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Sample records for black raspberry extract-loaded

  1. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  2. The genome of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Robert; Bryant, Doug; Bushakra, Jill M; Vining, Kelly J; Edger, Patrick P; Rowley, Erik R; Priest, Henry D; Michael, Todd P; Lyons, Eric; Filichkin, Sergei A; Dossett, Michael; Finn, Chad E; Bassil, Nahla V; Mockler, Todd C

    2016-09-01

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is an important specialty fruit crop in the US Pacific Northwest that can hybridize with the globally commercialized red raspberry (R. idaeus). Here we report a 243 Mb draft genome of black raspberry that will serve as a useful reference for the Rosaceae and Rubus fruit crops (raspberry, blackberry, and their hybrids). The black raspberry genome is largely collinear to the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) with a conserved karyotype and few notable structural rearrangements. Centromeric satellite repeats are widely dispersed across the black raspberry genome, in contrast to the tight association with the centromere observed in most plants. Among the 28 005 predicted protein-coding genes, we identified 290 very recent small-scale gene duplicates enriched for sugar metabolism, fruit development, and anthocyanin related genes which may be related to key agronomic traits during black raspberry domestication. This contrasts patterns of recent duplications in the wild woodland strawberry F. vesca, which show no patterns of enrichment, suggesting gene duplications contributed to domestication traits. Expression profiles from a fruit ripening series and roots exposed to Verticillium dahliae shed insight into fruit development and disease response, respectively. The resources presented here will expedite the development of improved black and red raspberry, blackberry and other Rubus cultivars. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Molecular characterization of aphid resistance in black raspberry germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry is a minor but lucrative crop with most of the acreage in the U.S. found in Oregon. Rapid decline of plantings results from virus infection vectored by the North American large raspberry aphid and is the most limiting factor for growing black raspberry. Existing cultivars are suscept...

  4. Adulteration and its detection of black raspberry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have continually researched improvements for commercially available cultivars of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap). During the past decade, we have analyzed fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes and cultivars, and found that the anthocyanin content to ranged from 39 to 9...

  5. Chemotaxonomy of Black Raspberry: deception in the marketplace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will focus on the phytochemical portion of our research into breeding commercial black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap) cultivars with better fruit quality. Over the last eight years, we have analyzed the fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes, and found the ant...

  6. Molecular evaluation of aphid-resistant black raspberry germplasm for improved durability in black and red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last century, the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) industry in the U.S. has undergone a slow contraction because of a lack of adapted and disease resistant cultivars. The Pacific Northwest is the major black raspberry production region in North America, with the value of $9.6 million pr...

  7. Marketplace analysis demonstrates quality control standards needed for black raspberry dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is currently no standard for the minimum anthocyanin concentration a black raspberry dietary supplement must contain for legal sale in the US. All consumer available black raspberry products (n=19), packaged as dietary supplements or otherwise prepared (freeze-dried whole and pre-ground powder...

  8. Effects of three novel resistant black raspberry selections on Amphorophora agathonica feeding behavior and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance is a practical and cost-effective approach for growers to manage insect pests. Recently, three new sources of resistance in black raspberry (selections ORUS 3778-1, ORUS 3817-1, and ORUS 4109-1) against the large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora agathonica, were identified. We stu...

  9. Rubus occidentalis: The black raspberry--its potential in the prevention of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Marta; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława

    2016-01-01

    Rubus occidentalis is a black-fruited raspberry originating from North America. Its popularity and demand has been growing over the years, as studies outline its high anthocyanin and ellagitannin content and significance for human health. Interaction between chemical composition and pharmacological activity, mechanisms of action at cellular and molecular levels are all active areas of study. The vast majority of research concerning black raspberries is focused on chemoprevention and anticancer effects. This review summarizes the data on chemical composition and anticancer activity of black raspberry fruits throughout the years.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with black raspberry, black carrot and rosella juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekerek, S.; Kudret, A.; Alver, Ü.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC's) were constructed from black raspberry ( Rubus Ideaus), black carrot ( Daucuscarota L.) and rosella juice ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.). In order to fabricate a DSSC the fluorine-doped tin (IV) oxide (FTO) thin films obtained by using spray pyrolysis technique were used as a substrate. TiO2 films on FTO layers were prepared by doctor-blading technique. Platinum-coated counter electrode and liquid Iodide/Iodine electrolyte solution were used to fabricate DSSC's. The efficiencies of solar cells produced with black carrot, rosella and black raspberry juice were calculated as 0.25%, 0.16% and 0.16% respectively, under a sunny day in Kahramanmaraş-Turkey.

  11. Black raspberries in cancer clinical trials: Past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresty, Laura A; Mallery, Susan R; Stoner, Gary D

    Black raspberries (BRB) inhibit a broad range of cancers in preclinical models, including in vivo models of oral, esophageal, colon, breast and skin cancer. Promising preclinical results have led to clinical evaluations in cancer patients or patients at increased risk for cancer development. To summarize clinical investigations targeting cancer or precancerous lesions with BRB and discuss future directions. A thorough literature search was conducted through December 1, 2015 to identify all published studies evaluating BRB in cancer focused clinical trials. Research investigating BRB in clinical settings report positive effects on preneoplastic lesions or cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus and colon. BRB treatment resulted in: histologic regression of oral intraepithelial neoplasia associated with improved histologic grade and significantly reduced loss of heterozygosity at tumor suppressor gene loci, modulated genes linked to RNA processing and growth factor recycling; in the colon, BRB inhibited FAP-associated polyp progression, demethylated tumor suppressor genes and improved plasma cytokine profiles; in Barrett's patients, BRB consumption increased tissue levels of GST-pi and decreased 8-isoprostane, a marker of lipid peroxidation/oxidative stress. The precise dose, duration and optimum mode of BRB delivery for cancer inhibition remains to be fully elucidated. Common themes across studies support that BRB are anti-proliferative, anti- inflammatory, reduce oxidative stress and restore tumor suppressive activity. Future directions are included in the conclusions section.

  12. Effects of black raspberry on lipid profiles and vascular endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Han Saem; Hong, Soon Jun; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Jeong, Jong Tae; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Ahn, Chul-Min; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun

    2014-10-01

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) has been known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. However, short-term effects of black raspberry on lipid profiles and vascular endothelial function have not been investigated in patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 77) were prospectively randomized into a group with black raspberry (n = 39, 750 mg/day) and a placebo group (n = 38) during a 12-week follow-up. Lipid profiles, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (baFMD), and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 were measured at the baseline and at the 12-week follow-up. Decreases from the baseline in the total cholesterol level (-22.8 ± 30.4 mg/dL vs. -1.9 ± 31.8 mg/dL, p raspberry than in the placebo group. Increases in baFMD at the 12-week follow-up were significantly greater in the group with black raspberry than in the placebo group (0.33 ± 0.44 mm vs. 0.10 ± 0.35 mm, p raspberry. The use of black raspberry significantly decreased serum total cholesterol level and inflammatory cytokines, thereby improving vascular endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome during the 12-week follow-up. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Black raspberry fruit composition over two years from seedling populations grown at four U.S. geographic locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry is a caneberry fruit recognized as a source of several phytoactive compounds. Fruit are most often used for processed products. As a specialty crop, black raspberry production is limited by its susceptibility to viruses, which reduce fruit size and yield and can kill the plant in a...

  14. Formation of enriched black tea extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles via electrospraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Samuel James

    Creating nanoparticles of beneficial nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals has had a large surge of research due to the enhancement of absorption and bioavailability by decreasing their size. One of these ways is by electrohydrodynamic atomization, also known as electrospraying. In general, this novel process is done by forcing a liquid through a capillary nozzle and which is subjected to an electrical field. While there are different ways to create nanoparticles, the novel method of electrospraying can be beneficial over other types of nanoparticle formation. Reasons include high control over particle size and distribution by altering electrospray parameters (voltage, flow rate, distance, and time), higher encapsulation efficiency than other methods, and also it is a one step process without exposure to extreme conditions (Gomez-Estaca et. al. 2012, Jaworek and Sobcyzk 2008). The current study aimed to create a chitosan encapsulated theaflavin-2 enriched black tea extract (BTE) nanoparticles via electrospraying. The first step of this process was to create the smallest chitosan nanoparticles possible by altering the electrospray parameters and the chitosan-acetic acid solution parameters. The solution properties altered include chitosan molecular weight, acetic acid concentration, and chitosan concentration. Specifically, the electrospray parameters such as voltage, flow rate and distance from syringe to collector are the most important in determining particle size. After creating the smallest chitosan particles, the TF-2 enriched black tea extract was added to the chitosan-acetic acid solution to be electrosprayed. The particles were assessed with the following procedures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for particle morphology and size, and loading efficiency with ultraviolet--visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS). Chitosan-BTE nanoparticles were successfully created in a one step process. Diameter of the particles on average

  15. Transferability of Rubus Microsatellite Markers for use in Black Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. To date, SSR marker development in Rubus has focused on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., subgenu...

  16. What’s really in our black raspberry products? – chemotaxonomy by anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will focus on the phytochemical portion of our research into breeding commercial black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap) cultivars with better fruit quality. A North American native, it was traditionally used as a food and a natural colorant, but renewed US consumer inter...

  17. Performance and phenology of wild black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm in a common garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lack of genetic diversity in cultivated black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm has been widely recognized as a major factor limiting progress towards breeding improved cultivars. Despite this, little effort has been made since the early twentieth century to systematically collect and ev...

  18. Blackberry, raspberry and black raspberry polyphenol extracts attenuate angiotensin II-induced senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feresin, Rafaela G; Huang, Jingwen; Klarich, DawnKylee S; Zhao, Yitong; Pourafshar, Shirin; Arjmandi, Bahram H; Salazar, Gloria

    2016-10-12

    Activation of angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling during aging increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to vascular senescence, a process linked to the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Consumption of fruits and vegetables, particularly berries, is associated with decreased incidence of CVD, which has mainly been attributed to the polyphenol content of these foods. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of blackberry (BL), raspberry (RB), and black raspberry (BRB) polyphenol extracts in attenuating Ang II-induced senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to determine the molecular mechanisms involved. BL, RB and BRB polyphenol extracts (200 μg ml -1 ) attenuated Ang II-induced senescence, denoted by decreased number of cells positive for senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) and down-regulation of p21 and p53 expression, which were associated with decreased ROS levels and Ang II signaling. BL polyphenol extract increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 expression, attenuated the up-regulation of Nox1 expression and the phosphorylation of Akt, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 induced by Ang II, and reduced senescence in response to Nox1 overexpression. In contrast, RB and BRB polyphenol extracts up-regulated the expression of SOD1, SOD2, and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), but exerted no effect on Nox1 expression nor on senescence induced by Nox1 overexpression. BRB reduced signaling similar to BL, while RB was unable to reduce Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that inhibition of Akt, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 as well as down-regulation of Nox1 by siRNA prevented senescence induced by Ang II. Our findings indicate that Ang II-induced senescence is attenuated by BL polyphenols through a Nox1-dependent mechanism and by RB and BRB polyphenols in a Nox1-independent manner, likely by increasing the cellular antioxidant capacity.

  19. Tailoring the morphology of raspberry-like carbon black/polystyrene composite microspheres for fabricating superhydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Yubin; Li, Qiuying; Xue, Pengfei; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Jibin; Guo, Weihong; Wu, Chifei

    2011-01-01

    In our previous report, raspberry-like carbon black/polystyrene (CB/PS) composite microsphere was prepared through heterocoagulation process. Based on the previous study, in the present work, the morphology of raspberry-like CB/PS particle is tailored through adjusting the polarity and the concentration ratio of CB/PS colloidal suspension with the purpose to prepare particulate film for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirms the morphology of raspberry-like particle and the coverage of CB. Rough surfaces fabricated by raspberry-like particles with proper morphology are observed by SEM and clear evidence of superhydrophobic surface is shown. The structure of raspberry-like particle is analyzed by atom force microscope. The proposed relationship between the hydrophobicity and the structure of CB aggregates on the surface of PS microsphere is discussed in details.

  20. Microbial community, and biochemical and physiological properties of Korean traditional black raspberry (Robus coreanus Miquel) vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nho-Eul; Cho, Sung-Ho; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the changes in microbial community and biochemical and physiological properties of traditional Muju black raspberry (Robus coreanus Miquel) vinegar (TMBV) during fermentation by culture-independent methods. During vinegar fermentation, ethanol produced up to 120 g L(-1) until day 35, with continuously increasing yeast concentration to a total of log 7.6 CFU mL(-1) . After day 35, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) concentrations rose to log 5.8 CFU mL(-1) until day 144. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae was detected until day 87 of the fermentation, at which point Acetobacter pasteurianus gradually took over as the dominant species. Total sugar was reduced to 6.6 °Brix and total acidity produced up to 44 g L(-1) . In this study, we established the physicochemical analysis and growth dynamics of yeast and AAB during alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation of black raspberry by a traditional method. Overall, S. cerevisiae and A. pasteurianus species appeared to dominate the TMBV fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a suitable fermentation system for TMBV by the static surface method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Antiviral effects of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) seed extract and its polyphenolic compounds on norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sun Young; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Chung, Yeon Bin; Gowda K, Giri; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Black raspberry seeds, a byproduct of wine and juice production, contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. The antiviral effects of black raspberry seed extract (RCS) and its fraction with molecular weight less than 1 kDa (RCS-F1) were examined against food-borne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9). The maximal antiviral effect was achieved when RCS or RCS-F1 was added simultaneously to cells with MNV-1 or FCV-F9, reaching complete inhibition at 0.1-1 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed enlarged viral capsids or disruption (from 35 nm to up to 100 nm) by RCS-F1. Our results thus suggest that RCS-F1 can interfere with the attachment of viral surface protein to host cells. Further, two polyphenolic compounds derived from RCS-F1, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and gallic acid, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against the viruses. C3G was suggested to bind to MNV-1 RNA polymerase and to enlarge viral capsids using differential scanning fluorimetry and TEM, respectively.

  2. Black Raspberry Extract Increased Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improved Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Han Saem; Kim, Sohyeon; Hong, Soon Jun; Choi, Seung Cheol; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, Chi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-04-01

    Administration of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is known to improve vascular endothelial function in patients at a high risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. We investigated short-term effects of black raspberry on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and arterial stiffness in patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 51) were prospectively randomized into the black raspberry group (n = 26, 750 mg/day) and placebo group (n = 25) during the 12-week follow-up. Central blood pressure, augmentation index, and EPCs, such as CD34/KDR(+), CD34/CD117(+), and CD34/CD133(+), were measured at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Radial augmentation indexes were significantly decreased in the black raspberry group compared to the placebo group (-5% ± 10% vs. 3% ± 14%, P raspberry group compared to the placebo group (19 ± 109/μL vs. -28 ± 57/μL, P raspberry group compared to the placebo group (-0.5 ± 1.4 pg/mL vs. -0.1 ± 1.1 pg/mL, P raspberry group. The use of black raspberry significantly lowered the augmentation index and increased circulating EPCs, thereby improving CV risks in patients with metabolic syndrome during the 12-week follow-up.

  3. Chromosome-scale scaffolding of the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) genome based on chromatin interaction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a niche fruit crop valued for its flavour and potential health benefits. The improvement of fruit and cane characteristics via molecular breeding technologies has been hindered by the lack of a high-quality reference genome. The recently released draft geno...

  4. Characterization of Black Raspberry Functional Food Products for Cancer Prevention Human Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junnan; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer H.; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Vodovotz, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Our team is designing and fully characterizing black raspberry (BRB) food products suitable for long-term cancer prevention studies. The processing, scale-up, and storage effects on the consistency, quality, bioactive stability, and sensory acceptability of two BRB delivery systems of various matrices are presented. BRB dosage, pH, water activity, and texture were consistent in the scale-up production. Confections retained >90% of anthocyanins and ellagitannin after processing. Nectars had >69% of anthocyanins and >66% of ellagitannin retention, which varied with BRB dosage due to the processing difference. Texture remained unchanged during storage. BRB products consumed in a prostate cancer clinical trial were well accepted in sensory tests. Thus, this study demonstrates that two different BRB foods can be formulated to meet quality standards with a consistent bioactive pattern and successfully scaled up for a large human clinical trial focusing on cancer risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24345009

  5. Chromosome-scale scaffolding of the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) genome based on chromatin interaction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibran, Rubina; Dzierzon, Helge; Bassil, Nahla; Bushakra, Jill M; Edger, Patrick P; Sullivan, Shawn; Finn, Chad E; Dossett, Michael; Vining, Kelly J; VanBuren, Robert; Mockler, Todd C; Liachko, Ivan; Davies, Kevin M; Foster, Toshi M; Chagné, David

    2018-01-01

    Black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis L.) is a niche fruit crop valued for its flavor and potential health benefits. The improvement of fruit and cane characteristics via molecular breeding technologies has been hindered by the lack of a high-quality reference genome. The recently released draft genome for black raspberry (ORUS 4115-3) lacks assembly of scaffolds to chromosome scale. We used high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) and Proximity-Guided Assembly (PGA) to cluster and order 9650 out of 11,936 contigs of this draft genome assembly into seven pseudo-chromosomes. The seven pseudo-chromosomes cover ~97.2% of the total contig length (~223.8 Mb). Locating existing genetic markers on the physical map resolved multiple discrepancies in marker order on the genetic map. Centromeric regions were inferred from recombination frequencies of genetic markers, alignment of 303 bp centromeric sequence with the PGA, and heat map showing the physical contact matrix over the entire genome. We demonstrate a high degree of synteny between each of the seven chromosomes of black raspberry and a high-quality reference genome for strawberry ( Fragaria vesca L.) assembled using only PacBio long-read sequences. We conclude that PGA is a cost-effective and rapid method of generating chromosome-scale assemblies from Illumina short-read sequencing data.

  6. Development and characterization of different black raspberry confection matrices designed for delivery of phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junnan; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer H; Vodovotz, Yael

    2015-03-01

    Three forms of confections containing black raspberries (BRB) powder were developed to provide controlled release of phytochemicals for oral disease prevention. Our objective was to investigate the impact of varying confection matrices on the release rate of BRB phytochemicals. Confections were developed and prepared. Textural properties of confections were analyzed, compared and correlated with the release rate of phytochemicals from BRB confections with in vitro dissolution test. In the results, BRB content reached 22% in hard candy and pectin-based confections and 40% in starch-based confections, respectively. Pectin- and starch-based confections retained >93% of its original anthocyanins after processing while hard candy had 59%. Starch confections showed higher G' in rheological analysis and higher hardness but lower cohesiveness and springiness in textural profile analysis than pectin confections (P hard candy), intermediate (pectin confections), and slow (starch confections) release rates with a final releasing time of 90, 150, and 540 min in dissolution studies. Three confections were rated between neither like nor dislike to like slightly (n = 60). Pectin confections had the highest overall acceptance (like slightly) and 62% of subjects rated this type of confection as the most liked ones. These results indicate that delivery matrix could modulate the phytochemical release rate from BRB confection and also influence sensory preference. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Differential effects of black raspberry and strawberry extracts on BaPDE-induced activation of transcription factors and their target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Stoner, Gary D; Huang, Chuanshu

    2008-04-01

    The chemopreventive properties of edible berries have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, however, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-cancer effects are largely unknown. Our previous studies have shown that a methanol extract fraction of freeze-dried black raspberries inhibits benzoapyrene (BaP)-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells. This fraction also blocks activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) induced by benzoapyrene diol-epoxide (BaPDE) in mouse epidermal JB6 Cl 41 cells. To determine if different berry types exhibit specific mechanisms for their anti-cancer effects, we compared the effects of extract fractions from both black raspberries and strawberries on BaPDE-induced activation of various signaling pathways in Cl 41 cells. Black raspberry fractions inhibited the activation of AP-1, NF-kappaB, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) by BaPDE as well as their upstream PI-3K/Akt-p70(S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. In contrast, strawberry fractions inhibited NFAT activation, but did not inhibit the activation of AP-1, NF-kappaB or the PI-3K/Akt-p70(S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Consistent with the effects on NFAT activation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induction by BaPDE was blocked by extract fractions of both black raspberries and strawberries, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, which depends on AP-1 activation, was suppressed by black raspberry fractions but not strawberry fractions. These results suggest that black raspberry and strawberry components may target different signaling pathways in exerting their anti-carcinogenic effects. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. A genetic linkage map of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) and the mapping of Ag(4) conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora agathonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushakra, Jill M; Bryant, Douglas W; Dossett, Michael; Vining, Kelly J; VanBuren, Robert; Gilmore, Barbara S; Lee, Jungmin; Mockler, Todd C; Finn, Chad E; Bassil, Nahla V

    2015-08-01

    We have constructed a densely populated, saturated genetic linkage map of black raspberry and successfully placed a locus for aphid resistance. Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a high-value crop in the Pacific Northwest of North America with an international marketplace. Few genetic resources are readily available and little improvement has been achieved through breeding efforts to address production challenges involved in growing this crop. Contributing to its lack of improvement is low genetic diversity in elite cultivars and an untapped reservoir of genetic diversity from wild germplasm. In the Pacific Northwest, where most production is centered, the current standard commercial cultivar is highly susceptible to the aphid Amphorophora agathonica Hottes, which is a vector for the Raspberry mosaic virus complex. Infection with the virus complex leads to a rapid decline in plant health resulting in field replacement after only 3-4 growing seasons. Sources of aphid resistance have been identified in wild germplasm and are used to develop mapping populations to study the inheritance of these valuable traits. We have constructed a genetic linkage map using single-nucleotide polymorphism and transferable (primarily simple sequence repeat) markers for F1 population ORUS 4305 consisting of 115 progeny that segregate for aphid resistance. Our linkage map of seven linkage groups representing the seven haploid chromosomes of black raspberry consists of 274 markers on the maternal map and 292 markers on the paternal map including a morphological locus for aphid resistance. This is the first linkage map of black raspberry and will aid in developing markers for marker-assisted breeding, comparative mapping with other Rubus species, and enhancing the black raspberry genome assembly.

  9. Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Cyanidins in Black Raspberry as Candidates for Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Murine Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Hee; Park, Hyun-Chang; Choi, Seulgi; Kim, Sugyeong; Bao, Cheng; Kim, Hyung Woo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Hong Jin; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2015-06-10

    The extracts produced by multisolvent extraction and subfractionation with preparative liquid chromatography of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) cultivated in Gochang, South Korea, were tested for their anti-inflammatory effects. The metabolomic profiling and analysis by orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OLPS-DA) suggested that cyanidin, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) were key components for the anti-inflammatory responses in the most active fraction BF3-1, where they were present at 0.44, 1.26, and 0.56 μg/mg of BF3-1, respectively. Both BF3-1 and mixture of these cyanidins at the same ratio reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced protein level of iNOS expression and suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β through inhibiting the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and STAT3 in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Overall, the results suggested that co-administration of cyanidin, C3G, and C3R is more effective than that of cyanidin alone and that the coexistence of these anthocyanin components in black raspberry plays a vital role in regulating LPS-induced inflammation even at submicromolar concentrations, making it possible to explain the health beneficial activity of its extracts.

  10. Dietary cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry affects the development of dyslipidemia and insulin insensitivity associated with metabolic syndrome in high fructose fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of feeding cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry powder on selected parameters of metabolic syndrome were investigated in 40 growing male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were divided into five dietary treatments of 1) control AIN93G diet, 2) high fructose (65% by weight, HF) diet, and 3-5) ...

  11. Bioconversion of Cyanidin-3-Rutinoside to Cyanidin-3-Glucoside in Black Raspberry by Crude α-L-Rhamnosidase from Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Taehwan; Jung, Hana; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-11-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) has been known to be more bioavailable than cyanidin-3- rutinoside (C3R), the most abundant anthocyanin in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis). The aim of this study was to enhance the bioavailability of anthocyanins in black raspberry by cleaving L-rhamnose in C3R using crude enzyme extracts (CEEs) from Aspergillus usamii KCTC 6956, A. awamori KCTC 60380, A. niger KCCM 11724, A. oryzae KCCM 12698, and A. kawachii KCCM 32819. The enzyme activities of the CEEs were determined by a spectrophotometric method using rho-nitrophenyl-rhamnopyranoside and rho-nitrophenyl-glucopyranoside. The CEE from A. usamii had the highest α-L-rhamnosidase activity with 2.73 U/ml at 60°C, followed by those from A. awamori and A. niger. When bioconversion of C3R to C3G in black raspberry was analyzed by HPLC-DAD, the CEEs from A. usamii and A. awamori hydrolyzed 95.7% and 95.6% of C3R to C3G, respectively, after 2 h incubation. The CEEs from A. kawachii and A. oryzae did not convert C3R to C3G in black raspberry.

  12. NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil

    2014-02-26

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products.

  13. Chemoprevention of esophageal cancer with black raspberries, their component anthocyanins, and a major anthocyanin metabolite, protocatechuic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Daniel S; Zimmerman, Noah P; Wang, Li-Shu; Ransom, Benjamin W S; Carmella, Steven G; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Siddiqui, Jibran; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Oshima, Kiyoko; Huang, Yi-Wen; Hecht, Stephen S; Stoner, Gary D

    2014-06-01

    Diets containing either freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) or their polyphenolic anthocyanins (ACs) have been shown to inhibit the development of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced esophageal cancer in rats. The present study was conducted to determine whether PCA, a major microbial metabolite of black raspberry (BRB) ACs, also prevents NMBA-induced esophageal cancer in rats. F344 rats were injected with NMBA three times a week for 5 weeks and then fed control or experimental diets containing 6.1% BRBs, an anthocyanin (AC)-enriched fraction derived from BRBs, or protocatechuic acid (PCA). Animals were exsanguinated at weeks 15, 25, and 35 to quantify the development of preneoplastic lesions and tumors in the esophagus, and to relate this to the expression of inflammatory biomarkers. At weeks 15 and 25, all experimental diets were equally effective in reducing NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis, as well as in reducing the expression of pentraxin-3 (PTX3), a cytokine produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to interleukin (IL)-1β and TNF-α. All experimental diets were also active at reducing tumorigenesis at week 35; however, the BRB diet was significantly more effective than the AC and PCA diets. Furthermore, all experimental diets inhibited inflammation in the esophagus via reducing biomarker (COX-2, iNOS, p-NF-κB, and sEH) and cytokine (PTX3) expression. Overall, our data suggest that BRBs, their component ACs, and PCA inhibit NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis, at least in part, by their inhibitory effects on genes associated with inflammation. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits: identification by HPLC-DAD, NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Reese, R Neil; Smiljanic, Danijela; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Riedl, Kenneth M; Rinaldi, Peter L

    2013-12-11

    Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites potentially contributing to the antiproliferative bioactivity of black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits were extracted in ethyl acetate and isolated by semipreparative and analytical HPLC and analyzed by NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS techniques. Here we present complete and partial structures of a variety of the chemical entities such as quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, myricetin glucoside, dihydrokaempferol glucoside, benzoic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-coumaryl glucoside, p-coumaryl sugar ester, ellagic acid, methyl ellagic acid acetylpentose, methyl ellagic acid valerylpentose, trans-piceid, phloretin glucoside (phloridzin), dihydrosinapic acid, salicylic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, a salicylic acid derivative without attached sugar, p-alkylphenyl glucoside, and a citric acid derivative. To our knowledge, 15 of these compounds were not previously reported in black raspberry fruits.

  15. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in α-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of α-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol.

  16. Chemopreventive activity of ellagitannins and their derivatives from black raspberry seeds on HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunnho; Jung, Hana; Lee, Heejae; Yi, Hae Chang; Kwak, Ho-kyung; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-05-01

    Black raspberry (BRB) seeds are a major waste product after fruit processing. The seeds are abundant in ellagitannins (ET), a class of hydrolysable tannins, which are hydrolyzed to ellagic acid (EA) and further metabolized to urolithin A (UA) and urolithin B (UB), known to be bioavailable in the colon and the prostate. In this study, the anti-cancer activities of these compounds were evaluated on HT-29 colon cancer cells. ET, EA, UA and UB inhibited the proliferation of the cancer cells. EA caused a slight, but significant cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and urolithins caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and upregulated p21 expression. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI assay when treated with the compounds. Disruption in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases 8 and 9 suggest that both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways may be involved. Activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of PARP further confirmed the induction of the apoptosis. ET, EA, UA and UB showed anti-cancer activity by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This study suggests that the BRB seeds could be a potential source of anti-cancer ET.

  17. Black Raspberries and Their Anthocyanin and Fiber Fractions Alter the Composition and Diversity of Gut Microbiota in F-344 Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Lam, Vy; Salzman, Nita; Huang, Yi-Wen; Yu, Jianhua; Zhang, Jianying; Wang, Li-Shu

    2017-01-01

    Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed. We observed distinct patterns of microbiota from different diet groups. Beta diversity analysis suggested that all diet groups exerted time-dependent changes in the bacterial diversity. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that post-diet fecal microbiota was segregated from baseline fecal microbiota within each diet. It is interesting to note that fractions of BRBs induced different changes in gut bacteria compared to whole BRBs. The abundance of specific microbial species known to have anti-inflammatory effects, such as Akkermansia and Desulfovibrio, was increased by whole BRBs and their residue. Further, butyrate-producing bacteria, e.g., Anaerostipes, were increased by whole BRBs. Our results suggest that whole BRBs and their fractions alter the gut microbiota in ways that could significantly influence human health.

  18. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed black raspberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, A; Howard, L R; Prior, R L; Brownmiller, C

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of black raspberries that were individually quick-frozen (IQF), canned-in-syrup, canned-in-water, pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and ORAC(FL) were determined 1 d postprocessing and after 1, 3, and 6 mo of storage. Thermal processing resulted in marked losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 37% in puree to 69% to 73% in nonclarified and clarified juices, respectively, but only the juices showed substantial losses (38% to 41%) in ORAC(FL). Storage at 25 degrees C of all thermally processed products resulted in dramatic losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 49% in canned-in-syrup to 75% in clarified juices. This coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values of these products over the 6-mo storage. ORAC(FL) values showed little change during storage, indicating that the formation of polymers compensated for the loss of antioxidant capacity due to anthocyanin degradation. Total anthocyanins and ORACFL of IQF berries were well retained during long-term storage at -20 degrees C.

  19. Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry for Free Radical Scavenging, Reactive Carbonyl Species Trapping, Anti-Glycation, Anti-β-Amyloid Aggregation, and Microglial Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as β-amyloid (Aβ. Published studies support the anti-glycation and neuroprotective effects of several polyphenol-rich fruits, including berries, which are rich in anthocyanins. Herein, blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts were evaluated for: (1 total phenolic and anthocyanins contents, (2 free radical (DPPH scavenging and reactive carbonyl species (methylglyoxal; MGO trapping, (3 anti-glycation (using BSA-fructose and BSA-MGO models, (4 anti-Aβ aggregation (using thermal- and MGO-induced fibrillation models, and, (5 murine microglia (BV-2 neuroprotective properties. Berry crude extracts (CE were fractionated to yield anthocyanins-free (ACF and anthocyanins-enriched (ACE extracts. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL showed superior free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects compared to their respective ACFs. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL inhibited both thermal- and MGO-induced Aβ fibrillation. In addition, the berry ACEs (at 20 μg/mL reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species in BV-2 microglia as well as decreased H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3/7 activity in BV-2 microglia. The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-Aβ fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD.

  20. Evaluations of sustained vigor and winter hardiness of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) grown in the Southeastern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand for fresh berry products continues to grow on the East Coast; however commercial raspberry production in the Southeast is difficult because cultivars are not well adapted to the warm climate and fluctuating winter temperatures, where heat degrades plant vigor and fruit quality, and chilling r...

  1. Efficacy comparison of lyophilised black raspberries and combination of celecoxib and PBIT in prevention of carcinogen-induced oesophageal cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ni; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Zhang, Xiaoli; Clinton, Steven K; Chen, Tong

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and mechanism of lyophilized black raspberries (BRB) versus the combination of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and S,S '-1,4-phenylene- bis (1,2-ethanediyl) bis -isothiourea (PBIT), a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in inhibition of carcinogen-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in rats. Our data indicated that tumor multiplicity and histologic grade of esophageal precancerous lesions were reduced in animals fed BRB compared to those fed celecoxib + PBIT. The mechanistic studies showed that BRB and its major anthocyanin suppressed cell proliferation and oncogenic signaling. Our findings demonstrated that dietary BRB is superior to the combination of two pharmaceutical drugs in esophageal cancer prevention. These observations suggest the potential value of translational studies using BRB food products for esophageal cancer prevention in humans, particularly those with high-risk premalignant lesions.

  2. Decay resistance to Botrytis cinerea and quality characteristics during storage of raspberry genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberries are a delicate, high value crop with an extremely short shelf life exacerbated by postharvest decay caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. European red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is the most widely grown. Yellow (R. idaeus L.), black (R. occidentalis L.) and purple raspberries (R. ×neglectus ...

  3. Raspberry Pi gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Shea

    2015-01-01

    If you are someone who loves to play games and are interested in learning more about the capabilities of your Raspberry Pi, this book is for you. Basic knowledge of Raspberry Pi programming is expected.

  4. De-novo RNA sequencing and metabolite profiling to identify genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyung Hyun

    Full Text Available The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3'H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2 gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant.

  5. Chemical Characteristics of Cold-Pressed Blackberry, Black Raspberry, and Blueberry Seed Oils and the Role of the Minor Components in Their Oxidative Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanquan; Wang, Jiankang; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-07-06

    The chemical characteristics of cold-pressed blackberry, black raspberry, and blueberry seed oils were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, positional distribution of fatty acids, triacylglycerol (TAG) profile, and minor component profile. The role of minor components, including tocols and pigments, on the oxidative stability was also investigated using high-temperature- and fluorescent-lighting-induced oxidation before and after tested berry seed oils were stripped of their minor components. The results indicated that all tested berry seed oils contained significant levels of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (C18:2ω-6), and α-linolenic (C18:3ω-3) acids, along with a favorable ratio of ω-6/ω-3 fatty acids (1.49-3.86); palmitic, stearic, oleic, and α-linolenic acids were predominantly distributed on the terminal positions. Six TAGs, namely, LnLnLn, LnLLn, LLLn, LLL, OLL, and OLLn, were the major species detected in the tested berry seed oils. Total tocol contents were 286.3-1302.9 mg/kg, which include α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols as well as δ-tocotrienol. Oxidative stability of the three berry seed oils was compromised after the removal of tocols under high-temperature-induced oxidation, while the loss of pigments (chlorophylls) led to weak oxidative stability when exposed to fluorescent lights.

  6. De-novo RNA sequencing and metabolite profiling to identify genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Rim, Yeonggil; Kumar, Ritesh; Han, Xiao; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2014-01-01

    The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB) on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3'H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2) gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant.

  7. Suppression of pro-inflammatory and pro-survival biomarkers in oral cancer patients consuming a black raspberry phytochemical-rich troche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Thomas J.; Uhrig, Lana K.; Pearl, Dennis K.; Casto, Bruce C.; Warner, Blake M.; Clinton, Steven K.; Sardo-Molmenti, Christine L.; Ferguson, Jeanette M.; Daly, Brett T.; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven J.; Vodovotz, Yael; Buchta, Anthony J.; Schuller, David E.; Ozer, Enver; Agrawal, Amit; Weghorst, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Black raspberries (BRBs) demonstrate potent inhibition of aerodigestive tract carcinogenesis in animal models. However, translational clinical trials evaluating the ability of BRB phytochemicals to impact molecular biomarkers in the oral mucosa remain limited. The present phase 0 study addresses a fundamental question for oral cancer food-based prevention: Do BRB phytochemicals successfully reach the targeted oral tissues and reduce pro-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic gene expression profiles? Patients with biopsy-confirmed oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) administered oral troches containing freeze-dried BRB powder from the time of enrollment to the date of curative intent surgery (13.9 ± 1.27 days). Transcriptional biomarkers were evaluated in patient-matched OSCCs and non-involved high at-risk mucosa (HARM) for BRB-associated changes. Significant expression differences between baseline OSCC and HARM tissues were confirmed using a panel of genes commonly deregulated during oral carcinogenesis. Following BRB troche administration, the expression of pro-survival genes (AURKA, BIRC5, EGFR) and pro-inflammatory genes (NFKB1, PTGS2) were significantly reduced. There were no BRB-associated Grade 3–4 toxicities or adverse events and 79.2% (N = 30) of patients successfully completed the study with high levels of compliance (97.2%). The BRB phytochemicals cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-xylosylrutinoside were detected in all OSCC tissues analyzed, demonstrating that bioactive components were successfully reaching targeted OSCC tissues. We confirmed that hallmark anti-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory molecular biomarkers were over-expressed in OSCCs and that their gene expression was significantly reduced following BRB troche administration. Since these molecular biomarkers are fundamental to oral carcinogenesis and are modifiable, they may represent emerging biomarkers of molecular efficacy for BRB-mediated oral cancer chemoprevention. PMID:26701664

  8. Formulation and In-Vitro and In-Vivo Evaluation of a Mucoadhesive Gel Containing Freeze Dried Black Raspberries: Implications for Oral Cancer Chemoprevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallery, Susan R.; Stoner, Gary D.; Larsen, Peter E.; Fields, Henry W.; Rodrigo, Kapila A.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Tian, Qingguo; Dai, Jin; Mumper, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of these studies was to formulate mucoadhesive gels containing freeze dried black raspberries (FBR) and to determine optimum parameters for a subset of FBR bioactive compounds including anthocyanin stability, absorption and penetration in-vitro and in-vivo. Materials and Methods Berry gels were prepared having FBR at 5% and 10% w/w and final pHs ranging from 3.5 to 7.5. A HPLC assay was developed to quantify and determine the stability of the anthocyanins in the gels. A single time-point study was performed to determine anthocyanin uptake when the gels were applied to oral mucosa. Penetration of anthocyanins into human oral tissue explants was determined as a function of gel pH and FBR content. A HPLC-mass spectroscopy assay was utilized to quantify the anthocyanin levels in human oral tissue explants, saliva, and blood. Results The stability of anthocyanins in the gel was directly related to gel pH and storage temperature. Maximum stability of anthocyanins was found at lower pH (pH 3.5) and storage temperature (4°C). Anthocyanins contained in mucoadhesive berry gel formulations were readily absorbed into human oral mucosa tissue as evidenced by detectable blood levels within 5 min after gel application. There was a trend for greater penetration of anthocyanins into tissue explants for berry gels with a final pH of 6.5 versus pH 3.5. Conclusions Formulation and characterization of a novel gel formulation for local delivery of chemopreventive compounds to human oral mucosal tissues has been described. The results show anthocyanin stability was dependent upon gel pH and storage temperature and also demonstrate that the gel composition is well-suited for absorption and penetration into the target oral mucosal tissue site. PMID:17372698

  9. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben

    2013-01-01

    The essential guide to getting started with the Raspberry Pi ® The Raspberry Pi has been a success beyond the dream of its creators. Their goal, to encourage a new generation of computer programmers who understand how computers work, is well under way. Raspberry Pi User Guide 2e is the newest edition of the runaway bestseller written by the Pi's co-creator, Eben Upton, and tech writer Gareth Halfacree. It contains everything you need to know to get the Pi up and running, including how to: Connect a keyboard, mouse, monitor and other peripheralsInstall software and configure your Raspberry

  10. Meet the Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben

    2012-01-01

    The essential preview guide to getting started with Raspberry Pi ʼ computing and programming Originally conceived of as a fun, easy way for kids (and curious adults) to learn computer programming, the Raspberry Pi quickly evolved into a remarkably robust, credit-card-size computer that can be used for everything from playing HD videos and hacking around with hardware to learning to program! Co-authored by one of the creators of the Raspberry Pi, this special preview eBook fills you in on everything you need to know to get up and running on your Raspberry Pi in no time, including how to:

  11. Adventures in Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, Carrie Anne

    2015-01-01

    Start programming quickly with this super-fun guide to Raspberry Pi Adventures in Raspberry Pi, 2nd Edition includes 9 cool projects that show you how to set up and start developing on your Raspberry Pi. Updated for the release of the Rev 3 board, this second edition covers all the latest features and tells you everything you need to know. Written specifically for 11-15 year-olds, this book uses the wildly successful, Raspberry Pi to explain the fundamentals of computing. You'll have a blast learning basic programming and system administration skills, beginning with the very basics of how to p

  12. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  13. Raspberry Pi for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    McManus, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Embrace the exciting new technology of Raspberry Pi! With the invention of the unique credit-card sized single-board computer, the Raspberry Pi, comes a new wave of hardware geeks, hackers, and hobbyists who are excited about the possibilities of the Raspberry Pi, and this is the perfect guide to get you started in this exhilarating new arena. With this fun and friendly book, you'll quickly discover why the supply for the Pi cannot keep up with the demand! Veteran tech authors Sean McManus and Mike Cook show you how to download and install the operating system, use the installe

  14. Raspberry Pi projects

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Learn to build software and hardware projects featuring the Raspberry Pi! Raspberry Pi represents a new generation of computers that encourages the user to play and to learn and this unique book is aimed at the beginner Raspberry Pi user who is eager to get started creating real-world projects. Taking you on a journey of creating 15 practical projects, this fun and informative resource introduces you to the skills you need to have in order to make the most of the Pi. The book begins with a quick look at how to get the Pi up and running and then encourages you to dive into the array of exciti

  15. Construction of black (Rubus occidentalis) and red (R. idaeus) raspberry linkage maps and their comparison to the genomes of strawberry, apple, and peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushakra, J M; Stephens, M J; Atmadjaja, A N; Lewers, K S; Symonds, V V; Udall, J A; Chagné, D; Buck, E J; Gardiner, S E

    2012-07-01

    The genus Rubus belongs to the Rosaceae and is comprised of 600-800 species distributed world-wide. To date, genetic maps of the genus consist largely of non-transferable markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms. An F(1) population developed from a cross between an advanced breeding selection of Rubus occidentalis (96395S1) and R. idaeus 'Latham' was used to construct a new genetic map consisting of DNA sequence-based markers. The genetic linkage maps presented here are constructed of 131 markers on at least one of the two parental maps. The majority of the markers are orthologous, including 14 Rosaceae conserved orthologous set markers, and 60 new gene-based markers developed for raspberry. Thirty-four published raspberry simple sequence repeat markers were used to align the new maps to published raspberry maps. The 96395S1 genetic map consists of six linkage groups (LG) and covers 309 cM with an average of 10 cM between markers; the 'Latham' genetic map consists of seven LG and covers 561 cM with an average of 5 cM between markers. We used BLAST analysis to align the orthologous sequences used to design primer pairs for Rubus genetic mapping with the genome sequences of Fragaria vesca 'Hawaii 4', Malus × domestica 'Golden Delicious', and Prunus 'Lovell'. The alignment of the orthologous markers designed here suggests that the genomes of Rubus and Fragaria have a high degree of synteny and that synteny decreases with phylogenetic distance. Our results give unprecedented insights into the genome evolution of raspberry from the putative ancestral genome of the single ancestor common to Rosaceae.

  16. Raspberry Pi hardware projects 1

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Learn how to take full advantage of all of Raspberry Pi's amazing features and functions-and have a blast doing it! Congratulations on becoming a proud owner of a Raspberry Pi, the credit-card-sized computer! If you're ready to dive in and start finding out what this amazing little gizmo is really capable of, this ebook is for you. Taken from the forthcoming Raspberry Pi Projects, Raspberry Pi Hardware Projects 1 contains three cool hardware projects that let you have fun with the Raspberry Pi while developing your Raspberry Pi skills. The authors - PiFace inventor, Andrew Robinson and Rasp

  17. Raspberry Pi robotics projects

    CERN Document Server

    Grimmett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This book is for enthusiasts who want to use the Raspberry Pi to build complex robotics projects. With the aid of the step-by-step instructions in this book, you can construct complex robotics projects that can move, talk, listen, see, swim, or fly. No previous Raspberry Pi robotics experience is assumed, but even experts will find unexpected and interesting information in this invaluable guide.

  18. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Halfacree, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Make the most out of the world’s first truly compact computer It's the size of a credit card, it can be charged like a smartphone, it runs on open-source Linux, and it holds the promise of bringing programming and playing to millions at low cost. And now you can learn how to use this amazing computer from its co-creator, Eben Upton, in Raspberry Pi User Guide. Cowritten with Gareth Halfacree, this guide gets you up and running on Raspberry Pi, whether you're an educator, hacker, hobbyist, or kid. Learn how to connect your Pi to other hardware, install software, write basic programs, an

  19. Raspberry Pi Eclipse Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizek Frouard, Malynda

    2018-01-01

    The 21 August 2017 solar eclipse was an excellent opportunity for electronics and science enthusiasts to collect data during a fascinating phenomenon. With my recent personal interest in Raspberry Pis, I thought measuring how much the temperature and illuminance changes during a total solar eclipse would be fun and informational.Previous observations of total solar eclipses have remarked on the temperature drop during totality. Illuminance (ambient light) varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night and is highly dependent on relative positions of Sun, Earth, and Moon. I wondered whether totality was really as dark as night.Using a Raspberry Pi Zero W, a Pimoroni Enviro pHAT, and a portable USB charger, I collected environmental temperature; CPU temperature (because the environmental temperature sensor sat very near the CPU on the Raspberry Pi); barometric pressure; ambient light; R, G, and B colors; and x, y, and z acceleration (for marking times when I moved the sensor) data at a ~15 second cadence starting at about 5 am until 1:30 pm from my eclipse observation site in Glendo, WY. Totality occurred from 11:45 to 11:47 am, lasting about 2 minutes and 30 seconds.The Raspberry Pi recorded a >20 degree F drop in temperature during the eclipse, and the illuminance during totality was equivalent to twilight measurements earlier in the day. A limitation in the ambient light sensor prevented accurate measurements of broad daylight and most of the partial phase of the eclipse, but an alternate ambient light sensor combined with the Raspberry Pi setup would make this a cost-efficient set-up for illuminance studies.I will present data from the ambient light sensor, temperature sensor, and color sensor, noting caveats from my experiments, lessons learned for next time, and suggestions for anyone who wants to perform similar experiments for themselves or with a classroom.

  20. Raspberry Pi projects for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Mike; Craft, Brock

    2015-01-01

    Join the Raspberry revolution with these fun and easy Pi projects The Raspberry Pi has opened up a whole new world of innovation for everyone from hardware hackers and programmers to students, hobbyists, engineers, and beyond. Featuring a variety of hands-on projects, this easy-to-understand guide walks you through every step of the design process and will have you creating like a Raspberry Pi pro in no time. You'll learn how to prepare your workspace, assemble the necessary tools, work with test equipment, and find your way around the Raspberry Pi before moving on to a series of fun, livel

  1. Produção de mudas de framboeseira negra por diferentes métodos de propagação vegetativa Seedling production of black raspberry by different methods of vegetative propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Nascimento Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar técnicas de propagação vegetativa da framboeseira negra (Rubus niveus por estaquia e mergulhia, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o potencial rizogênico de estacas caulinares, radiculares, mergulhia de ponta e alporquia dessa espécie. No primeiro experimento, estacas radiculares e caulinares de 10 cm foram tratadas com diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB: 1000, 2000, 3000 e 4000mg L-1 por 10 segundos, além do controle composto somente por água. No segundo experimento, as estacas foram armazenadas a frio por 10, 20 e 30 dias, além do controle sem armazenamento. Em ambos os experimentos, as estacas caulinares foram enterradas 2/3 de seu comprimento na posição vertical e as estacas radiculares foram totalmente imersas na posição horizontal, utilizando a vermiculita de grânulos finos como substrato, em telado com sombreamento de 50% e, após 60 dias, foram avaliadas. No terceiro experimento, a mergulhia de ponta e alporquia foram realizadas na porção mediana dos ramos, aplicando-se no local diferentes concentrações de AIB (0, 1000, 2000 e 3000mg L-1 e, em seguida, foram envolvidos pelo substrato casca de pinus umedecido. Passados 45 dias, foram removidos para a mensuração. Concluiu-se que as estacas caulinares apresentam resultados superiores em comparação com as estacas radiculares, não necessitando armazenar a frio e não tratar com AIB; a mergulhia de ponta promoveu maior emissão de raízes em comparação com a alporquia.Aiming to develop a propagation protocol through black raspberry (Rubus niveus cutting and layering, the objective of the present research was to quantify the rizogenic potential of stems and roots cuttings, point and air layering of this specie. In the first experiment, the stems and roots cuttings of 10 cm of length were treated with different concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA: 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000mg L-1 for 10 seconds. In the second experiment

  2. Learning Python with Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Bradbury, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The must-have companion guide to the Raspberry Pi User Guide! Raspberry Pi chose Python as its teaching language of choice to encourage a new generation of programmers to learn how to program. This approachable book serves as an ideal resource for anyone wanting to use Raspberry Pi to learn to program and helps you get started with the Python programming language. Aimed at first-time developers with no prior programming language assumed, this beginner book gets you up and running.Covers variables, loops, and functionsAddresses 3D graphics programmingWalks you through programming MinecraftZero

  3. Raspberry Pi mechatronics projects hotshot

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanoor, Sai

    2015-01-01

    This book is targeted towards beginners and intermediate designers of mechatronic systems and embedded system design. Some familiarity with the Raspberry Pi and Python programming is preferred but not required.

  4. Remote laboratory with Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorščak, Mihael

    2016-01-01

    The thesis is intended for teachers in junior high school and students of technology education in planning innovational and different learning lessons using information and communication technologies and inductive methods. In thesis is represented an indicative layout of the remote laboratory for educational purposes on the basis of the Raspberry Pi computer. Thesis features used hardware components for this theme, Raspberry Pi computer, its development and commonly used peripheral device...

  5. Study of Remontant Raspberry Frost Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushchina M.Yu.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the second component of remontant raspberry cold hardiness - frost resistance, namely the ability of this raspberry type to tolerate the lowest temperature. Series of artificial freezing was carried out to check the frost-resistance. According to the data obtained the most frost-resistant varieties of remontant raspberries were detected. The critical low temperature for all studied varieties and forms of remontant raspberries was estimated.

  6. Effect of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf mottle virus, and Raspberry latent virus on plant growth and fruit crumbliness in ‘Meeker’ red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry crumbly fruit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), widespread in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and British Columbia, Canada, is most commonly caused by a virus infection. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) has long been attributed as the causal agent of the disease. Recently, t...

  7. Antimicrobial action of purified raspberry flavonoid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... In this paper, the bacteriostatic action of purified raspberry flavonoid was explored. A study was conducted on the effect of raspberry flavonoid on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillium. Raspberry flavonoid had the best.

  8. Raspberry Pi in oddaljeni laboratorij

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorščak, Mihael

    2017-01-01

    Diplomsko delo je namenjeno učiteljem Tehnike v osnovnih šolah in študentom Tehnike pri načrtovanju inovativnih, drugačnih učnih ur ob uporabi informacijsko-komunikacijskih tehnologij in induktivnih metod poučevanja. V diplomskem delu je predstavljena okvirna postavitev oddaljenega laboratorija za izobraževalne namene na podlagi računalnika Raspberry Pi. Predstavljene so uporabljene strojne komponente, računalnik Raspberry Pi, pogosto uporabljene periferne naprave in čutilniki ter povezava...

  9. Raspberry Pi projects for kids

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial contains all-important information about how to use your Raspberry Pi to develop any application you like. It is broken down into several action-packed projects, each containing easy-to-follow steps, just to show you how easy and fun computer programming can be!If you are someone with a big imagination and would like to dive straight into the realm of technology and computers, then this is the book for you. With only a Raspberry Pi and no prior experience required, you will be shown how to translate your ideas into computer programs, creating any game, tool, or animation you can

  10. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  11. OpenDomo en Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Herrero, David

    2013-01-01

    Portabilidad del sistema de control domótico OpenDomo a la arquitectura ARM (Raspberry Pi). Portabilitat del sistema de control domòtic OpenDomo a l'arquitectura ARM (Raspberry Pi). Master thesis for the Free software program.

  12. Raspberry Pi home automation with Arduino

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    If you are new to the Raspberry Pi, the Arduino, or home automation and wish to develop some amazing projects using these tools, then this book is for you. Any experience in using the Raspberry Pi would be an added advantage.

  13. IoT con Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    García Muelas, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Estudio de diferentes plataformas software y hardware del internet de las cosas. Aplicación real con Raspberry Pi. Estudi de diferents plataformes programari i maquinari de l'internet de les coses. Aplicació real amb Raspberry Pi. Bachelor thesis for the Telecommunication Technologies program on Telematics.

  14. Microbial production of natural raspberry ketone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, Jules; van der Meer, Ingrid M.; Sibbesen, Ole; Broekgaarden, Mans; Qvist, Ingmar; Mikkelsen, Joern D.; Hall, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Raspberry ketone is an important compound for the flavour industry. It is frequently used in products such as soft drinks, sweets, puddings and ice creams. The compound can be produced by organic synthesis. Demand for "natural" raspberry ketone is growing considerably. However, this product is

  15. Raspberry Pi programming day | 12 April

    CERN Multimedia

    William Bell

    2014-01-01

    CERN is hosting a Raspberry Pi programming day on 12 April 2014 (see here).   The event includes a hands-on workshop and a series of presentations of different projects with the Raspberry Pi. The presentations and workshop provide an ideal introduction for beginners and information for those with more advanced computer programming skills. Basic programming techniques will be discussed using Scratch, Python and C, through a set of worked examples and additional electronics. The electronics examples will include a LEGO NXT interface, other expansion boards and a variety of basic I/O components and sensors. This event is free, but it is necessary to sign up to be able to attend. If you would like to present a project or bring your Raspberry Pi project to discuss in the tutorial session, please also email raspberry.pi@cern.ch with the details of your presentation or project.

  16. Kelayakan Raspberry Pi sebagai Web Server: Perbandingan Kinerja Nginx, Apache, dan Lighttpd pada Platform Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Dawood

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry Pi is a small-sized computer, but it can function like an ordinary computer. Because it can function like a regular PC then it is also possible to run a web server application on the Raspberry Pi. This paper will report results from testing the feasibility and performance of running a web server on the Raspberry Pi. The test was conducted on the current top three most popular web servers, which are: Apache, Nginx, and Lighttpd. The parameters used to evaluate the feasibility and performance of these web servers were: maximum request and reply time. The results from the test showed that it is feasible to run all three web servers on the Raspberry Pi but Nginx gave the best performance followed by Lighttpd and Apache.Keywords: Raspberry Pi, web server, Apache, Lighttpd, Nginx, web server performance

  17. Market analysis of Serbia's raspberry sector and cluster development initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraušić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors analyze competitive strength and weakness of raspberry producers in Serbia and propose key prerequisites of which fulfilling will depend develop of successful cluster initiative in Serbian raspberry sector. The research results indicate that Serbian raspberry growers can develop successful cluster and they can keep leading position in the global market of raspberries, only with following many assumptions, like: (a better organized marketing channel through the vertically and horizontal integration of all actors in this sector,(b strengthening specialized cooperatives for raspberry production and associations of raspberry growers, and in the future setting up of producer organizations and associations; (c inclusion of producers of other berries and producers of processed berries; (d introducing innovations, scientific knowledge, and research and development in production, processing, packing, logistics, export of raspberries, etc. An analysis is based on case study in Šumadija and Western Serbia region, which is major region in raspberry production in Serbia.

  18. Power Monitoring Using the Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    The Raspberry Pi is a credit card size low powered compute board with Ethernet connection, HDMI video output, audio, full Linux operating system run from an SD card, and more, all for $45. With cables, SD card, etc., the cost is about $70. Originally designed to help teach computer science principles to low income children and students, the Pi has…

  19. ‘Cascade Harvest’ red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Cascade Harvest’ is a new floricane fruiting raspberry cultivar (Rubus idaeus L.) jointly released by Washington State University (WSU), Oregon State University (OSU) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Cascade Harvest’ produces a high yield of large, firm fruit suited to machine harves...

  20. Developing expressed sequence tag libraries and the discovery of simple sequence repeat markers for two species of raspberry (Rubus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushakra, Jill M; Lewers, Kim S; Staton, Margaret E; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Saski, Christopher A

    2015-10-26

    Due to a relatively high level of codominant inheritance and transferability within and among taxonomic groups, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are important elements in comparative mapping and delineation of genomic regions associated with traits of economic importance. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are a source of SSRs that can be used to develop markers to facilitate plant breeding and for more basic research across genera and higher plant orders. Leaf and meristem tissue from 'Heritage' red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 'Bristol' black raspberry (R. occidentalis) were utilized for RNA extraction. After conversion to cDNA and library construction, ESTs were sequenced, quality verified, assembled and scanned for SSRs.  Primers flanking the SSRs were designed and a subset tested for amplification, polymorphism and transferability across species. ESTs containing SSRs were functionally annotated using the GenBank non-redundant (nr) database and further classified using the gene ontology database. To accelerate development of EST-SSRs in the genus Rubus (Rosaceae), 1149 and 2358 cDNA sequences were generated from red raspberry and black raspberry, respectively. The cDNA sequences were screened using rigorous filtering criteria which resulted in the identification of 121 and 257 SSR loci for red and black raspberry, respectively. Primers were designed from the surrounding sequences resulting in 131 and 288 primer pairs, respectively, as some sequences contained more than one SSR locus. Sequence analysis revealed that the SSR-containing genes span a diversity of functions and share more sequence identity with strawberry genes than with other Rosaceous species. This resource of Rubus-specific, gene-derived markers will facilitate the construction of linkage maps composed of transferable markers for studying and manipulating important traits in this economically important genus.

  1. "The Other"--A Threat or a Resource? Polar Interpretations of Two Children's Stories: "The Ugly Duckling" by H. C. Andersen and "Raspberry Juice" by H. Shenhav

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli, Liora

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the educational work towards tolerance by analyzing two opposed social views in children's stories: "The ugly duckling" by H.C. Andersen and "Raspberry Juice" by H. Shenav. "The ugly duckling" depicts a social state based on the evolutional ladder, where the white entity is at the top, and the black one is at the bottom,…

  2. RASPBERRY PI TIEDONKERUULAITTEENA : Case: Nab Labs Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Aho, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli Raspberry Pi-alustalle suunnitellun etäluettavan ja -hallittavan mittausjärjes-telmän toteuttaminen Nab Labs Oy:n ilmatutkimusyksikölle. Työn tavoitteena oli automatisoida mit-taustulosten keräämistä ja käsittelyä. Rinnakkain kulkeva teorian ja käytännön kuvaus jakaantuu kolmeen eri osa-alueeseen: Raspberry Pi ja siihen liitetyt laitteet, järjestelmän toiminta ja sen ohjelmointi sekä internet-käyttöliityntä ja www-ohjelmointi. Työn tuloksena syntyi mittalaitt...

  3. AgPi: Agents on Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Semwal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Raspberry Pi and its variants have brought with them an aura of change in the world of embedded systems. With their impressive computation and communication capabilities and low footprint, these devices have thrown open the possibility of realizing a network of things in a very cost-effective manner. While such networks offer good solutions to prominent issues, they are indeed a long way from being smart or intelligent. Most of the currently available implementations of such a network of devices involve a centralized cloud-based server that contributes to making the necessary intelligent decisions, leaving these devices fairly underutilized. Though this paradigm provides for an easy and rapid solution, they have limited scalability, are less robust and at times prove to be expensive. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Agents on Raspberry Pi (AgPi as a cyber solution to enhance the smartness and flexibility of such embedded networks of physical devices in a decentralized manner. The use of a Multi-Agent System (MAS running on Raspberry Pis aids agents, both static and mobile, to govern the various activities within the network. Agents can act autonomously or on behalf of a human user and can collaborate, learn, adapt and act, thus contributing to embedded intelligence. This paper describes how Tartarus, a multi-agent platform, embedded on Raspberry Pis that constitute a network, can bring the best out of the system. To reveal the versatility of the concept of AgPi, an application for a Location-Aware and Tracking Service (LATS is presented. The results obtained from a comparison of data transfer cost between the conventional cloud-based approach with AgPi have also been included.

  4. Variation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ellagic acid and radical scavenging capacity in various raspberry (Rubus spp.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobinaitė, Ramunė; Viškelis, Pranas; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of some phytochemicals in 19 raspberry cultivars grown in Lithuania. The content of total ellagic acid measured after 20h acidic hydrolysis of investigated raspberry cultivars, varied from 119.8 (cv. 'Pokusa') to 323.5mg/100g (cv. 'Bristol'). The content of total phenolics ranged from 278.6 (cv. 'Pokusa') to 714.7mg/100g (cv. 'Bristol'). The total anthocyanins content varied from 2.1 (yellow cv. 'Beglianka') to 325.5mg/100g (black cv. 'Bristol'). The radical scavenging capacity of the tested raspberry cultivars highly correlating with their total phenolics and total ellagic acid content (r=0.90 and 0.92, respectively). The results of this study expand the knowledge about variation in the content of valuable bioactive compounds in raspberries and may help for the selection and validation of the most productive cultivars. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Simic, A.; Uitdewilligen, J.; Arkel, van J.; Vos, de C.H.; Jonker, H.H.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Sibbesen, O.; Qvist, I.; Mikkelsen, J.D.; Hall, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as ¿-ionone and ß-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry

  6. Identification and dietary relevance of antioxidants from raspberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Hall, R.D.; Vos, de C.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we review the current literature on antioxidants from fruit of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and place these in context concerning what is known from other food species. The review concentrates on the methods of antioxidant testing, the diversity of antioxidants in raspberry, effects of

  7. 75 FR 13238 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Delay of Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1208 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-07-0077; FV-07-705-PR-2B] RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry... delays indefinitely the referendum to determine whether producers of raspberries for processing and importers of processed raspberries approve the issuance of the proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion...

  8. Raspberry Pi cookbook for Python programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Tim

    2014-01-01

    ""Raspberry Pi Cookbook for Python Programmers"" is written in a Cookbook format, presenting examples in the style of recipes.This allows you to go directly to your topic of interest, or follow topics throughout a chapter to gain a thorough in-depth knowledge.The aim of this book is to bring you a broad range of Python 3 examples and practical ideas which you can develop to suit your own requirements. By modifying and combining the examples to create your own projects you learn far more effectively with a much greater understanding. Each chapter is designed to become a foundation for further e

  9. Electronic Attendance Application Using Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Saaidi Ismail; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Raspberry Pi is a cheap mini-computer that officially runs on a Linux distribution Operating System (OS) such as Raspbian. It has many input and output mechanisms simulating a computer which make it useful replacement for a computer system. SimpleCV, an open source python-based image processing software and Telegram, a popular social application provide API that allow communication trough a device such as Raspberry Pi. Combining these two, an electronic attendance has been developed using open source basis, and the electronic attendance also provide enhancement of current system that is to record the person face and sending information through Telegram application. The methodology include gathering requirements on remaining system and test it on Linux which will discuss further. This project is serve as a prototype for enhancement of current Commersial Of The Shelf (COTS) electronic attendance that only record ID of the attendees. In the future, the electronic attendance can be enhanced with many features and should be make in-a-box for commercialization. (author)

  10. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  11. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  12. Raspberry Leaf and Hypoglycemia in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, Kai I; Nguyen, Thanh T; Karjane, Nicole W; Salley, Kelsey E S

    2016-12-01

    Raspberry leaf is commonly consumed by pregnant women. Hypoglycemic effects have been documented with other species within the plant family. Whether raspberry leaf affects glycemic control in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. A 38-year-old nulliparous woman with GDM developed hypoglycemia requiring lowered insulin dose after consuming raspberry leaf tea at 32 weeks of gestation. The temporal relationship was confirmed by the patient's self-withdrawal and reintroduction of the herb. Fetal surveillance and growth were reassuring. A cesarean delivery was performed at 39 weeks of gestation. The neonate did not experience hypoglycemia or other complications. Placental biopsy revealed normal findings. Consumption of raspberry leaf may lead to reduced insulin requirements in GDM. Women with GDM should be cautioned about its use and their glucose levels more closely monitored.

  13. Raspberry Pi: käyttöönotto ja sovellustestaus

    OpenAIRE

    Sarja, Jari

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutustua Raspberry Pi:n, luottokortin kokoisen Linux-tietokoneen käyttöönottoon ja sovellustestaukseen. Raspberry Pi -tietokone esiteltiin Linux Format -lehdessä syksyllä 2012, josta opinnäytetyön aihe on löydetty. Raspberry Pi -tietokone on kehitetty Englannissa Raspberry Pi -säätiön toimesta tietokoneista kiinnostuneille nuorille. Raspberry Pi:n erityisominaisuuksia ovat pieni koko, keveys ja vähäinen sähkönkulutus. Opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin Raspberry Pi -...

  14. Low-cost photoplethysmograph solutions using the Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Tamas; Gingl, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Photoplethysmography is a prevalent, non-invasive heart monitoring method. In this paper an implementation of photoplethysmography on the Raspberry Pi is presented. Two modulation techniques are discussed, which make possible to measure these signals by the Raspberry Pi, using an external sound card as A/D converter. Furthermore, it is shown, how can digital signal processing improve signal quality. The presented methods can be used in low-cost cardiac function monitoring, in telemedicine app...

  15. Methods for detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on raspberry

    OpenAIRE

    Koprivica Mirjana; Dulić-Marković Ivana; Jevtić Radivoje; Cooke Dave E.L.

    2009-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox and Duncan), a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I.), Dundee, UK. Necrotic ...

  16. Semiochemical-based pest insect management in strawberry and raspberry

    OpenAIRE

    Wibe, Atle; Baroffio, Catherine; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Cross, Jerry; Fountain, Michelle; Hall, David; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Ralle, Baiba; Sigsgaard, Lene; Trandem, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For many insect species, pheromones and host plant volatiles are of major importance in mate finding and host plant location. Therefore, there is potential for using these interactions to develop new strategies and effective control measures. The strawberry blossom weevil (Anthonomus rubi), the European tarnished plant bug (Lygus rugulipennis) and the raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus) cause large losses (10->80%) in both conventional and organic strawberry and raspberry prod...

  17. Phenolic antioxidants extraction from raspberry wastes assisted by-enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Laroze,Liza; Soto,Carmen; Zúñiga,María Elvira

    2010-01-01

    The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on phenolic antioxidant extraction was studied in raspberry solid wastes. This by-product possesses high content of crude fiber (60%) and low values of protein, oil and ash. Raspberry fiber composition suggests that biocatalysts with cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase activities would be useful for carrying out an enzymatically assisted antioxidant extraction. Hydro-alcoholic extraction was done using different commercial enzymes. Total phenol content an...

  18. Further research on the biological activities and the safety of raspberry ketone are needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry ketone supplements have grabbed consumer attention with the possibility they might help burn fat and aid weight loss. While raspberry ketone occurs naturally, and is found in raspberry fruit, most is synthetically produced for use in commercial products as flavorings, fragrances, or dietar...

  19. 75 FR 6089 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ...-705-FR] RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum... referendum to determine whether the issuance of the proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Proposed Order) is favored by producers of raspberries for processing and importers of...

  20. 76 FR 25618 - Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ...; FV-07-705-PR-2B] RIN 0581-AC79 Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information...: This document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible producers of raspberries for processing and importers of processed raspberries to determine whether they favor the establishment of an...

  1. A new virus in Luteoviridae is associated with raspberry leaf curl disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the etiology of Raspberry Leaf Curl Disease (RLCD), which causes leaf curling, leaf distortion, leaf chlorosis, shoot dwarfing, shoot proliferation in raspberries and can kill plants within three years, a next generation sequences approach was applied. Two red raspberry plants collected...

  2. Raspberry Shake- A World-Wide Citizen Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. C.; Blanco Chia, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Raspberry Shake was conceived as an inexpensive plug-and-play solution to satisfy the need for universal, quick and accurate earthquake detections. First launched on Kickstarter's crowdfunding platform in July of 2016, the Raspberry Shake project was funded within hours of the launch date and, by the end of the campaign, reached more than 1000% of its initial funding goal. This demonstrated for the first time that there exists a strong interest among Makers, Hobbyists and Do It Yourselfers for personal seismographs. From here, a citizen scientist network was created and it has steadily been growing. The Raspberry Shake network is currently being used in conjunction with publicly available broadband data from the GSN and other state-run seismic networks available through the IRIS, Geoscope and GEOFON data centers to detect and locate earthquakes large and small around the globe. Raspberry Shake looks well positioned to improve local monitoring of earthquakes on a global scale, deepen community's understanding of earthquakes, and serve as a formidable teaching tool. We present the main results of the project, the current state of the network, and the new Raspberry Shake models that are being built.

  3. Preparation and characterisation of Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract loaded chitosan-collagen-starch membrane: role in wound healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amal, B; Veena, B; Jayachandran, V P; Shilpa, Joy

    2015-05-01

    Engineered scaffolds made from natural biomaterials are crucial elements in tissue engineering strategies. In this study, biological scaffold like chitosan-collagen-starch membrane (CCSM) loaded with the antibacterial agent, Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract was explored for enhanced regeneration of epithelial tissue during wound healing. Collagen was extracted from Rachycentron canadum fish skin. Membranous scaffold was prepared by mixing collagen, starch and chitosan in a fixed proportion, loaded with aqueous extract of P. granatum and its anti-pseudomonal activity was studied. Morphological characterization by SEM and mechanical property like tensile strength of the membrane were studied. Excision wound of 2 cm(2) size was induced in Guinea pig and the effect of P. granatum extract loaded CCSM in wound healing was studied. The SEM image showed deep pores in the membrane and also possessed good tensile strength. Wound surface area was reduced prominently in the experimental group with P. granatum extract loaded CCSM when compared to the group with unloaded membrane and the one with no membrane. Punica granatum extract loaded CCSM has antipseudomonal property and supported enhanced epithelial cell proliferation without leaving a scar after wound healing. This has significant therapeutic application in membranous scaffold mediated skin repair and regeneration.

  4. Structure of Amphiphilic Terpolymer Raspberry Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Guo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Terpolymer raspberry vesicles contain domains of different chemical affinities. They are potential candidates as multi-compartment cargo carriers. Their efficacy depends on their stability and load capacity. Using a model star terpolymer system in an aqueous solution, a dissipative particle dynamic (DPD simulation is employed to investigate how equilibrium aggregate structures are affected by polymer concentration and pairwise interaction energy in a solution. It is shown that a critical mass of polymer is necessary for vesicle formation. The free energy of the equilibrium aggregates are calculated and the results show that the transition from micelles to vesicles is governed by the interactions between the longest solvophobic block and the solvent. In addition, the ability of vesicles to encapsulate solvent is assessed. It is found that reducing the interaction energy favours solvent encapsulation, although solvent molecules can permeate through the vesicle’s shell when repulsive interactions among monomers are low. Thus, one can optimize the loading capacity and the release rate of the vesicles by turning pairwise interaction energies of the polymer and the solvent. The ability to predict and control these aspects of the vesicles is an essential step towards designing vesicles for specific purposes.

  5. Motion Detection Implementation on a Game Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Putra Gozali

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of advanced gaming technology, we can play the game with so many tools or platforms such as console games, PC games, mobile games and handheld games. The disadvantage of those games is the difficulty to connect additional sensors to the PC computer. Large power requirements will also be a constraint. Besides, the size of the PC could be a weakness that makes it difficult to carry and play anytime. Raspberry is a small computer that can be added with motion detection sensors. By using the raspberry, the researchers managed to create a game "Crows Adventure" that uses motion detection sensor as the controller. Some of the sensors used in the game is UDS Sensor ( Ultrasonic Sensor disctance and touch sensors are applied to smarthphone to control the game. This allows the use of sensors in making more varied games by using raspberry devices.

  6. Tracking (Poly)phenol components from raspberries in ileal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J; Conner, Sean; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Gonzalez-Barrio, Rocio; Brown, Emma M; Verrall, Susan; Stewart, Derek; Moffet, Tanya; Ibars, Maria; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R

    2014-07-30

    The (poly)phenols in ileal fluid after ingestion of raspberries were analyzed by targeted and nontargeted LC-MS(n) approaches. Targeted approaches identified major anthocyanin and ellagitannin components at varying recoveries and with considerable interindividual variation. Nontargeted LC-MS(n) analysis using an orbitrap mass spectrometer gave exact mass MS data which were sifted using a software program to select peaks that changed significantly after supplementation. This method confirmed the recovery of the targeted components but also identified novel raspberry-specific metabolites. Some components (including ellagitannin and previously unidentified proanthocyanidin derivatives) may have arisen from raspberry seeds that survived intact in ileal samples. Other components include potential breakdown products of anthocyanins, unidentified components, and phenolic metabolites formed either in the gut epithelia or after absorption into the circulatory system and efflux back into the gut lumen. The possible physiological roles of the ileal metabolites in the large bowel are discussed.

  7. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers the naturalness of a raspberry...... flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. 27 food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry...

  8. Potentials for export of fresh raspberries from Serbia to EU fresh markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present potentials of the most significant EU national markets for imports of fresh raspberries from Serbia. We carried out analysis of three markets with highest trade deficit of fresh raspberries expressed in quantities: Germany, Netherlands and Austria. The paper further analyses production and foreign trade trends in selected countries. According to results of this analysis, we identified monthly periods with highest potential for exports of fresh raspberries from Serbia to target markets. The paper also analyses wholesale prices of fresh raspberries and EU policy of direct support to raspberry producers.

  9. Applications of Raspberry Pi computers in the education system

    OpenAIRE

    STARICHENKO EVGENIY BORISOVICH

    2015-01-01

    The article puts forward a thesis about the possibility and necessity of using single-board computer Raspberry Pi in education. The main advantages of Raspberry Pi are small size, low power consumption, a complete operating system, free software and low price. Due to the presence of general-purpose input/output ports it allows one to program real devices, physical systems and objects, which allows a better visual representation of the results of the work than creation of virtual images on the...

  10. Synthesis of raspberry-like magnetic polystyrene microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhizhong; Xia Ao; Wang Changchun; Yang Wuli; Fu Shoukuang

    2007-01-01

    Raspberry-like magnetic polystyrene microspheres were prepared via soap-free emulsion polymerization using 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (V50) as initiator. The effect of polymerization parameters, such as initiator type, initiator content and the feeding sequence on the particle size and morphology of magnetic polystyrene microspheres, were examined. The final magnetic polystyrene microspheres were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The experimental results showed that V50 was a suitable initiator for preparation of raspberry-like magnetic polystyrene microspheres

  11. Quantitative farm-to-fork human norovirus exposure assessment of individually quick frozen raspberries and raspberry puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Stals, A; De Keuckelaere, A; Deliens, B; Rajkovic, A; Uyttendaele, M

    2017-02-02

    A quantitative human norovirus (NoV) exposure model describing transmission of NoV during pre-harvest, harvest and further processing of soft red fruits exemplified by raspberries is presented. The outcomes of the model demonstrate the presence of NoV in raspberry puree or individual quick frozen (IQF) raspberry fruits and were generated by Monte Carlo simulations by combining GoldSim® and @Risk® software. Input data were collected from scientific literature, observational studies and assumptions. NoV contamination of soft red fruits is assumed to take place at farms by application of contaminated water for pesticides dilution or by berries' pickers shedding NoV. The model was built simulating that a collection center received berries from ten farms with a total of 245 food handlers picking soft red fruits during a 10-hour day shift. Given 0, 5 and 20 out of 245 berries' pickers were shedding NoV, these conditions were calculated to result in a mean NoV contamination of respectively 0.47, 14.1 and 36.2 NoV particles per kg raspberries in case all raspberries are mixed to one day-batch of 11tons. The NoV contamination of the fruits was mainly driven by the route of NoV shedding food pickers (95.8%) rather than by spraying contaminated pesticide water (4.2%) (baseline scenario with 5 shedding pickers and contaminated pesticide water). Inclusion of appropriate hand washing procedures or hand washing followed by hand disinfection resulted in estimated reductions of the mean NoV levels from 14.1 to 0.16 and 0.17 NoV particles per kg raspberries, respectively, for the baseline scenario with 5 out of 245 food pickers shedding NoV. The use of a mild heat treatment (30s at 75°C) during further processing of berries to purees was noted to reduce mean NoV levels substantially from 14.1 to 0.2 NoV particles per kg raspberry puree. For IQF raspberries, the NoV contamination is heterogeneously distributed and resulted in a mean contamination of 3.1 NoV particles per 250g

  12. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PUBLIC MONITORING SYSTEM MENGGUNAKAN RASPBERRY PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yuwono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of the data processing device is large enough shape so it is less flexible in mobile functionality. Raspberry Pi is a single board computer (single-board computer or a credit card-sized SBC. Raspberry Pi has been equipped with all functions like a complete computer, using a SoC (System-on-a-chip ARM packaged and integrated on the PCB. CCTV is one device that is expected to reduce the crime rate in public areas. But the high cost of installation constraints (either electrical or network and limited mobility placement tool makes use of the device is not maximal yet. This study offers an alternative solution to fix the above problems. Prototype Development of Public Monitoring System Using a Raspberry Pi is an initial sub-study of grand research Intelligent Application Integration Public Monitoring System. The output will be achieved is to build a device for monitoring systems that have mobility design that can be placed in various places. With this research is expected to provide the use of Raspberry Pi discourse to establish a monitoring system that is inexpensive and power-efficient government support programs.

  13. Estimation of fruit weight by cane traits for various raspberries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... 2003; Gercekcioglu et al., 2003; Kaplan et al., 2003; Kurt et al., 2003; Eyduran and Agaoglu, 2006; Eyduran et al.,. 2006; Atila et al., 2006; Eyduran et al., 2007;. Gercekcioglu, 2008). However, there was no published information on estimation of fruit weight (g/berry) by cane traits of raspberry cultivars.

  14. Raspberry Pi: a 35-dollar device for viewing DICOM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Omir Antunes; Moreira, Renata de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Raspberry Pi is a low-cost computer created with educational purposes. It uses Linux and, most of times, freeware applications, particularly a software for viewing DICOM images. With an external monitor, the supported resolution (1920 × 1200 pixels) allows for the set up of simple viewing workstations at a reduced cost.

  15. 77 FR 26911 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... countries and their share of the imports are: Chile (78 percent) and Canada (17 percent). The 1996 Act... found that it is in the national public interest and vital to the welfare of the agricultural economy of... decreased to 50.3 million pounds in 2010. Chile, which is the predominate importer of processed raspberries...

  16. Using Raspberry Pi to Teach Computing "Inside Out"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaokar, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of computing education in preparing for the next wave of computing. With the proliferation of mobile devices, most agree that we are living in a "post-PC" world. Using the Raspberry Pi computer platform, based in the UK, as an example, the author discusses computing education in a world where the…

  17. Antimicrobial action of purified raspberry flavonoid | Sun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... flavonoid on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillium. Raspberry flavonoid had the best inhibition effect on S. aureus, followed by B. subtilis, E. coli and Penicillium. However, it cannot inhibit the growth of S. cerevisiae, Rhizopus and Mucor.

  18. Verticillium survey results: Is it in red raspberry production fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary results of the survey for Verticillium dahliae, the cause of Verticillium wilt, in the Washington Red Raspberry industry were reported at the 2016 Washington Small Fruit Conference. Verticillium was found in many field soils, but was rarely isolated from plants and was just as likely to ...

  19. Alternatives to current fumigation practices in western states raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red raspberry production systems in the western United States are heavily reliant on preplant soil fumigation to ensure the successful establishment and productivity of a planting. However, due to issues related to the regulation, availability, and economics of soil fumigation alternatives are need ...

  20. ‘Kokanee’ primocane-fruiting red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Kokanee' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station. 'Kokanee' is a high-yielding cultivar tha...

  1. Raspberry Pi: a 35-dollar device for viewing DICOM images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omir Antunes Paiva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry Pi is a low-cost computer created with educational purposes. It uses Linux and, most of times, freeware applications, particularly a software for viewing DICOM images. With an external monitor, the supported resolution (1920 × 1200 pixels allows for the set up of simple viewing workstations at a reduced cost.

  2. Perancangan Papan Informasi Digital Berbasis Web pada Raspberry pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Panuntun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital signage is information boards migrate from conventional forms to digital form. Form of digital signage used in computer by connecting to monitor to display the information. Digital notice board (digital signage puts a digital-based information services in one direction. Many digital signage applications appear with the development of information technology. Unfortunately, if used as a digital signage devices, the implementation of existing digital signage applications using a desktop computer is unefficient. Signage applications that developed to be implemented on a single board computers such as raspberry-pi is still rare. In that case, there are any idea to implement a mini computer raspberry-pi as digital signage devices. Mini computer raspberry-Pi was chosen because of its small size and power saving. so it can be efficient and flexible than a regular desktop computer. Forming of this thesis includes designing web server using PHP and MySQL and raspberry pi configuration. The results of this research is to implement digital signage in raspbeery pi that produce a web-based digital information boards that efficient and power saving.

  3. Further research on the biological activities and the safety of raspberry ketone is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry ketone supplements have grabbed consumer attention with the possibility that they might help burn fat and aid weight loss. While raspberry ketone occurs naturally, and is found in raspberry fruit, most is synthetically produced for use in commercial products as flavorings, fragrances, or dietary supplements. Currently, the amount of raspberry ketone in dietary supplements (currently sold in the US is well above the maximum concentration recommended for food and fragrance products, so additional toxicology work is needed to ensure that such concentrations of raspberry ketone are safe. In addition to safety data, clinical studies are also needed to validate any health benefits. Without research on the effects of consuming high concentrations of raspberry ketone, consumers should be wary of unsubstantiated claims and mindful of potential harm to their health.

  4. Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) intake decreases oxidative stress in obese diabetic (db/db) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Chew, Boon P; Atienza, Liezl M

    2017-07-15

    Red raspberry fruit intake was investigated on obese diabetic (db/db) mice for 8weeks. Animals fed isocaloric diets (5.3% freeze-dried raspberry, or control) were assessed for obesity-diabetes-disease risk biomarkers. Results showed that raspberry intake improved antioxidant status and lessened plasma interleukin (IL)-6 (0.3-fold of control, p0.05). Plasma levels of total cholesterol (T-CHL), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-CHL), and resistin were higher in the raspberry group. Overall, the enhanced detoxifying cell defenses exerted by raspberry intake might be due to its polyphenolics and fibre. This study demonstrates in vivo that raspberry intake, at a dose that can be achieved by human consumption, might protect against diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Raspberry Pi- A Small, Powerful, Cost Effective and Efficient Form Factor Computer: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Nayyar; Vikram Puri

    2015-01-01

    Raspberry Pi, an efficient and cost effective credit card sized computer comes under light of sun by United Kingdom-Raspberry Pi foundation with the aim to enlighten and empower computer science teaching in schools and other developing countries. Since its inception, various open source communities have contributed tons towards open source apps, operating systems and various other small form factor computers similar to Raspberry Pi. Till date, researchers, hobbyists and other embe...

  6. FingerScanner: Embedding a Fingerprint Scanner in a Raspberry Pi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapes, Jordi; Solsona, Francesc

    2016-02-06

    Nowadays, researchers are paying increasing attention to embedding systems. Cost reduction has lead to an increase in the number of platforms supporting the operating system Linux, jointly with the Raspberry Pi motherboard. Thus, embedding devices on Raspberry-Linux systems is a goal in order to make competitive commercial products. This paper presents a low-cost fingerprint recognition system embedded into a Raspberry Pi with Linux.

  7. FingerScanner: Embedding a Fingerprint Scanner in a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sapes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, researchers are paying increasing attention to embedding systems. Cost reduction has lead to an increase in the number of platforms supporting the operating system Linux, jointly with the Raspberry Pi motherboard. Thus, embedding devices on Raspberry-Linux systems is a goal in order to make competitive commercial products. This paper presents a low-cost fingerprint recognition system embedded into a Raspberry Pi with Linux.

  8. Characteristics of blackberry and raspberry seeds and oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Etelka B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the determination of technological quality characteristics of dried pomaces, i.e. blackberry and raspberry seeds, along with the quality parameters, content of total carotenoids and chlorophyl and transparency of crude extracted oil (using organic solvent. Blackberry seeds (Rubus fruticosus L. were obtained from a domestic variety Čačanska bestrna, while the raspberry seeds (Rubus idaeus L. were of the variety Willamette. Oil content of the blackberry pomace was 13.97 and 14.34%, while the oil content of the raspberry pomace was 13.44 and 14.33% on dry basis (d.b.. In regard to technological characteristics of the pomaces, i.e. volumetric and specific weight, no considerably difference was found. However, a weight test for 1000 seeds showed a significant difference in weight: 3.5 g (d.b. for the blackberry pomace and 1.5 g for the raspberry pomace (d.b.. Proximate analysis of blackberry seed oil showed that this oil had better quality since the FFA value was 3.43% (sample B1 and 3.53% (sample B2, while the peroxide value was 8.89 and 11.16 mmol/kg, respectively. Raspberry seed oil had higher FFA (8.59 and 8.83% for sample R1 and R2 and peroxide values (13.99 and 13.84 for sample R1 and R2 than the blackberry seed oil. Crude extracted blackberry seed oil had a brown-greenish color due to the high total chlorophyll content (around 3000 mg/kg dissolved in cyclohexane. Raspberry seed oil had a dark yellowishorange color, due to lower chlorophyll content (around 200 mg/kg compared to the blackberry seed oil, while the content of total carotenoids was slightly higher in this oil (around 40 mg/kg compared to the blackberry seed oil (33 mg/kg. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014: Development of the new functional confectionery products based on oil crops

  9. Iris movement based wheel chair control using raspberry pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jatin; Anbarasu, M.; Chakraborty, Chandan; Shanmugasundaram, M.

    2017-11-01

    Paralysis is considered as a major curse in this world. The number of persons who are paralyzed and therefore dependent on others due to loss of self-mobility is growing with the population. Quadriplegia is a form of Paralysis in which you can only move your eyes. Much work has been done to help disabled persons to live independently. Various methods are used for the same and this paper enlists some of the already existing methods along with some add-ons to improve the existing system. Add-ons include a system, which will be designed using Raspberry Pi and IR Camera Module. OpenCV will be used for image processing and Python is used for programming the Raspberry Pi.

  10. IMPLEMENTATION RASPBERRY PI USING PRIVATE CLOUD FOR ACCESSING PERSONAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Aisa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The continued development and widespread use of current technology so that accessing and managing data from a personal computer to make private users become inflexible due to the personal computer requires a power source directly and storage areas are static, therefore, the author plans to implement a service private cloud that uses raspberry pi as a server and will be tested by the test Blackbox. Our research by collecting data that we did put a literature study, experiments, and observations. The design method using UML use case diagrams, class diagrams, activity diagrams and sequence diagrams. This application is built using Django, Python, Raspberry Pi, MySQL. Hopefully the benefit of this implementation can help a person in terms of managing data from a wide variety of resources (resource quickly and anywhere.

  11. Design of Lightweight e Attendance Prototype Using Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Saaidi Ismail; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Nurbahyah Hamdan; Abdul Muin Abd Rahman

    2014-01-01

    E-Attendance is a system that has been extensively used to record attendance in most of the official ceremony of Nuclear Malaysia. Currently, a computer is used as the client to record the input from the proximity card. However, further study on Raspberry Pi, the single board computer that use system on a chip (SoC) in the current market, discover that it is capable of delivering a simple light task of the e-attendance. With a compact memory and in linux environment, a prototype for lightweight e-attendance is being developed. This prototype of Raspberry Pi is believe to have potential in computer based system of Nuclear Technology such as access control, monitoring system and even robotic assistance. This paper will discuss the design of the prototype that resemble e-attendance to improve the robustness of the system. (author)

  12. A Raspberry Pi Based Portable Endoscopic 3D Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schlobohm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geometry measurements are very important to monitor a machine part’s health and performance. Optical measurement system have several advantages for the acquisition of a parts geometry: measurement speed, precision, point density and contactless operation. Measuring parts inside of assembled machines is also desirable to keep maintenance cost low. The Raspberry Pi is a small and cost efficient computer that creates new opportunities for compact measurement systems. We have developed a fringe projection system which is capable of measuring in very limited space. A Raspberry Pi 2 is used to generate the projection patterns, acquire the image and reconstruct the geometry. Together with a small LED projector, the measurement system is small and easy to handle. It consists of off-the-shelf products which are nonetheless capable of measuring with an uncertainty of less than 100 μ m .

  13. Fenologia e produção de cultivares de framboeseiras em regiões subtropicais no Brasil Phenology and yield of raspberry cultivars in subtropical regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Abreu Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fenologia e a produção de cultivares de framboeseiras em condições subtropicais, no Brasil. O experimento foi realizado nos municípios de Lavras, MG, e Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR. Foram avaliadas sete cultivares, com as espécies Rubus idaeus (vermelhas, 'Heritage', 'Polana', 'Autumn Bliss' e 'Batum'; e amarelas, 'Golden Bliss', em Lavras, e 'Fall Gold', em Marechal Cândido Rondon e R. niveus (framboesa-negra, além de um híbrido (Boysenberry entre R. idaeus e amora-preta (R. ursinus. Foram coletados dados fenológicos (florescimento e período de colheita e produtivos de dois ciclos de produção, e analisadas características físico-químicas dos frutos (dimensão, acidez titulável e conteúdo de sólidos solúveis. As cultivares de R. idaeus e o híbrido interespecífico não se adaptaram às condições climáticas do oeste paranaense, com baixa produção de frutos. No entanto, a framboesa-negra é uma excelente opção de cultivo na região, com alta produtividade (acima de 25 Mg ha-1 e qualidade de frutos (ratio de 9,3. No Sul de Minas, as framboeseiras apresentam boa adaptação, principalmente a framboesa-negra (18,2 Mg ha-1, a framboesa amarela (5 Mg ha-1 e a framboesa vermelha 'Batum' (4,4 Mg ha-1.The objective of this work was to evaluate the phenology and yield of raspberry cultivars under subtropical conditions in Brazil. The experiment was carried out in the municipalities of Lavras, in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, and of Marechal Cândido Rondon, in the west of the state of Paraná. Seven raspberry cultivars were evaluated, from the species Rubus idaeus (red raspberries, 'Heritage', 'Polana', 'Autumn Bliss', and 'Batum'; and yellow raspberries, 'Golden Bliss' in Lavras, and 'Fall Gold' in Marechal Cândido Rondon and R. niveus (black raspberry, besides a hybrid (Boysenberry between R. idaeus and blackberry (R. ursinus. Phenological traits (flowering and harvest time

  14. Fennel and raspberry leaf as possible inhibitors of acetaminophen oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Astrid Jordet; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2014-10-01

    In addition to CYP2E1, several CYP isoenzymes, notably CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4, are suggested to contribute in acetaminophen oxidation and formation of the hepatotoxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). The in vitro CYP2E1 inhibitory potentials of fennel and raspberry leaf, herbs previously found to inhibit CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4 activities in vitro, were investigated. Extracts from commercially available herbal products were incubated with recombinant cDNA-expressed human CYP2E1. A validated LC/MS/MS methodology was applied for determination of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone formation with disulfiram used as a positive inhibitory control. CYP2E1 IC50 inhibition constants were found to be 23 ± 4 and 27 ± 5 µg/ml for fennel and raspberry leaf, respectively, constants significantly lower than those presented in the literature for other herbal extracts. Together with previous findings, the presented in vitro data for CYP2E1 inhibition suggest that fennel and raspberry leaf have a significant potential of inhibiting all the major metabolic pathways for acetaminophen oxidation and NAPQI formation. Both herbs should be further investigated for their in vivo ability of inhibiting acetaminophen oxidation and NAPQI formation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide assisted shape-controlled synthesis of catalytically active raspberry-like gold nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Layek, Rama K.; Kim, Nam Hoon; Samdani, Jitendra; Kang, Myung Chul; Lee, Joong Hee

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A facile method was developed for the synthesis of raspberry-like Au nanostructure and it was used as an electrocatalyst for the oxidation of methanol and reduction of oxygen. - Highlights: • Raspberry-like gold nanostructures have been synthesized. • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide plays an important role in the synthesis. • Raspberry-like Au nanostructure has an excellent electrocatalytic activity in methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction. - Abstract: We describe the shape-controlled growth of raspberry-like gold (Au) nanostructures and their application in the electrochemical oxidation of methanol and reduction of oxygen. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) plays a vital role in the growth of raspberry-like Au nanostructures. The preferential adsorption of NAD + onto the (011) facets of Au favors the growth of raspberry-like morphology. In the absence of NAD + , icosahedral Au nanostructures were obtained. The raspberry-like Au nanostructures have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and electrochemical measurements. The FESEM image shows that the raspberry-like morphology has an average size of 170 nm. The spectral profile shows a broad band between 650 and 795 nm. Compared to Au nanoseeds and icosahedral Au nanostructures that were grown in the absence of NAD + , the raspberry-like morphology has excellent catalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of methanol and reduction of oxygen. On the raspberry-like nanoparticle-based electrode, the oxidation of methanol was observed at 0.35 V in alkaline pH, and the reduction of oxygen was observed at -0.06 and -0.4 V in 0.1 M PBS. The electrochemical reduction of oxygen occurs in two steps: (i) reduction of oxygen to H 2 O 2 and (ii) further reduction of electrogenerated H 2 O 2 to water. The electrochemical performance of the raspberry-like nanostructure-based electrode is highly

  16. Raspberry viruses affect the behaviour and performance of Amphorophora agathonica in single and mixed infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogens may alter their hosts which consequently increases transmission efficiency by vectors. We examined the effects Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV; genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) and Raspberry latent virus (RpLV; genus Reovirus, family Reoviridae) alone and in a co-infection in...

  17. 75 FR 6131 - Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... raspberries imported into the United States. These countries and their share of the imports are: Chile (78... to the welfare of the agricultural economy of the United States to maintain and expand existing... million pounds in 2008. Chile, which is the predominate importer of processed raspberries to the United...

  18. Winter Hardiness of Annual-Fruiting Raspberries in the South of the Irkutsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachenko, M. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The winter hardiness of different varieties of annual-fruiting raspberries in field and laboratory conditions was studied. The hardiness of annual-fruiting raspberry, mow culture and two-year shoots was assessed. We select the most winter-hardy genotypes promising for cultivation in the South of the Irkutsk region.

  19. Effect of application timing of oxamyl in nonbearing raspberry for Pratylenchus penetrans management

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, the Washington raspberry (Rubus idaeus) industry received a special local needs (SLN) 24(c) label to apply Vydate (active ingredient oxamyl) to non-bearing raspberry for the suppression of the root lesion nematode (RLN; Pratylenchus penetrans). This is a new use pattern of this nematicide f...

  20. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  1. Forget About Busing--Concentrate on Education; A Response to Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry, William; Meyers, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Raspberry argues that there is no persuasive evidence that racial balancing is worth the effort in terms of increased educational opportunity for the children; Meyers asserts that Raspberry's objections are based on several misconceptions about the goals of integrationists. (Author/JM)

  2. Novel member of the Luteoviridae associated with raspberry leaf curl disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) was first reported in the 1920s, is limited to the genus Rubus and is transmitted in a persistent manner by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola. It is only reported from North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, and i...

  3. Inactivation of norovirus surrogates on surfaces and raspberries by steam-ultrasound treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Uhrbrand, Katrine; Nørrung, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Human disease outbreaks caused by norovirus (NoV) following consumption of contaminated raspberries are an increasing problem. An efficient method to decontaminate the fragile raspberries and the equipment used for processing would be an important step in ensuring food safety. A potential surface...... treatment that combines pressurized steam and high-power ultrasound (steam-ultrasound) was assessed for its efficacy to inactivate human NoV surrogates: coliphage (MS2), feline calicivirus (FCV), and murine norovirus (MNV) inoculated on plastic surfaces and MS2 inoculated on fresh raspberries. The amounts......, respectively; while a 3.7-log (99.9%) reduction of MNV was reached after 3 s of treatment. However, on fresh raspberries only a 1-log reduction (∼89%) of MS2 could be achieved after 1 s of treatment, at which point damage to the texture of the fresh raspberries was evident. Increasing treatment time (0 to 3 s...

  4. Volatile compounds of raspberry fruit: from analytical methods to biological role and sensory impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia

    2015-01-30

    Volatile compounds play a key role in the formation of the well-recognized and widely appreciated raspberry aroma. Studies on the isolation and identification of volatile compounds in raspberry fruit (Rubus idaeus L.) are reviewed with a focus on aroma-related compounds. A table is drawn up containing a comprehensive list of the volatile compounds identified so far in raspberry along with main references and quantitative data where available. Two additional tables report the glycosidic bond and enantiomeric distributions of the volatile compounds investigated up to now in raspberry fruit. Studies on the development and evolution of volatile compounds during fruit formation, ripening and senescence, and genetic and environmental influences are also reviewed. Recent investigations showing the potential role of raspberry volatile compounds in cultivar differentiation and fruit resistance to mold disease are reported as well. Finally a summary of research done so far and our vision for future research lines are reported.

  5. Laitetilan Etäseuranta : Raspberry Pi & SNMP

    OpenAIRE

    Holmén, Joonas

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi Jyväskylän ammattikorkeakoulu. Toimeksiantajalla oli tarve seurata laitetilan ilmastoa, keskeytymättömän virransyötön tilannetietoja sekä näiden muutoksia. Tavoitteena oli toteuttaa järjestelmä, jolla seurattavat kohteet saadaan luettavaksi käyttäen SNMP-ohjelmistoa sekä graafinen käyttöliittymä, jolla ilmaston tilaa ja muutoksia voidaan monitoroida. Työn alustaksi määritettiin Raspberry Pi 2 -pientietokone. Järjestelmä rakentui avoimen lähdekoodin ohj...

  6. Escaner 3D autonomo con RaspberryPi

    OpenAIRE

    TIZNE MENA, GUILLEM

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El proyecto realizado tiene la finalidad de encontrar una solución sencilla y barata al escaneado tridimensional. Como centro de procesamiento hemos utilizado una Raspberry Pi para el control de una línea láser y de un motor stepper, este último va unido a una plataforma giratoria donde se colocarán los objetos para ser escaneados. Por lo que respecta a la captura de imágenes, usaremos una cámara de la marca Creative, capaz de hacer fotos en HD720p; para el movimiento d...

  7. Testing Three Types of Raspberry Pi People Counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathan Cintron

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hudson County Community College (HCCC Library tested three different types of Raspberry Pi based people counters between 6/14/2017 and 7/9/2017. This article will describe how we created each type of counter, will compare the accuracy of each sensor, and will compare them to the college’s existing 3M 3501 gate counters. It will also describe why and how our team decided to make this project, discuss lessons learned, and provide instructions for how other libraries can create their own gate counters.

  8. Sistem Monitoring Parkir Mobil menggunakan Sensor Infrared berbasis RASPBERRY PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DECY NATALIANA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Masalah yang selalu timbul dalam sistem perparkiran adalah kurangnya informasi mengenai status ketersediaan lahan parkir, untuk itu diperlukan sebuah sistem monitoring parkir. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang dan merealisasikan model sistem monitoring perparkiran dengan fasilitas pemilihan area parkir dengan berbasiskan Raspberry Pi serta pemanfaatan infrared sebagai sensor. Sistem ini mampu menampilkan status ketersediaan dari area parkir yang ditampilkan pada display serta dilengkapi dengan perhitungan tarif parkir. Pada sistem yang dirancang dilengkapi dengan tombol untuk memilih area parkir, 2 buah sensor pada masing-masing area parkir untuk mendeteksi kendaraan, kamera untuk kemanan dan lampu LED sebagai indikator ketersediaan area parkir. Perangkat lunak yang digunakan pada sistem ini dirancang dengan menggunakan bahasa Python 2 dan untuk sistem database digunakan SQLite3. Pengujian dilakukan secara simulasi pada miniatur perparkiran. Hasil pengujian model sistem perparkiran dapat menampilkan kondisi dari masing-masing area parkir yang ditampilkan pada display. Kedua buah LED berhasil menjadi indikator ada tidaknya lahan parkir yang masih kosong. Untuk sistem perhitungan tarif parkir telah sesuai dengan perhitungan lamanya parkir. Kata kunci : Parkir, Raspberry Pi , Infrared, Python 2, Monitoring. ABSTRACT The problem which always happens in parking system is the lack of information about the parking area. That’s why we need parking monitoring system. The purposes of this project are to devise and create parking monitoring system which has fitur for ordering parking area. The system based on Raspberry Pi. The system use infra red as sensor. Beside show the availability status of parking area in a display, this system also calculates the price of using the parking area. The System equipped with button for ordering parking area, 2 infrared sensors for each area, web camera for security and 2 LED lamps for availability

  9. Development of Houttuynia cordata Extract-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery: High Drug Loading Efficiency and Controlled Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Heon Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata has been used for diuresis and detoxification in folk medicine as well as a herbal medicine with antiviral and antibacterial activities. H. cordata extract-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (H-SLNs were prepared with various concentration of poloxamer 188 or poloxamer 407 by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. H-SLNs dispersion was freeze-dried with or without trehalose as a cryoprotectant. The physicochemical characteristics of H-SLNs were evaluated by dynamic laser scattering (DLS, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Additionally, the in vitro release and in vitro cytotoxicity of H-SLNs were measured. Encapsulation efficiencies of H-SLNs (as quercitrin were 92.9–95.9%. The SEM images of H-SLNs showed that H-SLNs have a spherical morphology. DSC and FT-IR showed that there were no interactions between ingredients. The increased extent of particle size of freeze-dried H-SLNs with trehalose was significantly lower than that of H-SLNs without trehalose. H-SLNs provided sustained release of quercitrin from H. cordata extracts. Cell viability of Caco-2 cells was over 70% according to the concentration of various formulation. Therefore, it was suggested that SLNs could be good carrier for administering H. cordata extracts.

  10. Dynamics of unloaded and green tea extract loaded lecithin based liposomal dispersions investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance T2relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtil, Emrah; Dag, Damla; Guner, Selen; Unal, Kubra; Oztop, Mecit H

    2017-09-01

    Liposomes are lipid bilayer vesicles that can be used as encapsulation systems for bioactive agents to provide increased protection against environmental stresses (such as pH or temperature extremes). Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR) that is based on differentiation of specimen contents with respect to magnetic relaxation rates provides detailed information on amount, state and distribution of water and oil and provide reproducible results on the samples. These make TD-NMR particularly suitable for time-dependent monitoring of emulsion system dynamics. In this study, spin-spin (T 2 ) relaxation times and relaxation spectra were used for characterizing green tea extract loaded and unloaded liposomes prepared with soy (S75) and egg lecithins (E80) by different preparation methods (such as homogenization type, pressure and solvent type). Mean particle sizes of liposomes were found to be the most influential factor in shaping mono-exponential T 2 relaxation times. The differences in particle sizes of E80 and S75 samples along with samples with different homogenization pressures could be monitored with T 2 relaxation times. Additionally, T 2 relaxation times were found to be correlated with particle shape irregularity, and chemical instability of samples due to lipid oxidation. With relaxation spectrum analysis, particular components in the sample could be distinguished (internal/external water and lipid bilayers), which gave more elaborate results on mechanisms of instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn

    2016-03-01

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning "on" and "off" of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  12. Exploring Perceptions of Raspberries and Blueberries by Italian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Girgenti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers can be important active contributors to a sustainable society by selecting foods that are produced respecting environmental and socially ethical standards. In the fruit sector, sustainability issues are often associated with imprecisely defined concepts such as “locally grown”, “freshness” and “local product”. This study has investigated raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. purchases in order to identify how berry fruits choice attributes are ranked by consumers in two Italian Regions, using a choice experiment (best-worst methodology. Twelve attributes—that indirectly refer to the concept of environmental sustainability—have been investigated. According to the preferences expressed by our sample of retail purchasers (n = 669, the results show that the reasons for the purchase of berries are associated with numerous parameters among which freshness and product origin are the most important and price was not ranked as so relevant. These findings indirectly testify the consumer attention towards the sustainability of local production and the link between sustainability and territory. Therefore, we can presume that the improvement of consumer familiarity with attributes such as “locally grown” and “local product” could support more eco-friendly consumption of raspberries and blueberries.

  13. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn

    2016-01-01

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning “on” and “off” of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  14. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap [B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology, Pilani, Rajasthan (India); Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn, E-mail: Dr.N.L@ieee.org [Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Pathum Thani (Thailand)

    2016-03-09

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning “on” and “off” of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  15. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a Raspberry Pi embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Martinez, Ramiro; Garduño-Mejía, Jesús; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Román-Moreno, Carlos J.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we present the design and manufacture of a compact Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a Raspberry Pi and a microlens array. The main goal of this sensor is to recover the wavefront of a laser beam and to characterize its spatial phase using a simple and compact Raspberry Pi and the Raspberry Pi embedded camera. The recovery algorithm is based on a modified version of the Southwell method and was written in Python as well as its user interface. Experimental results and reconstructed wavefronts are presented.

  16. On Goodput and Energy Measurements of Network Coding Schemes in the Raspberry Pi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Cabrera, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Given that next generation networks are expected to be populated by a large number of devices, there is a need for quick deployment and evaluation of alternative mechanisms to cope with the possible generated traffic in large-scale distributed data networks. In this sense, the Raspberry Pi has been...... of state-of-the-art routing techniques. Therefore, in this work we provide an in-depth performance evaluation of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) based schemes for the Raspberry Pi models 1 and 2, by showing the processing speed of the encoding and decoding operations and the corresponding energy...... consumption. Our results show that, in several scenarios, processing speeds of more than 80 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi model 1 and 800 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi model 2 are attainable. Moreover, we show that the processing energy per bit for network coding is below 1 nJ or even an order of magnitude less...

  17. Improvement of production capacity and export raspberry from Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Radosavljević Katica

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote the Republic of Serbia as an investment destination and boost exports is necessary to improve the image of Republic of Serbia. The target is to produce sufficient amounts of high quality raspberries. It is necessary to promote Republic of Serbia as an attractive destination for foreign investment and promote exports of raspberries. The way to achieve the above objectives is determined strategy of international marketing. Republic of Serbia should find its way of realizatio...

  18. Water sorption and glass transition temperatures in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamaladevi, Roopesh M.; Sablani, Shyam S.; Tang, Juming; Powers, Joseph; Swanson, Barry G.

    2010-01-01

    Water sorption isotherms and glass transition temperatures of raspberries were determined to understand interactions between water and biopolymers. Water adsorption and desorption isotherms of raspberries were determined with an isopiestic method. Thermal transitions of raspberries equilibrated at selected water concentrations using adsorption and desorption were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The sorption isotherm data were modeled by BET and GAB equations, while the plasticizing influence of water on glass transition was modeled by the Gordon-Taylor equation. Equilibrium water concentrations varied at equivalent water activities during adsorption and desorption indicating occurrence of hysteresis and irreversibility of thermodynamic processes. The monolayer water concentrations of 0.099 and 0.108 kg water/kg dry raspberry solids obtained by BET and GAB models during desorption were larger than those during adsorption (0.059 and 0.074 kg water/kg dry raspberry solids). The glass transition temperature of raspberries decreased with increasing water concentrations. The Gordon-Taylor parameters T gs and k obtained for raspberries during adsorption were 42.6 o C and 4.73 and during desorption were 44.9 o C and 5.03, respectively. The characteristic glass transition temperature of the maximally freeze concentrated solution T ' g was -63.1 ± 5 o C and the onset of ice crystal melting temperature T ' m was -32.3 ± 0.4 o C. Although the water activity differed significantly at equivalent water concentrations obtained using absorption or desorption, the glass transition temperatures of raspberries were dependent on the concentration of water present not the method of equilibration.

  19. Transitioning EEG experiments away from the laboratory using a Raspberry Pi 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziek, Jonathan W P; Shienh, Axita; Mathewson, Kyle E

    2017-02-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) experiments are typically performed in controlled laboratory settings to minimise noise and produce reliable measurements. These controlled conditions also reduce the applicability of the obtained results to more varied environments and may limit their relevance to everyday situations. Advances in computer portability may increase the mobility and applicability of EEG results while decreasing costs. In this experiment we show that stimulus presentation using a Raspberry Pi 2 computer provides a low cost, reliable alternative to a traditional desktop PC in the administration of EEG experimental tasks. Significant and reliable MMN and P3 activity, typical event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with an auditory oddball paradigm, were measured while experiments were administered using the Raspberry Pi 2. While latency differences in ERP triggering were observed between systems, these differences reduced power only marginally, likely due to the reduced processing power of the Raspberry Pi 2. An auditory oddball task administered using the Raspberry Pi 2 produced similar ERPs to those derived from a desktop PC in a laboratory setting. Despite temporal differences and slight increases in trials needed for similar statistical power, the Raspberry Pi 2 can be used to design and present auditory experiments comparable to a PC. Our results show that the Raspberry Pi 2 is a low cost alternative to the desktop PC when administering EEG experiments and, due to its small size and low power consumption, will enable mobile EEG experiments unconstrained by a traditional laboratory setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection and Quantification of Norovirus in Raspberries Implicated in Disease Outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Vinje, Jan; Böttiger, Blenda

    2012-01-01

    controlled protocol for the viral RNA extraction using NucliSens and Plant RNA Isolation Aid and detection by RT-qPCR including bovine serum albumin of NoV in 25 g of raspberries. The protocol was applied on raspberries that had been linked epidemiologically to nine NoV outbreaks which had occurred...... of detection was 119 and 140 RT-qPCR units/25g for NoV GI or GII, respectively. Nineteen (37%) of 51 raspberry samples tested positive for GI and/or GII NoVs with the respective geometric mean values of 70 (range 22-330) or 29 (range 3-217) detectable genome copies/g of raspberries, when corrected using...... mengovirus recoveries. A 100% identical GI.6 sequence was detected in both raspberries and patient stool samples associated to one outbreak. In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating quantified virus levels of contaminated raspberries linked to illness. These data can contribute...

  1. Effect of Application Timing of Oxamyl in Nonbearing Raspberry for Pratylenchus penetrans Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Inga A; Walters, Thomas W

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, the Washington raspberry ( Rubus idaeus ) industry received a special local needs (SLN) 24(c) label to apply Vydate L ® (active ingredient oxamyl) to nonbearing raspberry for the management of Pratylenchus penetrans . This is a new use pattern of this nematicide for raspberry growers; therefore, research was conducted to identify the optimum spring application timing of oxamyl for the suppression of P. penetrans . Three on-farm trials in each of 2012 and 2013 were established in Washington in newly planted raspberry trials on a range of varieties. Oxamyl was applied twice in April (2013 only), May, and June, and these treatments were compared to each other as well as a nontreated control. Population densities of P. penetrans were determined in the fall and spring postoxamyl applications for at least 1.5 years. Plant vigor was also evaluated in the trials. Combined results from 2012 and 2013 trials indicated that application timing in the spring was not critical. Oxamyl application reduced root P. penetrans population densities in all six trials. Reductions in P. penetrans population densities in roots of oxamyl-treated plants, regardless of application timing, ranged from 62% to 99% of densities in nontreated controls. Phytotoxicity to newly planted raspberry was never observed in any of the trials. A nonbearing application of oxamyl is an important addition to current control methods used to manage P. penetrans in raspberry in Washington.

  2. Profitability of raspberry production on holdings in the territory of Arilje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry is the most important kind of berries and specific in many of its characteristics - biological properties, economic importance, agro-ecological, technological and organizational requirements, the market value of the product, as well as very high interdependence and correlation between the individual phases of the reproductive cycle. Due to its extremely pleasant smell and taste and high nutritional value, raspberry represents a very esteemed and sought fruit which has a high price in the world market and is very suitable for processing. In addition to financial effect, the cultivation of raspberries enables recruitment of labour force, which is in our economic situation of great socio-economic importance, especially in the mountainous regions of Serbia. Based on real data examples, this paper analyzes the economic profitability of this production. Investments in the establishment and cultivation of a raspberry plantation under irrigation amount to 12.140 €/ha. In the production of raspberries a very favourable annual financial result (profit in the amount of 9300 €/ha is achieved, production is very cost-effective, accumulation is significant (about 77% and return on equity is in the second year of exploitation. The established economic and financial results show that the production of raspberries is very profitable.

  3. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  4. Door Security using Face Detection and Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutra, Venkatesh; Kumar, Harshav; Jangid, Santosh; Solanki, L.

    2018-03-01

    With the world moving towards advanced technologies, security forms a crucial part in daily life. Among the many techniques used for this purpose, Face Recognition stands as effective means of authentication and security. This paper deals with the user of principal component and security. PCA is a statistical approach used to simplify a data set. The minimum Euclidean distance found from the PCA technique is used to recognize the face. Raspberry Pi a low cost ARM based computer on a small circuit board, controls the servo motor and other sensors. The servo-motor is in turn attached to the doors of home and opens up when the face is recognized. The proposed work has been done using a self-made training database of students from B.K. Birla Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pilani, Rajasthan, India.

  5. Sistem Informasi Lalu Lintas Berbasis Raspberry Pi PC Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmadina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing routine society in the era of globalization, the growth rate of the road and the vehicle becomes unbalanced so that cause traffic jams. Utilization of mini computers can help in the monitor of traffic density. This system implements Raspberry Pi equipped cameras to take pictures of the density of highways. The system is placed in a certain angle and height so that it can monitor the state of traffic. This research aims to build information systems using computer vision with background subtraction model. Image processed to produce data from calculation of contour feature such as traffic density which will be sent to the server. So in the end with this system information data traffic density directly can be known with accuracy of 87,6%.

  6. A Miniature Data Repository on a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrios Samourkasidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates a low-cost, miniature data repository proof-of-concept. Such a system needs to be resilient to power and network failures, and expose adequate processing power for persistent, long-term storage. Additional services are required for interoperable data sharing and visualization. We designed and implemented a software tool called Airchive to run on a Raspberry Pi, in order to assemble a data repository for archiving and openly sharing timeseries data. Airchive employs a relational database for storing data and implements two standards for sharing data (namely the Sensor Observation Service by the Open Geospatial Consortium and the Protocol for Metadata Harvesting by the Open Archives Initiative. The system is demonstrated in a realistic indoor air pollution data acquisition scenario in a four-month experiment evaluating its autonomy and robustness under power and network disruptions. A stress test was also conducted to evaluate its performance against concurrent client requests.

  7. The family house control system based on Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the design and implementation of a smart household based on simple wireless modules, which are monitoring (collecting data and controlling smart household supporting devices. The central unit processes measured parameters, and in relation to resulting values, a pre-set action is performed. Those actions variety can be configured by user via the user interface so that a set of smart rules for reaction on by household devices generated stimuli or problems can be created. That all together composes a control system based on Raspberry Pi, which manages indoor and outdoor temperature measurement, the lighting control, RF transmitter, jalousie, motion sensor control etc. There is a GUI for a PC and for a mobile phone as a part of that system.

  8. Upon a Home Assistant Solution Based on Raspberry Pi Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Florentin IFTIMIE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ongoing research on Internet of Things (IoT has been focused on a project aiming to creating a proof of concept for a distributed system capable of controlling common devices found in a house such as TVs, air conditioning units, and other electrical devices. In order to automate these devices, the system integrates various sensors and actuators and, depending of user’s needs and creativity in conceiving and implementing new commands, the system is able to take care and execute the respective commands in a safe and secure manner. This paper presents our current research results upon a personal home assistant solution designed and built around Raspberry Pi V3 platform. The distributed, client-server approach enables users to control home electric and electronic devices from an Android based mobile application.

  9. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  10. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses.......Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance...

  11. Impacts of the use of nonnative commercial bumble bees for pollinator supplementation in raspberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, G C; Jennings, S N; Osborne, J L; Goulson, D

    2011-02-01

    Evidence for pollinator declines has led to concern that inadequate pollination services may limit crop yields. The global trade in commercial bumble bee (Bombus spp.) colonies provides pollination services for both glasshouse and open-field crops. For example, in the United Kingdom, commercial colonies of nonnative subspecies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris L. imported from mainland Europe are widely used for the pollination of raspberries, Rubus idaeus L. The extent to which these commercial colonies supplement the services provided by wild pollinators has not been formally quantified and the impact of commercial bumble bees on native bees visiting the crop is unknown. Here, the impacts of allowing commercially available bumble bee colonies to forage on raspberry canes are assessed in terms of the yield of marketable fruit produced and the pollinator communities found foraging on raspberry flowers. No differences were found in the abundance, diversity, or composition of social bee species observed visiting raspberry flowers when commercial bumble bees were deployed compared with when they were absent. However, weight of marketable raspberries produced increased when commercial bees were present, indicating that wild pollinator services alone are inadequate for attaining maximum yields. The findings of the study suggests that proportional yield increases associated with deployment of commercial colonies may be small, but that nevertheless, investment in commercial colonies for raspberry pollination could produce very significant increases in net profit for the grower. Given potential environmental risks associated with the importation of nonnative bumble bees, the development of alternative solutions to the pollination deficit in raspberry crops in the United Kingdom may be beneficial.

  12. First report of a resistance-breaking strain of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) is pollen-transmitted and the most important virus of Rubus worldwide. Infection of RBDV is associated with drupelet abortion, resulting in crumbly fruit. Multiple RBDV strains have been reported, with the Scottish-type (D200) strains being the most prevalent, and...

  13. Late summer disease symptoms in western Washington red raspberry fields associated with co-occurrence of Phytophthora rubi, Verticillium dahliae, and Pratylenchus penetrans, but not Raspberry bushy dwarf virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    60% of the $109 million processed by the U.S. red raspberry industry is in northern Washington. In 2012, late summer disease symptoms were observed in many raspberry fields. These symptoms were initially attributed to Verticillium dahliae, but other soilborne pathogens (Phytophthora rubi, Pratylench...

  14. Contribution of a winter wheat cover crop to the maintenance of Pratylenchus penetrans populations in the raspberry production system with management considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the primary production challenges red raspberry growers in the Pacific Northwest confront is root lesion nematode (RLN; Pratylenchus penetrans). In this perennial production system, raspberry serves as a sustained host for RLN. When a raspberry planting is slated for removal in the fall, a ne...

  15. The raspberry model for hydrodynamic interactions revisited. I. Periodic arrays of spheres and dumbbells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lukas P; Peter, Toni; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost

    2015-08-28

    The so-called "raspberry" model refers to the hybrid lattice-Boltzmann and Langevin molecular dynamics scheme for simulating the dynamics of suspensions of colloidal particles, originally developed by Lobaskin and Dünweg [New J. Phys. 6, 54 (2004)], wherein discrete surface points are used to achieve fluid-particle coupling. This technique has been used in many simulation studies on the behavior of colloids. However, there are fundamental questions with regards to the use of this model. In this paper, we examine the accuracy with which the raspberry method is able to reproduce Stokes-level hydrodynamic interactions when compared to analytic expressions for solid spheres in simple-cubic crystals. To this end, we consider the quality of numerical experiments that are traditionally used to establish these properties and we discuss their shortcomings. We show that there is a discrepancy between the translational and rotational mobility reproduced by the simple raspberry model and present a way to numerically remedy this problem by adding internal coupling points. Finally, we examine a non-convex shape, namely, a colloidal dumbbell, and show that the filled raspberry model replicates the desired hydrodynamic behavior in bulk for this more complicated shape. Our investigation is continued in de Graaf et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 143, 084108 (2015)], wherein we consider the raspberry model in the confining geometry of two parallel plates.

  16. Nonsense Mutation Inside Anthocyanidin Synthase Gene Controls Pigmentation in Yellow Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Muhammad Z; Carvalho, Elisabete; Stracke, Ralf; Palmieri, Luisa; Herrera, Lorena; Feller, Antje; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Yellow raspberry fruits have reduced anthocyanin contents and offer unique possibility to study the genetics of pigment biosynthesis in this important soft fruit. Anthocyanidin synthase ( Ans ) catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidin to anthocyanidin, a key committed step in biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Molecular analysis of the Ans gene enabled to identify an inactive ans allele in a yellow fruit raspberry ("Anne"). A 5 bp insertion in the coding region was identified and designated as ans +5 . The insertion creates a premature stop codon resulting in a truncated protein of 264 amino acids, compared to 414 amino acids wild-type ANS protein. This mutation leads to loss of function of the encoded protein that might also result in transcriptional downregulation of Ans gene as a secondary effect, i.e., nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Further, this mutation results in loss of visible and detectable anthocyanin pigments. Functional characterization of raspberry Ans / ans alleles via complementation experiments in the Arabidopsis thaliana ldox mutant supports the inactivity of encoded protein through ans +5 and explains the proposed block in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in raspberry. Taken together, our data shows that the mutation inside Ans gene in raspberry is responsible for yellow fruit phenotypes.

  17. Nonsense mutation inside anthocyanidin synthase gene controls pigmentation in yellow raspberry (Rubus idaeus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Rafique

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow raspberry fruits have reduced anthocyanin contents and offer unique possibility to study the genetics of pigment biosynthesis in this important soft fruit. Anthocyanidin synthase catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidin to anthocyanidin, a key committed step in biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Molecular analysis of the Ans gene enabled to identify an inactive ans allele in a yellow fruit raspberry (Anne. A 5-bp insertion in the coding region was identified and designated as ans+5. The insertion creates a premature stop codon resulting in a truncated protein of 264 amino acids, compared to 414 amino acids wild type ANS protein. This mutation leads to loss of function of the encoded protein that might also result in transcriptional downregulation of Ans gene as a secondary effect i.e. nonsense-mRNA mediated decay. Further, this mutation results in loss of visible and detectable anthocyanin pigments. Functional characterization of raspberry Ans/ans alleles via complementation experiments in the Arabidopsis thaliana ldox mutant supports the inactivity of encoded protein through ans+5 and explains the proposed block in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in raspberry. Taken together, our data shows that the mutation inside Ans gene in raspberry is responsible for yellow fruit phenotypes.

  18. Bioconversion to Raspberry Ketone is Achieved by Several Non-related Plant Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Suvi T.; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Rischer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Bioconversion, i.e., the use of biological systems to perform chemical changes in synthetic or natural compounds in mild conditions, is an attractive tool for the production of novel active or high-value compounds. Plant cells exhibit a vast biochemical potential, being able to transform a range of substances, including pharmaceutical ingredients and industrial by-products, via enzymatic processes. The use of plant cell cultures offers possibilities for contained and optimized production processes which can be applied in industrial scale. Raspberry ketone [4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one] is among the most interesting natural flavor compounds, due to its high demand and significant market value. The biosynthesis of this industrially relevant flavor compound is relatively well characterized, involving the condensation of 4-coumaryl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by Type III polyketide synthase to form a diketide, and the subsequent reduction catalyzed by an NADPH-dependent reductase. Raspberry ketone has been successfully produced by bioconversion using different hosts and precursors to establish more efficient and economical processes. In this work, we studied the effect of overexpressed RiZS1 in tobacco on precursor bioconversion to raspberry ketone. In addition, various wild type plant cell cultures were studied for their capacity to carry out the bioconversion to raspberry ketone using either 4-hydroxybenzalacetone or betuligenol as a substrate. Apparently plant cells possess rather widely distributed reductase activity capable of performing the bioconversion to raspberry ketone using cheap and readily available precursors. PMID:26635853

  19. Raspberry ketone in food supplements – High intake, few toxicity data – A cause for safety concern?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2015-01-01

    Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is marketed on the Internet as a food supplement. The recommended intake is between 100 and 1400 mg per day. The substance is naturally occurring in raspberries (up to 4.3 mg/kg) and is used as a flavouring substance. Toxicological studies...... ketone is not withdrawn from Internet sites from this country....

  20. Uptake and partitioning of nutrients in blackberry and raspberry and evaluating plant nutrient status for accurate assessment of fertilizer requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry and blackberry plantings have a relatively low nutrient requirement compared to many other perennial fruit crops. Annual total N accumulation ranged from 62-110 lb/a in red raspberry and 33-39 lb/a in blackberry. Primocanes rely primarily on fertilizer N for growth, whereas floricane growt...

  1. Expanding the scope of a single pathogen survey to solve the mystery of the ailing red raspberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington state produces almost 60% of the processed raspberries ($79 M value) in the U.S. Production is severely limited by Raspberry Bushy Dwarf Virus (RBDV) and the soilborne pathogens Phytophthora rubi and Pratylenchus penetrans. However, in 2012, growers began noticing plants with unusual symp...

  2. Separate norovirus outbreaks linked to one source of imported frozen raspberries by molecular analysis, Denmark, 2010–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, L.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Fonager, J.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus outbreaks occur frequently in Denmark and it can be difficult to establish whether apparently independent outbreaks have the same origin. Here we report on six outbreaks linked to frozen raspberries, investigated separately over a period of 3 months. Norovirus from stools were sequence...... capsid P2 region. In one outbreak at a hospital canteen, frozen raspberries was associated with illness by cohort investigation (relative risk 6·1, 95% confidence interval 3·2–11). Bags of raspberries suspected to be the source were positive for genogroup I and II noroviruses, one typable virus...... was genotype GI.6 (capsid). These molecular investigations showed that the apparently independent outbreaks were the result of one contamination event of frozen raspberries. The contaminated raspberries originated from a single producer in Serbia and were originally not considered to belong to the same batch...

  3. Synthesis engineering of iron oxide raspberry-shaped nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, O; Pichon, B P; Ihiawakrim, D; Florea, I; Moldovan, S; Ersen, O; Begin, D; Grenèche, J-M; Lemonnier, S; Barraud, E; Begin-Colin, S

    2017-01-07

    Magnetic porous nanostructures consisting of oriented aggregates of iron oxide nanocrystals display very interesting properties such as a lower oxidation state of magnetite, and enhanced saturation magnetization in comparison with individual nanoparticles of similar sizes and porosity. However, the formation mechanism of these promising nanostructures is not well understood, which hampers the fine tuning of their magnetic properties, for instance by doping them with other elements. Therefore the formation mechanism of porous raspberry shaped nanostructures (RSNs) synthesized by a one-pot polyol solvothermal method has been investigated in detail from the early stages by using a wide panel of characterization techniques, and especially by performing original in situ HR-TEM studies in temperature. A time-resolved study showed the intermediate formation of an amorphous iron alkoxide phase with a plate-like lamellar structure (PLS). Then, the fine investigation of PLS transformation upon heating up to 500 °C confirmed that the synthesis of RSNs involves two iron precursors: the starting one (hydrated iron chlorides) and the in situ formed iron alkoxide precursor which decomposes with time and heating and contributes to the growth step of nanostructures. Such an understanding of the formation mechanism of RSNs is necessary to envision efficient and rational enhancement of their magnetic properties.

  4. Sistem Keamanan pada Lingkungan Pondok Pesantren Menggunakan Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ahmad Syahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu pelanggaran kedisiplinan yang sering dilakukan oleh para santri ialah keluar dari pondok pesantren pada saat jam belajar pondok maupun saat tidak ada kegiatan pondok, oleh karena itu diperlukan alat bantu modern untuk membantu para ustad mengawasi lingkungan pondok pesantren. Dimana alat tersebut diimplementasikan dengan  Raspberry Pi dan sensor PIR (passive infrared serta modul kamera yang digunakan untuk mengawasi santri. Sensor PIR digunakan untuk mendeteksi adanya gerakan. Setelah terdeteksi sebuah gerakan, modul kamera akan diaktifkan kemudian akan melihat dan mendeteksi objek menggunakan histogram oriented of gradient (HOG. Ketika objek terdeteksi adalah manusia maka objek itu difoto kemudian pesan pemberitahuan pelanggaran yang berisi gambar hasil foto dan pesan singkat akan dikirim melalui email ke email ustad.Dari Uji coba sistem yang dibuat didapatkan hasil pendeteksian gerakan oleh sensor PIR dengan maksimal jarak 6 meter dan jarak pendeteksian oleh HOG berikisar antara 2 meter hingga 6 meter dan idealnya alat ini diletakkan 3 meter dari objek sehingga alat ini tepat digunakan untuk membantu meningkatkan penerapan ilmu kedisiplinan di lingkungan pondok pesantren.

  5. Raspberry Pi camera with intervalometer used as crescograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Stefan; Surducan, Vasile

    2017-12-01

    The intervalometer is an attachment or facility on a photo-camera that operates the shutter regularly at set intervals over a period. Professional cameras with built in intervalometers are expensive and quite difficult to find. The Canon CHDK open source operating system allows intervalometer implementation on Canon cameras only. However finding a Canon camera with near infra-red (NIR) photographic lens at affordable price is impossible. On experiments requiring several cameras (used to measure growth in plants - the crescographs, but also for coarse evaluation of the water content of leaves), the costs of the equipment are often over budget. Using two Raspberry Pi modules each equipped with a low cost NIR camera and a WIFI adapter (for downloading pictures stored on the SD card) and some freely available software, we have implemented two low budget intervalometer cameras. The shutting interval, the number of pictures to be taken, image resolution and some other parameters can be fully programmed. Cameras have been in use continuously for three months (July-October 2017) in a relevant environment (outside), proving the concept functionality.

  6. Easy as Pi: A Network Coding Raspberry Pi Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chres W. Sørensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, upcoming communications and storage networks are expected to tolerate major difficulties produced by huge amounts of data being generated from the Internet of Things (IoT. For these types of networks, strategies and mechanisms based on network coding have appeared as an alternative to overcome these difficulties in a holistic manner, e.g., without sacrificing the benefit of a given network metric when improving another. There has been recurrent issues on: (i making large-scale deployments akin to the Internet of Things; (ii assessing and (iii replicating the obtained results in preliminary studies. Therefore, finding testbeds that can deal with large-scale deployments and not lose historic data in order to evaluate these mechanisms are greatly needed and desirable from a research perspective. However, this can be hard to manage, not only due to the inherent costs of the hardware, but also due to maintenance challenges. In this paper, we present the required key steps to design, setup and maintain an inexpensive testbed using Raspberry Pi devices for communications and storage networks with network coding capabilities. This testbed can be utilized for any applications requiring results replicability.

  7. William Raspberry: Duke University's Illustrious Appointment from Outside the Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Brock

    1996-01-01

    Introduces Duke University's efforts to attract qualified blacks to join their faculty by reaching out to black professionals, and describes one journalist's experience teaching about race in higher education. Teaching about racial relations and group identity from a "hands-on" treatment that brings the issues down to a more personal and…

  8. Heterologous production of raspberry ketone in the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae via pathway engineering and synthetic enzyme fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danna; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Pretorius, Isak S; Borneman, Anthony R

    2016-03-04

    Raspberry ketone is the primary aroma compound found in raspberries and naturally derived raspberry ketone is a valuable flavoring agent. The economic incentives for the production of raspberry ketone, combined with the very poor yields from plant tissue, therefore make this compound an excellent target for heterologous production in synthetically engineered microbial strains. A de novo pathway for the production of raspberry ketone was assembled using four heterologous genes, encoding phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxlase, coumarate-CoA ligase and benzalacetone synthase, in an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Synthetic protein fusions were also explored as a means of increasing yields of the final product. The highest raspberry ketone concentration achieved in minimal media exceeded 7.5 mg/L when strains were fed with 3 mM p-coumaric acid; or 2.8 mg/L for complete de novo synthesis, both of which utilized a coumarate-CoA ligase, benzalacetone synthase synthetic fusion protein that increased yields over fivefold compared to the native enzymes. In addition, this strain was shown to be able to produce significant amounts of raspberry ketone in wine, with a raspberry ketone titer of 3.5 mg/L achieved after aerobic fermentation of Chardonnay juice or 0.68 mg/L under anaerobic winemaking conditions. We have shown that it is possible to produce sensorially-relevant quantities of raspberry ketone in an industrial heterologous host. This paves the way for further pathway optimization to provide an economical alternative to raspberry ketone derived from plant sources.

  9. Preparation of raspberry-like polypyrrole composites with applications in catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tongjie; Wang, Chuanxi; Wu, Jie; Lin, Quan; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Kai; Yu, Kui; Yang, Bai

    2009-10-15

    Raspberry-like composites were prepared by coating the silver/polypyrrole core/shell composites onto the surface of silica spheres via oxidation polymerization of pyrrole monomer with [Ag(NH3)2]+ ions as oxidants. The whole process allowed the absence of stabilizers, which greatly improved the quality of the conducting polymer composites. The morphology of the resulting composites was investigated, which can be described as raspberry-like; also, the structure and composition of the composites were characterized in detail. A possible formation mechanism was proposed. The present synthetic strategy substantially extended the scope of metal/conducting polymer composite synthesis. The raspberry-like composites exhibited excellent catalytic properties in the reduction of methylene blue dye with the reducing agent of sodium borohydride.

  10. Improvement of production capacity and export raspberry from Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Katica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote the Republic of Serbia as an investment destination and boost exports is necessary to improve the image of Republic of Serbia. The target is to produce sufficient amounts of high quality raspberries. It is necessary to promote Republic of Serbia as an attractive destination for foreign investment and promote exports of raspberries. The way to achieve the above objectives is determined strategy of international marketing. Republic of Serbia should find its way of realization of the set goals. A good example of prosperity and international promotion of the industry raspberry we can see the competitors Poland and Chile, who have been well positioned in the global market. International marketing should be supported by intensive promotion in all media and the Internet, participation in international fairs.

  11. Pengembangan Sistem Otomatisasi AC dan Lampu Menggunakan Fuzzy dan Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Ariyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Otomatisasi AC dan lampu dilakukan untuk menghemat energi yang digunakan pada kehidupan sehari-hari. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu perlu menerapkan sebuah perangkat yang memiliki fungsi maksimal dengan harga yang minimal. Raspberry Pi merupakan perangkat atau modul dengan harga rendah yang mampu melakukan komunikasi wireless tanpa bantuan modul lain. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu juga diperlukan sebuah metode yang mampu melakukan kontrol terhadap nyala AC dan lampu. Penerapan metode fuzzy dapat dilakukan untuk menghimpun informasi keadaan ruang yang didapat dari sensor untuk menentukan nyala AC dan lampu secara otomatis. Oleh sebab itu pada penelitian ini mengusulkan pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi dan Fuzzy. Otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi yang menerapkan metode Fuzzy dapat menghemat energi hingga 59,87% dalam hal lama waktu nyala AC dan 57,47% untuk lumenasi lampu

  12. Raspberry Pi: An Effective Vehicle in Teaching the Internet of Things in Computer Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Raspberry Pi is being increasingly adopted as a suitable platform in both research and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT. This study presents a novel project-based teaching and learning approach devised in an Internet of Things course for undergraduate students in the computer science major, where the Raspberry Pi platform is used as an effective vehicle to greatly enhance students’ learning performance and experience. The devised course begins with learning simple hardware and moves to building a whole prototype system. This paper illustrates the outcome of the proposed approach by demonstrating the prototype IoT systems designed and developed by students at the end of one such IoT course. Furthermore, this study provides insights and lessons regarding how to facilitate the use of the Raspberry Pi platform to successfully achieve the goals of project-based teaching and learning in IoT.

  13. Organization and costs of repurchasing, transportation, warehousing and storage of raspberry fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalanović-Bulatović Branka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its characteristic, apart from nutritive and medical significance, raspberry is particularly important for our country in social and economic terms, since its export attracts foreign currency inflow. Since the quality of raspberry decreases rapidly after picking, it is utterly important that the whole process, from picking to cold storage of fruit, should be rationally organized, thus finally reducing the costs and increasing the production value. For these reasons precisely the research deals with organization of the entire process, from repurchase to cold storage of raspberry fruits, as well as the analysis of pertaining costs. Necessary information for the preparation of the paper has been obtained from cold storage plants engaged in raspberry storage and preservation. Necessary information has been gathered using several methods, viz: observation, interview and content analysis methods. Furthermore, analysis, comparison and calculation methods have also been used in the preparation of the paper. The raspberry fruit repurchase, transport and storage costs range from 1,6 to 1,8 EUR per kg, exclusive of storage (store-housing. To this one should add store-housing costs ranging from 0,009 to 0,013 EUR per kg on a monthly basis. Modern organization of production and communication between producers, repurchasers, processors and exporters is essential in order to decrease fluctuations in repurchase and sales price of fresh raspberry and its products and the improvement of overall financial effect of all links within the chain of this economy activity. Cold storage plants, even if of minor capacities, are beneficial not only for the immediate participants in the producer-buyer chain, but it also makes an important stimulating factor for rural development and economy of the country.

  14. Real-time geomagnetic data from a Raspberry Pi magnetometer network in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Beggan, Ciaran

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, BGS and the University of Lancaster won an STFC Public Engagement grant to build and deploy 10 Raspberry Pi magnetometers to secondary schools across the UK. The system uses a Raspberry Pi computer as a logging and data transfer device, connected to a set of three orthogonal miniature fluxgate magnetometers. The system has a nominal sensitivity of around 1 nanoTesla (nT), in each component direction (North, East and Down). This is around twenty times less sensitive than a current sci...

  15. DC motors and servo-motors controlled by Raspberry Pi 2B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šustek Michal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expanding capabilities of today’s microcontrollers and other devices lead to an increased utilization of these technologies in diverse fields. The automation and issue of remote control of moving objects belong to these fields. In this project, a microcontroller Raspberry Pi 2B was chosen for controlling DC motors and servo-motors. This paper provides basic insight into issue of controlling DC motors and servo-motors, connection between Raspberry and other components on breadboard and programming syntaxes for controlling motors in Python programming language.

  16. Bacteria isolated from Korean black raspberry vinegar with low biogenic amine production in wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nho-Eul Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A high concentration of histamine, one of the biogenic amines (BAs usually found in fermented foods, can cause undesirable physiological side effects in sensitive humans. The objective of this study is to isolate indigenous Acetobacter strains from naturally fermented Bokbunja vinegar in Korea with reduced histamine production during starter fermentation. Further, we examined its physiological and biochemical properties, including BA synthesis. The obtained strain MBA-77, identified as Acetobacter aceti by 16S rDNA homology and biochemical analysis and named A. aceti MBA-77. A. aceti MBA-77 showed optimal acidity % production at pH 5; the optimal temperature was 25 °C. When we prepared and examined the BAs synthesis spectrum during the fermentation process, Bokbunja wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that the histamine concentration increased from 2.72 of Bokbunja extract to 5.29 mg/L and cadaverine and dopamine was decreased to 2.6 and 10.12 mg/L, respectively. Bokbunja vinegar prepared by A. aceti MBA-77 as the starter, the histamine concentration of the vinegar preparation step was decreased up to 3.66 mg/L from 5.29 mg/L in the wine preparation step. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate acetic acid bacteria isolated from Bokbunja seed vinegar with low spectrum BA and would be useful for wellbeing vinegar preparation.

  17. Bacteria isolated from Korean black raspberry vinegar with low biogenic amine production in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nho-Eul; Cho, Hyoun-Suk; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A high concentration of histamine, one of the biogenic amines (BAs) usually found in fermented foods, can cause undesirable physiological side effects in sensitive humans. The objective of this study is to isolate indigenous Acetobacter strains from naturally fermented Bokbunja vinegar in Korea with reduced histamine production during starter fermentation. Further, we examined its physiological and biochemical properties, including BA synthesis. The obtained strain MBA-77, identified as Acetobacter aceti by 16S rDNA homology and biochemical analysis and named A. aceti MBA-77. A. aceti MBA-77 showed optimal acidity % production at pH 5; the optimal temperature was 25°C. When we prepared and examined the BAs synthesis spectrum during the fermentation process, Bokbunja wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that the histamine concentration increased from 2.72 of Bokbunja extract to 5.29mg/L and cadaverine and dopamine was decreased to 2.6 and 10.12mg/L, respectively. Bokbunja vinegar prepared by A. aceti MBA-77 as the starter, the histamine concentration of the vinegar preparation step was decreased up to 3.66mg/L from 5.29mg/L in the wine preparation step. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate acetic acid bacteria isolated from Bokbunja seed vinegar with low spectrum BA and would be useful for wellbeing vinegar preparation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Lee, Dan Bi; Bae, Garam; Bae, Hae-In; Bae, Seon Young; Hong, Young-Min; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Lee, Dong-Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-06

    Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS) that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1). One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA), identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles.

  19. Comparative RNA-seq for the investigation of tolerance to Verticillium wilt in black raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium dahliae Kleb., a cause of verticillium wilt, is a wide-spread, soil-borne fungal pathogen with a wide host range that includes many fruit and vegetable crops. Verticillium dahliae has been isolated from Rubus species showing symptoms of the disease. Very little is known about the intera...

  20. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Pilot-Scale Pulsed UV Light Irradiation of Experimentally Infected Raspberries Suppresses Cryptosporidium parvum Infectivity in Immunocompetent Suckling Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, L; Hubert, B; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Ballet, J J; Agoulon, A; Orange, N; Gargala, G

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., a significant cause of foodborne infection, have been shown to be resistant to most chemical food disinfectant agents and infective for weeks in irrigation waters and stored fresh vegetal produce. Pulsed UV light (PL) has the potential to inactivate Cryptosporidium spp. on surfaces of raw or minimally processed foods or both. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PL on viability and in vivo infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts present on raspberries, a known source of transmission to humans of oocyst-forming apicomplexan pathogens. The skin of each of 20 raspberries was experimentally inoculated with five 10-μl spots of an oocyst suspension containing 6 × 10(7) oocysts per ml (Nouzilly isolate). Raspberries were irradiated by PL flashes (4 J/cm(2) of total fluence). This dose did not affect colorimetric or organoleptic characteristics of fruits. After immunomagnetic separation from raspberries, oocysts were bleached and administered orally to neonatal suckling mice. Seven days after infection, mice were euthanized, and the number of oocysts in the entire small intestine was individually assessed by immunofluorescence flow cytometry. Three of 12 and 12 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10 and 100 oocysts isolated from nonirradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Four of 12 and 2 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Oocyst counts were lower in animals inoculated with 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries (92 ± 144 and 38 ± 82, respectively) than in animals infected with 100 oocysts from nonirradiated raspberries (35,785 ± 66,221, P = 0.008). PL irradiation achieved oocyst reductions of 2 and 3 log for an inoculum of 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts, respectively. The present pilot-scale evaluation suggests that PL is an effective mode of decontamination for raspberries and prompts further applicability

  2. ‘Razz’ highbush blueberry: A specialty cultivar with raspberry-flavored fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Razz’ is a midseason-ripening, tetraploid, highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) with unique raspberry flavor overtones that has been released by the cooperative breeding program of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Razz’ represents a distinct a...

  3. A Low-Cost Wireless Multi-Presentation on Single Screen in Classroom Using Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Layona, Rita; Dewi, Lusiana Citra

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone has become a daily necessity in supporting the mobility of users, including teachers and students. The need of users to make multi-presentation via a smartphone wirelessly does not fit with the cost and multiplatform support. This study aims to produce a solution by using Raspberry Pi as a wireless digital media player that will be…

  4. Whole Genome Sequences of the Raspberry and Strawberry Pathogens Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabima, Javier F; Kronmiller, Brent A; Press, Caroline M; Tyler, Brett M; Zasada, Inga A; Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2017-10-01

    Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely, raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of these two Phytophthora species as a first step toward understanding the genomic processes underlying plant host adaptation in these pathogens.

  5. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-02-01

    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly.

  6. Field captures of wild melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) with an improved male attractant, raspberry ketone formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eric B; Casana-Giner, Victor; Oliver, James E

    2007-08-01

    Field-trapping evaluations of the new male attractant, formic acid 4-(3-oxobutyl) phenyl ester (raspberry ketone formate [RKF]) were conducted in Hawaii with wild populations of melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine its activity in the field and to evaluate new plastic matrix formulations. All tests were compared with the standard melon fly attractant 4-(4-acetoxyphenyl) -2-butanone (cuelure [CL]), which is the attractant of choice for detection programs aimed at melon fly and other cuelure-responding Bactrocera fruit flies. Results of these tests over a range of doses on cotton wicks showed that at a 1-g dose raspberry ketone formate was 1.5-2 times more attractive compared with cuelure for up to 11 wk in the field. Lower doses applied on cotton wicks were less active, presumably due to hydrolysis of RKF to raspberry ketone. Raspberry ketone formate embedded in a plastic plug formulation also was field tested, and it was shown to be more attractive to male melon fly compared with cuelure. The use of this new attractant in control and detection programs is discussed.

  7. First report of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in blackberry in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past two decades, several viruses have been identified from Rubus (blackberry and raspberry) in wild and commercial plantings around the world (1) In Ecuador; approximately 14 tons of blackberries (Rubus glaucus) are produced each year in an estimated area of 5,500 hectares. This crop pro...

  8. Whole genome sequences of the raspberry and strawberry pathogens Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities, but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of t...

  9. Root removal to improve disease management in replanted Washington red raspberry fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington leads the nation in the production of red raspberries for processing. Soilborne pathogens are a production constraint in this $61 million industry with growers relying on preplant soil fumigation for their management. However, current fumigation methods can be ineffective, leading to repl...

  10. Distribution and longevity of Pratylenchus penetrans in the red raspberry production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major production constraints on the production of red raspberries in the Pacific Northwest is the presence of the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Current management of this nematode relies heavily on pre-plant soil fumigation, however regulations have made the practice more d...

  11. Novel colon-available triterpenoids identified in raspberry fruits exhibit antigenotoxic activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J; Allwood, J William; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Brown, Emma M; Verrall, Susan; Stewart, Derek; Latimer, Cheryl; McMullan, Geoff; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R

    2017-02-01

    Ileostomy studies provide a unique insight into digestion of food, allowing identification of physiologically relevant dietary phytochemicals and their metabolites important to gut health. We previously reported the consistent increase of components in ileal fluids of ileostomates after consumption of raspberries with use of nontargeted LC-MS n techniques and data deconvolution software highlighting two major unknown components (m/z 355 and 679). In-depth LC-MS n analyses suggested that the ileal m/z 355 components were p-coumaroyl glucarates. These compounds have not been identified previously and were confirmed in raspberry extracts after partial purification. The major ileal component with m/z 679 was a glycoside with an aglycone of m/z 517 and was present as two peaks in extracts of whole puree, unseeded puree, and isolated seeds. These components were purified using Sephadex LH20 and C18 SPE units and identified as major, novel raspberry triterpenoid glycosides. This triterpenoid-enriched fraction (100 nM) protected against H 2 O 2 -induced DNA damage in both colon cancer and normal cell lines and altered expression of cytoprotective genes. The presence of these novel raspberry triterpenoid components in ileal fluids indicates that they would be colon-available in vivo, so confirmation of their anticancer bioactivities is of key physiological relevance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Seasonal phenology of Amphorophora agathonica (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and spread of viruses in red raspberry in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightle, D M; Quito-Avila, D; Martin, R R; Lee, J C

    2014-04-01

    Amphorophora agathonica (Hottes) is the primary vector of aphid-transmitted viruses in red raspberry in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. To better understand the biology of the aphid, we estimated the lower developmental threshold and studied the seasonal activity of A. agathonica in commercial fields in northern Washington state. In addition, we monitored the spread of raspberry viruses (raspberry latent virus and raspberry leaf mottle virus, RLMV) to determine how rapidly fields became infected and whether there was a relationship between aphid presence and infection. The lower developmental threshold of A. agathonica was estimated to be 2.7°C. In the field, apterous and alate aphid populations began rapidly increasing at ≍800 growing degree-days and peaked at 1,050 growing degree-days. RLMV spread rapidly, with 30-60% of plants in four different commercial fields testing positive after three growing seasons. There was no discernible relationship between the presence or abundance of aphids based on 10 leaves sampled per plant location, and the odds of that plant becoming infected with RLMV.

  13. Characterizing the Soil Ecology of Red Raspberry Produced under Different Production Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and rhizosphere ecology play important roles in plant health and development. Using culture-independent microbial community profiling, we investigated the effects of fertilizer (composted dairy solids + mustard seed meal) on fungal communities in soil and endophytic in a raspberry production sy...

  14. Ellagitannins from Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Fruit as Natural Inhibitors of Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Sójka, Michał; Klewicki, Robert; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Lipińska, Lidia; Nowak, Adriana

    2016-07-13

    The paper presents the chemical characteristics of ellagitannins isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit and their in vitro and in situ antifungal activity against Geotrichum candidum ŁOCK 0511. The study investigated a complex preparation containing various raspberry ellagitannins at a concentration of 86% w/w, as well as pure lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6. The ellagitannin preparation was obtained by extracting raspberry press cake and purifying the extract using Amberlite XAD resin, while individual compounds were isolated by means of preparative HPLC. The complex preparation was analyzed for the content of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and flavan-3-ols using HPLC and LC-MS. The antifungal activity of the complex ellagitannin preparation and the isolated ellagitannins was determined for the strain Geotrichum candidum. The MIC and MFC values (10.0 mg/mL and 30.0 mg/mL, respectively) were found to be the same for lambertianin C, sanguiin H-6, and the complex ellagitannin preparation. The fungistatic activity of the studied ellagitannin preparation at a concentration of 10 mg/mL, as determined by the poisoned medium method, was 65.2% following 6 day incubation of Geotrichum candidum, with the linear growth rate of only 16.2 mm/day. The corresponding parameters for the control sample were 0% and 56 mm/day, respectively. The study demonstrated both in vitro and in situ antifungal activity of raspberry ellagitannins against Geotrichum candidum.

  15. Hepatoprotective effects of raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miq.) seed oil and its major constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lin, Qiyang; Li, Kang; Yuan, Benyao; Song, Hongbo; Peng, Hongquan; Yi, Lunzhao; Wei, Ming-Chi; Yang, Yu-Chiao; Battino, Maurizio; Cespedes Acuña, Carlos L; Chen, Lei; Xiao, Jianbo

    2017-12-01

    Raspberry seed is a massive byproduct of raspberry juice and wine but usually discarded. The present study employed a microwave-assisted method for extraction of raspberry seed oil (RSO). The results revealed that omega-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid) were the major constituents in RSO. Cellular antioxidant enzyme activity such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were investigated in HepG2 cells treated with RSO. Induction of the synthesis of several antioxidants in H 2 O 2 -exposed HepG2 cells was found. RSO increased the enzyme activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx in H 2 O 2 -exposed HepG2. Furthermore, RSO inhibited the phosphorylation of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (c-JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Taken together, the possible mechanisms to increase antioxidant enzyme activities in HepG2 may through the suppression of ERK and JNK phosphorylation. Raspberry seed oil exhibited good effects on the activities of the intracellular antioxidant enzymes and seems to protect the liver from oxidative stress through the inhibition of MAPKs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Mapping and expression of genes associated with raspberry fruit ripening and softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Craig G; Cullen, Danny W; Hackett, Christine A; Smith, Kay; Hallett, Paul D; McNicol, Jim; Woodhead, Mary; Graham, Julie

    2017-03-01

    QTL mapping identifies a range of underlying and unrelated genes with apparent roles in raspberry fruit ripening and softening that show characteristic developing fruit expression profiles. Fruit softening is an important agronomical trait that involves a complex interaction of plant cell processes. We have used both qualitative and quantitative scoring of fruit firmness, length, mass, and resistance to applied force to identify QTL in a raspberry mapping population. QTLs were located primarily on linkage group (LG) 3 with other significant loci on LG 1 and LG 5 and showed mostly additive effects between the two parents. The expression of key genes that underlie these QTLs with roles in cell-wall solubility, water uptake, polyamine synthesis, transcription, and cell respiration was tested across five stages of fruit development, from immature green to red ripe fruit, using real-time RT-qPCR. Gene expression patterns showed variable expression patterns across fruit development with a highly significant positive and negative correlation between genes, supporting precise regulation of expression of different cell processes throughout raspberry fruit development. Variable timing in expression was also found in some genes at different fruit development stages between soft and firm cultivars. Multiple processes have a role to play in fruit softening and this will require development of multiple marker combinations to genes that characterise raspberry fruit softening.

  17. Antioxidants in Raspberry: On-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Jonker, H.H.; Hall, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.; Vos, de C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. In this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. Both

  18. Red Raspberries and Their Bioactive Polyphenols: Cardiometabolic and Neuronal Health Links12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Freeman, Britt M; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Edirisinghe, Indika

    2016-01-01

    Diet is an essential factor that affects the risk of modern-day metabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer disease. The potential ability of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to reverse or prevent the progression of the pathogenic processes that underlie these diseases has attracted research attention. Red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) are unique berries with a rich history and nutrient and bioactive composition. They possess several essential micronutrients, dietary fibers, and polyphenolic components, especially ellagitannins and anthocyanins, the latter of which give them their distinctive red coloring. In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed various mechanisms through which anthocyanins and ellagitannins (via ellagic acid or their urolithin metabolites) and red raspberry extracts (or the entire fruit) could reduce the risk of or reverse metabolically associated pathophysiologies. To our knowledge, few studies in humans are available for evaluation. We review and summarize the available literature that assesses the health-promoting potential of red raspberries and select components in modulating metabolic disease risk, especially cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer disease—all of which share critical metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory links. The body of research is growing and supports a potential role for red raspberries in reducing the risk of metabolically based chronic diseases. PMID:26773014

  19. Method for Reduction of Pesticide Residue Levels in Raspberry and Blackcurrant Based on Utilization of Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balawejder Maciej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The method for the reduction of pesticide residues in soft fruits based on utilization of ozone was proposed. The procedure allows for effective reduction of boscalid residues by 38% in raspberries, and about 58% thiram in blackcurrants. Furthermore, it can be used on an industrial scale.

  20. A comparison between fertigation and granular fertilizer applications on yield and leaf nitrogen in red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in 2011-2012 to compare the effects of applying N by fertigation or as granular fertilizer on yield and leaf N in ‘Meeker’ red raspberry. The planting was established in Apr. 2006 at site located in western Oregon. Plants were irrigated by drip or sprinklers and grown with or w...

  1. Real-time ground motions monitoring system developed by Raspberry Pi 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P.; Jang, J. P.; Chang, H.; Lin, C. R.; Lin, P. P.; Wang, C. C.

    2016-12-01

    Ground-motions seismic stations are usually installed in the special geological area, like high possibility landslide area, active volcanoes, or nearby faults, to real-time monitor the possible geo-hazards. Base on the demands, three main issues needs to be considered: size, low-power consumption and real-time data transmission. Raspberry Pi 3 has the suitable characteristics to fit our requests. Thus, we develop a real-time ground motions monitoring system by Raspberry Pi 3. The Raspberry Pi has the credit-card-sized with single-board computers. The operating system is based on the programmable Linux system.The volume is only 85.6 by 53.98 by 17 mm with USB and Ethernet interfaces. The power supply is only needed 5 Volts and 2.1 A. It is easy to get power by using solar power and transmit the real-time data through Ethernet or by the mobile signal through USB adapter. As Raspberry Pi still a kind of small computer, the service, software or GUI can be very flexibly developed, such as the basic web server, ftp server, SSH connection, and real-time visualization interface tool etc. Until now, we have developed ten instruments with on-line/ real-time data transmission and have installed in the Taiping Mountain in Taiwan to motor the geohazard like mudslide.

  2. On Goodput and Energy Measurements of Network Coding Schemes in the Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor J. Hernández Marcano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Given that next generation networks are expected to be populated by a large number of devices, there is a need for quick deployment and evaluation of alternative mechanisms to cope with the possible generated traffic in large-scale distributed data networks. In this sense, the Raspberry Pi has been a popular network node choice due to its reduced size, processing capabilities, low cost and its support by widely-used operating systems. For information transport, network coding is a new paradigm for fast and reliable data processing in networking and storage systems, which overcomes various limitations of state-of-the-art routing techniques. Therefore, in this work, we provide an in-depth performance evaluation of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC-based schemes for the Raspberry Pi Models 1 and 2, by showing the processing speed of the encoding and decoding operations and the corresponding energy consumption. Our results show that, in several scenarios, processing speeds of more than 80 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi Model 1 and 800 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi Model 2 are attainable. Moreover, we show that the processing energy per bit for network coding is below 1 nJ or even an order of magnitude less in these scenarios.

  3. Dual silent communication system development based on subvocal speech and Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Ramírez-Corzo

    2016-09-01

    Additionally, in this article we show the speech subvocal signals’ recording system realization. The average accuracy percentage was 72.5 %, and includes a total of 50 words by class, this is 200 signals. Finally, it demonstrated that using the Raspberry Pi it is possible to set a silent communication system, using subvocal. speech signals.

  4. Measurement of Global Solar Radiation data using Raspberry Pi and its estimation using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya S.Shanmuga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for more efficient and environmentally benign, non-conventional sources of energy came into picture due to increasing demands for human comforts. Solar energy is now the ultimate option. In this paper, the instruments used to measure the solar radiation at Innovation Centre, MIT Manipal were connected to a Raspberry Pi to access the data remotely. Genetic Algorithms were formulated, so that the monthly mean global solar radiation in Manipal can be effectively estimated. Meteorological data such as humidity, temperature, wind speed, etc. were used as inputs to train the networks. A successful network was made between the data loggers and the Raspberry Pi. The data collected by the data loggers from the devices are transmitted to the Raspberry Pi which in turn sends the data to an internal server. The Raspberry Pi can be accessed using any SSH client such as PuTTY. The meteorological data was collected for the years 2010-2014 in order to formulate the Artificial Intelligence models. The validity of the formulated models were checked by comparing the measured data with the estimated data using tools such as RMSE, correlation coefficient, etc. The modelling of solar radiation using GA was carried out in GeneXpro tools version 5.0.

  5. Fermentative behavior of Saccharomyces strains during microvinification of raspberry juice (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Whasley F; Dragone, Giuliano; Dias, Disney R; Oliveira, José M; Teixeira, José A; Silva, João B Almeida E; Schwan, Rosane F

    2010-10-15

    Sixteen different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus were evaluated in the production of raspberry fruit wine. Raspberry juice sugar concentrations were adjusted to 16° Brix with a sucrose solution, and batch fermentations were performed at 22 °C. Various kinetic parameters, such as the conversion factors of the substrates into ethanol (Y(p/s)), biomass (Y(x/s)), glycerol (Y(g/s)) and acetic acid (Y(ac/s)), the volumetric productivity of ethanol (Q(p)), the biomass productivity (P(x)), and the fermentation efficiency (E(f)) were calculated. Volatile compounds (alcohols, ethyl esters, acetates of higher alcohols and volatile fatty acids) were determined by gas chromatography (GC-FID). The highest values for the E(f), Y(p/s), Y(g/s), and Y(x/s) parameters were obtained when strains commonly used in the fuel ethanol industry (S. cerevisiae PE-2, BG, SA, CAT-1, and VR-1) were used to ferment raspberry juice. S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15, isolated from fruit, displayed similar results. Twenty-one volatile compounds were identified in raspberry wines. The highest concentrations of total volatile compounds were found in wines produced with S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15 (87,435 μg/L), CAT-1 (80,317.01 μg/L), VR-1 (67,573.99 μg/L) and S. bayanus CBS 1505 (71,660.32 μg/L). The highest concentrations of ethyl esters were 454.33 μg/L, 440.33 μg/L and 438 μg/L for S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15, VR-1 and BG, respectively. Similar to concentrations of ethyl esters, the highest concentrations of acetates (1927.67 μg/L) and higher alcohols (83,996.33 μg/L) were produced in raspberry wine from S. cerevisiae UFLA FW 15. The maximum concentration of volatile fatty acids was found in raspberry wine produced by S. cerevisiae strain VR-1. We conclude that S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15 fermented raspberry juice and produced a fruit wine with low concentrations of acids and high concentrations of acetates, higher alcohols and ethyl esters

  6. Red Raspberry Phenols Inhibit Angiogenesis: A Morphological and Subcellular Analysis Upon Human Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, M; Machado, V; Costa, R; Figueira, M E; Sepodes, B; Barata, P; Ribeiro, L; Soares, R

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenols are a class of natural compounds whose potential as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenesis has been reported in many pathological conditions. Red raspberry extract, rich in polyphenols, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects and prevent cell proliferation in distinct animal models. However, the signaling pathways involved remain unknown. Herein, we used human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) to determine the influence of red raspberry phenolic compound extract concentrations, ranging from 10 to 250 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL, on endothelium viability (MTS assay), proliferation (BrdU incorporation), migration (injury assay), and capillary-like structures formation (Matrigel assay). Protein expression in cell lysates was determined by Western blot analysis. We showed that red raspberry extracts reduced cell viability (GI50  = 87,64 ± 6,59 μg GAE/mL) and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. A significant abrogation of cells ability to migrate to injured areas, even at low concentrations, was observed by injury assay. Cell assembly into capillary-like structures on Matrigel also decreased in a dose dependent-manner for higher extract concentrations, as well as the number of branching points per unit of area. Protein expression analysis showed a dose-dependent decrease in Phospho-VEGFR2 expression, implying abrogation of VEGF signaling activity. We also showed for the first time that red raspberry phenolic compounds induce the rearrangement of filamentous actin cytoskeleton, with an isotropy increase found for higher testing concentrations. Taken together, our findings corroborate the anti-angiogenic potential of red raspberry phenolic compounds and provide new insights into their mode of action upon endothelium. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1604-1612, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Comparison of the antioxidant properties of selected parts of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka-Brzezicka, Joanna; Nowak, Anna; Zielińska, Magdalena; Klimowicz, Adam

    Antioxidants contained in plant raw materials prevent oxidative stress, and reduce the degenerative effects of free radical reactions and damage caused by UV radiation. Antioxidant activity is exhibited, for example, in raspberry (Rubus idaeus), and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), which have a high content of tannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, vitamins and minerals. The raw plant material consisted of fresh and dried leaves and fruits of raspberries and blackberries harvested in 2014. This material was extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus and by an ultrasound-assisted technique. To evaluate antioxidant activity DPPH and FRAP methods were used in the first year and DPPH and ABTS methods in the second year of the study. The highest antioxidant activity, evaluated by the DPPH method in 2015, was demonstrated by both raspberry and blackberry fresh leaf extracts, whereas the highest reductive ability, assessed by FRAP, was demonstrated in fresh and dried blackberry leaves. In the next year of the study (2016), the activity of samples evaluated using the DPPH method did not differ significantly, with the exception of fresh raspberry leaf. In this year, the highest antioxidant properties, assessed using the ABTS method, were shown by extracts made of fresh blackberry leaves and fruits, and dried blackberry leaves. All the studied material, both ethanolic leaves and fruit extracts of raspberry and blackberry, reduced free radicals, which was examined using three methods of evaluation of the antioxidative properties (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS). The storage of ethanolic extracts at ambient temperature had no significant impact on the activity reduction of the evaluated plant material. The antioxidant activity of most examined extracts remained consistently high, which may be reflected in the use of the studied materials as sources of antioxidants in the cosmetics and pharmaceuticals industries.

  8. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  9. Vegetative growth of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. ‘Autumn Bliss’ with vermicompost application intercropped with lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoc Jara-Peña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out with objective to determine the response of red raspberry to vermicompost application and lupine (intercropped or not in the phase of vegetative growth under greenhouse conditions in Montecillo, Mexico. In the experiment 11 treatments were studied with 9 replications per treatment, with a complete factorial (5 × 2 plus an additional treatment consisting of a chemical fertilization with N100 P80 K80. As vegetable material adventitious buds of raspberry were used, statistically significant differences were found between treatments in number of leaves, plant height, cane diameter, fresh and dry matter in raspberry. The biggest response was obtained with 90 and 120 g pot–1 of vermicompost. In general, the lupine intercropped with raspberry permitted a slight competion but favored the biggest development in the foliar area.

  10. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in fruit wines from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry in central Shaanxi area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Feng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although grape wines have firmly dominated the production and consumption markets of fruit wines, raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry have been utilized to make wines because of their joyful aroma and high contents of polyphenolic phytochemicals and essential fatty acids. However, little is known about aromatic compounds of the wines produced from these three fruits. Methods: The aromatic composition of fruit wines produced from raspberry, strawberry, mulberry, and red grape was analyzed by GC-MS. Odor activity values (OAVs and relative odor contributions (ROCs were used to estimate the sensory contribution of the aromatic compounds to the overall flavor of the wines. Results: In strawberry, raspberry, and mulberry wines, 27, 30, and 31 odorants were detected, respectively. Alcohols formed the most abundant group, followed by esters and acids. The grape wine contained a wider variety (16 types of alcohols, and 4-methyl-2-pentanol and 2,3-butanediol were not present in the three fruit wines. The quantity of esters in raspberry (1.54% and mulberry wines (2.08% were higher than those of strawberry wine (0.78%, and mulberry wine contained more types of esters. There were no significant differences of acids between the three fruit wines and the control wine. In addition, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone were unique to raspberry wine, and nonanal was present only in mulberry wine. The indistinguishable aroma of the three fruit wines was attributed to the dominance of fruity and floral odor components derived from ethyl esters of fatty acids and their contributions to the global aroma of the three fruit wines. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that there were significant differences in the volatile components of fruit wines made from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry. The aroma compounds were more abundant in the raspberry and mulberry wines than in the strawberry wine, but the quality of strawberry wine was

  11. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  12. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  13. Annual and Perennial Alleyway Cover Crops Vary in Their Effects on Pratylenchus penetrans in Pacific Northwest Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Rachel E; Zasada, Inga A; DeVetter, Lisa W

    2017-12-01

    Cover crops can provide many benefits to agroecosystems, such as lessening soil erosion and increasing water infiltration. However, cover crop use is not common in established red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus ) fields in the Pacific Northwest. Raspberry growers are concerned about resource competition between the cover crop and raspberry crop, as well as increasing population densities of the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans , which has a wide host range and has been shown to reduce raspberry plant vigor and yield. A 2-yr study was conducted in an established 'Meeker' raspberry field in northwest Washington to evaluate the effects of nine alleyway cover crops, mowed weed cover, and the industry standard of bare cultivated soil on P. penetrans population dynamics, raspberry yield, and fruit quality. The host status for P. penetrans of cover crops included in the field experiment, as well as Brassica juncea 'Pacific Gold' and Sinapis alba 'Ida Gold', was also evaluated in greenhouse experiments. In the field experiment, P. penetrans population densities did not increase in alleyway cover crop roots over time or in alleyway soil surrounding cover crop roots (means range from 0 to 116 P. penetrans /100 g of soil) compared with the bare cultivated control (means range from 2 to 55 P. penetrans /100 g of soil). Pratylenchus penetrans populations did not increase over time in raspberry grown adjacent to alleyways with cover crops (means range from 1,081 to 6,120 P. penetrans /g of root) compared with those grown adjacent to bare cultivated soil alleyways (means range from 2,391 to 5,536 P. penetrans /g of root). Raspberry grown adjacent to bare cultivated soil did not have significantly higher yield or fruit quality than raspberry grown adjacent to cover crops in either year of the experiment. In the greenhouse assays, 'Norwest 553' wheat and a perennial ryegrass mix were poor hosts for P. penetrans , whereas 'Nora' and 'TAM 606' oat and 'Pacific Gold' and 'Ida

  14. Utilising Raspberry Pi as a cheap and easy do it yourself streaming device for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, F.; Soegijoko, W.; Yamani, A.

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in personal computing platforms have been revolutionary. With the advent of the Raspberry Pi series and the Arduino series, sub USD 100 computing platforms have changed the playing field altogether. It used to be that you would need a PC or an FPGA platform costing thousands of USD to create a dedicated device for a a dedicated task. Combining a PiCam with the Raspberry Pi allows for smaller budgets to be able to stream live images to the internet and to the public in general. This paper traces our path in designing and adapting the PiCam to a common sized eyepiece and telescope in preparation for the TSE in Indonesia this past March.

  15. Pesticide residues in raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) and dietary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łozowicka, B; Kaczyński, P; Jankowska, M; Rutkowska, E; Hrynko, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of 140 pesticides in raspberries from north-eastern Poland (2005-2010). Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC-NPD) was used. Among the 128 samples, 66 (51.6%) were found to detect residues: 14.1% contained one pesticide and around 38% multiple pesticide residues. The most frequently detected were pyrimethanil residues (36.0%). Twenty-seven (21.1%) raspberry samples exceeded the maximum residue limits. The estimated daily intakes ranged from 0.003% to 3.183% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for adults 0.008% and 9.7% for toddlers, respectively. The most critical case is procymidone, the acute risk was 180.9% of acute reference dose (ARfD) for toddlers and for adults (83% of ARfD) which is high.

  16. A hands-on course in sensors using the Arduino and Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Ziemann, Volker

    2018-01-01

    A Hands-On Course in Sensors using the Arduino and Raspberry Pi is the first book to give a practical and wide-ranging account of how to interface sensors and actuators with micro-controllers, Raspberry Pi and other control systems. The author describes the progression of raw signals through conditioning stages, digitization, data storage and presentation. The collection, processing, and understanding of sensor data plays a central role in industrial and scientific activities. This book builds simplified models of large industrial or scientific installations that contain hardware and other building blocks, including services for databases, web servers, control systems, and messaging brokers. A range of case studies are included within the book, including a weather station, geophones, a water-colour monitor, capacitance measurement, the profile of laser beam, and a remote-controlled and fire-seeking robot This book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students taking hands-on laboratory course...

  17. Screening of antibacterial activity of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruit and pomace extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velićanski Aleksandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of fruit and pomace extracts (concentration 50 mg/ml of two raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. cultivars (Meeker and Willamette was tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (reference and wild strains. Disc diffusion method with 15 μl of extracts and agar-well diffusion method with 50 and 100 μl were used. Antibiotic (cefotaxime/clavulanic acid was used as a control. Both raspberry fruit extracts showed the strongest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (wild strain and Bacillus cereus, where the largest clear zones (without growth appeared. Escherichia coli was the most resistant strain, with only zone of reduced growth. The highest antibacterial activity of pomace extracts was against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. There were no differences in the antibacterial activity between cultivars for both fruit and pomace extracts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  18. Implementation Of Vision-Based Landing Target Detection For VTOL UAV Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Ei Nyein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents development and implementation of a real-time vision-based landing system for VTOL UAV. We use vision for precise target detection and recognition. A UAV is equipped with the onboard raspberry pi camera to take images and raspberry pi platform to operate the image processing techniques. Today image processing is used for various applications in this paper it is used for landing target extraction. And vision system is also used for take-off and landing function in VTOL UAV. Our landing target design is used as the helipad H shape. Firstly the image is captured to detect the target by the onboard camera. Next the capture image is operated in the onboard processor. Finally the alert sound signal is sent to the remote control RC for landing VTOL UAV. The information obtained from vision system is used to navigate a safe landing. The experimental results from real tests are presented.

  19. PROTOTIPE SISTEM KONTROL JARAK JAUH BEBERAPA ALAT PENDINGIN RUANGAN BERBASIS RASPBERRY PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mochamad subianto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini pengendalian on/off berbagai piranti listrik kebanyakan masih dikendalikan dengan menekan tombol saklar atau remote yang penggunaannya dengan jarak yang dekat. Untuk menjawab kebutuhan masyarakat tentang sistem kontrol yang cepat dan dinamis diperlukan suatu teknologi sistem kontrol jarak jauh yang memungkinkan proses secara cepat agar dapat menghemat waktu dan tenaga khususnya pengendalian beberapa alat pendingin ruangan yang berada di beberapa ruangan. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian lanjutan dari peneliti terdahulu dan menggunakan perangkat yang mempunyai teknolgi terbaru yaitu Raspberry Pi sebagai pengendali untuk membuat suatu sistem kontrol beberapa AC (Air Conditioning pada ruangan yang berbeda secara jarak jauh. Diharapkan dapat sebagai salah satu solusi untuk perkembangan gaya hidup dan dinamika sosial saat ini yang semakin mementingkan kepraktisan dan efisiensi. Metodologi penelitian yang akan digunakan menggunakan metodologi waterfall dengan tahap-tahapannya yaitu tinjauan pustaka, analisa kebutuhan pengguna, analisis sistem, perancangan sistem, implementasi dan pengujian. Hasil akhir dari penelitian adalah prototipe pengendali jarak jauh beberapa perangkat AC Raspberry Pi.

  20. Solar Radiation Measurement Using Raspberry Pi and Its Modelling Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Selvanathan Shanmuga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of solar energy as the best alternative to traditional energy sources has led to an extensive study on the measurement and prediction of solar radiation. Devices such as pyranometer, pyrrheliometer, global UV radiometer are used for the measurement of solar radiation. The solar radiation measuring instruments available at Innovation Center, MIT Manipal were integrated with a Raspberry Pi to allow remote access to the data through the university Local Area Network. The connections of the data loggers and the Raspberry Pi were enclosed in a plastic box to prevent damage from the rainfall and humidity in Manipal. The solar radiation data was used to validate an Artificial Neural Network model which was developed using various meterological data from 2011-2015.

  1. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP Pada Jaringan Nirkabel Berbasis Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Handayani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP merupakan satu teknologi telekomunikasi yang mampu melewatkan layanan komunikasi dalam jaringan Internet Protocol sehingga memungkinkan antar pengguna berkomunikasi suara dalam jaringan IP. Kelebihan dari VoIP ini mampu melakukan efisiensi bandwith dan biaya pengelolaan dengan memanfaatkan Raspberry Pi sebagai server VoIP. Dalam penelitian ini, VoIP dibangun pada Sistem Operasi Linux dengan aplikasi Asterisk dan RasPBX yang diintegrasikan pada Raspberry Pi dengan menggunakan jaringan nirkabel lokal sebagai media transmisi. Sistem ini diujikan dengan menggunakan dua tipe client, yaitu PC dan smartphone dengan mengukur QoS dengan rata-rata delay 0.4463ms, rata-rata throughput 16.36KBps, rata-rata packet loss 0.889% dan jitter 1.102ms.

  2. Uav Photogrammetric Solution Using a Raspberry pi Camera Module and Smart Devices: Test and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, M.; Grasso, N.; Jabbar, A. Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, smart technologies are an important part of our action and life, both in indoor and outdoor environment. There are several smart devices very friendly to be setting, where they can be integrated and embedded with other sensors, having a very low cost. Raspberry allows to install an internal camera called Raspberry Pi Camera Module, both in RGB band and NIR band. The advantage of this system is the limited cost (light weight and their simplicity to be used and embedded. This paper will describe a research where a Raspberry Pi with the Camera Module was installed onto a UAV hexacopter based on arducopter system, with purpose to collect pictures for photogrammetry issue. Firstly, the system was tested with aim to verify the performance of RPi camera in terms of frame per second/resolution and the power requirement. Moreover, a GNSS receiver Ublox M8T was installed and connected to the Raspberry platform in order to collect real time position and the raw data, for data processing and to define the time reference. IMU was also tested to see the impact of UAV rotors noise on different sensors like accelerometer, Gyroscope and Magnetometer. A comparison of the achieved results (accuracy) on some check points of the point clouds obtained by the camera will be reported as well in order to analyse in deeper the main discrepancy on the generated point cloud and the potentiality of these proposed approach. In this contribute, the assembling of the system is described, in particular the dataset acquired and the results carried out will be analysed.

  3. Developing an Affordable and Portable Control Systems Laboratory Kit with a Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca M. Reck; R. S. Sreenivas

    2016-01-01

    Instructional laboratories are common in engineering programs. Instructional laboratories should evolve with technology and support the changes in higher education, like the increased popularity of online courses. In this study, an affordable and portable laboratory kit was designed to replace the expensive on-campus equipment for two control systems courses. The complete kit costs under $135 and weighs under 0.68 kilograms. It is comprised of off-the-shelf components (e.g., Raspberry Pi, DC ...

  4. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the storage life elongation of fresh strawberries and raspberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Todorov, S.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of preserving strawberries and raspberries at room temperature by irradiation is studied. The fruits were packed in perforated plastic bags and irradiated on gamma-device (Cobalt-60) at a dose power of 1900 rad/min. Strawberries were irradiated with 250 krad, raspberries of ''Rubin'' variety with 150 or 200 krad. Irratiated and control fruits were stored at 20sup(o) - 22sup(o)C and examined every day until the first signs of microbial decay appeared. It is found that the total number of microorganisms drops immediately after irradiation. The earliest signs of decay in control strawberries appeared on the second day after they had been packed; in irradiated strawberries - on the fourth or fifth day, with a rapid progress of decay thereafter. Decay of control raspberries started on the first day and by the fourth day all packages were completely moldy, while irradiated fruits had a very good appearance. Single mold spots appeared on the third or fourth day after exposure to 150 krad and later than the fifth day after exposure to 200 krad. Physico-chemical studies disclosed a tendency toward decrease in the sugar content immediately after irradiation. A post-irradiation decrease in the content of total pectine substances and ascorbic acid was also observed. At the end of preservation ascorbic acid in strawberries was reduced by 33 per cent and in raspberries by 19 - 70 per cent. The spectra of antecyonic substances showed that during the preservation of irradiated fruits oxidation has been more intensive. (Ch.K.)

  5. High Frequency Sampling of TTL Pulses on a Raspberry Pi for Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivnan, Matthew; Gurjar, Rajan; Wolf, David E; Vishwanath, Karthik

    2015-08-12

    Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) is a well-established optical technique that has been used for non-invasive measurement of blood flow in tissues. Instrumentation for DCS includes a correlation device that computes the temporal intensity autocorrelation of a coherent laser source after it has undergone diffuse scattering through a turbid medium. Typically, the signal acquisition and its autocorrelation are performed by a correlation board. These boards have dedicated hardware to acquire and compute intensity autocorrelations of rapidly varying input signal and usually are quite expensive. Here we show that a Raspberry Pi minicomputer can acquire and store a rapidly varying time-signal with high fidelity. We show that this signal collected by a Raspberry Pi device can be processed numerically to yield intensity autocorrelations well suited for DCS applications. DCS measurements made using the Raspberry Pi device were compared to those acquired using a commercial hardware autocorrelation board to investigate the stability, performance, and accuracy of the data acquired in controlled experiments. This paper represents a first step toward lowering the instrumentation cost of a DCS system and may offer the potential to make DCS become more widely used in biomedical applications.

  6. Shelf life stability of lactobacilli encapsulated in raspberry powder: insights into non-dairy probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekella, Kartheek; Orsat, Valérie

    2014-06-01

    Study the shelf-life quality changes in raspberry juice with encapsulated lactobacilli (Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL B-4495 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B-442) obtained by spray drying and understand the various factors involved. Raspberry powder was obtained from spray drying lactobacilli and raspberry juice with maltodextrin as an additive. Shelf life of the powder was analyzed over a period of 30 d. Acid and bile tolerance and antibiotic resistance was compared before and after spray drying. Water activity, survival, and scanning electron microscope images were also measured during the shelf life. A combination of processing conditions: inlet temperature (°C), maltodextrin to juice solids ratio and inlet feed rate (ml/min) during spray drying had a significant role on the survival of lactobacilli during shelf life. Refrigerated storage provided a higher shelf-life stability with regards to CFU/g (as high as 84% on day 0 and 98% retention by the end of 30 d) compared to room temperature storage. Probiotic properties during shelf life are affected by the processing conditions and encapsulated food matrix. Thus, understanding these aspects in vitro during shelf life gives us a brief insight into the future of non-dairy probiotics.

  7. The raspberry model for protein-like particles: Ellipsoids and confinement in cylindrical pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustach, Vincent D.; Faller, Roland

    2016-10-01

    The study of protein mass transport via atomistic simulation requires time and length scales beyond the computational capabilities of modern computer systems. The raspberry model for colloidal particles in combination with the mesoscopic hydrodynamic method of lattice Boltzmann facilitates coarse-grained simulations that are on the order of microseconds and hundreds of nanometers for the study of diffusive transport of protein-like colloid particles. The raspberry model reproduces linearity in resistance to motion versus particle size and correct enhanced drag within cylindrical pores at off-center coordinates for spherical particles. Owing to the high aspect ratio of many proteins, ellipsoidal raspberry colloid particles were constructed and reproduced the geometric resistance factors of Perrin and of Happel and Brenner in the laboratory-frame and in the moving body-frame. Accurate body-frame rotations during diffusive motion have been captured for the first time using projections of displacements. The spatial discretization of the fluid leads to a renormalization of the hydrodynamic radius, however, the data describes a self-consistent hydrodynamic frame within this renormalized system.

  8. Bioactivity of Meeker and Willamette raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) pomace extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetojević-Simin, Dragana D; Velićanski, Aleksandra S; Cvetković, Dragoljub D; Markov, Siniša L; Cetković, Gordana S; Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna T; Vulić, Jelena J; Canadanović-Brunet, Jasna M; Djilas, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Taking into account the substantial potential of raspberry processing by-products, pomace extracts from two raspberry cultivars, Meeker and Willamette, were investigated. Total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents were determined. Willamette pomace extract (EC₅₀=0.042 mg/ml) demonstrated stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical-scavenging activity than did Meeker pomace extract (EC₅₀=0.072 mg/ml). The most pronounced cell growth inhibition effect was obtained in the breast adenocarcinoma cell line, reaching EC50 values of 34.8 and 60.3 μg/ml for Willamette and Meeker extracts, respectively. Both extracts demonstrated favourable non-tumor/tumor cell growth ratios and potently increased the apoptosis/necrosis ratio in breast adenocarcinoma and cervix carcinoma cells. In reference and wild bacterial strains, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were achieved in a concentration range from 0.29 to 0.59 mg/ml, and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) in a range from 0.39 to 0.78 mg/ml. The results indicate significant antioxidant, antiproliferative, proapoptotic and antibacterial activities of raspberry pomace and favour its use as a functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the Possibility of Shaking Off Raspberry Fruits with a Pulsating Air Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabcewicz Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of harvesting raspberries with a pulsating air stream that causes the shoots of plants to vibrate. Two tractor-driven test devices were developed under this specific objective. The first one was a high capacity compressor, and the stream of air produced by it was directed onto one side of a row of plants. The second one was a device producing two counter-flowing air streams colliding in the middle of a row of plants. The frequency of the air pulses was adjusted steplessly by varying the rotational velocity of the shutters closing and opening the outlets of the fans. In the field trials with the device based on a compressor-generated air stream, two air pulse frequencies were used: 500 and 540 pulses per minute (8.3 and 9 Hz. The mean detachment force was 0.727 N. About 50% of ripe raspberries were removed from the bushes. The results achieved during harvesting with the device operating on the principle of colliding two pulsating air streams were markedly better and put the harvesting effectiveness within the range achieved in the trials with combine harvesters with mechanical finger shakers conducted by other researchers. For two pulse frequencies (8 and 9 Hz, almost 62% of fruits were harvested. Increasing the pulse frequency of the counter-flowing air streams above 9 Hz did not improve the effectiveness of detaching raspberry fruits from shoots.

  10. Functionalized Raspberry-Like Microparticles obtained by Assembly of Nanoparticles during Electrospraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Chul; Jeong, Unyong; Hwang, Yoon Kyun

    2014-01-01

    The present study suggests a novel method to produce raspberry-like microparticles containing diverse functional materials inside. The raspberry-like microparticles were produced from a random assembly of uniformly-sized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles via electrospraying. The solution containing the PMMA nanoparticles were supplied through the inner nozzle and compressed air was emitted through the outer nozzle. The air supply helped fast evaporation of acetone, so it enabled copious amount of microparticles as dry powder. The microparticles were highly porous both on the surface and interiors, hence various materials with a function of UV-blocking (TiO 2 nanoparticles and methoxyphenyl triazine) or anti-aging (ethyl(4-(2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-5-carboxyamido) benzoate)) were loaded in large amount (17 wt % versus PMMA). The surface and interior structures of the microparticles were dependent on the characteristics of functional materials. The results clearly suggest that the process to prepare the raspberry-like microparticles can be an excellent approach to generate functional microstructures

  11. Otomatisasi Pelayanan Binatu Berbasis Raspberry Pi Untuk Meningkatkan Efektivitas Dan Efisiensi Kegiatan Operasional Dan Pelayanan Binatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Habsyi Yesa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisnis binatu (laundry atau bisnis jasa cuci pakaian merupakan bisnis yang menggiurkan saat sekarang ini. Proses layanan binatu umumnya terdiri dari pendaftaran, pengolahan, dan pengambilan pakaian. Proses ini memiliki banyak kekurangan yaitu pendaftaran manual tidak efektif dan efisien, pengolahan pakaian hanya diketahui oleh penyedia layanan binatu, dan pelanggan tidak mengetahui pakaian telah selesai. Ditengah persaingan bisnis yang begitu ketat, pelayanan konsumen merupakan suatu hal yang sangat penting. Penyedia jasa dituntut untuk berinovasi untuk menyediakan layanan jasa yang efektif dan efisien. Oleh karena itu pada penelitian ini merancang dan merealisasikan otomatisasi pelayanan binatu berbasis raspberry pi. Sistem ini menggunakan timbangan digital berbasis load cell, teknologi radio frequency identification (RFID sebagai masukan data otomatis, Raspberry Pi sebagai pusat dari pengolahan basis data (database, dan webserver sebagai pusat informasi bagi pelanggan. Hasil penelitian menghasilkan beberapa kesimpulan. Timbangan digital memiliki eror rata-rata 0,88 %, metode RFID dapat memasukan data pelanggan secara otomatis dengan metode pengambilan nomor identitas jenis hex 8 digit, Raspberry Pi dapat mengakomodasi aplikasi yang efektif dan efisien untuk menyimpan data pelanggan secara otomatis dengan pemakaian CPU rata-rata 5%, dan webserver yang digunakan dapat menyediakan informasi layanan binatu bagi pelanggan.

  12. Adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors under the influence of Bacillus strains in Western Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Anatoly A; Shternshis, Margarita V; Chechenina, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2017-03-01

    In geographical locations with a short vegetative season and continental climate that include Western Siberia, growing primocane fruiting raspberry varieties becomes very important. However, it is necessary to help the plants to overcome the environmental stress factors. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pre-planting treatment of primocane fruiting raspberry root system with Bacillus strains on the following plant development under variable environmental conditions. In 2012, Bacillus subtilis RCAM В-10641, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RCAM В-10642, and Bacillus licheniformis RCAM В-10562 were used for inoculating the root system of primocane fruiting raspberry cultivar Nedosyagaemaya before planting. The test suspensions were 10 5  CFU/ml for each bacterial strains. The effects of this treatment on plant growth and crop productivity were estimated in 2012-2015 growing seasons differed by environmental conditions. The pre-planting treatment by the bacterial strains increased the number of new raspberry canes and the number of plant generative organs as well as crop productivity compared to control. In addition, these bacilli acted as the standard humic fertilizer. Variable environmental factors such as air temperature, relative humidity, and winter and spring frosts seriously influenced the plant biological parameters and crop productivity of control plants. At the same time, the pre-planting primocane fruiting root treatment by Bacillus strains decreased the negative effects of abiotic stresses on plants in all years of the research. Of the three strains studied, B. subtilis was shown to reveal the best results in adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors in Western Siberia. For the first time, the role of Bacillus strains in enhancing frost resistance in primocane fruiting raspberry plants was shown. These bacilli are capable of being the basis of multifunctional biological formulations for effective plant and

  13. An exploratory study of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) (poly)phenols/metabolites in human biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuhuiqun; Sandhu, Amandeep; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2018-02-21

    Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) contains a variety of polyphenols including anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Red raspberry polyphenols absorbed in different forms (parent compounds, degradants or microbial metabolites) are subject to xenobiotic metabolism in the intestine, liver, and/or kidney, forming methylate, glucuronide, and sulfate conjugated metabolites. Upon acute exposure, (poly)phenol/metabolite presence in the blood depends mainly on intestinal absorption, enterohepatic circulation, and metabolism by resident microbiota. However, chronic exposure to red raspberry polyphenols may alter metabolite patterns depending on adaptions in the xenobiotic machinery and/or microbiota composition. Understanding the metabolic fate of these compounds and their composition in different biological specimens relative to the exposure time/dose will aid in designing future health benefit studies, including the mechanism of action studies. The present exploratory study applied ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and triple quadrupole (QQQ) mass spectrometries to characterize red raspberry polyphenols in fruit and then their appearance, including metabolites in human biological samples (plasma, urine and breast milk) after the chronic intake of red raspberries. The results suggested that the most abundant polyphenols in red raspberries included cyanidin 3-O-sophoroside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, sanguiin H6 and lambertianin C. Sixty-two (poly)phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the plasma, urine and breast milk samples after the intake of red raspberries. In general, urine contained the highest content of phenolic metabolites; phase II metabolites, particularly sulfated conjugates, were mainly present in urine and breast milk, and breast milk contained fewer parent anthocyanins compared to urine and plasma.

  14. Comparison of different drying methods on the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xu; Chen, Qinqin; Bi, Jinfeng; Wu, Xinye; Yi, Jianyong; Zhou, Linyan; Li, Zhaolu

    2016-04-01

    Dehydration has been considered as one of the traditional but most effective techniques for perishable fruits. Raspberry powders obtained after dehydration can be added as ingredients into food formulations such as bakery and dairy products. In this study, raspberry powders obtained by hot air drying (HAD), infrared radiation drying (IRD), hot air and explosion puffing drying (HA-EPD), infrared radiation and microwave vacuum drying (IR-MVD) and freeze drying (FD) were compared on physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Drying techniques affected the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders greatly. FD led to significantly higher (P raspberry powder compared with other drying methods. However, thermal drying techniques, especially combined drying methods, were superior to FD in final total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. The combined drying methods, especially IR-MVD, showed the highest total polyphenol content (123.22 g GAE kg(-1) dw) and total flavonoid content (0.30 g CAE kg(-1) dw). Additionally, IR-MVD performed better in antioxidant activity retention. Overall, combined drying methods, especially IR-MVD, were found to result in better quality of raspberry powders among the thermal drying techniques. IR-MVD could be recommended for use in the drying industry because of its advantages in time saving and nutrient retention. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Synergistic interaction of sumac and raspberry mixtures in their antioxidant capacities and selective cytotoxicity against cancerous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan; Marcone, Massimo F

    2015-03-01

    Previous works on staghorn sumac (Rhus hirta) were mostly dedicated to its phytochemical profiles, antioxidant properties, and antidiabetic potentials. This study explored the potential of staghorn-sumac-derived functional ingredients for food and pharmacological applications. Sumac may have other biological functions, such as inhibitory effect on cancerous cells independent of its antioxidant properties. We characterized sumac and raspberry interactions, and their antioxidant capacities (ACs) and their inhibitory effect on both normal and cancerous cells. Mixing sumac and raspberry extracts yielded significantly higher ACs than the sum of sumac and raspberry as evaluated by three in vitro AC assays. However, the potential use of staghorn sumac as a natural source of dietary antioxidant supplement for oxidative-stress-related disorders might be challenged by its cytotoxicity in culturing normal cells. Remarkably, mixing sumac and raspberry showed maximal inhibition of the growth of both rat colon and human breast cancer cells with relatively low cytotoxicity toward normal rat colon and human breast epithelial cells, as compared with sumac or raspberry treatment alone. Sumac-derived products and their synergistic interactions with other food ingredients have great promise as functional food or nutraceutical products that would target cancer cells with minimal toxic effects to normal cells.

  16. The bioactive potential of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves in exhibiting cytotoxic and cytoprotective activity on human laryngeal carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgo, Ksenija; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Stančić, Angela; Franekić, Jasna; Komes, Draženka

    2012-03-01

    In this article, the bioactive potential of red raspberry leaves, a by-product of this widely spread plant, mostly valued for its antioxidant-rich fruits, was determined. The polyphenolic profile and antioxidative properties of red raspberry leaf extract were determined and examined for potential biological activity. Cytotoxic effect, antioxidative/prooxidative effect, and effect on total glutathione concentration were determined in human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) and colon adenocarcinoma (SW 480) cell lines. SW 480 cells are more susceptible to raspberry leaf extract in comparison with HEp2 cells. The antioxidative nature of raspberry leaf extract was detected in HEp2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide, as opposed to SW 480 cells, where raspberry leaf extract induced reactive oxygen species formation. Raspberry leaf extract increased total glutathione level in HEp2 cells. This effect was reinforced after 24 hours of recovery, indicating that induction was caused by products formed during cellular metabolism of compounds present in the extract. Comparison of the results obtained on these two cell lines indicates that cellular response to raspberry extract will depend on the type of the cells that are exposed to it. The results obtained confirmed the biological activity of red raspberry leaf polyphenols and showed that this traditional plant can supplement the daily intake of valuable natural antioxidants, which exhibit beneficial health effects.

  17. Chemical composition of defatted strawberry and raspberry seeds and the effect of these dietary ingredients on polyphenol metabolites, intestinal function, and selected serum parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Monika; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Jurgoński, Adam; Karlińska, Elżbieta; Macierzyński, Jakub; Jańczak, Rafał; Rój, Edward

    2015-03-25

    Strawberry and raspberry seeds were chemically analyzed and added as dietary ingredients to investigate the physiological response of rats. In both cases the main component was dietary fiber and the main polyphenols were ellagitannins (ET). The strawberry ET were mainly constituted by monomers and a dimer, agrimoniin, whereas raspberry ET were mainly constituted by a dimer, sanguiin-H-6, and a trimer, lambertianin-C. The lower content and the less polymerized structure of strawberry ET resulted in a higher cecal metabolites concentration (mainly nasutin and urolithin-A) in comparison to rats fed diet containing raspberry seeds. Dietary raspberry seeds, a source of dietary fiber, despite being richer in polyphenol compounds, were better utilized in fermentation processes, resulting in enhanced production of short-chain fatty acids. As opposed to strawberry seeds, the treatment with raspberry seeds beneficially improved the atherogenic index of a diet, mainly due to reduced triacylglycerol concentration in the serum.

  18. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Chen, Lei; Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.

  19. Influence of Sugars, Modified Starches and Hydrocolloids Addition on Colour and Thermal Properties of Raspberry Cream Fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichler Anita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of the addition of sugars (sucrose, fructose and trehalose, modified starches (tapioca or waxy maize starch and hydrocolloids (karaya or guar gum on colour and thermal properties of raspberry cream fillings. In addition, the influence of the above-mentioned additives on the colour and thermal properties of raspberry cream fillings stored at room temperature over a period of 8 and 16 months was investigated. Results showed that the highest anthocyanin content and total phenolic content were detected in raspberry cream filling prepared with sucrose and trehalose in combination with guar gum. During storage, after 8 and 16 months at room temperature, anthocyanin content and total phenolic content decreased. Results also showed that the kind of sugar and added modified starches or hydrocolloids influenced the thermal properties of cream fillings. During storage, a decrease was observed in both freezing temperature as well as enthalpy of cream fillings.

  20. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Teng

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation.

  1. Changes in the level and antioxidant activity of polyphenols during storage of enzymatically treated raspberry juices and syrups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowska, Urszula; Baraniak, Barbara; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    Berry juices are a rich source of phenolic compounds exhibiting antioxidant activity. Unfortu- nately, polyphenols and especially anthocyanins are degraded during storage. The levels of total phenolic compounds, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antho- cyanins as well as antioxidant activity (radical scavenging ability against DPPH and ABTS+• and chelating power Fe2+) were determined in raspberry juices (obtained after enzymatic treatment with three commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations) and syrups (obtained by the addition of sucrose at concentrations of 30% and 70%) during storage. During the five-month storage of juices and syrups at room temperature, there was significant re- duction in the level of phenolic compounds, in particular anthocyanins (up to 95% in relation to the initial content). Storage of raspberry juices and syrups also resulted in a reduction in antioxidant activity. The enzymatic treatment of the raspberry mash generally increased the losses of anthocyanins. The addition of sugar to fruit juices only slightly reduced these losses.

  2. Potential antioxidant retention and quality maintenance in raspberries and strawberries treated with calcium chloride and stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Turmanidze

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Raspberry and strawberry fruits were stored at 0 °C and relative humidity (RH of 95% for eight days. The fruits were treated with calcium chloride and their quality parameters and weight loss monitored and compared with those of untreated ones. A higher weight loss was observed for the untreated raspberries (16% than for the fruits treated with 2% calcium chloride (5.3%. Similarly, untreated strawberry fruits lost more weight (8.5% than those treated with 2% calcium chloride – only 4.1%. The application of calcium chloride did not significantly influence the total acid content of the fruits. After 8 days storage the total soluble solids (TSS had decreased to 10.22 ± 0.06, 9.60 ± 0.05 and 9.65 ± 0.12 in the raspberry fruits treated with 0%, 1% and 2% calcium chloride, respectively, and to 7.00 ± 0.17, 6.57 ± 0.08 and 6.35 ± 0.04 in the strawberry fruits treated with 0%, 1% and 2% calcium chloride, respectively. After storage, the ascorbic acid contents were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher in samples of raspberry and strawberry fruits subjected to 2% calcium chloride dips. The CaCl2 treatments had a significant effect on retaining the ascorbic acid contents in these fruits. The treatment of raspberry and strawberry fruits with calcium chloride had a positive effect (p< 0.05 on the retention of the total phenolic contents (TPC during the storage period. 66% and 74% of the antioxidant potentials were retained in the untreated samples of raspberries and strawberries, as against 78% and 89% in the 2% calcium chloride treated samples of these fruits.

  3. The costs and benefits of pollinator dependence: empirically-based simulations predict raspberry fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Agustín; Morales, Juan M; Morales, Carolina L; Harder, Lawrence D; Aizen, Marcelo A

    2018-03-24

    Globally, agriculture increasingly depends on pollinators to produce many seed and fruit crops. However, what constitutes optimal pollination service for pollinator-dependent crops remains unanswered. We developed a simulation model to identify the optimal pollination service that maximizes fruit quality in crops. The model depicts the pollination (i.e. autonomous self-fertilization, pollen deposition) and post-pollination (i.e. pollen germination, and time from germination to ovule fertilization) processes leading to fruit and seed set and allows for negative flower-pollinator interactions, specifically pistil damage. We parameterized and validated the model based on empirical observations of commercial raspberry in western Argentina. To assess the effects of pollination intensity for fruit production, we conducted simulations over a range of visit number per flower by the two primary managed pollinators worldwide, Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris. Simulations identified that ~15-35 visits per flower by A. mellifera or ~10-20 visits by B. terrestris provide adequate pollination and maximize raspberry fruit quality (i.e. estimated as the proportion of ovules that develop into drupelets). Visits in excess of these optima reduce simulated fruit quality, and flowers receiving > 670 honey-bee visits or > 470 bumble-bee visits would produce fruits of poorer quality than those receiving no bee visits. The simulations generated consistent, unbiased predictions of fruit quality for 12 raspberry fields. This model could be adapted easily to other animal-pollinated crops and used to guide efficient pollinator management in any agro-ecosystem. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Low cost audiovisual playback and recording triggered by radio frequency identification using Raspberry Pi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, Ádám Z; Akçay, Çağlar; Weiss, Talia; Haussmann, Mark F; Moore, Ignacio T; Bonier, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Playbacks of visual or audio stimuli to wild animals is a widely used experimental tool in behavioral ecology. In many cases, however, playback experiments are constrained by observer limitations such as the time observers can be present, or the accuracy of observation. These problems are particularly apparent when playbacks are triggered by specific events, such as performing a specific behavior, or are targeted to specific individuals. We developed a low-cost automated playback/recording system, using two field-deployable devices: radio-frequency identification (RFID) readers and Raspberry Pi micro-computers. This system detects a specific passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag attached to an individual, and subsequently plays back the stimuli, or records audio or visual information. To demonstrate the utility of this system and to test one of its possible applications, we tagged female and male tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from two box-nesting populations with PIT tags and carried out playbacks of nestling begging calls every time focal females entered the nestbox over a six-hour period. We show that the RFID-Raspberry Pi system presents a versatile, low-cost, field-deployable system that can be adapted for many audio and visual playback purposes. In addition, the set-up does not require programming knowledge, and it easily customized to many other applications, depending on the research questions. Here, we discuss the possible applications and limitations of the system. The low cost and the small learning curve of the RFID-Raspberry Pi system provides a powerful new tool to field biologists.

  5. Real-time Geomagnetic Data from a Raspberry Pi Magnetometer Network in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, N.; Beggan, C.; Marple, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, BGS and the University of Lancaster won an STFC Public Engagement grant to build and deploy 10 Raspberry Pi magnetometers to secondary schools across the UK to enable citizen science. The system uses a Raspberry Pi computer as a logging and data transfer device, connected to a set of three orthogonal miniature fluxgate magnetometers. The system has a nominal sensitivity of around 1 nanoTesla (nT), in each component direction (North, East and Down). This is around twenty times less sensitive than a current scientific-level instrument, but given its relatively low-cost, at about £250 ($325) per unit, this is an excellent price-to-performance ratio given we could not improve the sensitivity unless we spent a lot more money. The magnetic data are sampled at a 5 second cadence and sent to the AuroraWatch website at Lancaster University every 2 minutes. The data are freely available to view and download. The primary aim of the project is to encourage students from 14-18 years old to look at how sensors can be used to collect geophysical data and integrate it together to give a wider understanding of physical phenomena. A second aim is to provide useful data on the spatial variation of the magnetic field for analysis of geomagnetic storms, alongside data from the BGS observatory and University of Lancaster's SAMNET variometer network. We show results from the build, testing and running of the sensors including some recent storms and we reflect on our experiences in engaging schools and the general public with information about the magnetic field. The information to build the system and logging and analysis software for the Raspberry Pi is all freely available, allowing those interested to participate in the project as citizen scientists.

  6. Aromatic Polyketide Synthases (Purification, Characterization, and Antibody Development to Benzalacetone Synthase from Raspberry Fruits).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borejsza-Wysocki, W.; Hrazdina, G.

    1996-03-01

    p-Hydroxyphenylbutan-2-one, the characteristic aroma compound of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), is synthesized from p-coumaryl-coenzyme A and malonyl-coenzyme A in a two-step reaction sequence that is catalyzed by benzalacetone synthase and benzalacetone reductase (W. Borejsza-Wysocki and G. Hrazdina [1994] Phytochemistry 35: 623-628). Benzalacetone synthase condenses one malonate with p-coumarate to form the pathway intermediate p-hydroxyphenylbut-3-ene-2-one (p-hydroxybenzalacetone) in a reaction that is similar to those catalyzed by chalcone and stilbene synthases. We have obtained an enzyme preparation from ripe raspberries that was preferentially enriched in benzalacetone synthase (approximately 170-fold) over chalcone synthase (approximately 14-fold) activity. This preparation was used to characterize benzalacetone synthase and to develop polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Benzalacetone synthase showed similarity in its molecular properties to chalcone synthase but differed distinctly in its substrate specificity, response to 2-mercaptoethanol and ethylene glycol, and induction in cell-suspension cultures. The product of the enzyme, p-hydroxybenzalacetone, inhibited mycelial growth of the raspberry pathogen Phytophthora fragariae var rubi at 250 [mu]M. We do not know whether the dual activity in the benzalacetone synthase preparation is the result of a bifunctional enzyme or is caused by contamination with chalcone synthase that was also present. The rapid induction of the enzyme in cell-suspension cultures upon addition of yeast extract and the toxicity of its product, p-hydroxybenzalacetone, to phytopathogenic fungi also suggest that the pathway may be part of a plant defense response.

  7. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on Frozen Red Raspberries by Using UV-C Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yen-Te; Syamaladevi, Roopesh M; Zhang, Hongchao; Killinger, Karen; Sablani, Shyam

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the efficacy of UV-C treatment was determined on the reduction of foodborne pathogens on artificially contaminated frozen food surfaces. At first, the UV-C inactivation rates on 100 μl of the respective cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella , and Listeria monocytogenes covered underneath 0.5-cm-thick ice were examined. Simultaneously, the energy percentage of UV-C transmitted through the ice was determined. The experiments showed that more than 65% of the UV-C light energy passed through the ice and that UV-C susceptibility was in the descending order of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella , and L. monocytogenes . L. monocytogenes , the most UV-C-resistant strain, was then selected to test on frozen raspberries. The UV-C inactivation kinetic data of L. monocytogenes were well described using the Weibull equation. During 720 s of UV-C exposure, with a total dose of 7.8 × 10 2 mJ/cm 2 , a 1.5-log CFU/g reduction of L. monocytogenes population on the surface of frozen red raspberries was noted. No significant differences in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and total antioxidant activity were observed between UV-C-treated and untreated frozen berries immediately after treatment. At the end of 9 months of storage at -35°C, UV-C-treated berries had statistically lower total phenolics, higher total anthocyanins, and similar total antioxidant activity compared with untreated berries. This study shows that UV-C light can be used to reduce the L. monocytogenes population on frozen raspberries.

  8. Understanding the Performance of Low Power Raspberry Pi Cloud for Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajdi Hajji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Internet-of-Things (IoT devices generate data at high speed and large volume. Often the data require real-time processing to support high system responsiveness which can be supported by localised Cloud and/or Fog computing paradigms. However, there are considerably large deployments of IoT such as sensor networks in remote areas where Internet connectivity is sparse, challenging the localised Cloud and/or Fog computing paradigms. With the advent of the Raspberry Pi, a credit card-sized single board computer, there is a great opportunity to construct low-cost, low-power portable cloud to support real-time data processing next to IoT deployments. In this paper, we extend our previous work on constructing Raspberry Pi Cloud to study its feasibility for real-time big data analytics under realistic application-level workload in both native and virtualised environments. We have extensively tested the performance of a single node Raspberry Pi 2 Model B with httperf and a cluster of 12 nodes with Apache Spark and HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System. Our results have demonstrated that our portable cloud is useful for supporting real-time big data analytics. On the other hand, our results have also unveiled that overhead for CPU-bound workload in virtualised environment is surprisingly high, at 67.2%. We have found that, for big data applications, the virtualisation overhead is fractional for small jobs but becomes more significant for large jobs, up to 28.6%.

  9. PAPAN INFORMASI DIGITAL BERBASIS RASPBERRY-PI MENGGUNAKAN JARINGAN WIRELESS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmat Tulloh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Papan informasi digital adalah media digital untuk menampilkan informasi dalam bentuk visual yang dapat dinikmati oleh orang-orang disekitarnya. Media digital bisa menjadi sarana informasi, promosi produk, dan juga sebagai sarana berita terbaru. Papan informasi digital yang ada di kantor atau sekolah biasanya menggunakan layar LED TV dilengkapi 1 unit komputer (CPU dan menggunakan media transmisi kabel. Banyaknya jumlah TV dan CPU yang digunakan menimbulkan masalah biaya dan tempat. Disamping itu manajemen konten informasi yang ditampilkan menjadi tidak praktis karena dilakukan langsung satu persatu di setiap CPU. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat sistem informasi terpadu berbasis web yang ditanam pada mini komputer berupa raspberry pi menggunakan jaringan wireless distribution system (WDS. Perangkat digital berupa LED TV dipasang raspberry-pi sebagai interface, yang dapat menghemat daya, biaya dan tempat. Manajemen konten informasi terintegrasi dengan komputer server yang menyediakan layanan edit fitur dan update informasi video streaming dan live streaming. Dari hasil pengukuran Quality of Service (QOS menggunakan Transmission Control Protocol (TCP untuk layanan video dan live streaming dengan kondisi Line of Sight (LOS dan Non Line of Sight (NLOS direkomendasikan menggunakan kondisi LOS dengan nilai Throughput sebesar 585 KBps dan 230 KBps, delay sebesar 1.7 ms dan 3.3 ms, dan Jitter sebesar 2.5 ms dan 6.19 ms. Nilai parameter tersebut memenuhi standar Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON. Cakupan WDS dari server ke raspberry-pi client mencapai 70 meter dengan kondisi LOS maupun NLOS. Pengujian Mean Opinion Score (MOS didapatkan nilai rata-rata sebesar 4 atau dalam kategori puas dengan sistem yang dibuat.

  10. Analisis Kelayakan Sistem Monitoring dan Kontrol Lampu Menggunakan Web Server Berbasis Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslan - Maslan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As technology develops progressively over time, system developers continue to strive to create more efficient monitoring systems. The problem that often happens is the control room and light control is currently not utilize an integrated system based web server. Room control systems still utilize large equipment such as televisions and large computers, so that every problem occurs in the room is difficult to control. From these problems then the purpose of this study to create an efficient control system that utilizes super mini-based Raspberry Pi. To create a system based on Raspberry P microcontroller then required an initial observation to perform the feasibility test on the system to be developed. The feasibility test system is the successful monitoring of the room using CCTV (Closed Circuit Television equipment and control the lamp automatically by using prototyping method. The CCTV feasibility test is viewed from the resolution while the control of room light control is seen from the success of controlling the life of the lights on the test. Based on the testing concluded that the monitoring of the room using Raspberry Pi-based web server is feasible to use, seen the test results when the light control goes smoothly, because the lights controlled through the webserver managed to live and die. Similarly, when monitoring the room with live CCTV also runs well. And while conducting Room monitoring experiments with Webcam at 800 x 600 resolution there is a lot of variation value of frame rate sometimes up and down. The up and down frame is caused by an unstable network connection.

  11. On the Application of the Raspberry Pi as an Advanced Acoustic Sensor Network for Noise Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Emilio Noriega-Linares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Smart Cities and the monitoring of environmental parameters is an area of research that has attracted scientific attention during the last decade. These environmental parameters are well-known as important factors in their affection towards people. Massive monitoring of this kind of parameters in cities is an expensive and complex task. Recent technologies of low-cost computing and low-power devices have opened researchers to a wide and more accessible research field, developing monitoring devices for deploying Wireless Sensor Networks. Gathering information from them, improved urban plans could be carried out and the information could help citizens. In this work, the prototyping of a low-cost acoustic sensor based on the Raspberry Pi platform for its use in the analysis of the sound field is described. The device is also connected to the cloud to share results in real time. The computation resources of the Raspberry Pi allow treating high quality audio for calculating acoustic parameters. A pilot test was carried out with the installation of two acoustic devices in the refurbishment works of a neighbourhood. In this deployment, the evaluation of these devices through long-term measurements was carried out, obtaining several acoustic parameters in real time for its broadcasting and study. This test has shown the Raspberry Pi as a powerful and affordable computing core of a low-cost device, but also the pilot test has served as a query tool for the inhabitants of the neighbourhood to be more aware about the noise in their own place of residence.

  12. Curcumin longa extract-loaded nanoemulsion improves the survival of endotoxemic mice by inhibiting nitric oxide-dependent HMGB1 release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Young Ahn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 is a well-known damage-related alarmin that participates in cellular inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms leading to HMGB1 release in inflammatory conditions and the therapeutic agents that could prevent it remain poorly understood. This study attempted to examine whether the Curcumin longa herb, which is known to have anti-inflammatory property, can modulate cellular inflammatory responses by regulating HMGB1 release. Methods The murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and/or a C. longa extract-loaded nanoemulsion (CLEN. The levels of released HMGB1, nitric oxide (NO production, inducible NO synthase (iNOS expression, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases were analyzed in RAW264.7 macrophages. The effects of CLEN on survival of endotoxemic model mice, circulating HMGB1 levels, and tissue iNOS expression were also evaluated. Results We have shown that a nanoemulsion loaded with an extract from the C. longa rhizome regulates cellular inflammatory responses and LPS-induced systemic inflammation by suppressing the release of HMGB1 by macrophages. First, treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages with the nanoemulsion significantly attenuated their LPS-induced release of HMGB1: this effect was mediated by inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation, which in turn suppressed the NO production and iNOS expression of the cells. The nanoemulsion did not affect LPS-induced p38 or extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Second, intraperitoneal administration of the nanoemulsion improved the survival rate of LPS-injected endotoxemic mice. This associated with marked reductions in circulating HMGB1 levels and tissue iNOS expression. Discussion The present study shows for the first time the mechanism by which C. longa ameliorates sepsis, namely, by suppressing NO signaling and thereby inhibiting the release of the proinflammatory cytokine HMGB1

  13. Glucanolytic Actinomycetes Antagonistic to Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi, the Causal Agent of Raspberry Root Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, D; Fayad, K; Barasubiye, T; Garon, M; Dery, C; Brzezinski, R; Beaulieu, C

    1996-05-01

    A collection of about 200 actinomycete strains was screened for the ability to grow on fragmented Phytophthora mycelium and to produce metabolites that inhibit Phytophthora growth. Thirteen strains were selected, and all produced (beta)-1,3-, (beta)-1,4-, and (beta)-1,6-glucanases. These enzymes could hydrolyze glucans from Phytophthora cell walls and cause lysis of Phytophthora cells. These enzymes also degraded other glucan substrates, such as cellulose, laminarin, pustulan, and yeast cell walls. Eleven strains significantly reduced the root rot index when inoculated on raspberry plantlets.

  14. Antithrombotic activity of fractions and components obtained from raspberry leaves (Rubus chingii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Gu, Yuhong; Ye, Chun; Cao, Yan; Liu, Zhihui; Yin, Jun

    2012-05-01

    The 70% ethanol fraction from an aqueous extract of raspberry leaves was shown to be the most antithrombotic fraction in in vitro and in vivo tests. The total flavonoids and phenolics in this fraction were 0.286g/g and 0.518g/g by colorimetry. Six compounds, including salicylic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, tiliroside, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the active fraction. Among them, kaempferol, quercetin and tiliroside obviously delayed plasma recalcification time (PRT) in blood. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  16. Black Cohosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have had hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer or for pregnant women or nursing mothers. Black cohosh should not be confused with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) , which has different effects and may not be safe. Black cohosh has ...

  17. Evaluation of Red Raspberry Cultivars Used for Breeding and Commercial Growing in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lācis Gunārs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of raspberry cultivars and genetic resources in the Baltic countries have been influenced by the historical political situation in the 20th century and climatic conditions, especially winterhardiness. The genetic resources consist of some old European and American cultivars, but mostly of cultivars and hybrids bred in Russia. Currently, targeted breeding programmes are active only in Estonia and Latvia, which aim to develop winterhardy, disease-resistant cultivars, well adapted to the local climate. Therefore, parent material for hybridisation has been chosen from local advanced hybrids and introduced cultivars suitable to the regional climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to estimate the level of genetic diversity of Rubus germplasm and assess inter-specific and intra-specific relationships using phenotypical characterisation and molecular markers. Forty one Rubus genotypes were evaluated by 41 phenotypical traits and 15 previously described SSR markers. Both characterisation approaches discovered high correspondence with pedigree and a low level of diversity. A limited amount of the diversity of raspberry genetic material has been used in various breeding programmes, despite their broad geographical origin. The obtained results indicate the need for including local wild R. idaeus plant material into breeding programmes.

  18. Effects of plastic mulches and high tunnel raspberry production systems on soil physicochemical quality indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagała-Świątkiewicz, Iwona; Siwek, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    In horticulture, degradable materials are desirable alternatives to plastic films. Our aim was to study the impact of soil plastic mulching on the soil properties in the high tunnel and open field production systems of raspberry. The raised beds were mulched with a polypropylene non-woven and two degradable mulches: polypropylene with a photodegradant and non-woven polylactide. The results indicated that the system of raspberry production, as well as the type of mulching had significant impact on soil organic carbon stock, moisture content and water stable aggregate amount. Soils taken from the open field system had a lower bulk density and water stability aggregation index, but higher organic carbon and capillary water content as compared to soils collected from high tunnel conditions. In comparison with the open field system, soil salinity was also found to be higher in high tunnel, as well as with higher P, Mg, Ca, S, Na and B content. Furthermore, mulch covered soils had more organic carbon amount than the bare soils. Soil mulching also enhanced the water capacity expressed as a volume of capillary water content. In addition, mulching improved the soil structure in relation to the bare soil, in particular, in open field conditions. The impact of the compared mulches on soil quality indicators was similar.

  19. Diagnostics vehicle’s condition using obd-ii and raspberry pi technology: study literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniaga, J. V.; Manalu, S. R.; Hadipurnawan, D. A.; Sahidi, F.

    2018-03-01

    Transportation accident rate are still being a major challenge in many countries. There are many factors that could be cause transportation accident, especially in vehicle’s internal system problem. To overcome this problem, OBD-II technology has been created to diagnostics vehicle’s condition. OBD-II scanner plugged to OBD-II port or usually called Data Link Connector (DLC), and after that it sends the diagnostics to Raspberry Pi. Compared from another microcontrollers, Arduino, Raspberry Pi are chosen because it sustains the application to receive real-time diagnostics, process the diagnostics and send command to automobiles at the same time, rather than Arduino that must wait for another process finished to run another process. Outcome from this application is to enable automobile’s user to diagnostics their own vehicles. If there is found something unusual or a problem, the application can told the problem to user, so they could know what to fix before they use their vehicle safely.

  20. Differential expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes in drupelets and receptacle of raspberry (Rubus idaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Monsalve, Liliam; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Valdenegro, Mónika; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Defilippi, Bruno G; González-Agüero, Mauricio

    2015-05-01

    Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is traditionally classified as non-climacteric, and the role of ethylene in fruit ripening is not clear. The available information indicates that the receptacle, a modified stem that supports the drupelets, is involved in ethylene production of ripe fruits. In this study, we report receptacle-related ethylene biosynthesis during the ripening of fruits of cv. Heritage. In addition, the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis transcripts was evaluated during the ripening process. The major transcript levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (RiACS1) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (RiACO1) were concomitant with ethylene production, increased total soluble solids (TSS) and decreased titratable acidity (TA) and fruit firmness. Moreover, ethylene biosynthesis and transcript levels of RiACS1 and RiACO1 were higher in the receptacle, sustaining the receptacle's role as a source of ethylene in regulating the ripening of raspberry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Possibility of biological control of primocane fruiting raspberry disease caused by Fusarium sambucinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shternshis, Margarita V; Belyaev, Anatoly A; Matchenko, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2015-10-01

    Biological control agents are a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for plant disease suppression. The main advantage of the natural biocontrol agents, such as antagonistic bacteria compared with chemicals, includes environmental pollution prevention and a decrease of chemical residues in fruits. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of three Bacillus strains on disease of primocane fruiting raspberry canes caused by Fusarium sambucinum under controlled infection load and uncontrolled environmental factors. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were used for biocontrol of plant disease in 2013 and 2014 which differed by environmental conditions. The test suspensions were 10(5) CFU/ml for each bacterial strain. To estimate the effect of biological agents on Fusarium disease, canes were cut at the end of vegetation, and the area of outer and internal lesions was measured. In addition to antagonistic effect, the strains revealed the ability to induce plant resistance comparable with chitosan-based formulation. Under variable ways of cane treatment by bacterial strains, the more effective were B. subtilis and B. licheniformis demonstrating dual biocontrol effect. However, environmental factors were shown to impact the strain biocontrol ability; changes in air temperature and humidity led to the enhanced activity of B. amyloliquefaciens. For the first time, the possibility of replacing chemicals with environmentally benign biological agents for ecologically safe control of the raspberry primocane fruiting disease was shown.

  2. Electrodeposited nanostructured raspberry-like gold-modified electrodes for electrocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manivannan, Shanmugam; Ramaraj, Ramasamy

    2013-01-01

    A facile method for fabrication of raspberry-like Au nanostructures (Au NRBs)-modified electrode by electrodeposition and its applications toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol (MOR) in alkaline medium and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in both alkaline and acidic media are demonstrated. The Au NRBs are characterized by UV–Vis absorption spectra, SEM, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical measurements. The growth of Au NRBs was monitored by recording the in-situ absorption spectral changes during electrodeposition using spectroelectrochemical technique. Here we systematically studied the MOR by varying several reaction parameters such as potential scan rate and methanol concentration. The electrocatalytic poisoning effect due to the MOR products are not observed at the Au NRBs-modified electrode. At the alkaline medium the Au NRBs-modified electrode shows the better catalytic activities toward the MOR and ORR when compared to the poly crystalline gold and bare glassy carbon electrodes. The Au NRBs-modified electrode is a promising and inexpensive electrode material for other electrocatalytic applications.Graphical AbstractRaspberry-like Au nanostructures modified electrode is prepared and used for electrocatalytic applications

  3. Raspberry ketone protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Vasim; Sharma, Sumit; Bhandari, Uma; Ali, Syed Mansoor; Haque, Syed Ehtaishamul

    2018-02-01

    The cardioprotective role of raspberry ketone (RK) against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats was assessed. Rats were randomly divided into Group I - Vehicle control; Group II - Toxic control ISO (85mg/kg, s.c.); Group III, IV and V - RK (50, 100 and 200mg/kg, respectively) with ISO; Group VI- RK (200mg/kg) alone; Group VII - Propranolol (10mg/kg) with ISO; and Group VIII - Propranolol (10mg/kg) alone. After twenty-four hours of the last dose, animals were sacrificed and creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density-lipoprotein, low-density-lipoprotein, very-low-density-lipoprotein, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, Na + , K + -ATPase, nitric oxide, histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis (tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase) were performed. Treatment with ISO significantly deviated the biochemical parameters from the normal levels, which were considerably restored by RK at 100 and 200mg/kg doses. 50mg/kg dose, however, did not demonstrate any significant cardioprotective action. The histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis further substantiated these findings. Our study showed a dose-dependent reduction in oxidative stress, inflammation and dyslipidemia by RK in ISO-intoxicated rats, which signifies that RK from the European red raspberry plant might be a valuable entity for the management of MI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of phenolics isolated from fruits of Himalayan yellow raspberry (Rubus ellipticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Ritu; Dangwal, Koushalya; Singh, Himani; Garg, Veena

    2014-11-01

    Yellow Himalayan raspberry, a wild edible fruit, was analyzed for phenolic contents, and antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities. Phenolics were extracted using 80 % aqueous solvents containing methanol, acidic methanol, acetone and acidic acetone. Our analysis revealed that the acidic acetone extracts recovered the highest level of total phenolics (899 mg GAE/100 g FW) and flavonoids (433.5 mg CE/100 g FW). Free radical scavenging activities (DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and linoleate hydroperoxide radicals) and ferric reducing activity were highest in the acetone and acidic acetone extracts. No metal chelating or antibacterial activity was detected in any of the extracts. Acetone and methanol extracts showed potent antiproliferative activity against human cervical cancer cells (C33A) with an EC50 of inhibition at 5.04 and 4. 9 mg/ml fruit concentration respectively, while showing no cytotoxicity to normal PBMCs cells. Therefore, the present study concluded that the yellow Himalayan raspberry is a potent source of phytochemicals having super antioxidant and potent antiproliferative activities.

  5. Low Delay Video Streaming on the Internet of Things Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Jennehag

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things is predicted to consist of over 50 billion devices aiming to solve problems in most areas of our digital society. A large part of the data communicated is expected to consist of various multimedia contents, such as live audio and video. This article presents a solution for the communication of high definition video in low-delay scenarios (<200 ms under the constraints of devices with limited hardware resources, such as the Raspberry Pi. We verify that it is possible to enable low delay video streaming between Raspberry Pi devices using a distributed Internet of Things system called the SensibleThings platform. Specifically, our implementation transfers a 6 Mbps H.264 video stream of 1280 × 720 pixels at 25 frames per second between devices with a total delay of 181 ms on the public Internet, of which the overhead of the distributed Internet of Things communication platform only accounts for 18 ms of this delay. We have found that the most significant bottleneck of video transfer on limited Internet of Things devices is the video coding and not the distributed communication platform, since the video coding accounts for 90% of the total delay.

  6. Monodisperse raspberry-like multihollow polymer/Ag nanocomposite microspheres for rapid catalytic degradation of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qiong; Yu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Lifeng; Yu, Demei

    2017-04-01

    Raspberry-like multihollow polymer microspheres were prepared by seeded swelling polymerization and decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) which acted as both reducing and stabilizing agent. Formation mechanism of the raspberry-like multihollow microsphere was discussed on the basis of water absorption of sulfonated groups in the seeded swelling polymerization. Effects of weight ratio of sodium 4-vinylbenzenesulfonate to styrene (NaSS/St) of the seed particles, the concentration of PVP and [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + ions on the properties of polymer/Ag nanocomposite microspheres were investigated by microscopic observation, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, UV-vis absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetric analysis. The results demonstrated that the raspberry-like multihollow microspheres were successfully fabricated by controlling over the NaSS/St of the seed particles in the seeded swelling polymerization by which the fabrication of hollow structure became simple and convenient. The spherical AgNPs were loaded on the polymer microsphere by in-situ chemical reduction due to the stabilization and reduction of PVP and the attraction between sulfonated groups and [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + ions. The raspberry-like multihollow polymer/Ag microspheres showed good catalytic activity and reusability in the degradation of methylene blue in the presence of NaBH 4 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries the most likely vehicle of a norovirus outbreak in Oslo, Norway, November 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einöder-Moreno, M; Lange, H; Grepp, M; Osborg, E; Vainio, K; Vold, L

    2016-10-01

    In November 2013, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health was notified of a gastroenteritis outbreak following two meetings held at a conference centre. Identical food and beverages were served during the meetings. We investigated in order to identify the vehicle of infection and implement control measures. Meeting participants completed an online questionnaire on consumption of foods and beverages. We asked symptomatic participants to provide a stool sample. We defined a case as diarrhoea and/or vomiting in a participant who became ill within 3 days after the meeting. We calculated attack rates (AR) and adjusted risk ratios (aRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using binomial regression. We conducted environmental investigations. Overall, 147/168 (88%) participants responded, of which 74 (50%) met the case definition. All five stool samples provided were norovirus positive. No kitchen staff reported being sick. Risk of illness was higher in those who consumed raspberry mousse (aRR 3·4, 95% CI 1·4-8·2) and sliced fresh fruit (aRR 1·9, 95% CI 1·3-2·8). Seventy cases (95%) ate raspberry mousse. Frozen raspberries used for the mousse were imported and not heat-treated before consumption. Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries were the most likely outbreak vehicle. Contamination by a food handler could not be excluded. We recommend heat-treatment of imported frozen berries before consumption.

  9. Raspberry Pi in-situ network monitoring system of groundwater flow and temperature integrated with OpenGeoSys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Lee, Cholwoo

    2016-04-01

    Raspberry Pi series is a low cost, smaller than credit-card sized computers that various operating systems such as linux and recently even Windows 10 are ported to run on. Thanks to massive production and rapid technology development, the price of various sensors that can be attached to Raspberry Pi has been dropping at an increasing speed. Therefore, the device can be an economic choice as a small portable computer to monitor temporal hydrogeological data in fields. In this study, we present a Raspberry Pi system that measures a flow rate, and temperature of groundwater at sites, stores them into mysql database, and produces interactive figures and tables such as google charts online or bokeh offline for further monitoring and analysis. Since all the data are to be monitored on internet, any computers or mobile devices can be good monitoring tools at convenience. The measured data are further integrated with OpenGeoSys, one of the hydrogeological models that is also ported to the Raspberry Pi series. This leads onsite hydrogeological modeling fed by temporal sensor data to meet various needs.

  10. Bioaccessible (poly)phenol metabolites from raspberry protect neural cells from oxidative stress and attenuate microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gonçalo; Nanni, Sara; Figueira, Inês; Ivanov, Ines; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Pinto, Paula; Silva, Rui F M; Brites, Dora; Santos, Cláudia N

    2017-01-15

    Neuroinflammation is an integral part of the neurodegeneration process inherent to several aging dysfunctions. Within the central nervous system, microglia are the effective immune cells, responsible for neuroinflammatory responses. In this study, raspberries were subjected to in vitro digestion simulation to obtain the components that result from the gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, which would be bioaccessible and available for blood uptake. Both the original raspberry extract and the gastrointestinal bioaccessible (GIB) fraction protected neuronal and microglia cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, at low concentrations. Furthermore, this neuroprotective capacity was independent of intracellular ROS scavenging mechanisms. We show for the first time that raspberry metabolites present in the GIB fraction significantly inhibited microglial pro-inflammatory activation by LPS, through the inhibition of Iba1 expression, TNF-α release and NO production. Altogether, this study reveals that raspberry polyphenols may present a dietary route to the retardation or amelioration of neurodegenerative-related dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Solubility Determination and Modeling and Dissolution Thermodynamic Properties of Raspberry Ketone in Binary Solvent Mixtures of Ethanol and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Min; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Yan-fei; Yang, Jing; Wang, Liyu; Yang, Libin; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Du, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The solubility and dissolution thermodynamic properties of raspberry ketone in a set of binary solvent mixtures (ethanol + water) with different compositions were experimentally determined by static gravimetrical method in the temperature range of 283.15-313.15 K at 0.10 MPa. The solubility of raspberry ketone in this series of ethanol/water binary solvent mixtures was found to increase with a rise in temperature and the rising mole fraction of ethanol in binary solvent mixtures. The van't Hoff, modified Apelblat and 3D Jouyban-Acree-van't Hoff equations were increasingly applied to correlate the solubility in ethanol/water binary solvent mixtures. The former two models could reach better fitting results with the solubility data, while the 3D model can be comprehensively used to estimate the solubility data in all the ratios of ethanol and water in binary solvent mixtures at random temperature. Furthermore, the changes of dissolution thermodynamic properties of raspberry ketone in experimental ethanol/water solvent mixtures were obtained by van't Hoff equation. For all the above experiments, these dissolution processes of raspberry ketone in experimental ethanol/water binary solvent mixtures were estimated to be endothermic and enthalpy-driven.

  12. Colon-available raspberry polyphenols exhibit anti-cancer effects on in vitro models of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougall Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a probable association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and reduced risk of cancer, particularly cancer of the digestive tract. This anti-cancer activity has been attributed in part to anti-oxidants present in these foods. Raspberries in particular are a rich source of the anti-oxidant compounds, such as polyphenols, anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Methods A "colon-available" raspberry extract (CARE was prepared that contained phytochemicals surviving a digestion procedure that mimicked the physiochemical conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The polyphenolic-rich extract was assessed for anti-cancer properties in a series of in vitro systems that model important stages of colon carcinogenesis, initiation, promotion and invasion. Results The phytochemical composition of CARE was monitored using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The colon-available raspberry extract was reduced in anthocyanins and ellagitannins compared to the original raspberry juice but enriched in other polyphenols and polyphenol breakdown products that were more stable to gastrointestinal digestion. Initiation – CARE caused significant protective effects against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in HT29 colon cancer cells measured using single cell microgelelectrophoresis. Promotion – CARE significantly decreased the population of HT29 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, effectively reducing the number of cells entering the cell cycle. However, CARE had no effect on epithelial integrity (barrier function assessed by recording the trans-epithelial resistance (TER of CACO-2 cell monolayers. Invasion – CARE caused significant inhibition of HT115 colon cancer cell invasion using the matrigel invasion assay. Conclusion The results indicate that raspberry phytochemicals likely to reach the colon are capable of inhibiting several important stages in colon carcinogenesis in vitro.

  13. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...

  14. Protective effect of wild raspberry (Rubus hirsutus Thunb.) extract against acrylamide-induced oxidative damage is potentiated after simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Xu, Yang; Bao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    Raspberry is well known as rich source of antioxidants, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. However, after consumption, the antioxidants are subjected to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that may result in structural and functional alterations. Our previous study indicated that acrylamide (AA)-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of wild raspberry extract produced before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion against AA-induced oxidative damage is unclear. In the present study, we found that wild raspberry extract produced after digestion (RD) had a pronounced protective effect against AA-induced cytotoxicity compared with that produced before digestion (RE). Further investigation indicated that RD significantly inhibited AA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, LC-MS analysis revealed that wild raspberry underwent gastrointestinal digestion significantly increased the contents of esculin, kaempferol hexoside and pelargonidin hexoside. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Red raspberry decreases heart biomarkers of cardiac remodeling associated with oxidative and inflammatory stress in obese diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana; Chew, Boon P; Ivanov, Ivan

    2016-12-07

    Early diagnosis of risks of heart disease can be critical to fight cardiovascular diseases (CVD) associated with obesity and diabetes and for the implementation of nutritional interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of red raspberry consumption in the obese diabetic (db/db) mice using proteomic analysis as a tool. Hearts harvested from db/db mice fed an isocaloric diet (AIN-93G, control group) or AIN-93G supplemented with freeze-dried raspberry (raspberry group) for eight weeks were analyzed for changes in protein expression. Bioinformatics and pathway analysis of proteomic data detected in >50% samples were scrutinized with Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Histologic analysis, adipokines and lipid quantification in heart tissues were assessed as end points for disease biomarkers. Results from proteomic data identified five proteins unique to the control group involved in cardiac remodeling and one involved in stress response. Twenty-five proteins expressed in both groups were differentially downregulated in the raspberry group (p raspberry and control groups were detected in heart lipid composition, adipokines, and morphology within the study timeframe. In conclusion, raspberry consumption may be effective in decreasing the levels of oxidative and inflammatory stress that promote morphological changes in the heart at an older age, thus preventing or delaying heart diseases.

  16. Raspberry-like Nanostructured Silicon Composite Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shan; Tong, Zhenkun; Nie, Ping; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2017-06-07

    Adjusting the particle size and nanostructure or applying carbon materials as the coating layers is a promising method to hold the volume expansion of Si for its practical application in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, the mild carbon coating combined with a molten salt reduction is precisely designed to synthesize raspberry-like hollow silicon spheres coated with carbon shells (HSi@C) as the anode materials for LIBs. The HSi@C exhibits a remarkable electrochemical performance; a high reversible specific capacity of 886.2 mAh g -1 at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 after 200 cycles is achieved. Moreover, even after 500 cycles at a current density of 2.0 A g -1 , a stable capacity of 516.7 mAh g -1 still can be obtained.

  17. Stable isotope ratio analysis of different European raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, currants and strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, M; Giongo, L; Grisenti, M; Bontempo, L; Camin, F

    2018-01-15

    To date the stable isotope ratios of berries have never been extensively explored. In this work the H, C, N and O isotopic ratios of 190 samples of different soft fruits (strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries and currants) produced in a northern Italian region and at two sites in Romania and Poland collected over three harvest years are presented and discussed. The different soft fruits showed a typical range for one or more isotopic parameters that can be used to verify the authenticity of the fruit composition declared on the label. The δ 13 C and δ 15 N of pulp and the δ 18 O of juice can be considered effective tools for identifying the different geographical origin of fruit. A significant effect of crop cover on juice δ 18 O and fertilisation practices on pulp δ 15 N was demonstrated and must be considered with attention when evaluating data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of a cathodoluminescence image generator using a Raspberry Pi coupled to a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Alfredo; Santiago, Ulises; Sanchez, John E.; Ponce, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an innovative cathodoluminescence (CL) system is coupled to a scanning electron microscope and synchronized with a Raspberry Pi computer integrated with an innovative processing signal. The post-processing signal is based on a Python algorithm that correlates the CL and secondary electron (SE) images with a precise dwell time correction. For CL imaging, the emission signal is collected through an optical fiber and transduced to an electrical signal via a photomultiplier tube (PMT). CL Images are registered in a panchromatic mode and can be filtered using a monochromator connected between the optical fiber and the PMT to produce monochromatic CL images. The designed system has been employed to study ZnO samples prepared by electrical arc discharge and microwave methods. CL images are compared with SE images and chemical elemental mapping images to correlate the emission regions of the sample.

  19. Design of a cathodoluminescence image generator using a Raspberry Pi coupled to a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Alfredo; Santiago, Ulises; Sanchez, John E; Ponce, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an innovative cathodoluminescence (CL) system is coupled to a scanning electron microscope and synchronized with a Raspberry Pi computer integrated with an innovative processing signal. The post-processing signal is based on a Python algorithm that correlates the CL and secondary electron (SE) images with a precise dwell time correction. For CL imaging, the emission signal is collected through an optical fiber and transduced to an electrical signal via a photomultiplier tube (PMT). CL Images are registered in a panchromatic mode and can be filtered using a monochromator connected between the optical fiber and the PMT to produce monochromatic CL images. The designed system has been employed to study ZnO samples prepared by electrical arc discharge and microwave methods. CL images are compared with SE images and chemical elemental mapping images to correlate the emission regions of the sample.

  20. Facile method to fabricate raspberry-like particulate films for superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Jung; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2007-12-04

    A facile method using layer-by-layer assembly of silica particles is proposed to prepare raspberry-like particulate films for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces. Silica particles 0.5 microm in diameter were used to prepare a surface with a microscale roughness. Nanosized silica particles were then assembled on the particulate film to construct a finer structure on top of the coarse one. After surface modification with dodecyltrichlorosilane, the advancing and receding contact angles of water on the dual-sized structured surface were 169 and 165 degrees , respectively. The scale ratio of the micro/nano surface structure and the regularity of the particulate films on the superhydrophobic surface performance are discussed.

  1. Raspberry-Like Bismuth Oxychloride on Mesoporous Siliceous Support for Sensitive Electrochemical Stripping Analysis of Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yiyan; Xu, Zhihui; Yu, Xinyu; Shi, Xueyan; Jiang, Huijun; Li, Xiaoming; Kong, Yan; Xu, Qin; Chen, Jin

    2017-05-13

    BiOCl-SiO₂ KIT-6 composite materials with raspberry-like structures are facilely prepared under hydrothermal conditions. The mesoporous siliceous support of SiO₂ KIT-6-incorporated BiOCl with enlarged yet refined surface morphology characterized by physiochemical methods exhibits an improved electrochemical performance. A sensitive electrochemical detection method of cadmium concentration using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry was developed based on BiOCl-SiO₂ KIT-6 composite-modified glassy carbon electrodes, which displayed wide linear ranges of 0.5 to 10 μg/L and 10 to 300 μg/L and a detection limit of 65 ng/L. The sensitive, versatile and eco-friendly sensor was successfully applied for the determination of cadmium-spiked human blood samples.

  2. Developing an Affordable and Portable Control Systems Laboratory Kit with a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Reck

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Instructional laboratories are common in engineering programs. Instructional laboratories should evolve with technology and support the changes in higher education, like the increased popularity of online courses. In this study, an affordable and portable laboratory kit was designed to replace the expensive on-campus equipment for two control systems courses. The complete kit costs under $135 and weighs under 0.68 kilograms. It is comprised of off-the-shelf components (e.g., Raspberry Pi, DC motor and 3D printed parts. The kit has two different configurations. The first (base configuration is a DC motor system with a position and speed sensor. The second configuration adds a Furuta inverted pendulum attachment with another position sensor. These configurations replicate most of the student learning outcomes for the two control systems courses for which they were designed.

  3. Design and Implementation of Smart Attendance System Based On Raspberry pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Fadhil Abdulsada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The attendance system proposed is used to manage attendance system in large and branched factory or university from central unit. It consists of terminal units and a central unit. Each terminal unit consists of Raspberry pi, screen GUI, RFID, transponder card with each user (like student and GSM board. The central unit consists of Arduino, GSM board and a computer. Each unit has a special program to achieve its purpose. The terminal unit is responsible of making a connection with a transponder card to bring its ID's and make a comparison with the names listed in the database of SQL server to get the names of the absent students and send their serial numbers by using GSM message. The central unit is considered as a heart of system where it is responsible of collecting all the information from the terminal units, displaying them and making special processing to take a decision about persons whose absence exceed the threshold line.

  4. Monitoring and Analyzing of Circadian and Ultradian Locomotor Activity Based on Raspberry-Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Pasquali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new device based on the Raspberry-Pi to monitor the locomotion of Arctic marine invertebrates and to analyze chronobiologic data has been made, tested and deployed. The device uses infrared sensors to monitor and record the locomotor activity of the animals, which is later analyzed. The software package consists of two separate scripts: the first designed to manage the acquisition and the evolution of the experiment, the second designed to generate actograms and perform various analyses to detect periodicity in the data (e.g., Fourier power spectra, chi-squared periodograms, and Lomb–Scargle periodograms. The data acquisition hardware and the software has been previously tested during an Arctic mission with an arctic marine invertebrate.

  5. A Raspberry Pi Cluster Instrumented for Fine-Grained Power Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Cloutier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption has become an increasingly important metric when building large supercomputing clusters. One way to reduce power usage in large clusters is to use low-power embedded processors rather than the more typical high-end server CPUs (central processing units. We investigate various power-related metrics for seventeen different embedded ARM development boards in order to judge the appropriateness of using them in a computing cluster. We then build a custom cluster out of Raspberry Pi boards, which is specially designed for per-node detailed power measurement. In addition to serving as an embedded cluster testbed, our cluster’s power measurement, visualization and thermal features make it an excellent low-cost platform for education and experimentation.

  6. Raspberry Pi Based Intelligent Wireless Sensor Node for Localized Torrential Rain Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaozhuo Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are proved to be effective in long-time localized torrential rain monitoring. However, the existing widely used architecture of wireless sensor networks for rain monitoring relies on network transportation and back-end calculation, which causes delay in response to heavy rain in localized areas. Our work improves the architecture by applying logistic regression and support vector machine classification to an intelligent wireless sensor node which is created by Raspberry Pi. The sensor nodes in front-end not only obtain data from sensors, but also can analyze the probabilities of upcoming heavy rain independently and give early warnings to local clients in time. When the sensor nodes send the probability to back-end server, the burdens of network transport are released. We demonstrate by simulation results that our sensor system architecture has potentiality to increase the local response to heavy rain. The monitoring capacity is also raised.

  7. Building IoT Applications with Raspberry Pi and Low Power IQRF Communication Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Calvo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Typical Internet of Things (IoT applications involve collecting information automatically from diverse geographically-distributed smart sensors and concentrating the information into more powerful computers. The Raspberry Pi platform has become a very interesting choice for IoT applications for several reasons: (1 good computing power/cost ratio; (2 high availability; it has become a de facto hardware standard; and (3 ease of use; it is based on operating systems with a big community of users. In IoT applications, data are frequently carried by means of wireless sensor networks in which energy consumption is a key issue. Energy consumption is especially relevant for smart sensors that are scattered over wide geographical areas and may need to work unattended on batteries for long intervals of time. In this scenario, it is convenient to ease the construction of IoT applications while keeping energy consumption to a minimum at the sensors. This work proposes a possible gateway implementation with specific technologies. It solves the following research question: how to build gateways for IoT applications with Raspberry Pi and low power IQRF communication modules. The following contributions are presented: (1 one architecture for IoT gateways that integrates data from sensor nodes into a higher level application based on low-cost/low-energy technologies; (2 bindings in Java and C that ease the construction of IoT applications; (3 an empirical model that describes the consumption of the communications at the nodes (smart sensors and allows scaling their batteries; and (4 validation of the proposed energy model at the battery-operated nodes.

  8. Entrapped Styrene Butadiene Polymer Chains by Sol-Gel-Derived Silica Nanoparticles with Hierarchical Raspberry Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntam, Sankar Raman; Stöckelhuber, Klaus Werner; Subramani Bhagavatheswaran, Eshwaran; Wießner, Sven; Scheler, Ulrich; Saalwächter, Kay; Formanek, Petr; Heinrich, Gert; Das, Amit

    2018-02-15

    A sol-gel transformation of liquid silica precursor to solid silica particles was carried out in a one-pot synthesis way, where a solution of styrene butadiene elastomer was present. The composites, thus produced, offered remarkable improvements of mechanical and dynamic mechanical performances compared to precipitated silica. The morphological analysis reveals that the alkoxy-based silica particles resemble a raspberry structure when the synthesis of the silica was carried out in the presence of polymer molecules and represent a much more open silica-network structure. However, in the absence of the polymer, the morphology of the silica particles is found to be different. It is envisaged that the special morphology of the in situ synthesized silica particles contributes to the superior reinforcement effects, which are associated with a strong silica-rubber interaction by rubber chains trapped inside the raspberry-like silica aggregates. Therefore, the interfaces are characterized in detail by low-field solid-state 1 H NMR spectroscopy, 29 Si solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Low-field 1 H NMR-based double-quantum experiments provide a quantitative information about the cross-link density of the silica-filled rubber composites and about the influence of silane coupling agent on the chemical cross-link density of the network and correlates well with equilibrium swelling measurements. The special microstructure of the alkoxy-based silica was found to be associated with the interaction between alkoxy-based silica and rubber chains as a consequence of particle growth in the presence of rubber chains.

  9. Nanostructured raspberry-like gelatin microspheres for local delivery of multiple biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diba, Mani; Pape, Bram; Klymov, Alexey; Zhang, Yang; Song, Jiankang; Löwik, Dennis W P M; Seyednejad, Hajar; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2017-08-01

    Multicompartment particles, which are particles composed of smaller building units, have gained considerable interest during the past decade to facilitate simultaneous and differential delivery of several biomolecules in various applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) processing is an industrial technology widely used for large-scale synthesis and processing of materials. However, the application of this technology for production of multicompartment particles from colloidal particles has not yet been explored. Here, we report the formation of raspberry-like gelatin (RLG) microparticles composed of gelatin nanoparticles as colloidal building blocks through supercritical CO 2 processing. We show that these RLG microparticles exhibit a high stability upon dispersion in aqueous media without requiring chemical cross-linking. We further demonstrate that these microparticles are cytocompatible and facilitate differential release of two different model compounds. The strategy presented here can be utilized as a cost-effective route for production of various types of multicompartment particles using colloidal particles with suitable interparticle interactions. Multicompartment particles have gained considerable interest during the past decade to facilitate simultaneous and differential delivery of multiple biomolecules in various biomedical applications. Nevertheless, common methods employed for the production of such particles are often complex and only offer small-scale production. Here, we report the formation of raspberry-like gelatin (RLG) microparticles composed of gelatin nanoparticles as colloidal building blocks through supercritical CO 2 processing. We show that these microparticles are cytocompatible and facilitate differential release of two model compounds with different molecular sizes, promising successful applications in various biomedical areas. Summarizing, this paper presents a novel strategy that can be utilized as a cost-effective route for

  10. Raspberry Ketone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a pounding heart beat (palpitations). Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable ... glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glumetza, Fortamet, Glucophage, Riomet), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), ...

  11. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo J.; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L.; Jamie, Joanne F.; Jamie, Ian M.; Siderhurst, Matthew S.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters...

  12. Effect of Calcium Chloride Treatments on Quality Characteristics of Blackberry, Raspberry and Strawberry Fruits After Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Turmanidze

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvested blackberry, raspberry and strawberry fruits were immediately treated with 1% and 2% calcium chloride by immersion at 20 ± 1°C for 2.5 min and kept for 8 days at 0 ± 0.5°C and relative humidity (RH 90 ± 5%. The application of calcium did not significantly effect on total titratable acidity, pH and total soluble solids. Maximum weight lost was observed for untreated berries and minimum lost was observed for fruits treated with 2% calcium chloride. After storage, ascorbic acid content was significantly higher in samples of blackberry, raspberry and strawberry fruits subjected to 2% calcium chloride dip. Treatment of blackberry, raspberry and strawberry fruits with calcium chloride had a positive effect on retention of total polyphenols content during the storage period. Depletion of antioxidant capacity of untreated fresh blackberry fruits during 8 days cold storage was 25%; raspberries and strawberries - 34 and 26 % respectively. Whereas depletion of antioxidant activity in the 2% calcium chloride treated samples of these fruits was 8, 22 and 11% respectively. In case of storage of untreated blackberry fruits content of cyanidin-3-O-monoglucoside decreased by 6.33 mg per 100 g of fruit. While, in fruit samples treated with 1 and 2% calcium chloride content of cyanidin-3-O-monoglucoside decreased by 32.06 and 11.35 mg per 100 g of fruit, respectively. Content of pelargonidin 3–O- monoglucoside increased by 2.29 mg per 100 g of the untreated blackberry fruits and by 26.87 and 8.45 mg per 100 g of fruits treated with 1 and 2% calcium chloride respectively. Change of content of cyanidin 3–O- (6 - p – coumaroyl - glucoside in blackberry fruits was not statistically significant.

  13. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  14. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  15. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  16. Effect of edible coatings with essential oils on the quality of red raspberries over shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos de Souza; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Guimarães, Ana Clara Garcia; Guerreiro, Adriana Cavaco; Gago, Custódia Maria Luís; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Dias, Cristina Maria Barrocas; Manhita, Ana Cristina Cabaça; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Miguel, Maria Graça Costa; Antunes, Maria Dulce Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for increasing the shelf-life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red color verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1% or 0.2% were very efficient for controlling yeast and mold growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. The application of the film improved post-harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Formation of Short-Chain Fatty Acids, Excretion of Anthocyanins, and Microbial Diversity in Rats Fed Blackcurrants, Blackberries, and Raspberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Berries contain high amounts of dietary fibre and flavonoids and have been associated with improved metabolic health. The mechanisms are not clear but the formation of SCFAs, especially propionic and butyric acids, could be important. The potent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of flavonoids could also be a factor, but little is known about their fate in the gastrointestinal tract. Aim. To compare how blackcurrants, blackberries, raspberries, and Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19 affect formation of SCFAs, inflammatory status, caecal microbial diversity, and flavonoids. Results and Conclusions. Degradation of the dietary fibre, formation of SCFAs including propionic and butyric acids, the weight of the caecal content and tissue, and the faecal wet and dry weight were all higher in rats fed blackcurrants rather than blackberries or raspberries. However, the microbial diversity of the gut microbiota was higher in rats fed raspberries. The high content of soluble fibre in blackcurrants and the high proportion of mannose-containing polymers might explain these effects. Anthocyanins could only be detected in urine of rats fed blackcurrants, and the excretion was lower with HEAL19. No anthocyanins or anthocyanidins were detected in caecal content or blood. This may indicate uptake in the stomach or small intestine.

  18. Laying the foundation to use Raspberry Pi 3 V2 camera module imagery for scientific and engineering purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Cazenavette, George; Gold, Maxwell; Harlan, Ryan; Leggett, Edward; Pagnutti, James

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive radiometric characterization of raw-data format imagery acquired with the Raspberry Pi 3 and V2.1 camera module is presented. The Raspberry Pi is a high-performance single-board computer designed to educate and solve real-world problems. This small computer supports a camera module that uses a Sony IMX219 8 megapixel CMOS sensor. This paper shows that scientific and engineering-grade imagery can be produced with the Raspberry Pi 3 and its V2.1 camera module. Raw imagery is shown to be linear with exposure and gain (ISO), which is essential for scientific and engineering applications. Dark frame, noise, and exposure stability assessments along with flat fielding results, spectral response measurements, and absolute radiometric calibration results are described. This low-cost imaging sensor, when calibrated to produce scientific quality data, can be used in computer vision, biophotonics, remote sensing, astronomy, high dynamic range imaging, and security applications, to name a few.

  19. Consumption of a single serving of red raspberries per day reduces metabolic syndrome parameters in high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, T; Miranda-Garcia, O; Sasaki, G; Shay, N F

    2017-11-15

    Using an animal model for diet-induced metabolic disease, we have shown previously that the addition of raspberry juice concentrate (RJC) and raspberry puree concentrate (RPC) at a level of 10% of kcal, equivalent to four servings per day, to an obesogenic high-fat, western-style diet (HF) significantly reduced body weight gain, serum resistin levels, and altered the expression of hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. This study was designed to examine the effect of a lower level of RJC or RPC consumption, at a level representing a single serving of food per day (2.5% of kcal). For ten weeks, four groups of C57BL/6J mice (n = 8 ea.) were fed: low fat (LF), HF, HF + RJC, or HF + RPC diets. Intake of RJC and RPC decreased final body weight. Hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly decreased in HF + RPC- and HF + RJC-fed mice, compared to HF-fed mice. Further, the relative expression of hepatic genes including Heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) and Hormone sensitive lipase (Lipe), were altered by RPC or RJC consumption. In this mouse model of diet-induced metabolic disease, consumption of the equivalent of a single daily serving of either RPC or RJC improved metabolism in mice fed HF diet. We hypothesize that the phytochemicals contained in raspberries, and/or their subsequent metabolites, may be acting to influence gene expression and other regulatory pathways, to produce the metabolic improvements observed in this study.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Polyphenolic-Enriched Red Raspberry Extract in an Antigen Induced Arthritis Rat Model†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Gilles, Dinorah; Li, Liya; Ma, Hang; Yuan, Tao; Chichester, Clinton O.; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2011-01-01

    The red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruit contains bioactive polyphenols including anthocyanins and ellagitannins with reported anti-inflammatory properties. Here we sought to investigate the cartilage protecting and anti-inflammatory effects of a polyphenolic-enriched red raspberry extract (RRE; standardized to total polyphenol, anthocyanin, and ellagitannin contents) using: 1) an in vitro bovine nasal explant cell culture model and, 2) an in vivo adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. RRE contained 20% total polyphenols (as gallic acid equivalents), 5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) and 9.25% ellagitannins (as ellagic acid equivalents). In the in vitro studies, bovine nasal explants were stimulated with 10 ng/mL IL-1β to induce the release of proteoglycan and type II collagen. On treatment with RRE (50 μg/mL), there was a decrease in the rate of degradation of both proteoglycan and type II collagen. In the in vivo antigen-induced arthritis rat model, animals were gavaged daily with RRE (at doses of 30 and 120 mg/Kg, respectively) for 30 days after adjuvant injection (750 μg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suspension in squalene). At the higher dose, animals treated with RRE had a lower incidence and severity of arthritis compared to control animals. Also, histological analyses revealed significant inhibition of inflammation, pannus formation, cartilage damage, and bone resorption by RRE. This study suggests that red raspberry polyphenols may afford cartilage protection and/or modulate the onset and severity of arthritis. PMID:22111586

  1. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  2. Quantum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.

  3. The Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Raspberry Fruit on Ovarian follicles and serum parameters in Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome-Induced Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad Nabiuni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is an endocrine disorder leading to lack of ovulation and has inflammatory aspects. Raspberry extract, with possession of bioactive compounds such as Anthocyanins and polyphenols, have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of raspberry extract on the development process of ovarian follicles and hormones level of pituitary, ovarian, and liver in rats suffering from PCOS were examined. Methods: In the present experimental study, 120 adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups of control, PCOS, and treated with raspberry. The induction of syndrome was done by 2mg Estradiol valerate. After a period of 60 days, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg BW raspberry extract was injected intraperitoneally. Control group received no injection. Ten days after the last injection, all groups were anesthetized by chloroform and the serum and ovary of all groups were collected in order to investigate the histological and serologic changes. Data obtained were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. Results: Raspberry-treated group showed a significant decrease in the hormones rate of testosterone, estradiol, LH, and CRP compared with PCOS (p<0.05, whereas a significant increase was observed in the serum level of Progesterone and FSH (p<0.05. A significant increase was observed in the number of corpus luteum and granulosa layer thickness in the raspberry-treated group compared with PCOS (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of raspberry extract was effective on regulating the hormones, CRPand improving of cysts which led to the initiation of ovulation.

  4. Mapping of A1 conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora idaei and dw (dwarfing habit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. using AFLP and microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Victoria H

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raspberry breeding programmes worldwide aim to produce improved cultivars to satisfy market demands and within these programmes there are many targets, including increased fruit quality, yield and season, and improved pest and disease resistance and plant habit. The large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora idaei, transmits four viruses and vector resistance is an objective in raspberry breeding. The development of molecular tools that discriminate between aphid resistance genes from different sources will allow the pyramiding of such genes and the development of raspberry varieties with superior pest resistance. We have raised a red raspberry (Rubus idaeus F1 progeny from the cross 'Malling Jewel' × 'Malling Orion' (MJ × MO, which segregates for resistance to biotype 1 of the aphid Amphorophora idaei and for a second phenotypic trait, dwarf habit. These traits are controlled by single genes, denoted (A1 and (dw respectively. Results The progeny of 94 seedlings was scored for the segregation of 95 AFLP and 22 SSR markers and a linkage map was constructed that covers a total genetic distance of 505 cM over seven linkage groups. The average linkage group length was 72.2 cM and there was an average of 17 markers per linkage group, of which at least two were codominant SSRs, allowing comparisons with previously published maps of raspberry. The two phenotypic traits, A1 and dw, mapped to linkage groups 3 and 6 respectively. Conclusion The mapping of A1 will facilitate the discrimination of resistance genes from different sources and the pyramiding of aphid resistance genes in new raspberry cultivars; the mapping of dw will allow further investigations into the genetics of dwarfing habit in Rubus.

  5. Effect of Two Biological Formulations Based on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Control of Didymella applanata, the Causal Agent of Red Raspberry Cane Spur Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Shternshis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of the two microbial formulations based on Bacillus subtilis Cohn. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig. on the fungus Didymella applanata (Niessl. Sacc., the causal agent of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. spur blight. In vitro, both bacteria reduced the growth of D. applanata. In inoculation experiments with raspberry canes in two cultivars with different susceptibility to D. applanata, these antagonistic bacteria suppressed fungal development by reducing the lesions area and the number of D. applanata fruiting bodies. Field trials of two biological formulations under natural conditions showed a significant suppression of the disease. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens included in the formulations revealed antagonistic activity towards D. applanata that depended on the red raspberry cultivar and weather conditions. In all cases, B. subtilis showed better results than P. fluorescens in biocontrol of the raspberry spur blight. This study demonstrated for the first time the ability of the biocontrol agents B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to suppress red raspberry cane spur blight, a serious worldwide disease.

  6. A low-cost touchscreen operant chamber using a Raspberry Pi™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, James D; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2018-03-08

    The development of a touchscreen platform for rodent testing has allowed new methods for cognitive testing that have been back-translated from clinical assessment tools to preclinical animal models. This platform for cognitive assessment in animals is comparable to human neuropsychological tests such as those employed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, and thus has several advantages compared to the standard maze apparatuses typically employed in rodent behavioral testing, such as the Morris water maze. These include improved translation of preclinical models, as well as high throughput and the automation of animal testing. However, these systems are relatively expensive, which can impede progress for researchers with limited resources. Here we describe a low-cost touchscreen operant chamber based on the single-board computer, Raspberry Pi TM , which is capable of performing tasks similar to those supported by current state-of-the-art systems. This system provides an affordable alternative for cognitive testing in a touchscreen operant paradigm for researchers with limited funding.

  7. Monitoring Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers With A Raspberry Pi Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patteson, Crystal

    2016-03-01

    The MicroBooNE detector is the first of three liquid argon (LAr) time projection chambers (TPCs) that are central to the short-baseline neutrino program at Fermilab. These chambers consist of thousands of stainless steel or beryllium-copper sense wires that detect ionization electrons produced when neutrinos interact with liquid argon nuclei inside the detector. The wires are several hundred microns in diameter to several meters in length. The construction of such LAr TPCs often takes place in an assembly hall, which is different from the detector hall where the experiment will operate, as was the case with MicroBooNE. Since in situ access to the chamber and its wires in the beamline enclosure can be limited, we investigate the possibility of using a Raspberry Pi single-board computer connected to a low-cost camera installed inside the cryostat as a cost-efficient way to verify the integrity of the wires after transport. We also highlight other benefits of this monitoring device implemented in MicroBooNE, including detector hall surveillance and verification of the status of LED indicators on detector electronics. The author would like to thank Dr. Matthew Toups for his encouragement and guidance on this research project.

  8. A Portable, Inexpensive, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Based on the Raspberry Pi® Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bailey Y; Mukai, Shizuo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Nonmydriatic fundus cameras allow retinal photography without pharmacologic dilation of the pupil. However, currently available nonmydriatic fundus cameras are bulky, not portable, and expensive. Taking advantage of recent advances in mobile technology, we sought to create a nonmydriatic fundus camera that was affordable and could be carried in a white coat pocket. Methods. We built a point-and-shoot prototype camera using a Raspberry Pi computer, an infrared-sensitive camera board, a dual infrared and white light light-emitting diode, a battery, a 5-inch touchscreen liquid crystal display, and a disposable 20-diopter condensing lens. Our prototype camera was based on indirect ophthalmoscopy with both infrared and white lights. Results. The prototype camera measured 133mm × 91mm × 45mm and weighed 386 grams. The total cost of the components, including the disposable lens, was $185.20. The camera was able to obtain good-quality fundus images without pharmacologic dilation of the pupils. Conclusion. A fully functional, inexpensive, handheld, nonmydriatic fundus camera can be easily assembled from a relatively small number of components. With modest improvements, such a camera could be useful for a variety of healthcare professionals, particularly those who work in settings where a traditional table-mounted nonmydriatic fundus camera would be inconvenient.

  9. Genetic parameters of yield components and pomologic properties in raspberry seedlings

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    Fotirić-Akšić Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a three-year period yield components and pomologic properties were studied in 20 raspberry seedlings obtained by open pollination of Meeker`s yellow clone. The primary goals of this research were to determine its variability components, coefficients of genetic and phenotypic variation and coefficient of heritability in a broader sense. The analysis of the components of total variance evidenced that higher proportion of genotypic variance was found with fruit shape index (30.84% and sucrose content (35.61%. The results revealed that genotypic coefficient of variation were less than its corresponding estimates of phenotypic coefficient of variation for all traits which indicated significant role of environment in the expression of these characters. The values of heritability coefficients, in a broader sense, were high except for number of flowers per inflorescens (9.47%, titratable acidity (6.38% and inverted sugar content (28.88%. Nine characters had h2 in interval from 50 to 80% but for fruit weight and fruit length was greater than 80% which implies the high potential of genetic improvement in those traits.

  10. Raspberry wine fermentation with suspended and immobilized yeast cells of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Radovan; Gibson, Brian; Sandell, Mari; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M; Bugarski, Branko; Leskošek-Čukalović, Ida; Vunduk, Jovana; Nikićević, Ninoslav; Nedović, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the differences in fermentative behaviour of two different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EC1118 and RC212) and to determine the differences in composition and sensory properties of raspberry wines fermented with immobilized and suspended yeast cells of both strains at 15 °C. Analyses of aroma compounds, glycerol, acetic acid and ethanol, as well as the kinetics of fermentation and a sensory evaluation of the wines, were performed. All fermentations with immobilized yeast cells had a shorter lag phase and faster utilization of sugars and ethanol production than those fermented with suspended cells. Slower fermentation kinetics were observed in all the samples that were fermented with strain RC212 (suspended and immobilized) than in samples fermented with strain EC1118. Significantly higher amounts of acetic acid were detected in all samples fermented with strain RC212 than in those fermented with strain EC1118 (0.282 and 0.602 g/l, respectively). Slightly higher amounts of glycerol were observed in samples fermented with strain EC1118 than in those fermented with strain RC212. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. STUDY OF RASPBERRY EXTRACT APPLICATIONS AS TEXTILE COLORANT ON NATURAL FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMAN Diana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the biomordant assisted application of natural extracts obtained from red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruits onto two different cellulosic supports – flax and bamboo. The study relies on the improvement of multifunctionalities such as colour fastness, washing and rubbing fastness, due to the synergism provided by the co-assistance of both a biomordant, and the complex resulted by inclusion of the pigment molecule, in the cavity of MCT-β-CD; it is well known that natural dye molecule have a good selectivity binding to the hydrophobic monochloro-triazynil-cyclodextrin’s (MCT-β-CD cavity to form inclusion complexes. An investigation system provided the characterization of the composites: FT-IR spectroscopy stressed the main chemical bonds created between MCT-β-CD as host molecule and guest molecule represented by natural colorant molecule; Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET Surface Area Analysis completes the analysis, proving the positive contribution of MCT-β-cyclodextrin grafting. Dyeing fastness and colour modifications were conclusive for this research. Samples of bamboo knitting are less colorful than those of the flax fabric in terms of high absorption capacity and stability / durability of natural dye applied by inclusion within cyclodextrin’s inner. The results of analysis revealed improvement of washing and rubbing fastness (1-1.5 points. Colour modifications noticed due to the colorant deposition were quantified from up to 3 points.

  12. Raspberry ketone supplement promotes early sexual maturation in male Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Humayra; Mendez, Vivian; Morelli, Renata; Pérez, Jeanneth; Taylor, Phillip W

    2017-08-01

    Raspberry ketone (RK) is highly attractive to sexually mature, but not immature, males of many Bactrocera species, including Queensland fruit fly ('Qfly', Bactrocera tryoni), and acts as a metabolic enhancer in a wide diversity of animals. We considered the possibility that, as a metabolic enhancer, RK in adult diet might accelerate sexual maturation of male Qflies. Recently emerged adult Qfly males (0-24 h old) were exposed to RK-treated food for 48 h and were then provided only sugar and water. Four doses of RK (1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5%) along with control (0%) were tested with two types of food: sugar alone and sugar mixed with yeast hydrolysate (3:1). For flies tested when 4-10 days old all RK doses increased mating probability of flies fed sugar mixed with yeast hydrolysate but did not show any effect on mating probability of flies fed only sugar. No effects of RK were found for flies tested when 10-30 days old for either diet group. There was no evidence that RK affected longevity at any of the doses tested. Feeding of RK together with yeast hydrolysate to immature Qfly increases mating propensity at young ages and accordingly shows significant potential as a pre-release supplement that might increase the proportion of released flies that attain sexual maturation in Sterile Insect Technique programmes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Physicochemical and microbiological quality of raspberries (Rubus idaeus treated with different doses of gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Costa Guimarães

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of raspberries exposed to different radiation doses. The fruits were harvested in the city of Campestre, MG, packed in polyethylene bags, and transported to the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, where they were separated into 4 lots. Irradiation was performed at the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology in Belo Horizonte, MG. The doses used were 0 (control, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy. After irradiation, the fruits were transported back to UFLA and stored at 1 ºC and 95% relative humidity (RH for 12 days. The physicochemical analyses for mass loss, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, total soluble sugars, total soluble pectin, firmness, vitamin C content, total antioxidant activity, and total phenolic, and the microbiological assays (coliform at 35 and 45 ºC, psychrotrophic and filamentous fungi and yeasts were performed after 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days of storage. Lower loss of mass and filamentous fungi and yeast count were observed in the irradiated fruits, and 2 kGy was determined as the most effective dose for microbial control, but this irradiation dose also resulted in increased loss of fruit firmness.

  15. Real-time multiple objects tracking on Raspberry-Pi-based smart embedded camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziri, Aziz; Duranton, Marc; Chapuis, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Multiple-object tracking constitutes a major step in several computer vision applications, such as surveillance, advanced driver assistance systems, and automatic traffic monitoring. Because of the number of cameras used to cover a large area, these applications are constrained by the cost of each node, the power consumption, the robustness of the tracking, the processing time, and the ease of deployment of the system. To meet these challenges, the use of low-power and low-cost embedded vision platforms to achieve reliable tracking becomes essential in networks of cameras. We propose a tracking pipeline that is designed for fixed smart cameras and which can handle occlusions between objects. We show that the proposed pipeline reaches real-time processing on a low-cost embedded smart camera composed of a Raspberry-Pi board and a RaspiCam camera. The tracking quality and the processing speed obtained with the proposed pipeline are evaluated on publicly available datasets and compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Application of image processing to calculate the number of fish seeds using raspberry-pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadiansah, A.; Kusumawardhani, A.; Duanto, F. N.; Qoonita, F.

    2018-03-01

    Many fish cultivator in Indonesia who suffered losses due to the sale and purchase of fish seeds did not match the agreed amount. The loss is due to the calculation of fish seed still using manual method. To overcome these problems, then in this study designed fish counting system automatically and real-time fish using the image processing based on Raspberry Pi. Used image processing because it can calculate moving objects and eliminate noise. Image processing method used to calculate moving object is virtual loop detector or virtual detector method and the approach used is “double difference image”. The “double difference” approach uses information from the previous frame and the next frame to estimate the shape and position of the object. Using these methods and approaches, the results obtained were quite good with an average error of 1.0% for 300 individuals in a test with a virtual detector width of 96 pixels and a slope of 1 degree test plane.

  17. Cosmeceutical Properties of Two Cultivars of Red Raspberry Grown under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papaioanou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant selection, input, and field management are proven strategies that produce high yields of crops bearing selected desirable characteristics for the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industry. This study reports on the effect of substrate and light on selected quantitative and qualitative bioactive properties of two cultivars of Rubus idaeus L (‘Ruvi’ and ‘Cayuga’. Our results demonstrated that the quantitative and qualitative fruit characteristics (yield, fruit dimensions, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids contents, plant growth, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and total antioxidant capacity, are significantly affected by genotype, light intensity, and substrate type. Fruits from ‘Ruvi’ plants cultivated under low light conditions, on soil/peat substrate exhibited high levels of antioxidant capacity, phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and high inhibitory potency towards the skin-regulating enzymes tyrosinase and elastase. Extract derived from these fruits was formulated into a topical skin care cream. This cream exhibited excellent compatibility and stability characteristics. Our research concluded that quantity and quality of Rubus idaeus L. fruits could be efficiently managed through conventional agronomic practices. Our project determined the optimal agronomic management practices to produce desirable characteristics and maximize bioactive content that determine the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical quality of the red raspberry.

  18. Inhibitory effect of raspberry ketone on α-glucosidase: Docking simulation integrating inhibition kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shang-Ling; Yue, Li-Mei; Lim, Gyu Tae; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Jinhyuk; Park, Yong-Doo

    2018-02-26

    Inhibition of α-glucosidase is directly associated with treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this regard, we conducted enzyme kinetics integrated with computational docking simulation to assess the inhibitory effect of raspberry ketone (RK) on α-glucosidase. RK bound to the active site of α-glucosidase and interacted with several key residues such as ASP68, TYR71, HIS111, PHE157, PHE158, PHE177, GLN181, ASP214, THR215, ASP349, ASP408, and ARG439, as detected by protein-ligand docking simulation. Subsequently, we confirmed the action of RK on α-glucosidase as the non-competitive type of inhibition in a reversible and rapidly binding manner. The relevant kinetic parameters were IC 50 =6.17±0.46mM and K i =7.939±0.211mM. Regarding the structure-activity relationship, the higher concentration of RK induced slight modulation of the shape of the active site as monitored by hydrophobic exposure. The tertiary conformational change was linked to RK inhibition, and mostly involved regional changes of the active site. Our study provides insight into the functional role of RK due to its structural property of a hydroxyphenyl ring that interacts with the active site of α-glucosidase. We suggest that similar hydroxyphenyl ring compounds targeting the key residues of the active site might be potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Climate influences vegetative and reproductive components of primocane-fruiting red raspberry cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prive, J.P.; Sullivan, J.A.; Proctor, J.T.A.; Allen, O.B.

    1993-01-01

    Climatic elements (solar radiation, daylength, water supply, growing degree days (GDD), corn heat units (CHU), soil, and air temperatures) were monitored to determine which elements could account for the variability in yield of primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars. The climatic elements were classed as either having a major or minor influence on the vegetative and reproductive components, based on the frequency of the significance of the multiple regression coefficients. Soil temperature and water supply had a major influence, while daylength, solar radiation, and above ground temperature (i.e., air, GDD, or CHU) had a lesser influence on these components. Soil temperature had the largest influence during April and May, while water supply was equally influential at all times during the season. Air temperature and solar radiation had their largest influence during the period of flower initiation and development (i.e., June and July), while daylength was most influential from June to October. Berry count, weight, and yield had the highest frequency of associations among the climatic elements, indicating the complexity of the association between these yield components and climate. Total number of nodes/cane, length of the fruiting section/cane, and the harvest period showed the fewest number of associations. Not all cultivars responded similarly to changes in their yield components. 'Autumn Bliss' was less sensitive to climatic variation than either 'Heritage' or 'Redwing'. When 'Redwing' was the anomaly, it was usually related to air or soil temperatures

  20. Quality and chemical composition of ten red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) genotypes during three harvest seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sebastian Piotr; Nes, Arnfinn; Wold, Anne-Berit; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Aaby, Kjersti

    2014-10-01

    Colour and chemical composition of fruits of 10 red raspberry genotypes grown in Nordic climate during three harvest seasons were studied. The main phenolic compounds in the fruits were ellagitannins and anthocyanins, contributing 57% and 42% to the quantified phenolic compounds, respectively. Cyanidin-3-sophoroside was the most abundant anthocyanin (61%). All quality parameters were significantly affected by genotype. The genotypes could be categorised into three groups. 'Veten' and 'RU984 06038' were characterised by high concentrations of flavonoids, i.e., anthocyanins and quercetin glycosides, and dark red colour. 'Octavia', 'Glen Magna', 'RU004 03067', 'Glen Ample' and 'RU974 07002' were characterised by light colour, high titratable acids and low flavonoid concentrations. 'Malling Hestia', 'RU024 01003' and 'RU004 04095' had high content of dry matter, soluble solids, ascorbic acid and ellagic acid containing compounds, in addition to high hue and chroma values. All quality parameters, except ascorbic acid and lambertianin C, varied significantly between harvest seasons. The lowest seasonal variation in fruit quality was observed in 'RU024 01003' and 'Glen Ample' and the highest 'RU004 03067' and 'Glen Magna'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization and biological activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zeyuan; Liu, Lu; Xu, Yaqin; Wang, Libo; Teng, Xin; Li, Xingguo; Dai, Jing

    2015-11-05

    A water-soluble polysaccharide namely RCP-II from raspberry fruits was obtained by complex enzyme method followed by successive purification using macroporous resin D4020 and Sephadex G-100 columns. RCP-II was an acidic heteropolysaccharide and the characteristic structure of polysaccharide was determined. The carbohydrate of RCP-II was composed with galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:0.55:1.19:0.52:0.44:1.90 and the average molecular weight was estimated to be 4013 Da, based on dextran standards. RCP-II presented high scavenging activity toward DPPH•, HO•, O2(•-) in a concentration-dependent manner. The determination of the inhibitory activity on protein glycation showed that in 14 days of incubation the inhibitory ability of RCP-II was more effective on the development of non-enzymatic glycation reaction at early phase than that at the following two phases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Formation of β-glucogallin, the precursor of ellagic acid in strawberry and raspberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenburg, Katja; Feller, Antje; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schecker, Johannes H; Martens, Stefan; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-04-01

    Ellagic acid/ellagitannins are plant polyphenolic antioxidants that are synthesized from gallic acid and have been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we report the identification and characterization of five glycosyltransferases (GTs) from two genera of the Rosaceae family (Fragaria and Rubus; F. × ananassa FaGT2*, FaGT2, FaGT5, F. vesca FvGT2, and R. idaeus RiGT2) that catalyze the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (β-glucogallin) the precursor of ellagitannin biosynthesis. The enzymes showed substrate promiscuity as they formed glucose esters of a variety of (hydroxyl)benzoic and (hydroxyl)cinnamic acids. Determination of kinetic values and site-directed mutagenesis revealed amino acids that affected substrate preference and catalytic activity. Green immature strawberry fruits were identified as the main source of gallic acid, β-glucogallin, and ellagic acid in accordance with the highest GT2 gene expression levels. Injection of isotopically labeled gallic acid into green fruits of stable transgenic antisense FaGT2 strawberry plants clearly confirmed the in planta function. Our results indicate that GT2 enzymes might contribute to the production of ellagic acid/ellagitannins in strawberry and raspberry, and are useful to develop strawberry fruit with additional health benefits and for the biotechnological production of bioactive polyphenols. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. A Portable, Inexpensive, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Based on the Raspberry Pi® Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Y. Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Nonmydriatic fundus cameras allow retinal photography without pharmacologic dilation of the pupil. However, currently available nonmydriatic fundus cameras are bulky, not portable, and expensive. Taking advantage of recent advances in mobile technology, we sought to create a nonmydriatic fundus camera that was affordable and could be carried in a white coat pocket. Methods. We built a point-and-shoot prototype camera using a Raspberry Pi computer, an infrared-sensitive camera board, a dual infrared and white light light-emitting diode, a battery, a 5-inch touchscreen liquid crystal display, and a disposable 20-diopter condensing lens. Our prototype camera was based on indirect ophthalmoscopy with both infrared and white lights. Results. The prototype camera measured 133mm×91mm×45mm and weighed 386 grams. The total cost of the components, including the disposable lens, was $185.20. The camera was able to obtain good-quality fundus images without pharmacologic dilation of the pupils. Conclusion. A fully functional, inexpensive, handheld, nonmydriatic fundus camera can be easily assembled from a relatively small number of components. With modest improvements, such a camera could be useful for a variety of healthcare professionals, particularly those who work in settings where a traditional table-mounted nonmydriatic fundus camera would be inconvenient.

  4. Identifikasi Jumlah dan Tingkat Aktivitas Orang Berbasis Pengolahan Citra Menggunakan Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Krisrenanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Air conditioner (AC merupakan suatu perangkat yang paling banyak digunakan sebagai pendingin ruangan. Walaupun AC saat ini sudah menggunakan teknologi hemat energi, namun apabila tidak digunakan dengan baik maka penggunaan AC hanya menjadi suatu pemborosan listrik saja. Untuk mengurangi pemborosan listrik pada AC, maka pengaturan suhu harus disesuaikan dengan kondisi ruangan. Beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi kondisi ruangan antara lain adalah jumlah orang serta tingkat aktivitas dalam ruangan. Sebagai upaya penghematan konsumsi listrik pada AC, maka dalam penelitian ini dilakukan rancang bangun suatu sistem identifikasi jumlah orang dan tingkat aktivitas. Pada sistem ini digunakan kamera USB sebagai perangkat pengambil citra. Pada pengolahan citra menggunakan metode Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG sebagai penghitung jumlah orang, sedangkan metode background subtraction digunakan sebagai penghitung tingkat aktivitas. Sistem ini diimplementasikan ke dalam Raspberry Pi 3 sebagai mikrokontroler. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa sistem dapat mendeteksi orang dari jarak 3 m sampai 9 m dan membedakan 2 orang dengan jarak antara 30 cm sampai 150 cm. Sistem juga dapat membedakan tingkat aktivitas sedikit, sedang dan tinggi.

  5. RANCANG BANGUN DATABASE DUA ARAH DENGAN KENDALI RASPBERRY PI PADA INTEGRASI SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS PENYAKIT MENULAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Prasetyo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Puskesmas sebagai unit kesehatan tingkat pertama memiliki tugas pokok yaitu pengobatan, perawatan kesehatan, kesehatan lingkungan, membina kesehatan ibu dan anak, pencegahan penyakit menular, pencatatan dan pelaporan. Dari keseluruhan tugas tampaknya tidak seluruhnya digarap oleh puskesmas terutama pencatatan dan pelaporan untuk pencegahan penyakit menular serta pola penyebarannya. untuk mengawasi dan mengendalikan perencananan program kesehatan termasuk penekanan penyebaran penyakit menular, puskesmas belum memiliki alat bantu yang terintegrasi satu atap secara real time dengan dinas kesehatan, untuk itu dibutuhkan sistem informasi geografis (SIG untuk memvisualisasikan data penyakit menular, hal ini juga perlu ditunjang perangkat yang optimal dengan biaya yang murah dengan menggunakan raspberry pi sebagai kendali otomasi server data dalam replikasi. Proses memanfaatkan replikasi database dua arah menggunakan dua server dengan server satu sebagai master sedangkan server lainnya berfungsi sebagai slave. Hasil pengujian replikasi pada transaction rate untuk meminimalkan antrian data node 1 pada nilai 1,99/detik setiap transaksi data, node 2 nilai 2,02/detik, sedangkan balancer dengan nilai 1,91/detik, sedangkan response time atau kecepatan replikasi database dalam menangkap dan mengirimkan data sangat efektif, pada node 1 0,33/s untuk kecepatan proses, node 2 dengan waktu 0,01/s, dan balancer 0,13/s. Kata kunci: puskesmas, replikasi database dua arah, penyakit menular, dinas kesehatan, sistem informasi geografis (SIG.

  6. Erica the Rhino: A Case Study in Using Raspberry Pi Single Board Computers for Interactive Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Basford

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Erica the Rhino is an interactive art exhibit created by the University of Southampton, UK. Erica was created as part of a city wide art trail in 2013 called “Go! Rhinos”, curated by Marwell Wildlife, to raise awareness of Rhino conservation. Erica arrived as a white fibreglass shell which was then painted and equipped with five Raspberry Pi Single Board Computers (SBC. These computers allowed the audience to interact with Erica through a range of sensors and actuators. In particular, the audience could feed and stroke her to prompt reactions, as well as send her Tweets to change her behaviour. Pi SBCs were chosen because of their ready availability and their educational pedigree. During the deployment, ‘coding clubs’ were run in the shopping centre where Erica was located, and these allowed children to experiment with and program the same components used in Erica. The experience gained through numerous deployments around the country has enabled Erica to be upgraded to increase reliability and ease of maintenance, whilst the release of the Pi 2 has allowed her responsiveness to be improved.

  7. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1980-01-01

    In years 1920 as a result of quantum mechanics principles governing the structure of ordinary matter, a sudden importance for a problem raised a long time ago by Laplace: what happens when a massive body becomes so dense that even light cannot escape from its gravitational field. It is difficult to conceive how could be avoided in the actual universe the accumulation of important masses of cold matter having been submitted to gravitational breaking down followed by the formation of what is called to day a black hole [fr

  8. EKSTRAKSI PEWARNA ALAMI DARI BUAH ARBEN (Rubus idaeus Linn.) [Extraction of Natural Colorant from Red Raspberry (rubus idaeus linn.) And its application in food sistem

    OpenAIRE

    Tensiska1); Een Sukarmina1); Dita Natalia2)

    2007-01-01

    Red raspberry fruit has not been optimally utilized even though it contains anthocyanin pigment. The pigment can be used as a natural colorant which also function as antioxidant. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate solvent for anthocyanin extraction from red raspberry fruit and its possibility for food colorant. The research was started with preliminary research to determine appropriate acidulants (citric, acetic and tartaric acid) with levels of 0,1 ;0,25;0,5 ;0,75 and 1 %...

  9. Comparison of the protein-coding gene content of Chlamydia trachomatis and Protochlamydia amoebophila using a Raspberry Pi computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, James F; Barker, Daniel

    2015-10-13

    To demonstrate the bioinformatics capabilities of a low-cost computer, the Raspberry Pi, we present a comparison of the protein-coding gene content of two species in phylum Chlamydiae: Chlamydia trachomatis, a common sexually transmitted infection of humans, and Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila, a recently discovered amoebal endosymbiont. Identifying species-specific proteins and differences in protein families could provide insights into the unique phenotypes of the two species. Using a Raspberry Pi computer, sequence similarity-based protein families were predicted across the two species, C. trachomatis and P. amoebophila, and their members counted. Examples include nine multi-protein families unique to C. trachomatis, 132 multi-protein families unique to P. amoebophila and one family with multiple copies in both. Most families unique to C. trachomatis were polymorphic outer-membrane proteins. Additionally, multiple protein families lacking functional annotation were found. Predicted functional interactions suggest one of these families is involved with the exodeoxyribonuclease V complex. The Raspberry Pi computer is adequate for a comparative genomics project of this scope. The protein families unique to P. amoebophila may provide a basis for investigating the host-endosymbiont interaction. However, additional species should be included; and further laboratory research is required to identify the functions of unknown or putative proteins. Multiple outer membrane proteins were found in C. trachomatis, suggesting importance for host evasion. The tyrosine transport protein family is shared between both species, with four proteins in C. trachomatis and two in P. amoebophila. Shared protein families could provide a starting point for discovery of wide-spectrum drugs against Chlamydiae.

  10. The composition of potentially bioactive triterpenoid glycosides in red raspberry is influenced by tissue, extraction procedure and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J; Allwood, J William; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Brown, Emma M; Latimer, Cheryl; Dobson, Gary; Stewart, Derek; Ternan, Nigel G; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R

    2017-10-18

    The beneficial effects of consumption of berry fruits on a range of chronic diseases has been attributed (at least in part) to the presence of unique phytochemicals. Recently, we identified novel ursolic acid-based triterpenoid glycosides (TTPNs) in raspberry fruit and demonstrated their survival in human ileal fluids after feeding which confirmed their colon-availability in vivo. In this paper, in vitro digestion studies demonstrated that certain TTPNs were stable under gastrointestinal conditions and confirmed that these components may have been responsible for bioactivity noted in previous studies. Sequential extractions of raspberry puree, isolated seeds and unseeded puree showed that certain TTPN components (e.g. peak T1 m/z 679, and T2 m/z 1358) had different extractabilities in water/solvent mixes and were differentially associated with the seeds. Purified seed TTPNs (mainly T1 and T2) were shown to be anti-genotoxic in HT29 and CCD841 cell based in vitro colonocyte models. Further work confirmed that the seeds contained a wider range of TTPN-like components which were also differentially extractable in water/solvent mixes. This differential extractability could influence the TTPN composition and potential bioactivity of the extracts. There was considerable variation in total content of TTPNs (∼3-fold) and TTPN composition across 13 Rubus genotypes. Thus, TTPNs are likely to be present in raspberry juices and common extracts used for bioactivity studies and substantial variation exists in both content and composition due to genetics, tissue source or extraction conditions, which may all affect observed bioactivity.

  11. Making Blackness, Making Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Too often the acknowledgment that race is a social construction ignores exactly how this construction occurs. By illuminating the way in which the category of blackness and black individuals are made, we can better see how race matters in America. Antidiscrimination policy, social science research, and the state's support of its citizens can all be improved by an accurate and concrete definition of blackness. Making Blackness, Making Policy argues that blackness and black people are literally...

  12. Raspberry Extract as Both a Stabilizer and a Reducing Agent in Environmentally Friendly Process of Receiving Colloidal Silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Pulit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ecofriendly method of nanosilver obtaining has been studied. The process involves the chemical reduction method carried out in aqueous environment. Silver nitrate (V was applied as a silver ions source. Raspberry extract was used as a natural source of both reducing and stabilizing agents. The total amount of phenolic compounds was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Obtained nanoparticles were analyzed by the dynamic light scattering technique so as to determine the particles size and suspension stability which was characterized by an electrokinetic potential. The results confirmed that the size of some nanoparticles was under 100 nm.

  13. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black holes; numerical relativity; nonlinear sigma. Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. ... Theoretical and Computational Studies Group, Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA ...

  14. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  15. Automating mouse weighing in group homecages with Raspberry Pi micro-computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorshams, Omid; Boyd, Jamie D; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-06-15

    Operant training systems make use of water or food restriction and make it necessary to weigh animals to ensure compliance with experimental endpoints. In other applications periodic weighing is necessary to assess drug side-effects, or as an endpoint in feeding experiments. Periodic weighing while essential can disrupt animal circadian rhythms and social structure. Automatic weighing system within paired mouse homecages. Up to 10 mice freely move between two cages (28×18×9cm) which were connected by a weighing chamber mounted on a load cell. Each mouse was identified using an RFID tag placed under the skin of the neck. A single-board computer (Raspberry Pi; RPi) controls the task, logging RFID tag, load cell weights, and time stamps from each RFID detection until the animal leaves the chamber. Collected data were statistically analyzed to estimate mouse weights. We anticipate integration with tasks where automated imaging or behaviour is assessed in homecages. Mice frequently move between the two cages, an average of 42+-16 times/day/mouse at which time we obtained weights. We report accurate determination of mouse weight and long term monitoring over 53days. Comparison with existing methods Although commercial systems are available for automatically weighing rodents, they only work with single animals, or are not open source nor cost effective for specific custom application. This automated system permits automated weighing of mice ∼40 times per day. The system employs inexpensive hardware and open-source Python code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Automated touch sensing in the mouse tapered beam test using Raspberry Pi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardesch, Dirk Jan; Balbi, Matilde; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-11-01

    Rodent models of neurological disease such as stroke are often characterized by motor deficits. One of the tests that are used to assess these motor deficits is the tapered beam test, which provides a sensitive measure of bilateral motor function based on foot faults (slips) made by a rodent traversing a gradually narrowing beam. However, manual frame-by-frame scoring of video recordings is necessary to obtain test results, which is time-consuming and prone to human rater bias. We present a cost-effective method for automated touch sensing in the tapered beam test. Capacitive touch sensors detect foot faults onto the beam through a layer of conductive paint, and results are processed and stored on a Raspberry Pi computer. Automated touch sensing using this method achieved high sensitivity (96.2%) as compared to 'gold standard' manual video scoring. Furthermore, it provided a reliable measure of lateralized motor deficits in mice with unilateral photothrombotic stroke: results indicated an increased number of contralesional foot faults for up to 6days after ischemia. The automated adaptation of the tapered beam test produces results immediately after each trial, without the need for labor-intensive post-hoc video scoring. It also increases objectivity of the data as it requires less experimenter involvement during analysis. Automated touch sensing may provide a useful adaptation to the existing tapered beam test in mice, while the simplicity of the hardware lends itself to potential further adaptations to related behavioral tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Suppression of cuelure attraction in male Queensland fruit flies provided raspberry ketone supplements as immature adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Humayra; Adnan, Saleh; Morelli, Renata; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taylor, Phillip W

    2017-01-01

    Tephritid fruit flies are amongst the most damaging insect pests of horticulture globally. Some of the key fruit fly species are managed using the sterile insect technique (SIT), whereby millions of sterile males are released to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Male annihilation technique (MAT), whereby sex specific lures are used to attract and kill males, is often used to reduce wild male numbers before SIT programs commence, providing released sterile males an increased numerical advantage. Overall program efficacy might be improved if MAT could be deployed simultaneously with SIT, continuously depleting fertile males from pest populations and replacing them with sterile males. However, such 'male replacement' requires a means of suppressing attraction of released sterile males to lures used in MAT. Previous studies have found that exposure of some fruit flies to lure compounds as mature adults can suppress subsequent response to those lures, raising the possibility of pre-release treatments. However, this approach requires holding flies until after maturation for treatment and then release. The present study takes a novel approach of exposing immature adult male Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni, or 'Qfly') to raspberry ketone (RK) mixed in food, forcing these flies to ingest RK at ages far younger than they would naturally. After feeding on RK-supplemented food for two days after emergence, male Qflies exhibited a reduction in attraction to cuelure traps that lasted more than 20 days. This approach to RK exposure is compatible with current practises, in which Qflies are released as immature adults, and also yields advantages of accelerated reproductive development and increased mating propensity at young ages.

  18. Housing a Raspberry Pi Connected AS-1 Seismometer in a Solar-Paneled Shed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, F.; Tokman, T. L.; Echreshzadeh, M.; Palaric, K. D.; Filippone, N. V.; Sivo, J.

    2016-12-01

    Last year, students working on the SeismoSTEM project at Bergen Community College successfully manufactured and assembled an AS-1 seismometer1. However, issues students encountered were not knowing where to place the TC-1 and AS-1 seismometers, nor how to configure the instruments with a computer for monitoring and measuring earthquakes. Our solution was to purchase a Raspberry Pi 3 model B, which has four USB ports and a Wi-Fi adapter. We then installed the Raspbian operating system that can run jAmaSeis, which allows for the collection and analysis of seismic data. In terms of the shed that was constructed last summer2, we installed roof shingles, as well as a ventilation system to prevent overheating. The seismometers will then be placed on a concrete slab. In the future, we plan on applying a wood varnish around the exterior of the shed, as well as gravel around the shed for water drainage as well as to make it more visually appealing. Moreover, we plan on mounting a 170-W solar panel on the roof to charge a 12-V deep cycle marine battery, which will provide electricity to the system. References: 1Tokman, T.L. et al., What's shaking? Manufacturing & assembling an AS-1 educational seismometer for undergraduate stem research, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015. 2Palaric, K.D., et al., Constructing a solar-powered seismic station for educational seismometers, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015.

  19. Dietary Supplementation with Raspberry Seed Oil Modulates Liver Functions, Inflammatory State, and Lipid Metabolism in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotschki, Bartosz; Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2015-08-01

    Although raspberry seed oil (RO) is rich in essential fatty acids, there is a lack of experiments assessing benefits of its consumption. We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with RO on healthy rats and rats with low-grade systemic inflammation, liver disorders, and dyslipidemia induced by a high-fat/low-fiber (HF/LF) diet. Thirty-two rats were allocated into 4 groups of 8 rats each and fed for 8 wk a control (C; 7% lard and 5% cellulose) or HF/LF (21% lard and 2% cellulose) diet or modifications of these diets in which 7% RO replaced all (C+RO group) or a proportion of (HF/LF+RO group) the lard. Effects of diet and RO and their interaction on bacterial activity and metabolite formations in the distal intestine, liver fat and glutathione concentration, plasma lipid profile, transaminase activities, and plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were tested. Dietary RO decreased plasma alanine and aspartate transaminase activities (43.4 and 157 vs. 25.6 and 115 U/L, respectively; P livers of the C+RO group, the fat concentration was decreased, whereas the glutathione to glutathione disulfide ratio was increased compared with the C group (30.1% and 6.20 μmol/g vs. 23.3% and 7.25 μmol/g, respectively; P ≤ 0.05); however, those differences were not observed between the HF/LF groups (P-interaction Dietary RO improves plasma lipid profile and liver functions and reduces low-grade systemic inflammation in rats; however, the extent of these beneficial effects is partly dependent on the diet type. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Raspberry seed flour attenuates high-sucrose diet-mediated hepatic stress and adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Inhae; Espín, Juan Carlos; Carr, Timothy P; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Chung, Soonkyu

    2016-06-01

    Chronic intake of high sucrose (HS) diet exacerbates high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and its associated metabolic complications. Previously, we have demonstrated that ellagic acid (EA), an abundant polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, exerts distinct lipid-lowering characteristics in hepatocytes and adipocytes. In this study, we hypothesized that EA supplementation inhibits HS diet-mediated hepatic toxicity and its accompanied metabolic dysregulation. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 male mice were randomly assigned to three isocaloric HF diets (41% calories from fat) containing either no-sucrose (HF), high-sucrose (HFHS), or high-sucrose plus EA (HFHS-R) from raspberry seed flour (RSF, equivalent to 0.03% of EA), and fed for 12weeks. The inclusion of EA from RSF significantly improved HFHS diet-mediated dyslipidemia and restored glucose homeostasis levels similar to the HF diet-fed mice. Despite marginal difference in hepatic triglyceride content, the addition of EA substantially reversed the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative damage triggered by HFHS diet in the liver. These effects of EA were further confirmed in human hepatoma cells by reducing ER stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, HFHS-R diet significantly decreased visceral adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue inflammation evidenced by reduced proinflammatory gene expression and macrophage infiltration. In summary, EA supplementation from RSF was effective in reducing HFHS diet-mediated metabolic complication by attenuating hepatic ER and oxidative stresses as well as adipocyte inflammation. Our results suggest that the inclusion of EA in diets may normalize metabolic insults triggered by HS consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Suppression of cuelure attraction in male Queensland fruit flies provided raspberry ketone supplements as immature adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayra Akter

    Full Text Available Tephritid fruit flies are amongst the most damaging insect pests of horticulture globally. Some of the key fruit fly species are managed using the sterile insect technique (SIT, whereby millions of sterile males are released to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Male annihilation technique (MAT, whereby sex specific lures are used to attract and kill males, is often used to reduce wild male numbers before SIT programs commence, providing released sterile males an increased numerical advantage. Overall program efficacy might be improved if MAT could be deployed simultaneously with SIT, continuously depleting fertile males from pest populations and replacing them with sterile males. However, such 'male replacement' requires a means of suppressing attraction of released sterile males to lures used in MAT. Previous studies have found that exposure of some fruit flies to lure compounds as mature adults can suppress subsequent response to those lures, raising the possibility of pre-release treatments. However, this approach requires holding flies until after maturation for treatment and then release. The present study takes a novel approach of exposing immature adult male Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni, or 'Qfly' to raspberry ketone (RK mixed in food, forcing these flies to ingest RK at ages far younger than they would naturally. After feeding on RK-supplemented food for two days after emergence, male Qflies exhibited a reduction in attraction to cuelure traps that lasted more than 20 days. This approach to RK exposure is compatible with current practises, in which Qflies are released as immature adults, and also yields advantages of accelerated reproductive development and increased mating propensity at young ages.

  2. Valorisation of raspberry and blueberry pomace through the formulation of value-added gluten-free cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarić, Bojana; Mišan, Aleksandra; Mandić, Anamarija; Nedeljković, Nataša; Pojić, Milica; Pestorić, Mladenka; Đilas, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Successful valorisation of raspberry and blueberry pomace was achieved through their application, as dried and ground powders, in the formulation of value-added gluten-free cookies. Simplex-lattice mixture design approach was applied to obtain the product with the best sensory properties, nutritional profile and antioxidant activity. The highest desirability of 90.0 % was accomplished with the substitution of gluten-free flour mixture with 28.2 % of blueberry and 1.8 % of raspberry pomace. The model was verified. Optimized cookies had similar protein (3.72 %) and carbohydrate (66.7 %) contents as gluten-containing counterparts used for comparison, but significantly lower fat content (10.97 %). Daily portion of the optimized cookies meets: 5.00 % and 7.73 % of dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for linoleic acid, 23.6 % and 34.3 % of DRIs for α-linolenic acid and 10.3 % and 15.6 % of DRIs for dietary fibers, for male and female adults, respectively. The nutritional profile of the optimized formulation makes it comparable with added-value gluten-containing counterparts.

  3. A method for automatic segmentation and splitting of hyperspectral images of raspberry plants collected in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Williams

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperspectral imaging is a technology that can be used to monitor plant responses to stress. Hyperspectral images have a full spectrum for each pixel in the image, 400–2500 nm in this case, giving detailed information about the spectral reflectance of the plant. Although this technology has been used in laboratory-based controlled lighting conditions for early detection of plant disease, the transfer of such technology to imaging plants in field conditions presents a number of challenges. These include problems caused by varying light levels and difficulties of separating the target plant from its background. Here we present an automated method that has been developed to segment raspberry plants from the background using a selected spectral ratio combined with edge detection. Graph theory was used to minimise a cost function to detect the continuous boundary between uninteresting plants and the area of interest. The method includes automatic detection of a known reflectance tile which was kept constantly within the field of view for all image scans. A method to split images containing rows of multiple raspberry plants into individual plants was also developed. Validation was carried out by comparison of plant height and density measurements with manually scored values. A reasonable correlation was found between these manual scores and measurements taken from the images (r2 = 0.75 for plant height. These preliminary steps are an essential requirement before detailed spectral analysis of the plants can be achieved.

  4. Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of adults of raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to odors released from conspecific females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutis, Ana; Parra, Leonardo; Manosalva, Loreto; Palma, Rubén; Candia, Oscar; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2010-08-01

    The raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important pest in blueberry and raspberry fields in the south of Chile. In this study, we investigated the electroantennographic and behavioral responses of A. superciliosus to semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults, with particular attention to male attraction to females. Odors released from females significantly attracted males in a Y-tube olfactometer. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analysis of female volatile extracts revealed the presence of limonene and α-pinene. Electroantennogram recordings from both sexes indicated that males of A. superciliosus possess olfactory sensitivity for the R isomer of limonene and α-pinene, whereas females only perceived R-limonene. Behavioral assays using synthetic compounds showed that only R-limonene elicited an attraction response from male weevils. Field experiments confirmed the laboratory results, showing that R-limonene was attractive to weevils. This is the first report of intraspecific chemical communication in this weevil. We discuss the origin of these compounds, their possible role in the sexual behavior of this species, and their potential use in a pest control strategy.

  5. Investigation on raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres and its preliminary application for drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Juntao; Li, Zhanfeng; Wang, Hongyan; Cui, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    A series of raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres were successfully synthesized via the sol–gel process, which was based on the principle of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica and positively charged polystyrene. The Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 particles as the outer shell were compactly assembled on the surface of PS, and then magnetic-hollow nanospheres were obtained by calcination. Different synthesis conditions including the amount of NH 4 OH, TEOS, Fe 3 O 4 , and the adding time of PS were systematically investigated to discuss the influence of these conditions on the morphology and structure. The prepared magnetic-hollow nanospheres were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometry, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement. SEM and TEM images exhibited that the obtained samples with the perfect spherical profile and large cavities structure were well monodisperse and uniform under the optimized condition. Zeta-potential analysis was employed to make clear the formation mechanism of raspberry-like PS@Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 composite nanosphere. Moreover, the drug release of ibuprofen experiment results demonstrated that the magnetic-hollow nanospheres could be used as a drug carrier to slowly release and deliver drugs

  6. Investigation on raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres and its preliminary application for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Juntao, E-mail: yanjuntaonihao@163.com [Wuhan Polytechnic University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering (China); Li, Zhanfeng; Wang, Hongyan; Cui, Xuejun [Jilin University, College of Chemistry (China)

    2013-09-15

    A series of raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres were successfully synthesized via the sol-gel process, which was based on the principle of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica and positively charged polystyrene. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} particles as the outer shell were compactly assembled on the surface of PS, and then magnetic-hollow nanospheres were obtained by calcination. Different synthesis conditions including the amount of NH{sub 4}OH, TEOS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and the adding time of PS were systematically investigated to discuss the influence of these conditions on the morphology and structure. The prepared magnetic-hollow nanospheres were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometry, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM images exhibited that the obtained samples with the perfect spherical profile and large cavities structure were well monodisperse and uniform under the optimized condition. Zeta-potential analysis was employed to make clear the formation mechanism of raspberry-like PS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} composite nanosphere. Moreover, the drug release of ibuprofen experiment results demonstrated that the magnetic-hollow nanospheres could be used as a drug carrier to slowly release and deliver drugs.

  7. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  8. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  9. Red de comunicación xbee entre minicomputadora raspberry pi y pc con capacidad WIFI para el almacenamiento de información en base de datos remota. (octubre 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza Moran, Cinthia Leonor; Cando Cevallos, Christian Fernando; Valdivieso Armendariz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es de entregar una guía práctica, y un material indispensable para todo estudiante que desee conocer sobre la Tecnología RASPBERRY PI. Este proyecto se basa en una red de comunicación XBee con una minicomputadora RASPBERRY PI, implementando una comunicación wifi para el almacenamiento de información en una base de datos remota. Aquí vamos a tratar puntos importantes de comunicación de la RASPBERRY PI que son: wifi, VPN y procesamiento de datos mediante los m...

  10. Effect of bioactive substances found in rapeseed, raspberry and strawberry seed oils on blood lipid profile and selected parameters of oxidative status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieszka, Marek; Tombarkiewicz, Barbara; Roman, Adam; Migdał, Władysław; Niedziółka, Jerzy

    2013-11-01

    Rapeseed, strawberry and raspberry seed oils are a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants such as tocols, bioflavonoids and phytosterols. The aim of the study was to determine changes in the blood lipid profile of rats fed with rapeseed, strawberry and raspberry seed oils and their effects on selected parameters of oxidative status. The experiment was carried out on male Wistar rats. The oils were administered by oral gavage for 5 weeks once daily at the dose of about 0.8 ml per rat. Blood samples were taken before and after supplementation period. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (cGPx) was assessed in erythrocytes and contents of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, low-density fraction of cholesterol (LDL) and high-density fraction of cholesterol (HDL) were assessed in plasma. The experiment shows that oils supplemented in the diet for 5 weeks had no significant effect on the level of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol as well as HDL and LDL fractions. Reduced activity of cGPX and SOD in the group of rats receiving raspberry and strawberry seed oils suggests that these native oils may contribute to oxidative stability (improves antioxidant status). Thus, strawberry and raspberry seed oils can be considered as special biological oils, which constitute potential nutraceuticals reducing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit on quality and active components over postharvest storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on market quality and actives preservation of organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit over postharvest storage. Fruit were harvested, cooled, and sorted for uniform maturity and quality. Fruit were ...

  12. Weathering and chemical degradation of methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  13. Wild Raspberry Subjected to Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion Improves the Protective Capacity against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Oxidative Damage in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Li, Ya; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), a probable human carcinogen, occurs widely in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that EC-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Wild raspberries are rich in polyphenolic compounds, which possess potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of wild raspberry extracts produced before (RE) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (RD) on EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. Our primary data showed that ethyl carbamate could result in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Caco-2 cells and raspberry extract after digestion (RD) may be more effective than that before digestion (RE) in attenuating toxicity caused by ethyl carbamate. Further investigation by fluorescence microscope revealed that RD may significantly ameliorate EC-induced oxidative damage by scavenging the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, HPLC-ESI-MS results showed that the contents of identified polyphenolic compounds (esculin, kaempferol O-hexoside, and pelargonidin O-hexoside) were remarkably increased after digestion, which might be related to the better protective effect of RD. Overall, our results demonstrated that raspberry extract undergoing simulated gastrointestinal digestion may improve the protective effect against EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells.

  14. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Black Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-black-eye/basics/ART-20056675 . Mayo ...

  16. 21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (other than dewberry), Black raspberry, Blueberry, Boysenberry, Cherry, Crabapple, Dewberry (other than..., Pineapple, Raspberry, red raspberry, Rhubarb, Strawberry, Tangerine, Tomato, Yellow tomato, Youngberry Group... (other than black currant) (2) The following combinations of fruit ingredients may be used: (i) Any...

  17. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  18. Brane world black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, Anurag; Sengupta, Gautam

    2007-01-01

    Five dimensional neutral rotating black rings are described from a Randall-Sundrum brane world perspective in the bulk black string framework. To this end we consider a rotating black string extension of a five dimensional black ring into the bulk of a six dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world with a single four brane. The bulk solution intercepts the four brane in a five dimensional black ring with the usual curvature singularity on the brane. The bulk geodesics restricted to the plane of rotation of the black ring are constructed and their projections on the four brane match with the usual black ring geodesics restricted to the same plane. The asymptotic nature of the bulk geodesics are elucidated with reference to a bulk singularity at the AdS horizon. We further discuss the description of a brane world black ring as a limit of a boosted bulk black 2 brane with periodic identification

  19. Optimization and Design of an Absorbance Spectrometer Controlled Using a Raspberry Pi to Improve Analytical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougot-Robin, Kristelle; Paget, Jack; Atkins, Stephen C.; Edel, Joshua B.

    2016-01-01

    It is not uncommon for students to view laboratory instruments as black boxes. Unfortunately, this can often result in poor experimental results and interpretation. To tackle this issue, a laboratory course was designed to enable students not only to critically think about operating principles of the instrument but also to improve interpretation…

  20. Ultraviolet Imaging with Low Cost Smartphone Sensors: Development and Application of a Raspberry Pi-Based UV Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Thomas C; McGonigle, Andrew J S; Pering, Tom D; Taggart, Angus J; White, Benjamin S; Bryant, Robert G; Willmott, Jon R

    2016-10-06

    Here, we report, for what we believe to be the first time, on the modification of a low cost sensor, designed for the smartphone camera market, to develop an ultraviolet (UV) camera system. This was achieved via adaptation of Raspberry Pi cameras, which are based on back-illuminated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors, and we demonstrated the utility of these devices for applications at wavelengths as low as 310 nm, by remotely sensing power station smokestack emissions in this spectral region. Given the very low cost of these units, ≈ USD 25, they are suitable for widespread proliferation in a variety of UV imaging applications, e.g., in atmospheric science, volcanology, forensics and surface smoothness measurements.

  1. A combination of Raspberry Pi and SoftEther VPN for controlling research devices via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu

    2017-11-01

    Remote control over devices for experiments may increase the efficiency of operant research and expand the area where behavior can be studied. This article introduces a combination of Raspberry Pi ® (Pi) and SoftEther VPN ® that allows for such remote control via the Internet. The Pi is a small Linux computer with a great degree of flexibility for customization. Test results indicate that a Pi-based interface meets the requirement for conducting operant research. SoftEther VPN ® allows for establishing an extensive private network on the Internet using a single private Wi-Fi router. Step-by-step instructions are provided in the present article for setting up the Pi along with SoftEther VPN ® . Their potential for improving the way of conducting research is discussed. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. Transgenic peas (Pisum sativum) expressing polygalacturonase inhibiting protein from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and stilbene synthase from grape (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A; Jacobsen, H-J; de Kathen, A; de Lorenzo, G; Briviba, K; Hain, R; Ramsay, G; Kiesecker, H

    2006-11-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum L.) varieties Baroness (United Kingdome) and Baccara (France) were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer with pGPTV binary vectors containing the bar gene in combination with two different antifungal genes coding for polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) driven by a double 35S promoter, or the stilbene synthase (Vst1) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) driven by its own elicitor-inducible promoter. Transgenic lines were established and transgenes combined via conventional crossing. Resveratrol, produced by Vst1 transgenic plants, was detected using HPLC and the PGIP expression was determined in functional inhibition assays against fungal polygalacturonases. Stable inheritance of the antifungal genes in the transgenic plants was demonstrated.

  3. Trienylfuranol A and trienylfuranone A-B: metabolites isolated from an endophytic fungus, Hypoxylon submoniticulosum, in the raspberry Rubus idaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Sørensen, Dan; Sumarah, Mark W

    2017-06-01

    A strain of Hypoxylon submonticulosum was isolated as an endophyte from a surface-sterilized leaf of a cultivated raspberry (Rubus idaeus). The liquid culture extract displayed growth inhibition activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a disc diffusion assay. The extract's major component was identified as a new natural product, trienylfuranol A (1S,2S,4R)-1-((1'E,3'E)-hexa-1',3',5'-trienyl)-tetrahydro-4-methylfuran-2-ol (1), by high-resolution LC-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Two additional new metabolites, trienylfuranones A (2) and B (3), were isolated as minor components of the extract and their structure elucidation revealed that they were biosynthetically related to 1. Absolute stereochemical configurations of compounds 1-3 were confirmed by NOE NMR experiments and by the preparation of Mosher esters. Complete hydrogenation of 1 yielded tetrahydrofuran 7 that was used for stereochemical characterization and assessment of antifungal activity.

  4. Ultraviolet Imaging with Low Cost Smartphone Sensors: Development and Application of a Raspberry Pi-Based UV Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Wilkes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report, for what we believe to be the first time, on the modification of a low cost sensor, designed for the smartphone camera market, to develop an ultraviolet (UV camera system. This was achieved via adaptation of Raspberry Pi cameras, which are based on back-illuminated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensors, and we demonstrated the utility of these devices for applications at wavelengths as low as 310 nm, by remotely sensing power station smokestack emissions in this spectral region. Given the very low cost of these units, ≈ USD 25, they are suitable for widespread proliferation in a variety of UV imaging applications, e.g., in atmospheric science, volcanology, forensics and surface smoothness measurements.

  5. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  6. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  7. Black-Body Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Black-body radiation; thermal radiation; heat; electromagnetic radiation; Stefan's Law; Stefan–Boltzmann Law; Wien's Law; Rayleigh–Jeans Law; black-body spectrum; ultraviolet catastrophe; zero point energy; photon.

  8. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Sójka, Michał; Jurgoński, Adam; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2015-12-21

    Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs) with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2) characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively) and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively). Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  9. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Fotschki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2 characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively. Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  10. Red raspberries have antioxidant effects that play a minor role in the killing of stomach and colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    God, Jason; Tate, Patricia L; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2010-11-01

    Berries and berry extracts possess properties that make them important in the prevention of cancer. The high antioxidant levels of these extracts play a role, but components of the berries can have other effects on cell replication and survival. We chose to test the hypothesis that (i) although the antioxidant capacity of raspberry extracts is important for inhibiting the proliferation of tumor cells, other characteristics of the berry extracts are responsible for a major part of their antiproliferative activity, and that (ii) the relative importance of the antioxidant effect can depend on the cell type being studied. The aim of this study was to assess the relative roles of low pH and high antioxidant levels in the killing of 3 cell types by an aqueous extract from Meeker red raspberries. Stomach, colon, and breast cancer cells were treated with berry extract and with HCl and ascorbic acid solutions of the same pH. A dilution of 7.5% ascorbic acid solution, of the same pH and slightly higher antioxidant concentration than the berry extract, killed less than 10% of the stomach and colon cancer cells. In contrast, the berry extract at this same dilution killed more than 90% of these cells. Antioxidants played a more significant role in the killing of breast cancer cells, however. For these cells, approximately 50% of the killing could be attributed to antioxidant effects. We conclude that the antioxidant effect plays a minor role in the killing of 2 gastrointestinal cell types, but its role in inactivating a breast cancer cell line is much more significant. No evidence of apoptosis was observed, and caspase activation did not contribute to cell killing by the extract. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  12. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  13. Ferrugem em framboesa no estado de Santa Catarina Red raspberry rust in Santa Catarina state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Trezzi Casa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Folhas e frutos de framboesa (Rubus idaeus L. da cultivar Batum coletados de plantas do pomar do Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, CAV, município de Lages-SC, apresentando pústulas de ferrugem, foram encaminhados para análise no Laboratório de Fitopatologia do CAV. A diagnose indireta indicou a presença de pústulas com uma massa de esporos de cor amarela na face abaxial das folhas e superfície dos frutos. No exame ao microscópio, observou-se urédia e urediniósporos pequenos, obovados ou elipsoides, medindo 12,5-17,5 x 15,0-30,0 µm sobre a epiderme da folha e frutos, sem a presença de télias. Suspensão de urediniósporos (50.000 esporos mL-1 em água esterilizada foi pulverizada em folhas destacadas da mesma cultivar, mantidas por 24 h no escuro e 12 h de fotoperíodo em câmara úmida a 20ºC. Folhas-controle foram pulverizadas com água esterilizada. Após 10 dias detectaram-se urédias contendo urediniósporos na face abaxial das folhas, cujas características morfológicas e mensuração dos urediniósporos, sintomas e patogenicidade permitiram a identificação do agente causal como sendo Pucciniastrum americanum (Farl. Arthur pela primeira vez no Estado de Santa Catarina.Leaves and fruits of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. of the cultivar Batum collected from the Agriculture and Life Science College - CAV orchard in Lages, SC, presenting rust pustules were analyzed in the CAV Plant Pathology Laboratory. Indirect diagnosis indicated in the abaxial side of the infected leaves and fruits surface pustules filled with masses of yellow spores. Under microscope exam, uredia and small, obovate or elliptical and averaged 12,5-17,5 x 15,0-30,0 µm urediniospores become evident in leaves and fruit surface. Telia were not observed. Urediniopores (50.000 esporos mL-1 were suspended in sterile water and sprayed onto same cultivar leaves that were maintained in a darkened mist chamber at 20ºC for 24 h and transferred to a 20ºC and 12 h

  14. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I.G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  15. Alcoholism and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bertha; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Notes that in America, knowledge base concerning alcoholism is concentrated on drinking patterns of Whites, and that Black Americans often differ in their drinking behavior, resulting in a need to clarify issues regarding alcoholism and Blacks. Provides theoretical information useful in better discerning drinking behavior of Blacks. (Author/NB)

  16. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  17. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  18. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  19. Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inactivation, Color, and Bioactive Compounds Enhancement on Raspberries during Frozen Storage after Decontamination Using New Formula Sanitizer Washing or Pulsed Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenqing; Chen, Haiqiang; Wu, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    Berries are normally washed before they are frozen. Washing with sanitizer and treatment with pulsed light (PL) were studied for their effectiveness to inactivate foodborne pathogens on raspberries during frozen storage, while maintaining or enhancing major quality parameters. Raspberries were inoculated with Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7 and then underwent a washing treatment with citric acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (CA+SDS) or citric acid plus thymol (CA+THY) or treatment with PL (dry PL, water-assisted [wet] PL, and PL-SDS). Pathogen survival was determined immediately after treatments and during frozen storage at -20°C for 3 months. Washing with CA+SDS or CA+THY significantly reduced Salmonella (by 3.6 and 3.2 log CFU/g, respectively) and E. coli O157:H7 (by 4.1 and 3.7 log CFU/g, respectively). At the end of storage, washing with CA+SDS reduced Salmonella to 0.6 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g; washing with CA+THY reduced Salmonella to 0.9 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g. PL-SDS showed decontamination efficacy on raspberries, with 0.7 log CFU/g Salmonella and 0.9 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 surviving at the end of storage; in comparison, in the control, 1.6 log CFU/g Salmonella and 1.5 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 survived. Pathogen survival in raspberries that had been washed or treated with PL-SDS was significantly lower than in untreated raspberries. Major quality parameters, including color, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, total bacterial count, and total yeast and mold counts, were evaluated on raspberries immediately after treatments and during frozen storage. Redness increased in PL-treated raspberries. At the end of storage, PL-treated raspberries had significantly higher total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content compared with control samples. Washing with sanitizers and treatment with PL decreased the total bacterial count and total yeast and mold counts on raspberries and maintained

  20. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  1. Gamma radiation effects on chemical composition and color of raspberries (Rubus Idaeus L.) and blueberries (Vaccinium Corymbosum) cultivated in South of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbina P, M.C.; Manquian T, N.

    1988-01-01

    Raspberries and blueberries grown in the X th Region, Valdivia, were irradiated in a 137 Cs irradiador BPCDI (Brookhaven Portable Cesium Development irradiator) with dosis of 1,5 KGy and 2,5 KGy in order to measure the effect on the chemical composition and the changes of color due to pigments damage using a colorimetric method. Analysis of pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, dry matter, total sugar and vitamin C were made. Color was analized comparing the pink color of the diluted fruit juice with a color scale of different concentrations of a cobalt scale of different concentrations of cobalt chloride. Results demonstrated that the radurization treatment does not affect chemical composition with dosis up to 2,5 KGy. It was possible to detect differences of color in raspberries and not in blueberries because of the less sensitivity of color pigments to radiation. (author)

  2. Assessment of feasibility of running RSNA's MIRC on a Raspberry Pi: a cost-effective solution for teaching files in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Andre; Atri, Mostafa; Rogalla, Patrik; Huynh, Thien; O'Malley, Martin E

    2015-11-01

    The value of a teaching case repository in radiology training programs is immense. The allocation of resources for putting one together is a complex issue, given the factors that have to be coordinated: hardware, software, infrastructure, administration, and ethics. Costs may be significant and cost-effective solutions are desirable. We chose Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) to build our teaching file. It is offered by RSNA for free. For the hardware, we chose the Raspberry Pi, developed by the Raspberry Foundation: a small control board developed as a low cost computer for schools also used in alternative projects such as robotics and environmental data collection. Its performance and reliability as a file server were unknown to us. For the operational system, we chose Raspbian, a variant of Debian Linux, along with Apache (web server), MySql (database server) and PHP, which enhance the functionality of the server. A USB hub and an external hard drive completed the setup. Installation of software was smooth. The Raspberry Pi was able to handle very well the task of hosting the teaching file repository for our division. Uptime was logged at 100 %, and loading times were similar to other MIRC sites available online. We setup two servers (one for backup), each costing just below $200.00 including external storage and USB hub. It is feasible to run RSNA's MIRC off a low-cost control board (Raspberry Pi). Performance and reliability are comparable to full-size servers for the intended purpose of hosting a teaching file within an intranet environment.

  3. The defH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases plant fecundity and fruit production in strawberry and raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetti, Bruno; Landi, Lucia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Spena, Angelo

    2004-01-01

    Background The DefH9-iaaM gene fusion which is expressed specifically in placenta/ovules and promotes auxin-synthesis confers parthenocarpic fruit development to eggplant, tomato and tobacco. Transgenic DefH9-iaaM eggplants and tomatoes show increased fruit production due mainly to an improved fruit set. However, the weight of the fruits is also frequently increased. Results DefH9-iaaM strawberry and raspberry plants grown under standard cultivation conditions show a significant increase in fruit number and size and fruit yield. In all three Rosaceae species tested, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria x ananassa and Rubus idaeus, DefH9-iaaM plants have an increased number of flowers per inflorescence and an increased number of inflorescences per plant. This results in an increased number of fruits per plant. Moreover, the weight and size of transgenic fruits was also increased. The increase in fruit yield was approximately 180% in cultivated strawberry, 140% in wild strawberry, and 100% in raspberry. The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed in the flower buds of all three species. The total IAA (auxin) content of young flower buds of strawberry and raspberry expressing the DefH9-iaaM gene is increased in comparison to untransformed flower buds. The DefH9-iaaM gene promotes parthenocarpy in emasculated flowers of both strawberry and raspberry. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed and biologically active in Rosaceae. The DefH9-iaaM gene can be used, under cultivation conditions that allow pollination and fertilization, to increase fruit productivity significantly in Rosaceae species. The finding that the DefH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases the number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per inflorescence indicates that auxin plays a role in plant fecundity in these three perennial Rosaceae species. PMID:15113427

  4. Gene expression analysis of enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway involved in β-cryptoxanthin accumulation in wild raspberry, Rubus palmatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kouichi; Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Yoshizawa, Yuko

    2017-03-18

    β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cry), a xanthophyll, is unlike other abundant carotenoids, such as α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. It is not found in most fruits or vegetables but is found only in specific fruits, such as hot chili pepper, persimmon, and citrus fruits. Because recent reports suggest that β-Cry intake is beneficial to human health, the xanthophyll requires further investigation. Although β-Cry accumulates in the fruit of wild raspberry, Rubus palmatus, it is not present in cultivated raspberry. In the present study, two wild raspberry species were studied-R. palmatus, which accumulates β-Cry in the fruit, and R. crataegifolius, which does not accumulate β-Cry. Four carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes derived from these two species were analyzed-phytoene synthase (PSY), lycopene β-cyclase (LCYb), β-carotene hydroxylase (HYb), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP). Expression levels of their genes were also assessed to elucidate mechanism underlying β-Cry accumulation. Partial gene sequences of RubPSY, RubLCYb, RubHYb, and RubZEP, isolated from immature raspberry fruits of R. palmatus, were used as probes for Northern blot analysis. RubZEP expression ceased as the fruits matured, possibly because of reduced production of zeaxanthin. β-Cry is considered to be an intermediate compound that accumulates in the mature fruits of R. palmatus. High expression of RubPSY was detectable in the mature fruits of R. crataegifolius, and the expression of RubLCYb, RubHYb, and RubZEP was detectable during all stages of fruit maturation. In contrast, β-Cry was absent in the mature fruits of R. crataegifolius. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth of raspberry-, prism- and flower-like ZnO particles using template-free low-temperature hydrothermal method and their application as humidity sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pál, Edit; Hornok, Viktória; Kun, Robert; Chernyshev, Vladimir; Seemann, Torben; Dékány, Imre; Busse, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Zinc oxide particles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal method at 60–90 °C. The structure formation was controlled by the addition rate and temperature of hydrolyzing agent, while the particles size (10 nm–2.5 μm) was influenced by the preparation (hydrothermal) temperature. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that raspberry-, prism- and flower-like ZnO particles were prepared, whose average size decreased with increasing reaction temperature. X-ray diffraction investigations confirmed that ZnO particles with hexagonal crystal structure formed in all syntheses. The raspberry-, prism- and flower-like ZnO particles showed a weak UV-emission in the range of 390–395 nm and strong visible emission with a maximum at 586, 593 and 598 nm, respectively. Morphology effect on electrical and water vapour sensing properties of ZnO samples was investigated by impedance spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance, respectively. The absolute impedance of raspberry-, prism- and flower-like ZnO particles was found to be strong dependent on the morphology. Space-charge-limited conductivity transport mechanism was proved by the oscillatory behaviour of impedance. Humidity sensor tests also revealed morphology and specific surface area dependency on the sensitivity and water vapour adsorption property.

  6. Economic analysis of revenue losses and control costs associated with the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), in the California raspberry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Derek; Hamby, Kelly A; Bolda, Mark; Goodhue, Rachael E; Williams, Jeffrey C; Zalom, Frank G

    2017-06-01

    The spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), is an invasive vinegar fly with a preference for infesting commercially viable berries and stone fruits. SWD infestations can reduce yields significantly, necessitating additional management activities. This analysis estimates economic losses in the California raspberry industry that have resulted from the SWD invasion. California raspberry producers experienced considerable revenue losses and management costs in the first years following SWD's invasion of North America. Conventional producers have since developed effective chemical management programs, virtually eliminating revenue losses due to SWD and reducing the cost of management to that of purchasing and applying insecticides more often. Organic raspberry producers, who do not have access to the same chemical controls, continue to confront substantial SWD-related revenue losses. These losses can be mitigated only by applying expensive insecticides registered for organic use and by performing labor-intensive field sanitation. SWD's invasion into North America has caused extensive crop losses to berry and cherry crops in California and elsewhere. Agricultural producers and researchers have responded quickly to this pest by developing management programs that significantly reduce revenue losses. Economic losses are expected to continue to fall as producers learn to manage SWD more efficiently and as new control tactics become available. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Analytical fingerprint and chemometrics as phytochemical composition control tools in food supplement analysis: characterization of raspberry bud preparations of different cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Beccaro, Gabriele L; Carlen, Christoph; Ançay, André; Cerutti, Alessandro K; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Bounous, Giancarlo

    2016-07-01

    The raspberry, Rubus idaeus L., provides several plant parts (as buds) used for food supplements. The aim of this research was to establish a technique for chemical composition control of R. idaeus herbal preparations, using chromatographic methods. These methods allowed us to identify and quantify the main phytochemicals, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint (phytocomplex). Combined with two different chemometric methods - clustering analysis and principal component analysis - the raspberry bud extracts of the different cultivars were efficiently characterized. Rubus idaeus buds were identified as a rich source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds: organic acids, vitamins and catechins were found to be the most discriminating variables by chemometric techniques to differentiate raspberry cultivars. In particular, catechins (13.25%) and flavonols (8.71%) were the most important polyphenolic classes, followed by cinnamic and benzoic acids. This study developed a useful tool for R. idaeus extract phytochemical characterization that could be applied also for differentiation and composition control of other herbal preparations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Interacting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2000-01-01

    We revisit the geometry representing l collinear Schwarzschild black holes. It is seen that the black holes' horizons are deformed by their mutual gravitational attraction. The geometry has a string like conical singularity that connects the holes but has nevertheless a well defined action. Using standard gravitational thermodynamics techniques we determine the free energy for two black holes at fixed temperature and distance, their entropy and mutual force. When the black holes are far apart the results agree with Newtonian gravity expectations. This analyses is generalized to the case of charged black holes. Then we consider black holes embedded in string/M-theory as bound states of branes. Using the effective string description of these bound states and for large separation we reproduce exactly the semi-classical result for the entropy, including the correction associated with the interaction between the holes

  9. Black silicon integrated aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Dickensheets, David L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the incorporation of nanotextured black silicon as an optical absorbing material into silicon-based micro-optoelectromechanical systems devices to reduce stray light and increase optical contrast during imaging. Black silicon is created through a maskless dry etch process and characterized for two different etch conditions, a cold etch performed at 0°C and a cryogenic etch performed at -110°C. We measure specular reflection at visible wavelengths to be black velvet paint used to coat optical baffles and compare favorably with other methods to produce black surfaces from nanotextured silicon or using carbon nanotubes. We illustrate the use of this material by integrating a black silicon aperture around the perimeter of a deformable focus-control mirror. Imaging results show a significant improvement in contrast and image fidelity due to the effective reduction in stray light achieved with the self-aligned black aperture.

  10. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  11. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  12. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. 文系大学生を対象とした Raspberry Pi 活用事例

    OpenAIRE

    山﨑, 智子

    2017-01-01

    近年は、私たちの日常生活の隅々へのICT の導入と実用化が進む中で、理系大学生や専門学生に限らず、文系大学生も大学卒業後にICT に関する知識や活用する力が求められるようになってきている。本稿は、これまでICT 分野に触れる機会が少なかった文系大学生を対象とし、Raspberry Pi を活用したものづくり体験をとおしてICT 分野への興味関心をもたせることを試行した事例報告である。ものづくり体験では、コンピュータや情報通信の基本的な原理を自分の手を動かしながら学び、「自分のアイデアを形にする」という目標を設定することにより、主体的かつ楽しみながら学習に取り組むことができた。その結果、学生はICT 分野への興味関心と理解をより深め、日常生活においてICT がより身近なものだと感じることができた。以上のことから、ICT 分野に抵抗感を抱きがちな文系大学生にとってRaspberry Pi を教材として活用することは効果的であると考えられる。...

  15. Development of intelligent surveillance system (ISS) in region of interest (ROI) using Kalman filter and camshift on Raspberry Pi 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghun; Hong, Kicheon

    2017-06-01

    Due to the improvement of the picture quality of closed-circuit television (CCTV), the demand for CCTV has increased rapidly and its market size has also increased. The current system structure of CCTV transfers compressed images without analysis received from CCTV to a control center. The compressed images are suitable for the evidence required for a criminal arrest, but they cannot prevent crime in real time, which has been considered a limitation. Thus, the present paper proposes a system implementation that can prevent crimes by applying a situation awareness system at the back end of the CCTV cameras for image acquisition to prevent crimes efficiently. In the system implemented in the present paper, the region of interest (ROI) is set virtually within the image data when a barrier, such as fence, cannot be installed in actual sites and unauthorized intruders are tracked constantly through data analysis and recognized in the ROI via the developed algorithm. Additionally, a searchlight or alarm sound is activated to prevent crime in real time and the urgent information is transferred to the control center. The system was implemented in the Raspberry Pi 2 board to be run in real time. The experiment results showed that the recognition success rate was 85% or higher and the track accuracy was 90% or higher. By utilizing the system, crime prevention can be achieved by implementing a social safety network.

  16. Cost effective raspberry pi-based radio frequency identification tagging of mice suitable for automated in vivo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Federico; LeDue, Jeff M; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-01-30

    Automation of animal experimentation improves consistency, reduces potential for error while decreasing animal stress and increasing well-being. Radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging can identify individual mice in group housing environments enabling animal-specific tracking of physiological parameters. We describe a simple protocol to radio frequency identification (RFID) tag and detect mice. RFID tags were injected sub-cutaneously after brief isoflurane anesthesia and do not require surgical steps such as suturing or incisions. We employ glass-encapsulated 125kHz tags that can be read within 30.2±2.4mm of the antenna. A raspberry pi single board computer and tag reader enable automated logging and cross platform support is possible through Python. We provide sample software written in Python to provide a flexible and cost effective system for logging the weights of multiple mice in relation to pre-defined targets. The sample software can serve as the basis of any behavioral or physiological task where users will need to identify and track specific animals. Recently, we have applied this system of tagging to automated mouse brain imaging within home-cages. We provide a cost effective solution employing open source software to facilitate adoption in applications such as automated imaging or tracking individual animal weights during tasks where food or water restriction is employed as motivation for a specific behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving Smart Home Concept with the Internet of Things Concept Using RaspberryPi and NodeMCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Yasirli; Andri Setiawan, Mukhammad

    2018-03-01

    The Internet of things (IoT) is getting more tractions in recent years. One of the usage scenario of IoT is smart home. Smart home basically provides home automation for installed devices at home such as thermostat, lighting, air conditioning, etc and allows devices connected to the Internet to be monitored and controlled remotely by user. However many studies on smart home concept focusing only on few main features. They still lack of important usage of IoT i.e. providing energy efficiency, energy monitoring, dealing with security, and managing privacy. This paper proposes a smart home system with RaspberryPi and NodeMCU as the backend that not only serves as home automation and merely a switch replacement, but to also record and report important things to the owner of the house e.g. when someone trespasses the house (security perimeter), or to report the calculation of how much money has been spent in consuming the electrical appliances. We successfully examine our proposed system in a real life working scenario. The communication between user and the system is done using Telegram Bot.

  18. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  19. Raspberry Supplementation Improves Insulin Signaling and Promotes Brown-Like Adipocyte Development in White Adipose Tissue of Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Tong; Kang, Yifei; Xu, Xinglian; Wang, Bo; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2018-03-01

    Excessive lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Raspberry (RB) contains high amount of polyphenols and dietary fibers. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of RB supplementation on WAT morphology, inflammation, and insulin signaling in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6J mice are fed with a control diet or a HFD supplemented with 0 or 5% freeze dried RB for 12 weeks. RB supplementation decreases WAT hypertrophy induced by HFD and suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and macrophage infiltration in WAT. Meanwhile, RB addition improves insulin sensitivity of HFD-mice. Additionally, RB supplementation drives the browning of WAT (beige adipogenesis), which is associated with elevated PGC-1α and FNDC5/irisin contents. Consistently, the content of beige adipocyte markers including UCP1, PRDM16, Cytochrome C, Cidea, and Elvol3 is enhanced in HFD-mice, which are correlated with increased AMPK phosphorylation and Sirt1 protein contents. Dietary RB attenuated adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation of WAT in HFD-mice and improves insulin sensitivity and beige adipogenesis, which is associated with increased FNDC5/irisin content and activation of AMPK/Sirt1 pathway. RB supplementation provides a promising strategy to prevent diet-induced obesity. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo J Park

    Full Text Available The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt (Q-fly, is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT and mass trapping (MT are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-butanone and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline-silica composites: Raspberry vs core-shell structures. Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosz, Nicolas; Euvard, Myriam; Lakard, Boris; Buron, Cédric C; Martin, Nicolas; Viau, Lydie

    2017-09-15

    The synthesis of polyaniline-silica composites has been reinvestigated in view of the opposing results found in the literature. Firstly, we synthesized silica particles with tunable size using the Stöber process. These silica particles have been fully characterized before being used as solid support for the polymerization of aniline. This polymerization was performed according to a published procedure where the pH of the reaction mixture was below the pKa of aniline but at a value where the silica particles surface was still slightly negatively charged. The objective of this procedure was to favor electrostatic interactions between anilinium cations and the silica surface to lead to the formation of silica-polyaniline core-shell particles. Several sets of nanocomposites were prepared under different experimental conditions (oxidant/aniline ratio, silica concentration, temperature, silica particles diameters). The study evidenced that under all the conditions used the formation of core-shell nanoparticles is impossible. However, using different particle sizes, noticeable morphological differences were observed. The use of large silica particles led to the formation of non-uniform polyaniline-silica composites whereas the use of smaller particles always led to raspberry-like morphology as reported by other groups in highly acidic media. The difference in morphology led to different electrical properties with electrical conductivities measured at room temperature ranging from 1.6×10 -3 to 2.5×10 -5 S cm -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enzymatic Profile of 'Willamette' Raspberry Leaf and Fruit Affected by Prohexadione-Ca and Young Canes Removal Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragišić Maksimović, Jelena J; Poledica, Milena M; Radivojević, Dragan D; Milivojević, Jasminka M

    2017-06-21

    The influence of growth regulator prohexadione-Ca (ProCa) concurrently with young canes removal on the modification of photosynthetic pigments content and antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT; polyphenol oxidase, PPO; superoxide dismutase, SOD) activities in leaves and fruits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivar 'Willamette' was studied. ProCa increased while canes removal decreased chlorophylls and carotenoids content compared to control. POD, CAT, and PPO activities in leaves after removal of young canes were higher compared to control (2-4 times) which was visually confirmed for POD by isoelectrofocusing. Removal of young canes slithly increased, while ProCa significantly enhanced SOD activity in leaves compared to control (475.10 and 218.38 nkat mg -1 prot, respectively). Pattern of SOD activity in fruit was similar as in leaf with substantial increase compared to control (about 15 times). Combination of implemented measures increased activity of all enzymes in the leaves and fruits. Our study could provide a better knowledge of the ProCa and canes removal influences on the action of enzymes in order to regulate their activities in fruit products.

  3. Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

  4. Design and Experimentation of a Control System Implemented on Raspberry Pi 3 Board for Photovoltaic Systems Using SEPIC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Boutouba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage regulation system is proposed for photovoltaic energy sources (PV, using Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter as a DC-DC converter to feed loads working with specific input voltage. The choose of SEPIC converter is due to the output voltage ripple of developed-type converters are usually small and can be lower than 2%, also it considered as a buck and boost converter and thereafter loads with lower or higher voltage could be powered. Matlab Simulink is used as environment to develop control strategies to guaranties a stable voltage at the loads terminals. Two algorithms are used to fulfill this role: A Conventional PID and PI-Fuzzy logic controller to generate the PWM signal for the SEPIC converter. Hence, to validate the work some real-time simulations are treated by implemented the control strategies on a low-cost control board: The Raspberry Pi 3 in order to manage the operation of system and collecting the simulation data. Also, and for verification purposes, several simulations were treated to verify the good behavior of the proposed system.

  5. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  6. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  7. Black hole candidates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Black hole candidates. In the case of X-ray sources such as Cyg X-1, the mass of the compact object inferred from combined optical and X-ray data, suggest M_compact object > 3.4 M_sun => Black Hole! A remarkable discovery!! Thus X-ray emitting binary systems ...

  8. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  9. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  10. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  11. Protecting Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  12. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of ...

  13. Black Boycott: Gainsville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arthur O.

    1975-01-01

    A case study of the events precipitating a black student boycott in 1969 in Gainesville, Flordia, when school board manuevering to avoid school integration led to the threatened closing of Lincoln High School, a reputable black community school. Also described are the subsequent transformations of Lincoln into a vocational-technical school and…

  14. Neoliberalism and Black Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, John Martin

    1986-01-01

    In contrast to traditional liberals, neoliberals share a commitment to greater economic risk-taking, support for entrepreneurism, a new industrial policy, and a different Federal Role. While New Deal and Great Society liberalism may have been more favorable to blacks, perhaps more balanced and equitable policies for blacks could be developed if…

  15. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  16. Legitimizing Blacks in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameliah Shorter-Bourhanou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.

  17. Freeze-Dried Black Raspberries in Preventing Oral Cancer Recurrence in High-Risk Appalachian Patients Previously Treated With Surgery For Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-04

    Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  18. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as a star or dispersing altogether. Were we engineers with advanced technology, we might attempt to find that critical amount of energy necessary to form a black hole. However, despite some fears to the contrary, such technology does not exist, so instead we investigate this critical regime numerically. The first step is to pick ...

  19. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    denotes the partial derivatives of . The construction of a numerical method with which ... which configurations form black holes and which disperse (the only two options in this model). The problem in picturing such a space is that it is infinite ..... 4.1 The future: Less symmetry. The work described above all assumes spherical ...

  20. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  1. "Black Like Me": Reframing Blackness for Decolonial Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, George J. Sefa

    2018-01-01

    From a particular vantage point, as an African-born scholar with a politics to affirm my Black subjectivity and Indigeneity in a diasporic context, my article engages a (re)theorization of Blackness for decolonial politics. Building on existing works of how Black scholars, themselves, have theorized Blackness, and recognizing the fluid,…

  2. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  3. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  4. Implementación de un agente extensible SNMP sobre la plataforma Raspberry Pi para la simulación de MIB propietarias

    OpenAIRE

    García Estébanez, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN: En este proyecto se describe el diseño e implementación de un agente de gestión SNMP extensible y autónomo sobre un computador de placa reducida Raspberry Pi. El agente se ha implementado utilizando el software Net-SNMP, siendo posible su extensión gracias al estándar AgentX. Para conseguirlo, se han desarrollado los programas necesarios para que el dispositivo soporte todas las funciones que definen un agente extensible autónomo, así como aquellos que simulan los escenarios de prueb...

  5. Implementación de un agente extensible SNMP sobre plataforma raspberry pi para control y monitorización de sensores

    OpenAIRE

    García Núñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN: En este proyecto vamos a realizar el desarrollo e implementación de un agente de gestión SNMP sobre una Raspberry Pi 3. En el proyecto los agentes se implementan con el software libre Net-SNMP utilizando AgentX para extenderle. Mediante el desarrollo de las programas o demonios conseguimos el correcto funcionamiento de las funciones descritas las cuales necesarias para que el agente extendido funcione de forma correcta y autónoma. En el proyecto se implemente una pequeña estación met...

  6. Native Oils from Apple, Blackcurrant, Raspberry, and Strawberry Seeds as a Source of Polyenoic Fatty Acids, Tocochromanols, and Phytosterols: A Health Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pieszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The oils from strawberry, blackcurrant, raspberry, and apple seeds were characterized by a high content of unsaturated fatty acids (90.8%, 88.6%, 94.0%, and 86.9%, resp.. Strawberry and raspberry oils had high levels of C18:2 (45.4% and 49.0% and αC18:3 (29.0% and 33.0%, resp.. Blackcurrant oil was the richest source of γC18:3 (18.5% and C18:4 (3.6%. Apple oil had high levels of C18:2 (55.5% and C18:1 (29.4%. Blackcurrant oil had 229.5 mg/100 g of tocochromanols, predominantly γ-tocopherol (117.8 mg/100 g and α-tocopherol (84.3 mg/100 g. Raspberry oil was rich in γ-, α-, and δ-tocopherol (193.5; 65.6; and 32.2 mg/100 g, resp.. Strawberry oil contained γ- and δ-tocopherol, 49.0 and 6.1 mg/100 g, respectively. Apple contained all isomers of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols at 41.7, 62.7, 13.6, and 21.8 mg/100 g, respectively. The level of tocotrienols in the analysed oils ranged from 0.85 to 6.73 mg/100 g. Ten different phytosterols were found in the tested oils. The richest sources of phytosterols were blackcurrant oil (6824.9 μg/g followed by raspberry (5384.1 μg/g, strawberry (4643.1 μg/g, and apple oil (3460.0 μg/g. The dominant compound in the analysed oils was sitosterol, from 2630 μg/g in apple oil to 3630 μg/g in blackcurrant oil.

  7. A raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate from Ecuadorean Rubus glaucus contains an additional RNA that is a rearrangement of RNA-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quito-Avila, D F; Ibarra, M A; Alvarez, R; Peralta, E L; Martin, R R

    2014-09-01

    Sequencing of the complete genome of a raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate from Rubus glaucus in Ecuador revealed that its RNA-1 and RNA-2 were 5449 and 2231 nucleotides (nt) long, respectively, and phylogenetically closest to isolates from Sweden and Slovenia. In dsRNA analysis of infected plants, an additional band of 3 kbp was observed. Sequencing of this band revealed that it was 3279 nt long. BLAST searches revealed that this band contained a modified version of RNA-2, which consisted of RNA-2 (2231 nt) plus an additional 1048-nt fragment that was concatenated in a reverse-complement fashion to its 5' terminus.

  8. Potencial de multiplicação in vitro de cultivares de framboeseira In vitro multiplication rate of raspberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro de quatro das principais cultivares de framboeseira utilizadas no Brasil: Autumn Bliss, Batum, Dorman Red e Heritage. Utilizou-se protocolo empregado em laboratórios comerciais. A desinfestação dos explantes foi realizada em soluções à base de álcool e hipoclorito de sódio; a cultura dos meristemas em meio semissólido MS com 1 mg L-1 BAP, 0,01 mg L-1 ANA e 0,1 mg L-1 AG3; a multiplicação em MS com 0,8 mg L-1 BAP e 15 mg L-1 sulfato de ferro; e o enraizamento em ½MS com 0,1 mg L-1 ANA, sempre a 25±4ºC, 20 µE m-2 s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Partiu-se de 60 meristemas de cada cultivar, avaliando-se a taxa de multiplicação e os níveis de contaminação, vitrificação e oxidação durante as fases de estabelecimento (60 dias, multiplicação (seis subcultivos de 40 dias e enraizamento in vitro (30 dias. As cultivares de framboeseira apresentaram pronunciada variabilidade genética quanto ao potencial de multiplicação. O número estimado de mudas obtidas por meristema no sistema de micropropagação descrito foi de 56.664 para 'Autumn Bliss', 6.692 para 'Heritage', 1.942 para 'Batum' e 696 para 'Dorman Red'. A quantificação dessa variabilidade de resposta in vitro é importante para o planejamento da produção de mudas nos laboratórios de micropropagação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro potential of multiplication of the four main raspberry cultivars used in Brazil: Autumn Bliss, Batum, Dorman Red and Heritage. A commercial micropropagation protocol was used. The explant desinfestation was carried out in solution of alcohol and sodium hypochlorite. The meristem culture was carried out in semi-solid MS medium with 1 mg L-1 BAP, 0.01 mg L-1 ANA and 0.1 mg L-1 AG3; the explant multiplication in MS medium with 0.8 mg L-1 BAP and 15 mg L-1 iron sulphate; and the rooting in ½MS medium with 0.1 mg L-1 ANA, always at 25±4ºC, 20 µE m-2 s-1 and 16

  9. Understanding the Black Aesthetic Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    Discussing the importance of the Black aesthetic experience, Curtis examines Black cultural heritage and participatory style, the spiritual, and the creation and recreation of Black music. Advocating multicultural music education in teacher training, he suggests that Black music be studied for its value and contribution to society. Lists five ways…

  10. The Thermodynamics of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wald Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.

  11. Black Writers' Views of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Loyle

    1979-01-01

    This article argues that the stagnation, pessimism, and self-pity evident in recent Black writing results in part from the alienation of Black writers from the mainstream of Black life, and in part from the illusions that they share with other Blacks who have embraced the American value system. (Author/EB)

  12. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  13. Colliding black hole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  14. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacisalihoglu, G.; Eliyakut, F.; Anwari, M.A.; Ataman, O.Y.; Balkas, T.I.; Tuncel, G.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m 3 , which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  15. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  16. Illuminating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  17. Black holes with halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  18. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Black Friday er et godt eksempel på, hvordan ikke kun produktbrands og corporate brands rejser på tværs af landegrænser, men også traditioner som Halloween, Valentines Day og i dette tilfælde den ultimative tilbuds-fredag, som i USA går under navnet Black Friday. Men hvad er Black Friday i Danmark......? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  19. Raspberry ketone induces brown-like adipocyte formation through suppression of autophagy in adipocytes and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Sy-Ying; Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Lee, Yen-Mei; Cheng, Pao-Yun

    2018-02-13

    Promoting white adipose tissue (WAT) to acquire brown-like characteristics is a promising approach for obesity treatment. Although raspberry ketone (RK) has been reported to possess antiobesity activity, its effects on the formation of brown-like adipocytes remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of RK on WAT browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rats with ovariectomy (Ovx)-induced obesity. RK (100 μM) significantly induced browning of 3T3-L1 cells by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and the expression of browning-specific proteins (PR domain containing 16, PRDM16; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, PGC-1α; uncoupling protein-1, UCP-1) and lipolytic enzymes (hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase). RK significantly reduced the expression of the autophagy-related protein Atg12 and increased the expression of p62 and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Additionally, these effects of RK were reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor SnPP (20 μM). In addition, RK (160 mg/kg, gavage, for 8 weeks) significantly reduced body weight gain (Ovx+RK, 191.8 ± 4.6 g vs. Ovx, 223.6 ± 5.9; P < .05), food intake, the amount of inguinal adipose tissue (Ovx+RK, 9.05 ± 1.1 g vs Ovx, 12.9 ± 0.92 g; P < .05) and the size of white adipocytes in Ovx rats. Moreover, compared to expression in the Ovx group, the levels of browning-specific proteins were significantly higher and the levels of autophagy-related proteins were significantly lower in the Ovx+RK group. Therefore, this study elucidated the mechanism associated with RK-induced WAT browning and thus provides evidence to support the clinical use of RK for obesity treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in Regulation of Primocane Apex Rooting in Raspberry (Rubus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfeng; Ming, Yuetong; Cheng, Yunqing; Zhang, Yuchu; Xing, Jiyang; Sun, Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Raspberries ( Rubus spp.) exhibit a unique rooting process that is initiated from the stem apex of primocane, conferring an unusual asexual mode of reproduction to this plant. However, the full complement of genes involved in this process has not been identified. To this end, the present study analyzed the transcriptomes of the Rubus primocane and floricane stem apex at three developmental stages by Digital Gene Expression profiling to identify genes that regulate rooting. Sequencing and de novo assembly yielded 26.82 Gb of nucleotides and 59,173 unigenes; 498, 7,346, 4,110, 7,900, 9,397, and 4,776 differently expressed genes were identified in paired comparisons of SAF1 (floricane at developmental stage 1) vs. SAP1 (primocane at developmental stage 1), SAF2 vs. SAP2, SAF3 vs. SAP3, SAP1 vs. SAP2, SAP1 vs. SAP3, and SAP2 vs. SAP3, respectively. SAP1 maintains an extension growth pattern; SAP2 then exhibits growth arrest and vertical (downward) gravitropic deflection; and finally, short roots begin to form on the apex of SAP3. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis of SAP1 vs. SAP2 revealed 12 pathways that were activated in response to shoot growth arrest and root differentiation, including circadian rhythm-plant (ko04712) and plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075). Our results indicate that genes related to circadian rhythm, ethylene and auxin signaling, shoot growth, and root development are potentially involved in the regulation of primocane apex rooting in Rubus . These findings provide a basis for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of primocane apex rooting in this economically valuable crop.

  1. Mobilizing Black America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    and financially for childbirth or parenting. - Adolescent Pregnancy Black female teenagers 15 to 19 years old were 140 percent more likely to have a...on adolescent pregnancy teenage sexual activity, and federally funded programs prevention. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT...communities? o Access to Health Care: Does everyone have equal access? o Poverty o Racism o Health Insurance o Black Physicians o Summary o Infant Mortality

  2. Black chrome outgassing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beat, T.

    1979-01-01

    This report covers why black chrome is of interest, why its outgassing is relevant, how the study was conducted, examples of resultant data, and a conclusion. Black chrome is of interest in several areas of activity. Vacuum outgassing characteristics must be known to establish the pumping speed requirements. How much gas is evolved determines the pump speed required. The species of gas evolved determines the type of pump. The outgassing characteristics must be known to determine needed precleaning steps

  3. Quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    't Hooft, G.

    1987-01-01

    No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references

  4. Charged Galileon black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory

  5. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  6. Biomimetic synthesis of raspberry-like hybrid polymer-silica core-shell nanoparticles by templating colloidal particles with hairy polyamine shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Mengwei; Yang, Tingting; Yuan, Jianjun; Fujii, Syuji; Kakigi, Yuichi; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Cheng, Shiyuan

    2010-07-01

    The nanoparticles composed of polystyrene core and poly[2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDEA) hairy shell were used as colloidal templates for in situ silica mineralization, allowing the well-controlled synthesis of hybrid silica core-shell nanoparticles with raspberry-like morphology and hollow silica nanoparticles by subsequent calcination. Silica deposition was performed by simply stirring a mixture of the polymeric core-shell particles in isopropanol, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and water at 25 degrees C for 2.5h. No experimental evidence was found for nontemplated silica formation, which indicated that silica deposition occurred exclusively in the PDEA shell and formed PDEA-silica hybrid shell. The resulting hybrid silica core-shell particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetry, aqueous electrophoresis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. TEM studies indicated that the hybrid particles have well-defined core-shell structure with raspberry morphology after silica deposition. We found that the surface nanostructure of hybrid nanoparticles and the composition distribution of PDEA-silica hybrid shell could be well controlled by adjusting the silicification conditions. These new hybrid core-shell nanoparticles and hollow silica nanoparticles would have potential applications for high-performance coatings, encapsulation and delivery of active organic molecules. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele; Baudino, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. - Highlights: • LCA is a system for evaluating the environmental sustainability of products and processes. • The disposal of the packaging material is taken into account. • The LCA methodology has been applied to quantify the emissions of berry fruits. • Species index: blueberry and raspberry

  8. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.girgenti@unito.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Baudino, Claudio [AgrifruttaSoc. Coop. Agr., Via Beinette 6, 12016 Peveragno, CN (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. - Highlights: • LCA is a system for evaluating the environmental sustainability of products and processes. • The disposal of the packaging material is taken into account. • The LCA methodology has been applied to quantify the emissions of berry fruits. • Species index: blueberry and raspberry.

  9. Fabrication of TiO2@Yeast-Carbon Hybrid Composites with the Raspberry-Like Structure and Their Synergistic Adsorption-Photocatalysis Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we report the preparation and photocatalytic properties of TiO2@yeast-carbon with raspberry-like structure using a pyrolysis method. The products are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS, respectively. The results show that the hybrid TiO2@yeast-carbon microspheres have ordered elliptic shapes of uniform size (length = 3.5±0.3 μm; width = 2.5±0.5 μm. UV-VIS ascertains that the as-prepared microspheres possess an obvious light response in a wide range of 250–400 nm. In the decomposition of typical model pollutants including methylene blue and congo red, the hybrid composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the methylene blue due to the enhanced adsorption ability. Further investigation reveals that the combined effect of adsorption from the yeast-carbon core and photocatalytic degradation from the attached TiO2 nanoparticles were responsible for the improvement of the photocatalytic activities. Hereby, the raspberry-like TiO2@yeast-carbon has promising applications in water purification.

  10. Field trials of solid triple lure (trimedlure, methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, and DDVP) dispensers for detection and male annihilation of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP insecticide were evaluated in traps as potential detection and male annihilation devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure a...

  11. Surface geometry of 5D black holes and black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Goswami, Rituparno

    2007-01-01

    We discuss geometrical properties of the horizon surface of five-dimensional rotating black holes and black rings. Geometrical invariants characterizing these 3D geometries are calculated. We obtain a global embedding of the 5D rotating black horizon surface into a flat space. We also describe the Kaluza-Klein reduction of the black ring solution (along the direction of its rotation) which, though it is nakedly singular, relates this solution to the 4D metric of a static black hole distorted by the presence of external scalar (dilaton) and vector ('electromagnetic') fields. The properties of the reduced black hole horizon and its embedding in E 3 are briefly discussed

  12. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  13. Pulsation of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changjun; Lu, Youjun; Shen, You-Gen; Faraoni, Valerio

    2018-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose singularity theorem states that a singularity forms inside a black hole in general relativity. To remove this singularity one must resort to a more fundamental theory. Using a corrected dynamical equation arising in loop quantum cosmology and braneworld models, we study the gravitational collapse of a perfect fluid sphere with a rather general equation of state. In the frame of an observer comoving with this fluid, the sphere pulsates between a maximum and a minimum size, avoiding the singularity. The exterior geometry is also constructed. There are usually an outer and an inner apparent horizon, resembling the Reissner-Nordström situation. For a distant observer the horizon crossing occurs in an infinite time and the pulsations of the black hole quantum "beating heart" are completely unobservable. However, it may be observable if the black hole is not spherical symmetric and radiates gravitational wave due to the quadrupole moment, if any.

  14. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  15. Bringing Black Holes Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  16. Coiffured black rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Ross, Simon F.; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2014-08-01

    We describe a new type of hair on supersymmetric black string and black ring solutions, which produces the largest known violation of black hole uniqueness, parameterized by an arbitrary function and hence an infinite number of continuous parameters. The new solutions can have non-trivial density profiles for the electric fields along the horizon, and yet have a geometry that is regular, although generically not infinitely differentiable, at the horizon. Both neutral and charged probes can cross the horizon without experiencing divergent forces. We also find restricted examples, parameterized by a few arbitrary continuous parameters, where the charge densities fluctuate but the metric does not and hence is completely differentiable. Our new class of solutions owes its existence to a mechanism reminiscent of the Q-ball: in the simplest examples the metric has more symmetry than the matter that supports it.

  17. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  18. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  19. Black widow spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    Black widow spiders are found throughout the continental United States and north into the southern Canadian provinces. Male black widow spiders are of little medical importance. Female black widow spiders can be 20 times larger than males. The female can be identified by the hourglass pattern, red or orange in color, on the ventral aspect of her shiny, globose black abdomen. Black widow spiders control the amount of venom they inject; an estimated 15% of bites to humans are non-envenomating. Cats are very sensitive to the venom and deaths are common. Dogs have severe clinical signs but are considered more resistant than cats. A single bite is capable of delivering a lethal dose of venom to companion animals. There are several toxic components consisting of five or six biologically active proteins. These include a potent mammalian neurotoxin called alpha-latrotoxin, which induces neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals. Acetylcholine, noradrenalin, dopamine, glutamate, and enkephalin systems are all susceptible to the toxin. Onset of clinical signs usually occurs during the first 8 hours post envenomation. The condition is extremely painful in moderate to severe envenomations. Abdominal rigidity without tenderness is a hallmark sign of Latrodectus envenomation. In cats, paralytic signs may occur early and are particularly marked. Hypertension is a significant threat. First aid is of no value in the treatment. The primary treatment for black widow spider envenomation is the administration of specific antivenin, which provides the most permanent and quickest relief of the envenomation syndrome, usually within 30 minutes of infusion. The prognosis of Latrodectus envenomation is uncertain of several days, and complete recovery may take weeks.

  20. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  1. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  2. Are black holes springlike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-02-01

    A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  3. Bulletproof Black Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst.......Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst....

  4. Virtual Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  5. Better Physician's 'Black Bags'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.

  6. Partons and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, L.; Griffin, P.

    1994-01-01

    A light-front renormalization group analysis is applied to study matter which falls into massive black holes, and the related problem of matter with transplankian energies. One finds that the rate of matter spreading over the black hole's horizon unexpectedly saturates the causality bound. This is related to the transverse growth behavior of transplankian particles as their longitudinal momentum increases. This growth behavior suggests a natural mechanism to implement 't Hooft's scenario that the universe is an image of data stored on a 2 + 1 dimensional hologram-like projection

  7. Black Elite: The New Market for Highly Educated Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Richard B.

    This examination of the collapse in traditional discriminatory patterns in the market for highly qualified black Americans documents the World War II gain of college trained and related high level black workers, investigates the response of black college students and qualified personnel to the new market setting, and explores the factors that…

  8. Black strings ending on horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nidal

    2012-12-01

    We construct an approximate static gravitational solution of the Einstein equations, with negative cosmological constant, describing a test black string stretching from the boundary of the Schwarzschild-AdS5 black brane toward the horizon. The construction builds on a derivative expansion method, assuming that the black brane metric changes slowly along the black string direction. We provide a solution up to second order in derivatives, and it implies, in particular, that the black string must shrink to zero size at the horizon of the black brane. In the near-horizon region of the black brane, where the two horizons intersect, we provide an exact solution of a cone that describes two intersecting horizons at different temperatures. Moreover, we show that this solution equally describes a thin and long black droplet.

  9. Reflections on a Black Mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Michael R. R.

    2016-01-01

    A black mirror is an accelerated boundary that produces particles in an exact correspondence to an evaporating black hole. We investigate the spectral dynamics of the particle creation during the formation process.

  10. Black Musicians Leading the Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes the careers and musical achievements of Blacks who were forerunners in jazz, blues, gospel, music, spirituals, band music, classical music, ragtime, and opera. The list was compiled to provide teachers with historical background information for "Black History Month." (AM)

  11. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  12. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  13. Meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvesteijn, R.G.E.; Kohrman, E.

    2008-01-01

    In de vollegrondsrozenteelt zorgde Black Mold in 2007 voor een groot aantal mislukte oculaties. In 2008 waren er aanzienlijk minder problemen. Uit onderzoek is meer bekend over de oorzaak en bestrijding van Black Mold.

  14. Aspects of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  15. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  16. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  17. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  18. Scholarly Black Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2017-04-01

    Fake and unethical publishers' activities are known by most of the readers of Science and Engineering Ethics. This letter tries to draw the readers' attention to the hidden side of some of these publishers' business. Here the black market of scholarly articles, which negatively affects the validity and reliability of research in higher education, as well as science and engineering, will be introduced.

  19. Twistors and Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neitzke, A.; Pioline, B.; Vandoren, S.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by black hole physics in N = 2,D = 4 supergravity, we study the geometry of quaternionic-K¨ahler manifolds Mobtained by the c-map construction from projective special Kähler manifolds Ms. Improving on earlier treatments, we compute the Käahler potentials on the twistor space Z and Swann

  20. on black ironbark (Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Eucalyptus sideroxylon). B. Buys. Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,. Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Received May /984; accepted 28 November /986. Black ironbark trees secrete nectar during the night. Argentine ants collected 42% of the nectar before honeybees started foraging in the ...