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Sample records for black race sex

  1. Expression and Perception of Emotion: Race and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitter, A. George; Black, Harvey

    A 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was utilized to investigate the effects of race of expressor (black and white), sex of expressor, race of perceiver and sex of perceiver on perception of emotion (POE). Perception of seven emotions (anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, pain, and sadness) was analyzed in terms of three dependent variables: (1)…

  2. Pleasure, affection, and love among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) versus MSM of other races: countering dehumanizing stereotypes via cross-race comparisons of reported sexual experience at last sexual event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa R; Novak, David S

    2015-10-01

    Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A total of 21,696 (793 Black, 18,905 White, 1,451 Latino, and 547 Asian) U.S. men ages 18-87 (M Age = 39) were recruited from social/sexual networking sites targeting MSM in 2010-2011. Participants reported multiple dimensions of sexual experience (pleasure, affection, and love) occurring at their last male-partnered sexual event, partner relationship, and sociodemographic characteristics. Across relationship categories, a sizeable percentage of Black MSM reported pleasure (72-87  % orgasmed, 57-82 % experienced high subjective pleasure) and affection (70-91 % kissed, 47-90 % cuddled). Love was primarily reported for events involving main partners (felt love for partner: 96 %; felt loved by partner: 97 %; verbalized love to partner: 89 %). Latent class analysis with MSM of all races, adjusting for partner relationship and sociodemographic characteristics, revealed three distinct profiles of sexual experience: affection and love (Class 1); affection in the absence of love (Class 2); and neither affection nor love (Class 3). Pleasure was probable across profiles. Some racial differences in profile probability were present, but no overall pattern emerged. Contrary to Black male stereotypes, Black MSM commonly reported pleasure, affection, and love at their last male-partnered sexual event and did not show a meaningful pattern of difference from other-race MSM in their likelihood of experiencing all three. PMID:25604209

  3. Gendered Race: Are Infants’ Face Preferences Guided by Intersectionality of Sex and Race?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin I Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available People occupy multiple social categories simultaneously (e.g., a White female, and this complex intersectionality affects fundamental aspects of social perception. Here, we examined the possibility that infant face processing may be susceptible to effects of intersectionality of sex and race. Three- and 10-month-old infants were shown a series of computer-generated face pairs (5 s each that differed according to sex (F or M or race (Asian, Black, or White. All possible combinations of face pairs were tested, and preferences were recorded with an eye tracker. Infants showed preferences for more feminine faces only when they were White, but we found no evidence that White or Asian faces were preferred even though they are relatively more feminized. These findings challenge the notions that infants’ social categories are processed independently of one another and that infants’ preferences for sex or race can be explained from mere exposure.

  4. Sex, race, gender, and the presidential vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Hansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have diverged considerably on abortion and women’s issues, and voters now view the Democrats as more supportive than Republicans of equality for women and reproductive rights. Perceptions of party differences on women’s issues strongly influenced vote choice, 1988–2008, and in 2008 had greater impact on whites’ votes than opinions on aid to blacks, abortion, gay marriage, or the economy. Although racial resentment was a strong predictor of the white vote in 2012 as in previous years, presidential voting was also significantly influenced by respondent sex as well as opinions on gender roles. Voters regarded the Democratic Party as “better for the interests of women,” and this proved to be a highly effective wedge issue for the Democrats in 2012.

  5. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    OpenAIRE

    Yull, Denise G.

    2014-01-01

    Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US) school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, ra...

  6. To Blame or Not to Blame: Influences of Target Race and Observer Sex on Rape Blame Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Roxanne A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on the influence of racist and sexist stereotypes in rape blame attribution, including the jezebel and matriarch stereotypes of Black women. This study extends the literature by examining how victim race, perpetrator race, and participant sex affect perceptions of a rape survivor's promiscuity (jezebel stereotype)…

  7. Race and Sex Differences Among Children in Perception of Emotion. Boston University Communication Research Center Report No. 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitter, A. George; Quincy, Arthur J., Jr.

    A 2x2x2 factorial design was utilized to investigate the effects of race of expressor (black and white), race of perceiver, and sex of perceiver on perception of emotion (POE) in children. Perception of four emotions (anger, happiness, surprise, and pain) was analyzed in terms of three scores as DV's: (1) overall accuracy scores, (2) correct…

  8. Race and Rape: The Black Woman as Legitimate Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…

  9. Gender, Race, and Risk: Intersectional Risk Management in the Sale of Sex Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Jessica D; Harrison, Kristen

    2016-09-01

    Sex worker experience of risk (e.g., physical violence or rape) is shaped by race, gender, and context. For web-based sex workers, experience of risk is comparatively minimal; what is unclear is how web-based sex workers manage risk and if online advertising plays a role in risk management. Building on intersectionality theory and research exploring risk management in sex work, we content-analyzed 600 escort advertisements from Backpage.com ( http://www.backpage.com ) to explore risk management in web-based sex work. To guide our research we asked: Do advertisements contain risk management messages? Does the use of risk management messaging differ by sex worker race or gender? Which groups have the highest overall use of risk management messages? Through a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) we found that advertisements contained risk management messages and that uses of these phrases varied by race and gender. Blacks, women, and transgender women drove the use of risk management messages. Black and White transgender women had the highest overall use of these phrases. We conclude that risk management is an intersectional practice and that the use of risk management messages is a venue-specific manifestation of broader risk management priorities found in all venues where sex is sold. PMID:26488687

  10. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise G. Yull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, racism, and racial identity across four generations of Black people in the context of school and community. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  11. Book review: Land of the cosmic race: race mixture, racism and blackness in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Feghali, Zalfa

    2013-01-01

    "Land of the Cosmic Race: Race Mixture, Racism, and Blackness in Mexico." Christina A. Sue. Oxford University Press. March 2013. --- Land of the Cosmic Race is a richly-detailed ethnographic account of the powerful role that race and colour play in organizing the lives and thoughts of ordinary Mexicans. It presents a previously untold story of how individuals in contemporary urban Mexico construct their identities, attitudes, and practices in the context of a dominant national belief system. ...

  12. Sex, race/ethnicity, and context in school-associated student homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joanne M; Hall, Jeffrey E; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages and medians of victim, offender, motive, and school characteristics for incidents by geographic context and race/ethnicity of the offenders. Most incidents involved urban areas (53.6%), Black and Latino offenders and victims, moderately high youth poverty, and male on male violence (77.6%) driven by disputes and gang-related motives. Suburban area incidents (31.2%) often involved offenders and victims of a different race/ethnicity (51.3%). Multiple victims and White offenders were more common in rural areas (15.2%). More than 50% of the rural incidents involved male offenders and female victims. White offender incidents more often included multiple victims and female victims while Black and Latino offenders more often included single victims of the same sex. These results emphasize the utility of an incident-based analysis of school-associated student homicides in highlighting important variations by intersections of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context. PMID:22279128

  13. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Louisiana: an association between race and sex and the prevalence of specific cardiac malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, T G; Mannick, E E

    1992-09-01

    We hypothesized that susceptibility to the genetic and environmental factors that disrupt cardiac development is associated with race and sex. To evaluate this hypothesis, we asked whether the prevalence of specific cardiac malformations differs by race and sex. We attempted to include all infants born alive in the State of Louisiana from January 1, 1988, through December 31, 1989, and diagnosed by echocardiography, catheterization and/or autopsy within a year of birth as having one of ten specific cardiac malformations. The prevalence of atrioventricular canal defects (AVCD) per 1,000 live births was significantly higher for black females (.744) compared to black males (.198) and for white females (.414) compared to white males (.116). Complete transposition of the great arteries (TGA) was significantly higher for white males (.559) compared to white females (.122); in contrast, TGA was not significantly different for black males (.198) and black females (.169). Obstructive left heart syndrome (OLHS)--aortic stenosis and/or coarctation of the aorta--was significantly higher for white males (.652) compared to white females (.317); in contrast, OLHS was not significantly different for black males (.264) and black females (.169). Single ventricle (SV) was significantly higher for whites (.202) compared to blacks (.067). We did not find that race and sex were associated with differences in the prevalence of tetralogy of Fallot and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The numbers of infants with anomalous pulmonary venous return, tricuspid atresia, double outlet right ventricle, or truncus arteriosus were too small to measure an association with race and sex. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of a subset of cardiac malformations differs by race and sex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1523585

  14. The Consideration of Race in Efforts to End Sex Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, Janice Porter; Rivers, L. Wendell

    The paper examines the need for sex fairness efforts for minority women (particularly black women), and relates those needs to the measurement of vocational interests. Much data is presented portraying the black woman as more likely to enter the labor force, more interested in doing so, more likely to work full time and continuously, and more…

  15. Disentangling the Longitudinal Relations of Race, Sex, and Socioeconomic Status, for Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Gabrielle G; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Rybak, Tiffany M; Kamody, Rebecca C; Cohen, Robert

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE : Race, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with childhood obesity. The present research longitudinally examines these factors with 12,674 White and Black children from kindergarten through 8th grade.  METHODS : Body mass index (BMI) data were collected and standardized at six time points (zBMI). Using Latent Growth Curve Modeling, race and sex were evaluated as moderators for the relation between SES and initial zBMI and rate of zBMI change.  RESULTS : Higher SES significantly predicted higher initial zBMI for Black males and lower initial zBMI and rate of change for White males. A nonlinear relation between SES and zBMI was found for White females.  CONCLUSIONS : SES has a differential impact on adiposity for different demographic groups. The longitudinal nature of the study and the focus on younger school-aged children provide important information regarding the complex interplay of race, sex, and SES for the prediction of childhood adiposity. PMID:26117140

  16. Race, the Black Male, and Heterogeneous Racisms in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita; Ray, Nichole; Lasker-Scott, Tennille

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the effects of historical and current racism on the educational experiences of American Black males. The authors use critical race theory to illustrate how assumptions about culture and gender have subverted the egalitarian ideals of adult education. Teachers and students are urged to use critical reflection and open…

  17. "Sturdy Black Bridges": Discussing Race, Class, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, KaaVonia

    2004-01-01

    Black feminist literary theory offers tools that teachers can use to initiate discussions on the issues of race, gender and class to analyze the works of adolescent literature. This feminist theory helps in reading and teaching literature about parallel cultures, like African-Americans and their love for self and community and their recognition of…

  18. Influences on Counselor Race Preferences: Distinguishing Black Racial Attitudes from Black Racial Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Tara M.; Leach, Mark M.; Levy, Jacob J.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.; Johnson, James D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined differential contributions of Black racial identity and racial attitudes toward Whites in determining counselor preferences. Results indicated that racial attitudes accounted for a significant portion of the variance in same-race counselor preference. In addition, Black racial attitudes were distinguished from racial identity…

  19. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and...

  20. Still Flies in Buttermilk: Black Male Faculty, Critical Race Theory, and Composite Counterstorytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Rachel Alicia; Ward, LaCharles; Phillips, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by critical race theory, this essay employs composite counterstorytelling to narrate the experiences of black male faculty on traditionally white campuses. Situated at the intersections of race and gender, our composite counterstory is richly informed by 11 interviews with black male faculty alongside critical race scholarship that…

  1. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  2. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18 Years of Age; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection; Comments Requested ACTION: 60-day Notice...

  3. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Christina H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Deville, Curtiland, E-mail: deville@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.

  4. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society

  5. Sexual Behavior Varies Between Same-Race and Different-Race Partnerships: A Daily Diary Study of Highly Sexually Active Black, Latino, and White Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-08-01

    Racial homophily (partnering with those of the same race) has been suggested as contributing to racial disparities in HIV among gay and bisexual men (GBM). Using a daily diary study, we examined racial homophily and its role in anal sexual behaviors in a sample of highly sexually active Black, White, and Latino GBM (N = 294, n = 3107 sexual events). In general, (1) men tended to partner with others of the same race, (2) HIV was more prevalent among men of color, and (3) race acted independent of whether one would engage in behaviors that would put them at highest risk for transmitting HIV (i.e., no main or interaction effects for insertive condomless anal sex (CAS) among HIV-positive men, and no main or interaction effects for receptive CAS among HIV-negative men). There were some main and interactive effects observed for lower risk behaviors (receptive CAS among HIV-positive men and insertive CAS among HIV-negative). Our findings suggest that racial disparities in HIV may be due to a higher exposure frequency (i.e., the frequency with which one comes into contact with a partner where a transmission could occur). However, men were also less likely to have anal sex when having sex with someone of the same race-a finding that works against the premise of higher exposure frequency. Future researchers should examine both racial homophily as well as variation in sexual behavior based on same-race or different-race partnerships. PMID:26696407

  6. Disability Prevalence According to a Class, Race, and Sex (CSR) Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Disability has been shown to be related in definite ways to social class. In modern industrial societies, disability is influenced by and has the potential to contribute to the production and reproduction of social inequality. However, markers of social stratification processes are sometimes ignored determinants of health. A Class, Race, Sex (CRS) hypothesis is presented to argue that a "low-education disadvantage"; "racial-minority disadvantage"; and "female disadvantage" will compound to affect the risks for being disable. In particular, the CRS hypothesis posits that class is more important than race and the latter more than sex when predicting presence or severity of disability. The cross-sectional study of community-dwelling adults between the ages of 45 and 64 uses data from the American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2008-2012 file. By using 3,429,523 individuals-which weighted equal to 61,726,420-the results of the study suggest the CRS hypothesis applies to both Non-Latino-Blacks and Non-Latino-Whites. There is a "male disadvantage" exception for Non-Latino-Whites. Decreasing between-group differences in health may be achieved by making the age-health association at lower socioeconomic stratum similar to that of the upper socioeconomic strata. PMID:26539340

  7. Race Specialists: What a Black Administrator Ought to Be and Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. Chanele

    2013-01-01

    Based on qualitative analysis from 22 semistructured interviews, this article explores how Black women principals and assistant principals experience educational administration, with attention to issues of race at work in suburban school settings. Findings suggest that because they may be perceived as race tokens by White educators, Black women…

  8. Race, Gender and Educational Desire: Why black women succeed and fail

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Race, Gender and Educational Desire reveals the emotional and social consequences of gendered difference and racial division as experienced by black and ethnicised women teachers and students in schools and universities. It explores the intersectionality of race and gender in education, taking the topic in new, challenging directions and asking: How does race and gender structure the experiences of black and ethnicised women in our places of learning and teaching? Why, in the context of en...

  9. Sequential effects in judgements of attractiveness: the influences of face race and sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin S S Kramer

    Full Text Available In perceptual decision-making, a person's response on a given trial is influenced by their response on the immediately preceding trial. This sequential effect was initially demonstrated in psychophysical tasks, but has now been found in more complex, real-world judgements. The similarity of the current and previous stimuli determines the nature of the effect, with more similar items producing assimilation in judgements, while less similarity can cause a contrast effect. Previous research found assimilation in ratings of facial attractiveness, and here, we investigated whether this effect is influenced by the social categories of the faces presented. Over three experiments, participants rated the attractiveness of own- (White and other-race (Chinese faces of both sexes that appeared successively. Through blocking trials by race (Experiment 1, sex (Experiment 2, or both dimensions (Experiment 3, we could examine how sequential judgements were altered by the salience of different social categories in face sequences. For sequences that varied in sex alone, own-race faces showed significantly less opposite-sex assimilation (male and female faces perceived as dissimilar, while other-race faces showed equal assimilation for opposite- and same-sex sequences (male and female faces were not differentiated. For sequences that varied in race alone, categorisation by race resulted in no opposite-race assimilation for either sex of face (White and Chinese faces perceived as dissimilar. For sequences that varied in both race and sex, same-category assimilation was significantly greater than opposite-category. Our results suggest that the race of a face represents a superordinate category relative to sex. These findings demonstrate the importance of social categories when considering sequential judgements of faces, and also highlight a novel approach for investigating how multiple social dimensions interact during decision-making.

  10. Race/Ethnicity, Gender and Socioeconomic Wellbeing of Individuals in Same-sex Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Kastanis, Angel; Wilson, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Similar patterns of racial disparities in income and employment exist among individuals in same-sex and different-sex couples. The report also found that racial/ethnic minority individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of individuals of their own race or ethnicity. Among same-sex couples, African-American, Latino, American-Indian and Alaskan Native respondents have lower incomes, lower college completion rates and higher unemployment rat...

  11. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson M; Assarsson H; Carlsson T

    2016-01-01

    Magnus Carlsson,1,2 Hannes Assarsson,1 Tomas Carlsson1,2 1School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, 2Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within ...

  12. 29 CFR 34.4 - Specific discriminatory actions prohibited on the ground of race, color, religion, sex, national...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or..., religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or participation in JTPA. (a) For the purposes of this section, prohibited ground means race, color, religion, sex,...

  13. 13 CFR 113.3-1 - Consideration of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. 113.3-1 Section 113.3-1 Business Credit and... of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. (a) This regulation does not prohibit the consideration of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or...

  14. Race, Social Context, and Consumption: How Race Structures the Consumption Preferences and Practices of Middle and Working-Class Blacks

    OpenAIRE

    Pittman, Cassi

    2012-01-01

    The contemporary experience of race in America demands that blacks become astute observers of their surroundings, required to read subtle social, interactional and environmental cues to determine how to appropriately engage others in order to gain respect and social acceptance. Consumption objects, whether physical or material goods or services and experiences, are symbolic tools that blacks mobilize in order to define and assert themselves wherever they may be. Market research reveals that d...

  15. Concordance of Demographic Characteristics, Sexual Behaviors, and Relationship Attributes Among Sex Dyads of Black and White Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Romieu, Alfonso C; Sullivan, Patrick S; Rothenberg, Richard; Grey, Jeremy; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; Siegler, Aaron J; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2016-08-01

    Differences in individual behaviors have failed to explain racial disparities between Black and White men who have sex with men (MSM). However, reporting of behaviors and partner characteristics are assumed to be non-differentially reported by race. From 314 participants, this study used the two-sided data-where sexual partners provide information on each other and their relationship-of 127 dyads of Black and White MSM from Atlanta, GA, to assess the reliability of partner-reported demographic characteristics and the concordance of sexual behaviors and partnership attributes by race. We compared proportions of concordance by race using a modified kappa (K m) to assess chance-corrected agreement. The median difference in age between self- and partner-reports was 0 (0-1) years. Compared to self-reports, 97 % of the partners of Black participants and 96 % of the partners of White participants correctly classified their race. We observed poor agreement on pre-sexual discussion (K m = 0.18) and being in an ongoing relationship (K m = 0.13), with no differences by race (p = 0.11). Although not statistically significant, Black MSM dyads had lower levels of concordance for unprotected anal intercourse in the previous 12 months (68 %) compared to White dyads (90 %), with fair agreement among Black dyads (K m = 0.26). Measures of partner-reported age and race are likely accurate; however, certain self-reported sexual behaviors and partnership attributes may be unreliable and differentially reported by race. Our findings highlight the need to assess the validity of measures used to estimate HIV transmission and inform racial disparities research. PMID:26758456

  16. Book review: articulate while black: Barack Obama, language, and race in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Feghali, Zalfa

    2013-01-01

    Barack Obama is widely considered one of the most powerful and charismatic speakers of our age. In Articulate While Black, two scholars of Black language address language and racial politics in the U.S. through an insightful examination of President Obama’s language use–and America’s response to it. Articulate While Black will be indispensible to anyone interested in Barack Obama’s politically raced relationship to language, writes Zalfa Feghali. Articulate While Black: Barack Obama, Lan...

  17. Who Has the Advantage? Race and Sex Differences in Returns to Social Capital at Home and at School*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufur, Mikaela J.; Parcel, Toby L.; Hoffmann, John P.; Braudt, David B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that social capital is a valuable resource for children and youth, and that returns to that capital can increase academic success. However, relatively little is known about whether youth from different backgrounds build social capital in the same way and whether they receive the same returns to that capital. We examine the creation of and returns to social capital in family and school settings on academic achievement, measured as standardized test scores, for white boys, black boys, white girls, and black girls who were seniors in high school in the United States. Our findings suggest that while youth in different groups build social capital in largely the same way, differences exist by race and sex as to how family social capital affects academic achievement. Girls obtain greater returns to family social capital than do boys, but no group receives significant returns to school social capital after controlling for individual- and school-level characteristics.

  18. Interracial Sex Contact: Emphasis on Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, James E.

    1977-01-01

    The author discusses different social and historical factors surrounding four kinds of interracial sexual contact: (1) between Blacks from different parts of Africa; (2) between Blacks and American Indians; (3) between Black males and White females; and (4) between White males and Black females. He holds that miscegenation does nothing to solve…

  19. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. PMID:25416040

  20. Latent constructs in psychosocial factors associated with cardiovascular disease: an examination by race and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Jo Clark

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study examines race and sex differences in the latent structure of a wide range of psychosocial measures and whether the identified factors are related to self-reported history of coronary heart disease (CHD. Materials and Methods : The sample included 4,128 participants of the Chicago Health and Aging Project. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA with oblique geomin rotation was used to identify latent factors among 10 psychosocial measures. Multi-group comparisons of the EFA model were conducted using exploratory structural equation modeling. Measurement invariance was defined by a difference in the CFI of less than 0.01. For invariant factor(s, a factor-based scale score was created. Differences in mean scale scores across race-sex subgroups were tested with analysis of variance and Sheffe’s test. Logistic regression was used to test the relationship between the factor score(s and CHD adjusting for relevant confounders. Effect modification of the relationship by race-sex subgroup was tested.Results : A two-factor model fit the data well (CFI=0.986; TLI=0.969; RMSEA=0.039. Factor I was comprised of depressive symptoms, neuroticism, perceived stress, and low life satisfaction. Factor II was comprised of social engagement, spirituality, social networks, and extraversion. Only Factor I, renamed Distress, showed measurement invariance across subgroups, although the level of Distress varied by race and sex. Distress was significantly related to report of CHD (odds ratio: 1.37; p-value < 0.0001. This effect did not differ by race or sex (interaction p-value=0.43. Conclusions: This study found two underlying latent constructs among a large range of psychosocial variables, but only one, Distress, was validly measured across race-sex subgroups. This construct was also robustly related to prevalent CHD, highlighting the potential importance of latent constructs as predictors of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Through the Lens of Race: Black and White Women's Perceptions of Womanhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Isis H.; Pratt-Hyatt, Jennifer S.; Buchanan, NiCole T.

    2008-01-01

    The intersection of race and gender may create unique experiences for Black and White women in terms of work, family, domestic roles, and interpersonal relationships. Dissimilar gender-role norms may foster different perceptions of gender for these two groups of women. In the current study, we examined similarities and differences in Black and…

  2. Educational Lynching: Critical Race Theory and the Suspension of Black Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Macheo

    2010-01-01

    Looking at the disproportionate suspension of African American, Black male students through the lens of critical race theory, this presents arguments from a CRT how the disproportionate suspension of Black male students is rooted in white supremacy and racist policy in the United States. Local recommendations are offered for Oakland Unified School…

  3. Integrating Black Consciousness and Critical Race Feminism into Family Studies Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, April L.

    2007-01-01

    The author examines the advantages and challenges of using Black feminist theory and critical race feminist theory to study the lives of Black women and families in family studies. The author addresses the ways in which these perspectives, both of which are intentional in their analyses of intersectionality and the politics of location, are also…

  4. Passing as White: Race, Shame, and Success in Teacher Licensure Testing Events for Black Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchauer, Emery

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative portraiture study explored how race becomes a conscious and salient dimension of teacher licensure exams for black preservice teachers. The findings focus on one black preservice teacher and how she identified as white on the demographic survey preceding her licensure exam due to the racialized nature of the experience and the…

  5. Changing Patterns in Methods of Suicide by Race and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1982-01-01

    Examined annual official national statistics for specific methods of suicide by sex and racial group from 1923 to 1978. Shifts were found in suicide methods employed, most notably for women and Asian Americans. Generally, firearm use increased among nearly all ethnic/racial-sex groups while the use of poisons declined. (JAC)

  6. Sex difference in race performance and age of peak performance in the Ironman Triathlon World Championship from 1983 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Rüst, Christoph,; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    International audience BackgroundThe fastest Ironman race times in 'Ironman Hawaii' were achieved in very recent years. This study investigated the change in sex difference in both race performance and the age of peak performance across years in the top ten athletes for split disciplines and overall race time in the 'Ironman Hawaii' between 1983 and 2012.MethodsChanges in split times, overall race times, and age of athletes across years for the top ten overall and the fastest swimmers, cyc...

  7. Black Leadership, White Leadership: Race and Race Relations in an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeffrey S.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate how race and race relations influence school leadership practice. Design/methodology/approach: This ethnographic study was conducted in a high-poverty, high-minority, urban high school in the Southeastern USA. The authors utilized an anthropological conceptual framework called a moiety, through…

  8. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  9. Perception of Emotion: Differences in Mode of Presentation, Sex of Perceiver, and Race of Expressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Nicholas J.; Gitter, A. George

    A 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design was utilized to investigate the effects of sex of perceiver, race of expressor (Negro and White), and mode of presentation of stimuli (audio and visual, visual only, audio only, and still pictures) on perception of emotion (POE). Perception of seven emotions (anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, pain, and…

  10. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  11. Effects of race and sex on blood pressure and hemodynamic stress response as a function of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahwal; Mills; Kalshan; Nelesen

    1997-08-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of race and sex on responses to cardiovascular stress during two menstrual cycle phases. METHODS: Subjects were exposed to two stressors, a mirror star-tracing task and a speaking task. Blood pressure, heart rate, and impedance cardiography measures of reactivity were recorded. Women were examined both during the follicular and during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle with men matched for the number of days between testing sessions (approximately 6 weeks). The subjects were 33 black and white women and 37 black and white men who were healthy, normotensive, and not being administered medication. RESULTS: For black women, the reactivity of the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) to the speaking task was less in the luteal phase than it was in the follicular phase, whereas for white women (and men) there was no difference between the two phases (testing sessions) (P rate reactivities in both menstrual phases than did men (P speak, black and white women had greater DBP reactivities than did men; however, their DBP responses were attenuated during the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase (P influence this phenomenon. PMID:10234110

  12. Race and region have independent and synergistic effects on dietary intakes in black and white women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newby P K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the effects of race and region on dietary intakes and the evidence on racial and regional disparities among women is limited. We aimed to examine whether race and region were associated with nutrient intakes among black and white women living in the Stroke Belt, Stroke Buckle, and Other regions in the United States. We hypothesized that significant differences would be observed among population sub-groups and that the effects of race on dietary intakes would vary across regions. Methods This study included dietary data from 12,105 women from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study (United States. Dietary data were collected using the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. Results Blacks consumed 1.05% lower energy from saturated fat (95% CI: -0.95, -1.16, and intakes were also lower in the Buckle (β = -0.20; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.32 and Belt (β = -0.35; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.46 compared to the Other regions. Within each region, sodium, potassium, and magnesium intakes were all lower among black women compared to white women (P P Conclusions Race and region were significantly associated with nutrient intakes in a large study of black and non-Hispanic white women in the United States. Intakes of trans fat, calcium, and cholesterol among black and white women differed across regions. Race and region thus interact to impact dietary intakes, and their effects may be mediated by such factors as the broader food environment and food availability as well as food customs and culture. Race, region, and their correlates should therefore be considered together when examining diet and disease associations and planning dietary advice for population sub-groups.

  13. Courageous Conversations about Race: Exploring Counter-Narratives on Black Heritage Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This personal reflection explores the role of counter-narratives and courageous conversations in the elementary curriculum. It explores how the intentionality of Black Heritage Day at the Folk Arts-Cultural Treasures Charter School and its curriculum guides students and teachers in exploring issues of race, culture, and history. (Contains 1…

  14. Race-related stress, racial identity status attitudes, and emotional reactions of Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert T; Reynolds, Amy L

    2011-04-01

    The current study explored the relationship between race-related stress, racial identity status attitudes and emotional states among 229 Black Americans. Canonical correlation analyses revealed a shared variate between emotions and racial identity status attitudes in which anger, depression confusion and tension were related positively to Conformity and inversely related to Internalization status attitudes. Implications for research are discussed. PMID:21604839

  15. Sex, Age, Race and Intervention Type in Clinical Studies of HIV Cure: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Rowena E.; Heitzeg, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studi...

  16. Triple punishment in employment access: the role of beauty, race and sex

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Galarza; Gustavo Yamada

    2012-01-01

    "We investigate the role of physical appearance, in addition to race and sex, in the rate of discrimination observed in the labour market of Lima. Our experimental design allows us to disentangle the effect of each of those three variables on the callback rates received by our fictitious job candidates. Since we are controlling for variables that are important in the selection process (mainly, education and job experience), our results provide better indicators of discrimination than the ones...

  17. Black Same-Sex Couples in California: Data from Census 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary; Sears, Brad

    2005-01-01

    Using data from Census 2000, this report provides demographic and socio-economic information about black men and women in same-sex couples in California. The category “black couples” means couples where both members are black; “interracial couples” means couples where only one member is black; and “non-black couples” indicates couples where neither member is black.

  18. Sport, race and gender: the experiences of black Norwegian athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Massao, Prisca Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I explored how racism and marginalization in Norwegian sport are experienced by black Norwegian athletes. To accomplish this, I used the following research questions: 1. How are individual and institutional racism manifested in Norwegian organized sport? 2. What is the influence of gender on black athletes’ experiences of racism in Norwegian organized sport? In the first chapter, I outline the background, aim and scope of the study and the literature review...

  19. Practice and protest: black physicians and the evolution of race-conscious professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian W; Oriol, Nancy E; Jain, Sachin H

    2015-02-01

    Throughout history, Black physicians have been bound by a dual obligation: to pursue excellence and success in their profession, and to leverage their professional stature to improve the condition of their communities. This paradigm of race-conscious professionalism has affected greatly the experience of Black physicians, and shaped their formulation of professional identity. This paper explores the relationship between professional life and racial activism in the Black physician community from the pre-Civil War era until the present. The nature of this negotiation has shifted according to the professional and social dynamics of the era. Before the Civil War, Black physician-activists were forced to relinquish their professional duties in order to engage in activism. In later years, activism emerged as a valuable endeavor in the Black medical community, which offered greater opportunities for activism within the profession. The implications of these findings for contemporary physicians are discussed. PMID:25702728

  20. Concurrent partnerships in Cape Town, South Africa: race and sex differences in prevalence and duration of overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Beauclair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Concurrent partnerships (CPs have been suggested as a risk factor for transmitting HIV, but their impact on the epidemic depends upon how prevalent they are in populations, the average number of CPs an individual has and the length of time they overlap. However, estimates of prevalence of CPs in Southern Africa vary widely, and the duration of overlap in these relationships is poorly documented. We aim to characterize concurrency in a more accurate and complete manner, using data from three disadvantaged communities of Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: We conducted a sexual behaviour survey (n=878 from June 2011 to February 2012 in Cape Town, using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing to collect sexual relationship histories on partners in the past year. Using the beginning and end dates for the partnerships, we calculated the point prevalence, the cumulative prevalence and the incidence rate of CPs, as well as the duration of overlap for relationships begun in the previous year. Linear and binomial regression models were used to quantify race (black vs. coloured and sex differences in the duration of overlap and relative risk of having CPs in the past year. Results: The overall point prevalence of CPs six months before the survey was 8.4%: 13.4% for black men, 1.9% for coloured men, 7.8% black women and 5.6% for coloured women. The median duration of overlap in CPs was 7.5 weeks. Women had less risk of CPs in the previous year than men (RR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.32–0.57 and black participants were more at risk than coloured participants (RR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.17–2.97. Conclusions: Our results indicate that in this population the prevalence of CPs is relatively high and is characterized by overlaps of long duration, implying there may be opportunities for HIV to be transmitted to concurrent partners.

  1. Race and Color: Revisiting Perspectives in Black Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Carla R.

    2016-01-01

    Racial inequities, such as systematic disparities in school discipline and achievement outcomes, are a perennial characteristic of public education in the United States. Although attention to interracial chasms such as the Black-White achievement gap is common, limited efforts are devoted to understanding how and why colorism motivates imbalances…

  2. Neo-sex chromosomes in the black muntjac recapitulate incipient evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qi; Wang, Jun; Huang, Ling; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Xiangyi; Yang, Fengtang; Wang, Wen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The regular mammalian X and Y chromosomes diverged from each other at least 166 to 148 million years ago, leaving few traces of their early evolution, including degeneration of the Y chromosome and evolution of dosage compensation. RESULTS: We studied the intriguing case of black...... muntjac, in which a recent X-autosome fusion and a subsequent large autosomal inversion within just the past 0.5 million years have led to inheritance patterns identical to the traditional X-Y (neo-sex chromosomes). We compared patterns of genome evolution in 35-kilobase noncoding regions and 23 gene...... SNX22 abolished a microRNA target site. Finally, expression analyses revealed complex patterns of expression divergence between neo-Y and neo-X alleles. CONCLUSION: The nascent neo-sex chromosome system of black muntjacs is a valuable model in which to study the evolution of sex chromosomes in mammals...

  3. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  4. Mortality and potential years of life lost attributable to alcohol consumption by race and sex in the United States in 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Shield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol has been linked to health disparities between races in the US; however, race-specific alcohol-attributable mortality has never been estimated. The objective of this article is to estimate premature mortality attributable to alcohol in the US in 2005, differentiated by race, age and sex for people 15 to 64 years of age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mortality attributable to alcohol was estimated based on alcohol-attributable fractions using indicators of exposure from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and risk relations from the Comparative Risk Assessment study. Consumption data were corrected for undercoverage (the observed underreporting of alcohol consumption when using survey as compared to sales data using adult per capita consumption from WHO databases. Mortality data by cause of death were obtained from the US Department of Health and Human Services. For people 15 to 64 years of age in the US in 2005, alcohol was responsible for 55,974 deaths (46,461 for men; 9,513 for women representing 9.0% of all deaths, and 1,288,700 PYLL (1,087,280 for men; 201,420 for women representing 10.7% of all PYLL. Per 100,000 people, this represents 29 deaths (29 for White; 40 for Black; 82 for Native Americans; 6 for Asian/Pacific Islander and 670 PYLL (673 for White; 808 for Black; 1,808 for Native American; 158 for Asian/Pacific Islander. Sensitivity analyses showed a lower but still substantial burden without adjusting for undercoverage. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of mortality attributable to alcohol in the US is unequal among people of different races and between men and women. Racial differences in alcohol consumption and the resulting harms explain in part the observed disparities in the premature mortality burden between races, suggesting the need for interventions for specific subgroups of the population such as Native Americans.

  5. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24188651

  6. A systematic review of age, sex, ethnicity, and race as predictors of violent recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Diamond, Brie; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Recidivism of released prisoners, especially violent recidivism, is an important policy issue. Equally important is an understanding of how demographic risk factors may act as moderators of recidivism. Knowledge of such relationships is important in developing a deeper theoretical understanding of the risk of recidivism as well as identifying points of intervention that may need to be re-oriented to reduce recidivism. The present study conducts a meta-analytic review of the violent recidivism literature focusing on the role of several demographic risk factors. Findings show that age, sex, and race (Whites) were significantly related to violent recidivism. Implications and directions for future research are identified. PMID:24335783

  7. Differences in Youth and Adult Physical Activity in Park Settings by Sex and Race/Ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Stanis, Sonja A Wilhelm; Besenyi, Gina M.; Child, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    We examined differences by sex and race/ethnicity in the observed moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) of youth and adults in diverse areas of 4 parks in Kansas City, Missouri, in 2009. Male youth were more active on playgrounds and pools or splashpads than female youth. White youth were less active than nonwhite youth in open spaces and on paved trails. Male adults were more active in open spaces than female adults, and white adults were more active on paved trails than n...

  8. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2015-09-01

    HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioural and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics. PMID:25246424

  9. Science Majors and Degrees among Asian-American Students: Influences of Race and Sex in "model Minority" Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Hanson, Sandra L.

    Both race and sex continue to be factors that stratify entry into science education and occupations in the United States. Asian-Americans (men and women) have experienced considerable success in the sciences and have earned the label of "model minority." The complexities and patterns involved in this success remain elusive. We use several concepts coming out of the status attainment framework and a multicultural gender perspective to explore the way in which race and sex come together to influence choices of science major and degree. Our sample consists of Asian-American and white students in the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Findings suggest that being male and being Asian-American are both associated with higher chances of pursuing majors and degrees in science. The male advantage is greater than the Asian-American advantage. Findings also suggest that race and sex interact in the science decision. For example, race differences (with an Asian-American advantage) in choice of science major are significant for women but not men. Sex differences (with a male advantage) in choice of science major are significant in the white, but not the Asian-American sample. A different set of race and sex patterns is revealed in the science degree models. Processes associated with family socioeconomic status and student characteristics help to explain race and sex patterns. Findings suggest that when Asian-American youths have closer ties to the Asian culture, they are more likely to choose science majors and degrees. Implications for policy, practice, and research in science education are discussed.

  10. Boundary Spanners and Advocacy Leaders: Black Educators and Race Equality Work in Toronto and London, 1968-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This comparative study examines the historical development of race equality efforts during the 1970s and 1980s in two global cities--Toronto and London--and the role of African Canadian and Black British educators in longstanding school-community partnerships. I characterize the leadership stance of Black educators as boundary spanners and…

  11. Niggers No More: A Critical Race Counternarrative on Black Male Student Achievement at Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2009-01-01

    A methodological approach popularized by critical race theorists is used in this article to oppose dominant discourse concerning the social and educational status of Black men in America. Specifically, this counternarrative on student achievement was derived from face-to-face individual interviews with 143 Black male undergraduates at 30…

  12. Exploring sexual health among young Black men who have sex with men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, A J; Valera, P; Bockting, W O; Wilson, P A

    2016-06-01

    Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for approximately 10% of the total HIV infection in the United States but represent framework for prevention. Qualitative data from the Brothers Connect Study were analyzed to explore how a Sexual Health Model (SHM) developed by Robinson et al. (The sexual health model: application of a sexological approach to HIV prevention. Health Educ Res 2002; 17:43-57) could be used as a framework for HIV prevention in YBMSM. Content analysis identified five key themes within SHM: (i) race/ethnicity, including the cultural diversity and unique challenges of YBMSM; (ii) disclosure, as the ongoing process of self-identification rather than a single instance of 'coming out'; (iii) sex, in terms of practices, behaviors and health; (iv) daily challenges, microaggressions and acute instances of discrimination; and (v) the self, resilience and identity. Technology represents a new component for the SHM that may be relevant to YBMSM. YBMSM are in need of comprehensive sexual health programs that go beyond typical HIV frameworks. A tailored SHM could be used for identifying and addressing the specific sexual health needs of YBMSM in research and intervention. PMID:27081188

  13. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Caucasian and African-American Adolescents : Relationships with Race, Sex, Adiposity, Adipokines, and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L.; Keeton, Daniel; Thomas, Jeffrey; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Mooken, Grace; Bundy, Vanessa; Snieder, Harold; van der Harst, Pim; Dong, Yanbin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships of race, sex, adiposity, adipokines, and physical activity to telomere length in adolescents. Study design Leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) was assessed cross-sectionally in 667 adolescents (aged 14-18 years; 48% African-Americans; 51% girls) using a quant

  14. Living Circumstances of Suicide Mortality in a South African City: An Ecological Study of Differences across Race Groups and Sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Laflamme, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    In this study the importance of living area circumstances for suicide mortality was explored. Suicide mortality was assessed across race and sex groups in a South African city and the influence of area-based compositional and sociophysical characteristics on suicide risk was considered. Suicide mortality rates are highest among Whites, in…

  15. La Douleur Exquise: Neoliberalism, Race, and the Un/Making of Blackness in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Summers, Brandi Thompson

    2014-01-01

    La Douleur Exquise: Neoliberalism, Race, and the Un/Making of Blackness in the 21st Century, examines how neoliberalism operates as a cultural discourse and the distinctive ways that race is deployed through the constitution of bodies and spaces. My data for the project draws on the cultural politics of aesthetics and political economies of redevelopment. Using a mixed methodology of visual, textual, and ethnographic analysis, I examine two different sites of the discursive production of bl...

  16. ESA's XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    hi-res Size hi-res: 715 Kb Credits: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital ESA’s XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole Click here for animation in MOV format Movie still in TIFF format (9761 Kb) Movie still in JPG format (715 Kb) This animation depicts three hot chunks of matter orbiting a black hole. If placed in our Solar System, this black hole would appear like a dark abyss spread out nearly as wide as Mercury's orbit. And the three chunks (each as large as the Sun) would be as far out as Jupiter. They orbit the black hole in a lightning-quick 30 000 kilometres per second, over a tenth of the speed of light. hi-res Size hi-res: 220 Kb Credits: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital ESA’s XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole Click here for animation in MPG format Movie still in TIFF format (2553 Kb) Movie still in JPG format (220 Kb) This is a simplified illustration of two hot chunks of matter orbiting a black hole, showing how scientists tracked the blobs by observing their Doppler shift. First, we see one blob. Note how the energy emitted from this orbiting material rises to about 6.5 kilo-electron volt (an energy unit) as it moves towards us, and then falls to about 5.8 kilo-electron volt as it moves away. This is the 'Doppler effect' and a similar phenomenon happens with the changing pitch of a police siren. If it is approaching, the frequency of the sound is higher, but if it is receding the frequency is lower. Matter goes round and round; energy goes up and down. About 14 seconds into the animation, a second blob is added, which also displays a rise and fall in energy during its orbit. The observation, made with ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory, marks the first time scientists could trace individual blobs of shredded matter on a complete journey around a black hole. This provides a crucial measurement that has long been missing from black hole studies: an orbital period. Knowing this, scientists can measure black hole mass and

  17. Reference man and woman more fully characterized: Variations on the basis of body size, age, sex, and race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body neutron activation analysis, prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis, and whole body counting have been used to determine the elemental composition of the human body. The total body elements measured were potassium, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, chlorine, and phosphorus. Total body water was also determined by the dilution principle using tritiated water. Observations were made in an adult US population that totaled 1374 and ranged in age from 20 to 90 yr. The dataset for the white population consisted of 175 males and 1134 females observations; for the black population, it consisted of 30 male and 35 female observations. The variation in the elemental composition of both males and females in any 5-yr age group was large and ranged up to 20% (SD). Age-, race-, sex-, and size-specific differences were evident. When equations were developed that predicted the elemental composition of the adult on the basis of age, weight, and height, the variation in the age groups was reduced approximately in half. Age-specific mean values for the 20- to 29-yr-old white population were also compared with values for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-23 Reference Man. The open-quotes averageclose quotes young adult male was larger than Reference Man; the in vivo data also indicated a larger skeletal mass, more lean tissues and body water, but lower body sodium. When in vivo prediction equations were used to adjust for size differences, good agreement was found between the expected values and those for Reference Man. The ICRP-23 does not contain elemental data for Reference Woman; therefore, the in vivo data in the present study provide the first estimates of body composition for Reference Woman

  18. A systematic review of HIV interventions for black men who have sex with men (MSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Maulsby, Cathy; Millett, Greg; Lindsey, Kali; Kelley, Robin; Johnson, Kim; Montoya, Daniel; Holtgrave, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately burdened by HIV/AIDS. Despite this burden there has been a shortage of research on HIV interventions for black MSM. This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature on interventions for black MSM to identify effective HIV prevention intervention strategies for black MSM. Methods We searched 3 databases: Pubmed, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify peer-reviewed articles and used the following search terms:...

  19. "That Racism Thing": A Critical Race Discourse Analysis of a Conflict over the Proposed Closure of a Black High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Felecia M.; Khalifa, Muhammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Using critical race discourse analysis, this study examines descriptions of a heated controversy over the proposed closure of the only primarily black high school in a large urban city. Participants included community members and the district and school leaders who were key in the controversy. Based on Foucault's analysis of power we looked for…

  20. Enact, Discard, and Transform: A Critical Race Feminist Perspective on Professional Socialization among Tenured Black Female Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulé, Venice Thandi

    2014-01-01

    Through an analysis informed by critical race feminism, this paper examines the intersection of professional socialization and agency among tenured Black female faculty at Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). Professional socialization entails the transmission and reproduction of professional norms. However, within PWIs, professional…

  1. Influence of sex role stereotypes on personnel decisions of black managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, M B

    1994-04-01

    The influence of sex role stereotypes on the hiring decisions of Black managers was investigated. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design and multivariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the relationship between sex of respondent, sex of applicant, and job sex type. Respondents were 131 managers who rated either a Black man or a Black woman for a stereotypically female- or male-sex-typed job on a Likert-type scale. There were significant findings on 3 of the 7 dependent variables--potential to work, potential to complete tasks, and technical potential--on which men were rated more favorably for the male-sex-typed job and women were rated more favorably for the female-sex-typed job. However, sex stereotyping was more pronounced for the female-sex-stereotyped job than for the male-sex-stereotyped job on some dependent variables. Results are discussed in regard to the unique experiences of Black men and women in American society. PMID:8206819

  2. Cultures of Abuse: ‘Sex Grooming’, Organised Abuse and Race in Rochdale, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Revelations of organised abuse by men of Asian heritage in the United Kingdom have become a recurrent feature of international media coverage of sexual abuse in recent years. This paper reflects on the similarities between the highly publicised ‘sex grooming’ prosecutions in Rochdale in 2012 and the allegations of organised abuse in Rochdale that emerged in 1990, when twenty children were taken into care after describing sadistic abuse by their parents and others. While these two cases differ in important aspects, this paper highlights the prominence of colonial ideologies of civilisation and barbarism in the investigation and media coverage of the two cases and the sublimation of the issue of child welfare. There are important cultural and normative antecedents to sexual violence but these have been misrepresented in debates over organised abuse as racial issues and attributed to ethnic minority communities. In contrast, the colonialist trope promulgating the fictional figure of the rational European has resulted in the denial of the cultural and normative dimensions of organised abuse in ethnic majority communities by attributing sexual violence to aberrant and sexually deviant individuals whose behaviours transgress the boundaries of accepted cultural norms. This paper emphasises how the implicit or explicit focus on race has served to obscure the power dynamics underlying both cases and the continuity of vulnerability that places children at risk of sexual and organised abuse.

  3. Sex, Race, and the Quality of Life Factors Most Important to Patients’ Well-Being Among Those Seeking Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Roger B.; Jones, Dan B.; Apovian, Caroline A.; Chiodi, Sarah; Huskey, Karen W.; Hamel, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests obesity-related social stigma and impairment in work function may be the two most detrimental quality of life (QOL) factors to overall well-being among patients seeking weight loss surgery (WLS); whether the relative importance of QOL factors varies across patient sex and race/ethnicity is unclear. Methods We interviewed 574 patients seeking WLS at two centers. We measured patient’s health utility (preference-based well-being measure) as determined via standard gamble scenarios assessing patients’ willingness to risk death to achieve weight loss or perfect health. Multivariable models assessed associations between patients’ utility and five weight-related QOL domains stratified by gender and race: social stigma, self-esteem, physical function, public distress (weight stigma), and work life. Results Depending on patients’ sex and race/ethnicity, mean utilities ranged from 0.85 to 0.91, reflecting an average willingness to assume a 9–15 % risk of death to achieve their most desired health/weight state. After adjustment, African Americans (AAs) reported higher utility than Caucasians (+ 0.054, p=0.03), but utilities did not vary significantly by sex. Among Caucasian and AA men, impairment in physical functioning was the most important factor associated with diminished utility; social stigma was also a leading factor for Caucasian men. Among Caucasian women, self-esteem and work function appeared equally important. Social stigma was the leading contributor to utility among AA women; QOL factors did not appear as important among Hispanic patients. Conclusion AAs reported higher utilities than Caucasian patients. Individual QOL domains that drive diminished well-being varied across race/ethnicity and sex. PMID:26630951

  4. Inequalities in multiple health outcomes by education, sex, and race in 93 US counties: Why we should measure them all

    OpenAIRE

    Asada, Yukiko; Whipp, Alyce; Kindig, David; Billard, Beverly; Rudolph, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regular reporting of health inequalities is essential to monitoring progress of efforts to reduce health inequalities. While reporting of population health became increasingly common, reporting of a subpopulation group breakdown of each indicator of the health of the population is rarely a standard practice. This study reports education-, sex-, and race-related inequalities in four health outcomes in each of the selected 93 counties in the United States in a systematic and compar...

  5. Perceptions of Race/Ethnic Discrimination in Relation to Mortality Among Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michelle A.; Cozier, Yvette; Ridker, Paul M.; Palmer, Julie R.; Glynn, Robert J.; Rose, Lynda; Halevy, Nitsan; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Background Because racial discrimination is a form of chronic psychological stress that might unfavorably affect health, we examined whether perceived experiences of racism among black women are associated with mortality. Methods We followed 48 924 participants in the Black Women's Health Study (mean age, 40.5 years) for 8 years to assess the risk of all-cause mortality associated with perceived experiences of racism. Subanalyses of cancer and cardiovascular mortality were also conducted. Perceived racism was evaluated by 8 questions about institutionalized racism (unfair treatment on the job, in housing, or by the police) and everyday experiences of racism (eg, others acting as if the woman was not intelligent). We estimated the relative risk of death with Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for traditional and socioenvironmental risk factors. Results During 412 224 person years of follow-up from 1997 to 2005, there were 920 deaths, including 277 due to cancer and 195 due to cardiovascular causes. All-cause mortality was not associated with institutionalized racism (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-1.2) for the highest category vs the lowest or with everyday racism (relative risk, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-1.2) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest. Risk estimates for the highest categories of perceived racism relative to the lowest were greater than 1.0 for cancer deaths and less than 1.0 for cardiovascular disease death but were not statistically significant. Conclusions In this large prospective study of black women, reported experiences of racism were not significantly related to mortality. Longer follow-up of this relatively young cohort and further work is warranted in this complex area of research because continued race/ethnic disparities in mortality are not entirely explained by traditional risk factors. PMID:20498418

  6. Differences in expression of gut-homing receptors on CD4+ T cells in black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Colleen F; Lai, Lilin; Ibegbu, Chris; Rosenberg, Eli S; Kaur, Surinder; Patel, Kalpana; Mulligan, Mark J; Marconi, Vincent C; Sullivan, Patrick S; Amara, Rama R

    2016-05-15

    HIV incidence rates are higher among black men who have sex with men (BMSM) as compared with MSM of other race/ethnicities in the USA. We found that blood memory CD4 cells from BMSM express higher levels of α4β7, the gut-homing integrin, compared with white MSM. Higher expression of α4β7 on blood CD4 cells correlated with higher percentage of proliferating CD4α4β7 cells in rectal tissue suggesting increased trafficking of potential HIV target cells to rectal mucosa could increase HIV susceptibility among BMSM. PMID:26891038

  7. 77 FR 15597 - Special Local Regulation; USAT Triathlon/Race Rowing Competition; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; USAT Triathlon/Race Rowing... the USAT Triathlon/Race Rowing Competition. Entry into, transiting in or anchoring in this area is... from safety hazards associated with the USAT Triathlon and Race Rowing Competition. Basis and...

  8. The role of the Black Church in the lives of young Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Kelly, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    In the USA, the Black Church is among the most important institutions in the Black community, offering numerous spiritual, social and health benefits. Yet, the presence of homonegativity in many Black Churches may mitigate those effects for gay Black youth. This research examines the role of the Church in the lives of gay and bisexual Black youth to understand how they reconcile any tension between their religious and sexual identities. Through interviews with pastors of Black churches (n = 21) and young Black men who have sex with men (n = 30), we explored homonegativity and young men's experiences within the Black Church. Findings reveal that despite the prevalence of homonegativity within Black churches, religious involvement remains important for young men and many remain involved in non-affirming churches. The importance of the Church for young men stems from their significant involvement as youth and the integration of religion, family and community. Young men may not be able to leave their religious homes as readily as other gay youth given the cultural relevance of the Church. As a result, young men made attempts to conceal their sexuality in church to avoid shame and gossip and find opportunities to balance their sexuality and religiosity. PMID:26489851

  9. Representations of race relations in the classroom: the black in the everyday school life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma de Nazaré Baía Coelho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some preliminaries results of a research that investigates the representations about race, color, Difference, Prejudgment and Racial Discrimination of the school’s agents teachers, employees and students on the quotidian of the History’s, Portuguese’s and Art’s classes of the first two year of the secondary education of a Belém-PA’s private school, in order to understand the place of the black people in the school pedagogic practices, regarding the obligation of touching racial subjects as established by the low 10.639/2003. Using the methodological and theoretic approach of Pierre Bourdieu and Roger Chartier, we analyzed the representations obtained by the non-participative observation in those classes. We realized that teachers almost didn’t know anything about the low 10.639/2003 and about the ethnic and racial question on Brazil, what brings as result the reproduction of racial prejudgment and discrimination by the students. Our analysis aims, from understanding the problems with teacher development, to understand the problems related to the ethnic and racial question at school and propose solutions.

  10. Cause-specific mortality by race in low-income Black and White people with Type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, B N; May, M E; Fischl, A; Frisbee, J; Han, X; Blot, W J

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate, with extended follow-up, cause-specific mortality among low-income Black and White Americans with Type 2 diabetes who have similar socio-economic status. Methods Black and White Americans aged 40–79 years with Type 2 diabetes (n = 12 498) were recruited from community health centres as part of the Southern Community Cohort Study. Multivariable Cox analysis was used to estimate mortality hazard ratios and 95% CIs for subsequent cause-specific mortality, based on both underlying and contributing causes of death. Results During the follow-up (median 5.9 years), 13.3% of the study population died. The leading causes of death in each race were ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disorders, cancer, renal failure and heart failure; however, Blacks were at a lower risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.91) or respiratory disorders (hazard ratio 0.70, 0.53–0.92) than Whites but had higher or similar mortality attributable to renal failure (hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI 1.02–2.40), heart failure (hazard ratio 1.47, 95% CI 0.98–2.19) and cancer (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.62–1.22). Risk factors for each cause of death were generally similar in each race. Conclusions These findings suggest that the leading causes of death and their risk factors are largely similar among Black and White Americans with diabetes. For the two leading causes of death in each race, however, ischaemic heart disease and respiratory disorders, the magnitude of risk is lower among Black Americans and contributes to their higher survival rates. PMID:25112863

  11. The Effect of Race on Self-Esteem and Depression in Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Patricia D.; And Others

    This study examined relationships between self-esteem, depression, and race in 70 learning disabled high school students (39 white and 31 black). Subjects were administered the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory and the Children's Depression Inventory. Statistical analysis indicated a significant sex by race interaction. Both white females and…

  12. Sex discrimination from the glenoid cavity in black South Africans: morphometric analysis of digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, P James

    2011-11-01

    Given that skeletal material recovered from medicolegal contexts is often incomplete or damaged, forensic anthropologists need to have a variety of techniques at their disposal in order to correctly determine the sex of unidentified human remains. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to produce practical standards for discriminating the sex of black South Africans using measurements of the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Standardized digital photographs of the left glenoid fossa were taken for 60 males and 60 females drawn from the Pretoria Bone Collection. An image analysis software program was then used to collect height, breadth, area, and perimeter data from each digital photograph. All four dimensions of the glenoid cavity were highly sexually dimorphic in this population group (p Classification sex biases were below 5.0% for all equations. These results demonstrate that the analysis of glenoid cavity size provides a highly accurate method for discriminating the sex of black South Africans. PMID:20814691

  13. Phylogeny of diving beetles reveals a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bergsten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Darwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined Bayesian phylogenetics, complete taxon sampling and a multi-gene approach to test the arms race scenario on a robust diving beetle phylogeny. As predicted, suction cups in males and modified dorsal surfaces in females showed a pronounced coevolutionary pattern. The female dorsal modifications impair the attachment ability of male suction cups, but each antagonistic novelty in females corresponds to counter-differentiation of suction cups in males. CONCLUSIONS: A recently diverged sibling species pair in Japan is possibly one consequence of this arms race and we suggest that future studies on hypoxia might reveal the key to the extraordinary selection for female counter-adaptations in diving beetles.

  14. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    OpenAIRE

    Kok-Yong Chin; Ima-Nirwana Soelaiman; Isa Naina Mohamed; Fairus Ahmad; Elvy Suhana Mohd Ramli; Amilia Aminuddin; Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their...

  15. Differences in substance use, psychosocial characteristics and hiv-related sexual risk behavior between black men who have sex with men only (BMSMO) and black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW) in six US cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dyer, TP; Regan, R; Wilton, L.; Harawa, NT; Ou, SS; Wang, L.; Shoptaw, S.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed associations in substance use, psychosocial characteristics, andHIVrelated sexual risk behaviors, comparing characteristics of Black men who only have sex with other men only (BMSMO; n=839) to Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW; n=590). The study analyzed baseline data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network Brothers Study (HPTN061), a feasibility study of amulti-component intervention for Black MSM in six US cities. Bivariate analyses compared BMSMO to BMSMWalong dem...

  16. Measuring CETA's Impact on Earnings by Race and Sex: A Tennessee Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Barbara H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compares pre-CETA and post-CETA earnings and income for racial and sexual categories, controlling for age and education. It was found that White gains exceed those for Blacks but that the White income distribution appears to converge with that of Blacks after CETA. (CT)

  17. Does the "Negro" "Still" Need Separate Schools? Single-Sex Educational Settings as Critical Race Counterspaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Clarence L., Sr.; Flennaugh, Terry K.; Blackmon, Samarah M.; Howard, Tyrone C.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether contemporary educators should consider single-sex educational settings as viable interventions in educating African American males. Using qualitative data from a 2-year study of single-sex educational spaces in two Los Angeles County high schools, the authors argue that when all-male spaces effectively function as…

  18. Black Male Masculinity and Same-Sex Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shanette M.

    1992-01-01

    Examines how African-American alternative masculine behaviors are expressed within same-sex peer groups and friendships. It is proposed that African-American males have adopted an alternative style of masculinity to cope with social and interpersonal pressures, even though it can sometimes be dysfunctional and associated with negative…

  19. Ties that bind: community attachment and the experience of discrimination among Black men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Van Sluytman, Laurens; Spikes, Pilgrim; Nandi, Vijay; Van Tieu, Hong; Frye, Victoria; Patterson, Jocelyn; Koblin, Beryl

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, the impact of psychological distress may be greater for Black men who have sex with men given that they may experience both racial discrimination in society at large and discrimination due to sexual orientation within Black communities. Attachments to community members may play a role in addressing psychological distress for members of this vulnerable population. This analysis is based on 312 Black men who have sex with men recruited for a behavioural intervention trial in New Yor...

  20. Pathways to embodiment of HIV risk: black men who have sex with transgender partners, Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari; Mimiaga, Matthew; Bland, Sean E; Driscoll, Maura A; Cranston, Kevin; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2012-02-01

    A dearth of research to date has explored HIV risk among Black men who report sex with transgender partners. In 2008, 197 Black men residing in Massachusetts were recruited via modified respondent-driven sampling and completed an interviewer-administered survey. Overall, 8% reported sex with a transgender partner in the past 12 months. Over half (56%) reported unprotected sex during their last encounter with transgender partners. Factors significantly associated with having a transgender sex partner: history of substance abuse, incarceration, PTSD symptoms, lower levels of perceived social support, not having been exposed to HIV prevention services in the past 12 months, and endorsement of mobile van services as a comfortable location to access health care. These formative data suggest that Black men who partner with transgender individuals may be at elevated risk for an array of poorer health-related outcomes, including HIV sexual risk, substance abuse, incarceration, psychosocial vulnerability, and lack of access to health care. Theory-driven interventions that consider the broader context affecting the embodiment of HIV risk are warranted for men who have sex with transgender partners. PMID:22339142

  1. The Sex and Race Specific Relationship between Anthropometry and Body Fat Composition Determined from Computed Tomography: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Mongraw-Chaffin

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the relationship of anthropometric measurements with computed tomography (CT body fat composition, and even fewer determined if these relationships differ by sex and race.CT scans from 1,851 participants in the population based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were assessed for visceral and subcutaneous fat areas by semi-automated segmentation of body compartments. Regression models were used to investigate relationships for anthropometry with visceral and subcutaneous fat separately by sex and race/ethnicity.Participants were 50% female, 41% Caucasian, 13% Asian, 21% African American, and 25% Hispanic. For visceral fat, the positive relationship with weight (p = 0.028, waist circumference (p<0.001, waist to hip ratio (p<0.001, and waist to height ratio (p = 0.05 differed by sex, with a steeper slope for men. That is, across the range of these anthropometric measures the rise in visceral fat is faster for men than for women. Additionally, there were differences by race/ethnicity in the relationship with height (p<0.001, weight (p<0.001, waist circumference (p<0.001, hip circumference (p = 0.006, and waist to hip ratio (p = 0.001 with the Hispanic group having shallower slopes. For subcutaneous fat, interaction by sex was found for all anthropometric indices at p<0.05, but not for race/ethnicity.The relationship between anthropometry and underlying adiposity differs by sex and race/ethnicity. When anthropometry is used as a proxy for visceral fat in research, sex-specific models should be used.

  2. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G; Rogers, Richard G; Hummer, Robert A; Krueger, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals' life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  3. Black Civitas: An Examination of Carter Woodson's Contributions to Teaching about Race, Citizenship, and the Black Soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony L.; Crowley, Ryan M.; King, LaGarrett J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors interrogate the historical meaning of the African American soldier in order to widen the discussion of race and citizenship in the field of social studies education. The article has two overarching purposes. First, the authors attend to the recent call in the field of social studies for a more rigorous analysis of…

  4. "Becoming Bold": Alcohol use and sexual exploration among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce; Gordon, Kristie K.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use is correlated with unprotected sex, which may place YMSM who use alcohol with sex at increased risk for contracting HIV. However, little is known about how this link develops. This study used qualitative interviews to explore how alcohol became associated with sex and sexual risk among YMSM. We purposively sampled 20 Black and 20 Latino YMSM (N=40), ages 21–24, who used substances (alcohol, marijuana, and crystal methamphetamine) with sex. Interviews focused on participants’ perso...

  5. From Their Voices: Barriers to HIV Testing among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men Remain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Alex Washington

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV testing continues to be a major priority for addressing the epidemic among young Black men who have sex with men (BMSM. Methods: This study explored barriers to HIV testing uptake, and recommendations for motivating HIV testing uptake among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM aged 18 to 30. BMSM (N = 36 were recruited through flyers and social media for six focus groups. Results: From the perspectives and experiences of young BMSM, participants recommended that information be included in HIV testing messages that would help young BMSM do self HIV-risk appraisals. Particularly, participants recommended that more knowledge about Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP and the role of PrEP in safer-sex practices be provided. This information is important to help those untested, or who infrequently test, better understand their risk and need for testing. Likewise, participants recommended that more information about a person being undetectable and the risk of condomless sex with an HIV negative sex partner; this information will be helpful for both the HIV negative and HIV positive sex partner for making safer sex decisions. Participants also recommended that interventions should focus on more than drug use as risk; the risk posed by the use of alcohol before and during sex deserves attention among young BMSM. Conclusions: These findings may inform new HIV testing interventions being tailored for young BMSM. The interventions should also consider revisiting street-based peer-outreach approaches for those young BMSM with limited access to social media campaigns due to limited access or infrequent use of social media.

  6. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    OpenAIRE

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clini...

  7. Changes in Childhood Pneumonia Hospitalizations by Race and Sex Associated with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Andrew D; Grijalva, Carlos G; Zhu, Yuwei; Mitchel, Edward F; Griffin, Marie R

    2016-06-01

    Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the childhood immunization schedule was associated with decreases in all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among black and white children in Tennessee, USA. Although racial disparities that existed before introduction of these vaccines have been substantially reduced, rates remain higher in boys than in girls among young children. PMID:27197048

  8. Changes in Childhood Pneumonia Hospitalizations by Race and Sex Associated with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva, Carlos G.; Zhu, Yuwei; Mitchel, Edward F.; Griffin, Marie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the childhood immunization schedule was associated with decreases in all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among black and white children in Tennessee, USA. Although racial disparities that existed before introduction of these vaccines have been substantially reduced, rates remain higher in boys than in girls among young children. PMID:27197048

  9. Race and Assessment Practice in South Africa: Understanding Black Academic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawitz, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts to transform the racialised system of higher education in South Africa inherited from apartheid, there has been little research published that interrogates the relationship between race and the experience of academic staff within the South African higher education environment. Drawing on critical discourse analysis and critical…

  10. Column: Black Woman Health - Gender and race institutional discrimination. How the nurse can prevent these violations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel CF da Cruz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The gender aspects of racial discrimination and the racial aspects of gender discrimination must be included in the healths disciplines. Intersectionality is a feminist approach to combat gender and race discrimination. This column highlight key issues related to prevent and/or combat institutional racism in the health system.

  11. Decolonizing Higher Education: Black Feminism and the Intersectionality of Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Safia Mirza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on black feminist theory, this paper examines the professional experiences of postcolonial diasporic black and ethnicized female academics in higher education. The paper explores the embodiment of gendered and racialized difference and reflects on the power of whiteness to shape everyday experiences in such places of privilege. The powerful yet hidden histories of women of color in higher education, such as the Indian women suffragettes and Cornelia Sorabji in late nineteenth century, are symbolic of the erasure of an ethnicized black feminist/womanist presence in mainstream (white educational establishments. The paper concludes that an understanding of black and ethnicized female agency and desire for education and learning is at the heart of a black feminist analysis that reclaims higher education as a radical site of resistance and refutation.

  12. Relational Teaching with Black Boys: Strategies for Learning at a Single-Sex Middle School for Boys of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joseph Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Positive teacher-student relationships are critical for Black boys' learning across single-sex and coeducational environments. Limited attention to these relationships by school professionals is rooted in deficit-oriented conceptions of boyhood and Black masculinity. The popular message of deficiency and pathology is clear:…

  13. The social construction of race and gender: Black women officers in the U.S. Navy

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Kathleen B.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis explores the impact of life histories on the attitudes and experiences of Black women officers. In-depth, personal interviews with fifteen women officers, concentrating heavily on life histories, were the major source of data. Literature and studies concentrating on military Black women are few and limited in scope. This thesis attempts to unveil the importance of understandi...

  14. HIV Prevalence Rates Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Southern United States: Population-Based Estimates by Race/Ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    Williams Distinguished Scholar Gary Gates co-authored a paper titled “HIV Prevalence Rates Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Southern United States: Population-Based Estimates by Race/Ethnicity” that has been published in the journal AIDS and Behavior. The report addresses the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) across the southern United States and specifically considers HIV prevalence across racial and ethnic groups. Analyses suggest that HIV rates are subst...

  15. Race Relations Stories: How Southeast Asian Refugees Interpret the Ancestral Narration of Black and White Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jeremy; Moore, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    The contact hypothesis (Allport 1954) predicts that cross-racial interaction can produce social bonding under certain status, relational, and institutional conditions. We extend this classic theory on ingroups and outgroups using qualitative data on Cambodian and Hmong refugees' recollections of casual conversations about ancestry with black and…

  16. Teach for America's Paradoxical Diversity Initiative: Race, Policy, and Black Teacher Displacement in Urban Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Terrenda

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the paradox of Teach For America's diversity gains and its support for policies that contribute to Black teacher decline in urban communities. TFA has countered claims that its expansion is connected to teacher displacement, but its two-pronged structure--as an alternative certification program and an influential policy actor…

  17. The Intersection of Race and Gender in School Leadership for Three Black Female Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Latish Cherie

    2012-01-01

    Using four assumptions of Black feminism, this qualitative study describes the practice of three African-American female principals in predominantly African-American, urban high schools. First, in general, the principals seemed to understand their experiences as part of a larger historical context. Second, given the shared racial and gender…

  18. "Soft" Skills and Race: An Investigation of Black Men's Employment Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Philip; Tilly, Chris

    1996-01-01

    Interviews with 75 managers at 56 firms revealed the increasing importance of "soft" skills such as motivation and interaction with customers and coworkers; managers' perception that black men are lacking in soft skills, based on experience with past employees/applicants and media images; and high reliance on interviews in hiring. (SK)

  19. Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn

    2016-04-01

    Widespread awareness of the recent deaths of several black males at the hands of police has revealed an unaddressed public health challenge-determining the root causes of excessive use of force by police applied to black males that may result in "justifiable homicides." The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities and created inequitable life chances for black males. Currently, the discipline of public health has not applied an intersectional approach that investigates the intersection of race and gender to understanding police behaviors that lead to "justifiable homicides" for black males. This article applies the core tenets and processes of Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to develop a framework that can improve research and interventions to address the disparities observed in recent trend analyses of "justifiable homicides." Accordingly, we use PHCRP to offer an alternative framework on the social, legal, and health implications of violence-related incidents. We aim to move the literature in this area forward to help scholars, policymakers, and activists build the capacity of communities to address the excessive use of force by police to reduce mortality rates from "justifiable homicides." PMID:26661386

  20. Pulping the Black Atlantic:Race, Genre and Commodification in the Detective Fiction of Chester Himes

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, William Blackmore

    2011-01-01

    The career path of African American novelist Chester Himes is often characterised as a u-turn. Himes grew to recognition in the 1940s as a writer of the Popular Front, and a pioneer of the era’s black ‘protest’ fiction. However, after falling out of domestic favour in the early 1950s, Himes emigrated to Paris, where he would go on to publish eight Harlem-set detective novels (1957-1969) for Gallimard’s La Série Noire. Himes’s ‘black’ noir fiction brought him critical and commercial success am...

  1. The role of sexually explicit material in the sexual development of same-sex-attracted Black adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  2. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  3. Homonegativity, Religiosity, and the Intersecting Identities of Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV. Homonegativity, or the stigma associated with homosexuality, may be an important social factor influencing racial disparities in HIV. This research, conducted using an intersectional framework, examines experiences of homonegativity among YBMSM with a particular emphasis on the influence of the Black Church. We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with YBMSM ages 16-24. Interview transcripts were analyzed in MAXQDA using thematic content analysis, guided by principles of grounded theory and constant comparative method. The Black Church is an integral aspect of YBMSM's identity, history, family, and community life. As such, the Church's construction of homosexuality dominated throughout YBMSM's lives. The expectations of masculinity facing YBMSM emphasize expectations of physical and sexual dominance, which are viewed as incompatible with homosexuality. Participants describe complex decision-making around whether to disclose their sexuality and to whom, and weigh the consequences of disclosure and non-disclosure. For many YBMSM, their multiple, intersecting identities significantly influenced their experiences with homonegativity and their decisions about disclosing their sexual orientation. Findings lend support for the need to develop community-, family-, and church-based stigma reduction interventions that address homonegativity among YBMSM. PMID:26373283

  4. Production and Perception of Sex Differences in Vocalizations of Wied’s Black-Tufted-Ear Marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam S.; Birnie, Andrew K.; Lane, Kent R.; FRENCH, JEFFREY A.

    2009-01-01

    Males and females from many species produce distinct acoustic variations of functionally identical call types. Social behavior may be primed by sex-specific variation in acoustic features of calls. We present a series of acoustic analyses and playback experiments as methods for investigating this subject. Acoustic parameters of phee calls produced by Wied’s black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii) were analyzed for sex differences. Discriminant function analyses showed that calls contai...

  5. Children's Attitudes toward Race and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Juliet L.

    An implicit assumption in the majority of literature looking at development of prejudice in children is that race prejudice and sex prejudice are equivalent across groups; that is, sex bias is not conditional on race, and likewise race bias is not conditional on sex bias of the child. However, Warner, Fishbein, Ritchey and Case (2001) found strong…

  6. Sex, Race, and Age Differences in Observed Years of Life, Healthy Life, and Able Life among Older Adults in The Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thielke, Stephen M.; Diehr, Paula H.; Yee, Laura M.; Arnold, Alice M.; Quiñones, Ana R.; Whitson, Heather E.; Mini E. Jacob; Newman, Anne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Longevity fails to account for health and functional status during aging. We sought to quantify differences in years of total life, years of healthy life, and years of able life among groups defined by age, sex, and race. Design: Primary analysis of a cohort study. Setting: 18 years of annual evaluations in four U.S. communities. Participants: 5888 men and women aged 65 and older. Measurements: Years of life were calculated as the time from enrollment to death or 18 years. Years of...

  7. Perceived ethnic discrimination and cigarette smoking: examining the moderating effects of race/ethnicity and gender in a sample of Black and Latino urban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Monge, Angela; Agosta, John; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Stanton, Cassandra; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently. PMID:26054448

  8. “They think you’re lazy,” and Other Messages Black Parents Send Their Black Sons: An Exploration of Critical Race Theory in the Examination of Educational Outcomes for Black Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Reynolds

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Parents play an integral role in the social, emotional, physical, and intellectual development of their children. We know that school success has been associated with parents’ involvement and engagement1 practices. Studies have shown that despite socioeconomic disparities, children whose parents are involved perform markedly better than those whose parents are not. Little research has looked exclusively at parent involvement and its effects on the educational outcomes of Black males. A qualitative study conducted with Black parents and their involvement and engagement practices as the focus proved that this relationship warrants scholarly attention using Critical Race Theory as a tool for examination. Parents in this study were involved in their children’s educational processes in ways not always validated or valued by schools. Instead of engaging in conventional forms of involvement such as volunteering in the classroom, parents spent time and resources supplementing their children’s education at home. Subtle acts of racism manifested through microaggressions were detected by parents when interfacing with school officials2 and these exchanges prompted candid conversations with their sons. According to the parents in this study, deliberate messages about racism and educator expectations were often critical supplements for their Black sons in order to ensure educational success.

  9. Factors affecting incubation patterns and sex roles of black oystercatchers in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Caleb S.; Haig, Susan M.; Goldstein, Michael I.; Huso, Manuela M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of human disturbance on avian parental behavior and reproductive success are fundamental to bird conservation. However, many such studies fail to also consider the influence of natural threats, a variable environment, and parental roles. Our work examines interactive relationships of cyclical (time of day, tide, temperature, seasonality) and stochastic (natural/human disturbance) processes with incubation patterns (attendance, bout lengths, recess rates) of the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), a shorebird of conservation concern. We used 24-hour-per-day video monitoring of 13 molecularly-sexed breeding pairs to systematically examine incubation, revealing previously undocumented information that may inform conservation practices for the genus. Seven of 22 video-monitored nests failed, primarily from egg depredation by nocturnally-active mammals. Analyses of 3177 hrs of video footage indicated a near doubling of incubation bout lengths at night, corresponding to the increased risk of nighttime egg predation. Females had higher overall nest attendance (54% vs. 42%) and longer mean incubation bout lengths than males (88 min vs. 73 min). Uninterrupted incubation bouts were over twice as long as bouts interrupted by disturbance. Incubating males departed nests substantially more frequently due to nest-area disturbances than females in one, but not both, years of our study. Our findings suggest that sexes exhibit different, but complimentary, incubation patterns, facilitating efficient egg care in a dynamic environment with several nest threats. We emphasize the importance of considering natural influences when evaluating human threats to shorebird reproductive behavior and success.

  10. 'They think that gays have money': gender identity and transactional sex among Black men who have sex with men in four South African townships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masvawure, Tsitsi B; Sandfort, Theo G M; Reddy, Vasu; Collier, Kate L; Lane, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Transactional sex has not been studied much among men who have sex with men in Africa. Consequently, little is understood about attitudes towards the practice, the circumstances that give rise to it or how transactional sex relationships are managed. We conducted in-depth interviews with 81 Black men aged 20-44 from four low-resourced townships in Tshwane, South Africa. We found that transactional sex was a widely used strategy for initiating and sustaining relationships with regular and casual partners, and was motivated by both the need for subsistence and for consumption. Alcohol-based exchanges in particular provided men in the townships with a covert and safe platform to communicate erotic, sexual and romantic attraction to other men, and bars and other drinking places were a popular venue for meeting potential sexual partners. The majority of 'feminine-identifying' men had engaged in transactional sex as the providers of money and material goods compared to men who identified as either 'masculine' or as 'both masculine and feminine'. Surprisingly, however, this did not necessarily give them greater control in these relationships. Our study provides an initial foray into a complex sociosexual phenomenon and suggests that gender identity is an important construct for understanding transactional sex relationships among men in Africa. PMID:25714033

  11. Can White Children Grow up to Be Black? Children's Reasoning about the Stability of Emotion and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven O.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research questions whether children conceptualize race as stable. We examined participants' beliefs about the relative stability of race and emotion, a temporary feature. Participants were White adults and children ages 5-6 and 9-10 (Study 1) and racial minority children ages 5-6 (Study 2). Participants were presented with target children…

  12. Associations between Prenatal Exposure to Black Carbon and Memory Domains in Urban Children: Modification by Sex and Prenatal Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney J Cowell

    Full Text Available Whether fetal neurodevelopment is disrupted by traffic-related air pollution is uncertain. Animal studies suggest that chemical and non-chemical stressors interact to impact neurodevelopment, and that this association is further modified by sex.To examine associations between prenatal traffic-related black carbon exposure, prenatal stress, and sex with children's memory and learning.Analyses included N = 258 mother-child dyads enrolled in a Boston, Massachusetts pregnancy cohort. Black carbon exposure was estimated using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model. Prenatal stress was measured using the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey of negative life events. The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML2 was administered at age 6 years; outcomes included the General Memory Index and its component indices [Verbal, Visual, and Attention Concentration]. Relationships between black carbon and WRAML2 index scores were examined using multivariable-adjusted linear regression including effect modification by stress and sex.Mothers were primarily minorities (60% Hispanic, 26% Black; 67% had ≤12 years of education. The main effect for black carbon was not significant for any WRAML2 index; however, in stratified analyses, among boys with high exposure to prenatal stress, Attention Concentration Index scores were on average 9.5 points lower for those with high compared to low prenatal black carbon exposure (P3-way interaction = 0.04.The associations between prenatal exposure to black carbon and stress with children's memory scores were stronger in boys than in girls. Studies assessing complex interactions may more fully characterize health risks and, in particular, identify vulnerable subgroups.

  13. Common roots: a contextual review of HIV epidemics in black men who have sex with men across the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Gregorio A; Jeffries, William L; Peterson, John L; Malebranche, David J; Lane, Tim; Flores, Stephen A; Fenton, Kevin A; Wilson, Patrick A; Steiner, Riley; Heilig, Charles M

    2012-07-28

    Pooled estimates from across the African diaspora show that black men who have sex with men (MSM) are 15 times more likely to be HIV positive compared with general populations and 8·5 times more likely compared with black populations. Disparities in the prevalence of HIV infection are greater in African and Caribbean countries that criminalise homosexual activity than in those that do not criminalise such behaviour. With the exception of US and African epidemiological studies, most studies of black MSM mainly focus on outcomes associated with HIV behavioural risk rather than on prevalence, incidence, or undiagnosed infection. Nevertheless, black MSM across the African diaspora share common experiences such as discrimination, cultural norms valuing masculinity, concerns about confidentiality during HIV testing or treatment, low access to HIV drugs, threats of violence or incarceration, and few targeted HIV prevention resources. PMID:22819654

  14. The Black Male Urban Barbershop as a Sex-Role Socialization Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Clyde W., II

    1985-01-01

    Participant observation found that the barbershop studies perpetuated sex-role stereotypes, encouraged sexist attitudes toward women and, in general, was a sex-role socialization setting that promoted sex-role inequality. (GC)

  15. We've Been Post-Raced: An Examination of Negotiations between Race, Agency, and School Structures Black Families Experience within "Post-Racial" Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Rema E.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the current mainstream contention that the United States has entered a post-racial epoch with the election of the first African American president, this work posits that post-racial rhetoric obfuscates the continued racialized experiences of Black families regardless of class status.

  16. "Bringing home more than a paycheck:" an exploratory analysis of Black lesbians' experiences of stress and coping in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Brooks, Kelly; Ritz, Susan Faye

    2008-01-01

    Although the workplace stress that Black women and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people experience due to prejudice and discrimination has been well-documented in the social science literature, much of this literature focuses on Black women or LGBTs as if these groups were distinct and mutually exclusive. Consequently, there is a void of theory and research on the workplace stress that Black lesbians experience. This qualitative study involved exploratory analyses of workplace stress due to race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation, and coping strategies among a predominantly middle-class, highly educated sample of 19 Black lesbians between the ages of 26 and 68. Four workplace stressors emerged, those relevant to: heterosexism/ sexual identity; racism/race; sexism/sex/gender; and intersections of race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation. Three primary coping strategies emerged: being out and managing being out, covering their sexual orientation, and confronting or educating coworkers about prejudice and discrimination. PMID:19042294

  17. Production and perception of sex differences in vocalizations of Wied's black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam S; Birnie, Andrew K; Lane, Kent R; French, Jeffrey A

    2009-04-01

    Males and females from many species produce distinct acoustic variations of functionally identical call types. Social behavior may be primed by sex-specific variation in acoustic features of calls. We present a series of acoustic analyses and playback experiments as methods for investigating this subject. Acoustic parameters of phee calls produced by Wied's black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii) were analyzed for sex differences. Discriminant function analyses showed that calls contained sufficient acoustic variation to predict the sex of the caller. Several frequency variables differed significantly between the sexes. Natural and synthesized calls were presented to male-female pairs. Calls elicited differential behavioral responses based on the sex of the caller. Marmosets became significantly more vigilant following the playback of male phee calls (both natural and synthetic) than following female phee calls. In a second playback experiment, synthesized calls were modified by independently manipulating three parameters that were known to differ between the sexes (low-, peak-, and end-frequency). When end-frequency-modified calls were presented, responsiveness was differentiable by sex of caller but did not differ from responses to natural calls. This suggests that marmosets did not use end-frequency to determine the sex of the caller. Manipulation of peak-and low-frequency parameters eliminated the discrete behavioral responses to male and female calls. Together, these parameters may be important features that encode for the sex-specific signal. Recognition of sex by acoustic cues seems to be a multivariate process that depends on the congruency of acoustic features. PMID:19090554

  18. Sex Differences in Subclinical Atherosclerosis by Race/Ethnicity in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Catherine; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Polak, Joseph F.; Post, Wendy S.; Siscovick, David S.; Watson, Karol E.; Vahratian, Anjel M.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in cardiovascular disease mortality are more pronounced among non-Hispanic whites than other racial/ethnic groups, but it is unknown whether this variation is present in the earlier subclinical stages of disease. The authors examined racial/ethnic variation in sex differences in coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid intimal media thickness at baseline in 2000–2002 among participants (n = 6,726) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using binomial and linear re...

  19. Childhood sexual experiences among substance-using non-gay identified Black men who have sex with men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Ellen; Downing, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored potential variations in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) by examining qualitative accounts of first sexual experiences among non-disclosing, non-gay identified Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). We analyzed data from semi-structured qualitative interviews with 33 MSMW who described first sexual experiences with male and female partners. Thematic analysis revealed four patterns of first sexual experiences including: unwanted sexual experiences with a male or fema...

  20. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J R Lafferty

    Full Text Available Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol, key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116 as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD] and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD. We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  1. Perceived Support from Adults, Interactions with Police, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptomology: An Examination of Sex, Race, and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Several risk factors, including female sex, racial minority status, and family poverty, have been implicated in adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the role of one specific aspect of adolescents' ecological context, interactions with adults, in depressive symptomology. We examined the relationship between perceived support from…

  2. Learning To Speak Out in an Abstinence Based Sex Education Group: Gender and Race Work in an Urban Magnet School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Lois

    This paper describes an abstinence-based sex education group for diverse girls in grades 7-12 in an urban magnet school. Data were gathered from a within-school program, My Bottom Line, which was designed to prevent or delay the onset of sexual activity, build self-esteem, and increase young women's self-sufficiency through an abstinence based,…

  3. Sex, contraception and parenthood: experience and attitudes among urban black young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S D; Zabin, L S; Hardy, J B

    1984-01-01

    Eighty-seven percent of black adolescent males attending an inner-city junior high school and senior high school in Baltimore report that they have had sexual intercourse. Eighty percent of the sexually experienced teenagers have used a contraceptive method--and 60 percent used one at last intercourse. Contraceptive practice is characterized by heavy reliance on male methods: Of those using a method at last intercourse, 41 percent relied on the condom; 15 percent, on withdrawal; and 14 percent, on a combination of male and female methods. Use of female methods alone (mostly the pill) accounted for 28 percent of contraceptive practice at last intercourse. Nine-tenths of the teenagers have heard of the pill and condom, but far smaller majorities have heard of the IUD and diaphragm (about three-fifths each). In general, this population regards the condom as comparable in effectiveness to the pill. More than two-fifths of those recognizing these methods believe the pill--and the condom--to be "very good" at preventing pregnancy, and one-fifth believe that about the IUD and diaphragm. Nearly four in 10 mistakenly believe that they need a parent's permission to attend a birth control clinic, while slightly more than half think they need permission to buy nonprescription contraceptives in a drugstore . Although nearly nine in 10 respondents recognize that boys share a responsibility for preventing pregnancy when they have sex, more than half are willing to tolerate unprotected coitus. Most wish to delay parenthood until their early 20s, but many of these adolescents appear to hold attitudes conducive to out-of- wedlock conception.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6723943

  4. Phenotypic plasticity in the Idotea baltica basteri (Crustacea, Isopoda sex ratio in Odessa bay, Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Varigin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The degree of phenotypic plasticity in the Idotea baltica basteri Audouin, 1827 (Crustacea, Isopoda sex ratio of the fouling community in the Odessa bay of the Black Sea was determined. The ratio of males and females in three main phenotypes of I. baltica basteri, namely: uniformis, albafusca and lineata was found. Crustaceans were collected on the underwater surface of traverses, located in three sea districts with the different degrees of water exchange intensity with the open sea. Water depth at the wall of traverses ranged from 1 to2,5 m. In the first most opened district among the individuals of uniformis phenotype the ratio of males and females was equal to 1:4, that for albafusca – 1:1,3 and lineata – 1:1. In the second area with the release of drainage waters among the individuals of uniformis phenotype this ratio was equal to 1:4,5, while the albafusca and lineata figures were 1:1,5 and 1:1, accordingly. In the third region, with the most difficult water exchange, among the individuals of phenotypes the ratios of males and females were as follows: uniformis – 1:8, albafusca – 1:2, and lineata – 1:1. When moving from the opened to semi-enclosed area among the individuals of all phenotypes there was a gradual decline in the proportion of males and accordingly, increases of the proportion of females. The greatest number of males in all areas under study is observed among the individuals of lineata phenotype, and that of females – among the individuals of uniformis phenotype. It is found that monochromatic colored females prefer to stay in the shaded places among the seagrass beds and brightly colored males usually move actively along the outside of the substrata.

  5. Interest-Divergence and the Colour of Cutbacks: Race, Recession and the Undeclared War on Black Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillborn, David

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Critical Race Theory (CRT) and illustrating with examples from the English system, the paper addresses the hidden racist dimension to contemporary education reforms and argues that this is a predictable and recurrent theme at times of economic crisis. Derrick Bell's concept of "interest-convergence" argues that moments of…

  6. Why Black Girls Don't Matter: Exploring How Race and Gender Shape Academic Success in an Inner City School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollock, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The continued low academic attainment of Black pupils is now a well-established, familiar feature of the annual statistics of educational attainment. Black pupils tend to consistently perform below their white counterparts and below the national average. Key debates, examining how to address the difference in attainment gap, have tended to focus…

  7. Facing inwards and outwards?: Institutional racism, race equality and the role of Black and Asian professional associations

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Coretta

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the role and influence of black and Asian professional associations in the criminal justice services, five years on from the pivotal Lawrence Inquiry (1999) and its assertion that ‘institutional racism’ was endemic in the British police service. Drawing on interviews with Chairpersons of seven professional associations, and a small case study of the Association of Black Probation Officers, the article explores their internal supportive function in assisting members who ...

  8. Effects of race and sex on cerebral hemodynamics, oxygen delivery and blood flow distribution in response to high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Yang; Ren, Li-Hua; Li, Li; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Shan-Shan; Li, Su-Zhi; Cao, Tie-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    To assess racial, sexual, and regional differences in cerebral hemodynamic response to high altitude (HA, 3658 m). We performed cross-sectional comparisons on total cerebral blood flow (TCBF = sum of bilateral internal carotid and vertebral arterial blood flows = QICA + QVA), total cerebrovascular resistance (TCVR), total cerebral oxygen delivery (TCOD) and QVA/TCBF (%), among six groups of young healthy subjects: Tibetans (2-year staying) and Han (Han Chinese) at sea level, Han (2-day, 1-year and 5-year) and Tibetans at HA. Bilateral ICA and VA diameters and flow velocities were derived from duplex ultrasonography; and simultaneous measurements of arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, and hemoglobin concentration were conducted. Neither acute (2-day) nor chronic (>1 year) responses showed sex differences in Han, except that women showed lower TCOD compared with men. Tibetans and Han exhibited different chronic responses (percentage alteration relative to the sea-level counterpart value) in TCBF (‑17% vs. 0%), TCVR (22% vs. 12%), TCOD (0% vs. 10%) and QVA/TCBF (0% vs. 2.4%, absolute increase), with lower resting TCOD found in SL- and HA-Tibetans. Our findings indicate racial but not sex differences in cerebral hemodynamic adaptations to HA, with Tibetans (but not Han) demonstrating an altitude-related change of CBF distribution.

  9. Effects of race and sex on cerebral hemodynamics, oxygen delivery and blood flow distribution in response to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Yang; Ren, Li-Hua; Li, Li; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Shan-Shan; Li, Su-Zhi; Cao, Tie-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    To assess racial, sexual, and regional differences in cerebral hemodynamic response to high altitude (HA, 3658 m). We performed cross-sectional comparisons on total cerebral blood flow (TCBF = sum of bilateral internal carotid and vertebral arterial blood flows = QICA + QVA), total cerebrovascular resistance (TCVR), total cerebral oxygen delivery (TCOD) and QVA/TCBF (%), among six groups of young healthy subjects: Tibetans (2-year staying) and Han (Han Chinese) at sea level, Han (2-day, 1-year and 5-year) and Tibetans at HA. Bilateral ICA and VA diameters and flow velocities were derived from duplex ultrasonography; and simultaneous measurements of arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, and hemoglobin concentration were conducted. Neither acute (2-day) nor chronic (>1 year) responses showed sex differences in Han, except that women showed lower TCOD compared with men. Tibetans and Han exhibited different chronic responses (percentage alteration relative to the sea-level counterpart value) in TCBF (-17% vs. 0%), TCVR (22% vs. 12%), TCOD (0% vs. 10%) and QVA/TCBF (0% vs. 2.4%, absolute increase), with lower resting TCOD found in SL- and HA-Tibetans. Our findings indicate racial but not sex differences in cerebral hemodynamic adaptations to HA, with Tibetans (but not Han) demonstrating an altitude-related change of CBF distribution. PMID:27503416

  10. "Let Me Help You Help Me": Church-Based HIV Prevention for Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Terrinieka W; Herbert, Ann; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to identify strategies that could yield more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) living in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample had an equal number of regular and infrequent church attendees. Nearly one-fourth of the sample was HIV-positive. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively using a qualitative content analytic approach. Two main recommendations emerged for churches to offer more inclusive HIV prevention efforts: (1) reduce homosexuality stigma by increasing interpersonal and institutional acceptance, and (2) address the sexual health needs of all congregants by offering universal and targeted sexual health promotion. Thus, results support a tiered approached to providing more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. We conclude that Black churches can be a critical access point for HIV prevention among YBMSM and represent an important setting to intervene. PMID:27244189

  11. Monetary Value of Diet Is Associated with Dietary Quality and Nutrient Adequacy among Urban Adults, Differentially by Sex, Race and Poverty Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available The association between monetary value of the diet (MVD, $/day with dietary quality was examined using a large sample of urban US adults, differentially by socio-demographic factors.This was a cross-sectional study of 2,111 participants, aged 30-64y, using data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study. Dietary quality indices included Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010 and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR, (two 24-hr recalls. A national food price database was used to estimate MVD. Multiple linear/logistic regression analyses were conducted stratifying separately by sex, race and poverty status.Women had significantly higher HEI-2010 scores than men (43.35 vs 41.57 out of 100, respectively, whereas MAR scores were higher for men (76.8 vs 69.9, out of 100, reflecting energy intake gender differentials. Importantly, a $3/day higher MVD (IQR: $3.70/d (Q1 to $6.62/d (Q4 was associated with a 4.98±0.35 higher total HEI-2010 and a 3.88±0.37 higher MAR score, after energy-adjustment and control for key confounders. For HEI-2010 and MAR, stronger associations were observed among participants above poverty and among women, whilethe MVD vs. HEI-2010 association was additionally stronger among Whites. Sex and poverty status differentials were observed for many MAR and some HEI-2010 components.Despite positive associations between measures of dietary quality and MVD, particularly above poverty and among women, approaching compliance with the Dietary Guidelines (80 or more for HEI-2010 requires a substantially higher MVD. Thus, nutrition education may further improve people's decision-making regarding food venues and dietary choices.

  12. The Historical Context of the Single-Sex Schooling Debate among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Audrey T.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that similarities in the socioeconomic and racial climate and the attempt to refute negative gender and race-inspired images were circumstances that were present in the emergence of single-sex schools for blacks. It examines the worth of such schools in affecting positive social change. (GLR)

  13. Types of female partners reported by black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and associations with intercourse frequency, unprotected sex and HIV and STI prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harawa, N; Wilton, L; Wang, L; Mao, C; Kuo, I; Penniman, T; Shoptaw, S; Griffith, S; Williams, J K; Cummings, V; Mayer, K; Koblin, B

    2014-08-01

    We used baseline data from a study of Black MSM/MSMW in 6 US cities to examine the association of female partnership types with disease prevalence and sexual behaviors among the 555 MSMW participants. MSMW reported more than three times as many total and unprotected sex acts with each primary as they did with each non-primary female partner. We compared MSMW whose recent female partners were: (1) all primary ("PF only", n = 156), (2) both primary and non-primary ("PF & NPF", n = 186), and (3) all non-primary ("NPF only", n = 213). HIV/STI prevalence did not differ significantly across groups but sexual behaviors did. The PF only group had the fewest male partners and was the most likely to have only primary male partners; the PF & NPF group was the most likely to have transgender partners. PF & NPF men reported the most sex acts (total and unprotected) with females; NPF only men reported the fewest. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are discussed. PMID:24523006

  14. On the transgressiveness of ambiguity: Richard Bruce Nugent and the flow of sexuality and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J Edgar

    2015-01-01

    The study focuses on the slender corpus of literary work by Harlem Renaissance poet, author and visual artist Richard Bruce Nugent (1906-1987), arguably America's foremost Black aesthete. As an individualist in the footsteps of post-Hegelian and pre-Nietzschean philosopher Max Stirner (1806-1856), Nugent sought to re-think sexuality and race beyond fixed schemes of categorial distribution. To this end, Nugent deployed a strategy of sexual and racial ambiguity that aimed at situating the uniquely sexed and raced individual within the continuities of ever-diversifying Nature. Nugent's deconstructive approach of sexuality and race proves to be convergent with (but not genealogically dependent on) the universalization of sexual intermediariness and racial miscegenation postulated by German-Jewish sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld during the first third of the twentieth century. Nugent's non-identitarian conception of sex acts anticipated by more than a decade comparable insights propounded by Alfred Kinsey. PMID:25710478

  15. Ecdysteroids: the overlooked sex steroids of insects? Males: the black box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ARNOLD DE LOOF

    2006-01-01

    The paradigm, still around in textbooks, that 'in insects sex is strictly genetic,thus that they do not have sex hormones', is mainly based on a wrong interpretation of the 'gynandromorph argument'. It is no longer tenable. Given the fact that vertebrates and invertebrates probably had a common, sexually reproducing ancestor, there is no reason to assume that only vertebrates need sex hormones. The major function of sex hormones is to inform the somatoplasm about developmental changes that take place in the gonads. In contrast to juvenile hormone and neuropeptides, ecdysteroids meet all criteria to act as sex hormones, which was probably their ancient role. Their much better documented role in moulting and metamorphosis was a secondary acquisition that enabled arthropods to cope with growth problems, imposed by a rigid cuticle. Female insects use 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), secreted by the follicle cells of the ovary, in a similar way as females of egg-laying vertebrates use estrogens. For a variety of reasons, the possibility that ecdysteroids, in particular ecdysone (E), might also act as sex hormones in male insects, thus as the counterpart of testosterone of vertebrates, has been very much overlooked. Thanks to the recent discovery of the molecular basis of the haploid-diploid system of sex determination in the honeybee, the characterization of Halloween genes, proteomics, RNAi and so on, it now becomes possible to verify whether in insects, as with vertebrates, males are the endocrinologically default gender form.

  16. The Gender and Race Composition of Jobs and the Male/Female, White/Black Pay Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of North Carolina survey data indicates that females' average hourly wages were 71% of males', and blacks' wages were 78% of whites'. Human capital factors (educational attainment and occupational experience) explained 31% and 3% of the racial and gender gaps, respectively. Job gender composition explained 56% of the gender gap; job…

  17. Norms And Environment Of Gender, Sex, And Love: Black Female Protagonists In Toni Morrison's Sula

    OpenAIRE

    KESUR BHUPENDRA NANDLAL; KHAIRNAR ASHOK P.

    2014-01-01

    The present paper discusses the great African American woman novelist Toni Morrison and her novel Sula. This work is an expression of Morrison's concern for the degradation of women in society. It is about two female protagonists who have been born and brought up according to norms and an environment of gender, sex and love that shape their personalities. The female protagonists Sula and Nel represent two different opinions and attitudes toward gender roles, sex and love. Nel follows the conv...

  18. Condom Breakage Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: An In-Depth Investigation Including Men Living With HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro

    2016-02-01

    Correlates of condom breakage (reported by 19% of 398 young black who have sex with men) for anal insertive sex included the following: condoms drying out (P = 0.018), erection loss during application (P = 0.03), and using erection-enhancing drugs (P = 0.003). Breakage was 2.7 times greater for HIV-positive men (P = 0.001). Breakage was associated with testing positive for urethral infections (P = 0.012). PMID:26760179

  19. Race Composition and Earnings: Effects by Race, Region, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer

    1996-12-01

    For more than 40 years, studies have reported that the higher the proportion of blacks in a community, the more white men earn, but the less black men earn. Researchers have speculated that black men earned less because earnings discrimination increases with percent black. Others have suggested that the negative effect of black representation on black men's earnings reflects black men's limited occupational opportunities. This study (1) investigates whether pay discrimination and regional location condition the relationship between black representation and workers' earnings and (2) examines the relationship between black representation and earnings for women. The results, based on 1980 Census data for black and white workers from 267 SMSAs, show that black representation was associated with higher earnings for white men and lower earnings for black men in both the north and south, and that part of the effect for southern black men stemmed from earnings discrimination. Southern black men's earnings gains from black representation offset some of the effects of discrimination, while northern black men encountered costs of black representation even in the absence of earnings discrimination. These findings reflect the disparate economic opportunities of black men in each region as manufacturing jobs have disappeared from the north and relocated to the south. For women, black representation led to higher earnings for blacks and whites. I argue that black representation does not lower black women's earnings because occupational sex segregation prevents black women from threatening white men's economic status. PMID:8980079

  20. Norms And Environment Of Gender, Sex, And Love: Black Female Protagonists In Toni Morrison's Sula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KESUR BHUPENDRA NANDLAL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the great African American woman novelist Toni Morrison and her novel Sula. This work is an expression of Morrison's concern for the degradation of women in society. It is about two female protagonists who have been born and brought up according to norms and an environment of gender, sex and love that shape their personalities. The female protagonists Sula and Nel represent two different opinions and attitudes toward gender roles, sex and love. Nel follows the conventional norms of society; while Sula throughout her life rejects the traditional notions of feminine ‘responsibility’ and refuses to see women as only wives and mothers. This paper also explains how these norms and environment of gender, sex and love destroy the relationship between not only men and women but also women themselves.

  1. [Woman and race biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, H

    1993-01-01

    Early 20th century race biology takes a special interest in woman as part of the "intra-racial" project of bringing forth healthy and competitive individuals. But there are other motives as well for the race biologist to take an interest in woman. She is believed to develop fewer individual characteristics and is therefore a more typical representative of her race than man. The development level of the race is also presupposed to be discernible by the degree of "gender diformism": a race of higher standing would exhibit a greater difference between the sexes. The anthropologist, anatomist, gynaecologist--or whatever guise the race biologist may adopt-- will, in principle, stress that the relation between the sexes is not a matter of "more or less", but one of differences in kind. In reality, the "more-or-less of comparison is the very cornerstone of the issue. Quantitative differences, directly observed or obtained from statistics, are construed as signs of difference in kind. 18th century medical philosophy and sex-linked anthropology laid the theoretical foundation of the 19th century essentialist conception of woman, which is also that adopted by race biology. Eugenics of social Darwinist inspiration regarded prophylactic health care and social welfare programs with scepticism. A race biology founded on the man-woman dualism could sustain altogether different conclusions. An advanced culture calls for extensive division of labour. An extended childhood renders possible higher development but will also impose higher demands on woman. The protection of the female organism is thus an exigency for any people or race striving to survive and evolve. From society's care for the female organism health care for women and preventive maternity care will emerge. Race biology has been a preeminently German concern, as indicated by the selection of works taken to represent this perspective on woman: Bartels-Ploss' Das Weib, C.H. Stratz' Die Rassenschönheit des Weibes and

  2. An analysis of job placement patterns of black and non-black male and female undergraduates at the University of Virginia and Hampton Institute. Ph.D. Thesis - Virginia Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    Research questions were proposed to determine the relationship between independent variables (race, sex, and institution attended) and dependent variables (number of job offers received, salary received, and willingness to recommend source of employer contact). The control variables were academic major, grade point average, placement registration, nonemployment activity, employer, and source of employer contact. An analysis of the results revealed no statistical significance of the institution attended as a predictor of job offers or salary, although significant relationships were found between race and sex and number of job offers received. It was found that academic major, grade point average, and source of employer contact were more useful than race in the prediction of salary. Sex and nonemployment activity were found to be the most important variables in the model. The analysis also indicated that Black students received more job offers than non-Black students.

  3. Racial Identity Attitudes, Womanist Identity Attitudes, and Self-Esteem in African American College Women Attending Historically Black Single-Sex and Coeducational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Sherry Kay

    2006-01-01

    This study examines racial identity attitudes, womanist identity attitudes, and self-esteem of 111 African American college women attending two historically Black higher educational institutions, one coeducational and one single-sex. The major findings indicate that pre-encounter and encounter attitudes of racial and womanist identity are…

  4. Age and Race Differences in Racial Stereotype Awareness and Endorsement

    OpenAIRE

    Copping, Kristine E.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Wood, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults’ beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children’s own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults’ race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and s...

  5. Reconciling Epidemiology and Social Justice in the Public Health Discourse Around the Sexual Networks of Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Derrick D; Smith, Justin C; Brown, Andre L; Malebranche, David J

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have implicated the sexual networks of Black men who have sex with men (MSM) as facilitating disproportionally high rates of new HIV infections within this community. Although structural disparities place these networks at heightened risk for infection, HIV prevention science continues to describe networks as the cause for HIV disparities, rather than an effect of structures that pattern infection. We explore the historical relationship between public health and Black MSM, arguing that the current articulation of Black MSM networks is too often incomplete and counterproductive. Public health can offer a counternarrative that reconciles epidemiology with the social justice that informs our discipline, and that is required for an effective response to the epidemic among Black MSM. PMID:26890175

  6. Achieving HIV risk reduction through HealthMpowerment.org, a user-driven eHealth intervention for young Black men who have sex with men and transgender women who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Muessig, Kathryn E.; Baltierra, Nina B.; Pike, Emily C.; LeGrand, Sara; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2014-01-01

    Young, Black men who have sex with men and transgender women who have sex with men (YBMSM/TW) are at disproportionate risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI). HealthMpowerment.org (HMP) is a mobile phone optimised online intervention that utilises behaviour change and gaming theories to reduce risky sexual behaviours and build community among HIV-positive and negative YBMSM/TW. The intervention is user-driven, provides social support, and utilises a point reward syste...

  7. Race en konstruktion

    OpenAIRE

    Therp, Helga

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates how representations ascribe meaning race in USA. In order to investigate this, I employ a broader perspective by using semiotic analysis on a testimony in the novel Americanah, written by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. Which representation has part in constituting the other and how does these representations internalize in the subject. Representations are however given meaning by other people, which make it necessary to include how The White Gaze positioned blacks. Fur...

  8. Race en konstruktion

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Helga

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates how representations ascribe meaning race in USA. In order to investigate this, I employ a broader perspective by using semiotic analysis on a testimony in the novel Americanah, written by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. Which representation has part in constituting the other and how does these representations internalize in the subject. Representations are however given meaning by other people, which make it necessary to include how The White Gaze positioned blacks. Furt...

  9. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S.; Hazel, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1–3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r2 = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38oC, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal temperatures

  10. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  11. Histological Changes in Sex Pheromone Gland of the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Females Induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pheromone gland of Agrotis ipsilon(Hufn.) untreated adult female is simple closed ring shaped where the glandular epithelium of the abdomen of abdominal fold between the 8th and 9th segment is slightly investigate inside the body cavity. The scent gland as a characteristic tuft of modified scales or hairs which are thin and smooth covering the whole surface of the 9th of the abdominal segment in which the scent gland is located. The histological study of gamma irradiated sex pheromone of the black cut worm female showed that: 1. When 50 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be separated from each other, vacuoles where appeared among them. 2. When 100 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be irregular in shape and some vacuoles were found, the cuticle was also ruptured in some parts. 3. When 150 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium was irregular and vacuoles were obviously found. The cuticle appeared abnormal in some parts and oil drops were decreased

  12. Feminismo negro: raça, identidade e saúde reprodutiva no Brasil (1975-1993 Black feminism: race, identity and reproductive health in brazil (1975-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos Damasco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o propósito de investigar as interfaces entre gênero, cor/raça e saúde pública no Brasil, tendo como foco a importância da saúde reprodutiva para a constituição de um feminismo negro no país, entre os anos de 1975 a 1993. O feminismo negro se formou a partir das relações entre as militantes negras e os movimentos feminista e negro. O tema da saúde reprodutiva, com recorte racial, adquiriu importância na década de 1980, a partir de denúncias de esterilizações cirúrgicas entre mulheres negras. O artigo investiga o contexto em que emergiram tais denúncias e a relevância dessas para a formação de uma identidade entre as ativistas negras.This article aims to investigate the interface between gender, color/race and public health in Brazil, focusing on the importance of reproductive health for the formation of a black feminism in the country, between the years 1975 to 1993. The black feminism was shaped from the relations between black activists and feminist and black rights movements. The topic of reproductive health, under a racial perspective, gained importance in the 1980's from reports of surgical sterilization among black women. The article investigates the context in which such allegations have emerged and their relevance to the formation of an identity among black activists.

  13. Concomitant socioeconomic, behavioral, and biological factors associated with the disproportionate HIV infection burden among Black men who have sex with men in 6 U.S. cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth H Mayer

    Full Text Available American Black men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by HIV, but the factors associated with this concentrated epidemic are not fully understood.Black MSM were enrolled in 6 US cities to evaluate a multi-component prevention intervention, with the current analysis focusing on the correlates of being newly diagnosed with HIV compared to being HIV-uninfected or previously diagnosed with HIV.HPTN 061 enrolled 1553 Black MSM whose median age was 40; 30% self-identified exclusively as gay or homosexual, 29% exclusively as bisexual, and 3% as transgender. About 1/6(th (16.2% were previously diagnosed with HIV (PD; of 1263 participants without a prior HIV diagnosis 7.6% were newly diagnosed (ND. Compared to PD, ND Black MSM were younger (p<0.001; less likely to be living with a primary partner (p<0.001; more likely to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001, rectal gonorrhea (p = 0.011 or chlamydia (p = 0.020. Compared to HIV-uninfected Black MSM, ND were more likely to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI with a male partner in the last 6 months (p<0.001; and to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001, rectal gonorrhea (p = 0.004, and urethral (p = 0.025 or rectal chlamydia (p<0.001. They were less likely to report female (p = 0.002 or transgender partners (p = 0.018. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that ND Black MSM were significantly more likely than HIV-uninfected peers to be unemployed; have STIs, and engage in URAI. Almost half the men in each group were poor, had depressive symptoms, and expressed internalized homophobia.ND HIV-infected Black MSM were more likely to be unemployed, have bacterial STIs and engage in URAI than other Black MSM. Culturally-tailored programs that address economic disenfranchisement, increase engagement in care, screen for STIs, in conjunction with safer sex prevention interventions, may help to decrease further transmission in this heavily

  14. The Lived Experience of Mixed-Race Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study shows a phenomenological account of the mixed-race lived experience. Previous research focused on mixed-race White/Black individuals and mainly consisted of American studies. For this study, six British young adults were interviewed. The participants self identified as mixed-race, all had one Black parent and one White or Indian. Transcripts were analysed using the qualitative method of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Four master themes emerged, Wholeness: more than...

  15. Looking the Part: Social Status Cues Shape Race Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Jonathan B.; Penner, Andrew M.; Aliya Saperstein; Matthias Scheutz; Nalini Ambady

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that race is perceived through another's facial features, such as skin color. In the present research, we demonstrate that cues to social status that often surround a face systematically change the perception of its race. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along White-Black morph continua and that were presented with high-status or low-status attire. Low-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as Black, whereas high-status attire in...

  16. What do young black South Africans think about AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, D

    1992-07-01

    In South Africa, a fatalistic attitude prevails among young black youth toward prevention of HIV transmission. Many of the 3 million black migrant laborers in single-sex hostels have many partners who are prostitutes. Due to culture, race, and class, black women are so oppressed that they cannot even require sex partners to wear condoms. Blacks perceive condoms as a governmental means to control population growth. The Centre for Health and Social Studies has learned that 14-17 year old blacks have been sexually active for a long time, so it has decided to also market its AIDS prevention program to 11-13 year olds. AIDS has not yet reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, however, and a full scale intervention program implemented between the end of 1992 and mid-1993 could stem the epidemic. The Health and Refugee Trust has developed a data base about the attitudes of South African refugees toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. It plans to distribute educational materials to hostels, squatter settlements, and rural communities. The Transport and General Workers Union has also set up an AIDS prevention program since truckers are at high risk of HIV infection. At the end of 1991, 445,000 people in South Africa have been infected with HIV. Heterosexuality is the predominate mode of HIV transmission among blacks, but among whites, it is homosexuality. Educated, affluent whites tend to be knowledge about AIDS and practice safer sex. Among the working class whites, however, knowledge levels are high, but they do not necessarily practice safer sex. Awareness tends to be quite high among blacks, but they do not generally practice safer sex. South Africa and the US are the only 2 developed countries that do not provide health care for all. This weak system limits AIDS prevention efforts. 80% of whites have health insurance compared with only 7% of blacks. PMID:12317691

  17. Feasibility of sex-sorting sperm from the white and the black rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum, Diceros bicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, B; Rath, D; Mueller, P; Hildebrandt, T B; Goeritz, F; Braun, B C; Leahy, T; de Graaf, S P; Maxwell, W M C; Hermes, R

    2009-08-01

    The objective of these studies was to investigate the practicality of flow cytometric sex-sorting for spermatozoa from the white and the black rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum, Diceros bicornis). In Experiment 1, four semen extenders were tested regarding their suitability for liquid preservation of spermatozoa before sorting. Dilution in MES-HEPES-based semen extender followed by incubation generated best sperm quality parameters (motility, viability, and acrosome integrity). In Experiment 2, the effect of staining method (15 degrees C for 4 to 6h during transport or 37 degrees C for 1 to 1.5h) on sort efficiency and sperm quality was investigated. Staining at 15 degrees C during transport resulted in a higher percentage of sperm samples showing a resolution of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing populations (60%) compared with that for staining at 37 degrees C after transport (33%) and resulted in superior sperm integrity after staining (43.8+/-11.3% vs. 19.6+/-12.1%). Sort rate was 300 to 700 cells/sec and sort purity, determined for one sorted sample, was 94% for X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. In Experiment 3, the highly viscous component of rhinoceros seminal plasma, which complicates the process of sperm sorting, was examined by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results suggested a 250-kDa glycoprotein (most likely originating from the bulbourethral gland) to be responsible for the characteristic viscosity of ejaculates. In Experiment 4, viscosity of seminal plasma, as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, was significantly decreased after addition of alpha-amylase or collagenase (0.5 and 3IU per 100 microL seminal plasma, respectively) by 28% and 21%, respectively, with no negative effect on sperm characteristics. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time that rhinoceros spermatozoa can be successfully sorted into high-purity X- and Y-chromosome-bearing populations. Furthermore, the successful liquefaction of viscous ejaculates

  18. Economic, Legal, and Social Hardships Associated with HIV Risk among Black Men who have Sex with Men in Six US Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Moineddin, Rahim; Zhang, Nanhua; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Sa, Ting; Harawa, Nina; Regan, Rotrease; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Watson, Christopher C; Koblin, Beryl; Del Rio, Carlos; Buchbinder, Susan; Wheeler, Darrell P; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-02-01

    We assessed whether economic, legal, and social hardships were associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among a sample of Black men who have sex with men (MSM) and whether associations were moderated by city of residence. The study analyzed baseline and follow-up data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 (N = 1553). Binary logistic regression assessed associations between hardships and HIV risk indicators. Multivariate regressions were used to test if city of residence had a moderating effect for hardships and HIV risks. Adjusted analyses showed that Black MSM with recent job loss were more likely to engage in condomless insertive anal intercourse (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 1.37, 95% CI 1.01-1.87) and that those with recent financial crisis were more likely to have had two or more male sexual partners in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.18-2.29). Black MSM with recent convictions were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection at 6 months (AOR = 3.97; 95% CI 1.58-9.94), while those who were unstably housed were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection at 12 months (AOR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.02 = 2.86). There were no city of residence and hardship interaction effects on HIV risks. Hardships are important factors that influence HIV risk for Black MSM. Integrating strategies that address structural factors that influence HIV risk may enhance HIV prevention interventions implementation efforts. PMID:26830422

  19. Measuring Race and Gender Differences in Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of Campus Climate and Intentions to Leave College: An Analysis in Black and White

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2013-01-01

    Student perceptions of campus climate environments and intentions to leave college were examined for 391 participants. Differences by race were found for perceptions of the campus climate being cold and uncaring and for expectations to encounter racism in college. Perceptions of campus climate were related to African American students' intent…

  20. 76 FR 38396 - Notice of Availability of Proposed Data Collection Standards for Race, Ethnicity, Primary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Notice of Availability of Proposed Data Collection Standards for Race, Ethnicity, Primary... requiring the Secretary of DHHS to establish data collection standards for race, ethnicity, sex, primary... this type of data. The focus was to develop data collection standards for race, ethnicity, sex,...

  1. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  2. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  3. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A

    2015-03-01

    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other. PMID:24689369

  4. "…the white women all go for sex": Discourses of Gender, Race, Ethnicity in the American Woman’s Rights Movement, 1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bank, Michaela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As an emancipating movement for women, the American Woman’s Rights Movement can be considered as a "counter public sphere" which transgressed dominant orders of gender. In their alliance at the outset of Reconstruction, women's rights activists not only sought gender equality, but under the label of "universal suffrage" connected it to the ideal of racial equality. The discussion about the introduction of the Fifteenth Amendment in 1869 is understood as a political intersection for the movement since the movement, which initially promoted "universal suffrage," then disbanded on grounds of racism, sexism and nativism which appeared in different antagonistic arguments that were brought forth to either promote the amendment or to oppose it. This paper analyzes the discourses of gender, race, ethnicity in the internal discussions of the Woman’s Rights Movement and seeks to answer whether or not it transgressed prevailing notions of racism, nativism and sexism in order to achieve emancipating potential for women.

  5. Transcending race?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist...

  6. RELAY RACE

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Well done to all runners, the fans and the organizers of this great race which took place on Thursday 23rd May! You were many to participate in the run or by supporting your colleagues. The Staff Association contributed with its team of runners and also with its information stall where you could meet with your delegates.  

  7. Black Writers' Views of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Joyce

    1979-01-01

    Black literature of the 1960s reflected protest and an affirmation of Black power and Black consciousness. The 1970s have produced a counterwave in which Blacks, in order to achieve literary and financial recognition, have begun to focus less on race and social criticism and more on conservative and narcissistic themes. (Author/EB)

  8. Sexual Behavior and Network Characteristics and Their Association with Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyman M Scott

    Full Text Available Black men who have sex with men (MSM have a high prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and individual risk behavior does not fully explain the higher prevalence when compared with other MSM. Using the social-ecological framework, we evaluated individual, social and sexual network, and structural factors and their association with prevalent STIs among Black MSM.The HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 was a multi-site cohort study designed to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention for Black MSM in six US cities. Baseline assessments included demographics, risk behavior, and social and sexual network questions collected information about the size, nature and connectedness of their sexual network. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having any prevalent sexually transmitted infection (gonorrhea, chlamydia, or syphilis.A total of 1,553 Black MSM were enrolled in this study. In multivariate analysis, older age (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.49-0.66, p<0.001 was associated with a lower odds of having a prevalent STI. Compared with reporting one male sexual partner, having 2-3 partners (aOR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.08-2.81, p<0.024 or more than 4 partners (aOR = 2.29; 95% CI 1.43-3.66, p<0.001 was associated with prevalent STIs. Having both Black and non-Black sexual partners (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.45-0.99, p = 0.042 was the only sexual network factor associated with prevalent STIs.Age and the number and racial composition of sexual partners were associated with prevalent STIs among Black MSM, while other sexual network factors were not. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of the individual, network, and structural factors on prevalent STIs among Black MSM to inform combination interventions to reduce STIs among these men.

  9. Sexual Behavior and Network Characteristics and Their Association with Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hyman M.; Irvin, Risha; Wilton, Leo; Van Tieu, Hong; Watson, Chauncey; Magnus, Manya; Chen, Iris; Gaydos, Charlotte; Hussen, Sophia A.; Mannheimer, Sharon; Mayer, Kenneth; Hessol, Nancy A.; Buchbinder, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Black men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and individual risk behavior does not fully explain the higher prevalence when compared with other MSM. Using the social-ecological framework, we evaluated individual, social and sexual network, and structural factors and their association with prevalent STIs among Black MSM. Methods The HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 was a multi-site cohort study designed to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention for Black MSM in six US cities. Baseline assessments included demographics, risk behavior, and social and sexual network questions collected information about the size, nature and connectedness of their sexual network. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having any prevalent sexually transmitted infection (gonorrhea, chlamydia, or syphilis). Results A total of 1,553 Black MSM were enrolled in this study. In multivariate analysis, older age (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.49–0.66, p<0.001) was associated with a lower odds of having a prevalent STI. Compared with reporting one male sexual partner, having 2–3 partners (aOR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.08–2.81, p<0.024) or more than 4 partners (aOR = 2.29; 95% CI 1.43–3.66, p<0.001) was associated with prevalent STIs. Having both Black and non-Black sexual partners (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.45–0.99, p = 0.042) was the only sexual network factor associated with prevalent STIs. Conclusions Age and the number and racial composition of sexual partners were associated with prevalent STIs among Black MSM, while other sexual network factors were not. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of the individual, network, and structural factors on prevalent STIs among Black MSM to inform combination interventions to reduce STIs among these men. PMID:26720332

  10. Psychological distress, drug use, sexual risks and medication adherence among young HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men: exposure to community violence matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Voisin, Dexter R; Bouris, Alida; Schneider, John

    2016-07-01

    In the USA, Black males are disproportionately affected by community violence and HIV. The aim of this study was to assess whether exposures to community violence are related to psychological distress, drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and medication adherence among a sample of HIV-positive young Black men who had sex with men (YBMSM). Data are from 98 YBMSM ages 18-29 years recruited from Chicago who completed measures on demographics, exposures to community violence, psychological distress, drug use, condomless anal intercourse, and medication adherence. Rates of exposure to community violence were high and youth reported victimization and witnessing numerous types of violence in their lifetime. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, models indicate that YBMSM reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence had significantly higher rates of condomless anal intercourse in the previous 6 months (AOR: 5.33, 95%CI: 1.38-20.55). Additionally, exposure to community violence was positively associated with psychological distress, hard drug use, and use of marijuana as a sex drug. Adherence to HIV antiretroviral medication was negatively associated with community violence (AOR: 0.36, 95%CI: 0.13-0.97). Rates of exposure to community violence are especially high in urban communities. Overall findings suggest that treatment, intervention, and programmatic approaches that include initiatives to address exposure to community violence might correlate with better health-related outcomes for HIV-positive YBMSM. PMID:26917328

  11. Mortalidade por raça/cor: evidências de desigualdades sociais em Vitória (ES, Brasil Mortality by race/color: evidence of social inequalities in Vitória (ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Modenesi Fiorio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a mortalidade por causa básica, sexo e raça/cor a partir do sistema de informações sobre mortalidade (SIM, em Vitória (ES, no período de 2003 a 2006. MÉTODOS: Foram calculados e analisados os coeficientes de mortalidade, segundo causa básica e sexo por raça/cor, bem como a idade média e mediana de óbito por causa básica, sexo e raça/cor. Foi calculado o risco relativo (RR por sexo, idade e causa básica (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze mortality by cause and sex among groups of race or color from the mortality information system (MIS in Vitória (Brazil, in the period from 2003 to 2006. METHODS: We calculated and analyzed the mortality rates according to underlying cause, sex and race/color, and the mean and median age of death by underlying cause, sex and race. We calculated the relative risk (RR for age, sex and underlying cause (p<0.05 and CI 95%. RESULTS: The completeness of race/color in SIM ranged from 1% in 1996 to 81% in 2006. There was a greater RR of death among blacks for mental and behavioral disorders (RR=9.29, Ill-defined causes (RR=8.71, and external causes (RR=5.71. For black women, we highlight the external causes (RR=2.38. We found a variation of up to 33 years (nervous system between whites and blacks. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the existence of unequal racial/ethnic mortality, highlighting the mortality from mental disorders and external causes, in addition to early mortality that occurs in the black population.

  12. Do Lung Cancer Eligibility Criteria Align with Risk among Blacks and Hispanics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fiscella

    Full Text Available Black patients have higher lung cancer risk despite lower pack years of smoking. We assessed lung cancer risk by race, ethnicity, and sex among a nationally representative population eligible for lung cancer screening based on Medicare criteria.We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012 to assess lung cancer risk by sex, race and ethnicity among persons satisfying Medicare age and pack-year smoking eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening. We assessed Medicare eligibility based on age (55-77 years and pack-years (≥ 30. We assessed 6-year lung cancer risk using a risk prediction model from Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial that was modified in 2012 (PLCOm2012. We compared the proportions of eligible persons by sex, race and ethnicity using Medicare criteria with a risk cut-point that was adjusted to achieve comparable total number of persons eligible for screening.Among the 29.7 million persons aged 55-77 years who ever smoked, we found that 7.3 million (24.5% were eligible for lung cancer screening under Medicare criteria. Among those eligible, Blacks had statistically significant higher (4.4% and Hispanics lower lung cancer risk (1.2% than non-Hispanic Whites (3.2%. At a cut-point of 2.12% risk for lung screening eligibility, the percentage of Blacks and Hispanics showed statistically significant changes. Blacks eligible rose by 48% and Hispanics eligible declined by 63%. Black men and Hispanic women were affected the most. There was little change in eligibility among Whites.Medicare eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening do not align with estimated risk for lung cancer among Blacks and Hispanics. Data are urgently needed to determine whether use of risk-based eligibility screening improves lung cancer outcomes among minority patients.

  13. Divergent Streams: Race-Gender Achievement Gaps at Selective Colleges and Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Douglas S.; Probasco, LiErin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we extend previous research on racial performance gaps at 28 selective US colleges and universities by examining differences in grade achievement and graduate rates across race-gender categories. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen, we show that black males, black females, and Hispanic males attain significantly lower grades than other race-gender groups, and that black males are 35% less likely to graduate on-time than other race-gender groups. Analyse...

  14. Review of venous thromboembolism and race: the generalizability of treatment guidelines for high-risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lonnie T; Jackson, Larry R; Thomas, Kevin L

    2016-08-01

    The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) has established guidelines for the treatment of VTE, but the generalizability to all populations is unclear. In this review we analyzed the rate of reporting and enrollment of blacks and women in clinical trials cited in the ACCP guidelines for treatment of unprovoked VTE. We extracted data from clinical trials cited by the ACCP that compared durations of anticoagulation therapy for the treatment of unprovoked VTE. We excluded trials that treated surgical or cancer patients. For trials that did not report race/ethnicity we contacted the primary investigators via email for enrollment data. The final analysis included 17 randomized clinical trials with a total patient population of N = 13,693. All trials reported data on sex; conversely, 2 trials (11.8 %) reported race/ethnicity within the primary manuscript. We ultimately acquired data on race/ethnicity from the primary investigator in 5 additional trials for a total race/ethnicity data from 7 trials. There were 7573 males (55.3 %) and 6120 females (44.7 %) enrolled in these studies. Among trials that reported race and ethnicity the total patient population was N = 5368; 5171 (96.3 %) white, 115 (2.1 %) black, 65 (1.4 %) Asian and 7 (0.25 %) Hispanic. Racial/ethnic minorities are underreported and under represented in clinical trials forming the cornerstone of ACCP guidelines for the optimal duration for VTE treatment. Conversely, the reporting and inclusion of women was substantive. The guidelines for unprovoked VTE treatment may not be generalizable to racially and ethnically diverse patient populations. PMID:26973300

  15. Mathematics, Race, and Space: An Investigation into the Construction of Mathematics Achievement Identities of Black Undergraduate Students at the University of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Oren Leondus

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of the ways in which Black undergraduate students, majoring in mathematics intensive disciplines, at the University of Virginia construct mathematics achievement identities. Specifically, this study sought to identify and examine factors that impacted these students' identity construction…

  16. Should males come first? The relationship between offspring hatching order and sex in the black-headed gull Larus ridibundus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ležalová, R.; Tkadlec, Emil; Oborník, M.; Šimek, J.; Honza, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 6 (2005), s. 478-483. ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD206/05/H012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : black-headed gull * egg sequence Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.752, year: 2005

  17. Understanding Engagement in HIV Risk and Prevention Research Among Black Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in the District of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Ebony; Peterson, James; Kuo, Irene; Magnus, Manya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To develop optimal methods to study sexual health among black young men who have sex with men and transgender women (BYMSM/TW). Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods prospective study to identify recruitment and retention strategies for BYMSM/TW (age 16–21) in Washington D.C., and describe HIV risk behaviors and context. Results: Incentivized peer referral was highly productive, and 60% of BYMSM/TW were retained for 3 months. Participants reported high levels of sexual risk, homophobia, racism, and maternal support. Conclusion: BYMSM/TW studies should utilize a combination of peer-based, in-person, and technology-based recruiting strategies. Additional research is needed to leverage mobile technology and social media to enhance retention. PMID:26651365

  18. Race concepts in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardimon, Michael O

    2013-02-01

    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of a social group that is taken to be a racialist race. It is apt for use in examining and addressing the medical effects of discrimination. The populationist concept of race represents race as a kind of biological population. It makes it possible to frame the question whether biological race is a factor in disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness. It is apt for use in determining whether biological race is a medically significant category. PMID:23300217

  19. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45  Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...

  20. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal, meso (social/community, and macro (organizational/political realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro, social networks and support groups (meso, and challenging stigma (macro. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives

  1. Annual changes in fecal sex hormones with corresponding changes in reproductive behaviors in Thai sarus crane, black-headed Ibis, and Lesser Adjutant Stork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkiratiwong, Panas; Poothong, Songklod; Taksintum, Wut; Suekkhachat, Hataitip; Kanchanabanca, Pongvarut; Suwapat, Phongpipat

    2013-12-01

    We monitored annual fecal sex hormones and reproductive displays of five individuals of males and females Thai sarus crane (Grus antigone sharpii), a flock of five males and females black-headed Ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus), and five pair bonded lesser adjutant stork (Leptoptilos javanicus), all maintained in captivity at Bangprha Waterbird Breeding Research Center. Reproductive behaviors were observed during 0600-1800 h, for four days during the second week of each month and feces were collected monthly to determine annual male total testosterone (mTT) and female estradiol (fE2) levels by radioimmunoassay. Thai sarus crane exhibited a peak mTT in August following a fE2, with a surge in July. Black-headed ibis demonstrated a peak mTT in January prior to a fE2 with a surge in March. Lesser adjutant stork showed a maximal mTT coincidently with fE2 with a surge in October. Thai sarus crane frequently displayed courtship in May-October, corresponding well with higher mTT rather than fE2 levels. Black-headed ibis showed courtship-copulation displays in January, simultaneously with mTT, but not with fE2 surge. Lesser adjutant stork often displayed courtship-copulation in October-January, seemingly corresponded with higher mTT and fE2 levels during October-December and October-November, respectively. Male and female lesser adjutant stork displayed egg-incubation and chick-rearing behaviors in November-January and December-June, respectively. We suggest that mTT and/or fE2 apparently played an important role in regulation of courtship-copulation displays but did not relate to both egg-incubation and chickrearing behaviors. PMID:24320186

  2. Effects of sex control and twinning on economic optimization of culling cows in Japanese Black cow-calf production systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Oishi, K; Hirooka, H.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of sex control and twinning techniques on determination of optimal culling parity of cows in beef cow-calf production systems were deterministically analyzed using a herd model simulation. The model simulated the annualized net revenue as an economic indicator during the whole life cycle of a cow. Biological factors (survivability, growth, reproduction, and feed requirements) and economic factors (returns from sales of live calves and cows' carcasses and production costs) were inc...

  3. Intersecting Race and Gender Cues are Associated with Perceptions of Gay Men's Preferred Sexual Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L

    2015-07-01

    Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men's stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men's perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men's self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities. PMID:25690444

  4. Politics of desire: exploring the ethnicity/sexuality intersectionality in south asian and east asian men who have sex with men (MSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Das Nair, Roshan; Thomas, Shirley A.

    2012-01-01

    Intersectionality’ has been used to interrupt dominant discourse surrounding LGB experiences, and has exposed their heterogeneity. Complexities of negotiating desire within a matrix of race/ethnicity and sexuality in South and East Asian men who have sex with men (MSM) has been under-explored in Black and Minority Ethnic LGB research. Our internet survey found discordance between sexual identities and sexual practices amongst Asian MSM. Many did not access LGB physical and cyberspaces, and so...

  5. Race and Gender Issues: Critical Race Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Adrien K.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a new body of legal scholarship on race and gender: critical race feminism (CRF), examining critical legal studies, critical race theory, and feminism. Explains the term "global multiplicative identities" as it relates to CRF and concludes that CRF has the potential to benefit from more sustained interaction with human rights workers in…

  6. Physicians' implicit and explicit attitudes about race by MD race, ethnicity, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Janice; Nosek, Brian A; Greenwald, Anthony; Rivara, Frederick P

    2009-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that providers' implicit attitudes about race contribute to racial and ethnic health care disparities. However, little is known about physicians' implicit racial attitudes. This study measured implicit and explicit attitudes about race using the Race Attitude Implicit Association Test (IAT) for a large sample of test takers (N=404,277), including a sub-sample of medical doctors (MDs) (n=2,535). Medical doctors, like the entire sample, showed an implicit preference for White Americans relative to Black Americans. We examined these effects among White, African American, Hispanic, and Asian MDs and by physician gender. Strength of implicit bias exceeded self-report among all test takers except African American MDs. African American MDs, on average, did not show an implicit preference for either Blacks or Whites, and women showed less implicit bias than men. Future research should explore whether, and under what conditions, MDs' implicit attitudes about race affect the quality of medical care. PMID:19648715

  7. Origins and Destinies: Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in America

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG

    1996-01-01

    Introduction. 1. Origins and Destinies: Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in American History--Silvia Pedraza. 2. Origins and Destinies: Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in Contemporary America--Ruben G. Rumbaut. COLOR AND CASTE. NATIVES AND AFRICANS. 3. North American Indians and Demography of Contact--Russell Thornton. 4. From Sundown to Sunup: Slavery and the Making of the Black Community--George P. Rawick. 5. Farewell--We're Good and Gone: The Great Black Migration from the PostBellum Sout...

  8. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Association between Arrest and Unprotected Anal Sex among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: The P18 Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C; Kapadia, Farzana; Bates, Francesca C; Blachman-Forshay, Jaclyn; Halkitis, Perry N

    2015-08-01

    This analysis aimed to determine whether the relationship between a history of arrest and unprotected anal sex (UAS) is the same for Black/Latino gay, bisexual, and other young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as compared to White/Asian/Pacific Islander (API) YMSM in New York City (NYC). Baseline audio-computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) and interviewer-administered survey data from a sample of 576 YMSM aged 18-19 years old who self-reported being HIV-negative were analyzed. Data included history of arrest and incarceration as well as UAS in the past 30 days. Race/ethnicity was an effect modifier of the association between arrest and UAS among YMSM: White/API YMSM with a lifetime arrest history were more than three times as likely to report UAS, and Black/Latino YMSM with a lifetime history of arrest were approximately 70 % less likely to report UAS as compared with White/API YMSM with no reported arrest history. Race/ethnicity may modify the relationship between arrest and sexual risk behavior because the etiology of arrest differs by race, as partially evidenced by racial/ethnic disparities in police stop, arrest, and incarceration rates in NYC. Arrest could not only be an indicator of risky behavior for White/API YMSM but also an indicator of discrimination for Black/Latino YMSM. Further research is needed to assess whether the differential associations observed here vis-à-vis race/ethnicity are robust across different populations and different health outcomes. PMID:25677880

  9. “The Most Progressive and Forward Looking Race Relations Experiment in Existence”: Race “Militancy”, Whiteness, and DRRI in the Early 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, SN

    2014-01-01

    At the end of the 1960s, the United States military was rocked by race-related violence and riots. Growing fears of black “militancy” eventually compelled the military’s largely white leadership to implement policies aimed at ameliorating racial disparities. One of the most significant changes was the establishment of the Defense Race Relations Institute (DRRI) and the requirement that all troops partake in race relations education. Largely overlooked in histories of military race relations a...

  10. Interseccionalidade de gênero, classe e raça e vulnerabilidade de adolescentes negras às DST/aids Intersectionality of gender, class and race, and vulnerability of black female adolescents to STD/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella R. Taquette

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a vulnerabilidade ao HIV/aids de adolescentes femininas moradoras de favelas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODO: foi utilizada uma combinação de métodos, quantitativo e qualitativo. Na etapa quantitativa, realizou-se um estudo observacional de corte transversal por meio de entrevistas e exames clínico/laboratoriais para diagnóstico de DST, e, na qualitativa, desenvolveram-se grupos focais sobre os temas sexualidade, gênero e raça. RESULTADOS: foram entrevistadas 816 adolescentes de 10 diferentes comunidades, com um grupo focal em cada favela: 74% eram negras, 39% eram sexualmente ativas e destas 24,4% eram portadoras de DST. Houve uma relação estatisticamente significativa entre a variável raça/cor negra e a atividade sexual. Na fase qualitativa, evidenciou-se que a discriminação racial sofrida é cotidiana e contribui para a construção de autoimagem negativa que aliada a pobreza, violência de gênero e dificuldade de acesso aos serviços de saúde ampliam a vulnerabilidade às DST/aids. CONCLUSÃO: o estudo sugere a criação de políticas que proporcionem o aumento da oferta de serviços de atendimento ginecológico a esse público, com ações que favoreçam a utilização de preservativo feminino e contribuam para reduzir a desigualdade social, de gênero e de raça.OBJECTIVE: To verify the vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of female adolescents that live in poor communities of the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: It was carried out with quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative phase was a cross-sectional study, through interviews of 816 adolescents and clinical/laboratory tests in ten different slums, and the qualitative phase was done on one focus group about sexuality of gender and race in each community. RESULTS: 74% of the adolescents were black, 39% had sexual activity and 24.4% of those had STD. A statistical significant association occurred between the black color/race and sexual activity

  11. Marriage and the homosexual body: it's about race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    Any analogy between race and homosexuality cannot erase the fact that skin color has marked and continues to mark bodies for special punishment and necessary protection. Yet, the analogy has also been forged in the struggles against sexual discrimination and in the courts to recognize same-sex marriage as a basic civil right. My purposes here are, first, to review the role the race-sexual orientation analogy has played in same-sex marriage debates, second to examine the analogy within the context of race and queer theories and, finally, to suggest a racial dimension to sexuality that marks the homosexual body. PMID:23101495

  12. Looking the part: social status cues shape race perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Freeman

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that race is perceived through another's facial features, such as skin color. In the present research, we demonstrate that cues to social status that often surround a face systematically change the perception of its race. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along White-Black morph continua and that were presented with high-status or low-status attire. Low-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as Black, whereas high-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as White; and this influence grew stronger as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 1. When faces with high-status attire were categorized as Black or faces with low-status attire were categorized as White, participants' hand movements nevertheless revealed a simultaneous attraction to select the other race-category response (stereotypically tied to the status cue before arriving at a final categorization. Further, this attraction effect grew as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 2. Computational simulations then demonstrated that these effects may be accounted for by a neurally plausible person categorization system, in which contextual cues come to trigger stereotypes that in turn influence race perception. Together, the findings show how stereotypes interact with physical cues to shape person categorization, and suggest that social and contextual factors guide the perception of race.

  13. Dynamic neural mechanisms underlie race disparities in social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Krendl, Anne C

    2016-05-15

    Race disparities in behavior may emerge in several ways, some of which may be independent of implicit bias. To mitigate the pernicious effects of different race disparities for racial minorities, we must understand whether they are rooted in perceptual, affective, or cognitive processing with regard to race perception. We used fMRI to disentangle dynamic neural mechanisms predictive of two separable race disparities that can be obtained from a trustworthiness ratings task. Increased coupling between regions involved in perceptual and affective processing when viewing Black versus White faces predicted less later racial trust disparity, which was related to implicit bias. In contrast, increased functional coupling between regions involved in controlled processing predicted less later disparity in the differentiation of Black versus White faces with regard to perceived trust, which was unrelated to bias. These findings reveal that distinct neural signatures underlie separable race disparities in social cognition that may or may not be related to implicit bias. PMID:26908320

  14. Association of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Environmental Factors with Risk of Overweight Among Adolescents in California, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gittelsohn, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the California Health Interview Survey 2003, we estimated the prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, combined as a single measure (AROW, body mass index ≥85th percentile. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between AROW and risk factors.ResultsTwenty-nine percent of California adolescents were AROW. The prevalence of AROW differed significantly by sex and race. Boys were more likely than girls to be AROW (33% vs 25%. American Indians/Pacific Islanders/others (39% were at highest risk, followed by Hispanics (37%, blacks (35%, whites (23%, and Asians (15%. For boys, older age, Hispanic or American Indian/Pacific Islander/other race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and longer residence in the United States were significantly associated with AROW. For girls, Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and poor dietary habits were significantly associated with AROW.ConclusionThe high prevalence of AROW among California adolescents in most racial/ethnic groups indicates the need for culturally specific and appropriate interventions to prevent and treat overweight.

  15. Race and sex in a lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Betty De Shong

    2010-04-01

    The Jungian analysts who participated in the writing of this paper(1) explicitly or implicitly address issues of social and political stasis, retrogression and change via their particular usages of the concept of the transcendent function. Singer proposes that the transcendent function is a term that is usually applied to individuals in whom symbolic material appears that suggests the reconciling of opposites, leading to psycho-spiritual growth. He also looks at the notion of the transcendent function as it can appear in a similar way in the collective psyche. In addition, he gives attention to the opposite phenomenon-what might be called the descendent function-as it appears in the collective psyche and its leadership, wherein symbolic material can create the division of groups of people into opposites, mobilizing destructive rather than transformative experience. Meador states that Jung designated the mediating process of assimilating unconscious images and ideas into consciousness as the transcendent function. Just as this synthesizing process can produce insight in the individual, it can also be applied to changes in collective society. Embedded collective assumptions tend to shift when opposites collide, as they did, for example, in the turmoils of the 1960s. Her contribution focuses on the recent revolution in racial and sexual attitudes as the product of a collective struggle between certain ingrained social mores from the past and conflicting new points of view. Samuels' conclusion is that the concept of the transcendent function has little value with respect to political problems. His contribution focuses on: (i) The limitations of using ideas (such as the transcendent function) derived from analysis with individuals in furtherance of an understanding of social and political phenomena. (ii) The specific problem of a lack of credible psycho-political models for social progress and regress-he argues that the transcendent function is not useful in this regard. (iii) The question of political aggression, violence and conflict in society is explored from the standpoint of the transcendent function so as to investigate its possible role in the management of political conflict. Samuels severely criticizes what he terms 'triangulation' and 'hyper-reflection' on the part of analysts who engage with political debates and issues. (iv) Leadership is examined from the standpoint of the transcendent function which, again, does not seem pertinent. Rather, new discoveries in family psychology about the role of the father have greater possibilities as a basis for new thinking about leadership. PMID:20518965

  16. Using Grindr, a Smartphone Social-Networking Application, to Increase HIV Self-Testing Among Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men in Los Angeles, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Emily; Marlin, Robert W; Young, Sean D; Medline, Alex; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-01

    In Los Angeles County, about 25% of men who have sex with men (MSM) are HIV-positive but unaware of their status. An advertisement publicizing free HIV self-tests was placed on Grindr, a smartphone social-networking application, from April 17 to May 29, 2014. Users were linked to http://freehivselftests.weebly.com/ to choose a self-test delivery method: U.S. mail, a Walgreens voucher, or from a vending machine. Black or Latino MSM ≥ 18 years old were invited to take a testing experiences survey. During the campaign, the website received 11,939 unique visitors (average: 284 per day) and 334 self-test requests. Among 57 survey respondents, 55 (97%) reported that using the self-test was easy; two persons reported testing HIV positive and both sought medical care. Social networking application self-testing promotion resulted in a large number of self-test requests and has high potential to reach untested high-risk populations who will link to care if they test positive. PMID:27427928

  17. Perceptions of and intentions to adopt HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among black men who have sex with men in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ronald A; Landovitz, Raphael J; Regan, Rotrease; Lee, Sung-Jae; Allen, Vincent C

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed perceptions of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and their association with PrEP adoption intention among a convenience sample of 224 low socioeconomic status black men who have sex with men (BMSM) residing in Los Angeles. Participants received educational information about PrEP and completed an in-person interview. More than half (60%) of the participants indicated a high intention to adopt PrEP. Younger BMSM (18-29 years) were twice as likely to report a high intention to adopt PrEP compared to older BMSM (30+ years). Only 33% of participants were aware of PrEP and no participant had ever used PrEP. Negative perceptions were associated with a lower PrEP adoption intention and included being uncomfortable taking an HIV medicine when HIV-negative and not knowing if there are long-term side effects of taking an HIV medication. These findings suggest that BMSM may adopt PrEP but that negative perceptions may limit its uptake among this population. In order to facilitate PrEP adoption among BMSM targeted educational and community awareness programmes are needed to provide accurate information on the benefits of PrEP and to address the negative perceptions of PrEP held by local BMSM populations. PMID:25638214

  18. Does Age Matter Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men? A Comparison of Risk Behaviors Stratified by Age Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Nicholas; Mena, Leandro; Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether different sexual risk behavior exists among young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) as a function of age. A total of 382 YBMSM completed a computer-assisted self-interview at a sexual health clinic. The frequency/prevalence of fifteen sexual risk behaviors was compared between three groups (ages 16-19, 20-25, and 26-29, respectively) in the 90 days prior to enrollment in the study. Regression models were used to control for the confounding influence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status. One hundred seven participants were HIV-infected at study enrollment. Of the 15 measures assessed, none significantly differed among the groups. These null findings did not change in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that there is no differential sexual risk based on age among YBMSM and that this group should be considered a homogenous population with regards to intervention strategies that aim to reduce the sexual risk behaviors of YBMSM. PMID:27244192

  19. Race differentials in partnering patterns among older U.S. men: influence of androgens or religious participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha; Nairn, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    Using nationally representative data from the 2005-2006 U.S. National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, this study queried race differences in older men's polyamorous and casual sex, as well as stratification of these patterns by endogenous androgens (testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone) and by regular religious participation. Results suggested that despite their respective prominence in the biomedical and sociological literatures on sex, neither "bottom up" hormonal influences nor "top down" religious social control were major structuring factors for greater lifetime as well as current likelihood of these behaviors among older Black than White men. Androgens were higher among the former, but did not seem to drive these race patterns. Regular church attendance--while negatively associated with non-monogamous and prolific partnering, and hence possibly a social control mechanism among all men--played only a weak role in moderating ethnic variations in these behaviors. It is speculated that these differences may instead be driven by unexamined current or early factors, including, perhaps, Black men's greater exposure to sexualizing processes in adolescence that, even in late life, may outweigh more temporally-proximal influences. PMID:23605573

  20. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  1. Race to the Top

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The global race in developing and deploying green energy technology can be a win-win game "Clean energy race" has become a catchphrase for journalists and bloggers to attract reader eyes. Googling that, one will be

  2. Race, Citizenship and Social Order in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Bala Ruma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the issue of race in Shakespeare’s Othello. It attempts to show that race is a very important issue raised by Shakespeare in the play in his eagerness to highlight the racial problems confronting Europe in the seventeenth century. In this play he attempts to expose the racial prejudice that exists in the Venetian society in particular and Europe in general. He also attempts to subvert the European feelings of racial superiority against the blacks in particular and people of other races in general. He sets out to do this by making a black man (Othello marry a white woman (Desdemona of an aristocratic extraction against the will and wish of her father. This inter-racial marriage may not in reality be possible in the seventeenth century, but all the same Shakespeare contrived it to be so, possibly as a way of foregrounding future change in European attitudes toward other races. The paper also looks at how individual citizens of a city-state like Venice can constitute themselves as threats to its social well being, by allowing their personal interests to override the national ethos. In this regard the activities of Othello, Iago and Roderigo are examined.Keywords: citizenship, race, racism, revolt, social order

  3. The Race Race: Assimilation in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…

  4. Biological Races in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...

  5. Race Guides Attention in Visual Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Marte

    2016-01-01

    It is known that faces are rapidly and even unconsciously categorized into social groups (black vs. white, male vs. female). Here, I test whether preferences for specific social groups guide attention, using a visual search paradigm. In Experiment 1 participants searched displays of neutral faces for an angry or frightened target face. Black target faces were detected more efficiently than white targets, indicating that black faces attracted more attention. Experiment 2 showed that attention differences between black and white faces were correlated with individual differences in automatic race preference. In Experiment 3, using happy target faces, the attentional preference for black over white faces was eliminated. Taken together, these results suggest that automatic preferences for social groups guide attention to individuals from negatively valenced groups, when people are searching for a negative emotion such as anger or fear. PMID:26900957

  6. Race Guides Attention in Visual Search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Otten

    Full Text Available It is known that faces are rapidly and even unconsciously categorized into social groups (black vs. white, male vs. female. Here, I test whether preferences for specific social groups guide attention, using a visual search paradigm. In Experiment 1 participants searched displays of neutral faces for an angry or frightened target face. Black target faces were detected more efficiently than white targets, indicating that black faces attracted more attention. Experiment 2 showed that attention differences between black and white faces were correlated with individual differences in automatic race preference. In Experiment 3, using happy target faces, the attentional preference for black over white faces was eliminated. Taken together, these results suggest that automatic preferences for social groups guide attention to individuals from negatively valenced groups, when people are searching for a negative emotion such as anger or fear.

  7. Race Guides Attention in Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Marte

    2016-01-01

    It is known that faces are rapidly and even unconsciously categorized into social groups (black vs. white, male vs. female). Here, I test whether preferences for specific social groups guide attention, using a visual search paradigm. In Experiment 1 participants searched displays of neutral faces for an angry or frightened target face. Black target faces were detected more efficiently than white targets, indicating that black faces attracted more attention. Experiment 2 showed that attention differences between black and white faces were correlated with individual differences in automatic race preference. In Experiment 3, using happy target faces, the attentional preference for black over white faces was eliminated. Taken together, these results suggest that automatic preferences for social groups guide attention to individuals from negatively valenced groups, when people are searching for a negative emotion such as anger or fear. PMID:26900957

  8. Class, race, and social mobility in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the differences in inter-generational social mobility and schooling between white, brown, and black men in Brazil. The main objective is to analyze inequality of opportunities for mobility and educational transitions. The results indicate that for individuals from lower social origins, inequality of opportunities is significantly marked by racial differences, and that for persons originating in the upper classes, racial inequality influences the odds of social mobility. The results suggest that theories of stratification by race and class in Brazil should be rethought, taking into account the observed interactions between race and class.

  9. Own-Race Faces Capture Attention Faster than Other-Race Faces: Evidence from Response Time and the N2pc

    OpenAIRE

    Guomei Zhou; Zhijie Cheng; Zhenzhu Yue; Colin Tredoux; Jibo He; Ling Wang

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that people are better at recognizing human faces from their own-race than from other-races, an effect often termed the Own-Race Advantage. The current study investigates whether there is an Own-Race Advantage in attention and its neural correlates. Participants were asked to search for a human face among animal faces. Experiment 1 showed a classic Own-Race Advantage in response time both for Chinese and Black South African participants. Using event-related potentials (ERPs...

  10. Performance on Indirect Measures of Race Evaluation Predicts Amygdala Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, Elizabeth A.; O'Connor, Kevin J.; Cunningham, William A.; Funayama, E. Sumie; Gatenby, J. Christopher; Gore, John C.; Banaji, Mahzarin R.

    2000-01-01

    We used fMRI to explore the neural substrates involved in the unconscious evaluation of Black and White social groups. Specifically, we focused on the amygdala, a subcortical structure known to play a role in emotional learning and evaluation. In Experiment 1, White American subjects observed faces of unfamiliar Black and White males. The strength of amygdala activation to Black-versus-White faces was correlated with two indirect (unconscious) measures of race evaluation (Implicit Association...

  11. The role of race and respectability in attributions of responsibility for acquaintance rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Erin C; Clay, Jason A

    2013-01-01

    Previous researchers have explored the role of race and respectability, independently, on attributions of responsibility; however, the interaction between race and respectability has not been analyzed in situations of acquaintance rape. Participants (N = 241) read a vignette detailing a case of acquaintance rape that manipulated the race of both the victim and the perpetrator and the respectability of the victim. Regression and ANOVA analyses indicated that victim race and respectability interacted in such a way that when Black victims were respectable, they were held less responsible than respectable White victims; however, less respected Black victims were held more responsible than less respected White victims. Manipulating perpetrator race revealed surprising results; the White perpetrator was found guilty more often than the Black perpetrator (although this appeared to be related to victim race). PMID:24547682

  12. Na ante-sala da discriminação: o preço dos atributos de sexo e cor no Brasil (1989-1999 On the threshold of discrimination: the burden of sex and race attributes in Brazil (1989-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Biderman

    2004-08-01

    undertake a solid analysis of the level of discrimination which prevails in the labor market, we sought, in this paper, to control the effects of individual attributes (such as age and schooling and of workplace characteristics (formal labor relations, geographical location and job ladder position. Based on a comparison between two microdata sources provided by PNAD (National Research by Domicile Sampling, relative to the years of 1989 and 1999, it was possible to establish three different results. In the first place, it was perceived that, in relation to women, market discrimination is even higher than that measured by the mere difference between their income and the income of men; in relation to black men and women, the net effect which could be attributed to income discrimination does not appear as high, since other, and at times more important, factors act simultaneously, explaining the significant salary differences which distinguish them from white workers. In the second place, it was observed that the 1990's usher a reduction in the intensity with which factors connected to race and sex discrimination affect such inequalities; this reduction, however, is still small, deriving mainly from the important losses in the average salary of men, especially white men. In the third place, when observed in relation to the different positions in income distribution, inequality determinants vary in importantce, and factors related to sex and color discrimination appear as the most decisive, especially among women and blacks who may reach top positions in the social ladder.

  13. The Promise of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Ecological Approach to Attitudes, Beliefs, and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Parker, Caroline M; Parker, Richard G; Wilson, Patrick A; Garcia, Jonathan; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2016-06-01

    Research has demonstrated the clinical effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention, but little is known about how factors at the individual-, interpersonal-, community-, and structural levels impact PrEP use for black men who have sex with men (BMSM). We advance existing work by examining how all levels of the ecological framework must be addressed for PrEP to be successfully implemented as an effective HIV prevention approach. We interviewed 31 BMSM three times each and 17 community stakeholders once each; interviews were taped, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Factors that influence how BMSM experienced PrEP emerged across all levels of the ecological framework: At the individual level, respondents were wary of giving medication to healthy people and of the potential side-effects. At the interpersonal level, BMSM believed that PrEP use would discourage condom use and that PrEP should only be one option for HIV prevention, not the main option. At the community level, men described not trusting the pharmaceutical industry and described PrEP as an option for others, not for themselves. At the structural level, BMSM talked about HIV and sexuality-related stigmas and how they must overcome those before PrEP engagement. BMSM are a key population in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy, yet few individuals believe that PrEP would be personally helpful. Our research indicates the urgent need to raise awareness and address structural stigma and policies that could be substantial barriers to the scale-up and implementation of PrEP-related services. PMID:27220036

  14. Number of casual male sexual partners and associated factors among men who have sex with men: Results from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Laura F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the majority of new HIV infections were in MSM. We sought to describe numbers of casual sex partners among US MSM. Methods Data are from the first MSM cycle of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system, conducted from 2003 to 2005. Relationships between number of casual male sex partners within the previous year and demographic information, self-reported HIV status, and risk behaviors were determined through regression models. Results Among 11,191 sexually active MSM, 76% reported a casual male partner. The median casual partner number was three. Lower number of casual partners was associated with black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and having a main sex partner in the previous year. Factors associated with a higher number included gay identity, exchange sex, both injection and non-injection drug use. Being HIV-positive was associated with more partners among non-blacks only. Age differences in partner number were seen only among chat room users. Conclusions MSM who were black, Hispanic or had a main sex partner reported fewer casual sex partners. Our results suggest specific populations of MSM who may benefit most from interventions to reduce casual partner numbers.

  15. Molecular characterization and expression of three GnRH forms mRNA during gonad sex-change process, and effect of GnRHa on GTH subunits mRNA in the protandrous black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegeli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kwang Wook; Nelson, Erik R; Habibi, Hamid R; Choi, Cheol Young

    2008-10-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in control of reproduction and gonadal maturation in teleost fish. To investigate the action GnRH in black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegeli), we examined the mRNA expression of GTH subunits (GTHalpha, FSHbeta, and LHbeta) in the pituitary as well as plasma estradiol-17beta (E(2)) level following treatment with a GnRH analog (GnRHa) in immature fish. The expression levels of GTH subunits mRNA and plasma E(2) level were increased after GnRHa injection. We were also able to identify three GnRH forms: salmon GnRH (sGnRH), seabream GnRH (sbGnRH) and chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) by cDNA cloning in the ovary of the black porgy. Black porgy gonadal development is divided into seven stages, involving sex change from male to female (immature testis, mature testis, testicular portion of mostly testis, ovarian portion of mostly testis, testicular portion of mostly ovary, ovarian portion of mostly ovary, and mature ovary). In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern of three GnRH molecular forms in the black porgy gonads at different stages of gonadal development by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). The mRNA expressions of sGnRH, sbGnRH and cGnRH-II were found to be higher in mature testis and ovary, compared to gonads at different stages of maturity. The findings support the hypothesis that the three forms of GnRH play important roles in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and are likely involved also in gonadal development and sex change in black porgy. PMID:18713632

  16. Biological races in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  17. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new...... insights into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection...

  18. Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, E A; O'Connor, K J; Cunningham, W A; Funayama, E S; Gatenby, J C; Gore, J C; Banaji, M R

    2000-09-01

    We used fMRI to explore the neural substrates involved in the unconscious evaluation of Black and White social groups. Specifically, we focused on the amygdala, a subcortical structure known to play a role in emotional learning and evaluation. In Experiment 1, White American subjects observed faces of unfamiliar Black and White males. The strength of amygdala activation to Black-versus-White faces was correlated with two indirect (unconscious) measures of race evaluation (Implicit Association Test [IAT] and potentiated startle), but not with the direct (conscious) expression of race attitudes. In Experiment 2, these patterns were not obtained when the stimulus faces belonged to familiar and positively regarded Black and White individuals. Together, these results suggest that amygdala and behavioral responses to Black-versus-White faces in White subjects reflect cultural evaluations of social groups modified by individual experience. PMID:11054916

  19. Toward a Race Pedagogy for Black Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Rosemary B.; Bowman, Lorenzo; Merriweather, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    Educators are consciously or unconsciously guided by pedagogy and make critical decisions about praxis--content, strategy, structure--based on their pedagogical beliefs. The intentional use of pedagogy is often advanced as a key to being an effective educator. A wealth of literature is directed toward helping White educators develop a race…

  20. Economic scarcity alters the perception of race

    OpenAIRE

    Krosch, Amy R.; Amodio, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities on socioeconomic indices expand dramatically during economic recession. Although prior explanations for this phenomenon have focused on institutional causes, our research reveals that perceived scarcity influences people’s visual representations of race in a way that may promote discrimination. Across four studies, scarce conditions led perceivers to view Black people as “darker” and “more stereotypically Black” in appearance, relative to control conditions, and this shift ...

  1. Job satisfaction and race among military officers

    OpenAIRE

    Bristow, Ellen S.

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis investigated the extent of variation in levels of job satisfaction among military officers that could be attributed to race. The data came from the 1978 Department of Defense Survey of Officers and Enlisted Personnel conducted by the Rand Corporation. The population analyzed was black and white officers in all four services, with the ranks of 01 through 03, who were still within their initial period of ...

  2. Do Race of Student and Race of Teacher Influence Ratings of Emotional and Behavioral Problem Characteristics of Students with Emotional Disturbance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, Douglas; Kauffman, James M.

    2005-01-01

    African American students are disproportionately likely to be identified with the emotional disturbance (ED) education disability. To investigate how teachers' perceptions of students might vary by race, we analyzed Black and White teachers' ratings of 769 students with ED, subdivided by race and grade level, on six emotional and behavior problem…

  3. Differential Effect of Race, Education, Gender, and Language Discrimination on Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice Reynolds, D.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Campbell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods: Six hundred two patients with type 2 diabetes from two adult primary care clinics in the southeastern United States completed validated questionnaires. Questions included perceived discrimination because of race/ethnicity, level of education, sex/gender, or language. A multiple linear regression model assessed the differential effect of each type of perceived discrimination on glycemic control while adjusting for relevant covariates, including race, site, gender, marital status, duration of diabetes, number of years in school, number of hours worked per week, income, and health status. Results: The mean age was 61.5 years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 12.3 years. Of the sample, 61.6% were men, and 64.9% were non-Hispanic black. In adjusted models, education discrimination remained significantly associated with glycemic control (β=0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.03, 0.92). Race, gender and language discrimination were not significantly associated with poor glycemic control in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Conclusions: Discrimination based on education was found to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. The findings suggest that education discrimination may be an important social determinant to consider when providing care to patients with type 2 diabetes and should be assessed separate from other types of discrimination, such as that based on race. PMID:25549154

  4. The Kinesiology of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Myosha

    2014-01-01

    In this research article, Myosha McAfee presents findings from her grounded theory and microethnographical study of math instruction in a racially and socioeconomically diverse public school. Her analysis puts forth a new theory-the kinesiology of race-which conceptualizes race as a verb rather than a noun. It centrally considers how racial…

  5. Gender roles as mediators of sex differences in adolescent alcohol use and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huselid, R F; Cooper, M L

    1992-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that internalized gender-role personality attributes and gender-role ideology mediate sex differences in alcohol use and drinking problems in a random sample of 1,077 adolescents aged 13 to 19. Results indicated that gender roles substantially, although not completely, mediated the effects of sex on drinking patterns. The relationships between gender roles and alcohol use were largely consistent with the hypothesis that individuals with conventional gender identities conform more closely to cultural norms that condone drinking among males but not among females. However, effects of the gender-linked attributes of expressivity, emotional control, and instrumentality on drinking also may be interpreted within a framework that views them as functional coping styles. Finally, differences between Black and White teens in the relationships between alcohol use and the masculine attributes of instrumentality and emotional control suggest possible race differences in the functional value of these attributes. PMID:1464719

  6. Coping with Stressful Events: Influence of Parental Alcoholism and Race in a Community Sample of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Maryann; Griffin, Margaret L.; Fassler, Irene; Clay, Cassandra; Ellis, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    The study explores the role of race and differences in coping among 290 white women and black women with and without alcoholic parents, addressing two questions: (1) Does coping vary by parental alcoholism or race? and (2) How is coping in adulthood affected by childhood stressors and resources and by adulthood resources? Standardized…

  7. Teachers Initiating Conversations about Race and Racism in a High School Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgatz, Jane

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the techniques, materials and processes of a Black teacher and a White teacher who introduced issues of race and racism in their team-taught high school class. The teachers explicitly put the issues of race and racism on the table, asked questions that challenged students to think about the topics, and used…

  8. Beyond race and place: distal sociological determinants of HIV disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buot, Max-Louis G; Docena, Jeffrey P; Ratemo, Brenda K; Bittner, Matthew J; Burlew, Jacob T; Nuritdinov, Aziz R; Robbins, Jennifer R

    2014-01-01

    Informed behavior change as an HIV prevention tool has yielded unequal successes across populations. Despite decades of HIV education, some individuals remain at high risk. The mainstream media often portrays these risk factors as products of race and national borders; however, a rich body of recent literature proposes a host of complex social factors that influence behavior, including, but not limited to: poverty, income inequality, stigmatizing social institutions and health care access. We examined the relationship between numerous social indicators and HIV incidence across eighty large U.S. cities in 1990 and 2000. During this time, major correlating factors included income inequality, poverty, educational attainment, residential segregation and marriage rates. However, these ecological factors were weighted differentially across risk groups (e.g. heterosexual, intravenous drug use, men who have sex with men (MSM)). Heterosexual risk rose significantly with poor economic indicators, while MSM risk depended more heavily on anti-homosexual stigma (as measured by same-sex marriage laws). HIV incidence among black individuals correlated significantly with numerous economic factors but also with segregation and imbalances in the male:female ratio (often an effect of mass incarceration). Our results support an overall model of HIV ecology where poverty, income inequality and social inequality (in the form of institutionalized racism and anti-homosexual stigma) have over time developed into synergistic drivers of disease transmission in the U.S., inhibiting information-based prevention efforts. The relative weights of these distal factors vary over time and by HIV risk group. Our testable model may be more generally applicable within the U.S. and beyond. PMID:24743728

  9. Beyond race and place: distal sociological determinants of HIV disparities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max-Louis G Buot

    Full Text Available Informed behavior change as an HIV prevention tool has yielded unequal successes across populations. Despite decades of HIV education, some individuals remain at high risk. The mainstream media often portrays these risk factors as products of race and national borders; however, a rich body of recent literature proposes a host of complex social factors that influence behavior, including, but not limited to: poverty, income inequality, stigmatizing social institutions and health care access. We examined the relationship between numerous social indicators and HIV incidence across eighty large U.S. cities in 1990 and 2000. During this time, major correlating factors included income inequality, poverty, educational attainment, residential segregation and marriage rates. However, these ecological factors were weighted differentially across risk groups (e.g. heterosexual, intravenous drug use, men who have sex with men (MSM. Heterosexual risk rose significantly with poor economic indicators, while MSM risk depended more heavily on anti-homosexual stigma (as measured by same-sex marriage laws. HIV incidence among black individuals correlated significantly with numerous economic factors but also with segregation and imbalances in the male:female ratio (often an effect of mass incarceration. Our results support an overall model of HIV ecology where poverty, income inequality and social inequality (in the form of institutionalized racism and anti-homosexual stigma have over time developed into synergistic drivers of disease transmission in the U.S., inhibiting information-based prevention efforts. The relative weights of these distal factors vary over time and by HIV risk group. Our testable model may be more generally applicable within the U.S. and beyond.

  10. The Subtle Transmission of Race Bias via Televised Nonverbal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Weisbuch, Max; Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini

    2009-01-01

    As compared to more explicit racial slurs and sexist statements, biased facial expressions and body language may resist conscious identification and thus produce a hidden social influence. In four studies we show that race biases can be subtly transmitted via televised nonverbal behavior. Characters on 11 popular television shows exhibited more negative nonverbal behavior toward black than toward status-matched white characters. Critically, exposure to pro-white (vs. pro-black) nonverbal bias...

  11. Intelligence, race, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They further argue that race is a social construction with no scientific definition. Thus, studies of the relationship between race and other constructs may serve social ends but cannot serve scientific ends. No gene has yet been conclusively linked to intelligence, so attempts to provide a compelling genetic link of race to intelligence are not feasible at this time. The authors also show that heritability, a behavior-genetic concept, is inadequate in regard to providing such a link. PMID:15641921

  12. Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Locus of Control in Black and White Fifth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, Harold J.; Bridgeman, Brent

    1976-01-01

    This investigation examines the relationship between fifth graders' scores on Coopersmith's Self Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by race and sex. (GO)

  13. Bike Race Event

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, M. Mehedi

    2013-01-01

    In this workshop project, our intention is to arrange a Bike race event for the bike club’s members. Our project is based upon through a market research of Bike race event market. After analysing the market we have done a plan for our event, which structured by different tools of the project management, such as WBS, RBS etc. project management is the key tool in this project. Lastly we have shown our budget and financial structure of the event.

  14. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20 May, starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the route, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay

  15. CERN Relay Race 2009

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 14th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. More details on how to register your team for the relay race

  16. Genetic parameters of racing merit of Thoroughbred horses in steeplechase races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Stefler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate variance components of racing ability in Thoroughbreds involved in steeplechase races. Race results were collected from steeplechase races in France (n=9041, in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n=8314 and contained the results of overall 106 020 runs from 1998 to 2003. Performance was measured by two criteria: earnings and ranks after mathematical transformation. The effects of year, sex, age, and race were considered as fixed, animal, permanent environment and maternal as random. Maternal environmental component for ranks were 0.021 in France and 0.000 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Estimated heritabilities for the ranking criteria were 0.18 (repeatability 0.33 in France and 0.06 (repeatability 0.19 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The high genetic correlation between the two traits (0.94 and 0.97 gives the opportunity to find out the most suitable criteria for breeding value estimation.

  17. Application of Insect Sex Pheromone in the Black Cutworm (Agrotis ipilon ) Forecast%昆虫性信息素在小地老虎预测预报上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅珍

    2012-01-01

    In Shanghai area, black cutworm {Agrotis ipilon) breeds 4~5 generation in a year. The first generation larvae have more serious hazards and is a major pest damaging vegetable seedling. From 2009 to 2011, to further enhance the black cutworm forecasting quality and improve the monitoring technology, we conducted the monitoring and comparison test by using light, sweet with sour and sex pheromone attractants. The results showed that the attractant produced by Ningbo NewCon Inc for trapping black cutworm had higher capture rate, clearer moths peak, higher accuracy, simpler installation and less affection by climate, which could be one of the main methods for forecasting black cutworm.%在上海地区,小地老虎年发生4~5代,以第1代幼虫为害较重,是蔬菜苗期的主要害虫.为进一步提高小地老虎预测预报的质量,完善测报技术,于2009年~2011年开展了灯诱、糖醋诱蛾和性诱监测比较试验.结果表明,采用宁波纽康生物技术有限公司生产的小地老虎诱芯进行监测,诱获虫量多、蛾峰清晰、准确度高,而且操作简便,受气候影响小,宜作为小地老虎测报的主要监测手段.

  18. Theorizing Race, Gender, and Violence in Urban Ethnic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Garrett Albert

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the dynamics of race, gender, and systemic violence in an urban after-school club, noting linkages among relationships that undermined black children's educational achievement. Data from observations, e-mails, and interviews with club members highlighted mechanisms of systemic violence in ways that revealed possibilities for fostering…

  19. Student-Loan Inquiry Expands to Examine Issues of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Federal and state officials investigating the student-loan industry are turning their attention to matters of race, hoping to protect students of the nation's historically black colleges. But the colleges themselves are not sure they want the help. New York's attorney general, Andrew M. Cuomo, and the chairman of the U.S. House education…

  20. Race and Gender as Factors in Judgments of Musical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the effects of race and gender on evaluations of musical performances by musician educators. Also addresses the impact of the gender stereotype of particular instruments on evaluations. Finds that instrument stereotypes influence evaluations, particularly for female students playing "male" instruments, and that blacks were…

  1. "They Think Minority Means Lesser than": Black Middle-Class Sons and Fathers Resisting Microaggressions in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Quaylan

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on Black middle-class men is sparse, leaving little to be known about the raced, classed, and gendered experiences for many Black middle-class male students and their families. Employing qualitative methodology, this study uses critical race theory (CRT) to examine the educational experiences of Black middle-class high…

  2. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from ... the skin around the genital area. Before having sex: Get to know your partner and discuss your ...

  3. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 84 - Guidelines for Eliminating Discrimination and Denial of Services on the Basis of Race, Color...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Services on the Basis of Race, Color, National Origin, Sex, and Handicap in Vocational Education Programs Note: For the text of these guidelines, see 45 CFR Part 80, appendix B. ... Denial of Services on the Basis of Race, Color, National Origin, Sex, and Handicap in...

  4. 34 CFR Appendix B to Part 104 - Guidelines for Eliminating Discrimination and Denial of Services on the Basis of Race, Color...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Discrimination and Denial of Services on the Basis of Race, Color, National Origin, Sex, and Handicap in Vocational Education Programs Editorial Note: For the text of these guidelines, see 34 CFR part 100, appendix... Services on the Basis of Race, Color, National Origin, Sex, and Handicap in Vocational Education Programs...

  5. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 86 - Guidelines for Eliminating Discrimination and Denial of Services on the Basis of Race, Color...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Denial of Services on the Basis of Race, Color, National Origin, Sex, and Handicap in Vocational Education Programs Note: For the text of these guidelines, see 45 CFR Part 80, appendix B. ... Denial of Services on the Basis of Race, Color, National Origin, Sex, and Handicap in...

  6. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.

    2008-01-01

    responses for the single stimuli. It has been pointed out that fast guesses (e.g. anticipatory responses) interfere with this test, and a correction procedure ('kill-the-twin' procedure) has been suggested. In this note we formally derive this procedure and extend it to the case in which redundant stimuli......In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...... are presented with onset asynchrony. We demonstrate how the kill-the-twin procedure is used in a statistical test of the race model prediction....

  7. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 5 June starting at 12:15 p.m. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at: http://cern.ch/club-running-relay/form.html

  8. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19 May starting at 12-15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details of the course and of how to register your team for the relay race can be found here. Some advice for all runners from the Medical Service can also be found here.   

  9. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  10. Sense and Sentimentality: Race and Schooling in Sausalito--Part II. Counterrevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirp, David L.; Leff, Donna R.

    1979-01-01

    Focuses on the rebuilding of a successfully integrated school system after the period when separatist Black power politics had driven out moderate families of both races. Emphasizes that the Sausalito experience is useful in understanding the dilemmas of Black militancy and White liberalism in American society. (Author/BE)

  11. A Political Investment: Revisiting Race and Racism in the Research Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollock, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws upon a two-year Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded study into the educational strategies of the black middle classes to examine the role of race and racism in the research process. Specifically, it explores how my political positioning and experiences of racism, as a black female scholar, shaped not only my…

  12. Race Relations and the Nineties: Where Are the Dreams of the Sixties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Lewis M.

    1990-01-01

    The 1960s' dreams--of a color-blind society, of Black power, of reparations for oppression--had significant social impact but were unfulfilled. The latest report on Blacks in American society shows economic stagnation and even decline. There is no prospect for the radical economic reforms needed to reduce inequalities of class and race. Contains…

  13. Know Thine Adversary: The Impact of Race on Styles of Dealing with Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Martin N.

    2001-01-01

    Examined Blacks' and Whites' conflict coping preferences using a scenario that manipulated an offender's race. In one study, Blacks more than Whites preferred behaviorally expressive conflict management and eschewed more reserved tactics. People were less confrontational with offenders of their same racial group. In another study, there was weaker…

  14. Effects of Students' Race, Physical Attractiveness, and Dialect on Teachers' Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeis, Debra Kanai; Turner, Ralph R.

    1978-01-01

    Based on taped samples of the students' speech, 68 white elementary school teachers rated subjects on personality, quality of response, and current and future academic abilities. Black students, Black English-speaking students and unattractive students were rated consistently lower. Academic failure may result from evaluations based on race and…

  15. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (presidential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality. PMID:27171406

  16. Race, Beyond Fact and Fiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. M'charek

    2011-01-01

    What is biological race and how is it made relevant in specific practices? How to address the materiality of biological race without fixing it? And how to write about it without reifying race as a singular object? These are the central questions in this short essay. Instead of debunking or trivializ

  17. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race, now in its 39th year, is already a well-known tradition, but this year the organizers say the event will have even more of a festival feeling. Just off the starting line of the CERN relay race.For the past few years, spectators and runners at the CERN relay race have been able to enjoy a beer while listening to music from the CERN music and jazz clubs. But this year the organizers are aiming for "even more of a festival atmosphere". As David Nisbet, President of the CERN running club and organizer of the relay race, says: "Work is not just about getting your head down and doing the theory, it’s also about enjoying the company of your colleagues." This year, on top of music from the Santa Luis Band and the Canettes Blues Band, there will be demonstrations from the Aikido and softball clubs, a stretching session by the Fitness club, as well as various stalls and of course, the well-earned beer from AGLUP, the B...

  18. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour, and...

  19. Race, Racism, and Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  20. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  1. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  2. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  3. Race, Ethnicity and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Prepared for a textbook in sociology, this paper offers a clear set of definitions for the three crucial but much contended concepts of race, ethnicity and culture, and having done so explores how they can be used to make sense of the dynamics of pluralism in contemporary Britain.

  4. Race, Emotions, and Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the connection between emotion and behavior, examining the connection between the construct of emotional intelligence and criminal behavior. Data collected from a group of men and women on probation from prison indicated that people received different socialization with regard to emotions based on gender and race. Results suggest that…

  5. Sex difference in Double Iron ultra-triathlon performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sigg, Katrin; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph,; Knechtle, Patrizia; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe present study examined the sex difference in swimming (7.8 km), cycling (360 km), running (84 km), and overall race times for Double Iron ultra-triathletes.MethodsSex differences in split times and overall race times of 1,591 men and 155 women finishing a Double Iron ultra-triathlon between 1985 and 2012 were analyzed.ResultsThe annual number of finishes increased linearly for women and exponentially for men. Men achieved race times of 1,716 ± 243 min compared to 1,834 ± 261 min...

  6. Fat Oxidation in Black and White Youth: A Metabolic Phenotype Potentially Predisposing Black Girls to Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, SoJung; Arslanian, Silva A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of obesity is higher in Blacks with racial divergence in adiposity in girls starting during adolescence. Our hypothesis is that in Black children, puberty associated increase in fat oxidation is diminished and could play a role in predisposing to fat accretion triggered during puberty. Thus, we examined the relationships between race, pubertal development, and postabsorptive fat oxidation in youth.

  7. Paternal-age and birth-order effect on the human secondary sex ratio.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruder, A

    1985-01-01

    Because of conflicting results in previous analyses of possible maternal and paternal effects on the variation in sex ratio at birth, records of United States live births in 1975 were sorted by offspring sex, live birth order (based on maternal parity), parental races, and, unlike prior studies, ungrouped parental ages. Linear regression and logistic analysis showed significant effects of birth order and paternal age on sex ratio in the white race data (1.67 million births; 10,219 different c...

  8. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance......-styled references to, among other things, the culturally and ideologically effervescent interwar-period have made me curious as to what alternative possibilities – for instance ‘emancipation’ – a comparative analysis might disclose concerning the visual rhetoric of black. Thus, in conclusion, it is briefly...

  9. Assortative matching among same-sex and different-sex couples in the United States, 1990-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Schwartz; Nikki Graff

    2009-01-01

    Same-sex couples are less likely to be homogamous than different-sex couples on a variety of characteristics including race/ethnicity, age, and education. This study confirms results from previous studies which used 1990 U.S. census data and extends previous analyses to examine changes from 1990 to 2000. We find that same-sex male cohabitors are generally the least likely to resemble one another, followed by same-sex female cohabitors, different-sex cohabitors, and different-sex married coupl...

  10. The External Effects of Black-Male Incarceration on Black Females

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Mechoulan

    2006-01-01

    We examine how the rising incarceration of Black men and the sex ratio imbalance it induces shapes young Black women’s behavior during their late teens and early twenties. Combining data from the BJS and the CPS to match incarceration rates with individual observations, we show that Black male incarceration lowers the odds of non-marital teenage fertility and increases single Black women’s school attainment and early employment. We do not find consistent evidence that high Black male incarcer...

  11. Gender Nonconformity, Discrimination, and Mental Health Among Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Further Exploration of Unexpected Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo; Bos, Henny; Knox, Justin; Reddy, Vasu

    2016-04-01

    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated, and to explore more in-depth how gender nonconformity relates to health. Cook et al. found that feminine men were not more likely to be depressed despite the observation that they were more likely to be discriminated against and that discrimination increased the likelihood of depression. This is in contrast to what studies among gay and bisexual men in Western countries have consistently shown. In the current study, 196 Black South African MSM (ages between 18 and 40; M age, 26.65 years) were surveyed. Assessments included stressors (identity confusion, internalized homophobia, and sexual orientation-based discrimination) and resilience factors (openness about one's sexual orientation, social support, and identification with the gay community). We observed that gender-nonconforming men were not more likely to be depressed despite having experienced more discrimination, which was associated with depression. The same relationships were observed when considering anxiety as the mental health outcome. We found an indirect negative effect of gender nonconformity on depression through internalized homophobia, suggesting that, in this population, internalized homophobia masks the effect of discrimination on mental distress. Implications for the sexual minority stress model, used to guide our analyses, are discussed. Further research is needed to disentangle the complex relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health among MSM populations. PMID:26067298

  12. Social Change, Parental Values, and the Salience of Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John G.; Cranston, Julie E.

    1981-01-01

    Using National Opinion Research Center Social Survey data, predictors of stance on sex education were identified as: attitude toward premarital sex; attitude toward race integration of schools; and the interaction of farm/small town origins, being supervised at work, and having a low educational level. (Author/JAC)

  13. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record. PMID:9196622

  14. Rivalry and innovation races

    OpenAIRE

    Kukuk, Martin; Stadler, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    Based on an extended game-theoretic innovation-race model, we derive some Schumpeterian hypotheses of the impact of technological rivalry, market power, technological opportunities and market size on the timing of product and process innovations. Using innovation data at the firm level in the German industrial sector, we estimate various versions of an econometric specification of the model with dichotomous innovation data by using a univariate binary probit model with qualitative regressor v...

  15. Space race functional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  16. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    This year’s CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20th May at 12h00. This annual event is for teams of 6 runners covering distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner receives a souvenir prize. As usual, there will be a programme of entertainments from 12h in the arrival area, in front of the Restaurant no. 1. Drinks, food, CERN club information and music will be available for the pleasure of both runners and spectators. The race starts at 12h15, with results and prize giving at 13:15.   For details of the race, and of how to sign up a team, please visit: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay The event is organised by the CERN Running Club with the support of the CERN Staff Association.  

  17. The racing dragon

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Dating back nearly 2000 years, the ancient Chinese tradition of Dragon Boat Racing was originally a celebration that fell on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month as a gesture to please the Gods and bring forth necessary rains to cultivate the lands. Now the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, too, participates in this tradition, though not so much to please the Gods on the ritualistic date, but to bring forth giant smiles on the faces of members. Dragon Boat Racing has been rising steadily in popularity in Europe since the mid nineties and with the great potential to host and promote Dragon Boat Racing in the Geneva area, the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, has taken the initiative to bring the sport to the region. Some members of the Club traveled to Dole in June to participate in the Festival Dragon Boat 2009. Under perfect sunny conditions, the team triumphed in their first ever tournament, cruising to a convincing first place overall finish. T...

  18. O efeito do sexo: políticas de raça, gênero e miscigenação The effect of sex: race, gender and miscegenation politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmundo de Araújo Pinho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma discussão das implicações políticas e teóricas da miscigenação como uma formação discursiva, que produz como seu centro a figura idealizada e essencializada do mestiço - mulata ou mulato. Em segundo lugar, toma o caso concreto da construção de duas figuras de gênero racializadas no ambiente da chamada reafricanização da cultura e da política em Salvador: o brau e a beleza negra. O primeiro, uma performance masculina hiper-sexualizada e agressiva, marcada por releituras juvenis vernáculas da "cultura" funk-soul; a segunda, um ideal de mulher e de beleza feminina, oscilante entre políticas de identidade e formas de subjetivação definidas pela relação com o mercado. Em ambos os casos, observa-se a encenação de uma crítica prática ao "regime de verdade" da miscigenação.This article discusses political and theoretical implications of miscegenation as a discursive formation, which engenders in its center the idealized character of the mestizo - mulatto. Secondly, it takes the concrete case of two racialized gender figures in the context of the so called re-Africanization of culture and politics in Salvador, Brazil: brau and black beauty. The first, a hyper-sexualized male performance, characterized by youth vernacular re-readings of the funk-soul "culture", and the second, an ideal of woman and female beauty oscillating between identity politics and subjectification forms defined by the relationship with the consumer market. In both cases there is a game constructed from a practical critique of the "truth regime" of miscegenation.

  19. Sex Stereotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪媛

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the social phenomenon—sex stereotype.The paper illustrates the characteristics of stereotype and discusses about the factors which influence sex stereotypes and the reasons of its existence.And it also found the positive role that sex stereotype plays in the communication.

  20. Genetics against race: Science, politics and affirmative action in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter

    2015-12-01

    This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil's black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social--rather than a biological--category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences. PMID:27479998

  1. Dietary patterns derived using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis are stable and generalizable across race, region, and gender subgroups in the REGARDS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne E Judd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups.Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study who completed the Block98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the Convenience pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the Plant-based pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the Sweets/Fats pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the Southern pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the Alcohol/Salads pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusions: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts.

  2. Does the compatibility effect in the race Implicit Association Test reflect familiarity or affect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Peek-O'Leary, Marie

    2005-06-01

    In the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) involving race classification (white vs. black), an apparent compatibility effect is found between the "pleasant" attribute and the "white" category. This race IAT effect has been interpreted in terms of "implicit prejudice"--that is, more positive evaluation of whites than of blacks that is not open to consciousness. We suggested instead that the race IAT effect is better interpreted in terms of the salience asymmetry account proposed by Rothermund and Wentura (2004), whereby greater familiarity with the white category makes it more salient. Evidence that has been presented against the familiarity interpretation is considered, and alternative interpretations of findings related to the race IAT effect are discussed. PMID:16235627

  3. Everyday narratives on race and health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anna

    2014-06-01

    In 2006, Brazil approved a groundbreaking policy aimed at reducing significant racial health inequalities among its citizens. Like health disparities programs in the United States, Brazil's policy is based on the assumptions that racial identity and racism are important health determinants and that citizens who identify as "black" suffer disproportionately from a number of health problems. How do these assumptions compare to Brazilian citizens' conceptions of racial identity and health inequalities? To address this question, I present ethnographic data from two years of fieldwork in Brazilian public clinics and low-income neighborhoods. I show that a majority of research participants made no connection between race and better or worse health. Of those who perceived health inequalities by race, most believed that white Brazilians had more health problems than black or brown Brazilians. Finally, I consider the implications of these ethnographic findings for Brazil's health disparities campaign. PMID:24719036

  4. Three studies of factors affecting the attitudes of blacks and females toward the pursuit of science and science-related careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Oliver W.; Pettus, W. Clinton; Hedin, Barbara A.

    This study involved the development of an instrument, the Science Career Predictor Scale (SCPS), which assesses seven factors thought to be involved with science career choices: teacher/counselor encouragement, participation in science-related hobbies and activities, academic self-image, science-related career interest, parental encouragement and support, the perceived relevance of mathematics and science, and mathematics and science ability. This instrument was administered to a sample of 522 middle and high school students, and a sample of 185 students from an historically black university, and the effects of such factors as sex, race, personal acquaintance with a scientist, and type of community (rural or urban) on the above-mentioned variables were ascertained using a multivariate analysis of covariance with age as the covariate. A separate study on a sample of 81 high school students looked at race and gender differences in critical thinking abilities as measured by the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking appraisal, and how these abilities correlated with scores on the Science Career Predictor Scale. These studies produced several significant findings. Female subjects did produce significantly lower scores on the career interest factor. Black students actually had significantly higher science-career preference scores than their white counterparts. However, blacks scored significantly lower on the measure of critical thinking ability. Across both races and both sexes, however, the major factor affecting science-related career decisions appears to be personal contact with a scientist. The implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible strategies for increasing the participation of these groups in science.

  5. The Subtle Transmission of Race Bias via Televised Nonverbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbuch, Max; Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    As compared to more explicit racial slurs and sexist statements, biased facial expressions and body language may resist conscious identification and thus produce a hidden social influence. In four studies we show that race biases can be subtly transmitted via televised nonverbal behavior. Characters on 11 popular television shows exhibited more negative nonverbal behavior toward black than toward status-matched white characters. Critically, exposure to pro-white (vs. pro-black) nonverbal bias increased viewers’ bias even though patterns of nonverbal behavior could not be consciously reported. These findings suggest that hidden patterns of televised nonverbal behavior influence bias among viewers. PMID:20019288

  6. Acceptability of a Mobile Smartphone Application Intervention to Improve Access to HIV Prevention and Care Services for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the District of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Matthew E.; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Wilton, Leo; Criss, Vittoria; Kuo, Irene; Glick, Sara Nelson; Brewer, Russell A.; Magnus, Manya

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating racial HIV disparities among men who have sex with men (MSM) will require a greater uptake of HIV prevention and care interventions among Black MSM (BMSM), yet such strategies generally require meaningful engagement in a health care system that often does not meet the unique needs of BMSM. This study assessed the acceptability of, and correlates of having favorable perceptions of, a mobile smartphone application (app) intervention for BMSM that aims to remove structural barriers and improve access to culturally relevant HIV prevention and care services. An Internet-based sample of 93 BMSM completed an online survey on their perceptions of the app using 14 items measured on a 100-point visual analogue scale that were validated in exploratory factor analysis (alpha=0.95). Among the sample, perceptions of two sample app modules were generally favorable and most BMSM agreed that they would use the modules (81.2% and 87.1%). Correlates of having favorable perceptions included trusting medical advice from social networks, lacking private health insurance, and not having accessed a primary care physician in the last year. Our findings warrant the further development of this app and point to subgroups of BMSM for which it may have the greatest impact. PMID:26594251

  7. Receipt of HIV prevention interventions is more common in community-based clinics than in primary care or acute care settings for Black men who have sex with men in the District of Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Matthew E; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Glick, Sara Nelson; Kuo, Irene; Wilton, Leo; Brewer, Russell A; Fields, Sheldon D; Criss, Vittoria; Magnus, Manya

    2016-05-01

    Characterization of structural barriers that impede the receipt of HIV prevention and care services is critical to addressing the HIV epidemic among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). This study investigated the utilization of HIV prevention and general care services among a non-clinic-based sample of BMSM who reported at least one structural barrier to engagement in care. Proportions of participants who had received HIV prevention services and general care services in different settings were compared using Fisher's exact test and correlates of service receipt were assessed using logistic regression. Among 75 BMSM, 60% had accessed a community-based clinic, 21% had accessed a primary care setting, and 36% had accessed an acute care setting in the last 6 months. Greater proportions of participants who had accessed community-based clinics received HIV prevention services during these visits (90%) compared to those who had accessed primary care (53%) and acute care (44%) settings (p = .005). Opportunities for BMSM to receive HIV prevention interventions differed by care setting. Having access to health care did not necessarily facilitate the uptake of HIV prevention interventions. Further investigation of the structurally rooted reasons why BMSM are often unable to access HIV prevention services is warranted. PMID:26643856

  8. American Zombielore: Voodoo, Cinema, and the Undeath of Race

    OpenAIRE

    Creagh, Anna Brooks

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation undertakes a close examination of zombielore in the United States from the early nineteenth century through the 1940s. While many other scholars have engaged with the history and material of zombielore, relatively few have deeply considered the issues of race, rebellion, and revolution at work in such folklore. Born during the Haitian Revolution and brought to Southern plantations by French refugees, early zombielore reflected a fear that "Black magic" could and would be u...

  9. Effect of paragenetic factors on race time in a small population of trotters

    OpenAIRE

    STRBAC, Ljuba; TRIVUNOVIC, Snezana

    2013-01-01

    Based on the information from the Trotting Association of Serbia, we analyzed the effect of paragenetic factors on the race times of trotters born between 1995 and 2005. Data consisted of 3435 observations of 141 trotters. The fixed effects of sex, racetrack, season, age, and distance were used to generate a linear regression model. All the observed factors had a highly significant influence on race times. On average, stallions, compared to mares and geldings, had statistically significantly ...

  10. Characteristics of Victims of Sexual Abuse by Gender and Race in a Community Corrections Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C. Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Islam, M. Aminul; Hanover, Erin E.; Cropsey, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White…

  11. The regulation of explicit and implicit race bias: the role of motivations to respond without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Patricia G; Plant, E Ashby; Amodio, David M; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Vance, Stephanie L

    2002-05-01

    Three studies examined the moderating role of motivations to respond without prejudice (e.g., internal and external) in expressions of explicit and implicit race bias. In all studies, participants reported their explicit attitudes toward Blacks. Implicit measures consisted of a sequential priming task (Study 1) and the Implicit Association Test (Studies 2 and 3). Study 3 used a cognitive busyness manipulation to preclude effects of controlled processing on implicit responses. In each study, explicit race bias was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice, whereas implicit race bias was moderated by the interaction of internal and external motivation to respond without prejudice. Specifically, high internal, low external participants exhibited lower levels of implicit race bias than did all other participants. Implications for the development of effective self-regulation of race bias are discussed. PMID:12003481

  12. Sexual Orientation- and Race-Based Discrimination and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior Among Urban MSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C.; Hoover, Donald R.; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner (“HIV transmission risk”). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner (“HIV acquisition risk”). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25381561

  13. The impact of motivation on race-based impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyi; Cardenas-Iniguez, Carlos; Correll, Joshua; Cloutier, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    Affective biases toward racial out-group members, characterized by White perceivers' negative evaluations of Black individuals, prevail in U.S. culture. Such affective associations have been found to guide race-based impression formation. Accordingly, individuals may strive to resolve inconsistencies when perceiving targets violating their expectations. The current study focuses on the impact of evaluative incongruence on the activity of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) - a brain region previously shown to support impression formation. When asking participants to form impressions of positively and negatively evaluated Black and White individuals, we found preferential dmPFC activity in response to individuals paired with information that violates race-based affective associations. Importantly, individual differences in internal motivation to respond without prejudice (IMS) were found to shape the extent to which dmPFC activity indexes the interactive effects of race and affective associations during impression formation. Specifically, preferential dmPFC activity in response to evaluatively incongruent targets (i.e., Black-positive & White-negative) was present among participants with lower, but not those with higher, levels of IMS. Implications and future directions are discussed in the context of dmPFC involvement in social cognition. PMID:26302673

  14. Bike Racing Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  15. Race By Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the qualities of sharing biometric data in re- al-time between athletes, in order to increase two motivational factors for gym- goers: Enjoyment and social interaction. We present a novel smartphone appli- cation, called Race By Hearts, which enables competition based on...... heart rate data sharing between users in real-time. Through an empirical study conducted in the gym, we show that sharing biometric data in real-time can strengthen so- cial relations between participants, increase motivation, and improve the en- joyment of the fitness activity. Nevertheless, we found...

  16. Race og Racisme

    OpenAIRE

    Freese Hansen, Christian; Møller, Ann-Sophie; Brøns Marcussen, Johanne; Emsdal, Tobias; Frandsen, Philip Frederik

    2016-01-01

    This report contains a look on black male identity expressed lyrically by the gangster rap group Niggaz With Attitude on their 1988 album Straight Outta Compton. The object of the report is through an analysis of N.W.A’s lyrics and a comparison on contemporary history to investigate if there is a specific attitude, bond or connection anchored in the black male identity. The analysis of the factional lyrics are processed textual, communicatively combined with an social analysis and by an aesth...

  17. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S1 x S2. We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  18. Solar powered model vehicle races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Nazmi; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Koç University SPIE student chapter has been organizing the solar powered model vehicle race and outreaching K-12 students. The solar powered model vehicle race for car, boat, blimp, all solar panel boat, submarine, underwater rower, amphibian, and glider have been successfully organized.

  19. Race and Child Custody Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myricks, Noel; Ferullo, Donna L.

    1986-01-01

    Examines race as a factor in determining the custody of children through judicial decisions of the federal and state courts and case reviews in journals and periodicals. Results revealed that where race becomes an issue in custody disputes it will be the most controversial factor. (Author/BL)

  20. HORSE RACE IN NORTH TIBET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This annual horse race takes place in every township of the north Tibetan grassland,one by one,starting from August 1st. The principal activities are usually a horse race and a blessing by touching the foreheads of people by a Rinpoche.

  1. Exploring the Cervical Cancer Screening Experiences of Black Lesbian, Bisexual, and Queer Women: The Role of Patient-Provider Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Bailey, Zinzi; Krieger, Nancy; Austin, S Bryn; Gottlieb, Barbara R

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the health and health care of U.S. black lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women. To understand the facilitators of and barriers to cervical cancer screening in this population, focus group discussions were conducted in Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts between November and December 2012. Using purposive sampling methods, the authors enrolled 18 black LBQ women who participated in one of four focus groups. Using thematic analysis, patient-provider communication was identified, which consisted of four sub-themes--health care provider communication style and demeanor; heteronormative provider assumptions; heterosexism, racism, and classism; and provider professional and sociodemographic background--as the most salient theme. Participants reported fears and experiences of multiple forms of discrimination and preferred receiving care from providers who were knowledgeable about same-sex sexual health and shared their life experiences at the intersection of gender, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. The cervical cancer screening experiences of black LBQ women would be improved by training all health care providers in same-sex sexual health, offering opportunities for clinicians to learn about the effects of various forms of discrimination on women's health care, and increasing the presence of LBQ women of color in health care settings. PMID:25909663

  2. Variability in Race Tests with Heterodera glycines

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, R. D.; Schmitt, D. P.; Noel, G. R.

    1988-01-01

    Tests of Heterodera glycines on differential host plants to determine races were run in Arkansas, Illinois, and North Carolina to check the uniformity of results of the test. Methods used at the three locations varied somewhat. Results indicate that the race test is highly variable. Isolates previously identified as race 1 were identified as race 1 or race 3; those identified as race 2 were identified in these tests as race 2, 4, 9, or 14; those previously identified as race 3 were identified...

  3. 2008 annual CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Dear runners, The 2008 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 24 September at 6.00 p.m. This 5.4 km race consists of 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. Past races have attracted runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, with starting times staggered to ensure that (in theory) all runners finish together. However, if the popularity of the race continues to grow (95 runners took part last year), its format may be modified to a classic single start. For more information and to complete the online entry form, go to http://club-running.web.cern.ch

  4. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart;

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  5. Scientific Productivity, Research Funding, Race and Ethnicity

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, J S; Wang, F; Deng, Y; Ou, F R; Bennett, J R; Liu, Y; Wang, G

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study by Ginther et al., the probability of receiving a U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) RO1 award was related to the applicant's race/ethnicity. The results indicate black/African-American applicants were 10% less likely than white peers to receive an award, after controlling for background and qualifications. It has generated a widespread debate regarding the unfairness of the NIH grant review process and its correction. In this paper, the work by Ginther et al. was augmented by pairing analysis, axiomatically-individualized productivity and normalized funding success measurement. Although there are racial differences in R01 grant success rates, normalized figures of merit for funding success explain the discrepancy. The suggested "leverage points for policy intervention" are in question and require deeper and more thorough investigations. Further adjustments in policies to remove racial disparity should be made more systematically for equal opportunity, rather than being limited to the ...

  6. Chromosome landmarks and autosome-sex chromosome translocations in Rumex hastatulus, a plant with XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska-Joachimiak, Aleksandra; Kula, Adam; Książczyk, Tomasz; Chojnicka, Joanna; Sliwinska, Elwira; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

    2015-06-01

    Rumex hastatulus is the North American endemic dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. It is differentiated into two chromosomal races: Texas (T) race characterised by a simple XX/XY sex chromosome system and North Carolina (NC) race with a polymorphic XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system. The gross karyotype morphology in NC race resembles the derived type, but chromosomal changes that occurred during its evolution are poorly understood. Our C-banding/DAPI and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments demonstrated that Y chromosomes of both races are enriched in DAPI-positive sequences and that the emergence of polymorphic sex chromosome system was accompanied by the break of ancestral Y chromosome and switch in the localization of 5S rDNA, from autosomes to sex chromosomes (X and Y2). Two contrasting domains were detected within North Carolina Y chromosomes: the older, highly heterochromatinised, inherited from the original Y chromosome and the younger, euchromatic, representing translocated autosomal material. The flow-cytometric DNA estimation showed ∼3.5 % genome downsizing in the North Carolina race. Our results are in contradiction to earlier reports on the lack of heterochromatin within Y chromosomes of this species and enable unambiguous identification of autosomes involved in the autosome-heterosome translocation, providing useful chromosome landmarks for further studies on the karyotype and sex chromosome differentiation in this species. PMID:25394583

  7. Faulkner's Image of the Black Man in "Go Down, Moses".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniston, Dorothy L.

    1983-01-01

    In "Go Down, Moses," William Faulkner shows a sensitive understanding of the character and sensibilities of Black people. Faulkner's characterizations and illustrations of relationships between Blacks and Whites imply the hope that understanding between the races can be realized through man's conscious will to return to natural instincts.…

  8. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 18 May between 12.15 and 12.35. This year, weather permitting, there will be some new attractions in the start/finish area on the field behind the Main Building. You will be able to: listen to music played by the CERN Jazz Club; buy drinks at the bar organised by the CERN Running Club; buy lunch served directly on the terrace by the restaurant Novae. ATTENTION: concerning traffic, the recommendations are the same as always: If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  9. The Impact of Implementing a Test, Treat and Retain HIV Prevention Strategy in Atlanta among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men with a History of Incarceration: A Mathematical Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane D Lima

    Full Text Available Annually, 10 million adults transition through prisons or jails in the United States (US and the prevalence of HIV among entrants is three times higher than that for the country as a whole. We assessed the potential impact of increasing HIV Testing/Treatment/Retention (HIV-TTR in the community and within the criminal justice system (CJS facilities, coupled with sexual risk behavior change, focusing on black men-who-have-sex-with-men, 15-54 years, in Atlanta, USA.We modeled the effect of a HIV-TTR strategy on the estimated cumulative number of new (acquired infections and mortality, and on the HIV prevalence at the end of ten years. We additionally assessed the effect of increasing condom use in all settings.In the Status Quo scenario, at the end of 10 years, the cumulative number of new infections in the community, jail and prison was, respectively, 9246, 77 and 154 cases; HIV prevalence was 10815, 69 and 152 cases, respectively; and the cumulative number of deaths was 2585, 18 and 34 cases, respectively. By increasing HIV-TTR coverage, the cumulative number of new infections could decrease by 15% in the community, 19% in jail, and 8% in prison; HIV prevalence could decrease by 8%, 9% and 7%, respectively; mortality could decrease by 20%, 39% and 18%, respectively. Based on the model results, we have shown that limited use and access to condoms have contributed to the HIV incidence and prevalence in all settings.Aggressive implementation of a CJS-focused HIV-TTR strategy has the potential to interrupt HIV transmission and reduce mortality, with benefit to the community at large. To maximize the impact of these interventions, retention in treatment, including during the period after jail and prison release, and increased condom use was vital for decreasing the burden of the HIV epidemic in all settings.

  10. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle A Mode

    Full Text Available Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675. At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03, with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001. Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04. While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  11. Sex Differences in Sex-Role Conceptions and Family Orientation of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrist, Shirley S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Findings show that high school males are more sexist than females; and blacks, more so that whites. Women who are bright, from upper class backgrounds, and whose mothers work are more egalitarian in sex role conceptions. Unlike women, men's sex role attitudes have little connection to their family background. (Author/MV)

  12. Ethnicity has overtaken race in medical science:MEDLINE-based comparison of trends in the USA and the rest of the world, 1965-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Afshari, Reza; Bhopal, Raj S

    2010-01-01

    Ethnicity and race are among the most commonly used epidemiological variables, closely following age, sex and social class. Relative increase in the use of the term ‘ethnicity’ rather than ‘race’ in the health literature from 1966 to 2000 has been observed.These terms describe two distinct, overlapping concepts and, arguably, ethnicity is preferable to race.There are limited genetic differences between racial groups, undermining the traditional use of race as an indica...

  13. Rate of renal cell carcinoma subtypes in different races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sankin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We sought to identify racial differences among histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC between black and non-black patients in an equal-access health care system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established a multi-institutional, prospective database of patients undergoing partial or radical nephrectomy between January 1, 2000 and Sept 31, 2009. For the purposes of this study, data captured included age at diagnosis, race, tumor size, presence of lymphovascular invasion, presence of capsular invasion, margin status, and tumor histology. RESULTS: 204 kidney tumors were identified (Table-1. Of these, 117 (57.4% were in black patients and 87 (42.6% were in non-black patients. Age at surgery ranged from 37 to 87 with a median of 62. Tumor size ranged from 1.0 to 22.0 cm with a median of 5.0 cm. Overall, tumors were composed of clear cell RCC in 97 cases (47.5%, papillary RCC in 65 cases (31.9%, chromophobe RCC in 13 cases (6.4%, collecting duct/medullary RCC in 2 cases (1.0%, RCC with multiple histological subtypes in 8 cases (3.9%, malignant tumors of other origin in 6 cases (2.9%, and benign histology in 13 cases (6.4%. Among black patients, papillary RCC was seen in 56 cases (47.9%, compared to 9 cases (10.3% among non-black patients (p < 0.001 (Table-2. Clear cell RCC was present in 38 (32.5% of black patients and in 59 (67.8% of non-blacks (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, papillary RCC had a much higher occurrence among black patients compared to non-black patients. This is the first study to document such a great racial disparity among RCC subtypes.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF HOMEOWNERSHIP AND ASSET POVERTY IN THE ALABAMA BLACK BELT AND NON-BLACK BELT COUNTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kanyi, Peter M.; Baharanyi, Ntam; Ngandu, Mudiayi Sylvain; Zabawa, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed homeownership and how it is affected by race, residency in or out of Alabama Black Belt, family status, poverty and other variables. All variables showed significant relationship to Alabama homeownership with single-parenthood showing a negative impact on White homeownership but insignificant to Black homeownership in the region.

  15. Variations of Sexual Scripts Relating to Concurrency by Race, Class, and Gender in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Osbak, Kara; Buyze, Jozefien; Johnson, Saul; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether higher rates of sexual partner concurrency in Black South Africans are due to socioeconomic or cultural factors. We used a nationally representative sample of 9,728 individuals aged 16 to 55 from a study conducted in 2009 to examine how the norms pertaining to concurrency and the practice of concurrency vary by race, class, and gender. The percentage of men reporting point concurrency was 14%, 6.5%, and 2.5% in Blacks, coloreds, and Whites, respectively (p attitudes toward concurrency than women did. For a range of indicators, White men and women had less favorable attitudes toward concurrency than Black men and women. These differences remained after controlling for a range of confounding variables. In the adjusted logistic regression model, reported concurrency in men was associated with a younger age, Black race, being in the lowest income tertile, not being in a stable relationship, and expressing various positive attitudes toward concurrency. PMID:25349886

  16. Measuring Distributional Inequality: Relative Body Mass Index Distributions by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Education, United States (1999–2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Houle, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of ov...

  17. Hip-Hop's Influence on the Identity Development of Black Female College Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.; West, Nicole M.; Jackson, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This article explores unique issues regarding the effects of hip-hop culture on the identity development of young Black female college students. Through the lenses of womanist and Black feminist perspectives, the intersecting impact of race and gender are reviewed within the context of the competing influences of hip-hop on Black female identity.…

  18. Balancing School and Cool: Tactics of Resistance and Accommodation among Black Middle-Class Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Quaylan

    2013-01-01

    The school lives of black middle-class males are often overlooked and understudied. An exploration at the intersection of race, class and gender for black middle-class males provides opportunity for a more nuanced understanding of the black male schooling experience. Drawing upon student resistance theories as analytical tools and employing…

  19. The Relationship of Foot Strike Pattern, Shoe Type, and Performance in a 50-km Trail Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmer, Mark E; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Roberts, Kyle G; Valadao, Jason M

    2016-06-01

    Kasmer, ME, Liu, X-c, Roberts, KG, and Valadao, JM. Relationship of foot strike pattern, shoe type, and performance in a 50-km trail race. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1633-1637, 2016-Recent "in-race" studies have observed the foot strike patterns of runners in traditional road marathon races. However, similar studies have not been conducted for trail runners, which have been estimated to account for 11% of all runners. The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the rear-foot strike (RFS) prevalence in a 50-km trail race and compare with traditional road marathon races; (b) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike and sex in a 50-km trail race; and (c) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike, shoe type, and performance in a 50-km trail race. One hundred sixty-five runners were videotaped at the 8.1-km mark of the 2012 Ice Age Trail 50-km race. Foot strike analysis revealed RFS prevalence of 85.1%, less than previously reported in traditional road marathon races. There was no relationship found between sex and foot strike (p = 0.60). A significant effect of shoe type on foot strike (RFS was less common among runners in minimalist shoes, p < 0.01) and performance (faster runners were more likely to be wearing minimalist shoes, p < 0.01) was observed; however, no association between foot strike and performance was observed (p = 0.83). This study suggests that most trail runners, albeit less than road runners, prefer an RFS pattern, which is accompanied by biomechanical consequences unique from a non-RFS pattern and, therefore, likely carries a unique injury profile. In addition, the findings in this study suggest that minimalist shoes may represent a reasonable training modification to improve performance. PMID:23860289

  20. Strategic entextualization: sensualized performances of race in discursives practices on the Web 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Thayse Figueira; LOPES Luiz Paulo da Moita

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the discursive practices of Luan, a young black man of homoerotic identifications, interacting on the Web 2,0. The data was generated in an ethnographic investigation on the interactional network: the  Facebook. Entextualization  concepts and performance are privileged considering the observation processes of circulation and destabilization of crystallized discourses of race in the construction of identifications of Luan as black, sexy boy.  We advocate these concepts are ...

  1. Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Cancer Home Kinds of Cancer Bladder Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Kidney Liver Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Vaginal and Vulvar How ...

  2. Some Unique Causes of Black Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaights, Ernest; Simpson, Gloria

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of suicide unique to blacks are: cultural expectations for males, which include repression of feelings and strict obedience to parents and elders; difficulty identifying with their race; gangs and drug abuse; poverty; and racism. These factors can cause depression, a known factor in suicidal behavior. (Author/ABB)

  3. The Black Hole in Science Ranks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekoala, Elizabeth

    This paper reviews four decades of research on race and education in Great Britain and discusses the deficit theories of underachievement that serve as the structure of most of the studies. Focus is placed on black youth of Caribbean origin and how they perform in British schools. Consideration is also given to constructive frameworks from gender…

  4. Maximizing Peak Running on Race Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    Distance runners spend many hours training assiduously for competition, yet on race day they can often make mistakes that sabotage their performance. This article addresses five common race-day mistakes: (1) failure to bring proper equipment to the race; (2) failure to eat an appropriate race-day meal; (3) failure to hydrate properly; (4) failure…

  5. INEQUALITIES IN THE NUCLEAR AGE: IMPACT OF RACE AND GENDER ON RADIATION EXPOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE (1951–1999)*

    OpenAIRE

    ANGELON-GAETZ, KIM A.; Richardson, David B.; Wing, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the workforce during the civil rights movement may have impacted occupational exposures in the United States. We examined Savannah River Site (SRS) employee records (1951–1999) for changes in radiation doses and monitoring practices, by race and sex. Segregation of jobs by race and sex diminished but remained pronounced in recent years. Female workers were less likely than males to be monitored for occupational radiation exposure [odds of being unmonitored = 3.11; 95% CI: (2.79, 3....

  6. What's the Use of Race? Investigating the Concept of Race in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marc Phillip

    2013-01-01

    What's the use of race and does race matter? These two questions serve as the foundation for this dissertation comprised of three studies examining: (1) how scholars "use" race in their research and how their decisions matter for the way race is interpreted; (2) how students make meaning of race (as a social construct) during a time…

  7. Les performances de la race taurine Somba en milieu paysan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adoméfa, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Performances of Somba Cattle Race in Rural Area. Aiming to improve and preserve Somba cattle race in its birthplace, morphometrical and zootechnical characterisations studies have been managed from November 1995 to November 1996. White-black coat is the most represented. It was followed by blackwhite, black and fawn. The Somba cattle race is small sized with 96.6 cm to the withers and 172 ± 13 kg weight. The barymetrical equation established for all age animals is P= 139.10-6(PT2.88 with a determination coefficient of 0.98. The birth weight is 12 ± 3 kg. The daily weight gains range from 96 g/day between 1 and 2 years to 104 g/day between 2 and 3 years. The fertility rate is 60.9%, and first calving age is 5 years. The interval between calvings is 18 months. The productivity per cow is 0.58 calf a year or 26.59 kg of calf and the productivity per 100 kg of cow is 15.92 kg calf. Those parameters show that the Somba is small sized and height but is prolific with a fertility rate of 60.9% in the harsh conditions in which the animals move. The breeding improvement would pass by the breeding environment improvement as feeding, watering and animal health; the bull-calves castration and to moderate milking in order to insure a better development of calves in the herds.

  8. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  9. Race, Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violent Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The risk of adolescent violent victimization in the United States varies considerably across racial and ethnic populations; it is unknown whether the sources of risk also vary by race and ethnicity. This study examined the correlates of violent victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Data collected from 11,070 adolescents (51 % female, mean age = 15.04 years) during the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to estimate group-specific multilevel logistic regression models. The results indicate that male, violent offending, peer deviance, gang membership, and low self-control were significantly associated with increased odds of violent victimization for all groups. Some activities-including getting drunk, sneaking out, and unstructured socializing with peers-were risk factors for Black adolescents only; skipping school was a risk factor only for Hispanic adolescents. Although there are many similarities across groups, the findings suggest that minority adolescents are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization when they engage in some activities and minor forms of delinquency. PMID:26769575

  10. A Black Perspective in Community and Youth Work, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Sapin

    2004-01-01

    The report includes notes and papers based on workshop discussions on: “What is a black perspective?” facilitated by Daniel Nkrumah; Understanding Caste: Implications for Practitioners, facilitated by Pravin Patel and Kaleem Anwar; A History of Black Footballers, facilitated by Dwight Noel; The Effects of the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 facilitated by Addy Lazz-Onyenobi and Noreen Sheikh; A Black Perspective on Forced Marriages and Domestic Violence. facilitated by Shabnam Sheikh and ...

  11. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  12. A prospective study of statin use and mortality among 67,385 blacks and whites in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipworth L

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Loren Lipworth,1 Sergio Fazio,1,2 Edmond K Kabagambe,1 Heather M Munro,3 Victor C Nwazue,1 Robert E Tarone,3 Joseph K McLaughlin,3 William J Blot,1,3 Uchechukwu KA Sampson1,2,41Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; 4Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USAPurpose: The primary objective of this study is to examine the race-specific associations between statin use and overall mortality, as well as cardiovascular and cancer mortality, among blacks and whites in the Southeastern United States (US. Little is known about these associations in blacks.Patients and methods: The Southern Community Cohort Study is an ongoing, prospective cohort study, which enrolled from 2002 through 2009 nearly 86,000 participants aged 40–79 years. We used Cox regression models to estimate race-specific hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI for overall and cause-specific mortality associated with statin use based on self-reported hypercholesterolemia and treatment at cohort entry. Mean age at cohort entry was 51.4 years in blacks (n=48,825 and 53.5 years in whites (n=18,560. Sixty-one percent of participants were women. Whites were more likely to have self-reported hypercholesterolemia (40% versus 27%, P<0.001, and to report being treated with either statins (52% versus 47%, P<0.001 or combination lipid therapy (9% versus 4%, P<0.001 compared with blacks, regardless of sex. During follow-up (median: 5.6 years 5,199 participants died. Compared with untreated hypercholesterolemic individuals, statin use was associated with reduced all-cause mortality (adjusted HR [aHR] 0.86; 95% CI 0.77–0.95 and cardiovascular disease mortality overall (aHR 0.75; 95% CI 0.64–0.89 and among whites (aHR 0.67; 95

  13. The 2009 Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 CERN Relay Race was as popular as ever, with a record number of 88 teams competing. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-480x360.wmv', 'false', 288, 216, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-posterframe-480x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1178303', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); Even the rain didn’t dampen the spirits, and it still managed to capture the ‘festival feeling’ with live music, beer and stalls from various CERN clubs set up outside Restaurant 1. The Powercuts on the podium after win...

  14. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  15. Race-Based Health Disparities and the Digital Divide: Implications for Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Zula

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the sources of race-based health disparities could improve nursing practice and education in minority underserved communities. This purpose of this paper was to consider if Black-nonBlack health disparities were at least in part explained by Black-nonBlack disparities in access to Internet-based health information. With data on the U.S. adult population from the 2012 General Social Survey, the parameters of a health production function in which computer usage as an input was estimated. It was found that while there are Black-nonBlack disparities in health, once computer usage was accounted for, Black-nonBlack health disparities disappeared. This suggests nursing and health interventions that improve Internet access for Black patients in underserved communities could improve the health of Black Americans and close the racial health disparities gap. These findings complement recent nursing researchfindings that suggest closing Black-nonBlack disparities in computer access, the "digital divide," can render nursing practice more effective in providing care to minority and underserved communities. PMID:27045161

  16. Stacking the Jury: Legal Professionals' Peremptory Challenges Reflect Jurors' Levels of Implicit Race Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mike; DeVaul-Fetters, Amanda; Gawronski, Bertram

    2016-08-01

    Most legal systems are based on the premise that defendants are treated as innocent until proven guilty and that decisions will be unbiased and solely based on the facts of the case. The validity of this assumption has been questioned for cases involving racial minority members, in that racial bias among jury members may influence jury decisions. The current research shows that legal professionals are adept at identifying jurors with levels of implicit race bias that are consistent with their legal interests. Using a simulated voir dire, professionals assigned to the role of defense lawyer for a Black defendant were more likely to exclude jurors with high levels of implicit race bias, whereas prosecutors of a Black defendant did the opposite. There was no relation between professionals' peremptory challenges and jurors' levels of explicit race bias. Implications for the role of racial bias in legal decision making are discussed. PMID:27354112

  17. Race/Ethnicity and Early Mathematics Skills: Relations between Home, Classroom, and Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Susan; Galindo, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study used Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort data to examine influences of the home and classroom learning environments on kindergarten mathematics achievement of Black, Latino, and White children. Regardless of race/ethnicity, children who started kindergarten proficient in mathematics earned spring scores about 7-8…

  18. Different Worlds and Divergent Paths: Academic Careers Defined by Race and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita; Cervero, Ronald M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Juanita Johnson-Bailey, a Black female professor, and Ronald M. Cervero, a White male professor, examine and contrast their academic lives by exploring how race and gender have influenced their journeys and their experiences. Using journal excerpts, personal examples, and a comparative list of privileges, the authors present a…

  19. The Role of Race and Severity of Abuse in Teachers' Recognition or Reporting of Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egu, Chizoma Linda; Weiss, David J.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, reported child abuse rates vary dramatically with race. We employed a scenario methodology to examine whether teachers, whose professional obligations include reporting suspected instances of abuse, exhibit bias in evaluating a possibly abused child. Each teacher (180 White, 180 Black, and 180 Hispanic) read one of six…

  20. Race, Social Class and the Motive to Avoid Success in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Peter J.; Mednick, Martha T.

    1970-01-01

    Based on senior author's M.A thesis in Psychology at Howard University. Examines race and social class differences in the expression of fear of success (termed M-s) in college women. Hypothesis that black women would show less M-s than white women was supported. Social class differences not found. (RJ)

  1. Battling Inertia in Educational Leadership: CRT Praxis for Race Conscious Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Vonzell; Karanxha, Zorka; Bellara, Aarti

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how institutional racism is mediated by faculty negotiating power and privilege in the selection of Black (African American) women into an educational leadership preparation program. Critical race theory (CRT) praxis is used to analyze the faculty dynamics in the candidate selection process situated in…

  2. Sounds of Silence: Race and Emergent Counter-Narratives of Art Teacher Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehe, Amelia M.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two Black preservice art teachers and their racialized experiences in art teacher education. Drawing from a critical race theory perspective, their stories are conceptualized as emergent counternarratives of becoming an art teacher. The case studies are based on interviews from an ethnographic investigation of…

  3. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

  4. The Attitude of 11-Year-Old Pupils toward People of Other Races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattmann, Ulrich

    1979-01-01

    A semantic differential scale was used to detect racial prejudice before and after teaching a course developed to convey the concept "human" as consisting of many races. The course improved attitudes toward Blacks and Chinese, but little change was noted in the German children's attitudes toward Germans. (CP)

  5. Should Ethnicity "Matter" when Teaching about "Race" and Racism in the Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housee, Shirin

    2008-01-01

    Teaching about "race" and racism to a diverse student group can lead to some very interesting exchanges. Some of these moments are much to do with the subject content. Learning about racism often pulls on our emotional strings: black students sometimes express their hurt and anger, while white students sometimes remain silent or express their…

  6. A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Own- and Cross-Race Face Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined predictions derived from Valentine's (1991) Multidimensional Space (MDS) framework for own- and other-race face processing. A set of 20 computerized faces was generated from a single prototype. Each face was saved as Black and White, changing only skin tone, such that structurally identical faces were represented in both race…

  7. Trends in Marital Happiness by Gender and Race, 1973 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corra, Mamadi; Carter, Shannon K.; Carter, J. Scott; Knox, David

    2009-01-01

    This article uses data from the 1973-2006 General Social Survey to assess the interactive impact of race and gender on marital happiness over time. Findings indicate independent and significant effects for both variables, with Whites and husbands reporting greater marital happiness than Blacks and wives. Comparing four subgroups (White husbands,…

  8. Race or Resource? BMI, Race, and Other Social Factors as Risk Factors for Interlimb Differences among Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors with Lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine T. Dean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High BMI is a risk factor for upper body breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL onset. Black cancer survivors are more likely to have high BMI than White cancer survivors. While observational analyses suggest up to 2.2 times increased risk of BCRL onset for Black breast cancer survivors, no studies have explored race or other social factors that may affect BCRL severity, operationalized by interlimb volume difference (ILD. Materials and Methods. ILD was measured by perometry for 296 overweight (25 > BMI 6 months from treatment in the WISER Survivor trial. Multivariable linear regression examined associations between social and physical factors and ILD. Results. Neither Black race (−0.26, p=0.89 nor BMI (0.22, p=0.10 was associated with ILD. Attending college (−4.89, p=0.03 was the strongest factor associated with ILD, followed by having more lymph nodes removed (4.75, p=0.01, >25% BCRL care adherence (4.10, p=0.01, and years since treatment (0.55, p<0.001. Discussion. Neither race nor BMI was associated with ILD among overweight cancer survivors. Education, a proxy for resource level, was the strongest factor associated with greater ILD. Tailoring physical activity and weight loss interventions designed to address BCRL severity by resource rather than race should be considered.

  9. Race or Resource? BMI, Race, and Other Social Factors as Risk Factors for Interlimb Differences among Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors with Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anagha; Kim, Taehoon; Herling, Matthew; Brown, Justin C.; Zhang, Zi; Evangelisti, Margaret; Hackley, Renata; Kim, Jiyoung; Cheville, Andrea; Troxel, Andrea B.; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High BMI is a risk factor for upper body breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) onset. Black cancer survivors are more likely to have high BMI than White cancer survivors. While observational analyses suggest up to 2.2 times increased risk of BCRL onset for Black breast cancer survivors, no studies have explored race or other social factors that may affect BCRL severity, operationalized by interlimb volume difference (ILD). Materials and Methods. ILD was measured by perometry for 296 overweight (25 > BMI 6 months from treatment) in the WISER Survivor trial. Multivariable linear regression examined associations between social and physical factors and ILD. Results. Neither Black race (−0.26, p = 0.89) nor BMI (0.22, p = 0.10) was associated with ILD. Attending college (−4.89, p = 0.03) was the strongest factor associated with ILD, followed by having more lymph nodes removed (4.75, p = 0.01), >25% BCRL care adherence (4.10, p = 0.01), and years since treatment (0.55, p < 0.001). Discussion. Neither race nor BMI was associated with ILD among overweight cancer survivors. Education, a proxy for resource level, was the strongest factor associated with greater ILD. Tailoring physical activity and weight loss interventions designed to address BCRL severity by resource rather than race should be considered. PMID:27433356

  10. Party Animals or Responsible Men: Social Class, Race, and Masculinity on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Studies of collegiate party and hookup culture tend to overlook variation along social class and racial/ethnic lines. Drawing on interview data at a "party school" in the Midwest, I examine the meanings and practices of drinking and casual sex for a group of class and race-diverse fraternity men. While more privileged men draw on ideas…

  11. Elevated testosterone levels in a racing horse due to an XY testicular disorder of sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Claudia; Sieme, Harald; Piechotta, Marion; Lehner, Stephanie; Merkt, Jan Carlos; Uphaus, Hubert; Klug, Erich; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    A female thoroughbred successful in horse racing was positively tested for high testosterone values. This horse neither showed stallion-like-behaviour nor signs of ambiguous external genitalia. The karyotype of this horse was 2n = 64,XY and the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) PCR was positive. Hair samples tested for naturally testosterone revealed values normal for stallions, and tests for eight synthetic testosterone esters remained negative. The phenotype, ultrasonographic examination, hormone status, cytogenetic evaluation and molecular diagnostics lead to the diagnosis of an XY testicular disorder of sexual development (DSD) due to a complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. To our knowledge this is the first report about a thoroughbred in racing sports with an XY testicular disorder of sexual development. To date, intersex racing horses have never been described in thoroughbreds or a regulation for intersexes in regard to horse races has been issued. PMID:26281448

  12. Emotional expressions preferentially elicit implicit evaluations of faces also varying in race or age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Belinda M; Lipp, Ottmar V; Mallan, Kimberley M

    2014-10-01

    Both facial cues of group membership (race, age, and sex) and emotional expressions can elicit implicit evaluations to guide subsequent social behavior. There is, however, little research addressing whether group membership cues or emotional expressions are more influential in the formation of implicit evaluations of faces when both cues are simultaneously present. The current study aimed to determine this. Emotional expressions but not race or age cues elicited implicit evaluations in a series of affective priming tasks with emotional Caucasian and African faces (Experiments 1 and 2) and young and old faces (Experiment 3). Spontaneous evaluations of group membership cues of race and age only occurred when those cues were task relevant, suggesting the preferential influence of emotional expressions in the formation of implicit evaluations of others when cues of race or age are not salient. Implications for implicit prejudice, face perception, and person construal are discussed. PMID:25046242

  13. Race, religion and a cat in the clinical hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Gretchen

    2016-09-01

    Racial and religious identities are complex, often mired in dynamics of 'othering'. Such dynamics easily become a means of distancing the pain, fear and rage of intergenerational traumas, thus undermining ways race and religion can be powerful vehicles for the transference and countertransference. Drawing from a history of race in America as well as Jung's anxiety when meeting the stranger within himself, this paper focuses on 17 years of work between a black female patient and white female clinician (me). Together we encountered themes of hatred, silence, guilt and intimacy in the transference and countertransference, themes eventually symbolized by the presence of my cat which was locked into the bathroom for each session. This cat came to represent a bridge through developmental traumas and wounds of racism. PMID:27530166

  14. What's the Use of Race? Investigating the Concept of Race in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Marc Phillip

    2013-01-01

    What's the use of race and does race matter? These two questions serve as the foundation for this dissertation comprised of three studies examining: (1) how scholars use race in their research and how their decisions matter for the way race is interpreted; (2) how students make meaning of race (as a social construct) during a time when genetic technologies are increasingly being used to identify one's racial ancestry; and (3) how useful race seems to college students and their sense of ident...

  15. Race-Ethnic Differences in Sexual Health Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Hayford, Sarah R

    2012-12-01

    Despite extensive research examining the correlates of unintended fertility, it remains a puzzle as to why racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to experience an unintended birth than non-Hispanic whites. This paper focuses on sexual literacy, a potential precursor of unintended fertility. Analyses use a unique dataset of unmarried young adults aged 18-29, the 2009 Survey of Unmarried Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Practices, to examine beliefs regarding pregnancy risks, pregnancy fatalism, and contraceptive side effects. At the bivariate level, foreign-born Hispanics hold more erroneous beliefs about the risk of pregnancy than other groups, and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely to believe in contraceptive side effects than non-Hispanic whites. Both foreign-born Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to hold a fatalistic view towards pregnancy. Race-ethnic differences are attenuated for pregnancy misperceptions and fatalism in multivariate models controlling for sources of health information, sexual and fertility experiences, and sociodemographic characteristics. However, non-Hispanic blacks remain more likely than non-Hispanic whites to believe there is a high chance of reduced sexual desire and serious health consequences when using hormonal contraceptives. These differences may contribute to race-ethnic variation in contraceptive use and, ultimately, unintended fertility. PMID:23565127

  16. Race of Interviewer Effects: What Happens on the Web?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Krysan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on a surprising finding in an earlier laboratory experiment studying race of interviewer effects in live as against “virtual” interviews where videos of an interviewer reading the questions are played to respondents on a laptop computer (Krysan & Couper, 2003. Unexpectedly, Whites in the virtual interviewer condition gave more racially conservative responses to the Black as compared to the White interviewer. Our post-hoc interpretation was that negative stereotypes are triggered when subjects are presented with an image of the target group, and thus the virtual Black interviewer, rather than suppressing racial prejudice with social presence, instead activated negative attitudes. We tested this hypothesis with a Web survey-based experiment using a representative sample of White respondents (Knowledge Networks panel, n = 1120. A 2 × 2 between-subjects design manipulated race of interviewer and social presence versus mere presence, using images of Black or White persons. Findings indicate mixed support for the hypothesis that mere presence may activate negative attitudes, while social presence may lead to censoring or editing or these negative attitudes.

  17. Vulnerability in the context of HIV and syphilis infection in a population of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignol, Sandra; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila D; Kerr, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo

    2015-05-01

    Social, individual, and programmatic vulnerability of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the context of the HIV epidemic and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) is a reality in many countries. The survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis in Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities selected 383 MSM in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, using the respondent driven sampling (RDS) technique. Individual vulnerability early sexual initiation (51%), average of eight sex partners, and unprotected receptive anal sex with casual (32%) and steady partners (45%) and positive rapid tests HIV (6.5%) and syphilis (9%). Social vulnerability young adults (80%), black race/skin color (91%), mean monthly family income of BRL 1,000.00, and personal history of discrimination (57%). Programmatic factors no previous HIV test (63%) and no access to lubricant gel (88%). The study showed a profile of vulnerability and the urgent need for interventions and STI prevention in the MSM population in Salvador, in addition to high prevalence rates for HIV and syphilis. PMID:26083178

  18. Exploratory analysis of verbal aggression in romantic relationships among unmarried men and women: Predictive patterns by gender and race

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Grace H.; Tucker, M. Belinda; Li, Gang; Zhou, Xiaomeng; Hwang, Sun

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory study that examined verbal aggression in romantic relationships among unmarried Black and White women and men as a function of gender and race. We employed an ecological approach to examine the receipt of verbal aggression separately for men and women at the levels of individual, relationship, and community. We also explored whether gender-specific correlates of verbal aggression interacted with race. Analyses were based on a sample of 212 women and 133 men in non-marit...

  19. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

    OpenAIRE

    de Jongh Beatriz E; Locke Robert; Paul David A; Hoffman Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA), and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission ...

  20. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

    OpenAIRE

    de Jongh, Beatriz E; Locke, Robert; Paul, David A; Hoffman, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA), and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not b...

  1. The association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related problems: An examination of race and gender differences among college drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Nickeisha; Kim, Su-Young; Ray, Anne E; White, Helene R; Jiao, Yang; Mun, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study examined race and gender differences in use of specific types of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and the moderating effects of race and gender on the relationship between PBS use and alcohol problems, controlling for alcohol use, among a large sample of Asian, Black, and White college drinkers. There were significant racial and gender differences in the types of PBS used. Moderation analyses indicated that PBS were more protective for women than men against experiencing alcohol-related problems. There were no significant race effects or race-by-gender interaction effects on alcohol problems. Implementing PBS may be beneficial for all college students. PMID:26114577

  2. Race-ethnicity is related to biomarkers of iron and iodine status after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables in NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Pan, Yi

    2013-06-01

    The NHANES 2003-2006 has assessed iron and iodine status, 2 trace element nutrients of continued public health interest, in the U.S. population. We investigated associations of sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, income) and lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, dietary supplement use) variables with the iron status indicators serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron in women aged 20-49 y (n = 2539, 2513, and 2509, respectively) and with urine iodine, a biomarker of iodine intake, in adults aged ≥ 20 y (n = 3066). Significant correlations between the study variables and biomarkers were weak (|r| ≤ 0.24). Urine creatinine (uCr) was moderately significantly correlated with urine iodine (r = 0.52). The individual variables explained ≤ 5% of the variability in biomarker concentrations in bivariate analysis. In multiple regression models, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables together explained 4-13% of the variability in iron indicators and 41% of the variability in urine iodine (uCr in the model). The adjusted estimated body iron was ≈ 1 unit (mg/kg) lower in non-Hispanic black vs. non-Hispanic white women and ≈ 1 unit higher in women who smoked vs. those who did not and in women consuming 1 vs. 0 alcoholic drinks/d. The adjusted estimated urine iodine concentration (uCr in the model) was 34% lower in non-Hispanic blacks vs. non-Hispanic whites, 22% higher in supplement users vs. nonusers, and 11% higher with every 10-y increase in age. In summary, after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables (and uCr in the iodine model), race-ethnicity retained a strong association with sTfR, body iron, and urine iodine; smoking and alcohol consumption with iron biomarkers; and supplement use and age with urine iodine. PMID:23596169

  3. Hidden markers, open secrets: on naming, race-marking, and race-making in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Focuses on how in Cuba race-marking was interrelated with surname-giving, also after the abolition of slavery. Through researching life histories on the local level in the Cienfuegos region, the author examines names of former slaves, finding that these were after abolition in notarial records often marked with the adjectives s.o.a., or "sin otro apellido" (without other surname, taking into account the Iberian double surname tradition. This, according to him, points to a stigmatization of these black citizens and related to their former status as possession, and is thus a racial marker, only more hidden than the open racial assignations during slavery. He relates these postemancipation surnames of former slaves to the dotation of surnames during slavery, whereby most surnames of slaves were those of the last owner of the slaves. He also discusses differences in name-giving between the notarial records and everyday life. He further indicates that a new racism developed in the Cuban society of the late 19th c. and early 20th c., which was voiced more openly in the realm of culture, and regarding events as incarceration and death, and more hidden within the civil and judicial spheres, where the fiction of a race-blind republic was maintained.

  4. Differences in Physical Activity between Black and White Girls Living in Rural and Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Gwen M.; Dowda, Marsha; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell R.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship of race and rural/urban setting to physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental factors associated with physical activity among eighth grade girls. More differences related to race than setting. Black girls were less active and more heavy than white girls. Enjoyment of physical education and family involvement in…

  5. Scaling properties of marathon races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Rodriguez, Eduardo

    2006-06-01

    Some regularities in popular marathon races are identified in this paper. It is found for high-performance participants (i.e., racing times in the range [2:15,3:15] h), the average velocity as a function of the marathoner's ranking behaves as a power-law, which may be suggesting the presence of critical phenomena. Elite marathoners with racing times below 2:15 h can be considered as outliers with respect to this behavior. For the main marathon pack (i.e., racing times in the range [3:00,6:00] h), the average velocity as a function of the marathoner's ranking behaves linearly. For this racing times, the interpersonal velocity, defined as the difference of velocities between consecutive runners, displays a continuum of scaling behavior ranging from uncorrelated noise for small scales to correlated 1/f-noise for large scales. It is a matter of fact that 1/f-noise is characterized by correlations extended over a wide range of scales, a clear indication of some sort of cooperative effect.

  6. Eye-tracking the own-race bias in face recognition: revealing the perceptual and socio-cognitive mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Peter J; Pake, J Michael

    2013-12-01

    Own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces and may even be viewed differently as measured by an eye-tracker (Goldinger, Papesh, & He, 2009). Alternatively, observer race might direct eye-movements (Blais, Jack, Scheepers, Fiset, & Caldara, 2008). Observer differences in eye-movements are likely to be based on experience of the physiognomic characteristics that are differentially discriminating for Black and White faces. Two experiments are reported that employed standard old/new recognition paradigms in which Black and White observers viewed Black and White faces with their eye-movements recorded. Experiment 1 showed that there were observer race differences in terms of the features scanned but observers employed the same strategy across different types of faces. Experiment 2 demonstrated that other-race faces could be recognised more accurately if participants had their first fixation directed to more diagnostic features using fixation crosses. These results are entirely consistent with those presented by Blais et al. (2008) and with the perceptual interpretation that the own-race bias is due to inappropriate attention allocated to the facial features (Hills & Lewis, 2006, 2011). PMID:24076536

  7. Intentionally forgetting other-race faces: costs and benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Ryan J; Price, Heather L; Oriet, Chris

    2013-06-01

    Eyewitnesses to events with multiple actors might be aware that during a subsequent investigation some actors will need to be remembered and others can be forgotten. Research on the directed-forgetting procedure suggests that when some information is cued to be forgotten, retention of other information is enhanced. In three experiments, directed-forgetting conditions were compared with control conditions to assess potential costs and benefits of forgetting other-race faces. In Experiment 1, undergraduate students (N = 148; mostly Caucasian) viewed all Black faces or all Asian faces followed by overt remember or forget cues. Participants in the directed-forgetting conditions of Experiments 2 and 3 received more covert cues instructing them to remember the faces of one race and to forget the faces of another race. In Experiment 2, undergraduate students (N = 116; all Caucasian) viewed Black and Asian faces within the context of a criminal storyline. In Experiment 3, undergraduate students (N = 94; all Caucasian) again viewed Black and Asian faces; however, the remember and forget cues were embedded in a noncriminal narrative. Although faces generally were forgotten on cue, forgetting some faces did not enhance memory for other faces. Furthermore, recognition of remember-cued faces was impaired by exposure to forget-cued faces. These findings indicate that faces can be forgotten on cue, but that doing so confers no benefit for remembering other faces. Eyewitnesses are advised that exposure to irrelevant faces reduces the likelihood that relevant faces will be remembered, even when effort is allocated to forgetting the irrelevant faces. PMID:23795980

  8. Panel Review: "After the Sex Wars: Pornography and Feminism"

    OpenAIRE

    Sangwand, T-Kay

    2009-01-01

    By deconstructing filmic representations, feminist theoretical formations, and the intersections of race, class, and gender, the provocative panel, “Pornography and Feminism: After the Sex Wars,” reached beyond the anti-porn/sex-positive dichotomy to theorize feminism and pornography’s complex relationship. The panel, comprised of members of UC Santa Cruz’s Feminism and Pornography Research Cluster, featured Allison Day (Linguistics), Katie Kanagawa (Literature), Lulu Meza (Sociology), Lydia ...

  9. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  10. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretic to increase urine flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other products, black tea is used for weight loss. In foods, ...

  11. Black/White Differences in Perceived Weight and Attractiveness among Overweight Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chithambo, Taona P.; Stanley J. Huey

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that Black women are more satisfied with their bodies than White women. The buffering hypothesis suggests that aspects of Black culture protect Black women against media ideals that promote a slender female body type; therefore, Black women are expected to exhibit higher body esteem than White women. To test this hypothesis, the current study aimed to assess the influence of race on weight perception, perceived attractiveness, and the interrelations between body...

  12. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Institutional Socialization, and Intraracial Feelings of Closeness among Black Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Antwan Jones; Marcus Andrews; Sara Policastro

    2015-01-01

    Relying on nationally representative data from the most recent wave of the National Survey of Black Americans (NSBA), the current study examines how past and present neighborhood racial composition is associated with feelings of closeness toward black Americans, black Africans, and black West Indians. In addition, this research tests whether race-based socialization messages received from caregivers or religious socialization messages explain this relationship among a sample from the adult bl...

  13. Feasibility and Initial Efficacy Testing of an HIV Prevention Intervention for Black Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Robin; Shelton, Terri

    2010-01-01

    HIV is disproportionately prevalent among Blacks. Black women most often contract HIV from having risky sex, and adolescence is a time when risky sex behaviors peak. This study tested the feasibility and initial efficacy of an intervention designed to help Black adolescent girls avoid risky sex behaviors. The intervention included group education for girls followed by a service learning opportunity in which the girls practiced the assertiveness and communication skills they had learned in the...

  14. Medical support for Adventure Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Adventure Racing has recently become a popular sport. In the past medical and paramedical staff were frequently positioned at checkpoints throughout the course of the race. Presently there is a developing role for appropriately qualified individuals to access the course by biking, running or swimming and then providing injured racers with on-site first aid prior to their transfer to the nearest medical checkpoint. These medical staff should have not only appropriate first aid skills but also rock rescue techniques, rappelling and other basic rope work as well as be athletically fit. This article explores the new role and attempts to outline what characteristics may be required. PMID:15537411

  15. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting lung cancer or dying from lung cancer varies by race ...

  16. China's Shineray Racing Team Hits International Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China Shineray International Motocross Racing Team is Chongqing Shineray Group's international racing team, established in March 2004. in less than two years, this team has developed into the representative of numerous Chinese enterprises.

  17. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of women getting cervical cancer or dying from cervical cancer varies by race ...

  19. Ovarian Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Ovarian Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of women getting ovarian cancer or dying from ovarian cancer varies by race ...

  20. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race ...

  1. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 106 - Guidelines for Eliminating Discrimination and Denial of Services on the Basis of Race, Color...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vocational Education Programs Editorial Note: For the text of these guidelines, see 34 CFR part 100, appendix... Services on the Basis of Race, Color, National Origin, Sex, and Handicap in Vocational Education Programs A... RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR...

  2. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  3. Critical race theory in a swedish context

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Race has been a term avoided in the Swedish debates, while at the same time, protections with respect to unlawful discrimination on the basis of race or ethnic origins have not been vigilantly upheld by the courts. This paper looks at the treatment of race by the Swedish legislature, as well as the treatment by the courts, specifically the Labour Court, with respect to claims of unlawful discrimination in employment on the basis of ethnic origins, against the background of Critical Race Theor...

  4. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam O Fofana

    2013-01-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on ...

  5. Race- en toerfietsen : mogelijkheden voor meer veiligheid.

    OpenAIRE

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. Gent, P. van & Stipdonk, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    Racing and touring bicycles: opportunities for greater safety; Questionnaire study and expert assessment. Racing and touring cyclists often practise their sport on public roads in the presence of other road users. For this reason, hazardous situations may occur that increasingly result in crashes involving injuries. In 2012, 4,200 racing and touring cyclists had to be treated for injuries at first aid departments. It is not altogether clear to what extent the behaviour of racing and touring c...

  6. Discrimination and Hate Crimes in the Context of Neighborhood Poverty and Stressors Among HIV-Positive African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Sannisha K; Bogart, Laura M; Galvan, Frank H; Wagner, Glenn J; Pantalone, David W; Klein, David J

    2016-06-01

    In a sample of HIV-positive African-American men who have sex with men (MSM), we examined neighborhood factors that may contextualize perceived discrimination from three intersecting stigmatized characteristics: race, HIV status, and sexual orientation. HIV-positive African-American MSM (N = 162, mean age = 44, SD = 8) provided information on neighborhood-related stressors and discrimination experiences related to being Black, HIV-positive, or perceived as gay. Residential ZIP codes and US Census data were used to determine neighborhood poverty rates. Regressions, controlling for socio-demographics, indicated that (1) higher neighborhood poverty was significantly related to more frequent experiences with hate crimes (Gay-related: b = 1.15, SE = .43, p poverty and related stressors are associated with experiencing more discrimination and hate crimes. Interventions for this group should promote individual- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic empowerment and stigma reduction. PMID:26696119

  7. Does race matter in neighborhood preferences? Results from a video experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysan, Maria; Couper, Mick P; Farley, Reynolds; Forman, Tyrone A

    2009-09-01

    Persistent racial residential segregation is often seen as the result of preferences: whites prefer to live with whites while blacks wish to live near many other blacks. Are these neighborhood preferences color-blind or race conscious? Does neighborhood racial composition have a net influence upon preferences, or is race a proxy for social class? This article tests the racial proxy hypothesis using an innovative experiment that isolates the net effects of race and social class, followed by an analysis of the social psychological factors associated with residential preferences. The authors find that net of social class, the race of a neighborhood's residents significantly influenced how it was rated. Whites said the all-white neighborhoods were most desirable. The independent effect of racial composition was smaller among blacks, who identified the racially mixed neighborhood as most desirable. Further, whites who held negative stereotypes about African-Americans and the neighborhoods where they live were significantly influenced by neighborhood racial composition. None of the proposed social psychological factors conditioned African-Americans' sensitivity to neighborhood racial composition. PMID:20614764

  8. Other People's Daughters: Critical Race Feminism and Black Girls' Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Winters, Venus E.; Esposito, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In her 1995 article, "Sapphire Bound!", legal scholar Regina Austin calls for minority female scholars in the legal field to straightforwardly, unapologetically, and strategically use their intellectual pursuits to advocate on behalf of poor and working class minority women. Even though Austin is arguing from the perspective of a woman of color,…

  9. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  10. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  11. A Case Study of Single-Sex Middle School Mathematics Classes in a Mixed-Sex Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasha, Fridah Singongi Silishebo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to (a) examine the main and interaction effects of gender, race and class-type on mathematics achievement, mathematics attitudes and sources of mathematics self-efficacy, (b) investigate teacher-student interactions in the single-sex mathematics classes and (c) investigate perspectives about single-sex…

  12. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  13. All Sexed Up: a resposta de mulheres lésbicas negras jovens ao sexo (mais seguro em Johannesburg, África do Sul All Sexed Up: young black lesbian women's responses to safe(r sex in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zethu Matebeni

    2009-01-01

    unfamiliar and sometimes unsympathetic health-related service providers. Furthermore, limited research on lesbians and lesbian health in South Africa makes it difficult for lesbian women to know what sexual health issues affect them specifically, where and how to address these issues. There is a general misconception that safe sex issues do not affect lesbian women as much as they affect heterosexual women. The paper presents views of a group of young self-identified lesbian women in South Africa between the ages of 18 and 35. Through self-administered questionnaires and discussions these women share their experiences and thoughts of lesbian (safe sex and how they have related and continue to relate sexually with other women in the time of HIV and Aids.

  14. The Race To Be Wired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramee, William

    1998-01-01

    Small colleges are under increasing pressure to spend on upgrading technology to win a real or imagined technology race against other institutions. However, the process of making this decision should be coordinated and focus on return on investment; strategic match of technology and mission; competitive advantage; knowledge of real needs;…

  15. CERN Road Race | 7 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke, CERN Running Club

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday, 7 October at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over three laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 minutes to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all the runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over one lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judging best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by the registration fee of 10 CHF. Children are free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and t...

  16. CERN Road Race | 1 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 1 October at 18:15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter for free and each child will receive a medal. More information, and the online entry form, can be fo...

  17. Intact performance on an indirect measure of race bias following amygdala damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Elizabeth A; Cannistraci, Christopher J; Cunningham, William A

    2003-01-01

    Recent brain imaging and lesion studies provide converging evidence for amygdala involvement in judgments of fear and trust based on facial expression [Adolphs et al., Nature 393 (1998) 470; Adolphs et al., Neuropsychologia 37 (1999) 1111; Breiter et al., Neuron 17 (1996) 875; Winston et al., Nat. Neurosci. 5 (3) (2002) 277]. Another type of social information apparent in face stimuli is social group membership. Imaging studies have reported amygdala activation to face stimuli of different racial groups [Hart et al., NeuroReport 11 (11) (2000) 2351]. In White American subjects, amygdala activation to Black versus White faces was correlated with indirect, implicit measures of racial evaluation [Phelps et al., J. Cogn. Neurosci. 12 (5) (2000) 729]. To determine if the amygdala plays a critical role in indirect social group evaluation, as suggested by the imaging results, a patient with bilateral amygdala damage and control subjects were given two measures of race bias. All subjects were female, White Americans. The Modern Racism Scale (MRS) is a direct, self-report measure of race attitudes and beliefs. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is an indirect, automatic evaluation task. Performance on the two tasks did not differ between the patient with amygdala damage and control subjects. All subjects showed a pro-Black bias on the direct, explicit measure of race beliefs, the MRS, and a negative evaluation towards Black faces on the indirect measure of race evaluation, the IAT. These results indicate that even though amygdala activation to Black versus White faces is correlated with performance on indirect measures of race bias [Phelps et al., J. Cogn. Neurosci. 12 (5) (2000) 729], the amygdala is not critical for normal performance on the IAT. PMID:12459218

  18. Unveiling what is said in the colombian public health journals about race and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Mosquera Becerra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how in published studies (1994-2011 in the three main public health journals of Colombia are conceptualized, operationalized and interpreted racial and ethnic categories in relation to the black population. It was identified that are limited the number of published articles that address race or ethnicity; in addition, those notions are used interchangeably, and; it is not showed how is conceptualized and collected those social categories. Under the existence of structural racism, including ethno-racial categories in health research could help to identify processes and dynamics that create and recreate health disparities based on race and ethnicity.

  19. Race-Specific Pharmacodynamic Model of Propofol-Induced Loss of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampotang, Samsun; Lizdas, David E; Derendorf, Hartmut; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Lok, Benjamin; Quarles, John P

    2016-09-01

    We present a race-specific model of propofol-induced loss of consciousness that is based on pharmacodynamic data collected and adapted from the peer-reviewed literature. In the proposed race-specific model that includes EC05 and EC95 concentrations, the median (EC50) (and where available 95%CI) propofol concentrations at the effect site compartment for propofol-induced loss of consciousness for whites, Chinese, blacks, and Indians are 2.8 (2.7-2.9), 2.2 (2.2-2.3), 2.0, and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26865382

  20. The Black-White Test Score Gap Through Third Grade

    OpenAIRE

    Roland G. Fryer; Levitt, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes basic facts regarding the black-white test score gap over the first four years of school. Black children enter school substantially behind their white counterparts in reading and math, but including a small number of covariates erases the gap. Over the first four years of school, however, blacks lose substantial ground relative to other races; averaging .10 standard deviations per school year. By the end of third grade there is a large Black-White test score gap that cann...

  1. The development of race-based perceptual categorization: skin color dominates early category judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Stepanova, Elena V; Dotsch, Ron; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Prior research on the development of race-based categorization has concluded that children understand the perceptual basis of race categories from as early as age 4 (e.g. Aboud, 1988). However, such work has rarely separated the influence of skin color from other physiognomic features considered by adults to be diagnostic of race categories. In two studies focusing on Black-White race categorization judgments in children between the ages of 4 and 9, as well as in adults, we find that categorization decisions in early childhood are determined almost entirely by attention to skin color, with attention to other physiognomic features exerting only a small influence on judgments as late as middle childhood. We further find that when skin color cues are largely eliminated from the stimuli, adults readily shift almost entirely to focus on other physiognomic features. However, 6- and 8-year-old children show only a limited ability to shift attention to facial physiognomy and so perform poorly on the task. These results demonstrate that attention to 'race' in younger children is better conceptualized as attention to skin color, inviting a reinterpretation of past work focusing on children's race-related cognition. PMID:25154647

  2. Column: Black women health - Breastfeeding: Empowering Black Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel CF da Cruz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is related to women’s reproduction and health. All women have the right to breastfeed as enshrined in the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC. Breastfeeding also is related to women’s sexuality so, it is a gender issue and takes place to empowering women. Breastfeeding is particularly difficult for the black woman, marginalized by poverty, violence, poor nutritional status, job insecurities and gender/race inequalities.

  3. Measuring Distributional Inequality: Relative Body Mass Index Distributions by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Education, United States (1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Houle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.

  4. Gonad transcriptome analysis of pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera: identification of potential sex differentiation and sex determining genes

    OpenAIRE

    Teaniniuraitemoana, Vaihiti; Huvet, Arnaud; Levy, Peva; Klopp, Christophe; Lhuillier, Emeline; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Gueguen, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    Background Black pearl farming is based on culture of the blacklip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera (Mollusca, lophotrochozoa), a protandrous hermaphrodite species. At first maturation, all individuals are males. The female sex appears progressively from two years old, which represents a limitation for broodstock conditioning for aquaculture production. In marine mollusks displaying hermaphroditic features, data on sexual determinism and differentiation, including the molecular sex determi...

  5. Multiculturalism and inconsistency in the perception of sex education in Australian society

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanim Almahbobi

    2012-01-01

    A group of individuals who share common beliefs form a culture in which they communicate their values and attributes about certain aspects of society. Sex education remains one of the early teachings that humans experience irrespective of the race or level of development of a given society. However, different cultures perceive sex education differently due to differences in attitudes and beliefs, leading to significant diversity in the management of sex education among different societies acr...

  6. Hospital admissions: An examination of race and health insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gass

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of racial differences and differences in insurance status on source of hospital admissions. The data source was the 2001 National Hospital Discharge Survey and included a sub-sample of 104,185 patients. 58.3% of patients were admitted through the emergency room, 75.0% of patients were White, 19.7% were Black, and 61.5% were on government insurance or uninsured. Black patients were found to have significantly higher levels of emergency room admissions (69.1%=p < .0001, regardless of insurance status (gov’t/self-pay, 73.7%=p < .0001, private insurance, 59.5%=p < .0001. Patients on government insurance or self-payment had significantly higher levels of emergency room admissions (65.8%=p < .0001. Regression analysis showed that both race and insurance type are significant predictors (p < .0001 of Source of Admission to the hospital. Percent probabilities confirmed this finding. Thus, it was concluded that racial differences witnessed in source of admission were not mediated by insurance type and that race and insurance type are significant, independent predictors of hospital admission source.

  7. Prismatic Metropolis: Race and Residential Segregation in the City of the Angels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrinsky; Bobo

    1996-12-01

    Most major urban areas remain segregated by race, especially in terms of black segregation from whites. We replicate and extend the innovative approach developed by Farley and colleagues for understanding processes of racial residential segregation with data collected in Los Angeles. Using a large (N = 4025) multiracial sample of adults, we examine (1) actual and perceived differences in economic status, (2) mutual preference for same race neighbors, and (3) racial prejudice and discrimination as hypotheses for the persistence of residential segregation. With a systematic experimental design we gauge respondent openness to living in areas with varying proportions of black, white, Latino, or Asian neighbors. We find no support for actual or perceived cost of housing as a barrier to integration. Although all groups exhibit some degree of ethnocentric preference for same race neighbors, this tendency is strongest among whites rather than blacks and plays only a small role in perpetuating segregation. Blacks face the greatest hostility in the search for housing and are consensually recognized as most likely to face discrimination in the housing market. Racial minorities are more open to sharing residential space with whites than with other minorities. We find generally higher rates of openness to integration than Farley and colleagues found in their recent Detroit survey. PMID:8980078

  8. Comparison of the quantities and subset distributions of natural killer cells among different races

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yan-meng; ZHANG Rui-jun; ZHU Hong; PENG Hong; ZHOU Xiao-ping; HONG Kun-xue; LIU Jian-li; CHEN Jian-ping; SHAO Yi-ming

    2010-01-01

    Background Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in host immune defense, while the quantities and subset distributions may vary among different races. To address the difference, we compared these variables among Chinese Han, the Caucasians and the Blacks. The study may provide critical background information for both basic research and clinical investigation.Methods Blood samples collected from populations of different races were tested within 12 hours after collection and subsets of NK cells were characterized using flow cytometry.Results The absolute NK count in the Chinese Han was significantly higher than that in the Caucasian. The Han and Caucasian groups showed higher percentages of cytotoxic subset compared to that of the Black group. The percentage of cytokine-producing subset of Chinese Han group was lower than that of Caucasian and Black groups. Black group had a higher percentage of function-unknown NK subset than that of the Hah and Caucasian groups.Conclusion Our data indicated that NK cell count and the distribution of different subsets varied among different races,which should be taken into consideration in related investigations.

  9. A Perceptual Pathway to Bias: Interracial Exposure Reduces Abrupt Shifts in Real-Time Race Perception That Predict Mixed-Race Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Pauker, Kristin; Sanchez, Diana T

    2016-04-01

    In two national samples, we examined the influence of interracial exposure in one's local environment on the dynamic process underlying race perception and its evaluative consequences. Using a mouse-tracking paradigm, we found in Study 1 that White individuals with low interracial exposure exhibited a unique effect of abrupt, unstable White-Black category shifting during real-time perception of mixed-race faces, consistent with predictions from a neural-dynamic model of social categorization and computational simulations. In Study 2, this shifting effect was replicated and shown to predict a trust bias against mixed-race individuals and to mediate the effect of low interracial exposure on that trust bias. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that interracial exposure shapes the dynamics through which racial categories activate and resolve during real-time perceptions, and these initial perceptual dynamics, in turn, may help drive evaluative biases against mixed-race individuals. Thus, lower-level perceptual aspects of encounters with racial ambiguity may serve as a foundation for mixed-race prejudice. PMID:26976082

  10. Race of source effects in the elaboration likelihood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P H; Harkins, S G

    1994-11-01

    In a series of experiments, we investigated the effect of race of source on persuasive communications in the Elaboration Likelihood Model (R.E. Petty & J.T. Cacioppo, 1981, 1986). In Experiment 1, we found no evidence that White participants responded to a Black source as a simple negative cue. Experiment 2 suggested the possibility that exposure to a Black source led to low-involvement message processing. In Experiments 3 and 4, a distraction paradigm was used to test this possibility, and it was found that participants under low involvement were highly motivated to process a message presented by a Black source. In Experiment 5, we found that attitudes toward the source's ethnic group, rather than violations of expectancies, accounted for this processing effect. Taken together, the results of these experiments are consistent with S.L. Gaertner and J.F. Dovidio's (1986) theory of aversive racism, which suggests that Whites, because of a combination of egalitarian values and underlying negative racial attitudes, are very concerned about not appearing unfavorable toward Blacks, leading them to be highly motivated to process messages presented by a source from this group. PMID:7983579

  11. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  12. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gniesha Y. Dinwiddie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs. Socioeconomic status (SES is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES “gets under the skin” to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP, an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years and post high school (i.e., associates degree educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001 and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001 compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001 and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001. These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond

  13. Do the long-term consequences of neglect differ for children of different races and ethnic backgrounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Wilson, Helen W; Allwood, Maureen; Chauhan, Preeti

    2013-02-01

    Scant research has examined how children of different races or ethnic backgrounds manifest consequences of neglect. We examined multiple domains of functioning (academic/intellectual, social/behavioral, and psychiatric), three theories (racial invariance, double jeopardy, and resilience), and potential confounding variables. Children with documented cases of neglect (ages 0-11) and matched controls without such histories were followed up and interviewed in adulthood (N = 1,039). The sample was 47.3% female, 62.4% White, 34.3% Black, and 3.4% Hispanic. Black and White neglected children showed negative consequences for IQ, reading ability, and occupational status compared to controls. Compared to same race and ethnic group controls, neglected White children showed extensive mental health consequences, Black children showed more anxiety and dysthymia, and Hispanic children showed increased risk for alcohol problems. Black and White neglected children differed in risk for violence compared to same race controls: Neglected Black children were arrested for violence two times more often than Black controls, whereas neglected White children were more likely than White controls to report engaging in violence. Findings provide some support for each theory (racial invariance, double jeopardy, and resilience). Understanding the factors that account for similarities and differences in consequences requires further investigation. Implications for research and policy are discussed. PMID:23076836

  14. Do psychiatric disorders moderate the relationship between psychological distress and sexual risk-taking behaviors in young men who have sex with men? A longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S; Birkett, Michelle; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) account for two-thirds of new HIV infections in young people in the United States. Identifying between-person and within-person correlates of sexual risk-taking provides critical information for developing behavioral prevention efforts for this group. Possible predictors of sexual-risk behavior in YMSM include major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and variation in psychological distress over time. To date, research has been equivocal with regard to the relationship between psychiatric disorders, psychological distress, and sexual risk behaviors. Participants included 119 16-20-year-old YMSM. Ethnicity/race of the participants included: black/African-American (46.2%), white (19.3%), Latino/Hispanic (12.6%), multiracial (11.8%), Asian/Pacific Islander (2.5%), and other (5.9%). Sexual risk outcomes included total number of male partners and unprotected anal sex acts across four waves of data collection (24 months). The study found that the between-person correlates, including ethnicity and age, predicted total male partners. Between-person correlates, including ethnicity, MDD, and a moderating effect of PTSD on psychological distress emerged as determinants of unprotected anal sex acts. PMID:22680282

  15. Intersectional Work and Precarious Positionings: Black Middle-Class Parents and Their Encounters with Schools in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol; Rollock, Nicola; Ball, Stephen; Gillborn, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on data drawn from a study exploring the educational strategies of 62 Black Caribbean heritage middle-class parents. In this paper, we consider the respective roles of race and class in the shaping of parents' educational strategies, deploying an analysis that focuses on their intersection and seeks to hold both race and class…

  16. Are There Seats at the Round Table?: An Examination of Black Characters in Heroic Fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Vicky

    2000-01-01

    Examines whether Black characters in four children's or young adult quest fantasy novels are viable, three-dimensional characters, and whether the race of the author affects their portrayal. Discusses why there are so few Black characters in fantasy novels. Argues that publishers must seek out and publish quality fantasy manuscripts that feature…

  17. Research Concerns, Cautions and Considerations on Black Males in a "Post-Racial" Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Tyrone C.; Flennaugh, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Black males continue to be one of the most academically marginalized groups of students in US schools, and undoubtedly the role of race and racism has largely influenced these experiences. The paradox of the underperformance of Black males has been the election of President Obama in 2008. The Obama election has led some to question whether or not…

  18. Factors Affecting the Link between Physical Discipline and Child Externalizing Problems in Black and White Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Black, Maureen M.; Everson, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined contextual factors that may affect the impact of physical discipline on later child behavior problems among high-risk Black and White families. We examined race, parental warmth, and early child problems as potential moderators of the discipline-behavior problem link. The sample included 442 White and Black children and their…

  19. The Effect of World War I on Black Occupational and Residential Segregation: The Case of Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Joe T.

    1988-01-01

    Study of census figures for Pittsburgh between 1900 and 1920 reveals that World War I had only a small measurable effect on reducing occupational segregation of Black men and White men and residential segregation by race. The war had no effect on reducing occupational segregation of Black women and White women. (BJV)

  20. Ethnic Identity and Body Image among Black and White College Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Eboni; Mullis, Ron; Mullis, Ann; Hicks, Mary; Peterson, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines ethnic identity and body image in black and white college females. Participants: Researchers surveyed 118 students at 2 universities, 1 traditionally white and 1 historically black. Methods: Correlations and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between race, ethnic…

  1. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  2. Black Matrilineage: The Case of Alice Walker and Zora Neale Hurston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoff, Diane F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the Black contemporary author, Alice Walker, to folklorist Zora Neale Hurston and presents a clarification of the relationship of gender and race in a revised theory of literary influence. Argues that Black women authors sometimes misread literary forbears in order to discover and express a positive matrilineage…

  3. Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, A.; Williams, N.; Donat, M.; Ceide, M.; Brimah, P.; Ogedegbe, G.; McFarlane, S. I.; G. Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (8 hour) sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–8...

  4. Students' Perceptions of Black-Latino Conflicts in Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ysais, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This project provides a student perspective of the so-called Black-Brown "racial" tension in Los Angeles high schools. A theoretical foundation for examining Black and Latino tensions and their structural influences is provided along with an explanation of the racialized images seen in the media that contribute to moral panic in the surrounding community and promote school practices most comparable to the prison setting. Critical race theory, internal colonial theory and deprivation approache...

  5. Are black holes totally black?

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A

    2014-01-01

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  6. The Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Congressional Cosponsorship Network

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Alison; Desmarais, Bruce A; Clark, Christopher J; Moscardelli, Vincent G

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that race, ethnicity, and gender influence legislative behavior in important ways. The bulk of this research, however, focuses on the way these characteristics shape an individual legislator's behavior, making it less clear how they account for relationships between legislators. We study the cosponsorship process in order to understand the race and gender based dynamics underlying the relational component of representation. Using a temporal exponential random graph model, we examine the U.S. House cosponsorship network from 1981 through 2004. We find that Black and Latino members of Congress are at a comparative disadvantage as a result of race-based assortative mixing in the cosponsorship process, yet this disadvantage is mitigated by the electoral pressures that all members face. Members representing districts with significant racial and ethnic minority populations are more likely to support their minority colleagues. We also find that women members do not appear to face a simila...

  7. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Kandil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  8. Race and Patriarchy in Othello

    OpenAIRE

    St. Rose, Marjorie

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues that both patriarchy and racism shape the dynamics of Othello. Othello's blackness affects his behaviour toward his wife as well as his attitude to himself. Desdemona's pariah status as a result of marrying a black man partially accounts for her murder. On the other hand, Othello, as oppressed Other, is also, in his role as a male within the patriarchal tradition, the oppressor. Othello's need to establish and maintain hegemony over his wife makes his behaviour no different ...

  9. The Relative Importance of Income and Race in Determining Residential Outcomes in U.S. Urban Areas, 1970-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mary J.

    2003-01-01

    Explored trends in segregation by race/ethnicity and income class from 1970-00. Declines in racial segregation and increases in income class segregation were found until the 1990s, when income segregation declined. Poor families experienced greater segregation from others than families in other income groups did from each other. Blacks experienced…

  10. "We Especially Welcome Applications from Members of Visible Minority Groups": Reflections on Race, Gender and Life at Three Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This autoethnographic account documents and analyses university life as a racialised woman who has worked in both Canadian and American universities. The theoretical framework draws from critical perspectives on race, black feminisms and narrative and autoethnographic research methodologies. The study involves a range of data sources that provide…

  11. The Effect of Similarity/Dissimilarity of Race and Personal Interests on Empathy and Altruism in Second Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panofsky, Anne D.

    The experiment reported in this dissertation investigated the effect of similarity/dissimilarity of race and personal interests on empathy and altruism in second graders. It was hypothesized that white children would empathize more with other white children than with black children. It was also hypothesized that white children would empathize more…

  12. Race talk: the psychology of racial dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-11-01

    Constructive dialogues on race have been proposed as a means to heal racial and ethnic divides, reduce prejudice and misinformation, increase racial literacy, and foster improved race relations. Studies on the psychology of racial dialogues indicate social and academic norms that dictate against race talk between White Americans and persons of color: (a) the politeness protocol, (b) the academic protocol, and (c) the color-blind protocol. These protocols discourage race talk and allow society to enter into a conspiracy of silence regarding the detrimental impact oppression plays on persons of color. Facilitating difficult dialogues on race requires educators to recognize what makes such discussions difficult. For people of color, engaging in race talk exposes them to microaggressions that invalidate and assail their racial/ethnic identities. For Whites, honest discussions are impeded by fears of appearing racist, of realizing their racism, of acknowledging White privilege, and of taking responsibility to combat racism. PMID:24320648

  13. A note on race, ethnicity and nativity differentials in remarriage in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McNamee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to produce up-to-date estimates of race/ethnic/nativity differentials for remarriage and repartnership among women in the United States and to see if these differences are due to across-group differences in demographic characteristics. First, we produce lifetable estimates of remarriage and repartnering for white, black, U.S. born Latina and foreign born Latina women. Next, we estimate race/ethnic/nativity differentials for remarriage and repartnership using event-history analysis with and without controls for demographic characteristics. The results suggest a continued overall decline in remarriage rates, while many women repartner by cohabitating. Whites are more likely than blacks or Latinas to remarry and they are also more likely to repartner. Race/ethnic/nativity differentials remain even after accounting for variations in demographic characteristics. This suggests that race/ethnic/nativity differentials in remarriage and repartnering rates, rather than ameliorating disadvantages associated with divorce, reinforce these differentials.

  14. The Defining Moment: Children's Conceptualization of Race and Experiences with Racial Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hannon, Lonnie; Fernandez, Jose R; Cockerham, William C

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines whether children of marginalized racial/ethnic groups have an awareness of race at earlier ages than youth from non-marginalized groups, documents their experiences with racial discrimination, and utilizes a modified racism-related stress model to explore the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-esteem. Data were collected for non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic children aged 7 - 12 using face-to-face interviews (n = 175). The concept of race was measured by assessing whether children could define race, if not a standard definition was provided. Racial discrimination was measured using the Williams Every-day-Discrimination Scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Scale, and ethnic identity was assessed using the Multi-group Ethnic Identity Measure. Non-Hispanic black children were able to define race more accurately, but overall, Hispanic children encountered more racial discrimination, with frequent reports of ethnic slurs. Additionally, after accounting for ethnic identity, perceived racial discrimination remained a salient stressor that contributed to low self-esteem. PMID:21532908

  15. The development of implicit attitudes. Evidence of race evaluations from ages 6 and 10 and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Andrew Scott; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2006-01-01

    To understand the origin and development of implicit attitudes, we measured race attitudes in White American 6-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults by first developing a child-oriented version of the Implicit Association Test (Child IAT). Remarkably, implicit pro-White/anti-Black bias was evident even in the youngest group, with self-reported attitudes revealing bias in the same direction. In 10-year-olds and adults, the same magnitude of implicit race bias was observed, although self-reported race attitudes became substantially less biased in older children and vanished entirely in adults, who self-reported equally favorable attitudes toward Whites and Blacks. These data are the first to show an asymmetry in the development of implicit and explicit race attitudes, with explicit attitudes becoming more egalitarian and implicit attitudes remaining stable and favoring the in-group across development. We offer a tentative suggestion that mean levels of implicit and explicit attitudes diverge around age 10. PMID:16371144

  16. Pheromone races of Cydia splendana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae overlap in host plant association and geographic distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PeterWitzgall

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the sex pheromone of Cydia splendana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae by pheromone gland analysis followed by field trapping with synthetic compounds shows the occurrence of two pheromone races. Acorn moth females from Sweden, where oak Quercus robur is the only host plant, use a blend of the E,Z and E,E isomers of 8,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate. In Central and Southern Europe, where C. splendana feeds on chestnut Castanea sativa and several species of oak, males respond to another isomer blend, E,E and Z,E. The distribution of the two pheromone races of C. splendana overlaps in Northern France, where they share oak as plant host. Differences in sex communication signals lead to behavioural pre-mating isolation between these populations, and emphasize the role of specific mate recognition in speciation events.

  17. The Association Between Protective Behavioral Strategies and Alcohol-related Problems: An Examination of Race and Gender Differences among College Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Nickeisha; Kim, Su-Young; E. Ray, Anne; R. White, Helene; Jiao, Yang; Mun, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study examined race and gender differences in use of specific types of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and the moderating effects of race and gender on the relationship between PBS use and alcohol problems, controlling for alcohol use, among a large sample of Asian, Black, and White college drinkers. There were significant racial and gender differences in the types of PBS used. Moderation analyses indicated that PBS were more protective for women than men against experiencing alco...

  18. The Defining Moment: Children's Conceptualization of Race and Experiences with Racial Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hannon, Lonnie; Fernandez, Jose R.; Cockerham, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether children of marginalized racial/ethnic groups have an awareness of race at earlier ages than youth from non-marginalized groups, documents their experiences with racial discrimination, and utilizes a modified racism-related stress model to explore the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-esteem. Data were collected for non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic children aged 7 – 12 using face-to-face interviews (n = 175). The conc...

  19. Breastfeeding Perceptions and Attitudes: The Effect of Race/Ethnicity And Cultural Background

    OpenAIRE

    Krystal Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been generating a lot of publicity in the past years largely due to new legislation promoting breastfeeding -friendly policies. However, the United States is far below many developed nations in regards to its populations’ breastfeeding prevalence and despite the unprecedented benefits of breastfeeding being documented, many are not breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in the U.S. varies dramatically by race, with individuals identifying as Black or African American breastfeeding mu...

  20. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

  1. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  2. Race in Biological and Biomedical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Richard S Cooper

    2013-01-01

    The concept of race has had a significant influence on research in human biology since the early 19th century. But race was given its meaning and social impact in the political sphere and subsequently intervened in science as a foreign concept, not grounded in the dominant empiricism of modern biology. The uses of race in science were therefore often disruptive and controversial; at times, science had to be retrofitted to accommodate race, and science in turn was often used to explain and jus...

  3. [Sled dog racing and animal welfare aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schminke, A; Möbius, G

    1998-03-01

    Transport, housing and the dimensions of strain during training and race are important aspects of animal welfare. The race veterinarian has a great responsibility. He is responsible for the treatment of injured dogs and he has to give advice on all medical and animal welfare questions. The presence of the veterinarian during the entire race is very important. These veterinarians should have special knowledge of small animals and of sled dogs in particular. There should be health checks of sled dogs before and after racing similar to horse sport tournaments. PMID:9581387

  4. Mediating effect of perceived overweight on the association between actual obesity and intention for weight control; role of race, ethnicity, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although obesity is expected to be associated with intention to reduce weight, this effect may be through perceived overweight. This study tested if perceived overweight mediates the association between actual obesity and intention to control weight in groups based on the intersection of race and gender. For this purpose, we compared Non-Hispanic White men, Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, African American women, Caribbean Black men, and Caribbean Black women. Methods: National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003 included 5,810 American adults (3516 African Americans, 1415 Caribbean Blacks, and 879 Non-Hispanic Whites. Weight control intention was entered as the main outcome. In the first step, we fitted race/gender specific logistic regression models with the intention for weight control as outcome, body mass index as predictor and sociodemographics as covariates. In the next step, to test mediation, we added perceived weight to the model. Results: Obesity was positively associated with intention for weight control among all race × gender groups. Perceived overweight fully mediated the association between actual obesity and intention for weight control among Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, and Caribbean Black men. The mediation was only partial for Non-Hispanic White men, African American women, and Caribbean Black women. Conclusions: The complex relation between actual weight, perceived weight, and weight control intentions depends on the intersection of race and gender. Perceived overweight plays a more salient role for Non-Hispanic White women and Black men than White men and Black women. Weight loss programs may benefit from being tailored based on race and gender. This finding also sheds more light to the disproportionately high rate of obesity among Black women in US.

  5. Black market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way for states and subnational groups to acquire material, knowledge and equipment necessary to build a nuclear weapon or device are illegal transactions. These were singular in the past and did not cause the development of a nuclear black market. But all necessary components of a functioning black market exist. Therefore the further spread and extension of the use of nuclear power would enhance the threat of a nuclear black market, if the trade and use of specific nuclear material is not abandoned worldwide. (orig.)

  6. Debate: Race, Labour and the Archbishop, or the Currency of Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Jacqui

    2001-01-01

    Explores how race is exploited to serve political agendas in Britain, examining the Labour Government's orientation to race. Argues that the Labour Government manipulates issues to suggest concern while actually removing race from the policy agenda in education. Reflects on the Archbishop of Canterbury's "Jesus 2000" to support the notion that…

  7. Rediscovering "Race Traitor": Towards a Critical Race Theory Informed Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John; Chadderton, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to politically resituate Ignatiev and Garvey's conception of the "Race Traitor" within contemporary notions of Critical Race Theory and Public Pedagogy. Race Traitor has been critiqued both by those on the academic and neo-conservative right, who accuse advocates of the project of genocide and misuse of public funds, and has…

  8. Thermographic imaging of the superficial temperature in racing greyhounds before and after the race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainionpää, Mari; Tienhaara, Esa-Pekka; Raekallio, Marja; Junnila, Jouni; Snellman, Marjatta; Vainio, Outi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs. PMID:23097633

  9. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Vainionpää

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp. at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  10. Math-oriented fields of study and the race gap in graduation likelihoods at elite colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbgiser, Dafna; Alon, Sigal

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between chosen field of study and the race gap in college completion among students at elite colleges. Fields of study are characterized by varying institutional arrangements, which impact the academic performance of students in higher education. If the effect of fields on graduation likelihoods is unequal across racial groups, then this may account for part of the overall race gap in college completion. Results from a large sample of students attending elite colleges confirm that fields of study influence the graduation likelihoods of all students, above and beyond factors such as students' academic and social backgrounds. This effect, however, is asymmetrical: relative to white students, the negative effect of the institutional arrangements of math-oriented fields on graduation likelihood is greater for black students. Therefore, the race gap is larger within math-oriented fields than in other fields, which contributes to the overall race gap in graduation likelihoods at these selective colleges. These results indicate that a nontrivial share of the race gap in college completion is generated after matriculation, by the environments that students encounter in college. Consequently, policy interventions that target field of study environments can substantially mitigate racial disparities in college graduation rates. PMID:27194657

  11. Black people and criminal justice in England and Wales: a study on bail

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Kadifa

    2000-01-01

    The disproportionate rate of adverse police-black encounters, instances of unfair and unequal treatment by the police, in addition to the over-representation of black people in the total and remand prison population raises questions about the nature and extent of discrimination and racism in the criminal justice system. Reasons for the apparent differential treatment of black people in the criminal justice process remain contested. Much research on 'race' and criminal justice issues has produ...

  12. Crossing the Color Line: Black Professional Men’s Development of Interracial Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Adia Harvey Wingfield

    2014-01-01

    Sociologists have established that social networks often play an important role in hiring, promotions, and occupational mobility. For black workers, however, social networks can be racialized in ways that work to their disadvantage. In this paper, I consider how black professional men develop and maintain interracial social networks with white men and women. I argue that these networks are shaped by intersections of race and gender and are intentionally constructed in response to black profes...

  13. Beyond marginality: exploring black women’s labour market participation in the Greater Vancouver Regional District

    OpenAIRE

    Rudder, Alieka

    2008-01-01

    What have Black women’s labour market experiences been in the Greater Vancouver Regional District? How have education, family, and systemic barriers been perceived by and impacted Black women in the labour market? Utilizing qualitative methodological techniques, primarily open-ended interviewing, and centred in critical Black feminist and endarkened feminist epistemological approaches, as well as anti-racist or critical race theory, I explore these important questions. Historically and curren...

  14. [Race and inequality among women: an example in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinto, M T; Olinto, B A

    2000-01-01

    This study uses epidemiological data to investigate socioeconomic proportions of distinctions raised by "racism" in Brazilian society. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 2,779 women ages 14 through 49, living in a southern Brazilian city. Black and mixed-race women had less schooling, lower family income, and worse housing conditions than white women. They also used contraceptive methods less frequently, had more children, and had higher spontaneous abortion and stillbirth rates than white women. Virtually all of the results show a linear relationship between such categories, i.e., the "darker" the woman's skin color, the worse her socioeconomic and reproductive conditions. We also observed that black women were either separated, divorced, or widowed, another apparent factor for black women's impoverishment, related mainly to their limited employment opportunities. The results of the current study indicate that racial relations among women are an issue that should foster a discussion concerning citizenship in Brazil. PMID:11175538

  15. Distinguishing the race-specific effects of income inequality and mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; Williams, T; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, the association between income inequality and mortality has been fairly consistent. However, few studies have explicitly examined the impact of race. Studies that have either stratified outcomes by race or conducted analyses within race-specific groups suggest that the income inequality/mortality relation may differ for blacks and whites. The factors explaining the association may also differ for the two groups. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis was used to examine associations between study variables. We used three measures of income inequality to examine the association between income inequality and age-adjusted all-cause mortality among blacks and whites separately. We also examined the role of racial residential segregation and concentrated poverty in explaining associations among groups. Metropolitan areas were included if they had a population of at least 100,000 and were at least 10 percent black. There was a positive income inequality/mortality association among blacks and an inverse association among whites. Racial residential segregation completely attenuated the income inequality/mortality relationship for blacks, but was not significant among whites. Concentrated poverty was a significant predictor of mortality rates in both groups but did not confound associations. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25618984

  16. Running the Race When Race Is a Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMickens, Tryan L.

    2012-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) represent only 3% of American postsecondary institutions, yet they enroll 14% and graduate 28% of all African-American undergraduate students. HBCUs are necessary and vital in addressing racial inequities and disparities, and they play a crucial role in preparing students to handle racist…

  17. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  18. Chocolate: a sex-linked recessive plumage colour mutant of the domestic fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carefoot, W C

    1996-09-01

    1. A mating between Black Orpington bantams produced, in addition to blacks, a single female in which the black colouration was replaced by dark chocolate. 2. A mating of the chocolate-coloured female with a black male, F2 and backcross matings demonstrated that the chocolate phenotype is caused by a recessive sex-linked gene to which I assign the symbol *CHOC. 3. A mating of "chocolates' inter se yielded all chocolate offspring. PMID:8894230

  19. Romanticism and Eroticism among Black and White College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Lawrence N.

    1981-01-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 1,142 Black and White university students of both sexes in an effort to determine the relationship between eroticism, romanticism and sexual identity. Results indicated that males were more erotic, females more romantic, and that the discrepancy was greater for Blacks than for Whites. (Author/CM)

  20. Seeing race: N170 responses to race and their relation to automatic racial attitudes and controlled processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofan, Renana H; Rubin, Nava; Amodio, David M

    2011-10-01

    We examined the relation between neural activity reflecting early face perception processes and automatic and controlled responses to race. Participants completed a sequential evaluative priming task, in which two-tone images of Black faces, White faces, and cars appeared as primes, followed by target words categorized as pleasant or unpleasant, while encephalography was recorded. Half of these participants were alerted that the task assessed racial prejudice and could reveal their personal bias ("alerted" condition). To assess face perception processes, the N170 component of the ERP was examined. For all participants, stronger automatic pro-White bias was associated with larger N170 amplitudes to Black than White faces. For participants in the alerted condition only, larger N170 amplitudes to Black versus White faces were also associated with less controlled processing on the word categorization task. These findings suggest that preexisting racial attitudes affect early face processing and that situational factors moderate the link between early face processing and behavior. PMID:21452950

  1. Ultracold fermion race is on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the quantum level, particles behave very differently depending on whether their spin angular momentum is an integer or a half-integer. Half-integer spin particles are known as fermions, and include all the constituents of atoms: electrons, protons and neutrons. Bosons, on the other hand, are particles with integer spin, such as photons. Atoms are fermions if they are composed of an odd number of particles, like helium-3 or lithium-6. If they have an even number of constituents, like hydrogen, helium-4 or lithium-7, they are known as bosons. Fermions and bosons behave in profoundly different ways under certain conditions, especially at low temperatures. Four years ago, physicists created a Bose condensate, a quantum degenerate gas of bosons. Now the race is on to do the same with fermions. Deborah Jin's group at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Colorado has cooled a fermion gas to the lowest temperature yet (B DeMarco 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4208). And John Thomas and co-workers at Duke University have set a new record for the length of time that fermions can be trapped using lasers (K O'Hara 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4204). In this article the author describes the latest advances in the race to create a quantum degenerate gas of fermions. (UK)

  2. Gamic Race: Logics of Difference in Videogame Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Higgin, Tanner

    2012-01-01

    Gamic Race: Logics of Difference in Videogame Culture makes race central to the study of videogames and videogame cultures. The project emphasizes the need for critical race theory in game studies to understand how race is informed and reshaped by the logics of gameplay resulting in the multi-layered, politically complex, and agile concept of gamic race. Displaced racialization, the project's other key concept, revises former studies of race in digital media that focus predominantly on repres...

  3. Group Sex and Prevalent Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cara E; Lynch, Courtney D; Norris, Alison H; Davis, John A; Fields, Karen S; Ervin, Melissa; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the direct relation between group sex and prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a cross-sectional study of men who have sex with men (MSM) presenting at an urban STI clinic in the Midwestern US. Among 231 men who enrolled and reported that they have sex with men, we collected behavioral data using a combination of interviewer and self-administered surveys and extracted STI data from electronic health records. We used modified Poisson regression to examine the unadjusted and adjusted associations between group sex participation and prevalent STI. One-quarter of participants (n = 58) reported group sex participation in the last 3 months. Eighteen percent of participants (n = 42) had gonorrhea and 19 % (n = 45) had chlamydial infection. Men who reported recent group sex were more likely to be HIV-positive, to report recent drug use, and to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past 3 months. After adjustment for age, race, and recent drug use, recent participation in group sex was associated with prevalent gonorrhea infection (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.11, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = [1.13, 3.95]) but not chlamydia infection (PR = 1.03, 95 % CI = [0.58, 1.84]). We performed a sensitivity analysis in which we also adjusted for unprotected receptive anal intercourse and the results were not substantively changed. In summary, participation in group sex in the past 3 months was associated with a more than twofold increased prevalence of gonorrhea, but not with chlamydia. These findings support group sex participation as a potential contributor to increased STI prevalence. PMID:26392187

  4. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  5. Another Inconvenient Truth: Race and Ethnicity Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…

  6. Pattern of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bari Arfan ul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical differences among human populations may lead to variable prevalence of skin disorders in different ethnicities. Skin infections are one of the important curable and largely preventable categories of skin disorders in the communities. Aim: The purpose of the study was to see the patterns of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone and to compare with other ethnic populations. Materials and Methods: Local blacks of all age groups presenting in Dermatology out patient department of Pak Field Hospital (established as a part of UN peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone were included (from Nov 2004 to Oct 2005. Relevant clinical history and physical examination was done. Laboratory investigations were carried out when indicated. Skin diseases were broadly classified into two major categories i.e., infective and noninfective. Among infective, sexually transmitted infections were again separated. Nonblack settlers in the area and UN troops were not included in the study. Data was recorded and analyzed by Microsoft Excel program. Results: 3011 patients belonging to different local tribes having a variety of skin disorders were seen. Patients were of all ages and both sexes ranging from one month to 73 years of age. The Infective skin disorders were seen in 61.7% patients and most prevalent were superficial fungal infections (41.2% followed by, sexually transmitted infections (9.9% and parasitic infections (6.5%. Bacterial and viral infections were rare and so was the scabies. More than 90% parasitic infections were onchocerciasis with full spectrum of cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion: Pattern of skin infections in blacks varies considerably from other ethnic races. Environmental factors, geographical location and free existence of vector for onchocerciasis in West African region, possibly have a significant influence in this variable prevalence.

  7. A produção escrita das mulheres negras The written production of black women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Lopes Fontoura

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo faz uma análise dos escritos publicados por Maria Mulher – Organização de Mulheres Negras, tendo em vista atender a sua missão institucional.Inicialmente, é feita uma apresentação da forma como a organização presta informações para as mulheres, em especial, as negras, visando ao combate às discriminações sexista, de raça/etnia e de classe social dentro dos programas que desenvolve. O texto faz também referência à falta de organizações que incentivem a produção intelectual de entidades feministas negras. Finalmente, para aumentar o número de publicações das organizações de mulheres negras, o trabalho aponta para a produção de obras em conjunto, as quais abordarão temas de acordo com a vocação de cada instituição.The paper presents an analysis of the articles published for Maria Mulher Organização de Mulheres Negras, in order of taking care of its institucional mission. Initially it is made a presentation of the form that the organization gives information for the women, in special, for the blacks, in order to combat the discriminations by sex, of race/ethnic and of social class, in the programs that develops. The text also makes reference to the lack of organizations that stimulates the intellectual production of entities black feminists. Finally, the work points to the production of workmanships in order to increase the number of publications from the black women organizations, in accordance with the vocation of each institution.

  8. Race Matters? Examining and Rethinking Race Portrayal in Preclinical Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jennifer; Ucik, Laura; Baldwin, Nell; Hasslinger, Christopher; George, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Critical examination of "health disparities" is gaining consideration in medical schools across the United States, often as elective curricula that supplement required education. However, there is disconnect between discussions of race and disparities in these curricula and in core science courses. Specifically, required preclinical science lecturers often operationalize race as a biological concept, framing racialized disparities as inherent in bodies. A three- and five-month sampling of lecture slides at the authors' medical school demonstrated that race was almost always presented as a biological risk factor.This presentation of race as an essential component of epidemiology, risk, diagnosis, and treatment without social context is problematic, as a broad body of literature supports that race is not a robust biological category. The authors opine that current preclinical medical curricula inaccurately employ race as a definitive medical category without context, which may perpetuate misunderstanding of race as a bioscientific datum, increase bias among student-doctors, and ultimately contribute to worse patient outcomes.At the authors' institution, students approached the medical school administration with a letter addressing the current use of race, urging reform. The administration was receptive to proposals for further analysis of race in medical education and created a taskforce to examine curricular reform. Curricular changes were made as part of the construction of a longitudinal race-in-medicine curriculum. The authors seek to use their initiatives and this article to spark critical discussion on how to use teaching of race to work against racial inequality in health care. PMID:27166865

  9. Race, Inauthenticity, and Religious Cynicism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhardt, Robert B.; Salomone, Jerome J.

    1972-01-01

    Focuses on the concepts of inauthenticity and alienation as they relate to the Catholic Church; explores the reactions of blacks to the Church's actions at the death of Judge Leander Perez, who was nationally known as one of the most outspoken advocates of racial segregation and white supremacy in the U. S. (RJ)

  10. The Riddle of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Dorion; Margulis, Lynn

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the work of evolutionary biologists in determining how sexual reproduction arose. Topics explored include the nature of sex, bacterial sex, meiotic sex, and asexual reproduction. A diagram (which can be used as a duplicating master) illustrating types of bacterial sex is included. (DH)

  11. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind. PMID:25079218

  12. Obesity and Cancer Screening according to Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing. Comparison of prostate cancer screening, mammography, and Pap smears implies a gender difference in the relationship between screening behavior and weight. In colorectal cancer (CRC screening, the relationship between weight and screening in men is inconsistent, while there is a trend towards lower CRC screening in higher weight women.

  13. Education and Alcohol Consumption among Older Americans; Black-White Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purpose: Although the link between education and alcohol consumption is known, limited information exists on racial differences in this link. We conducted the current study to test Black- White differences in the association between education and alcohol consumption among older adults in the United States. Methods: This cross-sectional survey enrolled 1,493 Black (n=734 and White (n=759 older adults (age 66 or more in United States. Data came from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001. Race, demographics, socio-economics, and alcohol consumption were measured. Independent variable was education level. Outcome was alcohol consumption. Race was the focal moderator. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results: Education was positively associated with ever drinking in the pooled sample. Race, however, interacted with education level on drinking, suggesting a smaller effect of education on drinking for Blacks compared to Whites. Among Whites, high school graduation and college graduation were associated with increased odds of ever drinking, net of covariates. Among Blacks, high school graduation but not college graduation was associated with ever drinking. Conclusion: Blacks and Whites differ in how socio-economic status (i.e. education shapes behaviors health behaviors (i.e. drinking. How race modifies consequences and correlates of social determinants of health is not yet clear. College graduation may result in the same level of change to the social network and income of race group members. Lower effect of education on health of Blacks may be due to the structural role of race and racism that has resulted in lower job availability and pay for Blacks.

  14. Mulheres negras e não-negras e vulnerabilidade ao HIV/Aids no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Black and non-Black women and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lopes

    2007-12-01

    or above. Sociodemographic data and characteristics relating to infection and healthcare were obtained by means of individual interviews based on standardized questionnaire. The variable race/color was self-reported and women who referred to themselves as black or mixed-race were grouped together as black. The definition of variables by race/color was done using central tendency and proportions, and an association analysis using the chi2 Pearson test. RESULTS: The differences between black and non-black women were statistically significant with regards to: schooling; monthly, individual and family income per capita; number of direct dependents; opportunities to see a nutritionist, gynecologist or other medical professional; understanding what the infectologist said; speaking with the infectologist or gynecologist about her sex life; having correct knowledge about CD4 exams and viral load; the sexual means of exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The use of race/color as an analytical category provides opportunities to understand better how social interactions, in the context of gender and socioeconomic conditions, create and recreate disadvantages for black women and their exposure to health risks, and also impose limits on the way they use of resources for their healthcare.

  15. Sex Education for Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zitner, David

    1985-01-01

    Sex education evokes a wide variety of responses in the community and from teachers. Consequently, physicians have a responsibility to present sex education material in a factual, objective way. Many people are misinformed about sexual behavior. Physicians can help patients and the community by being aware of appropriate sex education for each age group. A curriculum for sex education, and opportunities to provide sex information for patients of different ages and stages in the lifecycle, are...

  16. Black Teenage Pregnancy: A Challenge for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Joyce A.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of teen pregnancy on the education of Black adolescents. Examines the scope of the problem, its social context, and its consequences. Discusses several effective approaches to teenage pregnancy prevention, including sex/family life education, school-based health clinics, life skills instruction, school retention, and…

  17. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jongh Beatriz E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA, and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.

  18. Taking one’s time in feeling other-race pain: an event-related potential investigation on the time-course of cross-racial empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meconi, Federica; Castelli, Luigi; Dell’Acqua, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Using the event-related potential (ERP) approach, we tracked the time-course of white participants’ empathic reactions to white (own-race) and black (other-race) faces displayed in a painful condition (i.e. with a needle penetrating the skin) and in a nonpainful condition (i.e. with Q-tip touching the skin). In a 280–340 ms time-window, neural responses to the pain of own-race individuals under needle penetration conditions were amplified relative to neural responses to the pain of other-race individuals displayed under analogous conditions. This ERP reaction to pain, whose source was localized in the inferior frontal gyrus, correlated with the empathic concern ratings of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index questionnaire. In a 400–750 ms time-window, the difference between neural reactions to the pain of own-race individuals, localized in the middle frontal gyrus and other-race individuals, localized in the temporoparietal junction was reduced to nil. These findings support a functional, neural and temporal distinction between two sequential processing stages underlying empathy, namely, a race-biased stage of pain sharing/mirroring followed by a race-unbiased stage of cognitive evaluation of pain. PMID:23314008

  19. Injection and Non-Injection Drug Use and Infectious Disease in Baltimore City: Differences by Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Larry; Khan, Maria; Clifford, Lisa; Harrell, Paul T.; Latimer, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study examines differences in the prevalence of biologically-confirmed hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV, and coinfection between Black and White adult cocaine/heroin users across three drug use subgroups identified in previous research (Harrell et al, 2012): non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin users, heroin injectors, and polydrug injectors. Results 59% of the 482 participants in the study were male. Significant race differences emerged between drug use subgroup memberships. Non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin users were predominantly Black (75%), while heroin injectors and polydrug injectors were predominantly White (69% and 72%, respectively). Polydrug injectors accounted for nearly three quarters of the HCV positive diagnoses in Whites. Though HIV disease status, stratified by race, did not differ significantly between drug use subgroups, the non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin subgroup contained over half of the HIV positive diagnoses in the sample and was predominantly Black. Despite much lower rates of injection, Blacks (8%) had a higher prevalence of coinfection than Whites (3%; X2 (2) = 6.18, p = .015). Conclusions The current findings are consistent with trends in recent HIV transmission statistics where sexual activity has overtaken injection drug use as a HIV risk factor. The current findings also provide further support to the notion of injection drug use as an exceedingly high-risk behavior for HCV and coinfection, specifically those who are polysubstance injectors. PMID:24837755

  20. The AICCC Perspective of Career Management: A Strategy for Personal and Positional Power for Black Women in Higher Education Adminstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Martha A.; Scott, Barbara M.

    Currently, America's racial and ethnic minorities are under-represented in higher education and in almost all occupational fields that require a college education. To investigate the extent to which black females in higher education administration view race as a mediating factor in their career progression, 39 black female administrators in…