杆菌、肠球菌和肠杆菌数量.结果表明,与组1小鼠相比,摄入黑米后,试验组小鼠结肠双歧杆菌数和乳酸杆菌数显著上升(P<0.05),组2最高,其次是组3和组4;肠杆菌科数显著下降(P<0.05),组2最低,组4次之;组2和组4肠球菌数显著低于组1(P<0,05).试验组小鼠的血清HDL-C和HDL-C/TC都显著高于组1(P<0.05),组4的HDL-C最高,组2的HDL-C

  17. Ecotoxicological analysis of fly ash and rice-straw black carbon on Microcystis aeruginosa using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Liping; Yue, Qiankun; Liu, Feixiang; Chen, Fang; Hu, Baolan; Chen, Yingxu

    2013-06-01

    Black carbon (BC) has a strong affinity for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), and it is a potential material to control HOCs pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Here, flow cytometry (FCM) was used to evaluate the ecotoxicological effect of fly ash, rice-straw ash, and their acid-demineralised products on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. It was found that the BCs had little negative effect on cyanobacteria, when the content of BCs was not above 1mgml(-1). However, higher doses of BCs (>2mgml(-1)) had an obvious negative effect on cell density and esterase activity, especially for BCs with acid treatment, which greatly inhibited cell density caused by its high adsorptivity for cyanobacteria. The BCs had little impact on the fluorescence intensity, only with a slight stimulation in later period, so the fluorescence intensity was a less sensitive indicator than cell density and esterase activity. Considering ecotoxicological effect of BCs on the algae, the application concentration of BCs for HOCs pollution control as in situ remediation material would better not exceed 1mgml(-1).

  18. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus genome segment S5 is a bicistronic mRNA in infected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Zhang, Heng-Mu; Ying, Lu; Li, Jing; Lv, Ming-Fang; Xie, Li; Li, Pei-Pei; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Liang-Ying, Dai; Chen, Jian-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) is a recognized member of the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae. Genome segment S5 has a putative second ORF partially overlapping the major ORF but in a different reading frame. This putative ORF is present in a published sequence and in two Chinese isolates now sequenced. Antibodies were raised against purified P5-1 and P5-2 fusion proteins expressed in a prokaryotic system. In western blots, these antibodies reacted with proteins of about 106 and 27 kDa, respectively, as predicted by sequence analysis. In immunoelectron microscopy, antibodies to P5-1 reacted with viroplasms, indicating that P5-1 is a component of viroplasms, but no labeling was observed with P5-2 antisera. Northern blot assays showed that the genome segment S5 was transcribed as a single mRNA with no subgenomic RNA. These results show that S5 is functionally bicistronic in infected plants. Possible translational mechanisms for P5-2 are discussed.

  19. Molecular characterization of segments S7 to S10 of a southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus isolate from maize in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao; Xu, Fei-fei; Zheng, Fang-qiang; Li, Xiang-dong; Liu, Bao-shen; Zhang, Chun-qing

    2011-02-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a novel Fijivirus prevalent in rice in southern and central China, and northern Vietnam. Its genome has 10 segments of double-stranded RNA named S1 to S10 according to their size. An isolate of SRBSDV, JNi4, was obtained from naturally infected maize plants from Ji'ning, Shandong province, in the 2008 maize season. Segments S7 to S10 of JNi4 share nucleotide identities of 72.6%-73.1%, 72.3%-73%, 73.9%-74.5% and 77.3%-79%, respectively, with corresponding segments of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus isolates, and identities of 99.7%, 99.1%-99.7%, 98.9%-99.5%, and 98.6%-99.2% with those of SRBSDV isolates HN and GD. JNi4 forms a separate branch with GD and HN in the phylogenetic trees constructed with genomic sequences of S7 to S10. These results confirm the proposed taxonomic status of SRBSDV as a distinct species of the genus Fijivirus and indicate that JNi4 is an isolate of SRBSDV. Shandong is so far the northernmost region where SRBSDV is found in China.

  20. 黑米花青素提取与纯化工艺研究%Study on Extraction and Purification Technology of Anthocyanin from Black Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文佳; 张昊琛; 鲍康胜; 范广伟

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究黑米花青素的提取及纯化工艺.[方法]以黑米为原料,采用水提法提取黑米花青素,通过单因素试验和正交试验,确定花青素的最佳提取工艺;并采用D101大孔吸附树脂对花青素进行纯化.[结果]花青素的最佳提取工艺为料液比1∶8,提取温度50℃,pH 3.2,提取时间120 min;用体积分数为95%的乙醇洗脱,花青素的纯度最高,达95.48%.[结论]该研究为黑米的深加工和花青素的规模化生产提供了依据.%[ Objective] The aim was to study the extraction and purification technology of anthocyanin from black rice. [ Method] Anthocya-nin was obtained from black rice by water extraction. The optimum extraction technology of anthocyanin was determined by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. And then the anthocyanin was purified by D101 macroporous adsorption resin. [Result] The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows; solid-liquid ratio 1: 8, extraction temperature 50 ℃, pH value 3.2, extraction time 120 min . The highest purity reached 95.48% when anthocyanin eluted by 95% ethanol. [Conclusion] The study provided a basis for deep processing of black rice and scale production of anthocyanin.

  1. Research Progress on Pharmacological Effects of Black Rice Anthocyanins%黑米花青苷药理学作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳龙; 陈进; 韩豪; 李新生; 黄重; 张选明; 沙志鸿

    2016-01-01

    黑米花青苷是一类重要的生物活性物质,具有多种重要生理功能和独特的营养特性,可广泛应用于食品、保健品、化妆品、医药等行业。本文对黑米花青苷的结构和组分进行了研究,并对黑米花青苷的抗氧化、保肝护肝、抗血脂、抗癌、减肥等药理学作用进行了论述,最后对黑米花青苷的研究和应用发展趋势进行了评述。%Black rice anthocyanins are a group of important bioactive compounds with many beneficial physiological effects and distinc-tive nutritional properties.They can be widely applied to food,health care products,cosmetics,and medicine etc.This paper describes the structure and components of anthocyanins;and also illustrates their pharmacological effects such as antioxidant property,liver protec-tive effect,lowering blood lipids,anti-tumor activities,and weight loss effect.Finally,this article reviews the progresses on the research and application of black rice anthocyanins.

  2. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against Salmonellosis through up-regulation of the Th1 immune reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, but did, however stimulate uptake of the bacteria i...

  3. Two virus-encoded RNA silencing suppressors, P14 of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and S6 of Rice black streak dwarf virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lingdi; WANG Zhaohui; WANG Xianbing; LI Dawei; HAN Chenggui; ZHAI Yafeng; YU Jialin

    2005-01-01

    Functional analysis for gene silencing suppressor of P14 gene of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and S6 gene of Rice black streak dwarf virus was carried out by agro- infiltration with recombinant vectors of Potato virus X. The phenotype observation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression and Northern blot showed that the gene silencing of gfp transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana induced by homologous sequence was strongly suppressed by the immixture infiltration of either the P14 or the S6. In the suppressed plants, the gfp mRNA accumulation was higher than that in the non-suppressed controls and the symptoms caused by PVX infection became more severe, especially the gfp DNA methylation of plant genome was significantly inhabited when co-infiltrated with RBSDV S6 gene. These results suggested that these two virus genes were potentially to encode for proteins as RNA silencing suppressors.

  4. Detection and assignment of proteins encoded by rice black streaked dwarf fijivirus S7, S8, S9 and S10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, M; Uyeda, I; Lee, B C

    1998-06-01

    The proteins encoded by rice black streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) genomic segments 7-10 (S7-S10) were characterized. Open reading frames (ORFs) from these segments were expressed as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Antibodies raised against the expressed products were used as probes to determine whether the viral ORFs encode structural proteins. In Western blots, antibodies to the expressed S8 and S10 products reacted with a core capsid (65 kDa) and a major outer capsid (56 kDa) protein, respectively, while none of the antibodies to S7 and S9 products reacted with structural proteins. Antisera to RBSDV S7 ORF1 and S9 ORF1 each detected a single protein of the predicted size in total protein extracts from infected rice plants and viruliferous Laodelphax striatellus. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that antibodies to RBSDV S7 ORF1 and RBSDV S9 ORF1 reacted with tubular structures and viroplasm, respectively, in sections of both infected maize plants and viruliferous L. striatellus. Antisera to ORF2 of S7 and S9 failed to detect any proteins in the infected tissue using either Western blotting or immuno-electron microscopic techniques.

  5. Interaction Research on the Antiviral Molecule Dufulin Targeting on Southern Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus P9-1 Nonstructural Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchao Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV causes severe harm to rice production. Unfortunately, studies on effective antiviral drugs against SRBSDV and interaction mechanism of antiviral molecule targeting on SRBSDV have not been reported. This study found dufulin (DFL, an ideal anti-SRBSDV molecule, and investigated the interactions of DFL targeting on the nonstructural protein P9-1. The biological sequence information and bonding characterization of DFL to four kinds of P9-1 protein were described with fluorescence titration (FT and microscale thermophoresis (MST assays. The sequence analysis indicated that P9-1 had highly-conserved C- and N-terminal amino acid residues and a hypervariable region that differed from 131 aa to 160 aa. Consequently, wild-type (WT-His-P9-1, 23 C-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔC23-His-P9-1, 6 N-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔN6-His-P9-1, and Ser138 site-directed (MU-138-His-P9-1 mutant proteins were expressed. The FT and MST assay results indicated that DFL bounded to WT-His-P9-1 with micromole affinity and the 23 C-terminal amino acids were the potential targeting site. This system, which combines a complete sequence analysis, mutant protein expression, and binding action evaluating system, could further advance the understanding of the interaction abilities between antiviral drugs and their targets.

  6. Synthesis of Nanoporous TiO2 and Its Potential Applicability for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Antocyanine Black Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Yuliarto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous mesostructure TiO2 powders were synthesized by sol-gel method, with TiCl4 as a precursor in methanol solution. The Pluronic PE 6200 of block copolymer was used as the pores template. It was found from XRD measurements, both at 400∘C and 450∘C calcination temperatures, that the sol-gel technique yielded the nanoporous TiO2 with anatase phase. Based on N2 adsorption characterization using BET method, the TiO2 samples have surface area of 108 m2/g and 88 m2/g for calcination temperatures of 400∘C and of 450∘C, respectively. From small-angle neutron scattering (SANS patterns, TiO2 samples were observed to have nanoporous structures with pore sizes between 22–24 nm. The TiO2 also have order degree which depends on the calcination temperature. The potential applicability of the resulting TiO2 is confirmed for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC, composed of nanoporous anatase TiO2 and natural dye from antocyanine black rice. UV-Vis measurement of dye extracted from the black rice indicated that the antocyanine chelate can propagate into the TiO2 nanoporous network. The short circuit photocurrent density (Jsc under 100 mWcm−2 reached 1.287 mAcm−2 with open circuit photovoltage (Voc of 550 mV and the fill factor of 33.4%. The results show that the hybrid organic-inorganic structures are very attractive for future low-cost devices.

  7. 黑米发酵乳饮料配方的响应面法优化%Optimization of formula of black rice fermented milk beverages by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞春; 季澜洋

    2016-01-01

    With black rice and skimmed milk powder as the main materials,the black rice was gelatinized and liquefied,and then mixed with skimmed milk powder,sugar and pectin. After fermented by the lactic acid bacteria,the milk beverages with living bacteria was made. The formula of black rice fermented milk beverages was optimized by Box–Behnken design based on single factor experiment. The optimal values of the above parameters were obtained as followed:skimmed milk powder content was 5.39 g/100mL,sugar content was 8.16 g/100mL and pectin content was 3.88 mL/100mL. Under these optimal conditions,the black rice fermented milk beverages with superior quality was obtained.%以新鲜黑米和脱脂乳粉为主要原料,黑米经糊化、液化后添加脱脂乳粉、白砂糖和果胶,经乳酸菌发酵后制得含有活菌的乳饮料。在单因素试验的基础上,利用Design–Expert软件进行三因素三水平的Box–Behnken试验设计,并对黑米发酵乳饮料的配方进行优化分析。通过响应面法分析确定黑米发酵乳饮料的最佳配方为脱脂乳粉5.39 g/100mL、白砂糖8.16 g/100mL、果胶3.88 mL/100mL。在此条件下,制备的黑米发酵乳饮料的口感、色泽和质地良好。

  8. Alleviation of Salt Stress in Seedlings of Black Glutinous Rice by Seed Priming with Spermidine and Gibberellic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitahnun CHUNTHABUREE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the spermidine (Spd and gibberellic acid (GA3 priming-induced physiological and biochemical changes responsible for induction of salinity tolerance in two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars, namely ‘Niewdam Gs. no. 00621’ (salt tolerant and ‘KKU-LLR-039’ (salt sensitive. The seeds of the two cultivars were primed separately with distilled water, 1 mM Spd or 0.43 mM GA3. Primed seeds were germinated and the resultant seedlings were hydroponically grown for 14 days before being exposed to salinity stress (150 mM NaCl for 10 days. Seed priming with Spd or GA3 slightly improved salt-induced reductions in growth, anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents of the seedlings. Salt stress induced pronounced increases in Na+/K+ ratio, proline and H2O2 contents, particularly in the sensitive cultivar. The levels of these salt-sensitivity physiological indicators tended to be mitigated by priming with Spd and GA3. Salt-stressed seedlings grown from seeds primed with these growth regulators also possessed higher phenolic contents and greater antioxidant capacity than the control seedlings. Based on all growth and physiological data, Spd tended to be more effective than A3 in improving salt tolerance in both rice cultivars.

  9. 益生菌固态发酵黑米糠抗氧化发酵条件研究%Solid-State Fermented Condition on Antioxidative Activities of Black Rice Bran by Probiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文辉

    2013-01-01

    Fresh black rice bran as experimental materials,solid-state fermented condition of black rice bran were studied by single and mixed probiotics. Conclusions show that the optimal probiotic combination were Bacillus natto and Lactobacillus brevis, inoculation ratio was 1∶1, means of inoculation was that Lactobacillus brevis continue fer-mented for two days after Bacillus natto fermented for three days. Experimental results for logarithmic value of the probiotics is 17.11. The half of total number of logarithmic value and DPPH·clearance rates of the probiotics as icri-terion, solid-state fermented condition on antioxidative activities of black rice bran were studied by single factor re-search and orthogonal test. Conclusions show that inoculated quantity was 8%, fermented temperature was 37℃, supplement water capacity was 0.28mL/g. Verific-ation experiment results were logarithmic value of the probiotics was 17.15, DPPH·clearance rates was 73%, composite score was 45.75. Further through the fermented and unfermented black rice bran DPPH·clearance rates experiments,conclusions show that the probiotics fermentation increased antiox-idant activity of black rice bran. The conclusions of this study show that Bacillus natto and Lactobacillus brevis mixed bacterial solid state fermentation black rice bran is a feasible way to develop high oxidation resistance black rice bran health food.%  以新鲜黑米糠为原料,通过单菌和混合菌发酵实验,确定了固态发酵黑米糠的最适菌株组合为纳豆芽孢杆菌和短乳杆菌,接种比例为1∶1,接种方式为先接入纳豆芽孢杆菌3d后接入短乳杆菌继续发酵2d,测得两菌株组合菌群数的对数值为17.11。设计单因素和正交实验,以菌群数的对数值和DPPH·清除率各占50%的综合评分为指标,确定纳豆芽孢杆菌和短乳杆菌固态发酵黑米糠的最优抗氧化发酵条件为:接种量8%,发酵温度37℃、加水量0.28mL/g。该条

  10. Identification and profiling of conserved and novel microRNAs in Laodelphax striatellus in response to rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Min Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that play important roles in various biological processes. This study examined microRNA profiles of Laodelphax striatellus using the small RNA libraries derived from virus free (VF and rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV infected (RB insects. A total of 59 mature miRNAs (46 miRNA families were identified as conserved insect miRNAs in both VF and RB libraries. Among these conserved miRNAs, 24 were derived from the two arms of 12 miRNA precursors. Nine conserved L. striatellus miRNAs were up-regulated and 12 were down-regulated in response to RBSDV infection. In addition, a total of 20 potential novel miRNA candidates were predicted in the VF and RB libraries. The miRNA transcriptome profiles and the identification of L. striatellus miRNAs differentially expressed in response to RBSDV infection will contribute to future studies to elucidate the complex miRNA-mediated regulatory network activated by pathogen challenge in insect vectors.

  11. Development of Health Vinegar Beverage with Black Glutinous Rice and Red Dates%黑糯米红枣保健醋饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家东; 王荣荣

    2013-01-01

    结合传统食醋生产工艺,以黑糯米和红枣为发酵主料,配以银杏叶、苦养茶、枸杞等浸提液参与醋酸发酵,并采用α-淀粉酶、糖化酶作为糖化剂,安琪酿酒高活性干酵母进行酒精发酵和醋母进行醋酸发酵等工艺,生产出具有多种功能因子的新型保健醋饮料.%Combined with the traditional vinegar producing process,take red dates and black glutinous rice as main fermentation materials,mixed with leaves of ginkgo,bitter buckwheat tea,medlar and other extract liquid for acetic acid fermentation.Use α-amylase,saccharifying enzyme as saccharifying agents,angel active dry yeast for ethanol fermentation and mother for acetic fermentation to produce a new type of health vinegar with a variety of functional factors.

  12. Influence of rice whole-crop silage diet on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics and muscle-related gene expression in Japanese Black steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masahiro; Hikino, Yasuko; Imanari, Mai; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a diet largely comprising rice whole-crop silage (rWCS) on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and expression of genes involved in muscle growth of Japanese Black steers. Steers were randomly separated into rWCS-fed (rWCS ad libitum and restricted feeding of concentrate) and concentrate-fed groups. Total digestible nutrient intake and daily gain (DG) decreased in rWCS-fed steers in comparison with concentrate-fed steers, whereas dressed carcass weight and final body weight did not significantly differ between the groups. Decreases in drip loss in the muscle of rWCS-fed steers may be caused by α-tocopherol and β-carotene in muscle. Feeding large amounts of rWCS to steers may maintain quantitative productivity of beef steers equally to a concentrate-based diet, and improve the qualitative productivity. Results of gene expression suggest that activation of skeletal muscle growth in rWCS-fed steers may occur at the late fattening period owing to a decrease in myostatin and increase in myosin heavy chain gene expression. Preadipocyte factor-1 and myostatin genes may be strongly involved in the control of lipid accumulation. This rearing system would allow beef production to switch to rWCS-based diets from concentrate-based diets.

  13. Black rice (Oryza sativa L. extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in C57BL/6 J mice fed a high-fat diet via fatty acid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Hwan-Hee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two major risk factors for the onset of fatty liver disease are excessive alcohol intake and obesity, the latter being associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of black rice extract (BRE on hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice, providing a model of NAFLD. Methods Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 in each group: normal fat diet (ND, high fat diet (HF, and high fat diet supplemented with 1% (w/w BRE (HF +1% BRE. The experimental diets were fed for seven weeks. Results A HF induced hepatic steatosis with significant increases in the serum levels of free fatty acids (FFAs, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and insulin. By contrast, supplementary BRE (10 g/kg of diet included in the HF alleviated hepatic steatosis and significantly decreased serum TG and TC levels (p Conclusions Dietary BRE supplementation improved serum lipid profiles and significantly enhanced mRNA expression levels of fatty acid metabolism-related genes, primarily via β-oxidation and ω-oxidation in the liver. Taken together, these findings suggest that a BRE-supplemented diet could be useful in reducing the risks of hepatic steatosis and related disorders, including hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.

  14. Polishing and parboiling effect on the nutritional and technological properties of pigmented rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Flávia Fernandes; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Berrios, Jose De J; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Pan, James; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2016-01-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of polishing and parboiling on proximate composition, structure, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, cooking time and hardness of IAC-600 black rice cultivar and MPB-10 red rice lineage. Proximate analysis and light micrographs revealed higher migration of red rice proteins than black rice proteins to the endosperm as a result of parboiling. Parboiling reduced the ash content of red rice while no difference was determined in black rice. Gelatinized starch granules from both genotypes showed similar appearance. There was a decrease in relative crystallinity on both black and red rice subjected to parboiling, which was an indicative of crystallites disruption. Polishing removed more than 90% of free phenolics for both genotypes, while parboiling allowed the partial preservation of free phenolics content in polished rice. Parboiling induced an increase in the cooking time of red rice, but a decrease in the cooking time of black rice.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidants of black rice%超声波辅助提取黑米中抗氧化物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志辉; 于国萍

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol was used for extracting antioxidants of black rice under ultrasound assistance. Based on the anthocyanin content,DPPH free radical clearance rate,total antioxidant capacity(TAC),the single factor method was used for the optimization of ultrasonic extraction. The extracted result was reflected by three different aspects indicators. Results showed that:extraction time was reduced by ultrasonic-assisted. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were:ultrasonic power 280W,extraction time 20min,70% ethanol concentration,liquid- solid ratio(mL/mg)20∶ 1,extraction temperature 50℃. Then the anthocyanin content was 12. 56mg/g,DPPH free radical clearance rate was 54. 41%,TAC was 52. 38u/mL.%在乙醇提取的基础上,用超声波辅助提取黑米中的抗氧化物质。以花色苷含量、DPPH自由基清除率、总抗氧化能力(TAC)为指标进行单因素实验对条件优化。通过三个不同方面的指标来反映提取的效果。实验结果表明:超声波作用下缩短了提取时间。最佳的单因素指标为:超声功率280W、提取时间20min、乙醇浓度70%、液固比(mL/mg)20∶1、提取温度50℃,此时的花色苷含量为12.56mg/g,DPPH自由基清除率为54.41%,TAC为52.38u/mL。

  16. 葵花粕分离蛋白对黑米面包面团粉质特性的影响%Effect of Sunflower Meal Isolated Protein on the Farinograph Characteristics of Black Rice Bread Dough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云玲; 朱效兵; 郭淑文; 石晶红

    2016-01-01

    研究添加葵花粕分离蛋白对黑米面包混粉面团粉质特性的影响,为葵花粕分离蛋白作为功能性材料开发功能性食品提供理论依据。以面包粉和黑米粉为原料,添加一定比例葵花粕分离蛋白,利用布拉本德(Brabender)粉质仪测定面团吸水率、形成时间、稳定时间和弱化度。面包粉中添加30%黑米粉、4%谷朊粉、1%~5%的葵花粕分离蛋白后,混粉面团的吸水率增加,形成时间和稳定时间先增加后减少,弱化度先下降后上升。添加1%~3%的葵花粕分离蛋白,可以改善黑米面包混粉的粉质特性,进而改变其加工特性。%The effect of adding sunflower meal isolated protein on the farinograph characteristics of black rice bread dough were studied,it provided a theoretical basis for sunflower meal isolated protein as a functional mate-rial to develop functional foods. Bread flour and black rice flour as raw materials,adding the right amount of sunflower meal isolated protein,Brabender farinograph was used to determination dough water absorption,devel-opment time,stability time,softening degree of mixed dough. Adding 30%black rice flour,4%gluten flour, 1 %-5%sunflower meal isolated protein in the bread flour,the water absorption of mixed dough increased,the development time and the stability time increased first and then decreased,the softening degree decreased first and then increased. Adding 1%-3%sunflower meal isolated protein could improve the farinograph properties of black rice bread mixed dough,and then change the processing characteristics.

  17. TiO2/Chitosan-NH4I(+I2-BMII-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anthocyanin Dyes Extracted from Black Rice and Red Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Buraidah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated using anthocyanin dye and polymer electrolyte with ammonium iodide (NH4I salt. The study was designed to focus on increasing the efficiency of the DSSC. DSSC using 26.9 wt. % chitosan-22 wt. % NH4I(+2.2 wt.% I2-48.9 wt. % IL solid electrolyte, black rice anthocyanin with Pt counter electrode showed Jsc of 172 μA cm−2 and Voc of 195 mV. The performance of the cell with Pt electrode was further improved by coating a blocking layer on the indium tin oxide (ITO substrate. The black rice DSSC using 11 wt. % (chitosan:PEO, wt. ratio 30:70-9 wt. % NH4I-80 wt. % BMII gel electrolyte exhibited Jsc of 1213 μA cm−2, Voc of 400 mV, FF of 0.47, and η of 0.23%. The red cabbage anthocyanin DSSC containing (phthaloyl chitosan-PEO-NH4I-BMII gel electrolyte using tartaric acid to adjust the pH of anthocyanin solution showed the best performance with the fill factor of 0.39, Jsc of 3503 μA cm−2, Voc of 340 mV, and an overall conversion efficiency of 0.46%.

  18. Study on the Effect of Sunflower Meal Protein Isolate on Extensograph Properties of Black Rice Bread Dough%葵花粕分离蛋白对黑米面包面团拉伸特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云玲; 孙世锴; 朱效兵; 石晶红

    2016-01-01

    以面包专用粉为对照,研究黑米粉、谷朊粉及葵花粕分离蛋白与面包专用粉不同配比混粉面团的拉伸特性,并对各混粉面团的理化指标与拉伸参数进行相关性分析,结果表明,当添加黑米粉的添加量为30%时,添加2%~4%的谷朊粉,1%~3%的葵花粕分离蛋白,能明显改善混粉面团的拉伸特性。%Taking the bread special flour as the contrast,the extensograph properties were studied on bread spe-cial flour dough mixed with different ratio of black rice flour, gluten flour and sunflower meal protein isolate, the correlation analysis of the physical and chemical indexes and extensograph parameters of the mixed flour was carried out, and the results showed that the addition of black rice flour was 30%, added 2%-4%of gluten powder and 1%-3%of sunflower meal protein isolate, could significantly improve the extensograph properties of mixed flour dough.

  19. Chemometric classification of pigmented rice varieties based on antioxidative properties in relation to color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaiwan Pramai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The pigmented Thai rice varieties including red and black color and non-pigmented rice (white collected from different growth sites in the north of Thailand and were determined for color and antioxidant properties. Anthocyanins were the major compound in group of black rice (21.15-441.96 mg/100 g rice. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and -tocopherol contents were highest in the black rice followed by red rice and antioxidant capacities were predominant in pigmented varieties. Black rice grown in mountainous area presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to the other growing locations. The color parameters, especially L* value presented the negative correlations with antioxidant parameters, while the antioxidant contents, excepted -oryzanol content had significant correlation with antioxidant capacities. Pigmented rice varieties could be clearly classified into 4 groups using PCA and HCA, which provided a good indicator to classify pigmented rice varieties based on color and antioxidative properties.

  20. Occurring characteristics and controlling strategy of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV)%南方水稻黑条矮缩病发生现状及防控对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万才; 刘宇; 郭荣

    2010-01-01

    @@ 南方水稻黑条矮缩病毒(Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus,SRBSDV)是由我国科学工作者首先发现,并经华南农业大学周国辉教授等人鉴定和命名的为害农作物的病毒新种,属呼肠孤病毒科(Reoviridae)斐济病毒属(Fijivirus).需引起我们高度重视的是该病以在我国水稻主产区广泛发生的迁飞性害虫白背飞虱为介体高效传毒而发生和流行.

  1. Occurring trend and control strategy of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus%钦州市南方水稻黑条矮缩病发生发展态势及防控对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小燕; 邓钦阳; 陈军; 刘维文; 尹奇勋; 杨利平

    2011-01-01

    @@ 南方水稻黑条矮缩病于2001年在广东省阳西县晚稻上首次发现,2008年由华南农业大学周国辉教授等人将其命名为南方水稻黑条矮缩病(Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus,SRBSDV)[1].2009年鉴定,该病已在钦州市的灵山、浦北、钦南、钦北等县区发生,发病面积4185.47ha,绝收面积275.07ha,损失2328.15t稻谷.

  2. Study on the cause of serious occurrence of southern rice black - streaked dwarf virus in middle - season rice in Sanjiang county and its control strategy%2010年三江县中稻南方水稻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯松德

    2011-01-01

    @@ 南方水稻黑条矮缩病(Southern rice blackstreaked dwarf virus,SRBSDV)是近年来在我国新发现的水稻病毒病,迁飞性害虫白背飞虱为主要传毒媒介.2009年该病在越南北部及我国华南和长江中游稻区多个省发生并局部造成稻谷损失.

  3. Effectiveness of Rice Agricultural Waste, Microbes and Wetland Plants in the Removal of Reactive Black-5 Azo Dye in Microcosm Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Beenish; Jabeen, Madeeha; Khalid, Azeem; Aziz, Irfan; Christy, Ann D

    2015-01-01

    Azo dyes are commonly generated as effluent pollutants by dye using industries, causing contamination of surface and ground water. Various strategies are employed to treat such wastewater; however, a multi-faceted treatment strategy could be more effective for complete removal of azo dyes from industrial effluent than any single treatment. In the present study, rice husk material was used as a substratum in two constructed wetlands (CWs) and augmented with microorganisms in the presence of wetland plants to effectively treat dye-polluted water. To evaluate the efficiency of each process the study was divided into three levels, i.e., adsorption of dye onto the substratum, phytoremediation within the CW and then bioremediation along with the previous two processes in the augmented CW. The adsorption process was helpful in removing 50% dye in presence of rice husk while 80% in presence of rice husk biocahr. Augmentation of microorganisms in CW systems has improved dye removal efficiency to 90%. Similarly presence of microorganisms enhanced removal of total nitrogen (68% 0 and Total phosphorus (75%). A significant improvement in plant growth was also observed by measuring plant height, number of leaves and leave area. These findings suggest the use of agricultural waste as part of a CW substratum can provide enhanced removal of textile dyes.

  4. 玉米粗缩病抗性遗传研究%Genetic analysis of resistance to Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸垫平; 易晓云; 苗洪芹; 路银贵; 田兰芝

    2012-01-01

    本文选用3个抗病自交系(齐319、X178、沈137)和3个感病自交系(掖107、掖478、沈5003)按照NCⅡ交配设计配制9套杂交组合研究了玉米抗粗缩病遗传规律.2009-2010年在曲阳、保定采用田间自然发病方法鉴定亲本、F1、F2群体的玉米粗缩病抗性,并采用灰飞虱人工接种方法鉴定亲本材料的抗病性.运用QGA station软件的加性-显性-上位性(ADAA)遗传模型进行数据分析,结果表明,显性效应和加性效应是控制玉米粗缩病抗性的主要遗传组分,分别占表型变异的44.8%和13.1%,杂合显性效应表现负向杂种优势,抗病育种可加以利用.加性×加性上位性效应在玉米自交系和杂交组合抗粗缩病遗传中普遍存在,但因材料不同而表现负向或正向效应.玉米粗缩病抗性易受环境影响,显性与环境互作效应方差占表型方差的比率为39.8%,达到极显著水平.因此,培育抗粗缩病玉米品种应依据基因型选配适当的亲本材料,抗病品种宜进行多年多点鉴定筛选.%Maize rough dwarf disease caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus(RBSDV) leads to serious economic losses of corn in China. It is an efficient and economical measure to use resistant varieties to control the disease. An experiment was carried out to elucidate the heredity in maize resistance to RBSDV with 9 sets of hybrids crossing between 3 resistant (Qi319, XI78, Shenl37) and 3 susceptible (YelO7, Ye478, Shen5003) lines according to NCII design. The resistance of parents as well as their hybrids F, and F2 populations were identified by natural transmission of planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) in fields of Quyang and Baoding from 2009 to 2010 and the parents were also evaluated with artificial inoculation. The disease indexes were analyzed with software QGA station based on additive dominance and additive x additive (ADAA) genetic model. The results showed that the dominant and additive effects were the main

  5. Microbial diversity in a continuous system based on rice husks for biodegradation of the azo dyes Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Black 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Jörgen; Pinhassi, Jarone; Lindh, Markus; Welander, Ulrika

    2013-02-01

    In the present study the degradation of two common azo dyes used in dye houses today, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 2 was evaluated in biofilters. In two experiments, bioreactors performed over 80% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of only 28.4h with little production of metabolites. Molecular analyses showed a diverse and dynamic bacterial community composition in the bioreactors, including members of the Bacteroidetes, Acinetobacter (Gammaproteobacteria) and Clostridium (Firmicutes) that possess the capacity to reduce azo dyes. Collectively, the results indicate that the development of mixed bacterial communities from natural biomaterials contributes to an efficient and robust degradation performance in bioreactors even at high concentration of dyes.

  6. Anti-oxidative analysis, and identification and quantification of anthocyanin pigments in different coloured rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Qiong; Nagao, Norio; Itani, Tomio; Irifune, Kohei

    2012-12-15

    Anthocyanin pigments in coloured rice cultivars were isolated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. Two black rice cultivars (Asamurasaki, Okunomurasaki) contained three major anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and malvidin. Chinakuromai (black) rice additionally contained a fourth anthocyanin, petunidin-3-glucoside. Four red rice cultivars contained only malvidin. The total anthocyanin content varied greatly among black rice cultivars (79.5-473.7 mg/100g), but was lower in red rice (7.9-34.4 mg/100g). Total phenolic content was similar between red (460.32-725.69 mg/100g) and black (417.11-687.24 mg/100g) rice. The oxygen radical absorbing capacity was ranked as follows: red (69.91-130.32 μmol Trolox/g)>black (55.49-64.85 μmol Trolox/g)>green (35.32 μmol Trolox/g)>white (21.81 μmol Trolox/g) rice. The antioxidant capacity resulted mainly from the seed capsule, not the endosperm. The anthocyanin pigments contributed little to the total antioxidant capacity of red (0.03-0.1%) and black (0.5-2.5%) rice cultivars. Hence, the antioxidant capacity is derived mainly from other phenolic compounds.

  7. Surveillance and Integrated Control Technology of Southern Rice Black­streaked Dwarf Virus Disease in Huazhou City%广东化州市南方水稻黑条矮缩病监测与综合防治技术规程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁少玉; 黄闻桢; 梁盛铭; 陈观浩

    2015-01-01

    According to the rules of southern rice black­streaked dwarf virus disease occurrence and the forecast and prevention practice of the epidemic, the scope of control technology, the principle of prevention, the disease surveillance, the forecasting methods and the integrated control technology were studied. Furthermore, specific rules and technical specifications of the comprehensive prevention and control processes were illustrated, which provided technical basis for the control standardization and green prevention of southern rice black­streaked dwarf virus disease.%根据南方水稻黑条矮缩病发生流行规律和测报防治实践,研究化州市南方水稻黑条矮缩病防治技术规程的适用范围、防治原则、病情监测、预报方法及综合防治技术,阐明综合防治技术规程的具体细则和技术指标,为南方水稻黑条矮缩病防治规范化、标准化和绿色防控提供技术依据。

  8. Comparison of 2 culture media, cornmeal agar incorporating caffeic acid and black rice agar, to selectively isolate Cryptococcus neoformans%两种新型隐球菌选择性培养基的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶星辰; 尚秋菊; 罗宗龙; 杨静; 代陆娇; 苏鸿雁

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较咖啡酸玉米琼脂培养基(caffeic acid cornmeal agar medium,CACA)和黑米琼脂培养基(black rice agar medium)对鸽粪中新型隐球菌的分离效果. 方法 用无菌竹签从鸽舍随机采取鸽粪标本,取0.6g与10 ml无菌生理盐水制成悬液,然后按每个平板100μl分别接种咖啡酸玉米琼脂培养基和黑米琼脂培养基,肉眼观察菌落形态、颜色,光学显微镜下观察菌体形态,同时用特异性引物CN4和CN5扩增新型隐球菌URA基因,分别统计两种培养基中出现阳性菌株的平板数目. 结果 黑米琼脂培养基中新型隐球菌菌落呈棕黄色,外观湿润,状似胶汁.共分离获得23株新型隐球菌,检出率32.86%.CACA中新型隐球菌菌落较黑米琼脂培养基上的菌落小,褐色,干燥.共分离出11株新型隐球菌,检出率为15.71%.黑米琼脂培养基的检出率与CACA比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且丝状真菌覆盖性生长的平板数目少于CACA,污染程度低于CACA;通过墨汁染色,在光学显微镜下观察新型隐球菌菌体呈圆形或卵圆形,外有宽厚荚膜,PCR扩增得到了目的条带产物. 结论 黑米琼脂培养基作为新型隐球菌的选择性培养基其分离培养效果(检出效果和检出率)优于CACA.

  9. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.

  10. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Xianggu Rice: The rice originated from Jiangyong County, Hunan Province. Its characteristics were: even in grain shape, white in color, special fragrant in taste, and sticky in quality. Handongzao: It was from Wannian County, Jiangxi Province. The rice had big, fertile, and white grain, which was soft with fragrant smell, and it had high head rice rate. So, the local peasants liked to plant it. It was one of the "Tribute rice " in old time. Shizhu "Imperial Rice": The rice was also called "Fragrant Rice", was from Siyuan Village, Yuelai Town, Shizhu County, Sichuan Province. It was the treasure among the rices. The grain was bright in color. When it was cooked, the smell was fragrant. It was said that the rice was from "Han Dynasty", and has become the "Tribute Rice " since then. Blood Glutinous Rice: Originated from Changshu City, Jiangsu Province, the rice has been cultivated more than one hundred years. It had high nutrition value. Among the people, the Blood Glutinous Rice was often used as health food for lying-in women and patients. Qufu Fragrant Rice: Its characteristics were: clean, bright, and translucent in grain color, sticky in quality. It was suitable for cooking gruel and was also called "Fragrant Rice" in the local due to its strong fragrance. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Taihu Lake Fragrant Japonica: The rice was from the Region of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province. The characteristics were: even and big in grain shape, soft in quality, white in color, fragrant in taste. The local people liked to plant and eat it.□ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice",No.1,1994

  11. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    ’s a lifestyle I enjoy.” For Monáe, the tuxedo is both working clothes and a superhero uniform. Together with futuristic references to Fritz Lang’s dystopian Metropolis, her trademark starched shirt and tuxedo also recall Weimar and pre-war Berlin. While outwardly dissimilar, Sioux’s and Monáe’s shared black...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses....

  12. Interaction between four rice proteins and P7-2, an unstructural viral protein encoded by Rice black streaked dwarf virus S7%四种水稻蛋白与水稻黑条矮缩病毒编码非结构蛋白 P7-2的互作分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张上林; 孙丽英; 陈剑平

    2013-01-01

    Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus, infects maize and rice plants and causes significant yield losses in Asia .RBSDV has a genome of 10 dsRNAs and encodes 12 proteins.Six of these proteins (P1, P2, P3, P4, P8 and P10) are structural components of the viral particle .There are six non-structural proteins, P5, P6, P7-1, P7-2, P9-1, and P9-2.Among those non-structural proteins, P5, P6 and P9-1 have been shown to involve in viroplasm formation and P 7-1 has been identified to form the cytoplasmic tubular-like structures that serve as a conduit for virion movement between cells .The function of P7-2 and P9-2 is still unknow . In this study , we utilized protein Pull-Down assay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS) techniques to identify the proteins from rice ( Oryza sativa) that interact with P7-2.Four proteins were found to bind P7-2 by Pull-Down assay.Two of them are transcription-associated proteins, one is an aminotransferase and the other one is a putative chaperonin 60 beta precursor .Using real-time quantitative PCR , the transcript expression lev-els of transcription-associated protein and putative chaperonin 60 beta precursor were up-regulated by RBSDV infec-tion.In contrast , the transcript expression of aminotransferase protein was suppressed by RBSDV infection .%水稻黑条矮缩病毒( RBSDV)是斐济病毒属的成员之一,可侵染玉米和水稻等作物,给亚洲地区的田间生产带来严重的损失。 RBSDV有10条双链RNA(double strand RNA, dsRNA)基因组,编码12个蛋白。其中6个蛋白是病毒粒子的结构成分(P1,P2,P3,P4,P8,P10),6个非结构蛋白分别为P5,P6,P7-1,P7-2,P9-1, P9-2。在非结构蛋白中,P5,P6和P9-1已被证实参与形成毒质结构,P7-1被认为可在细胞质中形成类似管状的结构作为病毒胞间扩散的通道,P7-2和P9-2的功能目前尚不明确。

  13. Polishing and parboiling effect on the nutritional and technological properties of pigmented rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of polishing and parboiling on proximate composition, structure, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, cooking time and hardness of IAC-600 black rice cultivar and MPB-10 red rice lineage. Proximate analysis and light micrographs revealed higher migration ...

  14. The World of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ Pilafs, risottos, soups, snacks, paellas,stuffing, vinegars, wines and desserts-rice is used all over the world in myriad ways as food and drink.Although rice is one of the world's most ancient foods and it is impossible to know exactly where and when cultivation of this marvelous grain began, China is popularly acknowledged as the homeland of rice. Chinese people have many legends about rice. Some describe a benevolent goddess in silk robes whose gown accidentally picked up stray rice grains, which she dropped from the heavens to humans below. It's also said that Shennong, the Divine Farmer in Chinese myth, sowed the first rice on earth.

  15. 基于人工神经网络的黑米花色苷提取的研究%Artificial neural network-based optimization of extraction of anthocyanins in black rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯召华; 张宇; 金春爱; 赵昌德; 崔松焕

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To get the optimal parameters of anthocyanins of black rice, artificial neural network (ANN) model of extracting anthocyanins was founded. Method: Based on the training of artificial neural networks using orthogonal arrays, a model for the productivity of anthocyanins as the output of the input consisting of five technological parameters for extraction was developed and validated for reliability using selected specimens. The further optimization of optimal values of these parameters obtained using orthogonal array design was conducted based on the AAN model by means of small-step search. Result: The optimal parameters for extraction were ethanol/water/hydrochloric acid 55/45/0.5, temperature 50℃, solid-liquid ratio of 1:10, the extraction time is 1 h, times of extraction is 4. Conclusion: AAN- based optimization gave a productivity of anthocyanins of 3.942%, higher than the value of 3.740% from orthogonal array optimization. More optimized technological parameters and higher optimization efficiency can be obtained using combined ANNs and orthogonal array design than using orthogonal array design alone.%目的:建立黑米花色苷提取的人工神经网络模型,得到最佳提取工艺参数。方法:正交实验与人工神经网络相结合,利用正交实验获得的数据作为神经网络的训练样本,建立输入为实验因素参数,输出为花色苷提取率的神经网络模型;采用人工神经网络模拟和预测黑米花色苷提取的最佳条件和提取率。结果:黑米花色苷最佳提取条件,提取液乙醇/水/盐酸体积比为55:45:0.5,温度50℃,固液比为1:10(g/mL),提取时间为1h,提取次数为4次。结论:人工神经网络模型准确预测花色苷提取率,且得到最佳提取条件下花色苷提取率为3.944%,高于正交实验的3.740%,将神经网络与正交实验结合用于实验条件优化可以缩短优化实验参数的

  16. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Mingshui Rice: It originated from Zhangqiu County, Shandong Province. The characteristics of Mingshui Rice were: absorbing more water, swelling up greatly after being soaked, and being sticky and smelling fragrant after cooked.

  17. Bioactive compounds and antioxidative activity of colored rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The profiles of bioactive compounds (including phenolics and flavonoids in free and bound fractions, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, vitamin E, and γ-oryzanol of outer and inner rice bran from six colored rice samples collected from local markets were investigated. Proanthocyanidins could only be detected in red rice bran but not in black rice bran. The free fraction of the extracts dominated the total phenolics (72–92% and the total flavonoids (72–96% of colored rice bran. Most of the phenolic acids (83–97% in colored rice bran were present in the bound form. Protocatechualdehyde was identified for the first time in the bound fraction of red rice bran by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The antioxidative activities of the free fraction of the colored rice bran were attributed to the proanthocyanidins in red colored rice and anthocyanins in black rice, while that of the bound fraction was mainly due to the phenolic acids.

  18. Rice Price under Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Early in April, the FOB (Free on Board) value of rice exported from Bangkok, Thailand, the biggest rice exporter of the world, surged to a new high of US$730per ton, representing an increase of 70 percent in recent years, and setting a new record over the past 34 years of Thailand rice exports.

  19. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp i

  20. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wushan Rice: It grew in hilly land around Wu Mountain in Wang City, Hunan Province. Its grain is bright and transparent, and the cooked rice is soft, sticky, fragrant, and sweet in taste. It was a "Tribute Rice" in old time. Indian Indica: Growing in Wuchang City, Hubei Province, it was also called" Red Flower Rice" . It was characterized by its thin pericarp and soft, sticky, and oily quality. Its taste was delicious. Fragrant Rice 1: It was from Xinxiang and Hui counties, Henan Province. Its characteristics were: long-round in grain shape, white in color, soft and sticky in quality, and agreeable to the taste. It was usually used as a gift in the local. Baiyutang Rice: It originated from Gaozhuang Village, Beijing suburban district. It had good quality due to the irrigation of the spring water. The rice had even grain shape, white color, hard enough quality to be cooked, fragrant and sweet taste. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Tian′e Indica Rice: Xianning and Wuchang counties, Hubei Province were its growing area. It also called "Double Grain" because of its big grain. The hull was red, while the grain was white. When cooked, it needed more water than normal rice, and the rice was agreeable to the taste. Baiyan Rice: It originated from Jishou County, Hunan Province. The grain was even in shape, white in color, and sticky in quality. The rice was easy to be cooked and was fragrant and sweet in taste. It was also a " Tribute Rice" in old time. □ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice", No. 1, 1994

  1. Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sharon V

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the world, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal. With type 2 diabetes increasing, the effect of this traditional diet pattern on glycemic response has not been studied fully. Methods We evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men and women with type 2 diabetes controlled by metformin (n = 14 or diet/exercise (n = 3 aged 35–70 years participated in the randomized 4 × 4 crossover trial. The white long grain rice control, pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, red kidney beans/rice test meals, matched for 50 grams of available carbohydrate, were consumed at breakfast after a 12 hour fast. Capillary blood glucose concentrations at baseline and at 30 minute intervals up to 180 minutes postprandial were collected. MANOVA for repeated measures established glucose differences between treatments. Paired t tests identified differences between bean types and the rice control following a significant MANOVA. Results Postprandial net glucose values were significantly lower for the three bean/rice treatments in contrast to the rice control at 90, 120 and 150 minutes. Incremental area under the curve values were significantly lower for the pinto and black bean/rice meals compared to rice alone, but not for kidney beans. Conclusions Pinto, dark red kidney and black beans with rice attenuate the glycemic response compared to rice alone. Promotion of traditional foods may provide non-pharmaceutical management of type 2 diabetes and improve dietary adherence with cultural groups. Trial registration Clinical Trials number NCT01241253

  2. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  3. Functional analysis of the rice rubisco activase promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhipan; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Chen, Fan [Key Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lu, Congming, E-mail: lucm@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice rubisco activase promoter was analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Region conferring tissue specific and light inducible expression of Rca was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer -58 to +43 bp region mediates tissue-specific expression of rice Rca. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light inducible expression of rice Rca is mediated by -297 to -58 bp region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the light inducible region. -- Abstract: To gain a better understanding of the regulatory mechanism of the rice rubisco activase (Rca) gene, variants of the Rca gene promoter (one full-length and four deletion mutants) fused to the coding region of the bacterial reporter gene {beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) were introduced into Arabidopsis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Our results show that a 340 bp fragment spanning from -297 to +43 bp relative to the transcription initiation site is enough to promote tissue-specific and light-inducible expression of the rice Rca gene as done by the full-length promoter (-1428 to +43 bp). Further deletion analysis indicated that the region conferring tissue-specificity of Rca expression is localized within a 105 bp fragment from -58 to +43 bp, while light-inducible expression of Rca is mediated by the region from -297 to -58 bp. Gel shift assays and competition experiments demonstrated that rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the fragment conferring light responsiveness at more than one binding site. This implies that multiple cis-elements may be involved in light-induced expression of the rice Rca gene. These works provide a useful reference for understanding transcriptional regulation mechanism of the rice Rca gene, and lay a strong foundation for further detection of related cis-elements and trans-factors.

  4. Machine vision inspection of rice seed based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成芳; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect the quality of rice seeds. Five varieties of Jinyou402, Shanyou10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and IIyou were evaluated. The images of both sides of rice seed with black background and white background were acquired with the image processing system for identifying external features of rice seeds. Five image sets consisting of 600 original images each were obtained. Then a digital image processing algorithm based on Hough transform was developed to inspect the rice seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96% for normal seeds, 92% for seeds with fine fissure and 87% for seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was proved to be applicable to different seed varieties and insensitive to the color of the background.

  5. Machine vision inspection of rice seed based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成芳; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect the quality of rice seeds. Five varieties of Jinyou402,Shanyou 10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and Ilyou were evaluated. The images of both sides of rice seed with black background and white background were acquired with the image processing system for identifying external features of rice seeds. Five image sets consisting of 600 original images each were obtained. Then a digital image processing algorithm based on Hough transform was developed to inspect the rice seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96% for normal seeds, 92% for seeds with fine fissure and 87% for seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was proved to be applicable to different seed varieties and insensitive to the color of the background.

  6. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  7. 丁硫克百威对白背飞虱和南方水稻黑条矮缩病的防治研究%Effect of Carbosulfan on White -back Pianthopper and Sowthern Black -streaked Dwarf Virus of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠雪; 罗全丽; 陆金鹏

    2016-01-01

    为明确丁硫克百威拌种剂对水稻白背飞虱和南方水稻黑条矮缩病的防治效果及其对天敌的影响,选择不同剂量的35%丁硫克百威种子处理干粉剂进行拌种。结果表明:剂量是30 g/kg 种子拌种可有效防治白背飞虱,在播种后32 d、43 d、50 d 和57 d 的防效分别为:90.6%、78.4%、67.9%和61.1%;同时通过防治白背飞虱减少传毒媒介,能有效控制南方水稻黑条矮缩病的危害,防效为76.9%。%In order to define the effect carbosuifan bud on white -backed planthopper and rice dwarf virus disease prevention of rice, choose different doses of 35% carbosulfan.The results showed that the dose of 30 g/kg could can be effective prevention of white -backed planthopper,32 d after sowing,43 d,50 d and the control effect of 57 d respectively:90.6%,78.4%,67.9% and 78.4%;At the same time through the prevention and control of white -backed planthopper reduce the toxic medium,can effectively control the harm of south dwarf virus disease black of rie,control effect is 76.9%.

  8. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  9. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  10. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  11. Super Rice Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  12. Impact of parboiling conditions on Maillard precursors and indicators in long-grain rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Lieve; Rombouts, Ine; Brijs, Kristof; Gebruers, Kurt; Delcour, Jan A

    2008-10-15

    The effect of steaming conditions (mild, intermediate and severe) during parboiling of five different long-grain rice cultivars (brown rice cultivars Puntal, Cocodrie, XL8 and Jacinto, and a red rice) on rice colour, and Maillard precursors and indicators was investigated. Rice colour increased with severity of parboiling conditions. Redness increased more than yellowness when parboiling brown rice. Parboiling turned red rice black. It changed the levels of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose. Losses of the non-reducing sugar, sucrose were caused by both leaching into the soaking water and enzymic conversion, rather than by thermal degradation during steaming. Concentrations of the reducing sugars, glucose and fructose, in intermediately parboiled rice were higher than those of mildly parboiled rice. After severe parboiling, glucose levels were lower than those of intermediately parboiled rice, while fructose levels were higher. These changes were ascribed to the sum of losses in the Maillard reaction (MR), formations as a result of starch degradation and isomerisation of glucose into fructose. It was clear that the ε-amino group of protein-bound lysine was more affected by parboiling conditions and loss in MRs, than that of free lysine. Low values of the MR indicators furosine and free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) in processed brown and red rices were related to mild parboiling, whereas high furosine and low free HMF levels were indicative of rices being subjected to intermediate processing conditions. High furosine and high free HMF contents corresponded to severe hydrothermal treatments. The strong correlation (r=0.89) between the free HMF levels and the increase in redness of parboiled brown rices suggested that Maillard browning was reflected more in the red than in the yellow colour.

  13. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  14. Rice Germplasm Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINGCunshan

    1994-01-01

    China is one of the origin countries in Asia of cultiv ated rice (O. sativaL.), and rice is one of the aged-long food crops in the country. The results of the 14C evaluation on the carbonified rice grains unearthed from Hemudu in Yuyao County and Luojiajiao in Tongxiang County of Zhejiang Province indicated that rice in these area has been planted more than 7,000 yrs and indica (hsien) and japonica (keng) rices coexisted with each other.

  15. Studies on weed diversity and its associated phytosociology under direct dry seeded rice systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mantosh Kumar Sinha; Arnab Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Chhattisgarh is commonly known as Bowl of rice where rice is grown as monocrop in the entire state whether soil is bhata, matasi, kanhar or black soil. Present study is based on the study of biodiversity of weeds under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Systems in Koria District (C.G.) Study was conducted to assess the phytosociological studies of weed species in paddy field at Baikunthpur, Koriya district, Chattisgarh. A total of 43 genera and 9 families of Dicotyledonae and 3 families of monocots and...

  16. Impact of drought and detection of potential donors for reproductive stage tolerance in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafina Haque, A.Anandan, S.K.Pradhan, and O.N.Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study, 48 drought tolerant lines along with two susceptible genotypes of upland and lowland rice ecologies were tested at Central Rice Research Institute during dry season of 2011 and 2012, to identify the reproductive stage drought tolerant lines and to exploit the genetic variations. In support of various estimates of morpho-physiological parameters, genotypes Nan Te Hao, Purbachi (Chinese 1, Saita, NSIC Rc 222, Binnatoha, CO18, Ai Jiao Nan Te, Brown Gora, Black Gora (NCS 12, Jhona 349, Kalakeri are adjudged as good donors for reproductive stage drought tolerance in rice.

  17. Glutinous Rice in Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams glutinous rice, one pineapple, 20 grams dried fruits (raisins, walnuts. Chinese wolfberry, Chinese dates, lotus seeds, lily petals, kidney beans and peanuts) Seasonings: 5 grams rock sugar, 5 grams salad oil. Method:

  18. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  19. Combined Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling of Different Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Seeds and Correlation with Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Ryun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine varieties of pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L. seeds that were black, red, or white were used to perform metabolite profiling by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and gas chromatography (GC TOF-MS, to measure antioxidant activities. Clear grouping patterns determined by the color of the rice seeds were identified in principle component analysis (PCA derived from UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimer, proanthocyanidin trimer, apigenin-6-C-glugosyl-8-C-arabiboside, tricin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside, and lipids were identified as significantly different secondary metabolites. In PCA score plots derived from GC-TOF-MS, Jakwangdo (JKD and Ilpoom (IP species were discriminated from the other rice seeds by PC1 and PC2. Valine, phenylalanine, adenosine, pyruvate, nicotinic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, xylose, fructose, glucose, maltose, and myo-inositol were significantly different primary metabolites in JKD species, while GABA, asparagine, xylitol, and sucrose were significantly distributed in IP species. Analysis of antioxidant activities revealed that black and red rice seeds had higher activity than white rice seeds. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidin trimers, and catechin were highly correlated with antioxidant activities, and were more plentiful in black and red rice seeds. These results are expected to provide valuable information that could help improve and develop rice-breeding techniques.

  20. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter.

  1. Tracking the source regions of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV)occurred in Wuyi county, Zhejiang province, China in 2009, transmitted by Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)(Homoptera: Delphacidae)%浙江武义2009年南方水稻黑条矮缩病的毒源地分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵悦; 吴璀献; 朱旭东; 蒋学辉; 张孝羲; 翟保平

    2011-01-01

    2009年,浙江省境内首次出现南方水稻黑条矮缩病毒(Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus,SRBSDV),且仅武义县有发病现象.因为该病毒病是一种虫媒病毒,且白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)是主要传毒介体,所以本文通过白背飞虱灯下诱虫情况调查、迁飞轨迹模拟、天气学背景分析以及毒源地分析,阐释了2009年浙江省武义县发现的南方水稻黑条矮缩病的供毒源地分布情况,以及白背飞虱携毒的传递路径,并讨论了轨迹模拟中各生物学参数的设定方法,从而为剖析该病毒的宏观流行规律奠定科学基础.结果显示:(1)通过对白背飞虱迁入武义的主要虫源地与经鉴定的南方水稻黑条矮缩病发病区域的叠加分析,明确了浙江武义的可能毒源地分布于两广、闽南、赣南四省区境内;(2)西南低空急流及偏南气流是白背飞虱将我国南方的病毒远距离传送到武义县境内的动力源;(3)白背飞虱随下沉气流和降雨在武义境内的集中降落是南方水稻黑条矮缩病在当地暴发的触发条件.%In 2009, Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) appeared first time in Zhejiang province, while only in Wuyi county morbidity phenomenon occurred. Since this virus is a kind of arbovirus, and the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella fwrcifera (Horvdth) (WBPH), is its main transmitted vector, we used light trap catch data, migration trajectory simulation, synoptic meteorological background and virus infection to study the pathways of WBPH in Wuyi, Zhejiang, 2009. In this way, the possible source regions of SRBSDV transmitted by its vector WBPH were analyzed, and the biological parameters for trajectory analysis were determined based on the numerical simulation. This research aims to establish scientific basis for the macro-epidemic researching of SRBSDV. The results illustrated that:(1) through the overlapping analysis of the virus incidence area and the

  2. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  3. Rice Quality Improvement in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1. Demand for high quality rice in China Rice is the leading cereal crop that contributes about 40% of the national grain production in China. The total output and areas rank the first and the second position in the world, respectively. In recent years, rice production grows steadily, but the quality improvement has been lagged and the quality becomes a limiting factor. As the grain supply exceeding the demand and the grain price plummeted, the State Council put forward expanding China′ s ongoing reform of the grain distribution system in 1998. Along with the foodstuff circulating system reform and market driving, the structure of rice production is adjusted,the planting acreage of early indica rice with poor quality decreased, and that of japonica rice in north China with good quality increased. With the challenge of China joining the WTO, Chinese government starts to pay premium on good quality rice.

  4. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  5. Glutinous Rice Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CELEBRATING Spring Festival includes making glutinous rice cakes, or niangao in Chinese. Traditional and new methods of making niangao vary in taste according to different areas. No matter poor or rich. niangao is a must for every family during Spring Festival as it symbolizes auspiciousness. In Beijing, both northern and southernstyle niangao are available. After the Beginning of Autumn (13th solar term), the

  6. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  7. Study on red rice%赤米考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞为洁

    2005-01-01

    'The red rice grain' recorded in the Chinese ancient books is neither a kind of good rice variety nor old rice grain or rotten rice grain, they are some rice varieties which have red-color grains and poor taste.

  8. Successfully introduce maize DNA fragments into rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGKaizhi

    1994-01-01

    The maize DNA fragments was successfully incorporated into rice by Associate Prof WAN Wenju's research team at Hunan Agricultural College, Changsha, China. The new gene transferring rice is named Genetic Engineered Rice (GER) line.

  9. Evaluation of Black Tea Polyphenol Extract Against the Retrogradation of Starches from Various Plant Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE) on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice var...

  10. Selenium reduces cadmium uptake and mitigates cadmium toxicity in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Li; Zhou, Weihui; Dai, Huaxin; Cao, Fangbin; Zhang, Guoping [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Wu, Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se alleviated Cd-toxicity, reduced Cd content and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, MDA in rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se counteracted Cd-induced alterations of antioxidant enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se suppressed Cd-induced increase in SOD, APX, but elevated depressed CAT activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se markedly increased H{sup +}-ATPase, Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in roots under Cd exposure. - Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were performed to investigate physiological mechanisms of selenium (Se) mitigation of Cd toxicity in rice. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd concentration in leaves, roots, and stems. Addition or pretreatment of 3 {mu}M Se in 50 {mu}M Cd solution significantly addressed Cd-induced growth inhibition, recovered root cell viability, and dramatically depressed O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. Supplemental Se counteracted 50 {mu}M Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidant enzymes, and uptake of nutrients, e.g. depressed Cd-induced increase in leaf and root superoxide dismutase (SOD) and leaf peroxidase (POD) activities, but elevated depressed catalase (CAT) activity; decreased Cd-induced high S and Cu concentrations in both leaves and roots. External Se counteracted the pattern of alterations in ATPase activities induced by Cd, e.g. significantly elevated the depressed root H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities, but decreased the ascent root Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATP activity. Results indicate that alleviated Cd toxicity by Se application is related to reduced Cd uptake and ROS accumulation, balanced nutrients, and increased H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in rice.

  11. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  12. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  13. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  14. Small RNA in rice genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 朱小蓬; 钟兰; 陈润生

    2002-01-01

    Rice has many characteristics of a model plant. The recent completion of the draft of the rice genome represents an important advance in our knowledge of plant biology and also has an important contribution to the understanding of general genomic evolution. Besides the rice genome finishing map, the next urgent step for rice researchers is to annotate the genes and noncoding functional sequences. The recent work shows that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play significant roles in biological systems. We have explored all the known small RNAs (a kind of ncRNA) within rice genome and other six species sequences, including Arabidopsis, maize, yeast, worm, mouse and pig. As a result we find 160 out of 552 small RNAs (sRNAs) in database have homologs in 108 rice scaffolds, and almost all of them (99.41%) locate in intron regions of rice by gene predication. 19 sRNAs only appear in rice. More importantly, we find two special U14 sRNAs: one is located in a set of sRNA ZMU14SNR9(s) which only appears in three plants, 86% sequences of them can be compared as the same sequence in rice, Arabidopsis and maize; the other conserved sRNA XLHS7CU14 has a segment which appears in almost all these species from plants to animals. All these results indicate that sRNA do not have evident borderline between plants and animals.

  15. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  16. Black gold

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, MW

    2016-01-01

    Following the Yom Kippur war of October 1973, OPEC raises the price of oil by 70% along with a 5% reduction in oil production. Len Saunders a highly skilled and knowledgeable British engineer for Jaguar motors, is approached by the UK energy commission in the January of 1974 to create a new propulsion system; using a secret document from a German WW2 scientist, that they have come into possession of. Len Saunders sets to work on creating the holy grail of energy. Seven years later 1981, Haidar Farooq the Kuwait oil minister working at OPEC and head of a secret organisation named Black Gold bec

  17. Physiological and biochemical parameters for evaluation and clustering of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance at seedling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitahnun Chunthaburee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity tolerance levels and physiological changes were evaluated for twelve rice cultivars, including four white rice and eight black glutinous rice cultivars, during their seedling stage in response to salinity stress at 100 mM NaCl. All the rice cultivars evaluated showed an apparent decrease in growth characteristics and chlorophyll accumulation under salinity stress. By contrast an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase (POX activity and anthocyanins were observed for all cultivars. The K+/Na+ ratios evaluated for all rice cultivars were noted to be highly correlated with the salinity scores thus indicating that the K+/Na+ ratio serves as a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance in rice. Principal component analysis (PCA based on physiological salt tolerance indexes could clearly distinguish rice cultivars into 4 salt tolerance clusters. Noteworthy, in comparison to the salt-sensitive ones, rice cultivars that possessed higher degrees of salt tolerance displayed more enhanced activity of catalase (CAT, a smaller increase in anthocyanin, hydrogen peroxide and proline content but a smaller drop in the K+/Na+ ratio and chlorophyll accumulation.

  18. Morphological Variation of Six Pigmented Rice Local Varieties Grown in Organic Rice Field in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the third richest country for pigmented rice source such as Wojalaka black rice of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT, Manggarai of NTT, Toraja of South Sulawesi, Cempo Ireng of Central Java and red rice of Aek Sibundong (leading variety and Baubau of Southeast Sulawesi. However, the morphological character of pigmented rice in Indonesia is less reported. The objective of research was to compare the morphological variation of root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret and the colour of milk mature grain and mature grain by observing the vegetative and generative parts of six local rice varieties. Research had been conducted from February 2012 to February 2014 in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency. This study type was quasi-experiment with eleven replications. Group Random Design was used. The observation was given upon vegetative, reproductive and maturity phases as groups. Independent variables in this study were six rice varieties, while the dependent variable was morphological variation (root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The analysis of multivariate data in cluster and bip lot was carried out with PAST. The result of the study indicated that there was morphological difference on stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The colour of the stem in Aek Sibundong variety was purple, while that of other varieties was green. Toraja and Manggarai varieties had the highest height with 163-168 cm, followed by Cempo Ireng with 139 cm, Wojalaka and Baubau with 110-112 cm. Aek Sibundong Variety had the lowest height with 99 cm. Aek Sibundong and Wojalaka varieties had 6-7 internodes which were the greatest number of internode, while other varieties only had 4-5 internodes. Some varieties, such as Aek Sibundong, Wojalaka and Baubau had short and small leaf. The leaflet angle of Aek Sibundong and Baubau were 14o and it might be said as upright, while that of Wojalaka was 43o or moderate

  19. Hybrid Rice for Dry Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Luo Lijun, director of the Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, recently announced that Hanyou No. 3 - a genetically modified rice capable of producing high yields in dry areas - has been developed at the center.The hybrid yields 7,571 kilograms per hectare, about the same as ordinary rice.

  20. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  1. Development of hybrid rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Longping; Wu Xiaojin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The success achieved in development of hybrid rice isa great breakthrough in rice breeding which provides aneffective way to markedly enhance rice yield on a largescale. China is the first country in the world to exploit riceheterosis commercially. Research on hybrid rice was initiatedin 1964.

  2. The Chinese Market and Thai Fragrant Jasmine Rice: Why does China, the world's largest rice producer, import rice from Thailand? (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the world experienced a sharp increase in rice prices due to destabilization of international rice demand and supply. Under these circumstances, rice exports from Thailand—the world's top rice exporter—and Thai rice export prices increased dramatically, but the amount of high-quality fragrant Jasmine rice exported to China decreased by some 30% over the previous year. This paper examines why, amidst increasing world rice prices and expansion of the Thai rice export market overall, th...

  3. The Puzzle of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sang; Song Ge

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades. This is due, at least in part, to the complex evolutionary dynamics in rice cultivars and wild progenitors, particularly rapid adaptive differentiation and continuous gene flow within and between cultivated and wild rice. The long-standing controversy over single versus multiple and annual versus perennial origins of cultivated rice has been brought into shaper focus with the rapid accumulation of genetic and phylogenetic data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed ancient genomic differentiation between rice cultivars, suggesting that they were domesticated from divergent wild populations. However, the recently cloned domestication gene sh4, responsible for the reduction of grain shattering from wild to cultivated rice, seems to have originated only once. Herein, we propose two models to reconcile apparently conflicting evidence regarding rice domestication. The snow-balling model considers a single origin of cultivated rice. In this model, a core of critical domestication alleles was fixed in the founding cultivar and then acted to increase the genetic diversity of cultivars through hybridization with wild populations. The combination model considers multiple origins of cultivated rice. In this model, initial cultivars were domesticated from divergent wild populations and fixed different sets of domestication alleles. Subsequent crosses among these semi-domesticated cultivars resulted in the fixation of a similar set of critical domestication alleles in the contemporary cultivars. In both models, introgression has played an important role in rice domestication. Recent and future introgression of beneficial genes from the wild gene pool through conventional and molecular breeding programs can be viewed as the continuation of domestication.

  4. Uruguayan rice (Oritza sativa L.) oils characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Rodríguez; Grabiela Subúru; Marina Torres; Laura Olazabal; Alejandra Torre

    2011-01-01

    The rice crop is one of the most developed agricultural activities in Uruguay, having become the third item of export. Although the main product of the rice chain is the elaborated rice, in the recent years several industries have begun to produce co-products of rice: crude rice oil and refined oil, rice flour and cookies. The production of crude oil begins with ground, peeled and polished rice grain. This product can be used in animal nourishment or in oil extraction. Refinement from the cru...

  5. Rice industrial economy and its development strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Xianguo

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the present situation of food grain and rice production in China,countering the beginning tendency to neglect rice production because of rice grain structural surplus and low market price after China's agriculture entering the new development stage,this paper putsforward the concept of rice industrial economy,explains its attribute,connotation,key factors,etc,forms the basic idea of developing the rice industrial economy,and suggests some strategic measures such as regionalized layout of rice production,etc.to develop the rice industrial economy.

  6. Sensory evaluation of rice fortified with iron

    OpenAIRE

    Beinner,Mark Anthony; Soares,Anne Danieli Nascimento; Barros,Ana Laura Antunes; Monteiro,Marlene Azevedo Magalhães

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine sensory differences between conventional rice and iron-fortified Ultra Rice rice (UR) and determine consumer acceptance. Differences between both types of rice were analyzed using the Duo-Trio Test on 37 non-trained judges. The Acceptance Test evaluated general rice appearance, color, aroma and taste by 43 non-trained judges, using a 7-point hedonic scale with extremes ranging from "really disliked" and "really liked." There were no significant diffe...

  7. Amylose content of rice marketed in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Amylose content is considered to be the most important parameter of cooking quality in rice. Presently, rice cultivars are categorized according to amylose content into three groups: low, medium and high amylose content cultivars. The specific objective of this work is to evaluate the grain amylose content of 77 cultivars, which cover Índica and Japónica subspecies, and different types of commercial rice like, aromatic (basmati and thay), wild rice, medium rice (carlose and risotto), glutinou...

  8. Rice-Map: a new-generation rice genome browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jingchu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concurrent release of rice genome sequences for two subspecies (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica facilitates rice studies at the whole genome level. Since the advent of high-throughput analysis, huge amounts of functional genomics data have been delivered rapidly, making an integrated online genome browser indispensable for scientists to visualize and analyze these data. Based on next-generation web technologies and high-throughput experimental data, we have developed Rice-Map, a novel genome browser for researchers to navigate, analyze and annotate rice genome interactively. Description More than one hundred annotation tracks (81 for japonica and 82 for indica have been compiled and loaded into Rice-Map. These pre-computed annotations cover gene models, transcript evidences, expression profiling, epigenetic modifications, inter-species and intra-species homologies, genetic markers and other genomic features. In addition to these pre-computed tracks, registered users can interactively add comments and research notes to Rice-Map as User-Defined Annotation entries. By smoothly scrolling, dragging and zooming, users can browse various genomic features simultaneously at multiple scales. On-the-fly analysis for selected entries could be performed through dedicated bioinformatic analysis platforms such as WebLab and Galaxy. Furthermore, a BioMart-powered data warehouse "Rice Mart" is offered for advanced users to fetch bulk datasets based on complex criteria. Conclusions Rice-Map delivers abundant up-to-date japonica and indica annotations, providing a valuable resource for both computational and bench biologists. Rice-Map is publicly accessible at http://www.ricemap.org/, with all data available for free downloading.

  9. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  10. Nanocarbon materials obtained of coniferous trees in the composition of black powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Obtained black powders from coniferous wood. The carbon content of up to 90% can be used in warfare, pyrotechnics and industries. In the Republic of Kazakhstan does not produce gunpowder. In the energy-intensive materials laboratory, developed industrial black powders (ordinary, composed of components produced in the republic of Kazakhstan. Sulfur, activated carbon, based on apricot seeds and rice husks, softwood sawdust, which have lower costs than their foreign counterparts.

  11. Nanocarbon materials obtained of coniferous trees in the composition of black powder

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Obtained black powders from coniferous wood. The carbon content of up to 90% can be used in warfare, pyrotechnics and industries. In the Republic of Kazakhstan does not produce gunpowder. In the energy-intensive materials laboratory, developed industrial black powders (ordinary), composed of components produced in the republic of Kazakhstan. Sulfur, activated carbon, based on apricot seeds and rice husks, softwood sawdust, which have lower costs than their foreign counterparts.

  12. The 3,000 rice genomes project: new opportunities and challenges for future rice research

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jia-Yang; Wang, Jun; Zeigler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the world’s most important staple grown by millions of small-holder farmers. Sustaining rice production relies on the intelligent use of rice diversity. The 3,000 Rice Genomes Project is a giga-dataset of publically available genome sequences (averaging 14× depth of coverage) derived from 3,000 accessions of rice with global representation of genetic and functional diversity. The seed of these accessions is available from the International Rice Genebank Collection. Together, they are ...

  13. Dissonant Black Droplets and Black Funnels

    CERN Document Server

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Way, Benson

    2016-01-01

    A holographic field theory on a fixed black hole background has a gravitational dual represented by a black funnel or a black droplet. These states are "detuned" when the temperature of the field theory near the horizon does not match the temperature of the background black hole. In particular, the gravitational dual to the Boulware state must be a detuned solution. We construct detuned droplets and funnels dual to a Schwarzschild background and show that the Boulware phase is represented by a droplet. We also construct hairy black droplets associated to a low-temperature scalar condensation instability and show that they are thermodynamically preferred to their hairless counterparts.

  14. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  15. Absorption and Cooked Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinJialianetal

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Using glucono-8-1actone, sodiumcyclodextrin and proteinase as mainrice under different conditions and theadditivepolyphosphate, emulsifier, 13-the water-absorbing quality ofmethods to improve the edible quality ofcooked rice are systematically investigated. The experimental result indicatesthat the water-absorbing ability of rice at room temperature can be increasedsignificantly by soaking it in a 1:2 mixture of sodium polyphosphate andglucono-8-1actone. The cooked rice quality can be apparently improved bysoaking in a mixture of sodium polyphosphate, glucono-8-1actone, emulsifier, 13-cyclodextrin and protease.

  16. The Use of Rice Varietal Diversity for Rice Blast Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU You-yong; LI Zuo-shen; LU Bao-rong; CHEN Hai-ru; FAN Jing-hua; WANG Yun-yue; LI Yan; FAN Jin-xiang; YANG Shi-sheng; MA Guan-liang; CHEN Jian-bin

    2003-01-01

    Field experiments of mixed- (intercropping) and pure-planting (monoculture) of four rice vari-eties, representing improved hybrid varieties (Shanyou63 and Shanyou22) and high-quality traditional varie-ties (Huangkenuo and Zigu) from Yunnan Province, were conducted based on their differences in genetic back-ground and agro-economical characteristics. The results demonstrated that the mixed-planting of the hybridrice and high-quality traditional rice varieties had a significantly greater effect on controlling rice blast diseasethan the monocuiture of these varieties, particularly the traditional ones. It is evident for the highly suscepti-ble traditional varieties in mixed-planting to achieve disease control, with significant decreases in blast inci-dences and severity indexes. The blast control efficiency reached up to 83 - 98 % under such planting model.This suggests that an appropriate mixed-planting of rice varieties with diverse genetic background and agro-e-conomical characteristics is an effective approach for rice blast control. In addition, resistance of the tradi-tional rice varieties to lodging was considerably increased in the plots with mixed-planting, compared with theplots with monoculture. The average rate of grain-yield increase ranged from 6.5 to 9.7 % in the plots withmixed-planting.

  17. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain.

  18. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  19. Gibberellin Signal Transduction in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-Min Fan; Xiaoyan Feng; Yu Wang; Xing Wang Deng

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, significant knowledge has accumulated regarding gibberellin (GA) signal transduction in rice as a result of studies using multiple approaches, particularly molecular genetics. The present review highlights the recent developments in the identification of GA signaling pathway components, the discovery of GA-induced destruction of GA signaling represser (DELLA protein), and the possible mechanism underlying the regulation of GA-responsive gene expression in rice.

  20. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  1. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ..., Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice standards were last revised in 1993 (58 FR 68015) and appear... Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY... Administration (GIPSA) is reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown...

  2. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. Rice straw and rice hulls may be imported into Guam without further permit,...

  3. Soil tillage, rice straw and flooded irrigated rice yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Nelson Beutler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of management systems and straw in flooded irrigated rice yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three experiments and, 10 replications in experiment 1 and 2 and, 6 replications in experiment 3. The experiments were: E1 – no-till system (E1PD and conventional system with two harrowings at 0.0–0.07 m layer and leveling with remaplam (E1PC, after three years of sowing rice, after fallow of rice tillage, with sowing of rye grass in winter and grazing; E2 – no-till system (E2PD and conventional system after native field (E2PC; E3 – no-till without straw on soil surface (E30P, current straw on soil surface of 3,726 kg ha-1 (E31P, two times current straw of 7,452 kg ha-1 (E32P and three times current straw of 11,178 kg ha-1 (E33P. In soil, were evaluated the average geometric diameter of aggregates, soil bulk density, soil porosity, macro and microporosity, in 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m layer. In harvest were evaluated the panicles number in 0,25 m2 area, number of filled, empty an total grains in 10 panicles, mass of one thousand seeds and rice grains yield in 2 m2. The conventional system presented greater macroporosity and total porosity, compared with no-till system, however, does not result in differences in production components and rice grains yield. Soil tillage in no-till, with rice straw on soil surface up to 11,178 kg ha-1, before sowing, not reduces flooded irrigated rice grains yield.

  4. Molecular dynamics of interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to develop the molecular strategies to control rice (Oryzae sativa) diseases, molecular interactions of rice with rice blast [Magnaporthe oryzae, formerly (Magnaporthe grisea] and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were analyzed. The interaction of rice with M. oryzae follows a b...

  5. Genetic diversity of rice sheath blight isolates (Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA) from different rice cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 1 IA, the non specific, soil borne, and plant casual agent of rice sheath blight, occurring world widely in rice fields, has become a major disease to rice. In this study,relationships among R. solani AG 1 IA isolates, collected from different rice cultivars were reported.

  6. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-28

    Because rice feeds half of the world's population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one "rice-fish system" (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers' net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability.

  7. Organic Upland Rice Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raumjit Nokkoul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The upland rice is popular for growing in southern Thailand because this area is the lowland and less area than other sectors. Upland rice is grown as alternative crops of farmers for household consumption which using organic farming method because organic rice seed can be produced by self-production in farmhouse. However, the upland rice is grown under organic farming system. The seeds must originate from plants being grown in compliance with the organic farming rules for at least one generation. There are many factors involving the production of seeds under organic farming system, making the yield low. Thus, the objective of this study on appropriate methods of upland rice seed production under organic farming system in southern Thailand. The results showed that in producing organic seeds, suitable varieties should be selected to suit each area with regular high yield quality. It can be grown in low fertile soil, resist pests and diseases and compete with weeds. The suitable season should be selected for the seed production and the growing areas ought to be in an ecological zone with at least 14-20 mm of 5-day rainfall during the growing cycle. Soil fertility: crop rotation, green manure plants, compost of rice straw and organic manures. For control of disease and insect pests use of resistant or tolerant varieties, plant extracts, natural enemies. The organic seed production of upland rice in southern Thailand, Samduen variety had suitability for recommendation to seed producer in this area because it can provide high growth, yield and seed quality.

  8. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2016-07-20

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg(-1), dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied greatly, and this was likely due to contamination of rice samples with soil. Risk of As, Cd or Pb toxicity due to rice consumption in Malawi appears to be minimal.

  9. GM RICE COMMERCIALIZATION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE GLOBAL RICE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Chavez, Eddie; Wailes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Genetically-modified (GM) rice is an important technology surrounded with controversy and uncertainty, hence it warrants more in-depth analysis. While GM rice is considered by its supporters as having promising potential, many still remain passionately against its use. This study assesses the impacts of GM rice commercialization on the global rice market. We use the Arkansas Global Rice Model (AGRM) and the RICEFLOW model to provide stochastic and dynamic analyses. Scenarios of adoption, diff...

  10. Perspective Rice 2020:A Call For An I nternational Coordinated Effort In Rice Fu nctional Genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifa Zhang; Jiayang Li; Yongbiao Xue; Bin Han; Xing Wang Deng

    2008-01-01

    We describe a call for an international coordinated effort in rice functional genomics in the form of a project named RICE2020.The mission of the project will be:to determine the function of every gene in the rice genome by the year 2020,to identify functional diversity of alleles for agriculturally useful genes from the primary gene pool of rice,and to apply the findings of functional genomics research to rice genetic improvement.

  11. IRRI/ADB Project on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Jiming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hybrid rice technology has made a significant progress in recent years in more than twenty rice-growing countries. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided funds for International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to support the project of Sustaining Food Security in Asia through Development of Hybrid Rice Technology 2002-2004 mainly practiced in nine countries, such as Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

  12. Stuies on histological changing rice during aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian haifeng; Houyiming; Yao huiyuan

    2001-01-01

    The changing of rice endosperm cell during aging was inspected and analyzed by tissue section method in this paper, which was considered as the main causation of the descending of the eating quality of aged rice. A new effective method of improving the eating quality of aged rice was also carried out through enzymatic treatment which was based on the changing of histological structure of aged rice.

  13. Development and validation of an alternative to conventional pretreatment methods for residue analysis of butachlor in water, soil, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaying; Jiang, Wenqing; Liu, Fengmao; Zhao, Huiyu; Wang, Suli; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and effective alternative analytical method for residues of butachlor in water, soil, and rice was established. The operating variables affecting performance of this method, including different extraction conditions and cleanup adsorbents, were evaluated. The determination of butachlor residues in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice was performed using GC/MS after extraction with n-hexane and cleanup with graphite carbon black. The average recoveries ranged from 81.5 to 102.7%, with RSDs of 0.6-7.7% for all of the matrixes investigated. The limits of quantitation were 0.05 mg/kg in water and rice plant, and 0.01 mg/kg in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice. A comparison among this proposed method, the conventional liquid-liquid extraction, the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe method, and Soxhlet extraction indicated that this method was more suitable for analyzing butachlor in rice samples. The further validation of the proposed method was carried out by Soxhlet extraction for the determination of butachlor residues in the husked rice samples, and the residue results showed there was no obvious difference obtained from these two methods. Samples from a rice field were found to contain butachlor residues below the maximum residue limits set by China (0.5 mg/kg) and Japan (0.1 mg/kg). The proposed method has a strong potential for application in routine screening and processing of large numbers of samples. This study developed a more effective alternative to the conventional analytical methods for analyzing butachlor residues in various matrixes.

  14. Black hole hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  15. Black Hole Hair Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  16. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  17. Impact of bio-processing on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLAU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of preparing rice is boiling, thermal process that gives it a lower digestibility as compared to instantiation, extrusion or expandation. Having in view this fact, the possibility to biotechnologically improve the boiled rice digestibility was investigated in a laboratory study. In this respect, boiled rice wassolid state fermented using a strain of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, an amylase producing yeast originating from ragi. Fermented rice was then analyzed from the point of view of its content in easily assimilable sugars, protein, amino-acids, phosphorus and vitamins from B group. Biochemical analyses revealed that the fermented rice has a ten times higher content of reducing sugars than boiled rice, due to starch hydrolysis, while chromatographic studies proved that the fermented rice contains glucose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetrose that are easily assimilable carbohydrates.Fermented rice has a protein content that is two times higher than that of boiled rice because it contains the yeast biomass, and is enriched in vitamins from B group (B1, B2, and B6 that are synthesized by the yeast. Inorganic phosphorus present in rice doubles its concentration in fermented rice, which means thatphosphorus bioavailability is increased.The sensorial profile of boiled rice is also improved by fermentation.This study proves the possibility to have a processing method which is relatively cheap, practical and of which the resulting product has good nutritive qualities and does not pose safety problems due to pure culture utilization as starter.

  18. Whole Genome Fine Map of Rice Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rice is a staple crop for more than half of the world's population, and it was hoped that the availability of its genome sequence might enable scientists to develop more productive and environment friendly rice strains.Furthermore, the rice genome might provide the key to understanding the genetics of other major cereal crops,as all of them have much larger genomes.

  19. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhengxing; Yao Huiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it .The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utilize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  20. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenZhengxing; YaoHuiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it.The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utillize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  1. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJinsheng; YaoHuiyuan; 等

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer,whice is in initial stage at home presently,was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods.The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  2. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jinsheng; Yao Huiyuan; Zhang Hui

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer, whice is in initial stage at home presently, was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods .The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  3. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  4. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  5. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  6. Life inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V I

    2012-01-01

    We consider test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside a black hole, which are stable, periodic and neither come out of the black hole nor terminate at the singularity. Interiors of supermassive black holes may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on planets with the third-kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts.

  7. Charged Lifshitz Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.; Mann, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate modifications of the Lifshitz black hole solutions due to the presence of Maxwell charge in higher dimensions for arbitrary $z$ and any topology. We find that the behaviour of large black holes is insensitive to the topology of the solutions, whereas for small black holes significant differences emerge. We generalize a relation previously obtained for neutral Lifshitz black branes, and study more generally the thermodynamic relationship between energy, entropy, and chemical pot...

  8. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewwongwal, Anochar; Kongjaimun, Alisa; Somta, Prakit; Chankaew, Sompong; Yimram, Tarikar; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. The analyses also revealed that cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from West Asia. Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean.

  9. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  10. Marketing for Black Alums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  11. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  12. Red Yeast Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  13. Red Yeast Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR, produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  14. Utilization Of Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Nagrale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and / or by gasification. About 20 million tones of Rice Husk Ash (RHA is produced annually. This RHA is a great environment threat causing damage to the land and the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being thought of for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA. RHA can be used as a replacement for concrete (15 to 25%.This paper evaluates how different contents of Rice Husk Ash added to concrete may influence its physical and mechanical properties. Sample Cubes were tested with different percentage of RHA and different w/c ratio, replacing in mass the cement. Properties like Compressive strength, Water absorption and Slump retention were evaluated.

  15. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice.

  16. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks.

  17. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  18. The Glycemic Index of Rice and Rice Products: A Review, and Table of GI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the principle staple and energy source for nearly half the world's population and therefore has significant nutrition and health implications. Rice is generally considered a high glycemic index (GI) food, however, this depends on varietal, compositional, processing, and accompaniment factors. Being a major contributor to the glycemic load in rice eating populations, there is increasing concern that the rising prevalence of insulin resistance is as a result of the consumption of large amounts of rice. Devising ways and means of reducing the glycemic impact of rice is therefore imperative. This review gathers studies examining the GI of rice and rice products and provides a critical overview of the current state of the art. A table collating published GI values for rice and rice products is also included.

  19. On Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Letelier, P S; Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    1998-01-01

    The C-metric is revisited and global interpretation of some associated spacetimes are studied in some detail. Specially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We found that the spacetime fo an accelerated Schwarzschild black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon. By using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature. We also show that the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/sqrt(27)) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated Kerr black holes. We found that they are not changed by the black hole rotation.

  20. Analysis on Rice Production and International Trade in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Liu-qing; JIANG Yun-zhu; LU Li-xiang; LIN Hai; PANG Qian-lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces Vietnam’s climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.%This paper introduces Vietnam's climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.

  1. Eight-Treosure Rice Pudding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Legend has it that at a banquet celebrating the success of King Wu of Zhou’s expedition against the tyrant King of the State of Shang during 1 B.C., a chef prepared Eight-Treasure Rice Pudding to symbolize the eight warriors who had performed great feats.Soft,sweet and bright in color,preparation is simple. Ingredients:

  2. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  3. Trace Element Management in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abin Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements (TEs are vital for the operation of metabolic pathways that promote growth and structural integrity. Paddy soils are often prone to TE limitation due to intensive cultivation and irrigation practices. Apart from this, rice paddies are potentially contaminated with transition metals such as Cd, which are often referred to as toxic TEs. Deficiency of TEs in the soil not only delays plant growth but also causes exposure of plant roots to toxic TEs. Fine-tuning of nutrient cycling in the rice field is a practical solution to cope with TEs deficiency. Adjustment of soil physicochemical properties, biological process such as microbial activities, and fertilization helps to control TEs mobilization in soil. Modifications in root architecture, metal transporters activity, and physiological processes are also promising approaches to enhance TEs accumulation in grains. Through genetic manipulation, these modifications help to increase TE mining capacity of rice plants as well as transport and trafficking of TEs into the grains. The present review summarizes that regulation of TE mobilization in soil, and the genetic improvement of TE acquisition traits help to boost essential TE content in rice grain.

  4. RiceDB: A Web-Based Integrated Database for Annotating Rice Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Fei; SHI Qing-yun; CHEN Ming; WU Ping

    2007-01-01

    RiceDB, a web-based integrated database to annotate rice microarray in various biological contexts was developed. It is composed of eight modules. RiceMap module archives the process of Affymetrix probe sets mapping to different databases about rice, and aims to the genes represented by a microarray set by retrieving annotation information via the identifier or accession number of every database; RiceGO module indicates the association between a microarray set and gene ontology (GO) categories; RiceKO module is used to annotate a microarray set based on the KEGG biochemical pathways; RiceDO module indicates the information of domain associated with a microarray set; RiceUP module is used to obtain promoter sequences for all genes represented by a microarray set; RiceMR module lists potential microRNA which regulated the genes represented by a microarray set; RiceCD and RiceGF are used to annotate the genes represented by a microarray set in the context of chromosome distribution and rice paralogous family distribution. The results of automatic annotation are mostly consistent with manual annotation. Biological interpretation of the microarray data is quickened by the help of RiceDB.

  5. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  6. Rice domestication: histories and mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L

    2012-09-01

    Domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the world's most important food crops, culturally, nutritionally and economically (Khush 1997). Thus, it is no surprise that there is intense curiosity about its genetic and geographical origins, its response to selection under domestication, and the genetic structure of its wild relative, Oryza rufipogon. Studies of Oryza attempting to answer these questions have accompanied each stage of the development of molecular markers, starting with allozymes and continuing to genome sequencing. While many of these studies have been restricted to small sample sizes, in terms of either the number of markers used or the number and distribution of the accessions, costs are now low enough that researchers are including large numbers of molecular markers and accessions. How will these studies relate to previous findings and long-held assumptions about rice domestication and evolution? If the paper in this issue of Molecular Ecology (Huang et al. 2012) is any indication, there will be some considerable surprises in store. In this study, a geographically and genomically thorough sampling of O. rufipogon and O. sativa revealed two genetically distinct groups of wild rice and also indicated that only one of these groups appears to be related to domesticated rice. While this fits well with previous studies indicating that there are genetic subdivisions within O. rufipogon, it stands in contrast to previous findings that the two major varieties of O. sativa (indica and japonica) were domesticated from two (or more) subpopulations of wild rice.

  7. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  8. Review and prospect of transgenic rice research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao; LIN YongJun; ZHANG QiFa

    2009-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops as the staple food for more than half of the world's population.Rice improvement has achieved remarkable success in the past half-century,with the yield doubled in most parts of the world and even tripled in certain regions,which has contributed greatly to food security globally.Rapid population growth and economic development pose a constantly increased food requirement.However,rice yield has been hovering in the past decade,which is mainly caused by the absence of novel breeding technologies,reduction of genetic diversity of rice cultivars,and serious yield loss due to increasingly severe occurrences of insects,diseases,and abiotic stresses.To address these challenges,Chinese scientists proposed a novel rice breeding goal of developing Green Super Rice to improve rice varieties and realize the sustainable development of agriculture,by focusing on the following 5 classes of traits:insect and disease resistance,drought-tolerance,nutrient-use efficiency,quality and yield potential.As a modern breeding approach,transgenic strategy will play an important role in realizing the goal of Green Super Rice.Presently,many transgenic studies of rice have been conducted,and most of target traits are consistent with the goal of Green Super Rice.In this paper,we firstly review technical advances of rice transformation,and then outline the main progress in transgenic rice research with respect to the most important traits:insect and disease-resistance,drought-tolerance,nutrient-use efficiency,quality,yield potential and herbicide-tolerance.The prospects of developing transgenic rice are also discussed.

  9. Isoflavone content and profile comparisons of cooked soybean-rice mixtures: electric rice cooker versus electric pressure rice cooker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yu, Bo-Ra; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-12-10

    This study examined the effects of heat and pressure on the isoflavone content and profiles of soybeans and rice cooked together using an electric rice cooker (ERC) and an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The total isoflavone content of the soybean-rice mixture after ERC and EPRC cooking relative to that before cooking was ∼90% in soybeans and 14-15% in rice. Malonylglucosides decreased by an additional ∼20% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those cooked using the ERC, whereas glucosides increased by an additional ∼15% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those in ERC-cooked soybeans. In particular, malonylgenistin was highly susceptible to isoflavone conversion during soybean-rice cooking. Total genistein and total glycitein contents decreased in soybeans after ERC and EPRC cooking, whereas total daidzein content increased in EPRC-cooked soybeans (p soybeans.

  10. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  11. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  12. Black Branes as Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A

    2012-01-01

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  13. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  14. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  15. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. directsowing rice 10-20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting), ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting), PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting), and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting), were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002), there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003). Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments. The rice in

  16. Asymptotic Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  17. Asymptotic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  18. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carlip, S

    2014-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1970s that black holes radiate as black bodies has radically affected our understanding of general relativity, and offered us some early hints about the nature of quantum gravity. In this chapter I will review the discovery of black hole thermodynamics and summarize the many independent ways of obtaining the thermodynamic and (perhaps) statistical mechanical properties of black holes. I will then describe some of the remaining puzzles, including the nature of the quantum microstates, the problem of universality, and the information loss paradox.

  19. STARCH RETROGRADATION AND PRODUCTION OF RESISTANT STARCH IN COOKED RICE

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    After rice cooking, retrogradation of starch in a cooked rice progresses quickly at under gelatinization temperature. Cold rice (aging rice) is tasteless, firm and digested slowly. My aim in this report is explained the relationship between cold rice tasteless and indexes of starch retrogradation. Starch gelatinization degree, starch whiteness index and resistant starch content that were indexes of starch retrogradation did not change remarkably of cold and aging rice that were very firm and ...

  20. Novel transgenic rice-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-04-01

    Oral vaccination can induce both systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. To control rampant mucosal infectious diseases, the development of new effective oral vaccines is needed. Plant-based vaccines are new candidates for oral vaccines, and have some advantages over the traditional vaccines in cost, safety, and scalability. Rice seeds are attractive for vaccine production because of their stability and resistance to digestion in the stomach. The efficacy of some rice-based vaccines for infectious, autoimmune, and other diseases has been already demonstrated in animal models. We reported the efficacy in mice, safety, and stability of a rice-based cholera toxin B subunit vaccine called MucoRice-CTB. To advance MucoRice-CTB for use in humans, we also examined its efficacy and safety in primates. The potential of transgenic rice production as a new mucosal vaccine delivery system is reviewed from the perspective of future development of effective oral vaccines.

  1. The role of momilactones in rice allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Peters, Reuben J

    2013-02-01

    Large field screening programs and laboratory experiments in many countries have indicated that rice is allelopathic and releases allelochemical(s) into its environment. A number of compounds, such as phenolic acids, fatty acids, phenylalkanoic acids, hydroxamic acids, terpenes, and indoles, have been identified as potential rice allelochemicals. However, the studies reviewed here demonstrate that the labdane-related diterpenoid momilactones are the most important, with momilactone B playing a particularly critical role. Rice plants secrete momilactone B from their roots into the neighboring environments over their entire life cycle at phytotoxic levels, and momilactone B seems to account for the majority of the observed rice allelopathy. In addition, genetic studies have shown that selective removal of the momilactones only from the complex mixture found in rice root exudates significantly reduces allelopathy, demonstrating that these serve as allelochemicals, the importance of which is reflected in the presence of a dedicated momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in the rice genome.

  2. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  3. Obtaining transgenic rice resistant to rice fungal blast disease by controlled cell death strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Shengji; GU Hongya; QU Lijia; CHEN Zhangliang

    2003-01-01

    The strategy of the two-component system, composed of Barnase and Barstar which encode RNase and a specific inhibitor to the RNase respectively, is adopted to obtain transgenic rice resistant to rice fungal blast disease. In this study, two chimeric promoters, induced by rice blast fungus pathogen (Magnaporthe grisea), are fused with Barnase respectively to construct two plant expression vectors, pWBNBS and pPBNBS together with the Barstar driven by CaMV 35S promoter. The resistance of the transgenic rice lines to rice blast fungus disease and rice blight disease are evaluated. The results show that (1) the expression of Barnase is induced in rice leaves when inoculated with the spores of Magnaporthe grisea; (2) the induced expression level of Barnase surpasses the level of Barstar, which elicits a similar hypersensitive response (HR) in the leaves, and the transgenic plant shows high resistance to the rice fungal blast disease; and (3) transgenic rice plants also show obvious resistance to rice bacterial blight disease. Taken together, these results suggest that the transgenic rice plants harboring this two-component system acquire relatively broad spectrum resistance against pathogens, especially high resistance to rice fungal pathogen.

  4. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  5. Effects of rice harvest moisture on kernel damage and milled rice surface free fatty acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amanda M; Proctor, Andrew; Eason, Robert L; Jain, Vishal

    2007-01-01

    Surface free fatty acid (FFA) on milled rice is a key factor in determining rice quality and acceptability to the brewing industry. Rice FFA oxidizes, causing off-flavors and odors to develop, compromising the brewing quality of milled rice. The effect of harvest moisture (13%, 16%, and 20%), harvester type (1688 Case and 9500 John Deere), and rice variety (Cocodrie and Bengal) on harvest damaged rough rice and milled rice surface FFA after drying to 12% moisture and 6 mo rough rice storage was examined. The Case harvester produced more damaged kernels than the John Deere harvester, but this was not reflected in surface FFA development. There were no significant FFA differences in variety or harvester type. Rice harvested at a higher moisture content (20%) produced significantly greater FFA values, with a peak near 0.1%, than rice harvested at lower moisture contents (13% and 16%), which had FFA values near 0.08%. Retention of bran by damaged kernels at high harvest moisture probably was responsible for promoting surface FFA development, but if bran was lost at lower harvest moistures, surface FFA, development was limited. Harvest moisture affected milled rice FFA, although rough rice was dried to 12% immediately after harvesting.

  6. Conservation and utilization of rice genetic resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Rice genetic resources presents variably in China. There are land races and wild species. cultivated lowland rice and upland rice, indica (Hsien) and japonica (Keng) riee. early, middle, and late rice as well as glutinous and non-glutinous rice. Up to February 2000, a total of 76, 646 rice accessions were catalogued,and 67. 444 base accessions were stored in the National Crop Gene Bank in the Institute of Crop Genetic Resources (ICGR) of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (Table 1). About 35,000 rice duplicates were stored in China National Rice Research Institute(CNRRI), Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. China.

  7. The roots of future rice harvests

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Nourollah; Audebert, Alain; Bennett, Malcolm J; Bishopp, Anthony; Oliveira,Antonio Costa de; Courtois, Brigitte; Diedhiou, Abdala; Diévart, Anne; Gantet, Pascal; Ghesquière, Alain; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Henry, Amelia; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Kochian, Leon; Laplaze, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Rice production faces the challenge to be enhanced by 50% by year 2030 to meet the growth of the population in rice-eating countries. Whereas yield of cereal crops tend to reach plateaus and a yield is likely to be deeply affected by climate instability and resource scarcity in the coming decades, building rice cultivars harboring root systems that can maintain performance by capturing water and nutrient resources unevenly distributed is a major breeding target. Taking advantage of gathering ...

  8. Methane emission from wetland rice fields.

    OpenAIRE

    H.A.C. Denier van der Gon

    1996-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) is an important greenhouse gas and plays a key role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Wetland rice fields are an important source of methane, accounting for approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic methane emission. Methane fluxes from wetland rice fields in the Philippines were monitored with a closed chamber technique in close cooperation with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). The field studies were complemented by laboratory and greenhouse ex...

  9. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal soil depth without restriction for rice root elongation

  10. Genome-wide analysis of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to investigate lost/acquired genes during rice domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fantao; Xu, Tao; Mao, Linyong; Yan, Shuangyong; Chen, Xiwen; Wu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Rui; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun; Gao, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) was domesticated from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.). Compared to other studies which concentrate on rice origin, this study is to genetically elucidate the substantially phenotypic and physiological changes from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level. Results Instead of comparing two assembled genomes, this study directly compared the Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) Illumina sequencing reads with th...

  11. Description of Aphelenchoides besseyi from Abnormal Rice with 'Small Grains and Erect Panicles' Symptom in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Mao-song; DING Xiao-fan; WANG Zi-ming; ZHOU Feng-ming; LIN Na

    2005-01-01

    The abnormal rice with small grains and erect panicles were found on a large scale in China, which showed shortend rice panicle and decreased number of grains in comparison with normal rice, and the grain was small and black-brown, and some of them were distorted, while the flag leaf was normal. A kind of nematode of Aphelenchoides was isolated from the grains of rice variety and up to 74 in single grain, 92 percent of the grains tested had nematodes in the infested panicles. The diagnosis characters of nematode include lateral fields about one-fourth as wide as body, with 4 incisures. The terminus bears a mucro of diverse shape with 3-4 pointed processes. The female post-vulval uterine sac extends less than 50% of distance from vulva to anus, no sperm in it.Oocytes usually arrange in 2-4 rows. The male spicules have a moderately developed rostrum. Morphological measurements showed it to be conspecific with Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, 1942.

  12. Studies on weed diversity and its associated phytosociology under direct dry seeded rice systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantosh Kumar Sinha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chhattisgarh is commonly known as Bowl of rice where rice is grown as monocrop in the entire state whether soil is bhata, matasi, kanhar or black soil. Present study is based on the study of biodiversity of weeds under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Systems in Koria District (C.G. Study was conducted to assess the phytosociological studies of weed species in paddy field at Baikunthpur, Koriya district, Chattisgarh. A total of 43 genera and 9 families of Dicotyledonae and 3 families of monocots and 1 Pteridophytes was also observed and 43 weed species were identified Ratio of Sedges: (Grasses:Broad-leaved weeds was calculated as 9:12:18 Ratio under direct dry seeded rice systems. The results obtained indicated that Echinochloa colona, Cyperus iria and Cynodon dactylon were the most frequent in 2007; E. colona and C. iria were the most frequent in 2008 and 2009. The importance value index (IVI revealed that the most important weeds within the community were Poaceae and Cyperaceae. Out of 12 angiosperm families the predominance was shown by monocot families Cyperaceae and Poaceae having and weed species, respectively. The pteridophyta family Marsileaceae was represented by 1 weed species.

  13. Induced resistance in rice against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, R; Chen, Y

    2007-08-01

    Vaccinations are the mainstay of western preventive medicine, and they have been used to protect some crops against disease and insect pests. We consider rice as a model for protection using induced resistance since it is one of the most important staple crops and there have been significant new developments in: cross-resistance among rice insects, chemical pathways involved in induced resistance, sequencing the rice genome and expression of genes conferring resistance against rice insect pests. Insect attack has been found to cause lesions that kill planthopper eggs and early stages of gall midges. Damaged plants released volatiles that made them less likely to be chosen by planthoppers and more attractive to parasitoids. Chemical elicitors have been developed for dicotyledonous plants and these can induce resistance in rice, although rice does not fit models developed to explain signalling in dicots. For example, salicylic acid did not increase in rice after infection by pathogens and did not appear to be the mobile signal for induced resistance against pathogens although it was involved in induced responses to phloem-feeding insects. Jasmonic acid acted as a signal in some induced responses to pathogens as well as chewing insects. Many of the genes associated with induced resistance in rice have recently been mapped, and techniques are being developed to incorporate them into the genome of cultivated varieties. Attempts to control insect pests of rice will affect interactions with pathogens, predators and parasites, and other organisms in this agroecosystem.

  14. Epigenomic Modification and Epigenetic Regulation in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhao; Dao-Xiu Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Epigenomes including genome-wide histone modification and DNA methylation profiles are important for genome activity and for defining gene expression patterns of plant development and responses to various environmental conditions.Rice is the most important crop plant and serves as a model for cereal genomics.Rice epigenomic landscape is emerging and the function of chromatin modification regulators in gene expression,transposon repression and plant development is being characterized.Epigenomic variation that gives rise to stable or transgenerational heritable epialleles related to variation of important agronomical traits or stress responses is being characterized in rice.Implication of epigenomic variation in rice heterosis is being exploited.

  15. Composition and Development Prospects of Scented Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiankai SHEN; Zhenyu XIE; Zhizhou HE; Qiyun LIN; Ming YIN

    2016-01-01

    Containing higher aromatic composition,scented rice is better than ordinary rice varieties in taste and nutrition. Major composition of scented rice is 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline( 2-AP). Different scented rice varieties have different content of 2-AP. The content of 2-AP is not only influenced by genetic factors,but also closely connected with types and content of nutrition elements in soil,soil moisture management,environmental temperature,and storage. 2-AP synthesis and regulation are possibly connected with Proline and enzyme.

  16. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1).

  17. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  18. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh K. Tyagi; Jitendra P. Khurana; Paramjit Khurana; Saurabh Raghuvanshi; Anupama Gaur; Anita Kapur; Vikrant Gupta; Dibyendu Kumar; V. Ravi; Shubha Vij; Parul Khurana; Sulabha Sharma

    2004-04-01

    Rice is an excellent system for plant genomics as it represents a modest size genome of 430 Mb. It feeds more than half the population of the world. Draft sequences of the rice genome, derived by whole-genome shotgun approach at relatively low coverage (4–6 X), were published and the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP) declared high quality (>10 X), genetically anchored, phase 2 level sequence in 2002. In addition, phase 3 level finished sequence of chromosomes 1, 4 and 10 (out of 12 chromosomes of rice) has already been reported by scientists from IRGSP consortium. Various estimates of genes in rice place the number at > 50,000. Already, over 28,000 full-length cDNAs have been sequenced, most of which map to genetically anchored genome sequence. Such information is very useful in revealing novel features of macro- and micro-level synteny of rice genome with other cereals. Microarray analysis is unraveling the identity of rice genes expressing in temporal and spatial manner and should help target candidate genes useful for improving traits of agronomic importance. Simultaneously, functional analysis of rice genome has been initiated by marker-based characterization of useful genes and employing functional knock-outs created by mutation or gene tagging. Integration of this enormous information is expected to catalyze tremendous activity on basic and applied aspects of rice genomics.

  19. Dissipation of pencycuron in rice plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAL R.; CHAKRABARTI K.; CHAKRABORTY A.; CHOWDHURY A.

    2005-01-01

    Pencycuron is a non-systemic protective fungicide for controlling sheath blight of rice. However, information on the fate of pencycuron in rice plant is lacking. The degradation of pencycuron in waterlogged tropic rice field was investigated.Pencycuron was applied at recommended field dose (187.5 g a.i./ha) and double recommended dose to cropped plots for three consecutive years. Pencycuron was rapidly degraded in rice plant at all doses of pencycuron application with first order half-lives of 1.57~2.77 d. The study revealed that pencycuron is safe from the human and environmental contamination point of view.

  20. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, strict...... regulation should be enforced regarding arsenic content. Moreover, infants and young children should consume a balanced diet including a variety of grains as carbohydrate sources. While rice protein based infant formulas are an option for infants with cows' milk protein allergy, the inorganic arsenic content...

  1. Arbitrators, Blacks and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Kenneth

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of the handling of disciplinary problems of black employees concludes that management should be concerned because of the effect that grievance resolution may have on the company's overall employee discipline program and the additional appeal alternatives available to the black employee. (Author/EA)

  2. Perturbing supersymmetric black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Onozawa, H; Mishima, T; Ishihara, H; Onozawa, Hisashi; Okamura, Takashi; Mishima, Takashi; Ishihara, Hideki

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in the N=2 supergravity is presented. In the extreme case, the black hole responds to the perturbation of each field in the same manner. This is possibly because we can match the modes of the graviton, gravitino, and photon using supersymmetry transformations.

  3. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  4. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  5. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  6. Blacks and Trade Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, focuses on two issues: (1) the effect of the presence of trade unionism on the position of black workers in the labor market relative to white workers; and (2) the effect of federal government efforts to increase the position of black workers…

  7. Fifty shades of black

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2015-11-01

    Creating dark materials that prevent reflections has become hot competition recently, with Guinness World Records having to keep revising the darkest substance yet created. But depending on who's asking, the best black may not be the blackest black, as Jon Cartwright discovers.

  8. Rice's Salt Tolerance Gene Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with US colleagues, CAS researchers have made significant progress in their studies into functional genes for key agronomic traits by cloning SKC1, a salt-tolerant functional gene of rice and making clear its biological functions and mechanisms. This pioneering work,which was reported in the Oct. issue of Nature Genetics (37:1141-1146), is believed to hold promise to increase the output of the crop plant in this country.

  9. Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Stornaiolo, C

    2002-01-01

    In this letter we propose the existence of low density black holes and discuss its compatibility with the cosmological observations. The origin of these black holes can be traced back to the collapse of long wavelength cosmological perturbations during the matter dominated era, when the densities are low enough to neglect any internal and thermal pressure. By introducing a threshold density $\\hat{\\rho}$ above which pressure and non-gravitational interactions become effective, we find the highest wavelength for the perturbations that can reach an equilibrium state instead of collapsing to a black hole. The low density black holes introduced here, if they exist, can be observed through weak and strong gravitational lensing effects. Finally we observe that we obtained here a cosmological model which is capable to explain in a qualitative way the void formation together with the value $\\Omega=1$. But we remark that it needs to be improved by considering non spherical symmetric black holes.

  10. Primordial Black Hole Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, D; Turok, N G; Baumann, Daniel; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2007-01-01

    We reconsider the possibility that the observed baryon asymmetry was generated by the evaporation of primordial black holes that dominated the early universe. We present a simple derivation showing that the baryon asymmetry is insensitive to the initial black hole density and the cosmological model but is sensitive to the temperature-dependence of the CP and baryon-violating (or lepton-violating) interactions. We also consider the possibility that black holes stop evaporating and form Planck-mass remnants that act as dark matter. We show that primordial black holes cannot simultaneously account for both the observed baryon asymmetry and the (remnant) dark matter density unless the magnitude of CP violation is much greater than expected from most particle physics models. Finally, we apply these results to ekpyrotic/cyclic models, in which primordial black holes may form when branes collide. We find that obtaining the observed baryon asymmetry is compatible with the other known constraints on parameters.

  11. Lifshitz Topological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, R B

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  12. On-farm trials with rice fish cultivation in the west Kano rice irrigation scheme, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Rasowo, J.; Auma, E.O.

    2006-01-01

    The viability of integrating rice farming with fish culture was studied in ten (10) rice plots. The on-farm research was done during one rice-growing season starting May 2003. The rice variety used was IR 2793-80-1 while the fish species was the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The fish culture period lasted 77 days. An average fish production of 132.4 kg/ha was obtained. The mean recovery rate of tilapia was 43 per cent. Total rice yield from the fields stocked with fish was lower than f...

  13. Utilization of black liquor as concrete admixture and set retarder aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar A. El-Mekkawi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of black liquor, produced by the pulp and paper industry in Egypt, as a workability aid and set retarder admixture has been investigated. This approach may help eliminate the environmentally polluting black liquor waste. It also provides a low cost by-product, which can be widely used in the construction industry. The properties of black liquor and its performance on concrete at two different ratios of water to cement have been studied. The results revealed that black liquor from rice straw pulp increases concrete workability, improves compaction, and reduces honeycombing. Moreover, it retards the initial and final set time and enhances uniform compaction. The effect of incorporating small portions of silica fume has been investigated. The ageing effect of this material over a period of one year, to determine its safe storage period, has been studied. Finally, this admixture was found to comply with the relevant Egyptian standards.

  14. Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khush, G S

    1997-09-01

    There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. The cultivated species originated from a common ancestor with AA genome. Perennial and annual ancestors of O. sativa are O. rufipogon and O. nivara and those of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata, O. breviligulata and O. glaberrima probably domesticated in Niger river delta. Varieties of O. sativa are classified into six groups on the basis of genetic affinity. Widely known indica rices correspond to group I and japonicas to group VI. The so called javanica rices also belong to group VI and are designated as tropical japonicas in contrast to temperate japonicas grown in temperate climate. Indica and japonica rices had a polyphyletic origin. Indicas were probably domesticated in the foothills of Himalayas in Eastern India and japonicas somewhere in South China. The indica rices dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics from India. The japonica rices moved northward from South China and became the temperate ecotype. They also moved southward to Southeast Asia and from there to West Africa and Brazil and became tropical ecotype. Rice is now grown between 55 degrees N and 36 degrees S latitudes. It is grown under diverse growing conditions such as irrigated, rainfed lowland, rainfed upland and floodprone ecosystems. Human selection and adaptation to diverse environments has resulted in numerous cultivars. It is estimated that about 120,000 varieties of rice exist in the world. After the establishment of International Rice Research Institute in 1960, rice varietal improvement was intensified and high yielding varieties were developed. These varieties are now planted to 70

  15. Rice Yield Estimation by Integrating Remote Sensing with Rice Growth Simulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O. ABOU-ISMAIL; HUANG Jing-Feng; WANG Ren-Chao

    2004-01-01

    Since remote sensing can provide information on the actual status of an agricultural crop, the integration between remote sensing data and crop growth simulation models has become an important trend for yield estimation and prediction.The main objective of this research was to combine a rice growth simulation model with remote sensing data to estimate rice grain yield for different growing seasons leading to an assessment of rice yield at regional levels. Integration between NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data and the rice growth simulation model ORYZA1 to develop a new software, which was named as Rice-SRS Model, resulted in accurate estimates for rice yield in Shaoxing, China, with an estimation error reduced to 1.03% and 0.79% over-estimation and 0.79% under-estimation for early, single and late season rice, respectively. Selecting suitable dates for remote sensing images was an important factor which could influence estimation accuracy. Thus, given the different growing periods for each rice season, four images were needed for early and late rice, while five images were preferable for single season rice.Estimating rice yield using two or three images was possible, however, if images were obtained during the panicle initiation and heading stages.

  16. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  17. A New Mehod to Cook Rice Food,An infant of new Rice Cooker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hanyou

    2002-01-01

    Objective:In order to enhance the rice food nutritional quality and the human quality of life.Method:Summarize my lifeexperiences and my cooking rice experience with present Chinese food cookers but in different way to reach the high quality ricefood. Result:The steaming rice method is easy to do and the rice is tasteful and nutritional,comparing with the previous old generationsfood cookers. Conclusions:(1)This cooking method is worth and easy to be adapted by the rice taking people.(2)Through furtherresearch,the new rice cooker of modem generation can be developed according to these principles.This kind of cooker may well bemarketed and used by the rice taking people.

  18. Black Hole Critical Phenomena Without Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liebling, S L

    2000-01-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  19. Virus-mediated chemical changes in rice plants impact the relationship between non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaochan; Xu, Hongxing; Gao, Guanchun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xusong; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae.

  20. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  1. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  2. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  3. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  4. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...

  5. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  6. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  7. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  8. Progress and Prospect of Functional Rice Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy and the increase of people's living standards, functional foods are being gradually embraced by consumers and have a great growth potential. Rice is the main staple food in China. It plays an important role in promoting people's health and in improving public nutrition, and therefore there is an ever-increasing consumer demand for rice for its functional quality. This study introduces the concept of functional rice and summarizes the current research progress on this topic and the application of breeding strategies including traditional breeding, induced mutagenesis, molecular marker-assisted selection and transgenic engineering in the research of a new generation of functional rice that posses health benefits, therapeutic values, bioreactor properties, and other unique functions. We then point out the prospect of functional rice from the point of view of social development, germplasm innovation,breeding of functional rice by biological technology and the test of active material related functional rice. We conclude that developing and marketing of functional rice is becoming a subject of great importance for research and is to be the focus of research in future.

  9. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  10. Geochemical Modeling of Zinc Bioavailability for Rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Schröder, T.J.; Hoffland, E.; Zou, C.; Zhang, F.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    The transition from anaerobic to aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation has been reported to decrease Zn bioavailability. To determine and understand the differences in plant Zn uptake between anaerobic and aerobic rice cultivation systems, a field plot experiment was conducted with direct-seede

  11. Rice mutant resources for gene discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirochika, H.; Guiderdoni, E.; An, G.; Hsing, Y.I.; Eun, M.Y.; Han, C.D.; Upadhyaya, N.; Ramachandran, S.; Zhang, Q.F.; Pereira, A.B.; Sundaresan, V.; Leung, H.

    2004-01-01

    With the completion of genomic sequencing of rice, rice has been firmly established as a model organism for both basic and applied research. The next challenge is to uncover the functions of genes predicted by sequence analysis. Considering the amount of effort and the diversity of disciplines requi

  12. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  13. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  14. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Kleihaus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  15. Black Hole Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Mitra

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy $S^{BH}$ (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy $S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho})$ (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (...

  16. Black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, V

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S^{BH} (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho}) (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (i.e. its independence of the number and properties of the fields which might contribute to S^{SM}) is given.

  17. Primordial Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    MacGibbon, Jane H; Linnemann, J T; Marinelli, S S; Stump, D; Tollefson, K

    2015-01-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are of interest in many cosmological contexts. PBHs lighter than about 1012 kg are predicted to be directly detectable by their Hawking radiation. This radiation should produce both a diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background from the cosmologically-averaged distribution of PBHs and gamma-ray burst signals from individual light black holes. The Fermi, Milagro, Veritas, HESS and HAWC observatories, in combination with new burst recognition methodologies, offer the greatest sensitivity for the detection of such black holes or placing limits on their existence.

  18. Elucidation of molecular dynamics of invasive species of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated rice fields are aggressively invaded by weedy rice in the U.S. and worldwide. Weedy rice results in loss of yield and seed contamination. The molecular dynamics of the evolutionary adaptive traits of weedy rice are not fully understood. To understand the molecular basis and identify the i...

  19. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  20. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels...

  1. Rice blast research: improving our arsenal and using it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease is a constant threat to U.S. rice production, and there have been sporadic outbreaks of the disease for many decades. However, the U.S. southern rice growing area has been fortunate because the pathogen population has been relatively stable compared to other rice producing areas i...

  2. Factors Affecting Methane Emission from Rice Paddies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于心科; 王卫东; 等

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of rice paddies and the uncovered water field in Taoyuan(Hunan) showed that methane emission from rice-vegetated paddy fields in 1993 was different from that in 1992(I,e,lower in rates and irregular in pattern).Climate has obvious influence on methane emission .And ebullition made a considerable contribution to the total flux of methane emission from rice paddies (45%).This implies that the intensification of paddy cultivation of rice might not be,as was proposed,the main con-tributor to the observed gradual increasing of atmospheric methane.24-hour automatic measurements of atmospheric temperature,air temperature and methane concentration in the static sampling boxes revealed that temperature,in addition to fertilization and irrigation style,is one of the most important factors that control the emission of methane from rice paddies.

  3. Feminism and Black Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Bell

    1989-01-01

    Women's studies programs have largely ignored Black women. Until Black women's studies courses are developed, feminist scholarship on Black women will not advance, and the contributions of Black women to women's rights movements and African American literature and scholarship may be neglected. (DM)

  4. The Price of "Black Dominance."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…

  5. Evaluation of Black Tea Polyphenol Extract Against the Retrogradation of Starches from Various Plant Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxiang Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD. DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties. Native maize starch and starches from different rice varieties showed typical A-type X-ray diffraction patterns, while native potato starch showed a typical B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Adding BTPE significantly affected the crystalline region and intensities of X-ray diffraction peaks of maize and rice starch granules. It is concluded that adding BTPE markedly inhibits the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties, but has no significant influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of potato starch.

  6. Evaluation of black tea polyphenol extract against the retrogradation of starches from various plant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huaxi; Lin, Qinlu; Liu, Gao-Qiang; Yu, Fengxiang

    2012-07-06

    The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE) on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties. Native maize starch and starches from different rice varieties showed typical A-type X-ray diffraction patterns, while native potato starch showed a typical B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Adding BTPE significantly affected the crystalline region and intensities of X-ray diffraction peaks of maize and rice starch granules. It is concluded that adding BTPE markedly inhibits the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties, but has no significant influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of potato starch.

  7. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world’s population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one “rice-fish system” (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers’ net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability.

  8. Characteristics of Growth and Yield Formation of Rice in Rice-Fish Farming System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong; ZHANG Hong-cheng; HU Xiao-jun; DAI Qi-gen; ZHANG Yong-jiang

    2006-01-01

    By using single rice cultivation as a control, the effect of rice-fish culture on growth dynamic, plant type and yield formation of rice was studied. The results showed as follows: rice-fish culture improved the physical-chemical properties of arable layer soil of paddy field, extended growth period of rice, increased dry matter and LAI of different growth stages,improved three top leaves area, deterred the degeneration of leaves function, increased the diameter of stem, promoted the growth of roots and the formation of roots in the extended stem. At the same time, rice-fish culture extended the length of basal internodes, increased the number of internodes, uplifted the gravity of plant, and depressed the root vigor. For the grain yield and yield structure of rice, rice-fish culture decreased ear/tillering ratio, spikelet/panicle and seed set percentage,increased grain weight. If variety choice and cultivation technology were controlled appropriately, rice-fish culture could increase the effective panicles and improve grain yield of rice.

  9. Changes in rice allelopathy and rhizosphere microflora by inhibiting rice phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Changxun; Zhuang, Yuee; Xu, Tiecheng; Li, Yingzhe; Li, Yue; Lin, Wenxiong

    2013-02-01

    Gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in allelopathic rice PI312777 was inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi). Transgenic rice showed lower levels of PAL gene expression and PAL activity than wild type rice (WT). The concentrations of phenolic compounds were lower in the root tissues and root exudates of transgenic rice than in those of wild type plants. When barndyardgrass (BYG) was used as the receiver plant, the allelopathic potential of transgenic rice was reduced. The sizes of the bacterial and fungal populations in rice rhizospheric soil at the 3-, 5-, and 7-leaf stages were estimated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR), which showed a decrease in both populations at all stages of leaf development analyzed. However, PI312777 had a larger microbial population than transgenic rice. In addition, in T-RFLP studies, 14 different groups of bacteria were detected in WT and only 6 were detected in transgenic rice. This indicates that there was less rhizospheric bacterial diversity associated with transgenic rice than with WT. These findings collectively suggest that PAL functions as a positive regulator of rice allelopathic potential.

  10. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  11. Janus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.

  12. Black Rail Pilot Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aural surveys using tape recorded calls proved to be an efficient and effective way to survey large expanses of shallow marsh for black rails (Laterallus...

  13. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Black Friday er et godt eksempel på, hvordan ikke kun produktbrands og corporate brands rejser på tværs af landegrænser, men også traditioner som Halloween, Valentines Day og i dette tilfælde den ultimative tilbuds-fredag, som i USA går under navnet Black Friday. Men hvad er Black Friday i Danmark......? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  14. Consumer Preferences and Buying Criteria in Rice: A Study to Identify Market Strategy for Thailand Jasmine Rice Export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries decreased, but it is consumed more in non-rice-eating countries. This study aimed to investigate consumer preferences and attitudes toward Jasmine rice among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic implicat

  15. Estimate of CH4 Emissions from Year-Round Flooded Rice Fields During Rice Growing Season in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zu-Cong; KANG Guo-Ding; H. TSURUTA; A. MOSIER

    2005-01-01

    A special kind of rice field exists in China that is flooded year-round. These rice fields have substantially large CH4emissions during the rice-growing season and emit CH4 continuously in the non-rice growing season. CH4 emission factors were used to estimate the CH4 emissions from year-round flooded rice fields during the rice-growing season in China.The CH4 emissions for the year-round flooded rice fields in China for the rice growing season over a total area of 2.66Mha were estimated to be 2.44 Tg CH4 year-1. The uncertainties of these estimations are discussed as well. However,the emissions during the non-rice growing season could not be estimated because of limited available data. Nevertheless,methane emissions from rice fields that were flooded year-round could be several times higher than those from the rice fields drained in the non-rice-growing season. Thus, the classification of "continuously flooded rice fields" in the IPCC(International Panel on Climate Change) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories is suggested to be revised and divided into "continuously flooded rice fields during the rice growing season" and "year-round flooded rice fields".

  16. Modelling quantum black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R

    2016-01-01

    Novel bound states are obtained for manifolds with singular potentials. These singular potentials require proper boundary conditions across boundaries. The number of bound states match nicely with what we would expect for black holes. Also they serve to model membrane mechanism for the black hole horizons in simpler contexts. The singular potentials can also mimic expanding boundaries elegantly, there by obtaining appropriately tuned radiation rates.

  17. Helical superconducting black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P

    2012-05-25

    We construct novel static, asymptotically five-dimensional anti-de Sitter black hole solutions with Bianchi type-VII(0) symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have a vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, nonisotropic dual ground states with an emergent scaling symmetry.

  18. Black Is Cool!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1997-01-01

    Do you remember the colors the college freshmen dyed their hair when you were here? Turquoise, orange, bright yellow.... Things have changed. Black has (?)ome the color of choice among the young people. Young men and women alike dye their hair coal black. The women let their hair grow very long. and it hangs straight and stringy down their backs. The young men leave it long on

  19. Braneworld black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    In these lectures, I give an introduction to and overview of braneworlds and black holes in the context of warped compactifications. I first describe the general paradigm of braneworlds, and introduce the Randall-Sundrum model. I discuss braneworld gravity, both using perturbation theory, and also non perturbative results. I then discuss black holes on the brane, the obstructions to finding exact solutions, and ways of tackling these difficulties. I describe some known solutions, and conclude with some open questions and controversies.

  20. Black Hole Induced Ejections

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, G.

    2004-01-01

    Black Holes generate a particular kind of environments dominated by an accretion flow which concentrates a magnetic field. The interplay of gravity and magnetism creates this paradoxical situation where relativistic ejection is allowed and consequently high energy phenomena take place. Therefore Black Holes, which are very likely at the origin of powerfull astrophysical phenomena such as AGNs, micro- quasars and GRBs where relativistic ejections are observed, are at the heart of high energy a...

  1. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongli He; Chao Han; Xiaojian Yin; Hui Zhang; Pingfang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Seed germination is a complex physiological which starts from the uptake of water by the dry seeds and ends at the protrusion of the radicle.In order to elucidate the mechanism of rice seed germination,we have conducted a systematic proteomic analyses combining with 1-D via LC MS/MS,comparative 2-DE and iTRAQ techniques using the whole seed or dissected embryos and endosperm.During rice seed germination,the embryo and endosperm played different roles.The seed weight increased and complied by a triphasic model.Phase I accompanied with rapid seed water-up-take,the embryo produced gibberellic acid (GA) and diffused to aleurone and then prepared to initiate a signaling cascade to drive the reserves degradation in the starchy endosperm.Phase II is the most important stage for metabolic reactions reactivation,the reserves mobilization,cell construction respiration,cell wall loosening and coleoptile elongation,most of the metabolism related proteins sorted to different pathways were identified at 24 h after imbibition,but the metabolism of nucleotides was not active at this stage for few related proteins have been involved.The degradation of seed maturation and desiccation-associated proteins seemed to be earlier than that of the storage proteins and starch.The glycolysis was the main pathway for energy and substance providing.Phase III is another rapid water-uptake stage accompanying with TCA and aerobic respiration strengthening,cell division initiation and the radical protrusion.Interesting,both biosynthesis and degradation of the same macromolecule were concurrence even in the dry seed,which implied the sequentially matabolic and regulatory events triggered by water uptake during rice seed germination have been programmed during seed maturation.

  2. Cosmic censorship inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Thorlacius, L

    2006-01-01

    A simple argument is given that a traversable Cauchy horizon inside a black hole is incompatible with unitary black hole evolution. The argument assumes the validity of black hole complementarity and applies to a generic black hole carrying angular momentum and/or charge. In the second part of the paper we review recent work on the semiclassical geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes.

  3. Research on the development of weed-suppressing rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaochuan ZHOU; Decheng LU; Hong LI; Daoqiang HUANG; Ruowei MIAO

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop weed-suppressing rice varieties in a weed-suppressing nursery by specific secondary metabolite markers of allelopathic potential. Weed-suppressing rice variety Feng-Hua-Zhan was screened out by a specific secondary metabolite marker of allelopathic potential. Weed-suppressing rice No. 1, a new rice line with good quality, was also developed using this method. The genetic backgrounds and research directions of weed-suppressing rice varieties are discussed in this paper.

  4. Use AMMI model to analyze adaptability of rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENXihang; WANGLei; YANGShihua; XIEFuxian

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of rice varieties is one of the most concerned questions to rice breeders. In rice breeding, combined variety test and regional trials which included multiple genotypes and environments were conducted to identify the adaptability of new rice varieties. In most regional trials, interaction between genotype and environment is significant, so it is important to analyze the interaction for estimating the adaptability of rice varieties.

  5. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steven L Liebling

    2000-10-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  6. Charged Galileon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  7. Ultramassive Black Hole Coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Fazeel; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gr...

  8. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  9. Identification of Thai Hom Mali rice using a refractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Suwansukho, Kajpanya; Buranasiri, Prathan

    2009-05-01

    Because Thai Hom Mali, also known as Thai Dawk Mali (KDML105), rice is very popular and its price is high compared to other Thai rice varieties, there is an increase in mixing KDML105 milled and unmilled rice grains with other rice varieties, leading to unqualified KDML105 milled rice products for export and unqualified KDML105 unmilled rice seeds for next plants. Instead of using traditional time- and energy- consuming procedures such as alkaline spreading value and pasting property tests, this paper proposes a fast refractometry-based method to analyze ground milled rice grains dissolved in an alkaline solution. Our idea comes from the fact that due to differences in the amount of amylose content in each rice variety, the refractive index of the milled rice powder dissolved in an alkaline solution can be used to distinguish the desired KDML105 rice from others. In our approach, only 0.1 grams of milled rice powder is ground, it is then dissolved in a 10% potassium hydroxide, and its refractive index is investigated. Our experiment using a temperature-controlled optical refractometer and four Thai rice varieties (KDML105, Pathumthani1, Chainat1, and a Thai sticky rice) shows that the milled KDML105 rice can be distinguished from the remaining three rice varieties with a total false error rate of 6.7% and the required measurement time of < 20 seconds. Key advantages include simplicity, moderate accuracy, and less waste produced.

  10. Arsenic Transport in Rice and Biological Solutions to Reduce Arsenic Risk from Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanshan; Han, Yong-He; Cao, Yue; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q.

    2017-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) feeds ∼3 billion people. Due to the wide occurrence of arsenic (As) pollution in paddy soils and its efficient plant uptake, As in rice grains presents health risks. Genetic manipulation may offer an effective approach to reduce As accumulation in rice grains. The genetics of As uptake and metabolism have been elucidated and target genes have been identified for genetic engineering to reduce As accumulation in grains. Key processes controlling As in grains include As uptake, arsenite (AsIII) efflux, arsenate (AsV) reduction and AsIII sequestration, and As methylation and volatilization. Recent advances, including characterization of AsV uptake transporter OsPT8, AsV reductase OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2, rice glutaredoxins, and rice ABC transporter OsABCC1, make many possibilities to develop low-arsenic rice. PMID:28298917

  11. Rice allergenic protein and molecular-genetic approach for hypoallergenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, R; Matsuda, T

    1996-08-01

    Allergenic proteins with a molecular mass of about 14 to 16 kDa were isolated from a rice salt-soluble fraction based on the reactivity with IgE antibodies from patients allergic to rice. cDNA clones encoding these allergenic proteins were isolated from a cDNA library of maturing rice seeds, and the deduced amino acid sequences showed considerable similarity to wheat and barley alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, which have recently been identified as major allergens associated with baker's asthma. An antisense RNA strategy was applied to repress the allergen gene expression in maturing rice seeds. Immunoblotting and ELISA analyses of the seeds using a monoclonal antibody to a 16-kDa allergen showed that allergen content of seeds from several transgenic rice plants was markedly lower than that of the seeds from parental wild type rice.

  12. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  13. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  14. Influences of the Paddy Rices with Different Moistures on the Head Rice Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A major component rice variety of Xiangwanxian 9 (a late lndica variety) with 13.1%, 15.6% and 18. 3% of the moisture was respectively mixed with three ad ditive varieties in 13% of moisture at ration of 7:3 for processing assorted rices. Head rice recovery of the treatments was determined 24 hours later. Analysis indicated sig nificant differences exist in the effects produced by the component varieties, their moistures and the component variety moisture.

  15. Estimating Rice Yield under Changing Weather Conditions in Kenya Using CERES Rice Model

    OpenAIRE

    W. O. Nyang’au; Mati, B. M.; Kalamwa, K.; Wanjogu, R. K.; L. K. Kiplagat

    2014-01-01

    Effects of change in weather conditions on the yields of Basmati 370 and IR 2793-80-1 cultivated under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Mwea and Western Kenya irrigation schemes were assessed through sensitivity analysis using the Ceres rice model v 4.5 of the DSSAT modeling system. Genetic coefficients were determined using 2010 experimental data. The model was validated using rice growth and development data during the 2011 cropping season. Two SRI farmers were selected randomly from...

  16. A convenient method for rapid determination of proteins in rices and rice products

    OpenAIRE

    光永, 俊郎; 安藤, ひとみ

    1990-01-01

    [Author abstract]In the biuret determination of protein in rices and rice products, starch and lipids extractable with an alkaline solution such as biuret reagent were found to interfere with the biuret method. Comparative evaluation of their effects revealed that starch, a major component of rice, has the most significant effect on the biuret method. In the presence of starch, the correlation between Kjeldahl protein and the optical density of biuret was poor. It was found that several perha...

  17. Endosperm Development in Autotetraploid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; LIU Xiang-dong; LU Yong-gen; FENG Jiu-huan; XU Xue-bin; XU Shi-xiong (S.Y.Zee)

    2005-01-01

    By using the laser scanning confocal microscope and plastic (Leica 7022 historesin embedding kit) semi-thin sectioningtechnique, comparative studies on the development of endosperm were carried out between autotetraploid and diploid rices. Aboutone third of the ovaries in the autotetraploid showed normal endosperm development as those in the diploid. In these ovaries, one ofthe polar nuclei would fuse with the sperm nucleus, and the primary endosperm nucleus formed and underwent the first division in 4hours after pollination; the anticlinal wall began to grow centripetally between the free nuclei starting from the wall ingrowths of theembryo sac near the micropylar end, and some of the phragmoplasts formed transformed into periclinal walls. In addition, some of thecell wall situated in the middle of the endosperm appeared to originate from phragmoplasts, whereas others seemed to developrandomly without the obvious formation of phragmoplasts. Cellulose began to accumulate in the wall of aleurone cell layer at 6 daysafter pollination. The cellulose wall of the cells of the aleurone cell layer appeared to have completely formed within 7 to 8 days afterpollination. On the other hand, about two thirds of the ovaries in the autotetraploid showed abnormality in endosperm developmentwith various types, such as non-fertilization, abnormal fertilization, endosperm development-delay and non-synchronization in thedevelopment of cellulose wall of cells of the aleurone layer. These abnormalities usually resulted in decreased seed setting inautotetraploid rice.

  18. Elemental Content in Brown Rice by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Reveals the Evolution of Asian Cultivated Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen Zeng; Luxiang Wang; Juan Du; Jiafu Liu; Shuming Yang; Xiaoying Pu; Fenghui Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship for classification traits and eight mineral elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Yunnan Province in China was carried out using microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and the analytical procedures were carefully controlled and validated. In general, the results show that the mean levels of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in brown rice for 789 accessions of rice landraces was distinctly lower than that of improved cultivars. They further demonstrate that Ca plays an important role in the differentiation of subspecies indica-japonica, especially to enhance adaptation of cold stress, and that five mineral elements in brown rice enhance the eurytopicity from landrace to improved cultivar. Hierarchical cluster analysis, using average linkage from SPSS software based on eight mineral elements in brown rice, showed that Yunnan rice could be grouped into rice landrace and improved cultivar, with the rice landrace being further clustered into five subgroups, and that, interestingly, purple rice does not cluster with either of the groups. Our present data confirm that indica is the closest relative of late rice and white rice, and that they constitute rice landraces together, whereas japonica is the closest relatives of non-nuda, early-mid and glutinous rice. It is further shown that japonica, non-nuda, early-mid, glutinous, white and red rice might be more primitive than indica, nuda, late, non-glutinous and purple rice, respectively.

  19. Thermodynamic black di-rings

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Previously the five dimensional $S^1$-rotating black rings have been superposed in concentric way by some solitonic methods and regular systems of two $S^1$-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions black di-rings). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution-sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings are shown, in which both iso-thermality and iso-rotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.

  20. Hydrocolloid sour taste control in pasteurized rice

    OpenAIRE

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of kappa (κ)-carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in controlling the sourness intensity perception of added acetic, citric, and tartaric acids in solutions for steeping and cooking of rice intended for pasteurization were determined. The rank order of added acids (0.10 and 0.20 % w/v, pH 4.00) in the initial development of acidified hydrocolloid solutions was: acetic > citric > tartaric. The final rice acidification protocols included steeping and cooking of Japonica rice...

  1. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  2. Invastigation influence of Additives to RiceWater Absorption and cooked rice quaitity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jialian; Yang Ronghua

    2001-01-01

    Using glucono-δ-lactone, sodium polyphosphate, emulsifier, 3- cyclodextrin and proteinase as main additive, the water-absorbing quality of rice under different conditions and the methods to improve the edible quality of cooked rice are systematically investigated. The experimental result indicates that the water-absorbing ability of rice at room temperature can be increased significantly by soaking it in a 1:2 mixture of sodium polyphosphate and glucono-δ-lactone. The cooked rice quality can be apparently improved by soaking in a mixture of sodium polyphosphate, glucono-δ-lactone, emulsifier, β -cyclodextrin and protease.

  3. Current progress on genetic interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulin JIA; Guangjie LIU; Stefano COSTANZO; Seonghee LEE; Yuntao DAI

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of genetic interactions between rice and its pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani should lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of host resistance, and the improvement of strategies to manage rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Currently, dozens office resistance (R) genes against specific races of the blast fungus have been described. Among them, ten were molecularly characterized and some were widely used for breeding for genetic resistance. The Pi-ta gene was one of the best characterized rice R genes. Following the elucidation of its molecular structure, interaction, distribution, and evolution, user friendly DNA markers were developed from portions of the cloned genes to facilitate the incorporations of the Pi-ta mediated resistance into improved rice varieties using marker assisted selection (MAS). However, rice blast is still a major threat for stable rice production because of race change mutations occurring in rice fields, which often overcome added resistance based on single R genes, and these virulent races of M. oryzae pose a continued challenge for blast control. For sheath blight, progress has been made on the exploration of novel sources of resistance from wild rice relatives and indica rice cultivars. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL), named qSB9-2, was recently verified in several mapping populations with different phenotyping methods, including greenhouse methods. The ability to identify qSB9-2 using greenhouse methods should accelerate the efforts on the qSB9-2 fine mapping and positional cloning.

  4. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-05-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  5. Charged Galileon black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...

  6. Effects of aleurone layer on rice cooking: A histological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Zhong, Yejun; Luo, Dawen; Li, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-15

    Understanding how aleurone layer (AL) affects rice cooking behaviour is important for rice processing. Individual effects of AL on rice cooking behaviour were evaluated and histological characters of AL before and after cooking were investigated. AL slightly affected rice cooking quality (optimum cooking time, water absorption, volume expansion ratio and total solids loss) while remarkably affected rice texture (hardness and adhesiveness) and peak viscosity. Histological investigation showed that channels were formed in AL during cooking. The channels facilitated the penetration of water, which could explain why AL exhibited slight effects on rice cooking quality. In addition, thick cell walls and thermally stable aleurone grains were widely distributed in AL. Leached components accumulated on them and formed a reinforced coated film on rice surface during cooking, which may be a possible mechanism accounting for the remarkable effect of AL on rice texture. Histological characters of AL are closely related with rice cooking behaviour.

  7. Black Afrikaans: An alternative use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P. Maritz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a first look at the nature of the alternative functions of Black Afrikaans. These functions realise when Black Afrikaans is imitated by Afrikaans mother-tongue speakers. The functions of the alternative use of Black Afrikaans centre on: the social nature of the variety, sensitivity as a deciding role-player, identity, humour, inclusivity and exclusivity, language repertoire and similar variety. Furthermore, because of the direct relationship between Black Afrikaans, Pidginised Afrikaans and the imitation of Black Afrikaans, these varieties are compared to establish a starting point description for the imitation of Black Afrikaans, as the variety has not yet been described.

  8. Genetic shift in local rice populations during rice breeding programs in the northern limit of rice cultivation in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Kenji; Obara, Mari; Ikegaya, Tomohito; Tamura, Kenichi

    2015-09-01

    The rapid accumulation of pre-existing mutations may play major roles in the establishment and shaping of adaptability for local regions in current rice breeding programs. The cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., which originated from tropical regions, is now grown worldwide due to the concerted efforts of breeding programs. However, the process of establishing local populations and their origins remain unclear. In the present study, we characterized DNA polymorphisms in the rice variety KITAAKE from Hokkaido, one of the northern limits of rice cultivation in the world. Indel polymorphisms were attributed to transposable element-like insertions, tandem duplications, and non-TE deletions as the original mutation events in the NIPPONBARE and KITAAKE genomes. The allele frequencies of the KITAAKE alleles markedly shifted to the current variety types among the local population from Hokkaido in the last two decades. The KITAAKE alleles widely distributed throughout wild rice and cultivated rice over the world. These have accumulated in the local population from Hokkaido via Japanese landraces as the ancestral population of Hokkaido. These results strongly suggested that combinations of pre-existing mutations played a role in the establishment of adaptability. This approach using the re-sequencing of local varieties in unique environmental conditions will be useful as a genetic resource in plant breeding programs in local regions.

  9. Black Hole Induced Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Pelletier, G

    2004-01-01

    Black Holes generate a particular kind of environments dominated by an accretion flow which concentrates a magnetic field. The interplay of gravity and magnetism creates this paradoxical situation where relativistic ejection is allowed and consequently high energy phenomena take place. Therefore Black Holes, which are very likely at the origin of powerfull astrophysical phenomena such as AGNs, micro- quasars and GRBs where relativistic ejections are observed, are at the heart of high energy astrophysics. The combination of General Relativity and Magneto-HydroDynamics (MHD) makes theory difficult; however great pionneers opened beautiful tracks in the seventies and left important problems to be solved for the next decades. These lectures will present the status of these issues. They have a tutorial aspect together with critical review aspect and contain also some new issues. Most of these lectures has been presented at the "School on Black Hole in the Universe" at Cargese, in May 2003.

  10. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  11. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  12. Black hole entropy quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Corichi, A; Fernandez-Borja, E; Corichi, Alejandro; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernandez-Borja, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the pioneer works of Bekenstein and Hawking, black hole entropy has been known to have a quantum origin. Furthermore, it has long been argued by Bekenstein that entropy should be quantized in discrete (equidistant) steps given its identification with horizon area in (semi-)classical general relativity and the properties of area as an adiabatic invariant. This lead to the suggestion that black hole area should also be quantized in equidistant steps to account for the discrete black hole entropy. Here we shall show that loop quantum gravity, in which area is not quantized in equidistant steps can nevertheless be consistent with Bekenstein's equidistant entropy proposal in a subtle way. For that we perform a detailed analysis of the number of microstates compatible with a given area and show that an observed oscillatory behavior in the entropy-area relation, when properly interpreted yields an entropy that has discrete, equidistant values that are consistent with the Bekenstein framework.

  13. Black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. outbursting black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We then turn to the role of advection in accretion flow onto black holes illustrating its action and importance with a toy model describing both ADAFs and slim discs. We conclude with a presentation of the general-relativistic formalism describing accretion discs in the Kerr space-time.

  14. Tunneling Through Black Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liu

    2007-01-01

    Hawking radiation of black ring solutions to 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory is analyzed by use of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. To get the correct tunneling amplitude and emission rate, we adopt and develop the Angheben-Nadalini-Vanzo-Zerbini covariant approach to cover the effects of rotation and electronic discharge all at once, and the effect of back reaction is also taken into account. This constitutes a unified approach to the tunneling problem. Provided the first law of thermodynamics for black rings holds, the emission rate is proportional to the exponential of the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Explicit calculation for black ring temperatures agrees exactly with the results obtained via the classical surface gravity method and the quasi-local formalism.

  15. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  16. The closest black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Fender, Rob; Heywood, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the assumption that there is a large population (> 10^8) of isolated, stellar-mass black holes (IBH) distributed throughout our galaxy, we consider the detectable signatures of accretion from the interstellar medium (ISM) that may be associated with such a population. We simulate the nearby (radius 250 pc) part of this population, corresponding to the closest ~35 000 black holes, using current best estimates of the mass distribution of stellar mass black holes combined with two models for the velocity distribution of stellar-mass IBH which bracket likely possibilities. We distribute this population of objects appropriately within the different phases of the ISM and calculate the Bondi-Hoyle accretion rate, modified by a further dimensionless efficiency parameter \\lambda. Assuming a simple prescription for radiatively inefficient accretion at low Eddington ratios, we calculate the X-ray luminosity of these objects, and similarly estimate the radio luminosity from relations found empirically for b...

  17. 稻文化的再思考(11):古今科技--煮饭:从万家炊烟到一键按下饭来香%Rice Culture Rethinking(11)---Ancient and Modern Sci-techniques:Rice Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞乾林; 林海; 王志刚

    2015-01-01

    回顾了从万家炊烟的传统煮饭到一键按下饭来香的现代电饭煲煮饭的发展,包括煮饭蒸饭用的锅从釜到钢精锅到现代的高压锅、电饭煲、电压力锅,灶从柴灶到煤炉再到现代的燃气灶、电磁炉,火(热源)从木柴到煤、煤气、天然气再到电的发展,介绍了养生养体的饭粥和几种特色饭如扬州炒饭、乌米饭和社饭。%The development of rice cooking from traditional cooking by fire to modern cooking by electric rice cooker are reviewed, including pot from reactor to aluminium pot, to modern pressure cooker, rice cooker, electric pressure cooker;stove from tandir to coal stove, to modern fuel gas stove, induction cooker;fire (heat source) from wood to coal, to fuel gas, to modern electricity. Some cooked rice and gruel such as Yangzhou fried egg rice, black rice, shefan, are described in the paper.

  18. Rapid Determination of Silicon Content in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Wei-min; ZHANG Ke-qin; DUAN Bin-wu; SUN Cheng-xiao; ZHENG Kang-le; CAI Run; ZHUANG Jie-yun

    2005-01-01

    A method for rapid determination of silicon content in rice was introduced. The reliability of this method was verified byusing a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of rice cross Zhenshan 97B / Milyang 46. Two hundred and forty-nine RILs weretransplanted in two replications. Simple correlation coefficients on the silicon content in the hull, flag leaf and stem in rice betweenduplicate samples of 498 rice materials were 0.97954, 0.97026 and 0.98848, respectively. Ten representative samples wereselected for measurement using the high-temperature alkaline fusion method. Simple correlation coefficient between the siliconcontents determined by the high-temperature alkaline fusion method and by the present method is 0.9993.

  19. Rice saabus Euroopat taltsutama / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    USA välisminister Condolezza Rice alustas ringreisi Euroopas, eesmärgiks anda vastulöök USA-d tabanud kriitikale sõjavangide kohtlemise ja teistes riikides oma luuretalituse salavanglate pidamise pärast

  20. Insect Vectors of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Koudamiloro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is the major viral constraint to rice production in Africa. RYMV was first identified in 1966 in Kenya and then later in most African countries where rice is grown. Several studies have been conducted so far on its evolution, pathogenicity, resistance genes, and especially its dissemination by insects. Many of these studies showed that, among RYMV vectors, insects especially leaf-feeders found in rice fields are the major source of virus transmission. Many studies have shown that the virus is vectored by several insect species in a process of a first ingestion of leaf material and subsequent transmission in following feedings. About forty insect species were identified as vectors of RYMV since 1970 up to now. They were essentially the beetles, grasshoppers, and the leafhoppers. For this review, we presented the chronology of their identification. Also, the biology, ecology, host range, distribution, and caused damage of these insects were briefly summarized.

  1. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  2. Stamen specification and anther development in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG DaBing; WILSON Zoe A

    2009-01-01

    Male reproductive development is a complex biological process which includes the formation of the stamen with differentiated anther tissues, in which microspores/pollens are generated, then anther dehiscence and subsequently pollination. Stamen specification and anther development involve a number of extraordinary events such as meristem transition, cell division and differentiation, cell to cell communication, etc., which need the cooperative interaction of sporophytic and gametophytic genes. The advent of various tools for rice functional gene identification, such as complete genome sequence, genome-wide microarrays, collections of mutants, has greatly facilitated our understanding of mechanisms of rice stamen specification and anther development. Male sterile lines are critical for hybrid rice breeding, therefore understanding these processes will not only contribute greatly to the basic knowledge of crop developmental biology, but also to the development of new varieties for hybrid rice breeding in the future.

  3. Hunting Plan : Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this hunting plan for Rice Lake NWR are to: provide a method of removing white-tailed deer from the area population to maintain the general health...

  4. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Fouzia; Samajpati, N.

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10416μg/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  5. Selection of Thai starter components for ethanol production utilizing malted rice from waste paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilux Chaijamrus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of mixed herbs in Thai rice wine starter (Loog-pang were investigated in order to directly maintain theefficiency of the microbial community (Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Amylomyces sp., Gluconobacter sp. and Pediocccuspentosaceus. The optimum formula was galanga, garlic, long pepper, licorice, and black pepper at the ratio of 0.5:8:1:4:1,respectively. Previously, waste paddy has been used directly as a renewable resource for fuel ethanol production using solidstate fermentation (SSF with Loog-pang. In this study, hydrolyzed malted rice starch was used as the sole nutrient source insubmerged fermentation (SmF to enhance the process yield. The maximum ethanol productivity (4.08 g/kg waste paddy h-1and the highest ethanol concentration (149±7.0 g/kg waste paddy were obtained after 48 hrs of incubation. The resultsindicated that starch saccharification provided a higher ethanol yield (48.38 g/100g sugar consumed than SSF. In addition,the efficiency of ethanol fermentation was 67% which is similar to that of the malted rice made from normal paddy (68%.This result suggests that waste paddy could be used as an alternative raw material for ethanol production.

  6. The world market of fragrant rice, main issues and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide rice production totaled 481 million metric tons in 2011, including 7.1% in trade. Fragrant rice is estimated to account for 15-18% of the rice trade procuring the highest prices on the world market. Some new players are interested in entering this premium segment, including the US, Vietnam, and other rice growers and traders. The fragrant rice commodity chain is deciphered through a meta-analysis of data on rice cropping and trading. We conclude on a possible split between fragrant ...

  7. Horndeski black hole geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyakova, D A

    2016-01-01

    We examine geodesics for the scalar-tensor black holes in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits may not be present within some model parameters range. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations. We also present a new (although very similar to those previously known) solution, which contains the orbits we expect from a compact object, admits regular scalar field at the horizon and and can fit into the known stability criteria.

  8. Are Black Holes Springy?

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2014-01-01

    A $(3+1)$-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed $\\Omega_+$ can be used to define an effective spring constant, $k=m\\Omega_+^2$. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, $k = \\kappa $, which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: $2\\pi T = \\kappa - k$. Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force $F = 1/4$, which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  9. Acoustic black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.

  10. Superfluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hennigar, Robie A; Tjoa, Erickson

    2016-01-01

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "$\\lambda$-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid $^4$He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically AdS hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  11. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  12. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  13. Bulletproof Black Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst.......Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst....

  14. Black Brane World Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, S H

    2001-01-01

    We consider a brane world residing in the interior region inside the horizon of extreme black branes. In this picture, the size of the horizon can be interpreted as the compactification size. The large mass hierarchy is simply translated into the large horizon size, which is provided by the magnitude of charges carried by the black branes. Hence, the macroscopic compactification size is a quantity calculable from the microscopic theory which has only one physical scale, and its stabilization is guaranteed from the charge conservation.

  15. Modeling black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this book is two-fold: the first part gives a fully detailed and pedagogical presentation of the Hawking effect and its physical implications, and the second discusses the backreaction problem, especially in connection with exactly solvable semiclassical models that describe analytically the black hole evaporation process. The book aims to establish a link between the general relativistic viewpoint on black hole evaporation and the new CFT-type approaches to the subject. The detailed discussion on backreaction effects is also extremely valuable.

  16. Hydrocolloid sour taste control in pasteurized rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V

    2014-12-01

    The effects of kappa (κ)-carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in controlling the sourness intensity perception of added acetic, citric, and tartaric acids in solutions for steeping and cooking of rice intended for pasteurization were determined. The rank order of added acids (0.10 and 0.20 % w/v, pH 4.00) in the initial development of acidified hydrocolloid solutions was: acetic > citric > tartaric. The final rice acidification protocols included steeping and cooking of Japonica rice cultivar Kanto in tartaric-acidified hydrocolloid solutions of κ-carrageenan and CMC (0.30 % w/v, 50 ± 2 °C for 1 h) at pH 2.75 and 2.90, respectively. The acidified cooked rice in pouches were pasteurized in boiling water (100 °C) to reach 95 °C for 5 min. The pasteurized products were categorized under acidified foods with final Aw < 0.85 and pH < 4.00. No perceivable sour tastes from 1 to 12 week storage at 28 ± 2 °C were noted in the pasteurized rice products. The shelf-stable pasteurized products were described as white, translucent, with distinct natural rice aroma and flavor, firm, and slightly elastic mouth and hand feel.

  17. Fungicide and insecticide residues in rice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mack Teló

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse residues of fungicides and insecticides in rice grains that were subjected to different forms of processing. Field work was conducted during three crop seasons, and fungicides and insecticides were applied at different crop growth stages on the aerial portion of the rice plants. Azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin fungicides were sprayed only once at the R2 growth stage or twice at the R2 and R4 growth stages; cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, and thiamethoxam insecticides were sprayed at the R2 growth stage; and permethrin was sprayed at 5-day intervals from the R4 growth stage up to one day prior to harvest. Pesticide residues were analysed in uncooked, cooked, parboiled, polished and brown rice grains as well as rice hulls during the three crop seasons, for a total of 1458 samples. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD using modified QuEChERS as the extraction method. No fungicide or insecticide residues were detected in rice grain samples; however, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin residues were detected in rice hull samples.

  18. Reflections on a Black Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2016-01-01

    A black mirror is an accelerated boundary that produces particles in an exact correspondence to an evaporating black hole. We investigate the spectral dynamics of the particle creation during the formation process.

  19. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  20. Meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvesteijn, R.G.E.; Kohrman, E.

    2008-01-01

    In de vollegrondsrozenteelt zorgde Black Mold in 2007 voor een groot aantal mislukte oculaties. In 2008 waren er aanzienlijk minder problemen. Uit onderzoek is meer bekend over de oorzaak en bestrijding van Black Mold.

  1. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  2. Conquering the Black Girl Blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lani Valencia; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly

    2015-10-01

    An examination of the literature on epidemiology, etiology, and use of services for this population reveals an insufficient application of culturally congruent approaches to intervening with black women. An exploration of the social work practice literature and other relevant fields indicate that black feminist perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a clearer understanding of the intersection and influence of oppression among black women struggling with psychiatric issues and provide a useful framework for mental health practice with this population. This article discusses the evolving black feminist thought and summarizes the scholarship on black women's mental health services needs and utilization issues. The article includes a discussion of black feminisms as an emerging mental health perspective, arguing that black feminist perspectives in therapy provide an ideal framework for services that are responsive to the values and health needs of black women. The article concludes with a case vignette that illustrates some of its points.

  3. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Peyman

    2016-04-01

    the required images were obtained from each sample.The images of infected leaves were then introduced to image processing toolbox of MATLAB software. The RGB images were converted to gray-scale. Using a suitable threshold, the leaf surface was segmented from image background and the first binary image was achieved. Leaf image with zero background pixels was obtained after multiplying the black-and-white image to original color image. The resulting image was transformed to HSV color space and the Hue color component was extracted. The final binary image was created by applying an appropriate threshold on the image that obtained from Hue color component. As there was a high color similarity between the symptoms of two diseases, it was not possible to use Hue color component to distinguish between them. Therefore the shape processing was applied. Four dimensionless morphological features such as Roundness, Aspect Ratio, Compactness and Area Ratio were extracted from stain areas and based on these features, disease type diagnosis was performed. Results and Discussion: Results showed that the proposed algorithm successfully diagnosed the diseases stains on the rice leaves. A detection accuracy of 97.4±1.4 % was achieved. Regarding the results of t-test, among the extracted shape characteristics, only in the case of Area Ratio, there was no significant difference between two disease symptoms. While in the case of Roundness, Aspect Ratio and Compactness, a highly significant difference (P<0.01 was discovered and revealed between rice blast and rice brown spot stains. The developed algorithm was capable of distinguishing between disease symptoms with an exactness of over 96.6%. This means that of the 60 samples (30 samples rice blast and 30 samples of rice brown spot; only two were placed in the wrong category. Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that image processing technique can not only accurately determine whether the rice is healthy or infected but also can

  4. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  5. Black Hole: The Interior Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2016-01-01

    The information loss paradox is often discussed from the perspective of the observers who stay outside of a black hole. However, the interior spacetime of a black hole can be rather nontrivial. We discuss the open problems regarding the volume of a black hole, and whether it plays any role in information storage. We also emphasize the importance of resolving the black hole singularity, if one were to resolve the information loss paradox.

  6. The Black Ring is Unstable

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We study non-axisymmetric linearised gravitational perturbations of the Emparan-Reall black ring using numerical methods. We find an unstable mode whose onset lies within the "fat" branch of the black ring and continues into the "thin" branch. Together with previous results using Penrose inequalities that fat black rings are unstable, this provides numerical evidence that the entire black ring family is unstable.

  7. The Origin of Flooded Rice Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rice cultivation has long been considered to have originated from seeding of annual types of wild ricesomewhere in subtropics, tropics or in the Yangtze River basin. That idea, however, contains a fatally weak point, when we consider the tremendous difficulty for primitive human to seed any cereal crop in the warm and humid climate, where weed thrives all year round. Instead of the accepted theory, we have to see a reality that vegetative propagation of edible plants is a dominant form of agriculture in such regions. The possibility is discussed that Job's tears and rice, two cereal crops unique to the region, might have been developed via vegetative propagation to obtain materials for medicine or herb tea in backyard gardens prior to cereal production. This idea is supported by the fact that rice in temperate regions is still perennial in its growth habit and that such backyard gardens with transplanted taro can still be seen from Yunnan Province of China to Laos. Thanks to detailed survey of wild rice throughout China for 1970-1980, it is now confirmed that a set of clones of wild rice exist in shallow swamps in Jiangxi Province, an area with severe winter cold. In early summer ancient farmers may have divided the sprouting buds and spread them by transplanting into flooded shallow marsh. Such way of propagation might have faster improved less productive rice through a better genetic potential for response to human interference than quick fixation in seed propagation, because vegetative parts are heterogeneous. Obviously, such a primitive manner of rice cultivation did include the essential parts of rice farming, i.e., nursery bed, transplanting in flooded field of shallow marsh like. Transfer from the primitive nursery to true nursery by seed may have later allowed rice cultivation to be extended to northern regions. In thus devised flooded cultivation there were a series of unique advantages, i.e.; continuous cropping of rice in a same plot, no soil erosion

  8. Genomic dissection of small RNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon): lessons for rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Yan, Chenghai; Gui, Yiejie; Wei, Xinghua; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Guo, Longbiao; Fan, Longjiang

    2012-11-01

    The lack of a MIRNA set and genome sequence of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has prevented us from determining the role of MIRNA genes in rice domestication. In this study, a genome, three small RNA populations and a degradome of O. rufipogon were sequenced by Illumina platform and the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated by miRNA chips. A de novo O. rufipogon genome was assembled using c. 55× coverage of raw sequencing data and a total of 387 MIRNAs were identified in the O. rufipogon genome based on c. 5.2 million unique small RNA reads from three different tissues of O. rufipogon. Of these, O. rufipogon MIRNAs, 259 were not found in the cultivated rice, suggesting a loss of these MIRNAs in the cultivated rice. We also found that 48 MIRNAs were novel in the cultivated rice, suggesting that they were potential targets of domestication selection. Some miRNAs showed significant expression differences between wild and cultivated rice, suggesting that expression of miRNA could also be a target of domestication, as demonstrated for the miR164 family. Our results illustrated that MIRNA genes, like protein-coding genes, might have been significantly shaped during rice domestication and could be one of the driving forces that contributed to rice domestication.

  9. Transporters of arsenite in rice and their role in arsenic accumulation in rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian Feng; Yamaji, Naoki; Mitani, Namiki; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Su, Yu-Hong; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2008-07-22

    Arsenic poisoning affects millions of people worldwide. Human arsenic intake from rice consumption can be substantial because rice is particularly efficient in assimilating arsenic from paddy soils, although the mechanism has not been elucidated. Here we report that two different types of transporters mediate transport of arsenite, the predominant form of arsenic in paddy soil, from the external medium to the xylem. Transporters belonging to the NIP subfamily of aquaporins in rice are permeable to arsenite but not to arsenate. Mutation in OsNIP2;1 (Lsi1, a silicon influx transporter) significantly decreases arsenite uptake. Furthermore, in the rice mutants defective in the silicon efflux transporter Lsi2, arsenite transport to the xylem and accumulation in shoots and grain decreased greatly. Mutation in Lsi2 had a much greater impact on arsenic accumulation in shoots and grain in field-grown rice than Lsi1. Arsenite transport in rice roots therefore shares the same highly efficient pathway as silicon, which explains why rice is efficient in arsenic accumulation. Our results provide insight into the uptake mechanism of arsenite in rice and strategies for reducing arsenic accumulation in grain for enhanced food safety.

  10. Simultaneous rough rice drying and rice bran stabilization using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new rice drying method by using IR heating followed by tempering. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M206) samples with different initial moisture contents (IMCs) were used in this study. The samples were dried for one- and two-passes by using a catalyt...

  11. Characteristics of Resistance to Rice Sheath Blight of Zhongda 2, a Transgenic Rice Line as Modified by Gene "RC24"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hong-xu; XU Xin-ping; ZHANG Jian-zhong; GUO Jian-fu; LI Bao-jian

    2004-01-01

    The transgenic rice, Zhongda 2, which was genetically modified from an indica rice line Zhuxian B by rice chitinase gene (RC24), had high resistance to rice sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) in laboratory and a two-year field experiment. The pathogen could invade sheath of Zhongda 2 and induce symptoms of the disease. No difference was noted in time of penetration or incubation period between Zhongda 2 and non-transgenic rice control, Zhuxian B, but the hyphae lysate could be observed earlier five non-transgenic rice lines showed higher resistance than donor non-transgenic parents, but the resistance was different along with the different maternal parents.

  12. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  13. Simulations of coalescing black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    We describe the methods and results of numerical simulations of coalescing black holes. The simulation in dynamical spacetime covers the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases. We analyze the emission of gravitational waves and properties of a black hole being the merger product. We discuss the results in the context of astrophysical environment of black holes that exist in the Universe.

  14. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  15. "Exotic" black holes with torsion

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In the context of three-dimensional gravity with torsion, the concepts of standard and "exotic" Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes are generalized by going over to black holes with torsion. This approach provides a unified insight into thermodynamics of black holes, with or without torsion.

  16. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  17. Expressing the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc increased flavonoid content in the seed of white pericarp rice and purple pericarp rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y E; Wang, X; Shen, Z W; Xu, Y; Li, J Y

    2013-11-01

    The colour of red, purple, brown and white occurs in pericarp of rice. Here, the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the promoter of the rice glutelin gene Gt1 was introduced in the white pericarp rice "Chao2-10" and purple pericarp rice "Qingjiaozidao". The results demonstrated that some transgenic "Chao2-10" rice pericarps became brown, and the total flavonoid contents in the unpolished rice of the two transgenic rices increased significantly compared with their respective controls. Unpolished rice kernel thickness and weight in the two transgenic rices decreased slightly.

  18. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  19. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  20. Rotating regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this letter, we apply the Newman-Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type ...

  1. Celebrity-black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2015-01-01

    troubled by Joof’s performances during the telethon show, which was split between performing the figure of ‘the African woman’ and Danish ‘cultural insiderness’. The article concludes that unlike the US context where the category of ‘black celebrity’ has been analysed as connecting to a particular social...

  2. Moulting Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2012-03-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no black holes were thought to exist.

  3. Rotating regular black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn; Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: lmodesto@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-04-25

    The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this Letter, we apply the Newman–Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer–Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type D, they are singularity free, but they violate the weak energy condition for a non-vanishing spin and their curvature invariants have different values at r=0 depending on the way one approaches the origin. We propose a natural prescription to have rotating solutions with a minimal violation of the weak energy condition and without the questionable property of the curvature invariants at the origin.

  4. Twistors and Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neitzke, A.; Pioline, B.; Vandoren, S.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by black hole physics in N = 2,D = 4 supergravity, we study the geometry of quaternionic-K¨ahler manifolds Mobtained by the c-map construction from projective special Kähler manifolds Ms. Improving on earlier treatments, we compute the Käahler potentials on the twistor space Z and Swann sp

  5. Rotating black hole hair

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Ruth; Wills, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that a such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner--Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: Large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is con...

  6. Comparison of Ileal Digested Production of Parental Rice and Rice Genetically Modified With Cowpeas Trypsin Inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in parental rice and rice genetically modified with sck gene. Methods Six experimental swines were surgically fixed with a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum and fed with parental rice and rice genetically modified with sck gene alternately. The ileum digesta were collected and analyzed for determination of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids. Results The apparent and true digestibility of protein was similar in these two types of rice. Except for the apparent digestibility of lysine, there was no difference in the apparent and true digestibility of the other 17 amino acids. Conclusion The digestibility of protein and amino acids is not changed by the insertion of foreign gene, so it can meet the request of "substantial equivalence" in digestibility of protein and amino acids.

  7. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  8. Evidence for Non-Transmission of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV through Rice Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy, AA.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An indexing of the organs (radicle and plumule and components (husk, endosperm and embryo of rice seeds using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was carried out to detect Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV and establish the exact location of the virus in the rice seed. RYMV was detected only in the husk (seed coat but not in the endosperm, plumule, radicle, nor embryo. None of the seedlings raised from the seeds expressed RYMV symptoms. No virus particle was detected by the ELISA test in the leaves of the screenhouse-reared plants obtained from seeds of infected plants. The results indicate that RYMV is apparently not transmitted through rice seed probably because the virus is seed-borne in the husk (seed coat of mature rice seeds.

  9. Uruguayan rice (Oritza sativa L. oils characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rodríguez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The rice crop is one of the most developed agricultural activities in Uruguay, having become the third item of export. Although the main product of the rice chain is the elaborated rice, in the recent years several industries have begun to produce co-products of rice: crude rice oil and refined oil, rice flour and cookies. The production of crude oil begins with ground, peeled and polished rice grain. This product can be used in animal nourishment or in oil extraction. Refinement from the crude rice oil takes the same steps than any other vegetable oil. As any other vegetable oil, rice oil is very prone to oxidation, this is due to the high percentage of polyinsaturated acids, despite the vitamin E content and its role of antioxidant. Therefore, sometimes additional stabilization is needed. The main purpose of this work is to characterize the Uruguayan Rice Oils by determining the following parameters: profile of fatty acids, alpha tocopherol, Iodine Index, Refraction Index, Saponification Index, Unsaponifiable Matter and Density at 20ºC. The Norm used as reference was the American Oil Chemistry Society. In this condition the statistical analysis performed shows that there is not a model that could explain the variability of the studied factors nor reduce the number of factors that must be taken into consideration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, performed according to Lillieford correction to verify normality, showed that distribution of fluctuations that correspond to the three most abundant fatty acids studied (16:0, 18:1 and 18:2 can be considered as normal. The obtained values for the insaturated fatty acids were from15.6 to18.2 for 16:0, from 42.1 to 43.8 for 18:1 and from 34.8 to 37.4 for 18:2. These results obtained were correlated with the high values of the Iodine Index: 100.6 - 101.8. Results of vitamin E expressed as alpha tocopherol are between 7 and 35 mg/100g, but in 75% of the cases the results oscillated between 18 and 26 mg/100g

  10. Black Strings, Black Rings and State-space Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    State-space geometry is considered, for diverse three and four parameter non-spherical horizon rotating black brane configurations, in string theory and $M$-theory. We have explicitly examined the case of unit Kaluza-Klein momentum $D_1D_5P$ black strings, circular strings, small black rings and black supertubes. An investigation of the state-space pair correlation functions shows that there exist two classes of brane statistical configurations, {\\it viz.}, the first category divulges a degenerate intrinsic equilibrium basis, while the second yields a non-degenerate, curved, intrinsic Riemannian geometry. Specifically, the solutions with finitely many branes expose that the two charged rotating $D_1D_5$ black strings and three charged rotating small black rings consort real degenerate state-space manifolds. Interestingly, arbitrary valued $M_5$-dipole charged rotating circular strings and Maldacena Strominger Witten black rings exhibit non-degenerate, positively curved, comprehensively regular state-space con...

  11. Study on the black fungus nutrient powder%黑木耳营养粉的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李次力; 张月团; 王润生

    2011-01-01

    New product rich in nutrients was developed based on black fungus and sticky rice,the optimal technology and formulation were determined. The optiaml extrusion technology was determined through orthogonal experiment,which was as follows,ratio of black fungus to sticky rice was 1∶ 1,glycerel monostearte was 1. 0%,the grinding granularity of black fungus was 40 sieve. The optimal formulation of the nutrient powder was as follows:extruded black fungus powder 50%,sugar 40%,baked black sesame 10%,ethyl maltol 0. 75%.%以黑木耳和糯米为主要原料,经挤压与调配工艺,研制出一种营养丰富的食品,确定了工艺条件和配方。实验采用正交实验方法,得出挤压工艺条件为:木耳与糯米的比例为1∶1,单甘酯添加量为1.0%,木耳的粉碎粒度为40目。以挤压膨化的黑木耳为主料,得到黑木耳营养粉配方为:黑木耳膨化物粉末50%,白砂糖40%,烤熟的黑芝麻10%,乙基麦芽酚0.75%。

  12. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N2O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH4 and N2O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N2O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect.

  13. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, M.; Kusdiyantini, E.; Wuryanti, W.; Winarni, T. A.; Widyanto, S. A.; Muharam, H.

    2015-06-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog.

  14. Silicon-mediated resistance in a susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Han

    Full Text Available The rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée, is one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries. Rice varieties resistant to the rice leaf folder are generally characterized by high silicon content. In this study, silicon amendment, at 0.16 and 0.32 g Si/kg soil, enhanced resistance of a susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder. Silicon addition to rice plants at both the low and high rates significantly extended larval development and reduced larval survival rate and pupation rate in the rice leaf folder. When applied at the high rate, silicon amendment reduced third-instars' weight gain and pupal weight. Altogether, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase and net reproduction rate of the rice leaf folder population were all reduced at both the low and high silicon addition rates. Although the third instars consumed more in silicon-amended treatments, C:N ratio in rice leaves was significantly increased and food conversion efficiencies were reduced due to increased silicon concentration in rice leaves. Our results indicate that reduced food quality and food conversion efficiencies resulted from silicon addition account for the enhanced resistance in the susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder.

  15. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China.

  16. Evaluating Welfare Effects of Rice Import Quota in Japan: Based on Measuring Non-Tariff Barriers of SBS Rice Imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhui Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this study is to analyze welfare effects of Japan’s rice import quota focusing on the simultaneous buy and sell (SBS of the rice importation minimum access (MA policy. Based on the utility function specified in this study, the constructed model is adopted to measure consumption patterns through estimating elasticity of substitution between imported rice and Japan’s domestic rice, and consumers’ preference parameters for different kinds of rice. The results showed that Japanese households prefer domestic rice to the imported rice. Besides, three scenarios of adjusting rice quota volumes were carried out to examine the changes in consumer prices of imported rice and Japanese consumers’ welfares. The results revealed that tariff equivalents of the SBS import quota almost doubled the scale of the mark-up, and the intervention by the Ministry of Agriculture of Japan did cause non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs. Finally, if the SBS rice quota quantity was fixed at or larger than 180 thousand tons every fiscal year, the consumer prices of imported rice in Japan’s market would decrease to be less than the prices of Japan’s domestic rice, and therefore the imported rice would have more price advantages in this scenario.

  17. Screening for Rice Germplasms with Specially-Elongated Mesocotyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ming-guo; ZHANG Guang-heng; LIN Jian-rong; CHENG Shi-hua

    2005-01-01

    The lengths of mesocotyl in the seedlings of 84 lowland rice varieties and 12 upland rice varieties were measured following the treatments of daylight and darkness during germination. The elongation of mesocotyl in the varieties tested was inhibited under daylight condition, and the mesocotyl of all the varieties elongated variably under darkness condition. The elongated lengths of the mesocotyl in upland rice, ranging from 0.36 cm to 1.61 cm with an average of 0.81 cm, was obviously longer than those in lowland rice, ranging from 0.12 cm to 1.56 cm with an average of 0.42 cm. Among 14 rice varieties with over 1 cm of mesocotyl length, five belonged to upland rice, and nine to lowland rice. The possible utilization of the elongated-mesocotyl rice germplasm in varietal improvement, direct-seeded planting and seed purity testing were discussed.

  18. NEWS:Introduction of Brazil upland rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINantian

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the government of Brazil presented nine crop varieties to China. One of them is Brazil upland rice IAPAR9. It was evaluated for commercial usage in China by China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI).

  19. Fisheries Management Plan: Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge provides a sport fishery on three of the four refuge lakes. Fishing is restricted to designated areas. Rice Lake, though not open...

  20. Neolithic rice paddy from the Zhaojiazhuang site, Shandong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To identify and study the Neolithic rice paddy in Shandong, eastern China, is not only an important issue in the development of Chinese rice agriculture, but also a key part of the study on rice spread in East Asia. Due to the limitation of archaeological materials and the research methods, there have been no discoveries about the Neolithic rice paddy in Shandong Province for a long time. Based on the identification of possible rice paddy by archaeological excavation, phytolith analysis of soil samples from this "paddy" has been systematically carried out and the results have shown a 4600-4300 years old rice paddy preserved at the Zhaojiazhuang site. This is the first examination and study of the rice paddy in North China by systematic phytolith analysis, which is very important for the Neolithic archaeological research and the study of the eastward spread of rice agricultural techniques in East Asia.

  1. Improving Drought Tolerance of Rice by Designed QTL Pyramiding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.K. Li; Y. Sun; L.H. Zhu; D. Dwivedi; Y.M. Gao; T.Q. Zheng; R. Lafitte; J.L. Xu; D. Mackill; B.Y. Fu; J.Domingo

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drought is the most important factor limiting rice yields in the rainfed areas of Asia. To overcome the problem, we developed a new strategy 'designed QTL pyramiding' to more efficiently develop drought tolerant (DT)rice cultivars.

  2. Status and Prospects of Hybrid Rice Breeding in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cai-lin

    2005-01-01

    Research on hybrid rice in Jiangsu Province, China began in 1970. Great progress has been made since then, which can be divided into three stages according to the development of hybrid rice breeding and production in Jiangsu Province. The first stage was beginning stage from 1970 to 1980, when progress was mainly made in cytoplasmic male sterile line breeding. The second stage could be described as developing stage, from 1980 to 1995, when indica hybrid rice was rapidly popularized, and japonica hybrid rice became popular later. From 1996, hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province entered the third stage, when both indica and japonica hybrid rice breeding in the three-line system or intersubspecific hybrid rice breeding in the two-line system made a great breakthrough with the successful breeding of the hybrids Teyou 559, 9 You 138 and Liangyoupeijiu. The developing trend of hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province is also discussed.

  3. Growth of Primordial Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomohiro

    Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.

  4. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  5. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  6. Basmati Rice Fraud under the Magnifying Glass of DNA Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridez, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Basmati rice is a perfumed rice of high commercial value which is easily adulterated. A list of rice varieties accepted as true Basmati is the subject of an agreement between Europe, Pakistan and India. Each rice variety can be characterized by DNA profiling, thus offering to the control authorities a powerful tool to detect fraud. Mixtures of authentic Basmati and non-Basmati varieties can be quantified. During the last six years, about one third of the analysed samples proved to be fraudulent.

  7. Natural conditions and cropping regionalization of rice area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUXianzhang

    1994-01-01

    The formation of rice distribution is based on certain natural ecological conditions and social economic environments. In China, rice cropping is distributed in a vast area extending across 5 temperature belts, the northernmost of rice growing area in the world being in China. Distribution of rice cropping is characterized by a gradual decrease from south to north, from large and concentrated regions in Southeast to small and separated areasin Northwest.

  8. Philosophical Issues of Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gustavo E

    2014-01-01

    Black holes are extremely relativistic objects. Physical processes around them occur in a regime where the gravitational field is extremely intense. Under such conditions, our representations of space, time, gravity, and thermodynamics are pushed to their limits. In such a situation philosophical issues naturally arise. In this chapter I review some philosophical questions related to black holes. In particular, the relevance of black holes for the metaphysical dispute between presentists and eternalists, the origin of the second law of thermodynamics and its relation to black holes, the problem of information, black holes and hypercomputing, the nature of determinisim, and the breakdown of predictability in black hole space-times. I maintain that black hole physics can be used to illuminate some important problems in the border between science and philosophy, either epistemology and ontology.

  9. Effect of waxy rice flour and cassava starch on freeze-thaw stability of rice starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Preechathammawong, Nutsuda

    2012-10-01

    Repeatedly frozen and thawed rice starch gel affects quality. This study investigated how incorporating waxy rice flour (WF) and cassava starch (CS) in rice starch gel affects factors used to measure quality. When rice starch gels containing 0-2% WF and CS were subjected to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, both WF and CS reduced the syneresis in first few cycles. However CS was more effective in reducing syneresis than WF. The different composite arrangement of rice starch with WF or CS caused different mechanisms associated with the rice starch gel retardation of retrogradation, reduced the spongy structure and lowered syneresis. Both swollen granules of rice starch and CS caused an increase in the hardness of the unfrozen and freeze-thawed starch gel while highly swollen WF granules caused softer gels. These results suggested that WF and CS were effective in preserving quality in frozen rice starch based products.

  10. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E

    2014-08-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.001). However, rice percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion.

  11. Taste of Super-Dwarf Rice Cultured in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-01

    The interest of food production for lunar base and manned Mars mission has increased recently. So far, plants cultured long duration in space were leafy vegetables, arabidopsis, wheat, barley and so on. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. Rice symbolizes the rice-eating culture of Japan, is extremely useful as a specific cultured plant candidate of Japan in space. In the previous report, 'Kozo-no-sumika' found from seedlings in raising of seedling was introduced as a super-dwarf rice to culture in space. Considering this rice as food in space, we investigate the taste characteristics of this rice. At present, waxy 'Kozo-no-sumika' and nonwaxy 'Hosetsu dwarf' of super-dwarf rice and 'Nipponbare' of previous standard rice for sensory test are cultured in paddy field. Hereafter, we will harvest rice, investigate yield, evaluate taste.

  12. New technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUPeiliang

    1994-01-01

    After 8 yrs lab experiments and field tests, an advanced technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast was developed by a research group in Plant Protection Institute, Zhejiang Academy of AgricuLltural Sciences. With this technique, the inoculum was prepared on a maizc-rice-straw-agar media which was suitable for sporulation of most rice blast pathogen isolates.

  13. Upland rice yield as affected by Brachiaria coverage management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano S. Nascente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important point in no-tillage system is the time between cover crop glyphosate desiccation and rice sowing. This study aimed to verify the effect of Brachiaria ruziziensis management time before rice sowing on rice yield and its components. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions and consisted of four types of B. ruziziensis management: with Brachiaria and with herbicide (WBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and with herbicide (NBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and without herbicide (NBNH, and with Brachiaria and without herbicide (WBNH, at four times: 30, 20, 10, and 0 days, preceding the rice sowing. The amount of B. ruziziensis dry matter increased as the management was done closer to the rice sowing date. The WBWH and WBNH managements (this one causes the lowest rice grain yield must be done 30 days before rice sowing; while NBWH management must be done ten or more days before rice sowing. On the other hand, NBNH management (this one favors the best rice grain yield can be done until rice sowing day. Despite some reduction in rice yield caused by the B. ruziziensis management, when it was done at the proper time the rice grain yield was similar to the control (without Brachiaria sowing and without herbicide application.

  14. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Determination of Lead in White Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherryl M. Montalbo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the heavy metal content of rice from various parts of the world have alarmed rice-eating nations, including the Philippines. In 2013, Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice reported that rice in the Philippines needs to be evaluated to determine whether these contain heavy metals such as lead. This research aimed to assess the presence of lead in the three highest selling rice varieties harvested in Oriental Mindoro and sold in Batangas City public markets. It was done to asses if the lead concentration in the raw and cooked rice samples conform to the maximum acceptable level in food established by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA Program Codex Alimentarius Commission. Survey analysis showed that the three highest selling rice varieties during the period when this study was conducted were Sinandomeng, Dinorado and C-4 Dinorado respectively. Lead analysis of rice samples was carried out using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The lead content in both the raw and cooked rice samples were not detected, meaning that the lead concentration were either not present or may be present but is less than the detection limit of the instrument used. The lead concentration in the rice samples from Oriental Mindoro conformed to the standards for food safety for lead content in rice, which is 0.2 mg/kg or 0.2 ppm, set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

  15. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  16. Increasing yield potential of hybrid rice through molecular breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Qiyun; Yuan Longping; Liang Fengshan; Zhuang Wen; Li Jiming; Wang Yueguang; Duan Meijuan; Xiong Yuedong; Wang Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world population. The utilization of the wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in 1970s has significantly raised rice yield potential. But the world's annual rice production will have to increase 70 percent over the next 30 years, to keep up with the demends of the growing population.

  17. An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Scott; Maberly, Glen F

    2014-09-01

    Rice is the staple food for over half the world's population. Approximately 480 million metric tons of milled rice is produced annually. China and India alone account for ∼50% of the rice grown and consumed. Rice provides up to 50% of the dietary caloric supply for millions living in poverty in Asia and is, therefore, critical for food security. It is becoming an important food staple in both Latin America and Africa. Record increases in rice production have been observed since the start of the Green Revolution. However, rice remains one of the most protected food commodities in world trade. Rice is a poor source of vitamins and minerals, and losses occur during the milling process. Populations that subsist on rice are at high risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency. Improved technologies to fortify rice have the potential to address these deficiencies and their associated adverse health effects. With the rice industry consolidating in many countries, there are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice for distribution or for use in government safety net programs that target those most in need, especially women and children. Multisectoral approaches are needed for the promotion and implementation of rice fortification in countries.

  18. Registration of 'RU9101001'/'Katy' recombinant inbred lines of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cross of RU9101001/'Katy' rice (Oryza sativa L.) was used to develop a mapping population consisting of 238 F9 generation recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) (GSOR100361 to GSOR100600). This population has been used to map major genes that provide resistance to the rice blast pat...

  19. Persistence and metabolism of imidacloprid in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoijam, Romila; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-05-01

    Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide which gives effective control of plant and leaf hoppers in rice. The persistence and metabolism of imidacloprid in paddy leaves, rice grains, bran, straw and husk were studied following two applications of imidacloprid (Confidor 17.8 SL) @ 20 and 80 g a.i. ha(-1) at an interval of 10 days. Samples of paddy leaves were collected at various time intervals. The samples of rice grains, bran, straw and husk were collected at the time of harvest. The limit of quantification of imidacloprid and its metabolites was worked out to be 0.01 mg kg(-1). The maximum residues of imidacloprid and its metabolites in paddy leaves after 0 day (1 h after last spray) of its application @ 20 and 80 g a.i. ha(-1) were found to be 4.57 and 13.94 mg kg(-1), respectively. These residues could not be detected after 60 and 90 days following last application of imidacloprid at lower and higher dosages, respectively. In rice, olefin metabolite was found to be the main constituent, followed by nitroguanidine, urea, 5-hydroxy, chloronicotinic acid and nitrosimine. The samples of rice grains, bran, straw and husk did not reveal the presence of imidacloprid or its metabolites following its application at both the dosages at harvest.

  20. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  1. Production of a saccharifying rice malt for brewing using different rice varieties and malting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Heidi; Marconi, Ombretta; Regnicoli, Gian Franco; Perretti, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2014-06-11

    This study was conducted to produce rice malt suitable for beer brewing. An all-rice beer would be particularly appealing to individuals with celiac disease because rice does not contain gluten proteins. Furthermore, rice malt could also contribute to new beer flavors and brands. A screening of 10 rice varieties was conducted. The varieties Balilla and Centauro were found to be suitable for the production of an all-rice malt beer without the need of exogenous enzymes. They were characterized by a low diastatic power but nevertheless they saccharified well, likely due to other endogenous amylolytic enzymes such as limit dextrinase and α-glucosidase. The addition of CaCl2 and lactic acid during mashing lowered the pH value and increased saccharification. However, the Balilla variety saccharified without the need of these additives. We also show that the soluble nitrogen and free amino nitrogen content of rice malt wort can be increased by the incorporation of the acrospires and rootlets during mashing.

  2. Manually Curated Database of Rice Proteins (MCDRP, a database of digitized experimental data on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Raghuvanshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available MCDRP or ‘Manually Curated Database of Rice Proteins’ is a database of digitized experimental datasets on rice proteins. Every aspect of the experimental data published in peer-reviewed research articles on rice biology has been digitized with the help of novel data curation models. These models use a semantic and structured arrangement of alpha-numeric notation, including several well known ontologies, to represent various aspect of the data. As a result data from more than 15,000 different experiments pertaining to about 2400 rice proteins has been digitized from over 540 published and peer-reviewed research articles. The database portal provides access to the digitized experimental data via search or browse functions. In essence, one can instantly access data from even a single data-point from a collection of thousands of the experimental datasets. On the other hand, one can easily access the digitized experimental data from multiple research articles on a rice protein. Based on the analysis and integration of the digitized experimental data, more than 800 different traits (molecular, biochemical or phenotypic have been precisely mapped onto the rice proteins along with the underlying experimental evidences. Similarly, over 4370 associations, based on experimental evidence, have been established between the rice proteins and various gene ontology terms. The database is being continuously updated and is freely available at www.genomeindia.org.in/biocuration.

  3. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-wei SHI; Yan HE; Xiang-hua JI; Ming-xing JIANG; Jia-an CHENG

    2008-01-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Knsehel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest office Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepi-doptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 24 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated nega-tively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

  4. RICD: A rice indica cDNA database resource for rice functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qifa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oryza sativa L. indica subspecies is the most widely cultivated rice. During the last few years, we have collected over 20,000 putative full-length cDNAs and over 40,000 ESTs isolated from various cDNA libraries of two indica varieties Guangluai 4 and Minghui 63. A database of the rice indica cDNAs was therefore built to provide a comprehensive web data source for searching and retrieving the indica cDNA clones. Results Rice Indica cDNA Database (RICD is an online MySQL-PHP driven database with a user-friendly web interface. It allows investigators to query the cDNA clones by keyword, genome position, nucleotide or protein sequence, and putative function. It also provides a series of information, including sequences, protein domain annotations, similarity search results, SNPs and InDels information, and hyperlinks to gene annotation in both The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB and The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource, expression atlas in RiceGE and variation report in Gramene of each cDNA. Conclusion The online rice indica cDNA database provides cDNA resource with comprehensive information to researchers for functional analysis of indica subspecies and for comparative genomics. The RICD database is available through our website http://www.ncgr.ac.cn/ricd.

  5. Effect of polishing and cooking on the antioxidant activities of local rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnaini, Rahmah Mastura; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    The effect of polishing and cooking on the antioxidant activities of local rice was studied. Brown rice was polished to 2%, 4% and 6% of polishing degree using embryo rice machine to produce three levels of embryo rice. All rice sample (brown rice, embryo rice 1 (2%), embryo rice 2 (4%), embryo rice 3 (6%) and white rice) were cooked using electric rice cooker. The raw and cooked rice samples were analyzed for antioxidant by total phenolic content (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Polishing degree and cooking treatment showed significant (p≤ 0.05) effects on both antioxidant activities (TPC, FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging values) of the raw and cooked rice samples. Results showed that raw brown rice and raw embryo rice 1 were significantly higher than the other type of rice samples for TPC and FRAP values. In DPPH radical scavenging activities, raw brown rice had the highest value while white rice indicated the otherwise. Cooked brown rice demonstrated significantly higher of FRAP values (p≤ 0.05) than embryo rice 1, followed by embryo rice 2, embryo rice 3 and white rice. No significant differences were observed either between TPC values of cooked brown rice and cooked embryo rice 1 or between the DPPH radical scavenging values of cooked embryo rice 2 and cooked embryo rice 3. High positive correlations were determined between TPC, FRAP and DPPH assays (R2 > 0.70) of the samples. In overall, moderate level of antioxidant activities were detected in the raw and cooked rice samples.

  6. Market Impacts of Adopting Herbicide-Resistant Rice in the Southern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Frank H.; Annou, Mamane Malam; Wailes, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant (HR) rice varieties offer U.S. rice producers a powerful tool for control of red rice infestations. However, improved weed control can shorten crop rotations and boost yields, resulting in expanded rice production and lower domestic market prices. Declining market returns diminish the benefits of HR rice adoption and substantially reduce net returns for nonadopters. More competitive prices increase U.S. rice exports, causing a slight decline in world rice prices. The depen...

  7. Optical black hole lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Faccio, Daniele; Lamperti, Marco; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Using numerical simulations we show how to realise an optical black hole laser, i.e. an amplifier formed by travelling refractive index perturbations arranged so as to trap light between a white and a black hole horizon. The simulations highlight the main features of these lasers: the growth inside the cavity of positive and negative frequency modes accompanied by a weaker emission of modes that occurs in periodic bursts corresponding to the cavity round trips of the trapped modes. We then highlight a new regime in which the trapped mode spectra broaden until the zero-frequency points on the dispersion curve are reached. Amplification at the horizon is highest for zero-frequencies, therefore leading to a strong modification of the structure of the trapped light. For sufficiently long propagation times, lasing ensues only at the zero-frequency modes.

  8. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  9. Presentism meets black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gustavo E

    2014-01-01

    Presentism is, roughly, the metaphysical doctrine that maintains that whatever exists, exists in the present. The compatibility of presentism with the theories of special and general relativity was much debated in recent years. It has been argued that at least some versions of presentism are consistent with time-orientable models of general relativity. In this paper we confront the thesis of presentism with relativistic physics, in the strong gravitational limit where black holes are formed. We conclude that the presentist position is at odds with the existence of black holes and other compact objects in the universe. A revision of the thesis is necessary, if it is intended to be consistent with the current scientific view of the universe.

  10. Mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields: Possible adverse effects of incorporated rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, R. L.; Fisher, F. M.; Harcombe, P. A.; Turner, F. T.

    1991-09-01

    Increased world demand for rice production may lead to an increase in methane emission to the atmosphere and future global warming. One suggested way to reduce methane emission is to discourage the practice of incorporating previous crop residue prior to planting rice, since the residue may enhance methane emission from flooded rice fields. This concept is supported by data from a 2-year study of flooded rice fields on two different soil types in Texas. In 1990, rice stubble from 1989 was incorporated into both soils. Seasonal methane emission from a Lake Charles clay field increased from 15.9 g m-2 in 1989 to 31.0 g m-2 in 1990. In the Beaumont clay field, seasonal methane emission increased from 4.5 to 11.4 g m-2. While methane emission increased between 1989 and 1990, grain yield dropped by 2100 and 840 kg ha-1 in the Lake Charles and Beaumont fields, respectively. Visual inspection at harvest indicated that the 1990 rice yield decrease resulted from grain abortion, presumably caused by the rice cultivar's sensitivity to soil anaerobiosis. The calculated amount of organic carbon not translocated to grain was comparable to the estimated amount of organic carbon required for the increased methane emission. We hypothesize that labile carbon in straighthead susceptible rice cultivars can "leak" from roots damaged by excessively anaerobic soil and be metabolized to its equivalent in methane. These data suggest that minimizing incorporation of crop residue prior to planting can decrease methane emission from flooded rice and reduce the potential for yield loss, particularly with some cultivars and in soils with low rates of seepage and percolation.

  11. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    mediation role between African governments and their private creditors. 123 France in Black Africa To further complicate matters, France herself is...34La coop6ration Franco-Ivoirienne, annde 1986," Mission de Cooperation et d’Action Culturelle , Ambassade de France en C6te D’Ivoire, Abidjan, 1987, p. 8...Ministry in "La France et l’Afrique: Etude des relations Franco-Africaines politiques, finan- cires, economiques, commerciales et culturelles ," Paris, 1984

  12. Black Hair is Beautiful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    On June 9, the 1994 ⅩⅢ Asian Make-up and Hairstyling Competition was held in Beijing. More than 200 contestants from 12 countries and regions across Asia participated. The competition is now considered the largest and most prestigious exchange activity in Asian beauty and hair circles. Black Hair is Beautiful" was the theme of this competition, which stressed Asian physical characteristics and aesthetics.

  13. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    ? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  14. Life Inside Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav

    2013-11-01

    It is considered the test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside the black hole (BH), which are stable, periodic and neither come out the BH nor terminate at the central singularity. Interiors of the supermassive BHs may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on the planets with the third kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of BHs by observing their white hole counterparts.

  15. Noncommutative Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bastos, C; Dias, N C; Prata, J N

    2010-01-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  16. Evolutionary and social consequences of introgression of nontransgenic herbicide resistance from rice to weedy rice in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merotto, Aldo; Goulart, Ives C G R; Nunes, Anderson L; Kalsing, Augusto; Markus, Catarine; Menezes, Valmir G; Wander, Alcido E

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have expressed concerns about the effects of gene flow from transgenic herbicide-resistant crops to their wild relatives, but no major problems have been observed. This review describes a case study in which what has been feared in transgenics regarding gene flow has actually changed biodiversity and people's lives. Nontransgenic imidazolinone-resistant rice (IMI-rice) cultivars increased the rice grain yield by 50% in southern Brazil. This increase was beneficial for life quality of the farmers and also improved the regional economy. However, weedy rice resistant to imidazolinone herbicides started to evolve three years after the first use of IMI-rice cultivars. Population genetic studies indicate that the herbicide-resistant weedy rice was mainly originated from gene flow from resistant cultivars and distributed by seed migration. The problems related with herbicide-resistant weedy rice increased the production costs of rice that forced farmers to sell or rent their land. Gene flow from cultivated rice to weedy rice has proven to be a large agricultural, economic, and social constraint in the use of herbicide-resistant technologies in rice. This problem must be taken into account for the development of new transgenic or nontransgenic rice technologies.

  17. 76 FR 78021 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar Energy Project (RSEP) and California Desert Conservation Area Plan Amendment, California...: Rice Solar Energy, LLC, a subsidiary of SolarReserve, LLC plans to construct a 150 megawatt (MW)...

  18. Acid diffusion into rice boluses is influenced by rice type, variety, and presence of α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennah-Govela, Yamile A; Bornhorst, Gail M; Singh, R Paul

    2015-02-01

    Breakdown of rice during gastric digestion may be influenced by rice structure, presence of salivary α-amylase, and hydrolysis by gastric acid. During mastication, saliva is mixed with rice, allowing α-amylase to begin starch hydrolysis. This hydrolysis may continue in the gastric environment depending on the rate at which gastric acid penetrates into the rice bolus. The objective of this study was to determine the acid uptake into rice boluses with and without α-amylase in saliva. Two types each of brown and white rice (medium and long grain), were formed into a cylindrical-shaped bolus. Each bolus was sealed on all sides except one to allow one-dimensional mass transfer, and incubated by immersion in simulated gastric juice at 37 °C under static conditions. Acidity of the boluses was measured by titration after 1 to 96 h of incubation. Effective diffusivity of the gastric juice through the bolus was estimated using MATLAB. Average acidity values ranged from 0.04 mg HCl/g dry matter (medium grain white rice, no incubation) to 10.01 mg HCl/g dry matter (long-grain brown rice, 72 h incubation). The rice type, presence of α-amylase, and incubation time all significantly influenced rice bolus acidity (P starch hydrolysis by α-amylase may continue in the stomach before the gastric acid penetrates the rice bolus, and the rate of acid uptake will depend on the type of rice consumed.

  19. Black Holes and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Samir D

    2012-01-01

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome `remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a `fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates ...

  20. Slowly balding black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    The "no hair" theorem, a key result in General Relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the "no hair" theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes $N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar)$, where $\\Phi_\\infty \\approx 2 \\pi^2 B_{NS} R_{NS}^3 /(P_{\\rm NS} c)$ is the initial magnetic flux through the hemisphere...

  1. Linear dilaton black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, G; Leygnac, C; Clement, Gerard; Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Leygnac, Cedric

    2003-01-01

    We present new solutions to Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion (EMDA) gravity in four dimensions describing black holes which asymptote to the linear dilaton background. In the non-rotating case they can be obtained as the limiting geometry of dilaton black holes. The rotating solutions (possibly endowed with a NUT parameter) are constructed using a generating technique based on the Sp(4,R) duality of the EMDA system. In a certain limit (with no event horizon present) our rotating solutions coincide with supersymmetric Israel-Wilson-Perjes type dilaton-axion solutions. In presence of an event horizon supersymmetry is broken. The temperature of the static black holes is constant, and their mass does not depend on it, so the heat capacity is zero. We investigate geodesics and wave propagation in these spacetimes and find superradiance in the rotating case. Because of the non-asymptotically flat nature of the geometry, certain modes are reflected from infinity, in particular, all superradiant modes are confined. Thi...

  2. Moulting Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no b...

  3. Attractors in Black

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S; Marrani, A

    2008-01-01

    We review recent results in the study of attractor horizon geometries (with non-vanishing Bekenstein-Hawking entropy) of dyonic extremal d=4 black holes in supergravity. We focus on N=2, d=4 ungauged supergravity coupled to a number n_{V} of Abelian vector multiplets, outlining the fundamentals of the special Kaehler geometry of the vector multiplets' scalar manifold (of complex dimension n_{V}), and studying the 1/2-BPS attractors, as well as the non-BPS (non-supersymmetric) ones with non-vanishing central charge. For symmetric special Kaehler geometries, we present the complete classification of the orbits in the symplectic representation of the classical U-duality group (spanned by the black hole charge configuration supporting the attractors), as well as of the moduli spaces of non-BPS attractors (spanned by the scalars which are not stabilized at the black hole event horizon). Finally, we report on an analogous classification for N>2-extended, d=4 ungauged supergravities, in which also the 1/N-BPS attrac...

  4. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Hyun [National Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Boung-Jun [BioControl Center, Jeonnam 516-942 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ho Won, E-mail: hwjung@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Soo, E-mail: chungys@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  5. Spread of herbicide-resistant weedy rice (red rice, Oryza sativa L.) after 5 years of Clearfield rice cultivation in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busconi, M; Rossi, D; Lorenzoni, C; Baldi, G; Fogher, C

    2012-09-01

    The weedy relative of cultivated rice, red rice, can invade and severely infest rice fields, as reported by rice farmers throughout the world. Because of its close genetic relationship to commercial rice, red rice has proven difficult to control. Clearfield (Cl) varieties, which are resistant to the inhibiting herbicides in the chemical group AHAS (acetohydroxyacid synthase), provide a highly efficient opportunity to control red rice infestations. In order to reduce the risk of herbicide resistance spreading from cultivated rice to red rice, stewardship guidelines are regularly released. In Italy, the cultivation of Cl cultivars started in 2006. In 2010, surveillance of the possible escape of herbicide resistance was carried out; 168 red rice plants were sampled in 16 fields from six locations containing Cl and traditional cultivars. A first subsample of 119 plants was analysed after herbicide treatment and the resistance was found in 62 plants. Of these 119 plants, 78 plants were randomly selected and analysed at the level of the AHAS gene to search for the Cl mutation determining the resistant genotype: the Cl mutation was present in all the resistant plants. Nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers revealed a high correlation between genetic similarity and herbicide resistance. The results clearly show that Cl herbicide-resistant red rice plants are present in the field, having genetic relationships with the Cl variety. Finding plants homozygous for the mutation suggests that the crossing event occurred relatively recently and that these plants are in the F2 or later generations. These observations raise the possibility that Cl red rice is already within the cultivated rice seed supply.

  6. Moulds and mycotoxins in rice from the Swedish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlund, E; Thim, A-M; Gidlund, A; Brostedt, S; Nyberg, M; Olsen, M

    2009-04-01

    A survey of moulds and mycotoxins was performed on 99 rice samples taken from the Swedish retail market. The main objective was to study the mould and mycotoxin content in basmati rice and rice with a high content of fibre. Samples of jasmine rice as well as long-grain rice were also included. The samples were analysed for their content of ochratoxin A (high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)), aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2) (HPLC, RIDA(R)QUICK), and mould (traditional cultivation methods in combination with morphological analysis). The majority of samples were sampled according to European Commission Regulation 401/2006. Subsamples were pooled and mixed before milling and both mould and mycotoxin analyses were performed on milled rice. The results showed that the majority of basmati rice (71%) and many jasmine rice samples (20%) contained detectable levels of aflatoxin B(1) (level of quantification = 0.1 microg aflatoxin kg(-1) rice). Two samples of jasmine rice and ten basmati rice samples contained levels over the regulated European maximum limits of 2 microg kg(-1) for aflatoxin B(1) or 4 microg kg(-1) for total aflatoxins. Aspergillus was the most common mould genus isolated, but also Penicillium, Eurotium, Wallemia, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Alternaria, and Trichotecium were found. The presence of Aspergillus flavus in 21% of the samples indicates that incorrect management of rice during production and storage implies a risk of mould growth and subsequent production of aflatoxin. Rough estimates showed that high rice consumers may have an intake of 2-3 ng aflatoxin kg(-1) bodyweight and day(-1) from rice alone. This survey shows that aflatoxin is a common contaminant in rice imported to Europe.

  7. Barnyard grass-induced rice allelopathy and momilactone B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Here, we investigated chemical-mediated interaction between crop and weeds. Allelopathic activity of rice seedlings exhibited 5.3-6.3-fold increases when rice and barnyard grass seedlings were grown together, where there may be the competitive interference between rice and barnyard grass for nutrients. Barnyard grass is one of the most noxious weeds in rice cultivation. The momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings incubated with barnyard grass seedlings was 6.9-fold greater than that in rice seedlings incubated independently. Low nutrient growth conditions also increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentrations in rice seedlings. However, the increases in the low nutrient-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration were much lower than those in barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration. Root exudates of barnyard grass seedlings increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings at concentrations greater than 30 mg/L of the root exudates, and increasing the exudate concentration increased the activity and momilactone B concentration. Therefore, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice seedlings may be caused not only by nutrient competition between two species, but also by components in barnyard grass root exudates. As momilactone B shows strong allelopathic activities, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice may be due to the increased concentration of momilactone B in rice seedlings. The present research suggests that rice may respond to the presence of neighboring barnyard grass by sensing the components in barnyard grass root exudates and increasing allelopathic activity by production of elevated concentration of momilactone B. Thus, rice allelopathy may be one of the inducible defense mechanisms by chemical-mediated plant interaction between rice and barnyard grass, and the induced-allelopathy may provide a competitive advantage for

  8. Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

    OpenAIRE

    Lizandro Ciciliano Tavares; André Pich Brunes; Daniel Andrei Robe da Fonseca; Gizele Ingrid Gadotti; Lilian Madruga de Tunes; Géri Eduardo Meneghello; Antonio Carlos Souza Albuquerque Barros

    2013-01-01

    Flooded rice cultivation promotes anaerobic conditions, favoring the formation of short chain organic acids such as acetic acid, which may be toxic to the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 x 5 factorial randomized design, with two cultivars (IRGA 424 and BRS Querência), five doses of coating material (0, 2, 3,4 e 5 g kg-1 seed) and five concentrations of acetic acid (0, 3,...

  9. Non-Abelian magnetic black strings versus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present d+1 -dimensional pure magnetic Yang-Mills (YM) black strings (or 1-branes) induced by the d -dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dilaton black holes. The Born-Infeld version of the YM field makes our starting point which goes to the standard YM field through a limiting procedure. The lifting from black holes to black strings (with less number of fields) is done by adding an extra, compact coordinate. This amounts to the change of horizon topology from S^{d-2} to a product structure. Our black string in 5 dimensions is a rather special one, with uniform Hawking temperature and non-asymptotically flat structure. As the YM charge becomes large the string gets thinner to tend into a breaking point and transform into a 4-dimensional black hole.

  10. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  11. Black Holes with Skyrme Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Shiiki, N; Shiiki, Noriko; Sawado, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    This paper is intended to give a review of the recent developments on black holes with Skyrme hair. The Einstein-Skyrme system is known to possess black hole solutions with Skyrme hair. The spherically symmetric black hole skyrmion with B=1 was the first discovered counter example of the no-hair conjecture for black holes. Recently we found the B=2 axially symmetric black hole skyrmion. In this system, the black hole at the center of the skyrmion absorbs the baryon number partially, leaving fractional charge outside the horizon. Therefore the baryon number is no longer conserved. We examine the B=1, 2 black hole solutions in detail in this paper. The model has a natural extension to the gauged version which can describe monopole black hole skyrmions. Callan and Witten discussed the monopole catalysis of proton decay within the Skyrme model. We apply the idea to the Einstein-Maxwell-Skyrme system and obtain monopole black hole skyrmions. Remarkably there exist multi-black hole skyrmion solutions in which the g...

  12. How Black Are Black Hole Candidates?

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, S L; Robertson, Stanley L.; Leiter, Darryl J.

    2002-01-01

    In previous work we found that many of the spectral properties of x-ray binaries, including both galactic black hole candiates (GBHC) and neutron stars, were consistent with the existence of intrinsically magnetized central objects. Here we review and extend the observational evidence for the existence of intrinsically magnetized GBHC and show that their existence is consistent with a new class of solutions of the Einstein field equations of General Relativity. These solutions are based on a strict adherence to the Principle of Equivalence, which prevents the time-like geodesics of physical matter from becoming null on trapped surfaces of infinite red shift. The new solutions emerge from the fact that the structure and radiation transfer properties of the energy-momentum tensor on the right hand side of the Einstein field equations must have a form that is consistent with this Principle of Equivalence requirement. In this context, we show that the Einstein field equations allow the existence of highly red shi...

  13. Homestyle quick-cooking rice meal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Ma Patricia V; Basman, Irenei Camila V; Tinsay, Cathrina B; Tasarra, Christy G

    2002-01-01

    The study developed processes for quick-cooking rice meal products (QCRMP) paella and bringhe originally based on homestyle recipes. These QCRMPs consisted of basal quick-cooking waxy Malagkit Sungsong and non-waxy irrigated rice (IR) 42 Philippine rice cultivars, dehydrated vegetables, textured vegetable proteins (TVPs) as meat analogs, and seasonings. The rehydrated QCRMP paella and bringhe were found to be more acceptable than their conventionally prepared counterparts at 5% level of significance based on results of sensory acceptability evaluation by 50 consumer panelists. Improvement of the sensory attributes of the QCRMPs was ascribed to the use of alternate concentrates and powdered ingredients which imparted more intense flavors to the developed products than their fresh counterparts.

  14. Chemical Looping Combustion of Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmeet Singh Monga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic investigation of direct chemical looping combustion (CLC of rice husk is presented in this paper. Both steam and CO2 are used for gasification within the temperature range of 500–1200˚C and different amounts of oxygen carriers. Chemical equilibrium model was considered for the CLC fuel reactor. The trends in product compositions of the fuel reactor, were determined. Rice husk gasification using 3 moles H2O and 0 moles CO2 per mole carbon (in rice husk at 1 bar pressure and 900˚C was found to be the best operating point for hundred percent carbon conversion in the fuel reactor. Such detailed thermodynamic studies can be useful to design chemical looping combustion processes using different fuels.

  15. Transcriptome response to nitrogen starvation in rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongmei Cai; Yongen Lu; Weibo Xie; Tong Zhu; Xingming Lian

    2012-09-01

    Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient required for plant growth and development. Insufficient nitrogen (N) supply triggers extensive physiological and biochemical changes in plants. In this study, we used Affymetrix GeneChip rice genome arrays to analyse the dynamics of rice transcriptome under N starvation. N starvation induced or suppressed transcription of 3518 genes, representing 10.88% of the genome. These changes, mostly transient, affected various cellular metabolic pathways, including stress response, primary and secondary metabolism, molecular transport, regulatory process and organismal development. 462 or 13.1% transcripts for N starvation expressed similarly in root and shoot. Comparative analysis between rice and Arabidopsis identified 73 orthologous groups that responded to N starvation, demonstrated the existence of conserved N stress coupling mechanism among plants. Additional analysis of transcription profiles of microRNAs revealed differential expression of miR399 and miR530 under N starvation, suggesting their potential roles in plant nutrient homeostasis.

  16. Demonstrative Study of Chinese Hybrid Rice in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Thailand is the kingdom of quality rice in the world, and China is the “pilgrimage” place of hybrid rice. There is a very attractive joint in the yield pre dominance of Chinese hybrid rice and the good quality of Thai rice, which maybe start a new agro - eco nomic increasing phase. This kind of cooperation initiate between China National Hybrid Rice Research and Development Center (CNHRRDC) and Charoen Pokphand Seeds Co., Ltd. (C. P. Group) in Thailand 2001. The main results of the program are reported as follows.

  17. Practices and Prospects of Super Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The great progress in super rice breeding both in China and other countries has been made in recent years.However, there were three main problems in super rice breeding: 1) the super rice varieties were still rare; 2) most super rice varieties exhibited narrow adaptability; and 3) current breeding theories emphasized too much on the rice growth model, but they were unpractical in guidance for rice breeding. According to the authors' experience on the rice breeding, the breeding strategies including three steps (super parent breeding, super hybrid rice breeding and super hybrid rice seed production)were proposed, and the objectives of each step and the key technologies to achieve the goals were elucidated in detail. The super parent of hybrid rice should exhibit excellent performance in all agronomic traits, with the yield or sink capacity reached the level of the hybrid rice control in regional trials. The super hybrid rice combination should meet the following criteria: good rice quality, wide adaptation, lodging resistance, resistance to main insects and diseases, and the yield exceeded above 8%over the control varieties in the national and provincial regional trials. To achieve the goal, the technical strategies, such as selecting optimal combination of the parents, increasing selection pressure, paying more attention to harmony of ideal plant type, excellent physiological traits and all the agronomic traits, should be emphasized. The yield of seed production should reach 3.75 t/ha and 5.25 t/ha for the super hybrid rice combinations derived from early-season and middle-season types of male sterile lines, respectively. The main technologies for raising seed production yield included selecting optimum seed production site, using the male sterile line with large sink capacity and good outcrossing characteristics, and improving the amount of the pollen by intensive cultivation of the male parent. According to the technologies of the three-step breeding on super

  18. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  19. Rice identification at the early stage of the rice growth season with single fine quad Radarsat-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Pengbin; Shen, Kejian; Pei, Zhiyuan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether rice identification and acreage estimation accuracy at the early stage of the rice growth season using single fine quad Radarsat-2 images could meet the demand of rice monitoring. The Leizhou site (20°52'N, 110°05'E) is located in Guangdong Province in southern China and is dominated by rice paddies. There was a lack of optical data acquisitions during certain years. There are two rice growth seasons per year. Multitemporal Radarsat-2 products were acquired in the early rice growth season of 2014. First, multi-temporal backscattering coefficients and polarimetric parameters based on H/A/Alpha and Yamaguchi polarimetric decomposition theories were extracted and analyzed to distinguish between rice paddies and other typical land cover types, which could help select the optimal rice growth stage and image characteristics for early season classification. Second, an object-oriented technique was applied to time series backscattering coefficient images (HH, HV, VH, VV), H/A/Alpha images (Entropy, Anistropy and Alpha) and Yamaguchi images (volume, double-bounce, surface and helix). Based on the segmentation images, the supervised Bayes, KNN, SVM and Decision tree classifier were used to identify rice. The results indicated that in flat area, 1) Backscatter images and Yamaguchi images were better than H/A/Alpha images in the rice identification application, and 2) At the early rice growth season, the 0430-Yamaguchi image combined with the objectoriented decision tree algorithm were capable of delivering highly accurate maps of rice (0.9236), while the 0524- backscatter image combined with the object-oriented decision tree algorithm could acquire the highest classification accuracy (0.9278) at the end of the rice growth season. Jointing stage is considered to be appropriate for rice identification at the early season. The study demonstrated that it was possible to identify rice at the early season with single quad C

  20. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene conversion causes a non-reciprocal transfer of genetic information between similar sequences. Gene conversion can both homogenize genes and recruit point mutations thereby shaping the evolution of multigene families. In the rice genome, the large number of duplicated genes...... is not tightly linked to natural selection in the rice genome. To assess the contribution of segmental duplication on gene conversion statistics, we determined locations of conversion partners with respect to inter-chromosomal segment duplication. The number of conversions associated with segmentation is less...

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of UV-Induced Phenylamides from Rice Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Lin Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae. In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus. UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae, blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  2. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, price percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion.

  3. The occurrence of arthropods in processed rice products in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariana A; Heah SK; Wong AL; Ho TM

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine distribution of arthropods in processed rice products such as rice flour and rice cereal-based infant food. Methods: Random samples of rice flour and rice cereal-based infant food purchased from commercial outlets were examined for the presence of arthropods using a modified Berlese Tullgren Funnel Method. Mites were mounted prior to identification and weevils were directly identified. Results: For non-expired products, infestation was found in 6.7%of rice flour and none was found in rice cereal-based infant food samples. The arthropods found in the flour samples were Cheyletus spp., Suidasia pontifica (S. pontifica), Tarsonemus spp., Tyrophagus putrescentiae (T. putrescentiae), Sitophilus granarius (S. granarius) and Sitophilus oryzae (S. oryzae). Others which cannot be identified were Oribatid and Prostigmatid mites. The most common mites in rice flour were Tarsonemus spp. (69.1%), followed by S. pontifica (18.2%). For expired products, only one sample of rice cereal-based infant food was infested and the infestation was by mites of the family Tydeidae. Conclusions:This study demonstrates the presence of 4 allergenic species of S. pontifica, T. putrescentiae, S. granarius and S. oryzae in rice flour. These arthropods can contribute to the incidence of anaphylaxis upon consumption by atopic individuals. There was no infestation of arthropods in rice cereal-based infant food surveyed except for an expired product in a moderate rusty tin container.

  4. Genetic resources offer efficient tools for rice functional genomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Fan, Ming-Jen; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Chen, Shu; Wen, Ien-Chie; Liu, Yi-Lun; Chen, Ku-Ting; Jiang, Mirng-Jier; Lin, Ming-Kuang; Rao, Meng-Yen; Yu, Lin-Chih; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Yu, Su-May

    2016-05-01

    Rice is an important crop and major model plant for monocot functional genomics studies. With the establishment of various genetic resources for rice genomics, the next challenge is to systematically assign functions to predicted genes in the rice genome. Compared with the robustness of genome sequencing and bioinformatics techniques, progress in understanding the function of rice genes has lagged, hampering the utilization of rice genes for cereal crop improvement. The use of transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertional mutagenesis offers the advantage of uniform distribution throughout the rice genome, but preferentially in gene-rich regions, resulting in direct gene knockout or activation of genes within 20-30 kb up- and downstream of the T-DNA insertion site and high gene tagging efficiency. Here, we summarize the recent progress in functional genomics using the T-DNA-tagged rice mutant population. We also discuss important features of T-DNA activation- and knockout-tagging and promoter-trapping of the rice genome in relation to mutant and candidate gene characterizations and how to more efficiently utilize rice mutant populations and datasets for high-throughput functional genomics and phenomics studies by forward and reverse genetics approaches. These studies may facilitate the translation of rice functional genomics research to improvements of rice and other cereal crops.

  5. Residues of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole in rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teló, Gustavo Mack; Senseman, Scott Allen; Marchesan, Enio; Camargo, Edinalvo Rabaioli; Jones, Trevor; McCauley, Garry

    2015-03-04

    Thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole insecticides have been important tools for controlling pests in rice. However, food safety issues related to pesticide residues are important to consider with a food crop such as rice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole residues in rice hull, bran, and polished rice grains. The study was conducted during the 2012 cropping season at the Texas A&M Agrilife Research, David R. Wintermann Rice Research Station, near Eagle Lake, TX, USA. Rice was planted on May 5, 2012, using the cultivar 'Presidio'. Pesticide applications were performed at 5, 15, 25, and 35 days after flowering (DAF) using 1 and 2 times the recommended rate of 30 g active ingredient (ai) ha(-1) for thiamethoxam and 30 g ai ha(-1) for chlorantraniliprole. Sequentially, two treatments using the insecticides at recommended rate were applied at 5 and 25 DAF and at 5, 25, and 35 DAF. Insecticide residues were analyzed in different sample fractions: rice hull, bran, and polished rice grains. The samples were subjected to extraction using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique. Sample aliquots were analyzed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 5 × 10(-5) mg kg(-1). Residues of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole were detected in rice hull, bran, and polished rice grains, and the quantified values were greater in hull and in rice bran.

  6. Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (rice) is typically the most abundant potential food of birds in rice fields, with estimates of seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.

  7. Geometry of black hole spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Lars; Blue, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    These notes, based on lectures given at the summer school on Asymptotic Analysis in General Relativity, collect material on the Einstein equations, the geometry of black hole spacetimes, and the analysis of fields on black hole backgrounds. The Kerr model of a rotating black hole in vacuum is expected to be unique and stable. The problem of proving these fundamental facts provides the background for the material presented in these notes. Among the many topics which are relevant for the uniqueness and stability problems are the theory of fields on black hole spacetimes, in particular for gravitational perturbations of the Kerr black hole, and more generally, the study of nonlinear field equations in the presence of trapping. The study of these questions requires tools from several different fields, including Lorentzian geometry, hyperbolic differential equations and spin geometry, which are all relevant to the black hole stability problem.

  8. Studies on Rice Bran and its benefits- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sharma,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran, a by-product of rice milling industry is rich in micronutrients like oryzanols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and dietary fibers. The high nutritional profile of rice bran has not been utilized due to problems associated with lipase enzyme, which reduces the quality of rice bran and makes it unfit for human consumption. After the stabilization of lipase enzyme, it is possible to derive highly nutritious value-added products of rice bran. Due to the presence of antioxidants, it helps in lowering plasma cholesterol, decreasing serum cholesterol, decreasing cholesterol absorption and decreasing platelet aggregation. It has also been used to cure hyperlipidemia, menopause disorders and to increase the muscle mass. The most widely accepted product of rice bran is its oil that has exceptional properties as compared to other vegetable oils. This review paper describes the distinct properties of rice bran as well as its health benefits.

  9. Review on Mutation in Lateral Root of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xia; ZHANG Da; HAO Zaibin

    2011-01-01

    Rice roots include seminal roots, adventitious roots, lateral roots and root hairs, At present, progresses in the research of rice roots have been achieved in many aspects, such as root morphology, root activity, root reaction to various environmental factors as a contribution of root growth and rice yield, the relationship between root growth and stems/leaves/flowers/rice, genetic laws of root characters, etc. However, there are very few researches on lateral root mutant. This paper reviewed progresses of the lateral root mutant of rice from the perspectives of phytomorphology to plant physiology and biochemistry to the gene mapping, consisting of mechanism of developing lateral root of rice, gene cloning and functional analysis of lateral root development, the relationship between auxin and lateral roots, agronomic traits of lateral roots mutant, structure and morphology of root hairs, gravity anomaly of root, redox metabolism and proteomics researches of the mutation in lateral root of rice.

  10. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  11. Quality and Testing Standards on Rice Production in China and Development Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China is the biggest country of rice production and consumption in the world; more than 50% of the population feeds chiefly on rice. The quality of rice and its role as a staple food carry much weight. The rice qualities are those aspects concerning processing,appearance, cooking, nutrition and safety of the product.The study, formulation and implementation of standards on rice qualities and testing bear heavily on the improving of rice qualities, human health, substitution of rice varieties, promoting quality rice production and regulating rice market.

  12. Sarcoid granuloma on black tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Callaghan, Ana María; Aguilar-Bernier, Miguel; Martínez-García, Gerardo; Miranda-Romero, Alberto

    2006-11-01

    We report the case of a patient with a black and turquoise tattoo who developed sarcoid granulomas on the areas of black pigment. Patch tests showed a positive reaction to nickel, cobalt, and cadmium; spectrophotometric analysis of the black pigment revealed the presence of nickel and cobalt among other metals. Although the pathogenesis of sarcoid granulomas is unknown, it seems that a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction is one of the mechanisms involved.

  13. Origin of supermassive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S G

    2007-01-01

    The origin of supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei is quite uncertain in spite of extensive set of observational data. We review the known scenarios of galactic and cosmological formation of supermassive black holes. The common drawback of galactic scenarios is a lack of time and shortage of matter supply for building the supermassive black holes in all galaxies by means of accretion and merging. The cosmological scenarios are only fragmentarily developed but propose and pretend to...

  14. Transformation of japonica rice with RHL gene and salt tolerance of the transgenic rice plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Overexpression of the yeast HAL2 gene increases salt tolerance of yeast and plant. Rice HAL2-like (RHL) gene was introduced into a japonica rice cultivar HJ19 with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants in R0 generation were selected on the principle of GUS-positive, RHL gene PCR-positive and normal growth. Hygromycin-resistant plants of some transgenic lines in R1 generation increased salt tolerance during the seedling and booting stage, being less damaged in the cytomembrane and stronger in leaf tissue viability under salt stress during booting period. Southern analysis of transgenic lines tolerant to salt in R1 generation showed that the RHL gene expression cassette had been successfully integrated into rice genome. Moreover, gene engineering breeding methodology and really salt-tolerant rice cultivar were discussed.

  15. The Gifted Black Child: Problems and Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John R.

    In this paper, it is noted that there are three reasons for studying the black gifted child. First, black destiny has in part been shaped by talented blacks--for example, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King. Second, the black gifted are a minority within a minority. The gifted black female, subject to sexism, is even more of a minority. Third,…

  16. METHANE EMISSION FROM DIRECT SEEDED RICE UNDER THE INFLUENCES OF RICE STRAW AND NITRIFICATION INHIBITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wihardjaka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of rice straw into soil is a common practice to improve soil productivity and increase inorganic fertilizer availability. However, this practice could contribute to methane (CH4 emission; one of the greenhouse gases that causes global warming. Nitrification inhibitors such as neem cake and carbofuran may reduce methane emission following application of rice straw. The study aimed to evaluate the application of rice straw and nitrification inhibitor to methane emission in rainfed lowland rice system. A factorial randomized block design was used with three replications. The first factor was rice straw incorporation (5 t ha-1 fresh straw, 5 t ha-1 composted straw, and the second factor was nitrification inhibitor application (20 kg ha-1 neem cake, 20 kg ha-1 carbofuran. The experiment was conducted at rainfed lowland in Pati, Central Java, during 2009/2010 wet season. Ciherang variety was planted as direct seeded rice with spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm in each plot of 4 m x 5 m. The rice straw was treated together with soil tillage, whereas nitrification inhibitor was applied together with urea application. Parameters observed were methane flux, plant height, plant biomass, grain yield, organic C content, and bacterial population in soil. The methane flux and soil organic C were measured at 25, 45, 60, 75, and 95 days after emergence. The results showed that composted rice straw incorporation significantly emitted methane lower (73.2 ± 6.6 kg CH4 ha-1 season-1 compared to the fresh rice straw (93.5 ± 4.0 CH4 ha-1 season-1. Application of nitrification inhibitors neem cake and carbofuran reduced methane emission as much as 20.7 and 15.4 kg CH4 ha-1 season-1, respectively. Under direct seeded rice system, methane flux level correlated with plant biomass as shown by linear regression of Y = 0.0015 X + 0.0575 (R2 = 0.2305, n = 27. This means that higher plant biomass produced more methane flux. The study indicates that application of

  17. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  18. Abandoned Rice Fields Make Streams Go Dry in Upland Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawickreme, D.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, new economic realities are driving many rural rice farmers out of agriculture. With increasing neglect, abandonment, and rising conversions of centuries old rice fields into other uses, ecological and environmental consequences of these transitions are becoming progressively clear. Field observations in Sri Lanka's central highlands suggest that small shifts in rice to non-rice land uses in headwater watersheds can have a domino effect on the productivity and viability of rice fields and other ecological systems downstream by inflicting groundwater recharge reductions, lowering groundwater yields, and causing other hydrological changes. Preliminary analysis shows that although rice itself is a very water intensive crop, the presence of rain-fed upland rice-fields is hugely beneficial to the watersheds they reside. In particular, water benefits of rice appear to be derived from ponded conditions (3-5 inches of standing water) in which rice is grown, and the contribution rice fields makes to enhance water retention and storage capacity of their watersheds during the monsoon season that coincide with the cropping season. In the absence of well managed rice-fields, hilly upland landscapes produce more runoff and retain little rainwater during the wet season. Furthermore, after centuries of intensive use, much of South Asia's rice fields are nutrient poor and minimally productive without fertilizer applications and other interventions. Consequently, when abandoned, soil erosion and other impacts that affect aquatic ecosystems and watershed health also emerge. Despite these multiple concerns however, little research is currently done to better understand the environmental significance of rice cultivations that are a dominant land-use in many South Asian landscapes. The aim of this presentation is to stir interest among the scientific community to engage more broadly in rice, water, and environmental change research in the face of new economic realities in

  19. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David

    2016-09-23

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  20. Black holes and the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  1. How black holes saved relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda

    2016-02-01

    While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.

  2. Rice fissure resistance QTLs from ‘Saber’ complement those from ‘Cypress’

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic value of broken rice is about half that of whole milled rice, so one goal of producers, millers, and rice breeders is to reduce grain breakage during the dehusking and milling processes. One of the primary causes of rice breakage is fissuring, or cracking, of the rice before it enters ...

  3. 7 CFR 1412.49 - Apportionment of long and medium grain rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apportionment of long and medium grain rice. 1412.49... and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.49 Apportionment of long and medium grain rice. (a) Rice base... rice base acres in paragraph (a) of this section into two categories: (i) Long grain rice, and...

  4. Interaction of genotype x management on vegetative growth and weed suppression of aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Bastiaans, L.; Atlin, G.N.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Water shortage in drought-prone rice-growing areas of the world is threatening conventional irrigated rice production systems, in which rice is transplanted into fields where standing water is maintained until harvest. Aerobic rice production systems, in which rice is grown as a direct-seeded upland

  5. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariafe Calingacion

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a 'one size fits all' crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market.

  6. Preliminary studies on rice quality of japonica-indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhenyu; ZHANGYunkang; WUJianli

    1997-01-01

    It has been proved that high yield combinations can be obtained via hybridization between indica and japonica rice. However, people have worried about the quality of this kind of rice for a long time. Our researches were mainly based on the mating pattern of “japonica male sterile line/indica restorer line” to generate and select elite japonicalinous crosses. Ricequality is shown in table 1 and 2.

  7. Anti-obesity effects of germinated brown rice extract through down-regulation of lipogenic genes in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2012-01-01

    Lipid accumulation using Oil Red O dye was measured in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes to examine the anti-obesity effect of four types of germinated rice, including germinated brown rice (GBR), germinated waxy brown rice (GWBR), germinated black rice (GB-R), and germinated waxy black rice (GWB-R). GBR methanol extract exhibited the highest suppression of lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cell line and also the anti-obesity effect of GBR on high fat induced-obese mice. The mice were divided into three groups and were administered: ND, a normal diet; HFD control, a high fat diet; and GBR, a high fat diet plus 0.15% GBR methanol extract for 7 weeks. GBR administration significantly decreased body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue as compared to the HFD control group. In addition, serum triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly decreased by following GBR administration compared with those in the HFD control group, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level increased. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of adipogenic transcriptional factors, such as CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR)-γ, and related genes (aP2, FAS), decreased significantly. Taken together, GBR administration suppressed body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipocytes, and improved serum lipid profiles, in part, by controlling adipogenesis through a reduction in transcriptional factors. These results suggest that GBR is a potential agent against obesity.

  8. Construction of chimeric inducible promoters by elicitors of rice fungal blast pathogen and their expression in transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The promoter fragments of wheat GstA1 and potato Gst1 have been amplified by PCR, cloned and fused respectively to the minimal promoter sequence of rice actin gene (Act1)) and its 5′ untranslated leader sequence together with GUS. The constructs with 2 chimeric promoters (WGA and PGA) have been transferred into rice in order to analyze their inducibility patterns in transgenic rice plants. The results show that: WGA and PGA are both inducible by elicitors of Pyricularia oryzae in transgenic rice cells; the intronⅠ of rice Act1 gene is important for the heterogenic expression of monocot and dicot promoter elements in rice; and the Act1 minimal promoter and its 5′untranslated leader sequence produced low level background expression in rice.

  9. Black monazite from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, J.J.; Overstreet, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Two forms of detrital monazite are known in offshore bars in southwestern Taiwan: a yellow-green to colorless form and an unusual but abundant pelletlike form, generally black but also colored gray or brown. These black pellets, which are about 160 by 200 microns in size, are composed of fine-grained monazite crystals from 2 to 20 microns in size. The pellets are associated with highly variable amounts of discrete grains of detrital quartz, rutile, amphibole, tourmaline, and other minerals. Intergrown with the monazite are quartz, a cerium oxide mineral, chlorite, sulfides, and other minerals. Opaqueness of the pelletlike monazite is due principally to the cryptocrystalline nature of part of the monazite; only a small part of the opaqueness can be attributed to opaque inclusions. The black pelletlike monazite lacks thorium and has a high content of europium. In this respect, as in color, shape, size, and inclusions, the pelletlike monazite differs from the yellow-green detrital monazite. Despite the fact that they occur together in the littoral placers, they appear to have had different origins. The yellow-green monazite originated as an accessory mineral in plutonic rocks and has accumulated at the coast through erosion and transport. The origin of the pelletlike monazite is as yet unknown, but it is here inferred that it originated in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments through migration of cerium from the detrital monazite during weathering, and of the intermediate weight mobile rare earths from clay minerals during diagenesis. Possibly these pelletlike grains are detrital particles formed through erosion and transport from originally larger aggregates cemented by diagenetic monazite.

  10. Innovation Chinese rice wine brewing technology by bi-acidification to exclude rice soaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao Lu; Liu, Shuang Ping; Yu, Jian Shen; Yu, Yong Jian; Zhu, Sheng Hu; Zhou, Zhi Lei; Hu, Jian; Mao, Jian

    2017-04-01

    As a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage of China, Chinese rice wine (CRW) had a long history of more than 5000 years. Rice soaking process was the most crucial step during CRW brewing process, because rice soaking quality directly determined the quality of CRW. However, rice soaking water would cause the eutrophication of water bodies and waste of water. The longer time of rice soaking, the higher the content of biogenic amine, and it would have a huge impact on human health. An innovation brewing technology was carried out to exclude the rice soaking process and the Lactobacillus was added to make up for the total acid. Compared to the traditional brewing technology, the new technology saved water resources and reduced environmental pollution. The concentration of biogenic amine was also decreased by 27.16%, which improving the security of the CRW. The esters increased led to more soft-tasted CRW and less aging time; the quality of CRW would be improved with less alcohol.

  11. Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandro Ciciliano Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooded rice cultivation promotes anaerobic conditions, favoring the formation of short chain organic acids such as acetic acid, which may be toxic to the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 x 5 factorial randomized design, with two cultivars (IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, five doses of coating material (0, 2, 3,4 e 5 g kg-1 seed and five concentrations of acetic acid (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mM, with 4 replications, totaling 50 treatments. The variables first count of germination, germination, shoot and root length, dry weight of shoots and roots were recorded. The results showed that coating rice seeds with rice husk ash up to 5 g kg-1 seed does not influence the performance of rice seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência when exposed to concentrations of 12 mM acetic acid. The presence of acetic acid in the substrates used for seed germination reduced the vigor and viability of seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, as well as seedling development, affecting mainly the roots of BRS Querência.

  12. Transgenic rice homozygous lines expressing GNA showed enhanced resistance to rice brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mature seed-derived calli from two elite Chinese japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars Eyi 105 and Ewan 5 were co-transformed with two plasmids, pWRG1515 and pRSSGNA1, containing the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt), the reporter β-glucuronidase gene (gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)lectin gene (gna) via particle bombardment. 61 independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated from 329 bombarded calli. 79% transgenic plants contained all the three genes, revealed by PCR/Southern blot analysis. Western blot analysis revealed that 36 out of 48 gna-containing transgenic plants expressed GNA (75 %) at various levels with the highest expression being approximately 0.5% of total soluble protein. Genetic analysis confirmed Mendelian segregation of transgenes in progeny. From the R2 generations whose R1 parent plants showing 3:1 Mendelian segregation patterns,we identified five independent homozygous lines containing and expressing all the three transgenes. Insect bioassay and feeding tests showed that these homozygous lines had significant inhibition to rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) by decreasing BPH survival and overall fecundity, retarding BPH development and declining BPH feeding.These BPH-resistant lines have been incorporated into rice insect resistance breeding program. This is the first report that homozygous transgenic rice lines expressing GNA, developed by genetic transformation and through genetic analysis-based selection, conferred enhanced resistance to BPH, one of the most damaging insect pests in rice.

  13. Fine mapping of a gene causing hybrid pollen sterility between Yunnan weedy rice and cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and phylogenetic analysis of Yunnan weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhong, Zheng Zheng; Zhao, Zhi Gang; Jiang, Ling; Bian, Xiao Feng; Zhang, Wen Wei; Liu, Ling Long; Ikehashi, H; Wan, Jian Min

    2010-02-01

    Weedy rice represents an important resource for rice improvement. The F(1) hybrid between the japonica wide compatibility rice cultivar 02428 and a weedy rice accession from Yunnan province (SW China) suffered from pollen sterility. Pollen abortion in the hybrid occurred at the early bicellular pollen stage, as a result of mitotic failure in the microspore, although the tapetum developed normally. Genetic mapping in a BC(1)F(1) population (02428//Yunnan weedy rice (YWR)/02428) showed that a major QTL for hybrid pollen sterility (qPS-1) was present on chromosome 1. qPS-1 was fine-mapped to a 110 kb region known to contain the hybrid pollen sterility gene Sa, making it likely that qPS-1 is either identical to, or allelic with Sa. Interestingly, F(1) hybrid indicated that Dular and IR36 were assumed to carry the sterility-neutral allele, Sa ( n ). Re-sequencing SaM and SaF, the two component genes present at Sa, suggested that variation for IR36 and Dular may be responsible for the loss of male sterility, and the qPS-1 sequence might be derived from wild rice or indica cultivars. A phylogenetic analysis based on microsatellite genotyping suggested that the YWR accession is more closely related to wild rice and indica type cultivars than to japonica types. Thus it is probable that the YWR accession evolved from a spontaneous hybrid between wild rice and an ancient cultivated strain of domesticated rice.

  14. Magnonic Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A

    2017-02-10

    We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.

  15. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce

  16. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, C; Bertolami, O [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, N C; Prata, J N, E-mail: cbastos@fisica.ist.utl.p, E-mail: orfeu@cosmos.ist.utl.p, E-mail: ncdias@mail.telepac.p, E-mail: joao.prata@mail.telepac.p [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Avenida Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-04-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, {eta}. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  17. Black hole accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. ou...

  18. Magnonic Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Molina, A.; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Duine, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons—the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.

  19. Artificial black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt; Volovik, Grigory E

    2009-01-01

    Physicists are pondering on the possibility of simulating black holes in the laboratory by means of various "analog models". These analog models, typically based on condensed matter physics, can be used to help us understand general relativity (Einstein's gravity); conversely, abstract techniques developed in general relativity can sometimes be used to help us understand certain aspects of condensed matter physics. This book contains 13 chapters - written by experts in general relativity, particle physics, and condensed matter physics - that explore various aspects of this two-way traffic.

  20. Black Interpretation, Black American Literature, and Grey Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Earl M.

    1981-01-01

    Defines and illustrates language techniques used by Black authors writing to and for Blacks in the 1960s and 1970s. Suggests how language and theme barriers of such literature might be overcome in a contemporary integrated oral interpretation classroom. (PD)

  1. Black German identities : validating the multidimensional inventory of black identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wandert, T.; Ochsmann, R.; Brug, P.; Chybicka, A.; Lacassagne, M.F.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the reliability and validity of a German version of the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI) in a sample of 170 Black Germans. The internal consistencies of all subscales are at least moderate. The factorial structure of the MIBI, as assessed by principal component

  2. Growing Up Black: A Black Literature Unit For Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenburg, Doris O.; Applebury, Bruce C.

    1971-01-01

    This literature-based unit is intended to examine the prevalent black moods, conflicts, alienations and disillusionments which accompany the present era. Literature selections include works by both black and white writers. At the end of the unit, the student will be able to realize the man, from what literature has stamped as substantial accounts…

  3. Surfing a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way

  4. Methane emission from wetland rice fields.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) is an important greenhouse gas and plays a key role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Wetland rice fields are an important source of methane, accounting for approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic methane emission. Methane fluxes fro

  5. Parental Selection in Rice Cultivar Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley Omar P B.SAMONTE; Rodante E.TABIEN; Lloyd T.WILSON

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars assists breeders in identifying useful trait relationships and in selecting parents as donors of specific traits.This study was conducted to compare long-grain rice cultivars using genotype x trait (GT) biplot analysis and determine potential donors of traits related to grain yield and quality.Seventeen cultivars in the 2005 and 2006 Uniform Regional Rice Nursery in Beaumont,Texas,USA were analyzed for 20 traits using GT biplot analysis.The GT biplots showed the diversity among cultivars with regards to yield-related traits.Cultivars recommended as donor parents were:Trenasse,Spring,Presidio,and Cocodrie for high grain yield and head rice rate;Trenasse and Presidio for semi-dwarfness; Banks for tall plant height; Wells for high flag leaf area,panicle weight,and number and mass of filled grains per panicle; Hidalgo for high tiller density; Francis for high number of spikelets per panicle; Spring and Trenasse for short flowering duration; Cheniere for more days to heading and maturity and Spring for less days; and Spring and Hidalgo for high grain weight.Breeders can use these cultivars with specific traits to increase grain yield and quality.

  6. How to Evaluate the Rice Cultivation Suitability?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxi; LI; Yueping; ZHANG; Changsong; WANG; Wei; MAO; Tianwen; HANG; Ming; CHEN; Bingning; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    To rationally allocate farmland resources,and scientifically make farming industrial planning,we take Yizheng City in Jiangsu Province as the research object,and select 13 indicators.Based on Farmland Resources Management Information System in Yizheng City,we establish AHP model,and membership function model,for the evaluation of farmland suitability of rice.The results show that the farmland area in the highly suitable areas accounts for 10.2%of the total farmland area;the farmland area in the suitable areas accounts for 56.08%of the total farmland area;the farmland area in the marginally suitable areas accounts for 25.50%of the total farmland area;the farmland area in the unsuitable areas accounts for 8.22%of the total farmland area.There is significant positive correlation between the actual yield of rice surveyed and suitability index obtained through evaluation(R2=0.1964,319 samples);the actual yield of rice in the highly suitable areas is higher than in the marginally suitable areas and suitable areas,and the rice yield is the lowest in the unsuitable areas.

  7. RICE CONDITION NUMBERS OF CERTAIN CHARACTERISTIC SUBSPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    生汉芳; 刘新国

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes the Rice condition numbers for invariant subspace, singular subspaces of a matrix and deflating subspaces of a regular matrix pair. The first-order perturbation estimations for these subspaces are derived by applying perturbation expansions of orthogonal projection operators.

  8. Presence of amylose crystallites in parboiled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Lieve; Gomand, Sara V; Derycke, Veerle; Delcour, Jan A

    2009-04-22

    Mildly, intermediately, and severely parboiled Jacinto [16% free amylose (FAM) content] and Puntal (26% FAM content) rice samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). DSC thermograms revealed ungelatinized starch only in mildly parboiled rices and retrograded amylopectin in all parboiled samples. Amylose crystallites were present in intermediately and severely parboiled samples but could not be detected due to their high melting temperature. Nonparboiled and parboiled rice DSC profiles showed only type I and type II amylose-lipid complexes, respectively. Intermediately and severely parboiled rice showed a clear V(h)-type (crystalline amylose-lipid complexes) with a superimposed B-type (retrograded amylopectin and/or amylose crystallites) pattern. The mildly parboiled samples showed a mix of A- (native starch crystallites) and V(h)-type patterns (Puntal) and A-, V(h)-, and B-type patterns (Jacinto). Mild acid hydrolysis destroyed the acid labile retrograded amylopectin crystallites and increased the relative abundance of amylose crystallites. Indeed, acid-hydrolyzed intermediately and severely parboiled samples of both cultivars showed a clear B-type diffraction pattern conclusively showing, for the first time, the presence of amylose crystallites. The melting temperature of the amylose crystallites was ca. 135 degrees C, and melting peaks were visible in the DSC thermograms of the intermediately and severely parboiled samples. Their levels depended on the degree of parboiling and FAM content.

  9. Tulekul naiste duell : Rice - Clinton? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Kui intervjuus Washington Postile ei välistanud USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice võimalust kandideerida presidendivalimistel, siis hilisemas intervjuus telekanalile ABC ütles ta, et tal puudub soov saada presidendiks. Samal ajal arutavad demokraadid Hillary Clintoni võimalusi saavutada edu järgmistel presidendivalimistel

  10. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Rice Centromeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiming

    2010-02-04

    The centromere is the most characteristic landmark of eukaryotic chromosomes. Centromeres function as the site for kinetochore assembly and spindle attachment, allowing for the faithful pairing and segregation of sister chromatids during cell division. Characterization of centromeric DNA is not only essential to understand the structure and organization of plant genomes, but it is also a critical step in the development of plant artificial chromosomes. The centromeres of most model eukaryotic species, consist predominantly of long arrays of satellite DNA. Determining the precise DNA boundary of a centromere has proven to be a difficult task in multicellular eukaryotes. We have successfully cloned and sequenced the centromere of rice chromosome 8 (Cen8), representing the first fully sequenced centromere from any multicellular eukaryotes. The functional core of Cen8 spans ~800 kb of DNA, which was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using an antibody against the rice centromere-specific H3 histone. We discovered 16 actively transcribed genes distributed throughout the Cen8 region. In addition to Cen8, we have characterized eight additional rice centromeres using the next generation sequencing technology. We discovered four subfamilies of the CRR retrotransposon that is highly enriched in rice centromeres. CRR elements are constitutively transcribed and different CRR subfamilies are differentially processed by RNAi. These results suggest that different CRR subfamilies may play different roles in the RNAi-mediated pathway for formation and maintenance of centromeric chromatin.

  11. Insecticide resistance selection in rice planthoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stal) and white backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) are the main insects on rice in China. The insecticide resistance of the two planthoppers have often been reported. Availability of the resistant population is a prerequisite for studying the resistance mechanism. In this paper, one method to select methamidophos resistance of the two planthoppers was recommended.

  12. Novel protein controls growth regulators in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A recent study by CAS researchers could add new dimensions to the understanding of downstream signaling mechanism of Brassinosteroids(BRs), a group of plant growth regulators, in rice. Their work was published by the August 21 issue of the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

  13. Response of Nerica Rice to Nitrogen Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shultana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during T. Aman season, 2014 at the Agronomy Research Field, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur to determine the optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizer for higher yield in nerica rice. The experiment comprised of three rice varieties viz. NERICA1, NERICA10 and BRRI dhan57; and five nitrogen levels viz. 0, 23, 46, 69 and 92 kg ha-1. The rice var. BRRI dhan57 with 69 and 92 kg N ha-1 produced significantly identical with higher panicles m-2. But NERICA1 and NERICA10 produced higher number of panicles with 46 and 69 kg N ha-1, respectively. However, BRRI dhan57 with 46 kg N ha-1 produced highest grains panicle-1 but NERICA1 and NERICA10 produced higher number of grains panicle-1 with 23 kg N ha-1. The highest percentage of sterility was recorded in NERICA10 with 69 kg N ha-1. The regression analysis gave the optimum dose of nitrogen for NERICA1, NERICA10 and BRRI dhan57 which were 69.25, 74.25 and 85.75 kg N ha-1, respectively.

  14. Father of Hybrid Rice Plants Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    New joint venture strengthens China’s position against international seed companies Yuan Longping Hi-Tech Agriculture Co.Ltd.(Longping Hi-Tech),named after the father of hybrid rice in China,announced on February 10 the establishment of a joint venture(JV) with a subsidiary of Vilmorin & Cie.

  15. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  16. An efficient TALEN mutagenesis system in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunling; Shan, Qiwei; Gao, Caixia

    2014-08-15

    Targeted gene mutagenesis is a powerful tool for elucidating gene function and facilitating genetic improvement in rice. TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases), consisting of a custom TALE DNA binding domain fused to a nonspecific FokI cleavage domain, are one of the most efficient genome engineering methods developed to date. The technology of TALENs allows DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to be introduced into predetermined chromosomal loci. DSBs trigger DNA repair mechanisms and can result in loss of gene function by error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), or they can be exploited to modify gene function or activity by precise homologous recombination (HR). In this paper, we describe a detailed protocol for constructing TALEN expression vectors, assessing nuclease activities in vivo using rice protoplast-based assays, generating and introducing TALEN DNAs into embryogenic calluses of rice and identifying TALEN-generated mutations at targeted genomic sites. Using these methods, T0 rice plants resulting from TALEN mutagenesis can be produced within 4-5 months.

  17. Diffusive gas transport through flooded rice systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Groot, T.; Hout, van de B.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Goudriaan, J.

    2001-01-01

    A fully mechanistic model based on diffusion equations for gas transport in a flooded rice system is presented. The model has transport descriptions for various compartments in the water-saturated soil and within the plant. Plant parameters were estimated from published data and experiments independ

  18. WTO REFORMS AND RICE MARKET IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bachal Jamali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the WTO reforms and Rice market in Pakistan. Data were collected from the Primary as well secondary sources of the Rice producing countries, and data were analysis by using SPSS-18 version, A structural questionnaire was developed for reliability and validity of the data. It was revealed that from the last five years there is no visible impact on export laid growth but from last three years price shocks was observed in Pakistan, due to increases in the world rice market by 200 percent in various Asian countries. Consumers are facing the price shock problem in Pakistan and world Rice market the statistical results were similar for the alternative specification of gross margins and prices as the economic decision available. However, the price elasticities derived using the gross margins specification were about a third of those using the prices specification. The gross margin specification yielded additional information in the form of yield and input cost elasticities. The analysis indicates that there are lags which are due primarily to the difficulties and cost of rapid adjustment rather than to the time required to revise expectations. The statistical results were similar for the alternative specification of gross margins and prices as the economic decision available. However, the price elasticities derived using the gross margins additional information in the form of yield and input cost elasticities

  19. Astrophysical Black Holes in the Physical Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter I focus on asking and answering the following questions: (1) What is a black hole? Answer: There are three types of black holes, namely mathematical black holes, physical black holes and astrophysical black holes. An astrophysical black hole, with mass distributed within its event horizon but not concentrated at the singularity point, is not a mathematical black hole. (2) Can astrophysical black holes be formed in the physical universe? Answer: Yes, at least this can be done with gravitational collapse. (3) How can we prove that what we call astrophysical black holes are really black holes? Answer: Finding direct evidence of event horizon is not the way to go. Instead I propose five criteria which meet the highest standard for recognizing new discoveries in experimental physics and observational astronomy. (4) Do we have sufficient evidence to claim the existence of astrophysical black holes in the physical universe? Answer: Yes, astrophysical black holes have been found at least in some galac...

  20. Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.