Sample records for black race sex

  1. Black gay men as sexual subjects: race, racialisation and the social relations of sex among Black gay men in Toronto. (United States)

    Husbands, Winston; Makoroka, Lydia; Walcott, Rinaldo; Adam, Barry D; George, Clemon; Remis, Robert S; Rourke, Sean B


    In this study of Black gay and bisexual men in Toronto, sexually active survey participants reported on their sexual behaviours with male partners of different ethnoracial backgrounds, and interview participants reflected on how their sexual relationships emerged in the context of race and interracial desire. Most survey participants reported sexual relationships with other Black men. Participants were more likely to be insertive with White and other ethnoracial men than with Black men. A significant number of participants who were receptive or versatile with Black partners switched to the insertive role when their sexual partners were not Black. Interview participants ascribed a sense of fulfilment to their sexual relationships with other Black men, but avoided relationships with White men or interpreted such relationships as either purely sexual and/or inflected by their racialised objectification. Others avoided sexual relationships with other Black men or preferred relationships with White men, sometimes in opposition to experiences of oppressive masculinity from some Black partners but mindful of the possibility of racialised encounters with their White partners. Study participants emerge as informed sexual subjects, self-conscious about their sexual relationships and variously inclined to negotiate or resist racialisation and oppression in the private and public spheres.

  2. Expression and Perception of Emotion: Race and Sex. (United States)

    Gitter, A. George; Black, Harvey

    A 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was utilized to investigate the effects of race of expressor (black and white), sex of expressor, race of perceiver and sex of perceiver on perception of emotion (POE). Perception of seven emotions (anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, pain, and sadness) was analyzed in terms of three dependent variables: (1)…

  3. Electro-cortical implicit race bias does not vary with participants' race or sex. (United States)

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Mallan, Kimberley M; Martin, Frances H; Terry, Deborah J; Smith, Joanne R


    Earlier research found evidence for electro-cortical race bias towards black target faces in white American participants irrespective of the task relevance of race. The present study investigated whether an implicit race bias generalizes across cultural contexts and racial in- and out-groups. An Australian sample of 56 Chinese and Caucasian males and females completed four oddball tasks that required sex judgements for pictures of male and female Chinese and Caucasian posers. The nature of the background (across task) and of the deviant stimuli (within task) was fully counterbalanced. Event-related potentials (ERPs) to deviant stimuli recorded from three midline sites were quantified in terms of mean amplitude for four components: N1, P2, N2 and a late positive complex (LPC; 350-700 ms). Deviants that differed from the backgrounds in sex or race elicited enhanced LPC activity. These differences were not modulated by participant race or sex. The current results replicate earlier reports of effects of poser race relative to background race on the LPC component of the ERP waveform. In addition, they indicate that an implicit race bias occurs regardless of participant's or poser's race and is not confined to a particular cultural context.

  4. Race and Sex Differences in College Student Physical Activity Correlates (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H.; Raedeke, Thomas D.


    Objectives: To assess sex/race differences on psychosocial correlates of physical activity among college students. Methods: Survey research protocol. Results: Students (n = 636) exercised an average of 3.5 days per week, with black females being the least active. Across subgroups, health/fitness was rated as the most important motive for exercise,…

  5. Gendered Race: Are Infants’ Face Preferences Guided by Intersectionality of Sex and Race?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin I Kim


    Full Text Available People occupy multiple social categories simultaneously (e.g., a White female, and this complex intersectionality affects fundamental aspects of social perception. Here, we examined the possibility that infant face processing may be susceptible to effects of intersectionality of sex and race. Three- and 10-month-old infants were shown a series of computer-generated face pairs (5 s each that differed according to sex (F or M or race (Asian, Black, or White. All possible combinations of face pairs were tested, and preferences were recorded with an eye tracker. Infants showed preferences for more feminine faces only when they were White, but we found no evidence that White or Asian faces were preferred even though they are relatively more feminized. These findings challenge the notions that infants’ social categories are processed independently of one another and that infants’ preferences for sex or race can be explained from mere exposure.

  6. Sex, race, gender, and the presidential vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Hansen


    Full Text Available Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have diverged considerably on abortion and women’s issues, and voters now view the Democrats as more supportive than Republicans of equality for women and reproductive rights. Perceptions of party differences on women’s issues strongly influenced vote choice, 1988–2008, and in 2008 had greater impact on whites’ votes than opinions on aid to blacks, abortion, gay marriage, or the economy. Although racial resentment was a strong predictor of the white vote in 2012 as in previous years, presidential voting was also significantly influenced by respondent sex as well as opinions on gender roles. Voters regarded the Democratic Party as “better for the interests of women,” and this proved to be a highly effective wedge issue for the Democrats in 2012.

  7. Prednisolone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in relation to sex and race. (United States)

    Magee, M H; Blum, R A; Lates, C D; Jusko, W J


    Prednisolone pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) were investigated in relation to sex and race in white males, black males, white females, and black females (n = 8/group) after a single oral dose (0.27 mg/kg) of prednisone. The study consisted of baseline and prednisone phases with 32-hour sampling in each phase. Women were studied during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. Total and free plasma prednisolone concentrations were assayed by HPLC and ultrafiltration, and pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by compartmental fitting using WinNonlin. Plasma cortisol concentrations were assayed by HPLC; T-helper, T-suppressor lymphocyte, and neutrophil cell counts were determined by FACS and hemocytometry, and these pharmacodynamic data were evaluated by basic and extended indirect response models using ADAPT II. Total body weight-normalized free prednisolone oral clearance and apparent volume of distribution were higher in men compared with women, regardless of race (by 22% in whites and 40% in blacks for oral clearance, p whites and 38% in blacks for apparent volume of distribution, p trafficking inhibition were higher in whites than in blacks, regardless of sex (by 125% in men and 208% in women, p trafficking were not statistically different between men and women, blacks and whites. The findings of this study suggest that there are some prednisolone PK/PD differences related to sex and race. However, these differences do not suggest the need for dosage adjustments, and additional experiments with repeat dosing are needed to fully evaluate the clinical implication of these findings.

  8. Sex and Race Differences in Dieting and Exercise among University Students. Research Report #3-84. (United States)

    Walters, Paul R.; Sedlacek, William E.

    The attitudes of college students toward diet and exercise were studied, with attention to whether attitudes varied by race and sex. A survey, which included items from the Eating Attitudes Test, was administered to 727 entering freshmen: 305 white females, 286 white males, 46 black females, and 38 black males. The findings showed that diet and…

  9. Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex (United States)

    ... Skin Uterine Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out ...

  10. Race and Sex Differences Among Children in Perception of Emotion. Boston University Communication Research Center Report No. 27. (United States)

    Gitter, A. George; Quincy, Arthur J., Jr.

    A 2x2x2 factorial design was utilized to investigate the effects of race of expressor (black and white), race of perceiver, and sex of perceiver on perception of emotion (POE) in children. Perception of four emotions (anger, happiness, surprise, and pain) was analyzed in terms of three scores as DV's: (1) overall accuracy scores, (2) correct…

  11. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise G. Yull


    Full Text Available Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, racism, and racial identity across four generations of Black people in the context of school and community. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  12. Book review: Land of the cosmic race: race mixture, racism and blackness in Mexico


    Feghali, Zalfa


    "Land of the Cosmic Race: Race Mixture, Racism, and Blackness in Mexico." Christina A. Sue. Oxford University Press. March 2013. --- Land of the Cosmic Race is a richly-detailed ethnographic account of the powerful role that race and colour play in organizing the lives and thoughts of ordinary Mexicans. It presents a previously untold story of how individuals in contemporary urban Mexico construct their identities, attitudes, and practices in the context of a dominant national belief system. ...

  13. Gender, Race, and Risk: Intersectional Risk Management in the Sale of Sex Online. (United States)

    Moorman, Jessica D; Harrison, Kristen


    Sex worker experience of risk (e.g., physical violence or rape) is shaped by race, gender, and context. For web-based sex workers, experience of risk is comparatively minimal; what is unclear is how web-based sex workers manage risk and if online advertising plays a role in risk management. Building on intersectionality theory and research exploring risk management in sex work, we content-analyzed 600 escort advertisements from ( ) to explore risk management in web-based sex work. To guide our research we asked: Do advertisements contain risk management messages? Does the use of risk management messaging differ by sex worker race or gender? Which groups have the highest overall use of risk management messages? Through a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) we found that advertisements contained risk management messages and that uses of these phrases varied by race and gender. Blacks, women, and transgender women drove the use of risk management messages. Black and White transgender women had the highest overall use of these phrases. We conclude that risk management is an intersectional practice and that the use of risk management messages is a venue-specific manifestation of broader risk management priorities found in all venues where sex is sold.

  14. Faculty Salaries: Is There Discrimination by Sex, Race, and Discipline? (United States)

    Gordon, Nancy M.; And Others


    Investigates the sources of wage differentials for the faculty of a large urban university. Variables include sex, race, department differentials, age, seniority, education, and academic rank. (Author/DN)

  15. Pay Equity: An Issue of Race, Ethnicity, and Sex. (United States)

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    While the continuing wage gap between men and women, Whites and non-Whites has been well documented, the purpose of this study was to examine the role which discrimination on the basis of race/ethnicity as well as sex plays in the setting of wages. Whether pay equity is an effective means of remedying race-based wage discrimination was also…

  16. Race differences in obesity and its relationship to the sex hormone milieu. (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C; Martin, Lorena


    A sexual dimorphism exists in which increased abdominal and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) - found in women and marked by low sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and high bioavailable testosterone (BT) - is related to the metabolic risk profile. In men, increased BT is related to decreased abdominal obesity and a decrease in the metabolic risk profile. In women, race differences have been found in androgenic sex steroids including SHBG and BT as well as central fat distribution, creating inherently greater metabolic risk for certain populations. Estrogen and estrogen receptor isoforms play a role in fat deposition and distribution and may influence the changes that occur during the menopausal transition. Androgenic sex steroids serve a mediating role, influencing VAT accumulation and its associated metabolic risk factors while VAT also serves a mediating role influencing the androgenic sex steroid-metabolic risk relationship in women. Furthermore, androgenic sex steroids and VAT may independently contribute to the variance in several metabolic variables associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and their antecedent conditions such as the metabolic syndrome. Race has been shown to modify the relationship between androgenic sex steroids and metabolic variables associated with risk for diabetes in Black and White women. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanisms involved in race differences. Total adiposity and central fat distribution in accordance with changes in the hormone and metabolic milieu influence breast cancer risk, which varies by race and menopausal status. These findings have broader implications for the study of health promotion/disease prevention in women.

  17. Black Boundary Lines: Race, Class and Gender among Black Undergraduate Students (United States)

    Morales, Erica Marie


    Intra-group differences among Black undergraduate students remain understudied. To gain a more nuanced understanding of Black student life, we must examine how other social locations, like gender and class, connect to the racialized experiences of Black students. This dissertation argues that for Black students, class and gender, along with race,…

  18. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons... (United States)


    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...

  19. "Sturdy Black Bridges": Discussing Race, Class, and Gender (United States)

    Hinton, KaaVonia


    Black feminist literary theory offers tools that teachers can use to initiate discussions on the issues of race, gender and class to analyze the works of adolescent literature. This feminist theory helps in reading and teaching literature about parallel cultures, like African-Americans and their love for self and community and their recognition of…

  20. Race, the Black Male, and Heterogeneous Racisms in Education (United States)

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita; Ray, Nichole; Lasker-Scott, Tennille


    This chapter explores the effects of historical and current racism on the educational experiences of American Black males. The authors use critical race theory to illustrate how assumptions about culture and gender have subverted the egalitarian ideals of adult education. Teachers and students are urged to use critical reflection and open…

  1. Race, School, and Seinfeld: Autoethnographic Sketching in Black and White (United States)

    Wamsted, John O.


    Applying the Deluzoguattarian concept of the trace, this article explores interactions between a White teacher and his Black students and the way race is coconstructed therein. Using a short story by the Argentine mystery writer Jorge Luis Borges as a frame, the author connects the poststructural philosophy of the trace to current notions of…

  2. Obesity is associated with race/sex disparities in diabetes and hypertension prevalence, but not cardiovascular disease, among HIV-infected adults. (United States)

    Willig, Amanda L; Westfall, Andrew O; Overton, E Turner; Mugavero, Michael J; Burkholder, Greer A; Kim, David; Chamot, Eric; Raper, James L; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Willig, James H


    Race/sex differences are observed in cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk and prevalence in the context of treated, chronic HIV infection, and these differences could be exacerbated by disparities in obesity prevalence. We sought to determine the effect of obesity on these disparities among people living with HIV. Prevalence of CMD (dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease) was determined for patients seen at the University of Alabama at Birmingham HIV clinic between 7/2010 and 6/2011. Staged logistic regression was used to examine the impact of race/sex on comorbidities adjusting for key confounders including/excluding obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)). Of 1,800 participants, 77% were male, 54% were black, and 25% were obese. Obesity prevalence differed by race/sex: black women 49%, black men 24%, white women 24%, white men 15% (phypertension and chronic kidney disease, while black women had a nearly 2-fold increased odds for diabetes and hypertension (all at phypertension were attenuated when obesity was included in the models. Other group differences remained significant. Disparities in obesity prevalence do not explain race/sex differences in all CMD among people with HIV. Obesity accounted for associations with diabetes/hypertension for black women, who may benefit from weight reduction to decrease disease risk. Further investigations into the etiology and treatment of CMD in people living with HIV should consider unique race/sex treatment issues.

  3. Still Flies in Buttermilk: Black Male Faculty, Critical Race Theory, and Composite Counterstorytelling (United States)

    Griffin, Rachel Alicia; Ward, LaCharles; Phillips, Amanda R.


    Driven by critical race theory, this essay employs composite counterstorytelling to narrate the experiences of black male faculty on traditionally white campuses. Situated at the intersections of race and gender, our composite counterstory is richly informed by 11 interviews with black male faculty alongside critical race scholarship that…

  4. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex (United States)


    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and...

  5. Renal cell cancer histological subtype distribution differs by race and sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Loren; Morgans, Alicia K; Edwards, Todd L;


    University Medical Center (1998-2012) were classified as clear-cell, papillary, chromophobe and other subtypes. In pairwise comparisons, we used multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between race, sex, age, end-stage renal...... disease (ESRD) and body mass index at diagnosis according to histological subtype. RESULTS: The RCC subtype distribution was significantly different in black people from that in white people (P people than white...... people (35.7 vs 13.8%). In multivariate analyses, compared with clear-cell RCC, people with papillary RCC were significantly more likely to be black (OR 4.15; 95% CI 2.64-6.52) and less likely to be female (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.43-0.83). People with chromophobe RCC were significantly more likely...

  6. Discrimination in Industrial Employment: An Investigation of Race and Sex Bias Among Professions. (United States)

    Hitt, M. A.; And Others


    This study investigated the existence of race and sex discrimination in the evaluation of job applicant resumes sent to personnel directors of 200 corporations across the United States. The results show that identification of race generated more replies but fewer numbers of positive responses than when race was not identified. (Author/CT)

  7. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC). (United States)

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David


    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  8. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Christina H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Deville, Curtiland, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)


    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.

  9. Disability Prevalence According to a Class, Race, and Sex (CSR) Hypothesis. (United States)

    Siordia, Carlos


    Disability has been shown to be related in definite ways to social class. In modern industrial societies, disability is influenced by and has the potential to contribute to the production and reproduction of social inequality. However, markers of social stratification processes are sometimes ignored determinants of health. A Class, Race, Sex (CRS) hypothesis is presented to argue that a "low-education disadvantage"; "racial-minority disadvantage"; and "female disadvantage" will compound to affect the risks for being disable. In particular, the CRS hypothesis posits that class is more important than race and the latter more than sex when predicting presence or severity of disability. The cross-sectional study of community-dwelling adults between the ages of 45 and 64 uses data from the American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2008-2012 file. By using 3,429,523 individuals-which weighted equal to 61,726,420-the results of the study suggest the CRS hypothesis applies to both Non-Latino-Blacks and Non-Latino-Whites. There is a "male disadvantage" exception for Non-Latino-Whites. Decreasing between-group differences in health may be achieved by making the age-health association at lower socioeconomic stratum similar to that of the upper socioeconomic strata.

  10. Race Consciousness and Collective Commitment among Black Students on White Campuses. (United States)

    Allen, Walter R.


    Black students on White campuses seem to retain high levels of race consciousness and collective commitment. However, compared to a 1970 sample of Black students attending historically Black colleges, Black students on White campuses in 1981 are decidedly more moderate. These differences are partly attributable to institutional context effects.…

  11. The HIV Care Cascade Measured Over Time and by Age, Sex, and Race in a Large National Integrated Care System. (United States)

    Horberg, Michael Alan; Hurley, Leo Bartemeier; Klein, Daniel Benjamin; Towner, William James; Kadlecik, Peter; Antoniskis, Diana; Mogyoros, Miguel; Brachman, Philip Sigmund; Remmers, Carol Louise; Gambatese, Rebecca Claire; Blank, Jackie; Ellis, Courtney Georgiana; Silverberg, Michael Jonah


    HIV care cascades can evaluate programmatic success over time. However, methodologies for estimating cascade stages vary, and few have evaluated differences by demographic subgroups. We examined cascade performance over time and by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in Kaiser Permanente, providing HIV care in eight US states and Washington, DC. We created cascades for HIV+ members' age ≥13 for 2010-2012. We measured "linkage" (a visit/CD4 within 90 days of being diagnosed for new patients; ≥1 medical visit/year if established); "retention" (≥2 medical visits ≥60 days apart); filled ART (filled ≥3 months of combination ART); and viral suppression (HIV RNA age, and race/ethnicity. We found men had statistically (p age was associated (p care results improved over time, but significant differences exist by patient demographics. Specifically, retention efforts should be targeted toward younger patients and blacks; women, blacks, and Latinos require greater ART prescribing.

  12. Academic Self-Concept in Black Adolescents: Do Race and Gender Stereotypes Matter? (United States)

    Evans, Ashley B; Copping, Kristi; Rowley, Stephanie J; Kurtz-Costes, Beth


    We examined the relation between race- and gender-group competence ratings and academic self-concept in 252 Black seventh- and eighth-graders. On average, youth reported traditional race stereotypes, whereas gender stereotypes were traditional about verbal abilities and were nontraditional regarding math/science abilities. Among boys, in-group gender and in-group race-based competence ratings (i.e. ratings of boys and Blacks) were related to math/science and verbal self-concepts. However, only gender-based ratings (i.e. ratings of girls' abilities for reading/writing) were related to girls' self-concepts. These findings suggest that the influence of race stereotypes on Black adolescents' academic self-concepts is different for girls than boys. Whereas self-relevant gender groups were associated with both Black girls' and boys' academic self-concept, race-based competence ratings were only relevant for the academic self-views of Black boys.

  13. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition. (United States)

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J


    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance.

  14. Race and sex differences in associations of vegetables, fruits, and carotenoids with lung cancer risk in New Jersey (United States). (United States)

    Dorgan, J F; Ziegler, R G; Schoenberg, J B; Hartge, P; McAdams, M J; Falk, R T; Wilcox, H B; Shaw, G L


    We used data from a case-control study conducted in New Jersey between 1980 and 1983 to evaluate race and sex differences in associations of vegetable, fruit, and carotenoid consumption with lung cancer. Cases included 736 White males, 860 White females, 269 Black males, and 86 Black females with incident, histologically confirmed, primary cancer of the trachea, bronchus, or lung. Controls were identified through drivers' license and Health Care Financing Administration files and included 548 White males, 473 White females, 170 Black males, and 47 Black females. Usual intakes of vegetables (predominantly yellow/green) and fruit (predominantly yellow/orange) as well as other food sources of carotenoids were ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. White females showed significant inverse associations of lung cancer with vegetables, fruit, and carotenoids. White males showed nonsignificant inverse associations with vegetables and carotenoids, and Black females just with vegetables. No inverse associations were found for Black males. Vegetable consumption was associated with risk of all histologic types of lung cancer, but the pattern of increasing risk with decreasing intake was limited to smokers. We infer that consumption of yellow/green vegetables and carotenoids may confer protection from lung cancer to White male and White female smokers. Further studies are needed to clarify the effect in Blacks.

  15. 29 CFR 34.4 - Specific discriminatory actions prohibited on the ground of race, color, religion, sex, national... (United States)


    ... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or..., religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or participation in JTPA. (a) For the purposes of this section, prohibited ground means race, color, religion, sex,...

  16. 13 CFR 113.3-1 - Consideration of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. (United States)


    ..., religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. 113.3-1 Section 113.3-1 Business Credit and... of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. (a) This regulation does not prohibit the consideration of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or...

  17. Understanding racial HIV/STI disparities in black and white men who have sex with men: a multilevel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S Sullivan

    Full Text Available The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men have puzzled researchers for decades. Understanding reasons for these disparities requires looking beyond individual-level behavioral risk to a more comprehensive framework.From July 2010-December 2012, 803 men (454 black, 349 white were recruited through venue-based and online sampling; consenting men were provided HIV and STI testing, completed a behavioral survey and a sex partner inventory, and provided place of residence for geocoding. HIV prevalence was higher among black (43% versus white (13% MSM (prevalence ratio (PR 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.5-4.4. Among HIV-positive men, the median CD4 count was significantly lower for black (490 cells/µL than white (577 cells/µL MSM; there was no difference in the HIV RNA viral load by race. Black men were younger, more likely to be bisexual and unemployed, had less educational attainment, and reported fewer male sex partners, fewer unprotected anal sex partners, and less non-injection drug use. Black MSM were significantly more likely than white MSM to have rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea, were more likely to have racially concordant partnerships, more likely to have casual (one-time partners, and less likely to discuss serostatus with partners. The census tracts where black MSM lived had higher rates of poverty and unemployment, and lower median income. They also had lower proportions of male-male households, lower male to female sex ratios, and lower HIV diagnosis rates.Among black and white MSM in Atlanta, disparities in HIV and STI prevalence by race are comparable to those observed nationally. We identified differences between black and white MSM at the individual, dyadic/sexual network, and community levels. The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV prevalence in Atlanta are complex, and will likely require a multilevel framework to understand comprehensively.

  18. Chronicle of Race, Sex, and Schools. September-October, 1975 (United States)

    Weinberg, Meyer; And Others


    Highlights major events and happenings in various states, agencies, and research concerning issues such as bussing, desegregation, race relations, minority group participation, discrimination, and urban education. (Author/AM)

  19. Sex allocation in relation to host races in the brood-parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode Fossøy

    Full Text Available Sex allocation theory and empirical evidence both suggest that natural selection should favour maternal control of offspring sex ratio in relation to their ability to invest in the offspring. Generalist parasites constitute a particularly interesting group to test this theory as different females commonly utilize different host species showing large variation in provisioning ability. The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus is a generalist brood parasite that lays its eggs in the nest of many different passerine birds, but each female tends to specialize on one particular host species giving rise to highly specialized host races. The different host species show large variation in their ability to invest in the parasitic offspring, presenting an opportunity for female cuckoos to bias offspring sex ratio in relation to host species quality. Here, we investigate host-race specific sex allocation controlling for maternal identity in the common cuckoo. We found no evidence of any significant relationship between host race and sex ratio in one sympatric population harbouring three different host races, or in a total of five geographically separated populations. There was also no significant association between host quality, as determined by species-specific female host body mass, and cuckoo sex ratio. Finally, we found no significant relationship between individual cuckoo maternal quality, as determined by her egg volume, and sex ratio within each host race. We conclude that the generalist brood-parasitic common cuckoo show no significant sex-ratio bias in relation to host race and discuss this finding in light of gene flow and host adaptations.

  20. Sex allocation in relation to host races in the brood-parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). (United States)

    Fossøy, Frode; Moksnes, Arne; Røskaft, Eivin; Antonov, Anton; Dyrcz, Andrzej; Moskat, Csaba; Ranke, Peter S; Rutila, Jarkko; Vikan, Johan R; Stokke, Bård G


    Sex allocation theory and empirical evidence both suggest that natural selection should favour maternal control of offspring sex ratio in relation to their ability to invest in the offspring. Generalist parasites constitute a particularly interesting group to test this theory as different females commonly utilize different host species showing large variation in provisioning ability. The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is a generalist brood parasite that lays its eggs in the nest of many different passerine birds, but each female tends to specialize on one particular host species giving rise to highly specialized host races. The different host species show large variation in their ability to invest in the parasitic offspring, presenting an opportunity for female cuckoos to bias offspring sex ratio in relation to host species quality. Here, we investigate host-race specific sex allocation controlling for maternal identity in the common cuckoo. We found no evidence of any significant relationship between host race and sex ratio in one sympatric population harbouring three different host races, or in a total of five geographically separated populations. There was also no significant association between host quality, as determined by species-specific female host body mass, and cuckoo sex ratio. Finally, we found no significant relationship between individual cuckoo maternal quality, as determined by her egg volume, and sex ratio within each host race. We conclude that the generalist brood-parasitic common cuckoo show no significant sex-ratio bias in relation to host race and discuss this finding in light of gene flow and host adaptations.

  1. A Black Theological Response to Race-Based Medicine: Reconciliation in Minority Communities. (United States)

    Johnson, Kirk A


    The harm race-based medicine inflicts on minority bodies through race-based experimentation and the false solutions a race-based drug ensues within minority communities provokes concern. Such areas analyze the minority patient in a physical proxy. Though the mind and body are important entities, we cannot forget about the spirit. Healing is not just a physical practice; it includes spiritual practice. Efficient medicine includes the holistic elements of the mind, body, and spirit. Therefore, the spiritual discipline of black theology can be used as a tool to mend the harms of race-based medicine. It can be an avenue of research to further particular concerns for justice in medical care . Such theology contributes to the discussion of race-based medicine indicating the need for the voice, participation, and interdependence of minorities. Black theology can be used as a tool of healing and empowerment for health equity and awareness by exploring black theology's response to race-based medicine, analyzing race in biblical literature, using biblical literature as a tool for minority patient empowerment, building on past and current black church health advocacy with personal leadership in health advocacy.

  2. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race. (United States)

    Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas


    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student's t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1-S4 (PS7 (PS8 (P=0.0088), and S5-S8 (PS3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (PS1-S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race.

  3. Who Has the Advantage? Race and Sex Differences in Returns to Social Capital at Home and at School* (United States)

    Dufur, Mikaela J.; Parcel, Toby L.; Hoffmann, John P.; Braudt, David B.


    A growing body of literature suggests that social capital is a valuable resource for children and youth, and that returns to that capital can increase academic success. However, relatively little is known about whether youth from different backgrounds build social capital in the same way and whether they receive the same returns to that capital. We examine the creation of and returns to social capital in family and school settings on academic achievement, measured as standardized test scores, for white boys, black boys, white girls, and black girls who were seniors in high school in the United States. Our findings suggest that while youth in different groups build social capital in largely the same way, differences exist by race and sex as to how family social capital affects academic achievement. Girls obtain greater returns to family social capital than do boys, but no group receives significant returns to school social capital after controlling for individual- and school-level characteristics. PMID:27594731

  4. Educational Lynching: Critical Race Theory and the Suspension of Black Boys (United States)

    Payne, Macheo


    Looking at the disproportionate suspension of African American, Black male students through the lens of critical race theory, this presents arguments from a CRT how the disproportionate suspension of Black male students is rooted in white supremacy and racist policy in the United States. Local recommendations are offered for Oakland Unified School…

  5. "A Tradition in Ceaseless Motion": Critical Race Theory and Black British Intellectual Spaces (United States)

    Warmington, Paul


    In the USA, where Critical Race Theory (CRT) first emerged, black public intellectuals are a longstanding, if embattled, feature of national life. However, while often marginalized in public debate, the UK has its own robust tradition of black intellectual creation. The field of education, both as a site of intellectual production and as the site…

  6. Multiple Realities: A Relationship Narrative Approach in Therapy with Black-White Mixed-Race Clients. (United States)

    Rockquemore, Kerry Ann; Laszloffy, Tracey A.


    Emerging empirical research on racial identity formation among persons with one Black and one White parent reveals that multiple identity options are possible. Presents a relational narrative approach to therapy with Black-White mixed-race clients who experience systematic invalidation of their chosen racial identity through a detailed case…

  7. Integrating Black Consciousness and Critical Race Feminism into Family Studies Research (United States)

    Few, April L.


    The author examines the advantages and challenges of using Black feminist theory and critical race feminist theory to study the lives of Black women and families in family studies. The author addresses the ways in which these perspectives, both of which are intentional in their analyses of intersectionality and the politics of location, are also…

  8. Another cost of being a young black male: Race, weaponry, and lethal outcomes in assaults. (United States)

    Felson, Richard B; Painter-Davis, Noah


    We examine the effect of the race, age, and gender of victims of assault on the offenders' use of weapons and lethal intent. Evidence from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) suggests that offenders are particularly likely to use guns against young black men-a three-way interaction - and to kill black males and young black adults. Black offenders respond more strongly to the victim's race than do white offenders. As a result of these effects, a violent incident between two young black men is about six times more likely to involve a gun than a violent incident between two young white men. We suggest that adversary effects, i.e., an offender's tactical response to the threat posed by adversaries, help explain why violence in black communities tends to be much more serious than violence in white communities.

  9. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race (United States)

    Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas


    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student’s t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1–S4 (Pskied faster in S6 (Pskied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (Pski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5–S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race. PMID:26937207

  10. Race and Ideology: An Essay in Black Sociology (United States)

    Staples, Robert


    Delineates the components of a theoretical system designed to meet the needs of black people; relates the field of sociology to an understanding of the black condition which will ultimately be applied in some effective way to the resolution of the oppressed condition of the masses of black folk.'' (Author/RJ)

  11. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsson M


    Full Text Available Magnus Carlsson,1,2 Hannes Assarsson,1 Tomas Carlsson1,2 1School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, 2Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8 were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student’s t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042, S3 (P=0.0049, S4 (P=0.010, and S1–S4 (P<0.001, whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001, S7 (P<0.001, S8 (P=0.0088, and S5–S8 (P<0.001. For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years in S3 (P=0.0029, and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions skied faster in S1 (P<0.001 and S1–S4 (P=0.0054; inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions had a shorter mean skiing time in S5–S8 (P=0.0063. In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race. Keywords: pacing strategy, cross-country skiing, endurance performance, sex difference

  12. Race, space, place: notes on the racialisation and spatialisation of commercial sex work in Dubai, UAE. (United States)

    Mahdavi, Pardis


    This paper focuses on the perceived racialisation and resultant spatialisation of commercial sex in Dubai. In recent years, the sex industry in Dubai has grown to include women from the Middle East, Eastern Europe, East Asia and Africa. With the increase in sex workers of different nationalities has come a form of localised racism that is embedded in structures and desires seen within specific locations. The physical spatialisation of sex work hinges on perceived race and produces distinct income generating potential for women engaged in the sex industry in Dubai. The social and physical topography of Dubai is important in marginalising or privileging these various groups of sex workers, which correlates race, space and place with rights and assistance. I begin with a description of the multidirectional flows of causality between race, space, place and demand. I then discuss how these various groups are inversely spatialised within the discourse on assistance, protection and rights. The findings presented here are based on ethnographic research conducted with transnational migrants in the UAE in 2004, 2008 and 2009.

  13. The Effects of Race and Sex Discrimination on Early-Career Earnings. (United States)

    Kohen, Andrew I.; Roderick, Roger D.

    The study uses a multiple-equation model of earnings determination to assess and measure the impact of labor market discrimination according to race and sex. Focusing on full-time, nonresident workers 18-25 years of age in 1968-69, the observed intercolor and intersex wage differentials are decomposed according to their sources. While less than…

  14. Effect of Sex and Race Identification on Instrument Assignment by Music Educators (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Stewart, Erin E.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sex and race identification on the assignment of instruments to beginning band students. Participants (N = 201) were music educators solicited by university professors across the United States. Participants completed an online survey about instrument assignments. Half the participants were…

  15. Perception of Emotion: Differences in Mode of Presentation, Sex of Perceiver, and Race of Expressor. (United States)

    Kozel, Nicholas J.; Gitter, A. George

    A 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design was utilized to investigate the effects of sex of perceiver, race of expressor (Negro and White), and mode of presentation of stimuli (audio and visual, visual only, audio only, and still pictures) on perception of emotion (POE). Perception of seven emotions (anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, pain, and…

  16. Effect of Race, Sex, Nonverbal Communication and Verbal Communication of Perception of Leadership (United States)

    Gitter, A. George; And Others


    A 2X2X2X2 study tested the effect of a) nonverbal communication (NVC), b) verbal communication (VC), 3) race of communicator, and d) sex of perceiver on the perception of leadership. Results indicated that when one pits NVC against VC, NVC proved to be more potent in the perception of leadership. (Author/NQ)

  17. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.


    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  18. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.


    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  19. A Critique of Race Relations Theory as Applied to Public Policy: The Case of Historically Black Colleges. (United States)

    Turner, William H.

    American race relations theory is applied to the conceptualization of assimilation in America and to problems in planning in higher education desegregation. Black colleges can be viewed as microcosms of American race relations in their patterns of conflict, accommodation, and assimilation. The conflict over the propriety of black colleges' claims…

  20. Black Feminism and "Race Uplift," 1890-1900. Working Paper. (United States)

    Perkins, Linda Marie

    In spite of lack of support from white women, educated black women concentrated their efforts on better conditions for the uneducated and the poorer among them during the late 19th century. Their primary concerns were education and employment opportunities, suffrage, the defense of black female morality, and the condemnation of lynching. The…

  1. Race and Racism in the Experiences of Black Male Resident Assistants at Predominantly White Universities (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.; Davis, Ryan J.; Jones, David E.; McGowan, Brian L.; Ingram, Ted N.; Platt, C. Spencer


    Recent research has shown a nexus between active out-of-class engagement and the accrual of unique race/gender-specific educational outcomes among Black male undergraduates. Yet, rarely explored are the racialized experiences of those who become actively engaged and assume leadership positions on campuses where racial diversity is low, hence the…

  2. How Busing Burdened Blacks: Critical Race Theory and Busing for Desegregation in Nashville-Davidson County (United States)

    Woodward, Jennifer R.


    This article uses critical race theory, court opinions, newspapers, and interviews to explain how the burden of busing for desegregation was placed upon Blacks in Nashville, Tennessee and why the agenda of the litigants in the Kelley v. Metropolitan Board of Education cases shifted over time. The deliberate pace of the initial desegregation…

  3. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level. (United States)

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A


    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns.

  4. Black-White Differences in Sex and Contraceptive Use Among Young Women. (United States)

    Kusunoki, Yasamin; Barber, Jennifer S; Ela, Elizabeth J; Bucek, Amelia


    This study examines black-white and other sociodemographic differences in young women's sexual and contraceptive behaviors, using new longitudinal data from a weekly journal-based study of 1,003 18- to 19-year-old women spanning 2.5 years. We investigate hypotheses about dynamic processes in these behaviors during early adulthood in order to shed light on persisting racial differences in rates of unintended pregnancies in the United States. We find that net of other sociodemographic characteristics and adolescent experiences with sex and pregnancy, black women spent less time in relationships and had sex less frequently in their relationships than white women, but did not differ in the number of relationships they formed or in their frequency or consistency of contraceptive use within relationships. Black women were more likely to use less effective methods for pregnancy prevention (e.g., condoms) than white women, who tended to use more effective methods (e.g., oral contraceptives). And although the most effective method for pregnancy prevention-long-acting reversible contraception (LARC)-was used more often by black women than white women, LARC use was low in both groups. In addition, black women did not differ from white women in their number of discontinuations or different methods used and had fewer contraceptive method switches. Further, we find that net of race and adolescent experiences with sex and pregnancy, women from more-disadvantaged backgrounds had fewer and longer (and thus potentially more serious) relationships, used contraception less frequently (but not less consistently), and used less effective methods (condoms) than women from more-advantaged backgrounds.

  5. Triple punishment in employment access: the role of beauty, race and sex



    "We investigate the role of physical appearance, in addition to race and sex, in the rate of discrimination observed in the labour market of Lima. Our experimental design allows us to disentangle the effect of each of those three variables on the callback rates received by our fictitious job candidates. Since we are controlling for variables that are important in the selection process (mainly, education and job experience), our results provide better indicators of discrimination than the ones...

  6. Black and Brown: Race, Ethnicity, and School Preparation (United States)

    Sampson, William A.


    Here, author William A. Sampson examines the role of the family in the school preparation process among poor Blacks and Latinos. It is based upon the data collected during intense long-term observations of 21 disadvantaged minority students and families in their homes within the same community. The data suggests that the differences in…

  7. Energy cost of arousal: effect of sex, race and obesity. (United States)

    Fontvieille, A M; Ferraro, R T; Rising, R; Larson, D E; Ravussin, E


    The basal (BMR) to sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) ratio might represent an estimate of the activation of the nervous system (central/sympathetic) from sleeping to basal state. Since this activation might be influenced by the degree of obesity, and might be different between sexes, we retrospectively analysed energy expenditure data collected for a large number of subjects. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure (24EE), BMR and SMR were measured in a respiratory chamber in 122 Caucasians (63 males/59 females, 32 +/- 10 years, 94 +/- 33 kg, 29 +/- 11% fat) (means +/- s.d.) and in 123 Pima Indians (68 males/55 females, 29 +/- 7 years, 100 +/- 25 kg, 34 +/- 9% fat). The BMR/SMR ratio varied greatly between individuals (1.05 +/- 0.08; range 0.87-1.34). In Pima Indians, BMR/SMR was inversely correlated to both fat mass (r = -0.26; P sleeping to the basal state are related to differences in the activation of the nervous system and/or to other metabolic factors.

  8. Power, Politics, and Critical Race Pedagogy: A Critical Race Analysis of Black Male Teachers' Pedagogy (United States)

    Lynn, Marvin; Jennings, Michael E.


    In this article, the authors explore the analytic connections between the scholarship on Black teachers and the development of the concept of critical pedagogy. In particular, the authors conduct a detailed analysis of both of these discourses and then explore the work of two African-American male teachers in an urban school in Los Angeles. The…

  9. General experiences + race + racism = Work lives of Black faculty in postsecondary science education (United States)

    Parsons, Eileen R. C.; Bulls, Domonique L.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Atwater, Mary M.


    Existent research indicates that postsecondary Black faculty members, who are sorely underrepresented in the academy especially in STEM fields, assume essential roles; chief among these roles is diversifying higher education. Their recruitment and retention become more challenging in light of research findings on work life for postsecondary faculty. Research has shown that postsecondary faculty members in general have become increasingly stressed and job satisfaction has declined with dissatisfaction with endeavors and work overload cited as major stressors. In addition to the stresses managed by higher education faculty at large, Black faculty must navigate diversity-related challenges. Illuminating and understanding their experiences can be instrumental in lessening stress and job dissatisfaction, outcomes that facilitate recruitment and retention. This study featured the experiences and perceptions of Black faculty in science education. This study, framed by critical race theory, examines two questions: What characterizes the work life of some Black faculty members who teach, research, and serve in science education? How are race and racism present in the experiences of these postsecondary Black faculty members? A phenomenological approach to the study situates the experiences of the Black participants as valid phenomena worthy of investigation, illuminates their experiences, and seeks to retain the authenticity of their voices.

  10. Concurrent partnerships in Cape Town, South Africa: race and sex differences in prevalence and duration of overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Beauclair


    Full Text Available Introduction: Concurrent partnerships (CPs have been suggested as a risk factor for transmitting HIV, but their impact on the epidemic depends upon how prevalent they are in populations, the average number of CPs an individual has and the length of time they overlap. However, estimates of prevalence of CPs in Southern Africa vary widely, and the duration of overlap in these relationships is poorly documented. We aim to characterize concurrency in a more accurate and complete manner, using data from three disadvantaged communities of Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: We conducted a sexual behaviour survey (n=878 from June 2011 to February 2012 in Cape Town, using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing to collect sexual relationship histories on partners in the past year. Using the beginning and end dates for the partnerships, we calculated the point prevalence, the cumulative prevalence and the incidence rate of CPs, as well as the duration of overlap for relationships begun in the previous year. Linear and binomial regression models were used to quantify race (black vs. coloured and sex differences in the duration of overlap and relative risk of having CPs in the past year. Results: The overall point prevalence of CPs six months before the survey was 8.4%: 13.4% for black men, 1.9% for coloured men, 7.8% black women and 5.6% for coloured women. The median duration of overlap in CPs was 7.5 weeks. Women had less risk of CPs in the previous year than men (RR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.32–0.57 and black participants were more at risk than coloured participants (RR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.17–2.97. Conclusions: Our results indicate that in this population the prevalence of CPs is relatively high and is characterized by overlaps of long duration, implying there may be opportunities for HIV to be transmitted to concurrent partners.

  11. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image. (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah


    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Neo-sex chromosomes in the black muntjac recapitulate incipient evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qi; Wang, Jun; Huang, Ling


    SNX22 abolished a microRNA target site. Finally, expression analyses revealed complex patterns of expression divergence between neo-Y and neo-X alleles. CONCLUSION: The nascent neo-sex chromosome system of black muntjacs is a valuable model in which to study the evolution of sex chromosomes in mammals......BACKGROUND: The regular mammalian X and Y chromosomes diverged from each other at least 166 to 148 million years ago, leaving few traces of their early evolution, including degeneration of the Y chromosome and evolution of dosage compensation. RESULTS: We studied the intriguing case of black...... muntjac, in which a recent X-autosome fusion and a subsequent large autosomal inversion within just the past 0.5 million years have led to inheritance patterns identical to the traditional X-Y (neo-sex chromosomes). We compared patterns of genome evolution in 35-kilobase noncoding regions and 23 gene...

  13. Students' Race and Gender in Introductory Business Statistics. (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Farhad M. E.; Ahmadi, Mohammad


    Grade, sex, and race information of 1,391 students registered in Introduction to Business Statistics at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga were gathered to investigate sex and race differences in achieving quantitative competencies. Results indicated that females scored significantly higher than males, whereas blacks scored significantly…

  14. Association of black race with follow-up of an abnormal prostate-specific antigen test. (United States)

    Turner, Barbara J; Mavandadi, Shahrzad; Weiner, Mark G


    Delayed evaluation after a clearly abnormal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) result may contribute to more advanced prostate cancer at diagnosis in black men. In 46 primary care practices over a period of 4.5 years, we studied men aged more than 50 years without known prostate cancer who had a PSA of at least 10.0 ng/mL for the first time. PSA follow-up included: a urology appointment, a new prostate diagnosis, or repeat PSA test. Cox proportional hazards models assessed time to follow-up, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and health care factors with censoring at a time that represents excessive delay (200 days). Among all 724 study men (27% black), delay until PSA follow-up averaged 115.2 days (+/- 79.7 d) and the unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for follow-up was shorter for black men than nonblack men (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.51). However, black men were more likely to have had prior urology care and had higher index PSA levels than other men; both factors were associated with shorter follow-up. After adjustment, delay did not differ for black vs nonblack race (HR, 1.05; 95% Cl, 0.78-1.43) but men aged at least 75 years had a longer delay than men aged 74 years or less (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59-0.89). Despite black men having greater risk of advanced prostate disease at diagnosis and better linkage to urologic care, follow-up was delayed, on average, by more than 3 months and did not differ by race. These results reveal a potentially important, remediable factor to improve prostate cancer prevention and care for black men.

  15. Mortality and potential years of life lost attributable to alcohol consumption by race and sex in the United States in 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Shield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol has been linked to health disparities between races in the US; however, race-specific alcohol-attributable mortality has never been estimated. The objective of this article is to estimate premature mortality attributable to alcohol in the US in 2005, differentiated by race, age and sex for people 15 to 64 years of age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mortality attributable to alcohol was estimated based on alcohol-attributable fractions using indicators of exposure from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and risk relations from the Comparative Risk Assessment study. Consumption data were corrected for undercoverage (the observed underreporting of alcohol consumption when using survey as compared to sales data using adult per capita consumption from WHO databases. Mortality data by cause of death were obtained from the US Department of Health and Human Services. For people 15 to 64 years of age in the US in 2005, alcohol was responsible for 55,974 deaths (46,461 for men; 9,513 for women representing 9.0% of all deaths, and 1,288,700 PYLL (1,087,280 for men; 201,420 for women representing 10.7% of all PYLL. Per 100,000 people, this represents 29 deaths (29 for White; 40 for Black; 82 for Native Americans; 6 for Asian/Pacific Islander and 670 PYLL (673 for White; 808 for Black; 1,808 for Native American; 158 for Asian/Pacific Islander. Sensitivity analyses showed a lower but still substantial burden without adjusting for undercoverage. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of mortality attributable to alcohol in the US is unequal among people of different races and between men and women. Racial differences in alcohol consumption and the resulting harms explain in part the observed disparities in the premature mortality burden between races, suggesting the need for interventions for specific subgroups of the population such as Native Americans.

  16. Race and Sex Discrimination in Hiring: Effects of Subject Sex and Job Status. (United States)

    Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor; And Others

    Research has demonstrated that discrimination against women does not occur for all high status traditionally male job positions; bias seems most likely when ambiguity in the evaluation process requires evaluators to resort to their stereotypes in order to predict performance. The same line of reasoning may apply to blacks or other minority…

  17. Nonsupportive peer norms and incarceration as HIV risk correlates for young black men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth T; Johnson, Wayne D; Wheeler, Darrell P; Gray, Phyllis; Foust, Evelyn; Gaiter, Juarlyn


    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are at considerable risk for HIV infection. A convenience sample of BMSM (n=252) attending nightclubs in three North Carolina cities was surveyed to investigate factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). About 45% reported UAI in the past 2 months. BMSM who strongly agreed that their male friends used condoms for anal sex were significantly less likely to report any UAI. Recently incarcerated men were significantly more likely to report unprotected insertive anal sex. In secondary analyses, men who reported experiencing discrimination based on their race and nongay identified men reported more favorable peer norms for condom use. Men who reported that their family disapproved of their being gay were more likely to have been incarcerated in the past 2 months. HIV prevention for BMSM must promote supportive peer norms for condom use and address incarceration, racial discrimination, and family disapproval.

  18. Boundary Spanners and Advocacy Leaders: Black Educators and Race Equality Work in Toronto and London, 1968-1995 (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri


    This comparative study examines the historical development of race equality efforts during the 1970s and 1980s in two global cities--Toronto and London--and the role of African Canadian and Black British educators in longstanding school-community partnerships. I characterize the leadership stance of Black educators as boundary spanners and…

  19. Race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones in overweight and obese adults. (United States)

    Patel, Mahesh J; Batch, Bryan C; Svetkey, Laura P; Bain, James R; Turer, Christy Boling; Haynes, Carol; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Shah, Svati H


    In overweight/obese individuals, cardiometabolic risk factors differ by race and sex categories. Small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormone levels might also differ across these categories and contribute to risk factor heterogeneity. To explore this possibility, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of fasting plasma levels of 69 small-molecule metabolites and 13 metabolic hormones in 500 overweight/obese adults who participated in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used for reduction of metabolite data. Race and sex-stratified comparisons of metabolite factors and metabolic hormones were performed. African Americans represented 37.4% of the study participants, and females 63.0%. Of thirteen metabolite factors identified, three differed by race and sex: levels of factor 3 (branched-chain amino acids and related metabolites, phormones regulating body weight homeostasis. Among overweight/obese adults, there are significant race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones; these differences may contribute to risk factor heterogeneity across race and sex subgroups and should be considered in future investigations with circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones.

  20. Black client, white therapist: working with race in psychoanalytic psychotherapy in South Africa. (United States)

    Knight, Zelda Gillian


    In post-apartheid South Africa we speak about race extensively. It permeates our workplace, weaves a thread through the fabric of our professional and personal lives, as well as our private conversations and public interactions with others. From within psychoanalytic theory, the thread weaves through the unknown content of our racialized unconscious. When there is a focus on race in the South African psychoanalytic context it largely takes the form of the struggle to articulate the complexities of working with difference, as Swartz notes, or the struggle to map out issues of race. Such struggles are not localized in South Africa, but strongly reflect a much broader struggle within the global psychoanalytic community, as mirrored in the expanding focus on race. Although the consulting rooms seem far removed from the ongoing political tensions that have recently emerged in South Africa, psychoanalytic psychotherapy remains a space of meaningful engagement with the other, and where the therapeutic dyad is one of racial difference it permits an encounter with our racialized unconscious. This article seeks to document the experience of my black client and my white response to her racial pain and struggle; in doing so, I describe the racial 'contact' between us and within us that triggers a racialized transference and countertransference dynamic, which contains the space for racial healing for both of us.

  1. Doing Race in Different Places: Black Racial Cohesion on Black and White College Campuses (United States)

    Bentley-Edwards, Keisha L.; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette


    Understanding the range of factors that contribute to Black students' success requires scholars to examine resiliency from multifaceted perspectives that include aspects of social competency, social responsibility, and agency. Using a national sample of 242 Black college students, the current study examines the indicators that inform racial…

  2. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. (United States)

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F


    HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioural and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics.

  3. Is Gender More Important and Meaningful Than Race? An Analysis of Racial and Gender Identity Among Black, White, and Mixed-Race Children. (United States)

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Meltzoff, Andrew N


    Objectives: Social categories shape children's lives in subtle and powerful ways. Although research has assessed children's knowledge of social groups, most prominently race and gender, few studies have examined children's understanding of their own multiple social identities and how they intersect. This paper explores how children evaluate the importance and meaning of their racial and gender identities, and variation in these evaluations based on the child's own age, gender, and race. Method: Participants were 222 Black, White, and Mixed-Race children (girls: n = 136; Mage = 9.94 years). Data were gathered in schools via 1-on-1 semistructured interviews. Analyses focused on specific measures of the importance and meaning of racial and gender identity for children. Results: We found that: (a) children rate gender as a more important identity than race; (b) the meanings children ascribe to gender identity emphasized inequality and group difference whereas the meaning of race emphasized physical appearance and humanism/equality; and (c) children's assessments of importance and meaning varied as a function of child race and gender, but not age. Conclusion: The findings extend research on young children's social identity development and the role of culture and context in children's emerging racial and gender identities. Implications for identity theory and development and intergroup relations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Race in virtual environments: competitive versus cooperative games with black or white avatars. (United States)

    Vang, Mao H; Fox, Jesse


    Often, virtual environments and video games have established goals, and to achieve them, users must either compete or cooperate with others. The common ingroup identity model predicts that individuals maintain multiple identities at any given time based on roles, demographics, and contextual factors, and that they interpret others based on similarity (i.e., perceived ingroup) or dissimilarity (i.e., perceived outgroup) to these identities. In this experiment, we manipulated two aspects of a virtual partner's identity-race and task collaboration-to determine how users would perceive others in a virtual world. White participants (N=99) played an anagram game competitively (outgroup) or cooperatively (ingroup) in a virtual environment with a black (outgroup) or white (ingroup) virtual partner. Contrary to hypotheses, performing either task led to more positive evaluations of black avatars than white avatars.

  5. The relationship of waist circumference and BMI to visceral, subcutaneous, and total body fat: sex and race differences. (United States)

    Camhi, Sarah M; Bray, George A; Bouchard, Claude; Greenway, Frank L; Johnson, William D; Newton, Robert L; Ravussin, Eric; Ryan, Donna H; Smith, Steven R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T


    The purpose of this study was to examine sex and race differences in the relationship between anthropometric measurements and adiposity in white and African-American (AA) adults. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas were measured with computed tomography (CT). Fat mass (FM) was measured with dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship of waist circumference (WC) and BMI to VAT, SAT, and FM within sex-by-race groups. General linear models were used to compare relationships between WC or BMI, and adiposity across sex and race, within age groups (18-39 and 40-64 years). The sample included 1,667 adults (men: 489 white; 120 AA; women: 666 white, 392 AA). WC and BMI correlations were highest for FM and SAT compared to VAT. Women had higher FM levels than men regardless of WC, but the sex difference in FM was attenuated in younger AA adults with a high BMI. For a given level of WC or BMI, women had higher levels of SAT than men; however, significant interactions indicated that the relationship was not consistent across all levels of BMI and WC. Sex and race differences in VAT varied significantly with WC and BMI. In general, white adults had higher levels of VAT than AA adults at higher levels of BMI and WC. Sex differences, and in some instances race differences, in the relationships between anthropometry and fat-specific depots demonstrate that these characteristics need to be considered when predicting adiposity from WC or BMI.

  6. The context of discrimination: workplace conditions, institutional environments, and sex and race discrimination charges. (United States)

    Hirsh, C Elizabeth; Kornrich, Sabino


    This article explores the organizational conditions under which discrimination charges occur. Drawing on structural and organizational theories of the workplace, the authors demonstrate how organizational conditions affect workers' and regulatory agents' understandings of unlawful discrimination. Using a national sample of work establishments, matched to discrimination-charge data obtained from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the authors examine how characteristics of the workplace and institutional environment affect variation in the incidence of workers' charges of sex and race discrimination and in the subset of discrimination claims that are verified by EEOC investigators. The findings indicate that workplace conditions, including size, composition, and minority management, affect workers' charges as well as verified claims; the latter are also affected by institutional factors, such as affirmative action requirements, subsidiary status, and industrial sector. These results suggest that internal workplace conditions affect both workers' and regulatory agents' interpretations of potentially discriminatory experiences, while institutional conditions matter only for regulatory agents' interpretations of those events.

  7. Sex and Race Differences in Mental Health Symptoms in Juvenile Justice: The MAYSI-2 National Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Vincent, Gina M.; Grisso, Thomas; Terry, Anna; Banks, Steven


    The study uses the MAYSI-2 gathered data from multiple US juvenile justice systems to examine whether mental health symptoms were connected to consistent sex and ethnicity/race-related differences. Results concluded a greater proportion of girls having serious mental health problems and though whites had problems with alcohol and drugs, they were…

  8. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Caucasian and African-American Adolescents : Relationships with Race, Sex, Adiposity, Adipokines, and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L.; Keeton, Daniel; Thomas, Jeffrey; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Mooken, Grace; Bundy, Vanessa; Snieder, Harold; van der Harst, Pim; Dong, Yanbin


    Objective To examine the relationships of race, sex, adiposity, adipokines, and physical activity to telomere length in adolescents. Study design Leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) was assessed cross-sectionally in 667 adolescents (aged 14-18 years; 48% African-Americans; 51% girls) using a quant

  9. A Meta-analysis of the Association of Estimated GFR, Albuminuria, Age, Race, and Sex With Acute Kidney Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grams, Morgan E.; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Kimm, Heejin; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Naimark, David; Oien, Cecilia; Smith, David H.; Coresh, Josef; Sarnak, Mark J.; Stengel, Benedicte; Tonelli, Marcello; de Zeeuw, Dick; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van der Harst, Pim; Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Hillege, Hans L.


    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious global public health problem. We aimed to quantify the risk of AKI associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria (albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR]), age, sex, and race (African American and white). Study Design: Collaborativ

  10. Equal Pay for Equal Qualifications? A Model for Determining Race or Sex Discrimination in Salaries. AIR Forum Paper 1978. (United States)

    Muffo, John; And Others

    Equal pay for equal work by persons of equal qualifications is the concept behind laws against race and sex discrimination in salaries in the United States. However, determining the existence and extent of discrimination is not a simple matter. A four-step procedure is recommended that attempts to uncover the existence of discrimination and begins…

  11. "That Racism Thing": A Critical Race Discourse Analysis of a Conflict over the Proposed Closure of a Black High School (United States)

    Briscoe, Felecia M.; Khalifa, Muhammad A.


    Using critical race discourse analysis, this study examines descriptions of a heated controversy over the proposed closure of the only primarily black high school in a large urban city. Participants included community members and the district and school leaders who were key in the controversy. Based on Foucault's analysis of power we looked for…

  12. Multiculturalism or Multibodism: On the Impossible Intersections of Race and Gender in the American White Feminist and Black Nationalist Discourses. (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oyeronke


    Examines the discounting of African American women in both feminist and black nationalist discourses, despite the civil rights and women's movements of the 1960s and the rhetoric of multiculturalism and identity politics that developed following these movements. Accounts for the marginalization of African American women in race and gender…

  13. I'm Chocolate, You're Vanilla: Raising Healthy Black and Biracial Children in a Race-Conscious World. (United States)

    Wright, Marguerite A.

    This guide teaches parents and educators of black and biracial children how to reduce racism's impact on a child's development to promote emotional health at preschool, elementary, and secondary levels. The chapters are: (1) "Chocolate and Vanilla: How Preschoolers See Color and Race"; (2) "How Preschoolers Begin To Learn Racial Attitudes"; (3)…

  14. "I Can Do More Things": How Black Female Student-Athletes Contend with Race, Gender, and Stereotypes (United States)

    Ferguson, Tomika


    Black female student-athletes who attend a predominantly White, Division I institution navigate their college experiences differently than their peers. They may face social, academic, and athletic challenges related to their race and gender which may impact their social and academic integration into the campus community. The purpose of this study…

  15. Relationship of ACL Injury and Posterior Tibial Slope With Patient Age, Sex, and Race (United States)

    Waiwaiole, Alana; Gurbani, Ajay; Motamedi, Kambiz; Seeger, Leanne; Sim, Myung Shin; Nwajuaku, Patricia; Hame, Sharon L.


    Background: Posterior tibial slope (PTS) has been proposed as a potential risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury; however, studies that have examined this relationship have provided inconclusive and sometimes contradictory results. Further characterization of this relationship may enable the medical community to identify individuals at greater risk for ACL injury and possibly characterize an anatomic target during surgical reconstruction. Purpose: The primary goal was to investigate the relationship between PTS and ACL injury. The secondary goal was to determine whether there are any patient factors, such as age, race, or sex, that correlate with ACL injury and PTS. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Medical records of 221 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee between January 2003 and December 2009 were reviewed. Patients were separated into 2 groups: a study group of those subjects who had undergone surgery for ACL injury (n = 107) and a control group of patients diagnosed with patellofemoral syndrome (n = 114). Demographic data were collected, and MRI images from both groups were analyzed using imaging software to obtain medial and lateral tibial slope measurements. Data were then analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparison and a multivariable regression model to determine which, if any, patient factors were related to probability of having an ACL injury. Results: ANOVA comparison demonstrated that the study group had significantly greater values for lateral PTS (6° ± 4°; P < .001) and medial PTS (7° ± 4°; P = .002) compared with controls (5° ± 3° and 5° ± 4°, respectively). After stepwise elimination of nonsignificant variables, the final multivariable logistic regression model determined that age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; P < .001) and lateral PTS (OR, 1.12; P = .002) had statistically significant relationships with ACL injury. Medial PTS, race, and sex were not

  16. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Baldassari Rebeis


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent. RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11-40 years old; however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent.

  17. Cultures of Abuse: ‘Sex Grooming’, Organised Abuse and Race in Rochdale, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter


    Full Text Available Revelations of organised abuse by men of Asian heritage in the United Kingdom have become a recurrent feature of international media coverage of sexual abuse in recent years. This paper reflects on the similarities between the highly publicised ‘sex grooming’ prosecutions in Rochdale in 2012 and the allegations of organised abuse in Rochdale that emerged in 1990, when twenty children were taken into care after describing sadistic abuse by their parents and others. While these two cases differ in important aspects, this paper highlights the prominence of colonial ideologies of civilisation and barbarism in the investigation and media coverage of the two cases and the sublimation of the issue of child welfare. There are important cultural and normative antecedents to sexual violence but these have been misrepresented in debates over organised abuse as racial issues and attributed to ethnic minority communities. In contrast, the colonialist trope promulgating the fictional figure of the rational European has resulted in the denial of the cultural and normative dimensions of organised abuse in ethnic majority communities by attributing sexual violence to aberrant and sexually deviant individuals whose behaviours transgress the boundaries of accepted cultural norms. This paper emphasises how the implicit or explicit focus on race has served to obscure the power dynamics underlying both cases and the continuity of vulnerability that places children at risk of sexual and organised abuse.

  18. Paracingulate Sulcus Asymmetry in the Human Brain: Effects of Sex, Handedness, and Race (United States)

    Wei, Xuehu; Yin, Yan; Rong, Menglin; Zhang, Jinfeng; Wang, Lijie; Wu, Yan; Cai, Qing; Yu, Chunshui; Wang, Jiaojian; Jiang, Tianzi


    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is thought to play a key role in cognitive and affective regulation, has been widely reported to have a high degree of morphological inter-individual variability and asymmetry. An obvious difference is in the morphology of the paracingulate sulcus (PCS). Three types of PCS have been identified: prominent, present, and absent. In this study, we examined the relationship between PCS asymmetry and whether the asymmetry of the PCS is affected by sex, handedness, or race. PCS measurements were obtained from four datasets. The statistical results revealed that the PCS was more often prominent and present in the left hemisphere than in the right. The percentage of right-handed males with a prominent PCS was greater than that of right-handed females, but the percentage of left-handed males with a prominent PCS was lower than that of left-handed females. In addition, both male and female and both left-handed and right-handed subjects showed a leftward asymmetry of the PCS. Furthermore there were no significant racial differences in the leftward asymmetry of the PCS. Our findings about the morphological characteristics of the PCS may facilitate future clinical and cognitive studies of this area. PMID:28195205

  19. Paracingulate Sulcus Asymmetry in the Human Brain: Effects of Sex, Handedness, and Race. (United States)

    Wei, Xuehu; Yin, Yan; Rong, Menglin; Zhang, Jinfeng; Wang, Lijie; Wu, Yan; Cai, Qing; Yu, Chunshui; Wang, Jiaojian; Jiang, Tianzi


    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is thought to play a key role in cognitive and affective regulation, has been widely reported to have a high degree of morphological inter-individual variability and asymmetry. An obvious difference is in the morphology of the paracingulate sulcus (PCS). Three types of PCS have been identified: prominent, present, and absent. In this study, we examined the relationship between PCS asymmetry and whether the asymmetry of the PCS is affected by sex, handedness, or race. PCS measurements were obtained from four datasets. The statistical results revealed that the PCS was more often prominent and present in the left hemisphere than in the right. The percentage of right-handed males with a prominent PCS was greater than that of right-handed females, but the percentage of left-handed males with a prominent PCS was lower than that of left-handed females. In addition, both male and female and both left-handed and right-handed subjects showed a leftward asymmetry of the PCS. Furthermore there were no significant racial differences in the leftward asymmetry of the PCS. Our findings about the morphological characteristics of the PCS may facilitate future clinical and cognitive studies of this area.

  20. Sex, Race, and the Quality of Life Factors Most Important to Patients’ Well-Being Among Those Seeking Bariatric Surgery (United States)

    Davis, Roger B.; Jones, Dan B.; Apovian, Caroline A.; Chiodi, Sarah; Huskey, Karen W.; Hamel, Mary B.


    Background Evidence suggests obesity-related social stigma and impairment in work function may be the two most detrimental quality of life (QOL) factors to overall well-being among patients seeking weight loss surgery (WLS); whether the relative importance of QOL factors varies across patient sex and race/ethnicity is unclear. Methods We interviewed 574 patients seeking WLS at two centers. We measured patient’s health utility (preference-based well-being measure) as determined via standard gamble scenarios assessing patients’ willingness to risk death to achieve weight loss or perfect health. Multivariable models assessed associations between patients’ utility and five weight-related QOL domains stratified by gender and race: social stigma, self-esteem, physical function, public distress (weight stigma), and work life. Results Depending on patients’ sex and race/ethnicity, mean utilities ranged from 0.85 to 0.91, reflecting an average willingness to assume a 9–15 % risk of death to achieve their most desired health/weight state. After adjustment, African Americans (AAs) reported higher utility than Caucasians (+ 0.054, p=0.03), but utilities did not vary significantly by sex. Among Caucasian and AA men, impairment in physical functioning was the most important factor associated with diminished utility; social stigma was also a leading factor for Caucasian men. Among Caucasian women, self-esteem and work function appeared equally important. Social stigma was the leading contributor to utility among AA women; QOL factors did not appear as important among Hispanic patients. Conclusion AAs reported higher utilities than Caucasian patients. Individual QOL domains that drive diminished well-being varied across race/ethnicity and sex. PMID:26630951

  1. The beneficial effect of family meals on obesity differs by race, sex, and household education: the national survey of children's health, 2003-2004. (United States)

    Rollins, Brandi Y; Belue, Rhonda Z; Francis, Lori A


    Studies have indicated that family meals may be a protective factor for childhood obesity; however, limited evidence is available in children with different racial, socioeconomic, and individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine family meal frequency as a protective factor for obesity in a US-based sample of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic children age 6 to 11 years, and to identify individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors that moderate this association. Data were from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health (n=16,770). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test the association between family meal frequency and weight status, and the moderating effects of household structure, education, poverty level, and sex, by racial group. Non-Hispanic white children who consumed family meals every day were less likely to be obese than those eating family meals zero or a few days per week. A moderating effect for sex was observed in non-Hispanic black children such that family meal frequency was marginally protective in boys but not in girls. Higher family meal frequency was a marginal risk factor for obesity in Hispanic boys from low-education households, but not in girls from similar households. In conclusion, family meals seem to be protective of obesity in non-Hispanic white children and non-Hispanic black boys, whereas they may put Hispanic boys living in low-education households at risk. Greater emphasis is needed in future research on assessing why this association differs among different race/ethnic groups, and evaluating the influence of the quality and quantity of family meals on child obesity.

  2. From Their Voices: Barriers to HIV Testing among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men Remain


    Thomas Alex Washington; Laura D’Anna; Nancy Meyer-Adams; C. Kevin Malotte


    Background: HIV testing continues to be a major priority for addressing the epidemic among young Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Methods: This study explored barriers to HIV testing uptake, and recommendations for motivating HIV testing uptake among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) aged 18 to 30. BMSM (N = 36) were recruited through flyers and social media for six focus groups. Results: From the perspectives and experiences of young BMSM, participants recommended that informatio...

  3. Sex and Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Achievement of Black and Mexican-American Adolescents. (United States)

    Creswell, John L.; Exezidis, Roxane H.

    This investigation focused on sex and ethnic differences in mathematics achievement among and between black and Mexican-American adolescents. One hundred twelve subjects were chosen; the selection included 61 blacks and 51 Mexican-Americans. The sample included 42 males and 70 females. All pupils attended the same school, with most from homes low…

  4. 78 FR 24065 - Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races... the Junior League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. Entry into, transiting or anchoring in this area is... the Junior League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. This event is advertised as scheduled...

  5. 77 FR 23125 - Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Race; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Race.... League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. Entry into, transiting or anchoring in this area is prohibited to... associated with the Jr. League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. This event is advertised as scheduled...

  6. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: Differences by age, race, and sex (United States)

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse


    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre-and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. PMID:23321678

  7. Representations of race relations in the classroom: the black in the everyday school life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma de Nazaré Baía Coelho


    Full Text Available This paper presents some preliminaries results of a research that investigates the representations about race, color, Difference, Prejudgment and Racial Discrimination of the school’s agents teachers, employees and students on the quotidian of the History’s, Portuguese’s and Art’s classes of the first two year of the secondary education of a Belém-PA’s private school, in order to understand the place of the black people in the school pedagogic practices, regarding the obligation of touching racial subjects as established by the low 10.639/2003. Using the methodological and theoretic approach of Pierre Bourdieu and Roger Chartier, we analyzed the representations obtained by the non-participative observation in those classes. We realized that teachers almost didn’t know anything about the low 10.639/2003 and about the ethnic and racial question on Brazil, what brings as result the reproduction of racial prejudgment and discrimination by the students. Our analysis aims, from understanding the problems with teacher development, to understand the problems related to the ethnic and racial question at school and propose solutions.

  8. Differences in expression of gut-homing receptors on CD4+ T cells in black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Kelley, Colleen F; Lai, Lilin; Ibegbu, Chris; Rosenberg, Eli S; Kaur, Surinder; Patel, Kalpana; Mulligan, Mark J; Marconi, Vincent C; Sullivan, Patrick S; Amara, Rama R


    HIV incidence rates are higher among black men who have sex with men (BMSM) as compared with MSM of other race/ethnicities in the USA. We found that blood memory CD4 cells from BMSM express higher levels of α4β7, the gut-homing integrin, compared with white MSM. Higher expression of α4β7 on blood CD4 cells correlated with higher percentage of proliferating CD4α4β7 cells in rectal tissue suggesting increased trafficking of potential HIV target cells to rectal mucosa could increase HIV susceptibility among BMSM.

  9. A mixed methods study of health and social disparities among substance-using African American/Black men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P


    African American/Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S. experience health and social disparities at greater rates than MSM of other races/ethnicities, including HIV infection and substance use. This mixed methods paper presents: 1) a quantitative examination of health and social disparities among a sample of substance-using African American/Black MSM (N=108), compared to Caucasian/White MSM (N=250), and 2) in-depth qualitative data from a subsample of African American/Black MSM (N=21) in order to contextualize the quantitative data. Findings indicate that compared to Caucasian/White MSM, African American/Black MSM experienced a wide range of health and social disparities including: substance use and dependence; buying, trading or selling sex; educational attainment; employment; homelessness; identifying as gay; HIV status; arrest history; social support; and satisfaction with one's living situation. Qualitative data suggests that structural interventions that address homophobia and the social environment would be likely to mitigate many of the health and social disparities experienced by African American/Black MSM.

  10. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989-2005. (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G; Rogers, Richard G; Hummer, Robert A; Krueger, Patrick M


    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals' life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education.

  11. Perceived discrimination and physical health among HIV-positive Black and Latino men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Landrine, Hope; Galvan, Frank H; Wagner, Glenn J; Klein, David J


    We conducted the first study to examine health correlates of discrimination due to race/ethnicity, HIV-status, and sexual orientation among 348 HIV-positive Black (n = 181) and Latino (n = 167) men who have sex with men. Participants completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. In multivariate analyses, Black participants who experienced greater racial discrimination were less likely to have a high CD4 cell count [OR = 0.7, 95 % CI = (0.5, 0.9), p = 0.02], and an undetectable viral load [OR = 0.8, 95 % CI = (0.6, 1.0), p = 0.03], and were more likely to visit the emergency department [OR = 1.3, 95 % CI = (1.0, 1.7), p = 0.04]; the combined three types of discrimination predicted greater AIDS symptoms [F (3,176) = 3.8, p discrimination predicted greater medication side effect severity [F (3,163) = 4.6, p discrimination plays a role in health outcomes.

  12. Phylogeny of diving beetles reveals a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes.

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    Johannes Bergsten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Darwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined Bayesian phylogenetics, complete taxon sampling and a multi-gene approach to test the arms race scenario on a robust diving beetle phylogeny. As predicted, suction cups in males and modified dorsal surfaces in females showed a pronounced coevolutionary pattern. The female dorsal modifications impair the attachment ability of male suction cups, but each antagonistic novelty in females corresponds to counter-differentiation of suction cups in males. CONCLUSIONS: A recently diverged sibling species pair in Japan is possibly one consequence of this arms race and we suggest that future studies on hypoxia might reveal the key to the extraordinary selection for female counter-adaptations in diving beetles.

  13. Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin


    A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations.

  14. Inequality in Black and White High School Students' Perceptions of School Support: An Examination of Race in Context. (United States)

    Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar


    Supportive relationships with adults at school are critical to student engagement in adolescence. Additional research is needed to understand how students' racial backgrounds interact with the school context to shape their perceptions of school support. This study employed multilevel, latent variable methods with a sample of Black and White students (N = 19,726, 35.8 % Black, 49.9 % male, mean age = 15.9) in 58 high schools to explore variation in perceived caring, equity, and high expectations by student race, school diversity, and socioeconomic context. The results indicated that Black students perceived less caring and equity relative to White students overall, and that equity and high expectations were lower in diverse schools for both Black and White students. Nonetheless, racial disparities were attenuated in more diverse schools. The findings point to the need for intervention to improve perceptions of school support for Black youth and for all students in lower income and more diverse schools.

  15. Secrets in the eyes of Black Oystercatchers: A new sexing technique (United States)

    Guzzetti, B.M.; Talbot, S.L.; Tessler, D.F.; Gill, V.A.; Murphy, E.C.


    Sexing oystercatchers in the field is difficult because males and females have identical plumage and are similar in size. Although Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) are sexually dimorphic, using morphology to determine sex requires either capturing both pair members for comparison or using discriminant analyses to assign sex probabilistically based on morphometric traits. All adult Black Oystercatchers have bright yellow eyes, but some of them have dark specks, or eye flecks, in their irides. We hypothesized that this easily observable trait was sex-linked and could be used as a novel diagnostic tool for identifying sex. To test this, we compared data for oystercatchers from genetic molecular markers (CHD-W/CHD-Z and HINT-W/HINT-Z), morphometric analyses, and eye-fleck category (full eye flecks, slight eye flecks, and no eye flecks). Compared to molecular markers, we found that discriminant analyses based on morphological characteristics yielded variable results that were confounded by geographical differences in morphology. However, we found that eye flecks were sex-linked. Using an eye-fleck model where all females have full eye flecks and males have either slight eye flecks or no eye flecks, we correctly assigned the sex of 117 of 125 (94%) oystercatchers. Using discriminant analysis based on morphological characteristics, we correctly assigned the sex of 105 of 119 (88%) birds. Using the eye-fleck technique for sexing Black Oystercatchers may be preferable for some investigators because it is as accurate as discriminant analysis based on morphology and does not require capturing the birds. ??2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  16. Not just black and white: peer victimization and the intersectionality of school diversity and race. (United States)

    Fisher, Sycarah; Middleton, Kyndra; Ricks, Elizabeth; Malone, Celeste; Briggs, Candyce; Barnes, Jessica


    Although bullying is a prevalent issue in the United States, limited research has explored the impact of school diversity on types of bullying behavior. This study explores the relationship between school diversity, student race, and bullying within the school context. The participants were African American and Caucasian middle school students (n = 4,581; 53.4% female). Among the participants, 89.4% were Caucasian and 10.6% were African American. The research questions examined the relationship between school diversity, student race and bullying behaviors, specifically race-based victimization. The findings suggested that Caucasian middle school students experience more bullying than African American students generally, and specifically when minorities in school settings. Caucasian students also experienced almost three times the amount of race-based victimization than African American students when school diversity was held constant. Interestingly, African American students experienced twice the amount of race-based victimization than Caucasian students when in settings with more students of color. The present study provides insight into bullying behaviors across different contexts for different races and highlights the need to further investigate interactions between personal and environmental factors on the bulling experiences of youth.

  17. Does the "Negro" "Still" Need Separate Schools? Single-Sex Educational Settings as Critical Race Counterspaces (United States)

    Terry, Clarence L., Sr.; Flennaugh, Terry K.; Blackmon, Samarah M.; Howard, Tyrone C.


    This article explores whether contemporary educators should consider single-sex educational settings as viable interventions in educating African American males. Using qualitative data from a 2-year study of single-sex educational spaces in two Los Angeles County high schools, the authors argue that when all-male spaces effectively function as…

  18. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence by Race/Ethnicity and Sex in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–2012 (United States)

    Moore, Justin Xavier; Chaudhary, Ninad


    Introduction Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors associated with increased risk of multiple chronic diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome overall, by race and sex, and to assess trends in prevalence from 1988 through 2012. Methods We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 1988 through 2012. We defined metabolic syndrome as the presence of at least 3 of these components: elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and elevated fasting blood glucose. Data were analyzed for 3 periods: 1988–1994, 1999–2006, and 2007–2012. Results Among US adults aged 18 years or older, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome rose by more than 35% from 1988–1994 to 2007–2012, increasing from 25.3% to 34.2%. During 2007–2012, non-Hispanic black men were less likely than non-Hispanic white men to have metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66–0.89). However, non-Hispanic black women were more likely than non-Hispanic white women to have metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02–1.40). Low education level (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.32–1.84) and advanced age (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.67–1.80) were independently associated with increased likelihood of metabolic syndrome during 2007–2012. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome prevalence increased from 1988 to 2012 for every sociodemographic group; by 2012, more than a third of all US adults met the definition and criteria for metabolic syndrome agreed to jointly by several international organizations. PMID:28301314

  19. Black Male Masculinity and Same-Sex Friendships. (United States)

    Harris, Shanette M.


    Examines how African-American alternative masculine behaviors are expressed within same-sex peer groups and friendships. It is proposed that African-American males have adopted an alternative style of masculinity to cope with social and interpersonal pressures, even though it can sometimes be dysfunctional and associated with negative…

  20. Brothers, Sisters and Fictive Kin: Communication about Sex among Urban Black Siblings (United States)

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; Hooper, Lisa M.; Persad, Malini


    Siblings have been shown to influence youth substance use and violent behavior. However, limited research has examined sibling-influences on sexual activity, particularly among urban Black youth. The current qualitative research was an exploratory study to describe discussions among siblings about sex and sexual health. Individual interviews were…

  1. Exploring Sexual Health among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City (United States)

    Martos, A. J.; Valera, P.; Bockting, W. O.; Wilson, P. A.


    Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for approximately 10% of the total HIV infection in the United States but represent <1% of the population. Few interventions exist that address their unique needs, and those that do adopt a narrow, risk-based framework for prevention. Qualitative data from the Brothers Connect Study were…

  2. Race/ethnic differences in HIV prevalence and risks among adolescent and young adult men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Celentano, David D; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Hylton, John; Torian, Lucia V; Guillin, Vincent; Koblin, Beryl A


    The prevalence of HIV infection is disproportionately higher in both racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and in men under the age of 25, where the leading exposure category is homosexual contact. Less is known, however, about patterns of HIV prevalence in young racial/ethnic minority MSM. We analyzed data from the Young Men's Survey (YMS), an anonymous, cross-sectional survey of 351 MSM in Baltimore and 529 MSM in New York City, aged 15-22, to determine whether race/ethnicity differences exist in the prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk factors. Potential participants were selected systematically at MSM-identified public venues. Venues and associated time periods for subject selection were selected randomly on a monthly basis. Eligible and willing subjects provided informed consent and underwent an interview, HIV pretest counseling, and a blood draw for HIV antibody testing. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for city of recruitment and age, HIV seroprevalence was highest for African Americans [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 12.5], intermediate for those of "other/mixed" race/ethnicity (AOR = 8.6), and moderately elevated for Hispanics (AOR = 4.6) as compared to whites. Stratified analysis showed different risk factors for HIV prevalence in each ethnic group: for African Americans, these were history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and not being in school; for Hispanics, risk factors were being aged 20-22, greater number of male partners and use of recreational drugs; and for those of "other/mixed" race/ethnicity, risk factors included injection drug use and (marginally) STDs. These findings suggest the need for HIV prevention and testing programs which target young racial/ethnic minority MSM and highlight identified risk factors and behaviors.

  3. The Relationship of the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children to Sex, Race, and Fluid-Crystallized Intelligence on the KAIT at Ages 11 to 15. (United States)

    Kaufman, Alan S.; McLean, James E.


    Four typologies assessed by the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (C. Meisgeier and M. Murphy, 1987) (Extraversion-Introversion, Sensing-Intuition, Thinking-Feeling, Judging-Perceiving) were related to sex, race/ethnic group, intelligence level, and fluid/crystallized IQ discrepancy for 263 adolescents. The Thinking/Feeling index…

  4. More Men Run Relatively Fast in U.S. Road Races, 1981–2006: A Stable Sex Difference in Non-Elite Runners

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    Robert O. Deaner


    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that more men than women run fast relative to sex-specific world records and that this sex difference has been historically stable in elite U.S. runners. These findings have been hypothesized to reflect an evolved male predisposition for enduring competitiveness in “show-off” domains. The current study tests this hypothesis in non-elite runners by analyzing 342 road races that occurred from 1981–2006, most in or near Buffalo, NY. Both absolutely and as a percentage of same-sex finishers, more men ran relatively fast in most races. During the 1980s, as female participation surged, the difference in the absolute number of relatively fast men and women decreased. However, this difference was stable for races that occurred after 1993. Since then, in any given race, about three to four times as many men as women ran relatively fast. The stable sex difference in relative performance shown here for non-elites constitutes new support for the hypothesis of an evolved male predisposition for enduring competitiveness.

  5. Race and Sex Equality in the Workplace: A Challenge and an Opportunity. Proceedings of a Conference (Hamilton, Ontario, September 28-29, 1979). (United States)

    Jain, Harish C., Ed.; Carroll, Diane, Ed.

    These proceedings contain the addresses and panel and workshop presentations made at the September 1979 Conference on Race and Sex Equality in the Workplace: A Challenge and an Opportunity. (Purpose of the conference was to promote a better understanding of human rights legislation and current equal employment and affirmative action programs and…

  6. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients (United States)

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori


    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  7. Other race recognition: a comparison of black American and African subjects. (United States)

    Carroo, A W


    The ability of black American and black African men to recognize previously seen white male faces was assessed. Relationships between recognition, performance scores and quality of interracial experience were also examined. Black American participants (n = 10) performed significantly better and made fewer false responses than the Nigerian participants (n = 10). Significant positive relationships were found between performance scores and interracial experience. Differential use of cues for discriminating white male faces by both groups was also found.

  8. The Social Construction of Race and Gender: Black Women Officers in the U.S. Navy (United States)


    loud rap music , that’s fine. You don’t have to do it to prove that you’re Black. They’re not going to rip up your Black card.(DA. 12B) One Black female...marriagc but that they were no better off than when they were teenagers . This is the red flag the mothers are trying to wave in front of their

  9. (PostColonial Worlds. Considerations about Race, Gender and Sex, Subjectivity and Temporality

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    Karina Bidaseca


    Full Text Available Starting from a comparison with post-colonial studies, the essay focuses on the importance of activating a South/South dialogue in order to analyze both the genealogies and legacies of colonialism and the violent tensions that cross the contemporary colonies. Inside this perspective, a fundamental place is dedicated to feminist reflection, from the critique of a western «salvationist» feminism to the idea of a «third feminism» or border feminism: new conceptual instruments and new theoretical practices through which we can re-write the relations between race, gender and class in the Global South as well as in the Global North.

  10. Passin' for Black: Race, Identity, and Bone Memory in Postracial America (United States)

    Fordham, Signithia


    Signithia Fordham challenges the notion that we are living in a "postracial" society where race is no longer a major social category, as indicated by the rising incidence of interracial relationships and the popularity of biracial identities. On the contrary, she contends, a powerful fusion of historical memory and inclusive kinship…

  11. Race and Assessment Practice in South Africa: Understanding Black Academic Experience (United States)

    Jawitz, Jeff


    Despite efforts to transform the racialised system of higher education in South Africa inherited from apartheid, there has been little research published that interrogates the relationship between race and the experience of academic staff within the South African higher education environment. Drawing on critical discourse analysis and critical…

  12. Decolonizing Higher Education: Black Feminism and the Intersectionality of Race and Gender

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    Heidi Safia Mirza


    Full Text Available Drawing on black feminist theory, this paper examines the professional experiences of postcolonial diasporic black and ethnicized female academics in higher education. The paper explores the embodiment of gendered and racialized difference and reflects on the power of whiteness to shape everyday experiences in such places of privilege. The powerful yet hidden histories of women of color in higher education, such as the Indian women suffragettes and Cornelia Sorabji in late nineteenth century, are symbolic of the erasure of an ethnicized black feminist/womanist presence in mainstream (white educational establishments. The paper concludes that an understanding of black and ethnicized female agency and desire for education and learning is at the heart of a black feminist analysis that reclaims higher education as a radical site of resistance and refutation.

  13. From Their Voices: Barriers to HIV Testing among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men Remain

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    Thomas Alex Washington


    Full Text Available Background: HIV testing continues to be a major priority for addressing the epidemic among young Black men who have sex with men (BMSM. Methods: This study explored barriers to HIV testing uptake, and recommendations for motivating HIV testing uptake among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM aged 18 to 30. BMSM (N = 36 were recruited through flyers and social media for six focus groups. Results: From the perspectives and experiences of young BMSM, participants recommended that information be included in HIV testing messages that would help young BMSM do self HIV-risk appraisals. Particularly, participants recommended that more knowledge about Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP and the role of PrEP in safer-sex practices be provided. This information is important to help those untested, or who infrequently test, better understand their risk and need for testing. Likewise, participants recommended that more information about a person being undetectable and the risk of condomless sex with an HIV negative sex partner; this information will be helpful for both the HIV negative and HIV positive sex partner for making safer sex decisions. Participants also recommended that interventions should focus on more than drug use as risk; the risk posed by the use of alcohol before and during sex deserves attention among young BMSM. Conclusions: These findings may inform new HIV testing interventions being tailored for young BMSM. The interventions should also consider revisiting street-based peer-outreach approaches for those young BMSM with limited access to social media campaigns due to limited access or infrequent use of social media.

  14. Years of potential life lost before age 65, by race, Hispanic origin, and sex--United States, 1986-1988. (United States)

    Desenclos, J C; Hahn, R A


    A substantial proportion of mortality among young persons is preventable. National vital statistics were used to establish a baseline for the surveillance of rates of years of potential life lost before age 65 (YPLL origin, and sex. U.S. racial and ethnic populations differed widely in YPLL < 65. Among males, the rate (per 1,000 population < 65 years) of YPLL < 65 was highest for non-Hispanic blacks (140.0), followed by American Indians/Alaskan Natives (100.9), Hispanics (74.3), non-Hispanic whites (68.3), and Asians/Pacific Islanders (38.2). Among females, the rate was highest for non-Hispanic blacks (73.7), followed by American Indians/Alaskan Natives (52.0), non-Hispanic whites (35.7), Hispanics (32.9), and Asians/Pacific Islanders (23.2). For non-Hispanic blacks, the high rate of YPLL < 65 was due to increased rates for all causes of death considered, particularly homicide. The high rate for American Indians/Alaskan Natives was due principally to deaths from four causes: unintentional injuries, cirrhosis, suicide, and diabetes. Asians/Pacific Islanders had low rates for most causes of death. In setting health-care priorities and prevention strategies to reduce the large racial-ethnic gap in early deaths, it is essential to recognize the differences in causes of premature mortality among sex, racial, and ethnic populations. Periodic reassessment of YPLL < 65 among these groups provides a simple, timely, and representative means of conducting surveillance to measure the impact of intervention strategies on a national basis.

  15. Race in Buenos Aires. Blackness, Whiteness, African Descent and Mestizaje in the White Capital City

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    Lea Geler


    Full Text Available This article analyzes how racial categories are produced and reproduced in Buenos Aires, Argentina’s capital city. To that end, this article focuses on the cases of three Afro-Descendant porteña women who, by local standards, are fully white.  Their stories allow us to explore, in the first place, how categories like “black,” “white,” and others are used and understood in contemporary Buenos Aires and how this use configures two types of blackness (racial blackness and popular blackness and makes it impossible for mestizaje categories to emerge. In the second place, through these cases this article explores how people’s very “ways of being” are at play, creating a discriminatory and oppressive environment for people at risk of not matching the ideal of the nation.

  16. 'Not that cheapo China con-job': Alterity, Race and Same Sex Desire in 'Jarum Halus', a Malaysian Film Adaptation of 'Othello'



    This essay discusses Jarum Halus (dir. Mark Tan, 2008), a Malaysian film adaptation of Othello, in terms of interlinked figures of difference and alterity. In particular, the essay argues that the film “translates” Shakespeare in such a way as to understand race and same-sex desire as urgently linked thematics. As Chinese, Daniel/Othello functions as the central figure of alterity, with the film highlighting the extent to which his non-Malay status reflects back on discourses of race inside c...

  17. Assessing the potential for an ongoing arms race within and between the sexes: selection and heritable variation. (United States)

    Friberg, Urban; Lew, Timothy A; Byrne, Phillip G; Rice, William R


    male defense, but we found substantial intersexual conflict in the context of male offensive sperm competitive ability. These results indicate that conflict between competing males also promotes an associated arms race between the sexes.

  18. Black nurse in white space? Rethinking the in/visibility of race within the Australian nursing workplace. (United States)

    Mapedzahama, Virginia; Rudge, Trudy; West, Sandra; Perron, Amelie


    This article presents an analysis of data from a critical qualitative study with 14 skilled black African migrant nurses, which document their experiences of nurse-to-nurse racism and racial prejudice in Australian nursing workplaces. Racism generally and nurse-to-nurse racism specifically, continues to be under-researched in explorations of these workplaces; when racism is researched, the focus is nurse-to-patient racism and racial prejudice. Similarly, research on the experiences of migrant nurses from a variety of ethnicities in Australia has tended to neglect their experiences of the social dynamics of the workplace, thus reinforcing their racialisation. When racialised, the migrant nurse becomes 'the problem' through a focus on English language competency and ensuing communication barriers. This paper applies Essed's framework of 'everyday racism' to theorise narratives of racism by black African migrant nurses in Australia. In so doing, it not only brings to the fore silenced discussions of nurse-to-nurse racism in Australia, but also exposes the subtle, mundane nature of contemporary racism. For this reason, while the data we present must be read within their context, that is, the Australian nursing workplace, it has significance for advancing a critical analysis of racialised minority groups' experiences of racism within seemingly 'race-less' nursing workplaces internationally.

  19. The Black- White Earnings Gap (United States)

    Christensen, Sandra; Bernard, Keith


    Using projected labor force data (race, sex, and education) nondiscriminatory and discriminatory black-white occupational patterns and earnings ratios are defined to the year 2000. Rather than realistic estimates, the projections are designed as standards to measure progress in eliminating racial discrimination in the labor market. (EA)

  20. HIV-infected men who have sex with men, before and after release from jail: the impact of age and race, results from a multi-site study. (United States)

    Vagenas, Panagiotis; Zelenev, Alexei; Altice, Frederick L; Di Paola, Angela; Jordan, Alison O; Teixeira, Paul A; Frew, Paula M; Spaulding, Anne C; Springer, Sandra A


    The US HIV/AIDS epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM). Black men are disproportionately affected by incarceration and Black MSM experience higher infection rates and worse HIV-related health outcomes compared to non-Black MSM. We compared HIV treatment outcomes for Black MSM to other HIV-infected men from one of the largest cohorts of HIV-infected jail detainees (N = 1270) transitioning to the community. Of the 574 HIV-infected men released, 113 (19.7%) self-identified as being MSM. Compared to other male subgroups, young Black MSM (link to HIV care. Interventions that effectively link and retain young HIV-infected Black MSM in care in communities before incarceration and post-release from jail are urgently needed.

  1. Black in a Blonde World: Race and Girls' Interpretations of the Feminine Ideal in Teen Magazines. (United States)

    Duke, Lisa


    Finds that Black adolescent girls were largely uninterested in teen magazines' beauty images because they conflict with African-American standards of attractiveness; that makeup and haircare products were seen as specifically intended for White girls, who consequently invest more authority in the magazines' counsel and images; and that White girls…

  2. 77 FR 15597 - Special Local Regulation; USAT Triathlon/Race Rowing Competition; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa... (United States)


    ... Tuscaloosa Tourism and Sports Commission to conduct their events on April 21, 2012. After reviewing the... University of Alabama and the University of Iowa on the Black Warrior River. The Tuscaloosa Tourism and... and Review This rule is not a significant regulatory action under section 3(f) of Executive...

  3. Race Relations Stories: How Southeast Asian Refugees Interpret the Ancestral Narration of Black and White Peers (United States)

    Hein, Jeremy; Moore, Christopher D.


    The contact hypothesis (Allport 1954) predicts that cross-racial interaction can produce social bonding under certain status, relational, and institutional conditions. We extend this classic theory on ingroups and outgroups using qualitative data on Cambodian and Hmong refugees' recollections of casual conversations about ancestry with black and…

  4. Evaluating Public Health Interventions: 5. Causal Inference in Public Health Research-Do Sex, Race, and Biological Factors Cause Health Outcomes? (United States)

    Glymour, M Maria; Spiegelman, Donna


    Counterfactual frameworks and statistical methods for supporting causal inference are powerful tools to clarify scientific questions and guide analyses in public health research. Counterfactual accounts of causation contrast what would happen to a population's health under alternative exposure scenarios. A long-standing debate in counterfactual theory relates to whether sex, race, and biological characteristics, including obesity, should be evaluated as causes, given that these variables do not directly correspond to clearly defined interventions. We argue that sex, race, and biological characteristics are important health determinants. Quantifying the overall health effects of these variables is often a natural starting point for disparities research. Subsequent assessments of biological or social pathways mediating those effects can facilitate the development of interventions designed to reduce disparities.

  5. Reported Sports Participation, Race, Sex, Ethnicity, and Obesity in US Adolescents From NHANES Physical Activity (PAQ_D). (United States)

    Turner, Robert W; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Peterson, Camilla J; Skinner, Asheley C


    Objective. To understand the relationships between participation in different types of leisure time sport activity and adolescent obesity, and how those relationships might differ based on race, gender, and household income. Methods. Data consisted of 6667 students that took part in the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The authors used adjusted Wald tests to examine differences in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) by sport for boys and girls separately. Results. Among adolescent youth age 12 to 19 years, 16.6% of male leisure time sport participants and 15.3% of female sport participants were obese, compared with 23.6% for male nonathlete participant-in-other-activities and 17.0% obesity rate for female nonathlete/participant-in-other-activities. For both males and females, reported participation in leisure time sports decreased between middle school and high school, and this reduction was associated with higher body mass index.

  6. The influence of sex, race, and age on pain assessment and treatment decisions using virtual human technology: a cross-national comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres CA


    Full Text Available Calia A Torres,1 Emily J Bartley,1 Laura D Wandner,1 Ashraf F Alqudah,2 Adam T Hirsh,3 Michael E Robinson11Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Psychology, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; 3Department of Psychology, Indiana University–Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN, USAPurpose: Studies in the United States have found that patients' sex, race, and age influence the pain assessment and treatment decisions of laypeople and medical professionals. However, there is limited research as to whether people of other nationalities make pain management decisions differently based on demographic characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the following study was to compare pain assessment and treatment decisions of undergraduate students in Jordan and the United States as a preliminary examination of nationality as a potential proxy for cultural differences in pain decisions.Methods: Virtual human (VH technology was used to examine the influences of patients' sex (male or female, race (light-skinned or dark-skinned, and age (younger or older on students' pain management decisions. Seventy-five American and 104 Jordanian undergraduate students participated in this web-based study.Results: American and Jordanian students rated pain intensity higher in females and older adults and were more likely to recommend medical help to these groups, relative to males and younger adults. Furthermore, Jordanian participants rated pain intensity higher and were more likely to recommend medical help for all patient demographic groups (ie, sex, race, age than American participants.Conclusion: This is the first cross-national study that compares pain decisions between undergraduate students. The results suggest that sex, race, and age cues are used in pain assessment and treatment by both Americans and Jordanians, with Jordanians more likely to rate pain higher and recommend medical help to

  7. Racial identity and self-esteem among black Brazilian men: race matters in Brazil too! (United States)

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Belgrave, Faye Z; Echeverry, John J


    The contribution of J. E. Helms's (1990) people of color racial identity model to the collective and individual self-esteem of Black Brazilian men (N = 203) was explored. The relationships between racial identity attitudes and other racial constructs such as skin color, racial group self-designation, and racial mistrust were also examined. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the set of racial identity attitudes (conformity, dissonance, resistance, and internalization) was significant in predicting self-esteem (collective and individual). Results from a multivariate analysis of variance showed an effect for skin color on racial attitudes. In addition, racial identity was significantly related to mistrust of Whites by Black Brazilian men. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of racial relations in Brazil.

  8. Progesterone modulates aggression in sex-role reversed female African black coucals. (United States)

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Wittenzellner, Andrea; Schwabl, Ingrid; Makomba, Musa


    Testosterone is assumed to be the key hormone related to resource-defence aggression. While this role has been confirmed mostly in the context of reproduction in male vertebrates, the effect of testosterone on the expression of resource-defence aggression in female vertebrates is not so well established. Furthermore, laboratory work suggests that progesterone inhibits aggressive behaviour in females. In this study, we investigated the hormonal changes underlying territorial aggression in free-living female African black coucals, Centropus grillii (Aves; Cuculidae). Females of this sex-role reversed polyandrous bird species should be particularly prone to be affected by testosterone because they aggressively defend territories similar to males of other species. We show, however, that territorial aggression in female black coucals is modulated by progesterone. After aggressive territorial challenges female black coucals expressed lower levels of progesterone than unchallenged territorial females and females without territories, suggesting that progesterone may suppress territorial aggression and is downregulated during aggressive encounters. Indeed, females treated with physiological concentrations of progesterone were less aggressive than females with placebo implants. This is one of the first demonstrations of a corresponding hormone-behaviour interaction under challenged and experimental conditions in free-living females. We anticipate that our observation in a sex-role reversed species may provide a more general mechanism, by which progesterone--in interaction with testosterone--may regulate resource-defence aggression in female vertebrates.

  9. Relationship between heterosexual anal sex, injection drug use and HIV infection among black men and women. (United States)

    Risser, J M H; Padgett, P; Wolverton, M; Risser, W L


    US blacks carry a disproportionate risk of heterosexually transmitted HIV. This study aimed to evaluate the association between self-reported heterosexual anal intercourse and HIV. Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), we recruited and interviewed 909 blacks from areas of high poverty and HIV prevalence in Houston, Texas, and who reported heterosexual sex in the last year. All individuals were tested for HIV. Weighted prevalence values were calculated to account for non-random recruitment associated with RDS. The weighted population prevalence of HIV infection was 2.4% and 2.5% among men and women, respectively. Education, employment status, income and crack cocaine use were not associated with HIV infection. Lifetime injection drug use (odds ratio [OR] 3.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-8.33%) and heterosexual anal intercourse (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.02-5.73%) were associated with HIV infection. Individuals who reported both injection drug use and heterosexual anal intercourse had 6.21 increased odds of HIV (95% CI 2.47-15.61%). Our results suggest that heterosexual anal sex may be a vector for HIV transmission, especially in the context of injection drug use. Prevention strategies directed at curbing the HIV epidemic among black heterosexuals require that we correctly identify the risks so that appropriate interventions can be developed.

  10. Sex Complexity and Politics in Black Dogs by Ian McEwan (United States)

    Abbasiyannejad, Mina; Talif, Rosli

    Ian McEwan's Black Dogs (BD) is a story of socio-political conflict during the critical era of the Cold War. Black Dogs is riddled with party (political) domination and its outcomes in society. Europe is still suffering the consequences of the Second World War, perhaps the biggest war of the twentieth century. In the aftermath of such worldwide upheaval, the conflicts that were in tandem with the scramble for political domination emerged in diverse ways, affecting nations and their human populations. Systematic sexual assault during the war years showed that sex was used both for intimidation and humiliation. This study attempts to picture the multidimensional aspects of politics which are practically related to the most intimate human relationship, that is, sex. It pictures how personal is equated with the political and vice versa. The theory of sexual politics is the theoretical framework used to scrutinize power-structure relationship. By reviewing the major conflicts in such a scenario, as the Cold War, and societal restriction, this study concludes that conflict in the macrocosm (world and society) affects the microcosm (individual) in McEwan's Black Dogs. It provides a rather broad picture of politics and sexuality and highlights the stresses of wider society on human dysfunctional relationships. Rape as a tactic of war for a political goal demonstrates another aspect of sex. Reviewing the period in which the story takes place and relating it to the conflicts in society, the study goes beyond simple cause and effect problems among individuals and portrays a holistic view of sexuality and society.

  11. Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and HPV Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (United States)

    Keglovitz, Kristin; Lancki, Nicola; Walsh, Tim; Schneider, John A.


    Abstract Purpose: Limited data are available on anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in young, Black populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of and relationships between ASILs and high-risk HPV infection in a young (sex with men (MSM) population. Methods: Results of anal cytology and HPV DNA were gathered for 83 individuals. Results: Forty-two percent of individuals (35) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and 33% (27) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion by cytology. Only 9% tested positive for both high-risk HPV subtypes 16 and 18. Conclusion: Low rates of infection with both HPV types 16 and 18 may provide further evidence that we should continue to vaccinate young, Black MSM against HPV. PMID:27673362

  12. Race- and sex-specific associations of parental education with insulin resistance in middle-aged participants: the CARDIA study. (United States)

    Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang


    Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.

  13. The content of our cooperation, not the color of our skin: an alliance detection system regulates categorization by coalition and race, but not sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pietraszewski

    Full Text Available Humans in all societies form and participate in cooperative alliances. To successfully navigate an alliance-laced world, the human mind needs to detect new coalitions and alliances as they emerge, and predict which of many potential alliance categories are currently organizing an interaction. We propose that evolution has equipped the mind with cognitive machinery that is specialized for performing these functions: an alliance detection system. In this view, racial categories do not exist because skin color is perceptually salient; they are constructed and regulated by the alliance system in environments where race predicts social alliances and divisions. Early tests using adversarial alliances showed that the mind spontaneously detects which individuals are cooperating against a common enemy, implicitly assigning people to rival alliance categories based on patterns of cooperation and competition. But is social antagonism necessary to trigger the categorization of people by alliance--that is, do we cognitively link A and B into an alliance category only because they are jointly in conflict with C and D? We report new studies demonstrating that peaceful cooperation can trigger the detection of new coalitional alliances and make race fade in relevance. Alliances did not need to be marked by team colors or other perceptually salient cues. When race did not predict the ongoing alliance structure, behavioral cues about cooperative activities up-regulated categorization by coalition and down-regulated categorization by race, sometimes eliminating it. Alliance cues that sensitively regulated categorization by coalition and race had no effect on categorization by sex, eliminating many alternative explanations for the results. The results support the hypothesis that categorizing people by their race is a reversible product of a cognitive system specialized for detecting alliance categories and regulating their use. Common enemies are not necessary to

  14. Different regression equations relate age to the incidence of Lauren types 1 and 2 stomach cancer in the SEER database: these equations are unaffected by sex or race

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    Chiriva-Internati Maurizio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although impacts upon gastric cancer incidence of race, age, sex, and Lauren type have been individually explored, neither their importance when evaluated together nor the presence or absence of interactions among them have not been fully described. Methods This study, derived from SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER Program of the National Cancer Institute data, analyzed the incidences of gastric cancer between the years 1992–2001. There were 7882 patients who had developed gastric cancer. The total denominator population was 145,155, 669 persons (68,395,787 for 1992–1996, 78,759,882 for 1997–2001. Patients with multiple tumors were evaluated as per the default of the SEER*Stat program. 160 age-, five year period (1992–1996 vs 1997–2001-, sex-, race (Asian vs non-Asian-, Lauren type- specific incidences were derived to form the stratified sample evaluated by linear regression. (160 groups = 2 five year periods × 2 race groups × 2 sexes × 2 Lauren types × 10 age groups. Linear regression was used to analyze the importance of each of these explanatory variables and to see if there were interactions among the explanatory variables. Results Race, sex, age group, and Lauren type were found to be important explanatory variables, as were interactions between Lauren type and each of the other important explanatory variables. In the final model, the contribution of each explanatory variable was highly statistically significant (t > 5, d.f. 151, P Conclusion The change of the incidence of stomach cancer with respect to age for Lauren type 1 stomach cancer differs from that for Lauren type 2 stomach cancers. The relationships between age and Lauren type do not differ across gender or race. The results support the notion that Lauren type 1 and Lauren type 2 gastric cancers have different etiologies and different patterns of progression from pre-cancer to cancer. The results should be validated by

  15. Evidence-Based HIV/STD Prevention Intervention for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (United States)

    Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Painter, Thomas M.; Tomlinson, Hank L.; Alvarez, Maria E.


    Summary This report summarizes published findings of a community-based organization in New York City that evaluated and demonstrated the efficacy of the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention intervention in reducing sexual risk behaviors and increasing protective behaviors among black men who have sex with men (MSM). The intervention addressed social determinants of health (e.g., stigma, discrimination, and homophobia) that can influence the health and well-being of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection. This report also highlights efforts by CDC to disseminate this evidence-based behavioral intervention throughout the United States. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion to provide an example of a program that might be effective for reducing HlV infection- and STD-related disparities in the United States. 3MV uses small group education and interaction to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors related to HIV/STD risk among black MSM. Since its dissemination by CDC in 2004, 3MV has been used in many settings, including health department- and community-based organization programs. The 3MV intervention is an important component of a comprehensive HIV and STD prevention portfolio for at-risk black MSM. As CDC continues to support HIV prevention programming consistent with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and its high-impact HIV prevention approach, 3MV will remain an important tool for addressing the needs of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection and other STDs. PMID:24743663

  16. Perceived ethnic discrimination and cigarette smoking: examining the moderating effects of race/ethnicity and gender in a sample of Black and Latino urban adults. (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Monge, Angela; Agosta, John; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Stanton, Cassandra; Schwartz, Joseph


    Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently.

  17. “They think you’re lazy,” and Other Messages Black Parents Send Their Black Sons: An Exploration of Critical Race Theory in the Examination of Educational Outcomes for Black Males

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    Rema Reynolds


    Full Text Available Parents play an integral role in the social, emotional, physical, and intellectual development of their children. We know that school success has been associated with parents’ involvement and engagement1 practices. Studies have shown that despite socioeconomic disparities, children whose parents are involved perform markedly better than those whose parents are not. Little research has looked exclusively at parent involvement and its effects on the educational outcomes of Black males. A qualitative study conducted with Black parents and their involvement and engagement practices as the focus proved that this relationship warrants scholarly attention using Critical Race Theory as a tool for examination. Parents in this study were involved in their children’s educational processes in ways not always validated or valued by schools. Instead of engaging in conventional forms of involvement such as volunteering in the classroom, parents spent time and resources supplementing their children’s education at home. Subtle acts of racism manifested through microaggressions were detected by parents when interfacing with school officials2 and these exchanges prompted candid conversations with their sons. According to the parents in this study, deliberate messages about racism and educator expectations were often critical supplements for their Black sons in order to ensure educational success.

  18. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men (United States)

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis


    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  19. Sexual Networks and HIV Risk among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in 6 U.S. Cities.

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    Hong-Van Tieu

    Full Text Available Sexual networks may place U.S. Black men who have sex with men (MSM at increased HIV risk.Self-reported egocentric sexual network data from the prior six months were collected from 1,349 community-recruited Black MSM in HPTN 061, a multi-component HIV prevention intervention feasibility study. Sexual network composition, size, and density (extent to which members are having sex with one another were compared by self-reported HIV serostatus and age of the men. GEE models assessed network and other factors associated with having a Black sex partner, having a partner with at least two age category difference (age difference between participant and partner of at least two age group categories, and having serodiscordant/serostatus unknown unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse (SDUI in the last six months.Over half had exclusively Black partners in the last six months, 46% had a partner of at least two age category difference, 87% had ≤5 partners. Nearly 90% had sex partners who were also part of their social networks. Among HIV-negative men, not having anonymous/exchange/ trade partners and lower density were associated with having a Black partner; larger sexual network size and having non-primary partners were associated with having a partner with at least two age category difference; and having anonymous/exchange/ trade partners was associated with SDUI. Among HIV-positive men, not having non-primary partners was associated with having a Black partner; no sexual network characteristics were associated with having a partner with at least two age category difference and SDUI.Black MSM sexual networks were relatively small and often overlapped with the social networks. Sexual risk was associated with having non-primary partners and larger network size. Network interventions that engage the social networks of Black MSM, such as interventions utilizing peer influence, should be developed to address stable partnerships, number of partners, and

  20. Children's Attitudes toward Race and Gender. (United States)

    Warner, Juliet L.

    An implicit assumption in the majority of literature looking at development of prejudice in children is that race prejudice and sex prejudice are equivalent across groups; that is, sex bias is not conditional on race, and likewise race bias is not conditional on sex bias of the child. However, Warner, Fishbein, Ritchey and Case (2001) found strong…

  1. Mobile technology use and desired technology-based intervention characteristics among HIV+ Black men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Braksmajer, Amy; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A; Carey, Michael P


    HIV positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are retained in HIV medical care at suboptimal rates. Interventions targeted to Black MSM are needed to help to improve their retention in care. The purposes of this study were to investigate the use of mobile technology among HIV+ Black MSM and to explore participants' thoughts about the use of mobile technology for HIV retention in care interventions. Twenty-two HIV+ Black MSM completed a technology use survey and participated in a qualitative interview regarding technology-based interventions. The majority of participants (95%) had access to a cell phone, and used their phones frequently (median 3 hours/day). Men preferred interventions that would allow for anonymous participation and that would provide individually tailored support. Mobile technology is a promising approach to intervention delivery for both younger and older HIV+ Black MSM. These interventions should incorporate features that are desirable to men (i.e., anonymous participation and individual tailoring).

  2. Can White Children Grow up to Be Black? Children's Reasoning about the Stability of Emotion and Race (United States)

    Roberts, Steven O.; Gelman, Susan A.


    Recent research questions whether children conceptualize race as stable. We examined participants' beliefs about the relative stability of race and emotion, a temporary feature. Participants were White adults and children ages 5-6 and 9-10 (Study 1) and racial minority children ages 5-6 (Study 2). Participants were presented with target children…

  3. Association of race/ethnicity with visual outcomes following acute optic neuritis: an analysis of the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. (United States)

    Moss, Heather E; Gao, Weihua; Balcer, Laura J; Joslin, Charlotte E


    IMPORTANCE Retrospective studies have demonstrated disparate outcomes following acute optic neuritis in individuals of African descent compared with individuals of white race/ethnicity. However, published analyses of the prospectively collected Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT) data identified no association between worse visual outcomes and black race/ethnicity. OBJECTIVES To investigate the associations of age, sex, and race/ethnicity with visual outcomes following acute optic neuritis through application of longitudinal data analysis techniques to the ONTT data set. DESIGN Secondary analysis of the ONTT (a prospective randomized controlled trial) data set. Our models included effects of treatment (placebo, oral prednisone, or intravenous methylprednisolone), time, and treatment × time interaction, as well as demographic covariates of age, sex, and race/ethnicity. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS The ONTT data were collected at multiple centers in the United States. Patients of black (n = 58) and white (n = 388) race/ethnicity with acute optic neuritis who enrolled in the ONTT within 8 days of symptom onset were included in analyses. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The contrast sensitivity and visual acuity (logMAR) in the affected eye were modeled using 2-stage mixed-effects regression techniques. All available follow-up data from baseline to 15 to 18 years were included. RESULTS The data identified no relationship of age, sex, or treatment with contrast sensitivity or visual acuity outcomes. Race/ethnicity was significantly related to contrast sensitivity (P optic neuritis, with black race/ethnicity being associated with worse scores for both. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Race/ethnicity seems to be associated with contrast sensitivity and visual acuity outcomes in affected eyes following acute optic neuritis. To our knowledge, this is the largest cohort of black race/ethnicity with acute optic neuritis to be studied and represents the first evidence from a

  4. Research Brief--Sex and Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Achievement of Black and Mexican-American Adolescents. (United States)

    Creswell, John L.; Exezidis, Roxane H.


    To determine the effects of both sex and ethnic background on mathematics achievement, 112 Mexican-American and Black adolescents were studied. Achievement scores, parental influence, and math attitudes were analyzed. Ethnic background seemed to exert a much greater effect on mathematics achievement than did gender. (PP)

  5. Marijuana Use as a Sex-Drug is Associated with HIV Risk Among Black MSM and Their Network. (United States)

    Morgan, Ethan; Skaathun, Britt; Michaels, Stuart; Young, Lindsay; Khanna, Aditya; Friedman, Samuel R; Davis, Billy; Pitrak, David; Schneider, John


    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are highest risk for HIV seroconversion in the United States. Little attention has been paid to marijuana use among BMSM and potential for HIV risk. A sample of 202 BMSM was generated through respondent driven sampling. The relationship between differential marijuana use and both HIV risk behavior and social network factors were examined using weighted logistic regression. Of the BMSM in this sample 60.4 % use marijuana in general and 20.8 % use marijuana as sex-drug. General marijuana use was significantly associated with participation in group sex (AOR 3.50; 95 % CI 1.10-11.10) while marijuana use as a sex drug was significantly associated with both participation in condomless sex (AOR 2.86; 95% CI 1.07-7.67) and group sex (AOR 3.39; 95% CI 1.03-11.22). Respondents with a moderate or high perception of network members who use marijuana were more likely to use marijuana both in general and as a sex-drug. Network member marijuana use, while not associated with risk behaviors, is associated with individual marijuana use and individual marijuana use in the context of sex is associated with risk practices. Targeting interventions towards individuals and their respective networks that use marijuana as a sex drug may reduce HIV risk.

  6. Factors affecting incubation patterns and sex roles of black oystercatchers in Alaska (United States)

    Spiegel, Caleb S.; Haig, Susan M.; Goldstein, Michael I.; Huso, Manuela M. P.


    Studies examining the effects of human disturbance on avian parental behavior and reproductive success are fundamental to bird conservation. However, many such studies fail to also consider the influence of natural threats, a variable environment, and parental roles. Our work examines interactive relationships of cyclical (time of day, tide, temperature, seasonality) and stochastic (natural/human disturbance) processes with incubation patterns (attendance, bout lengths, recess rates) of the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), a shorebird of conservation concern. We used 24-hour-per-day video monitoring of 13 molecularly-sexed breeding pairs to systematically examine incubation, revealing previously undocumented information that may inform conservation practices for the genus. Seven of 22 video-monitored nests failed, primarily from egg depredation by nocturnally-active mammals. Analyses of 3177 hrs of video footage indicated a near doubling of incubation bout lengths at night, corresponding to the increased risk of nighttime egg predation. Females had higher overall nest attendance (54% vs. 42%) and longer mean incubation bout lengths than males (88 min vs. 73 min). Uninterrupted incubation bouts were over twice as long as bouts interrupted by disturbance. Incubating males departed nests substantially more frequently due to nest-area disturbances than females in one, but not both, years of our study. Our findings suggest that sexes exhibit different, but complimentary, incubation patterns, facilitating efficient egg care in a dynamic environment with several nest threats. We emphasize the importance of considering natural influences when evaluating human threats to shorebird reproductive behavior and success.

  7. Common roots: a contextual review of HIV epidemics in black men who have sex with men across the African diaspora. (United States)

    Millett, Gregorio A; Jeffries, William L; Peterson, John L; Malebranche, David J; Lane, Tim; Flores, Stephen A; Fenton, Kevin A; Wilson, Patrick A; Steiner, Riley; Heilig, Charles M


    Pooled estimates from across the African diaspora show that black men who have sex with men (MSM) are 15 times more likely to be HIV positive compared with general populations and 8·5 times more likely compared with black populations. Disparities in the prevalence of HIV infection are greater in African and Caribbean countries that criminalise homosexual activity than in those that do not criminalise such behaviour. With the exception of US and African epidemiological studies, most studies of black MSM mainly focus on outcomes associated with HIV behavioural risk rather than on prevalence, incidence, or undiagnosed infection. Nevertheless, black MSM across the African diaspora share common experiences such as discrimination, cultural norms valuing masculinity, concerns about confidentiality during HIV testing or treatment, low access to HIV drugs, threats of violence or incarceration, and few targeted HIV prevention resources.

  8. Semen collection and polymerase chain reaction-based sex determination of black-headed and straw-necked ibis. (United States)

    Kaneko, K; Uematsu, E; Takahashi, Y; Tong, B; Takino, S; Wajiki, Y; Kimura, T; Yamashiro, H; Kaneko, Y; Iwaisaki, H; Sugiyama, T; Yamada, T; Yamagishi, S


    This study aimed to develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sexing and effective semen collection methods for black-headed and straw-necked ibis species. However, most birds are not sexually dimorphic, that is, the sexes appear similar. Therefore, the gender should be determined before semen collection. DNA was extracted from the blood samples of 11 black-headed and 4 straw-necked ibis. The sex was determined after PCR amplification of the EE0.6 region of W-chromosome. The PCR products were separated using gel electrophoresis. A single band indicated the presence of the EE0.6 region and that the individual was a female, while no band indicated that the individual was a male. Further, the single bands from seven specimens were amplified. Semen collection was performed by massage or a combination of massage with electro-ejaculation and was attempted during all four seasons. The semen was successfully collected in March from male straw-necked ibis using the massage method. Limited motility, viability and concentration of straw-necked ibis sperm were observed. The sperm length was 180 μm and that of the nucleus was 30 μm with acrosome located at the tip of the nucleus. Thus, the PCR-based sexing proved to be an accurate molecular sexing method for black-headed and straw-necked ibis. Furthermore, we successfully collected semen and observed the stained sperm nucleus and acrosome of the straw-necked ibis sperm. We propose that the use of this PCR methodology can be applied as a routine method for sex determination and semen collection in ibis species for future ecological research. However, considering our limited success, further studies on semen collection method are required.

  9. "Bringing home more than a paycheck:" an exploratory analysis of Black lesbians' experiences of stress and coping in the workplace. (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Brooks, Kelly; Ritz, Susan Faye


    Although the workplace stress that Black women and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people experience due to prejudice and discrimination has been well-documented in the social science literature, much of this literature focuses on Black women or LGBTs as if these groups were distinct and mutually exclusive. Consequently, there is a void of theory and research on the workplace stress that Black lesbians experience. This qualitative study involved exploratory analyses of workplace stress due to race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation, and coping strategies among a predominantly middle-class, highly educated sample of 19 Black lesbians between the ages of 26 and 68. Four workplace stressors emerged, those relevant to: heterosexism/ sexual identity; racism/race; sexism/sex/gender; and intersections of race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation. Three primary coping strategies emerged: being out and managing being out, covering their sexual orientation, and confronting or educating coworkers about prejudice and discrimination.

  10. Co-segregation of sex chromosomes in the male black widow spider Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae). (United States)

    Ault, Jeffrey G; Felt, Kristen D; Doan, Ryan N; Nedo, Alexander O; Ellison, Cassondra A; Paliulis, Leocadia V


    During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes join together to form bivalents. Through trial and error, bivalents achieve stable bipolar orientations (attachments) on the spindle that eventually allow the segregation of homologous chromosomes to opposite poles. Bipolar orientations are stable through tension generated by poleward forces to opposite poles. Unipolar orientations lack tension and are stereotypically not stable. The behavior of sex chromosomes during meiosis I in the male black widow spider Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae) challenges the principles governing such a scenario. We found that male L. mactans has two distinct X chromosomes, X1 and X2. The X chromosomes join together to form a connection that is present in prometaphase I but is lost during metaphase I, before the autosomes disjoin at anaphase I. We found that both X chromosomes form stable unipolar orientations to the same pole that assure their co-segregation at anaphase I. Using micromanipulation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy, we studied this unusual chromosome behavior to explain how it may fit the current dogma of chromosome distribution during cell division.

  11. Correlates of HIV acquisition in a cohort of Black men who have sex with men in the United States: HIV prevention trials network (HPTN 061.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl A Koblin

    Full Text Available Black men who have sex with men (MSM in the United States (US are affected by HIV at disproportionate rates compared to MSM of other race/ethnicities. Current HIV incidence estimates in this group are needed to appropriately target prevention efforts.From July 2009 to October 2010, Black MSM reporting unprotected anal intercourse with a man in the past six months were enrolled and followed for one year in six US cities for a feasibility study of a multi-component intervention to reduce HIV infection. HIV incidence based on HIV seroconversion was calculated as number of events/100 person-years. Multivariate proportional hazards modeling with time-dependent covariates was used to identify correlates of HIV acquisition.Of 1,553 Black MSM enrolled, 1,164 were HIV-uninfected at baseline and included in follow-up. Overall annual HIV incidence was 3.0% (95% confidence interval (CI: 2.0, 4.4% and 5.9% among men ≤30 years old (95% CI: 3.6, 9.1%. Men ≤30 years old reported significantly higher levels of sexual risk and were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection diagnosed during follow-up. Younger men also were more likely to not have a usual place for health care, not have visited a health care provider recently, and to have unmet health care needs. In multivariate analysis, age ≤30 years (hazard ratio (HR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 8.3 and unprotected receptive anal intercourse with HIV-positive or unknown status partners (HR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.9, 9.1 were significantly associated with HIV acquisition.In the largest cohort of prospectively-followed Black MSM in the US, HIV incidence was high, particularly among young men. Targeted, tailored and culturally appropriate HIV prevention strategies incorporating behavioral, social and biomedical based interventions are urgently needed to lower these rates.

  12. Putting prevention in their pockets: developing mobile phone-based HIV interventions for black men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Muessig, Kathryn E; Pike, Emily C; Fowler, Beth; LeGrand, Sara; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Bull, Sheana S; Wilson, Patrick A; Wohl, David A; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B


    Young black men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV. Rapid expansion of mobile technologies, including smartphone applications (apps), provides a unique opportunity for outreach and tailored health messaging. We collected electronic daily journals and conducted surveys and focus groups with 22 black MSM (age 18-30) at three sites in North Carolina to inform the development of a mobile phone-based intervention. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically using NVivo. Half of the sample earned under $11,000 annually. All participants owned smartphones and had unlimited texting and many had unlimited data plans. Phones were integral to participants' lives and were a primary means of Internet access. Communication was primarily through text messaging and Internet (on-line chatting, social networking sites) rather than calls. Apps were used daily for entertainment, information, productivity, and social networking. Half of participants used their phones to find sex partners; over half used phones to find health information. For an HIV-related app, participants requested user-friendly content about test site locators, sexually transmitted diseases, symptom evaluation, drug and alcohol risk, safe sex, sexuality and relationships, gay-friendly health providers, and connection to other gay/HIV-positive men. For young black MSM in this qualitative study, mobile technologies were a widely used, acceptable means for HIV intervention. Future research is needed to measure patterns and preferences of mobile technology use among broader samples.

  13. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J R Lafferty

    Full Text Available Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol, key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116 as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD] and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD. We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  14. Effects of stereotype threat, perceived discrimination, and examiner race on neuropsychological performance: simple as black and white? (United States)

    Thames, April D; Hinkin, Charles H; Byrd, Desiree A; Bilder, Robert M; Duff, Kimberley J; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Arentoft, Alyssa; Streiff, Vanessa


    The purpose of the current study was to examine the predictive roles of stereotype threat and perceived discrimination and the mediating role of examiner-examinee racial discordance on neuropsychological performance in a non-clinical sample of African American and Caucasian individuals. Ninety-two African American (n = 45) and Caucasian (n = 47) adults were randomly assigned to either a stereotype threat or non-threat condition. Within each condition, participants were randomly assigned to either a same race or different race examiner. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing and completed a measure of perceived discrimination. African Americans in the stereotype threat condition performed significantly worse on global NP (Mz = -.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.07, -0.67] than African Americans in the non-threat condition (Mz = 0.09, CI [0.15, 0.33]. African Americans who reported high levels of perceived discrimination performed significantly worse on memory tests when tested by an examiner of a different race, Mz = -1.19, 95% CI [-1.78, -.54], than African Americans who were tested by an examiner of the same race, Mz = 0.24, 95% CI [-0.24, 0.72]. The current study underscores the importance of considering the role of contextual variables in neuropsychological performance, as these variables may obscure the validity of results among certain racial/ethnic groups.

  15. Childhood Exposure to Religions With High Prevalence of Members Who Discourage Homosexuality Is Associated With Adult HIV Risk Behaviors and HIV Infection in Black Men Who Have Sex With Men. (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Zhang, Nanhua; Regan, Rotrease; Thach, Chia T; Dyer, Typhanye V; Kushwaha, Sameer; Sanders, Rev Edwin C; Ndoye, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H


    Exposure to childhood religious affiliations where the majority of members discourage homosexuality may have negative psychological impacts for Black men who have sex with men. This study tested the hypothesis that exposures to these environments during childhood were associated with adulthood human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) behavioral risk and HIV infection, because these exposures influenced HIV/STI risk by undermining race/sexual identity congruence and increasing internalized homophobia and interpersonal anxiety. Structural equation modeling as well as logistic and Poisson regressions were performed using baseline data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 (N = 1,553). Childhood religion affiliations that were more discouraging of homosexuality were associated with increased likelihood of HIV infection; however, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age, income, and education. Having a childhood religion affiliation with high prevalence of beliefs discouraging homosexuality was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio = 4.31; 95% confidence interval [3.76, 4.94], p < .01). The hypothesized path model was largely supported and accounted for 37% of the variance in HIV infection; however, interpersonal anxiety was not associated with HIV/STI risk behaviors. Structural interventions are needed that focus on developing affirming theologies in religious institutions with Black men who have sex with men congregants.

  16. Women and Blacks on Prime-Time Television. (United States)

    Lemon, Judith


    Reports on study of intersex and interrace dominance patterns in prime time television focusing on two-person interactions between men and women, Blacks and Whites, to determine if one person dominates or if two parties interact as equals. Relates sex and race dominance patterns to several program and character variables. (JMF)

  17. Perceived Support from Adults, Interactions with Police, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptomology: An Examination of Sex, Race, and Social Class (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina


    Several risk factors, including female sex, racial minority status, and family poverty, have been implicated in adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the role of one specific aspect of adolescents' ecological context, interactions with adults, in depressive symptomology. We examined the relationship between perceived support from…

  18. A Novel Modeling Approach for Estimating Patterns of Migration into and out of San Francisco by HIV Status and Race among Men Who Have Sex with Men. (United States)

    Hughes, Alison J; Chen, Yea-Hung; Scheer, Susan; Raymond, H Fisher


    In the early 1980s, men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco were one of the first populations to be affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and they continue to bear a heavy HIV burden. Once a rapidly fatal disease, survival with HIV improved drastically following the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996. As a result, the ability of HIV-positive persons to move into and out of San Francisco has increased due to lengthened survival. Although there is a high level of migration among the general US population and among HIV-positive persons in San Francisco, in- and out-migration patterns of MSM in San Francisco have, to our knowledge, never been described. Understanding migration patterns by HIV serostatus is crucial in determining how migration could influence both HIV transmission dynamics and estimates of the HIV prevalence and incidence. In this article, we describe methods, results, and implications of a novel approach for indirect estimation of in- and out-migration patterns, and consequently population size, of MSM by HIV serostatus and race in San Francisco. The results suggest that the overall MSM population and all the MSM subpopulations studied decreased in size from 2006 to 2014. Further, there were differences in migration patterns by race and by HIV serostatus. The modeling methods outlined can be applied by others to determine how migration patterns contribute to HIV-positive population size and output from these models can be used in a transmission model to better understand how migration can impact HIV transmission.

  19. Effects of race and sex on cerebral hemodynamics, oxygen delivery and blood flow distribution in response to high altitude (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Yang; Ren, Li-Hua; Li, Li; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Shan-Shan; Li, Su-Zhi; Cao, Tie-Sheng


    To assess racial, sexual, and regional differences in cerebral hemodynamic response to high altitude (HA, 3658 m). We performed cross-sectional comparisons on total cerebral blood flow (TCBF = sum of bilateral internal carotid and vertebral arterial blood flows = QICA + QVA), total cerebrovascular resistance (TCVR), total cerebral oxygen delivery (TCOD) and QVA/TCBF (%), among six groups of young healthy subjects: Tibetans (2-year staying) and Han (Han Chinese) at sea level, Han (2-day, 1-year and 5-year) and Tibetans at HA. Bilateral ICA and VA diameters and flow velocities were derived from duplex ultrasonography; and simultaneous measurements of arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, and hemoglobin concentration were conducted. Neither acute (2-day) nor chronic (>1 year) responses showed sex differences in Han, except that women showed lower TCOD compared with men. Tibetans and Han exhibited different chronic responses (percentage alteration relative to the sea-level counterpart value) in TCBF (‑17% vs. 0%), TCVR (22% vs. 12%), TCOD (0% vs. 10%) and QVA/TCBF (0% vs. 2.4%, absolute increase), with lower resting TCOD found in SL- and HA-Tibetans. Our findings indicate racial but not sex differences in cerebral hemodynamic adaptations to HA, with Tibetans (but not Han) demonstrating an altitude-related change of CBF distribution.

  20. Role flexing: how community, religion, and family shape the experiences of young black men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Oster, Alexandra M; Viall, Abigail H; Heffelfinger, James D; Mena, Leandro A; Toledo, Carlos A


    While the disproportionate impact of HIV on young black men who have sex with men (MSM) is well documented, the reasons for this disparity remain less clear. Through in-depth interviews, we explored the role of familial, religious, and community influence on the experiences of young black MSM and identified strategies that these young men use to negotiate and manage their sexual minority status. Between February and April 2008, 16 interviews were conducted among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young (19- to 24-year-old) black MSM in the Jackson, Mississippi, area. Results suggest that overall, homosexuality remains highly stigmatized by the men's families, religious community, and the African American community. To manage this stigma, many of the participants engaged in a process of "role flexing," in which individuals modified their behavior in order to adapt to a particular situation. The data also provided evidence of internalized homophobia among a number of the participants. The impact of stigma on risk behavior should be more fully explored, and future intervention efforts need to explicitly address and challenge stigma, both among young men themselves and the communities in which they reside. Attention should also be paid to the role masculinity may play as a driver of the HIV epidemic among young black MSM and how this knowledge can be used to inform prevention efforts.

  1. To "Bring the Race Along Rapidly": Sport, Student Culture, and Educational Mission at Historically Black Colleges during the Interwar Years. (United States)

    Miller, Patrick B.


    Describes the role and impact of college athletics at historically black colleges during the period between the two world wars. Maintains that sports became a source of pride and a vehicle for social change. Concludes, however, that there is substantial reason to be skeptical about the efficacy of sport to overcome racial prejudice. (CFR)

  2. Monetary Value of Diet Is Associated with Dietary Quality and Nutrient Adequacy among Urban Adults, Differentially by Sex, Race and Poverty Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available The association between monetary value of the diet (MVD, $/day with dietary quality was examined using a large sample of urban US adults, differentially by socio-demographic factors.This was a cross-sectional study of 2,111 participants, aged 30-64y, using data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study. Dietary quality indices included Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010 and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR, (two 24-hr recalls. A national food price database was used to estimate MVD. Multiple linear/logistic regression analyses were conducted stratifying separately by sex, race and poverty status.Women had significantly higher HEI-2010 scores than men (43.35 vs 41.57 out of 100, respectively, whereas MAR scores were higher for men (76.8 vs 69.9, out of 100, reflecting energy intake gender differentials. Importantly, a $3/day higher MVD (IQR: $3.70/d (Q1 to $6.62/d (Q4 was associated with a 4.98±0.35 higher total HEI-2010 and a 3.88±0.37 higher MAR score, after energy-adjustment and control for key confounders. For HEI-2010 and MAR, stronger associations were observed among participants above poverty and among women, whilethe MVD vs. HEI-2010 association was additionally stronger among Whites. Sex and poverty status differentials were observed for many MAR and some HEI-2010 components.Despite positive associations between measures of dietary quality and MVD, particularly above poverty and among women, approaching compliance with the Dietary Guidelines (80 or more for HEI-2010 requires a substantially higher MVD. Thus, nutrition education may further improve people's decision-making regarding food venues and dietary choices.

  3. Sex Bias in Children. (United States)

    Zalk, Sue Rosenberg; And Others

    This study investigated children's sex biased attitudes as a function of the sex, age, and race of the child as well as a geographical-SES factor. Two attitudes were measured on a 55-item questionnaire: Sex Pride (attributing positive characteristics to a child of the same sex) and Sex Prejudice (attributing negative characteristics to a child of…

  4. Ecdysteroids: the overlooked sex steroids of insects? Males: the black box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The paradigm, still around in textbooks, that 'in insects sex is strictly genetic,thus that they do not have sex hormones', is mainly based on a wrong interpretation of the 'gynandromorph argument'. It is no longer tenable. Given the fact that vertebrates and invertebrates probably had a common, sexually reproducing ancestor, there is no reason to assume that only vertebrates need sex hormones. The major function of sex hormones is to inform the somatoplasm about developmental changes that take place in the gonads. In contrast to juvenile hormone and neuropeptides, ecdysteroids meet all criteria to act as sex hormones, which was probably their ancient role. Their much better documented role in moulting and metamorphosis was a secondary acquisition that enabled arthropods to cope with growth problems, imposed by a rigid cuticle. Female insects use 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), secreted by the follicle cells of the ovary, in a similar way as females of egg-laying vertebrates use estrogens. For a variety of reasons, the possibility that ecdysteroids, in particular ecdysone (E), might also act as sex hormones in male insects, thus as the counterpart of testosterone of vertebrates, has been very much overlooked. Thanks to the recent discovery of the molecular basis of the haploid-diploid system of sex determination in the honeybee, the characterization of Halloween genes, proteomics, RNAi and so on, it now becomes possible to verify whether in insects, as with vertebrates, males are the endocrinologically default gender form.

  5. Race Composition and Earnings: Effects by Race, Region, and Gender (United States)



    For more than 40 years, studies have reported that the higher the proportion of blacks in a community, the more white men earn, but the less black men earn. Researchers have speculated that black men earned less because earnings discrimination increases with percent black. Others have suggested that the negative effect of black representation on black men's earnings reflects black men's limited occupational opportunities. This study (1) investigates whether pay discrimination and regional location condition the relationship between black representation and workers' earnings and (2) examines the relationship between black representation and earnings for women. The results, based on 1980 Census data for black and white workers from 267 SMSAs, show that black representation was associated with higher earnings for white men and lower earnings for black men in both the north and south, and that part of the effect for southern black men stemmed from earnings discrimination. Southern black men's earnings gains from black representation offset some of the effects of discrimination, while northern black men encountered costs of black representation even in the absence of earnings discrimination. These findings reflect the disparate economic opportunities of black men in each region as manufacturing jobs have disappeared from the north and relocated to the south. For women, black representation led to higher earnings for blacks and whites. I argue that black representation does not lower black women's earnings because occupational sex segregation prevents black women from threatening white men's economic status.

  6. Racial-Sex Disparities--A Challenging Battle Against Cancer Mortality in the USA. (United States)

    Fu, Wenjiang J


    Decline in US cancer mortality has recently been reported, based on either pooled mortality of all cancer sites or age-adjusted mortality rates of specific sites. While the former could be dominated by a few cancer sites and would not reflect that of other sites, the latter used the US 2000 Population as reference for age-standardization, which was lack of justification. This study aimed to examine US cancer mortality trend and disparities in sites, races, and sex. We studied cancer incidence-based mortality by race and sex from 1974 to 2008 of cervix, prostate, colon and rectum, lung, leukemia, liver, pancreas, and stomach in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. We developed a model-based mortality rate and examined rate ratio of each calendar period to the first period within each race-sex group. Cancer mortality of cervix, colon and rectum, leukemia, and stomach declined in all groups. Prostate cancer increased first in all racial groups and decreased thereafter at different pace. Lung cancer declined among males of all races but increased among females. Liver cancer increased steadily fast among white and black females, doubled in whites and black males, and climbed slowly in other races. Pancreas cancer declined among black males and females, and changed little among others. Cancer mortality trend presents heterogeneity across sites, races, and sex. Recently observed mortality decline may not reflect every cancer site or group. More effort needs to focus on specific race-sex groups that had increasing lung and liver cancer mortality.

  7. [Diurnal dynamics of thyroid and sex steroid hormones in the blood of yearlings of the resident form of Black Sea trout Salmo trutta labrax]. (United States)

    Ganzha, E V; Pavlov, E D; Kostin, V V; Pavlov, D S


    The diurnal dynamics of the content of thyroid and sex steroid hormones is investigated in the blood of the resident form of Black Sea trout in summer. The maximums and minimums of concentration of the investigated hormones do not coincide over 24 h, except for the decrease in the level of T3 and testosterone before dawn. The dynamics of the investigated hormones is controlled to a high extent by the sex of fish in the morning and in the daytime.

  8. Imaging Race (United States)

    Eberhardt, Jennifer L.


    Researchers have recently begun to use the tools of neuroscience to examine the social psychological responses associated with race. This article serves as a review of the developing literature in this area. It advances the argument that neuroscience studies of race have the potential to shape fundamental assumptions about race, and the interplay…

  9. Sex Related Differences in Problem Solving in Rural Black, Anglo, and Chicano Adolescents. (United States)

    Creswell, John L.

    This study explored the variance in mathematical problem-solving achievement accounted for by sex and ethnicity. Each of 316 adolescents in a rural school district in southeast Texas was administered the California Achievement Test and a set of five affective scales. Reading scores accounted for 49.5% of the variance; computation, 14.6%; affective…

  10. Psychosocial Implications of Homophobia and HIV Stigma in Social Support Networks: Insights for High-Impact HIV Prevention among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Caroline; Parker, Richard G.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Philbin, Morgan; Hirsch, Jennifer S.


    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) bear an increasingly disproportionate burden of HIV in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends high-impact combination prevention for populations at high risk for HIV infection, such as BMSM. However, few scholars have considered the types of behavioral interventions that…

  11. Eight Americas: investigating mortality disparities across races, counties, and race-counties in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J L Murray


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gap between the highest and lowest life expectancies for race-county combinations in the United States is over 35 y. We divided the race-county combinations of the US population into eight distinct groups, referred to as the "eight Americas," to explore the causes of the disparities that can inform specific public health intervention policies and programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The eight Americas were defined based on race, location of the county of residence, population density, race-specific county-level per capita income, and cumulative homicide rate. Data sources for population and mortality figures were the Bureau of the Census and the National Center for Health Statistics. We estimated life expectancy, the risk of mortality from specific diseases, health insurance, and health-care utilization for the eight Americas. The life expectancy gap between the 3.4 million high-risk urban black males and the 5.6 million Asian females was 20.7 y in 2001. Within the sexes, the life expectancy gap between the best-off and the worst-off groups was 15.4 y for males (Asians versus high-risk urban blacks and 12.8 y for females (Asians versus low-income southern rural blacks. Mortality disparities among the eight Americas were largest for young (15-44 y and middle-aged (45-59 y adults, especially for men. The disparities were caused primarily by a number of chronic diseases and injuries with well-established risk factors. Between 1982 and 2001, the ordering of life expectancy among the eight Americas and the absolute difference between the advantaged and disadvantaged groups remained largely unchanged. Self-reported health plan coverage was lowest for western Native Americans and low-income southern rural blacks. Crude self-reported health-care utilization, however, was slightly higher for the more disadvantaged populations. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in mortality across the eight Americas, each consisting of millions or tens of millions of

  12. Alcohol, Sex, and Screens: Modeling Media Influence on Adolescent Alcohol and Sex Co-Occurrence. (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Hennessy, Michael; Khurana, Atika; Jamieson, Patrick; Weitz, Ilana


    Alcohol use and sexual behavior are important risk behaviors in adolescent development, and combining the two is common. The reasoned action approach (RAA) is used to predict adolescents' intention to combine alcohol use and sexual behavior based on exposure to alcohol and sex combinations in popular entertainment media. We conducted a content analysis of mainstream (n = 29) and Black-oriented movies (n = 34) from 2014 and 2013-2014, respectively, and 56 television shows (2014-2015 season). Content analysis ratings featuring character portrayals of both alcohol and sex within the same five-minute segment were used to create exposure measures that were linked to online survey data collected from 1,990 adolescents ages 14 to 17 years old (50.3% Black, 49.7% White; 48.1% female). Structural equation modeling (SEM) and group analysis by race were used to test whether attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioral control mediated the effects of media exposure on intention to combine alcohol and sex. Results suggest that for both White and Black adolescents, exposure to media portrayals of alcohol and sex combinations is positively associated with adolescents' attitudes and norms. These relationships were stronger among White adolescents. Intention was predicted by attitude, norms, and control, but only the attitude-intention relationship was different by race group (stronger for Whites).

  13. Race of Student and Nonverbal Behavior of Teacher. (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.

    White and black subjects, playing the role of teacher, were led to praise verbally a white or black student. It was hypothesized that the race of the student would affect the nonverbal behavior of the teacher. White and black judges, blind to the race of the students and to the hypothesis of the study, rated how pleased the facial expressions of…

  14. Homophobia is associated with sexual behavior that increases risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV infection among black men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Jeffries, William L; Marks, Gary; Lauby, Jennifer; Murrill, Christopher S; Millett, Gregorio A


    We investigated whether the experience of homophobic events increases the odds of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among black men who have sex with men (MSM) and whether social integration level buffered the association. Participants (N = 1,154) reported homophobic events experienced in the past 12 months. Social integration measures included social support, closeness with family members and friends, attachment to the black gay community, openness about sexuality within religious communities, and MSM social network size. Logistic regression analyses indicated that experiencing homophobia was associated with (1) UAI among men not previously diagnosed with HIV and (2) sexual HIV transmission risk behavior among men who knew they were HIV-infected. None of the social integration measures buffered these associations. Homophobia may promote acquisition and transmission of HIV infection among black MSM. Interventions are needed to reduce homophobia experienced by black MSM.

  15. Reconciling Epidemiology and Social Justice in the Public Health Discourse Around the Sexual Networks of Black Men Who Have Sex With Men. (United States)

    Matthews, Derrick D; Smith, Justin C; Brown, Andre L; Malebranche, David J


    Several studies have implicated the sexual networks of Black men who have sex with men (MSM) as facilitating disproportionally high rates of new HIV infections within this community. Although structural disparities place these networks at heightened risk for infection, HIV prevention science continues to describe networks as the cause for HIV disparities, rather than an effect of structures that pattern infection. We explore the historical relationship between public health and Black MSM, arguing that the current articulation of Black MSM networks is too often incomplete and counterproductive. Public health can offer a counternarrative that reconciles epidemiology with the social justice that informs our discipline, and that is required for an effective response to the epidemic among Black MSM.

  16. The Relationship Between HIV Risk, High-Risk Behavior, Religiosity, and Spirituality Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): An Exploratory Study. (United States)

    Watkins, Tommie L; Simpson, Cathy; Cofield, Stacey S; Davies, Susan; Kohler, Connie; Usdan, Stuart


    Blacks in the USA, including black men who have sex with men (MSM), tend to have stronger religious and spiritual affiliations compared with other racial/ethnic populations. HIV and STD incidence rates continue to rise among Black MSM. Using data from the CDC Brothers y Hermanos (ByHS) project, this study examined correlations between high-risk behavior, e.g., substance use and high-risk sexual behavior (e.g., condom use history, unprotected sexual intercourse, HIV infection status, and STD infection status) religiosity, spirituality, age, among Black MSM (N = 1141). This exploratory study examined whether religiosity and spirituality were associated with high-risk behavior and high-risk sexual behavior among Black MSM. Religiosity and spirituality indices were compiled from the ByHS data. The religiosity index was significantly associated with HIV infection and use of cocaine, crack, and poppers as well as marginally associated with ecstasy use. Spirituality was significantly associated with HIV infection status, STD infection status, alcohol use, and crack use. Given these relationships, current and future HIV prevention models targeting Black MSM should consider the potential importance of the roles of religiosity and spirituality in the lives of Black MSM to increase the efficacy of risk reduction interventions.

  17. Vocal repertoire of free-ranging black howler monkeys' (Alouatta pigra): Call types, contexts, and sex-related contributions. (United States)

    Briseño-Jaramillo, Margarita; Biquand, Véronique; Estrada, Alejandro; Lemasson, Alban


    Alouatta species utter the most powerful primate vocalizations in the Neotropics and are well-known for their loud and long-lasting male howling bouts. However, the diversity of acoustic structures used in these howling bouts, as well as in non-howling contexts, and the relative contribution of the different group members to the entire vocal repertoire, needed to be explored further. This report provides the first detailed description of the vocal repertoire of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), focusing on acoustic structures and contexts of emission of both loud and soft calls as well as on the contribution rate of males and females to the different call types. Three free-ranging social groups of black howler monkeys living in Palenque National Park, Mexico were monitored. We identified twelve acoustically discriminable call types, eight described previously and four described here for the first time. A few call types were systematically emitted either isolated or during howling bouts, but most of them could be heard in both calling contexts. Three call types were emitted only by females and two only by males. Adult males' call rates (for the seven shared call types) were higher than those of females but only when considering calls emitted within howling bouts. Our contextual analysis enabled us to divide call types into potential functional categories, according to their degree of contribution, to intra-group versus inter-group interactions and to neutral-positive versus negative situations. We then discussed how socio-ecological factors, notably sex differences in social behaviors, may explain the variability found in the vocal repertoire of this species and compared our findings with the literature on other primate species.

  18. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds. (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J


    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  19. Effect of slaughter age and sex on the production output of South African Black ostriches. (United States)

    Brand, T S; Jordaan, J W; Bhiya, C S; Aucamp, B B


    1. The effects of different slaughter ages and sex on the yield and quality of economically important end-products of slaughtered ostriches was examined to determine the most economic slaughter age for growing/finishing ostriches. Two batches of 4- and 6-month-old ostriches were assigned to 10 treatment groups and fed ad libitum up to slaughter ages of 8·5, 10·5, 12·5, 14·5 and 16·5 months. Slaughter weight, cold carcase yield, skin surface area, dry skin grade, feather yield and feed intake of ostriches were measured for each age. 2. Cold carcase yields and total feather yields of males were higher than females but yields of other products were similar. 3. Slaughter weight, cold carcase yield, skin surface area, dry skin grade, feather yield and feed intake increased with age with significant differences between most age groups. Cold carcase weight increased by approximately 2·2 kg and skin surface area increased by 3·1 dm³ with each additional month of growth but the quality (grade) of skins and the proportion of first grade skins decreased with increasing age. This, together with an increase in feed intake associated with age to slaughtering should be taken into account when determining the optimal slaughter age. 4. The set of biological variables established in this study can be used to determine the most economical slaughter age under varying market conditions.

  20. Race differences in self-perception and locus of control during adolescence and early adulthood: methodological implications. (United States)

    Tashakkori, A; Thompson, V D


    Data from a longitudinal sample of 14,721 White (7,193 men, 7,528 women) and 5,197 Black (2,400 men, 2,797 women) American high school students tested first between ages 16 and 19 and then in two follow-ups 4 and 6 years later were examined to determine Black-White and male-female differences in self-esteem and causal orientations. On general self-esteem scores, Blacks rated themselves more positively than Whites. Blacks also rated themselves more positively on specific self-beliefs (e.g., social attractiveness), although the magnitude of differences in such cases was quite small. On control measures, Blacks perceived greater external control pertaining to both cultural events and personal efficacy, although they had slightly greater expectations about future academic success. Results concerning the general and personal self-efficacy of Blacks were somewhat inconsistent with earlier reports (Coleman et al., 1966; Osborne & LeGette, 1982). Women tended to show less self-efficacy than men, but there were no interactions of race and sex. Even in the presence of significant effects for race and sex, mean differences tended to be relatively small.

  1. Multiple race reporting for children in a national health survey. (United States)

    Parker, J D; Lucas, J B


    The 1997 standard for race and ethnicity data from the Office of Management and Budget requires the collection of data for multiple race groups. The aims of this study were to compare characteristics of multiple race children and describe race reporting for children within interracial and multiple race families. Descriptive statistics were estimated using the 1993-1995 National Health Interview Surveys. In this time period, 2.6% of children had more than one race reported. Multiple race children were a diverse group who differed from each other and their single race counterparts. For example, the percent of children reported as both Black and White who lived in a two-parent household (58.9%), was significantly less than the corresponding percents for other multiple race children (65.8%-79.6%), and between the corresponding percents for single race Black (42.7%) and single race White children (83.2%). The relationships between parental race and child's race varied. Although 3.1% of children in two-parent households lived with interracial parents, fewer than half of these children had more than one race reported. Sociodemographic variables were not associated with child's reported race among interracial families. These findings indicate that generalizations about multiple race children for research or policy purposes will be problematic.

  2. Your blues ain't like mine: considering integrative antiracism in HIV prevention research with black men who have sex with men in Canada and the United States. (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Walker, Ja'Nina J; DuBois, Steve N; Giwa, Sulaimon


    Evidence-based interventions have been developed and used to prevent HIV infections among black men who have sex with men (MSM) in Canada and the United States; however, the degree to which interventions address racism and other interlocking oppressions that influence HIV vulnerability is not well known. We utilize integrative antiracism to guide a review of HIV prevention intervention studies with black MSM and to determine how racism and religious oppression are addressed in the current intervention evidence base. We searched CINAHL, PsychInfo, MEDLINE and the CDC compendium of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions and identified seventeen interventions. Three interventions targeted black MSM, yet only one intervention addressed racism, religious oppression, cultural assets and religious assets. Most interventions' samples included low numbers of black MSM. More research is needed on interventions that address racism and religious oppression on HIV vulnerability among black MSM. Future research should focus on explicating mechanisms by which multiple oppressions impact HIV vulnerability. We recommend the development and integration of social justice tools for nursing practice that aid in addressing the impacts of racism and other oppressions on HIV vulnerability of black MSM.

  3. Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pandey


    Full Text Available Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (8 hour sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years. Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (8 hours sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR = 1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P<0.01. Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension.

  4. Preference for dry sex, condom use and risk of STI among HIV-negative black women in the Western Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ruiter


    Full Text Available The practice of dry sex is reportedly common among young black women in South Africa. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of women’s preference for dry sex with condom use and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV infections. Between January 2006 and December 2007, 446 women completed a behavioural survey in isiXhosa which assessed demographic information, sexual behaviours, condom use behaviour and other potential correlates. In total, 159 (36.72% women indicated preferring dry sex. A multivariate logistic regression model indicated that participants who preferred dry sex were more likely to report past STI episodes and to have a partner who also preferred dry sex. The findings indicate that dry sex behaviour was not directly associated with condom use and STI (CT, NG, and TV prevalence but may have been associated with relationships in which sexual preferences of the male partner were dominant.

  5. Concomitant socioeconomic, behavioral, and biological factors associated with the disproportionate HIV infection burden among Black men who have sex with men in 6 U.S. cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth H Mayer

    Full Text Available American Black men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by HIV, but the factors associated with this concentrated epidemic are not fully understood.Black MSM were enrolled in 6 US cities to evaluate a multi-component prevention intervention, with the current analysis focusing on the correlates of being newly diagnosed with HIV compared to being HIV-uninfected or previously diagnosed with HIV.HPTN 061 enrolled 1553 Black MSM whose median age was 40; 30% self-identified exclusively as gay or homosexual, 29% exclusively as bisexual, and 3% as transgender. About 1/6(th (16.2% were previously diagnosed with HIV (PD; of 1263 participants without a prior HIV diagnosis 7.6% were newly diagnosed (ND. Compared to PD, ND Black MSM were younger (p<0.001; less likely to be living with a primary partner (p<0.001; more likely to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001, rectal gonorrhea (p = 0.011 or chlamydia (p = 0.020. Compared to HIV-uninfected Black MSM, ND were more likely to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI with a male partner in the last 6 months (p<0.001; and to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001, rectal gonorrhea (p = 0.004, and urethral (p = 0.025 or rectal chlamydia (p<0.001. They were less likely to report female (p = 0.002 or transgender partners (p = 0.018. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that ND Black MSM were significantly more likely than HIV-uninfected peers to be unemployed; have STIs, and engage in URAI. Almost half the men in each group were poor, had depressive symptoms, and expressed internalized homophobia.ND HIV-infected Black MSM were more likely to be unemployed, have bacterial STIs and engage in URAI than other Black MSM. Culturally-tailored programs that address economic disenfranchisement, increase engagement in care, screen for STIs, in conjunction with safer sex prevention interventions, may help to decrease further transmission in this heavily

  6. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes. (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L


    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior.

  7. Measuring Race and Gender Differences in Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of Campus Climate and Intentions to Leave College: An Analysis in Black and White (United States)

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.


    Student perceptions of campus climate environments and intentions to leave college were examined for 391 participants. Differences by race were found for perceptions of the campus climate being cold and uncaring and for expectations to encounter racism in college. Perceptions of campus climate were related to African American students' intent to…

  8. Self-Salvation in Lost Black and White World:On the Self Identity of Black Race in Toni Morrison’ s Works%迷失在黑白世界里的自我救赎--论托尼·莫里森作品中黑人族裔身份的自我认同∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper takes three works written by Toni Morrison as the research objects, including“Beloved”,“The Bluest Eye” and “Sola”. It analyzes the self⁃identity of black race from the perspective of Diaspora criti⁃cism and describes the puzzles and troubles of black race in self⁃identity under the white cultural hegemony, with the aim to explore black’ s distress and shock brought by the white’ s culture and way of life. It aims to reveal the importance of black identity for individual foothold and social stability.%以托尼·莫里森( Toni Morrison)的三部作品《宠儿》《最蓝的眼睛》和《秀拉》为研究对象,从流散批评视角对其作品中黑人族裔身份的自我认同进行分析和解读,详细叙述黑人族裔在白人文化霸权下对黑人身份定位的困惑与思考,探究白人文化和生活方式给黑人族裔带来的困扰与冲击,揭示黑人身份的自我认同对于个人立足乃至社会稳定的重要性。

  9. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here:

  10. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here:

  11. What do young black South Africans think about AIDS? (United States)

    Spurgeon, D


    In South Africa, a fatalistic attitude prevails among young black youth toward prevention of HIV transmission. Many of the 3 million black migrant laborers in single-sex hostels have many partners who are prostitutes. Due to culture, race, and class, black women are so oppressed that they cannot even require sex partners to wear condoms. Blacks perceive condoms as a governmental means to control population growth. The Centre for Health and Social Studies has learned that 14-17 year old blacks have been sexually active for a long time, so it has decided to also market its AIDS prevention program to 11-13 year olds. AIDS has not yet reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, however, and a full scale intervention program implemented between the end of 1992 and mid-1993 could stem the epidemic. The Health and Refugee Trust has developed a data base about the attitudes of South African refugees toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. It plans to distribute educational materials to hostels, squatter settlements, and rural communities. The Transport and General Workers Union has also set up an AIDS prevention program since truckers are at high risk of HIV infection. At the end of 1991, 445,000 people in South Africa have been infected with HIV. Heterosexuality is the predominate mode of HIV transmission among blacks, but among whites, it is homosexuality. Educated, affluent whites tend to be knowledge about AIDS and practice safer sex. Among the working class whites, however, knowledge levels are high, but they do not necessarily practice safer sex. Awareness tends to be quite high among blacks, but they do not generally practice safer sex. South Africa and the US are the only 2 developed countries that do not provide health care for all. This weak system limits AIDS prevention efforts. 80% of whites have health insurance compared with only 7% of blacks.

  12. Racing Academy (United States)

    Turner, Jim; Gavin, Carl; Owen, Martin


    This paper outlines an innovative education project that, by using a cutting-edge racing car physics simulation, will help create the next generation of engineers. The article gives an overview of this genre of games to give a background to the non-games expert. It also identifies key educational methodologies that have helped to form the goals of the project.

  13. Transcending race?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona


    Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist insurge...


    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Well done to all runners, the fans and the organizers of this great race which took place on Thursday 23rd May! You were many to participate in the run or by supporting your colleagues. The Staff Association contributed with its team of runners and also with its information stall where you could meet with your delegates.  

  15. “Let Me Help You Help Me”: Church-based HIV Prevention for Young Black Men who have Sex with Men (United States)

    Powell, Terrinieka W.; Herbert, Ann; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Latkin, Carl A.


    The goal of this study was to identify strategies that could yield more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) living in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample had an equal number of regular and infrequent church attendees. Nearly one-fourth of the sample was HIV-positive. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively using a qualitative content analytic approach. Two main recommendations emerged for churches to offer more inclusive HIV prevention efforts: (1) reduce homosexuality stigma by increasing interpersonal and institutional acceptance, and (2) address the sexual health needs of all congregants by offering universal and targeted sexual health promotion. Thus, results support a tiered approached to providing more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. We conclude that Black churches can be a critical access point for HIV prevention among YBMSM and represent an important setting to intervene. PMID:27244189

  16. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction. (United States)

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A


    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other.

  17. Adverse Trends in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality among Young New Yorkers, Particularly Young Black Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel R Smilowitz

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease (IHD mortality has been on the decline in the United States for decades. However, declines in IHD mortality have been slower in certain groups, including young women and black individuals.Trends in IHD vary by age, sex, and race in New York City (NYC. Young female minorities are a vulnerable group that may warrant renewed efforts to reduce IHD.IHD mortality trends were assessed in NYC 1980-2008. NYC Vital Statistics data were obtained for analysis. Age-specific IHD mortality rates and confidence bounds were estimated. Trends in IHD mortality were compared by age and race/ethnicity using linear regression of log-transformed mortality rates. Rates and trends in IHD mortality rates were compared between subgroups defined by age, sex and race/ethnicity.The decline in IHD mortality rates slowed in 1999 among individuals aged 35-54 years but not ≥55. IHD mortality rates were higher among young men than women age 35-54, but annual declines in IHD mortality were slower for women. Black women age 35-54 had higher IHD mortality rates and slower declines in IHD mortality than women of other race/ethnicity groups. IHD mortality trends were similar in black and white men age 35-54.The decline in IHD mortality rates has slowed in recent years among younger, but not older, individuals in NYC. There was an association between sex and race/ethnicity on IHD mortality rates and trends. Young black women may benefit from targeted medical and public health interventions to reduce IHD mortality.

  18. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters


    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  19. "…the white women all go for sex": Discourses of Gender, Race, Ethnicity in the American Woman’s Rights Movement, 1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bank, Michaela


    Full Text Available As an emancipating movement for women, the American Woman’s Rights Movement can be considered as a "counter public sphere" which transgressed dominant orders of gender. In their alliance at the outset of Reconstruction, women's rights activists not only sought gender equality, but under the label of "universal suffrage" connected it to the ideal of racial equality. The discussion about the introduction of the Fifteenth Amendment in 1869 is understood as a political intersection for the movement since the movement, which initially promoted "universal suffrage," then disbanded on grounds of racism, sexism and nativism which appeared in different antagonistic arguments that were brought forth to either promote the amendment or to oppose it. This paper analyzes the discourses of gender, race, ethnicity in the internal discussions of the Woman’s Rights Movement and seeks to answer whether or not it transgressed prevailing notions of racism, nativism and sexism in order to achieve emancipating potential for women.

  20. Disparities in safe sex counseling & behavior among individuals with substance dependence: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Amore Meredith M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the vast literature examining disparities in medical care, little is known about racial/ethnic and mental health disparities in sexual health care. The objective of this study was to assess disparities in safe sex counseling and resultant behavior among a patient population at risk of negative sexual health outcomes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among a sample of substance dependent men and women in a metropolitan area in the United States. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the relationship between race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic black; Hispanic; non-Hispanic white and three indicators of mental illness (moderately severe to severe depression; any manic episodes; ≥3 psychotic symptoms with two self-reported outcomes: receipt of safe sex counseling from a primary care physician and having practiced safer sex because of counseling. Results Among 275 substance-dependent adults, approximately 71% (195/275 reported ever being counseled by their regular doctor about safe sex. Among these 195 subjects, 76% (149/195 reported practicing safer sex because of this advice. Blacks (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.71; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.36,5.42 and those reporting manic episodes (AOR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.26,4.60 had higher odds of safe sex counseling. Neither race/ethnicity nor any indicator of mental illness was significantly associated with practicing safer sex because of counseling. Conclusions Those with past manic episodes reported more safe sex counseling, which is appropriate given that hypersexuality is a known symptom of mania. Black patients reported more safe sex counseling than white patients, despite controlling for sexual risk. One potential explanation is that counseling was conducted based on assumptions about sexual risk behaviors and patient race. There were no significant disparities in self-reported safer sex practices because of counseling, suggesting that increased

  1. Offspring sex ratios in relation to mutual ornamentation and extra-pair paternity in the Black Swan Cygnus atratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Ming, Ma; Komdeur, Jan; Mulder, Raoul A.


    In sexually dichromatic birds, females may adaptively adjust the sex ratio of their offspring prior to hatching in relation to male ornamentation, for example, by producing more sons when paired to a highly attractive partner. However, to our knowledge no studies have investigated offspring sex rati

  2. Understanding differences in HIV sexual transmission among Latino and black men who have sex with men: The Brothers y Hermanos Study. (United States)

    Marks, Gary; Millett, Gregorio A; Bingham, Trista; Bond, Lisa; Lauby, Jennifer; Liau, Adrian; Murrill, Christopher S; Stueve, Ann


    HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors were examined among 1,065 Latino and 1,140 black men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants completed a computer-administered questionnaire and were tested for HIV infection. Of men who reported that their last HIV test was negative or that they had never been tested or did not get the result of their last test, 17% of black and 5% of Latino MSM tested HIV-positive in our study. In both ethnic groups, the three-month prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus partners was twice as high among men unaware of their HIV infection than men who knew they were HIV seropositive at the time of enrollment. UAI exclusively with HIV-positive partners was more prevalent among HIV-positive/aware than HIV-positive/unaware men. The findings advance understanding of the high incidence of HIV infection among black MSM in the U.S.

  3. Mathematics, Race, and Space: An Investigation into the Construction of Mathematics Achievement Identities of Black Undergraduate Students at the University of Virginia (United States)

    McClain, Oren Leondus


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of the ways in which Black undergraduate students, majoring in mathematics intensive disciplines, at the University of Virginia construct mathematics achievement identities. Specifically, this study sought to identify and examine factors that impacted these students' identity construction…

  4. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45  Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...

  5. Researcher Interjecting in Qualitative Race Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Mizock


    Full Text Available In qualitative interviews, moments when the researcher departs from the research script can highlight how researcher-participant race interactions may differentially affect results. In the present study, 40 qualitative interviews between Black- and White-identified researchers and participants were analyzed to assess the influence of researcher race in deviations from the interview script. Excerpts from these mono-racial and cross-racial research dyads are presented to highlight the function and value of researcher interjecting in multicultural research. Suggestions and implications for future qualitative research on issues of race, ethnicity, and culture are delineated. URN:

  6. Do Lung Cancer Eligibility Criteria Align with Risk among Blacks and Hispanics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fiscella

    Full Text Available Black patients have higher lung cancer risk despite lower pack years of smoking. We assessed lung cancer risk by race, ethnicity, and sex among a nationally representative population eligible for lung cancer screening based on Medicare criteria.We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012 to assess lung cancer risk by sex, race and ethnicity among persons satisfying Medicare age and pack-year smoking eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening. We assessed Medicare eligibility based on age (55-77 years and pack-years (≥ 30. We assessed 6-year lung cancer risk using a risk prediction model from Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial that was modified in 2012 (PLCOm2012. We compared the proportions of eligible persons by sex, race and ethnicity using Medicare criteria with a risk cut-point that was adjusted to achieve comparable total number of persons eligible for screening.Among the 29.7 million persons aged 55-77 years who ever smoked, we found that 7.3 million (24.5% were eligible for lung cancer screening under Medicare criteria. Among those eligible, Blacks had statistically significant higher (4.4% and Hispanics lower lung cancer risk (1.2% than non-Hispanic Whites (3.2%. At a cut-point of 2.12% risk for lung screening eligibility, the percentage of Blacks and Hispanics showed statistically significant changes. Blacks eligible rose by 48% and Hispanics eligible declined by 63%. Black men and Hispanic women were affected the most. There was little change in eligibility among Whites.Medicare eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening do not align with estimated risk for lung cancer among Blacks and Hispanics. Data are urgently needed to determine whether use of risk-based eligibility screening improves lung cancer outcomes among minority patients.

  7. Mortalidade por raça/cor: evidências de desigualdades sociais em Vitória (ES, Brasil Mortality by race/color: evidence of social inequalities in Vitória (ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Modenesi Fiorio


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a mortalidade por causa básica, sexo e raça/cor a partir do sistema de informações sobre mortalidade (SIM, em Vitória (ES, no período de 2003 a 2006. MÉTODOS: Foram calculados e analisados os coeficientes de mortalidade, segundo causa básica e sexo por raça/cor, bem como a idade média e mediana de óbito por causa básica, sexo e raça/cor. Foi calculado o risco relativo (RR por sexo, idade e causa básica (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze mortality by cause and sex among groups of race or color from the mortality information system (MIS in Vitória (Brazil, in the period from 2003 to 2006. METHODS: We calculated and analyzed the mortality rates according to underlying cause, sex and race/color, and the mean and median age of death by underlying cause, sex and race. We calculated the relative risk (RR for age, sex and underlying cause (p<0.05 and CI 95%. RESULTS: The completeness of race/color in SIM ranged from 1% in 1996 to 81% in 2006. There was a greater RR of death among blacks for mental and behavioral disorders (RR=9.29, Ill-defined causes (RR=8.71, and external causes (RR=5.71. For black women, we highlight the external causes (RR=2.38. We found a variation of up to 33 years (nervous system between whites and blacks. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the existence of unequal racial/ethnic mortality, highlighting the mortality from mental disorders and external causes, in addition to early mortality that occurs in the black population.

  8. Employment restructuring and the labor market status of young black men in the 1980s


    David R. Howell


    The decline in the employment status of young black men relative to their white peers in the post-1970 U.S. Labor market is the impetus for this research. This paper examines the effects of recent employment restructuring on young workers by race and sex. In the case of the least educated group of young black men (aged 25-34), the employment-to-population ratio declined by almost 35 percent (equivalent to 28 percentage points) from 1970 tol985. Moreover, the 1980s were a stark reversal to the...

  9. Understanding Engagement in HIV Risk and Prevention Research Among Black Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in the District of Columbia (United States)

    Houston, Ebony; Peterson, James; Kuo, Irene; Magnus, Manya


    Abstract Purpose: To develop optimal methods to study sexual health among black young men who have sex with men and transgender women (BYMSM/TW). Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods prospective study to identify recruitment and retention strategies for BYMSM/TW (age 16–21) in Washington D.C., and describe HIV risk behaviors and context. Results: Incentivized peer referral was highly productive, and 60% of BYMSM/TW were retained for 3 months. Participants reported high levels of sexual risk, homophobia, racism, and maternal support. Conclusion: BYMSM/TW studies should utilize a combination of peer-based, in-person, and technology-based recruiting strategies. Additional research is needed to leverage mobile technology and social media to enhance retention. PMID:26651365

  10. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal, meso (social/community, and macro (organizational/political realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro, social networks and support groups (meso, and challenging stigma (macro. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives

  11. Race and ethnicity, substance use, and physical aggression among U.S. high school students. (United States)

    Mercado-Crespo, Melissa C; Mbah, Alfred K


    Youth violence is a critical public health problem across races/ethnicities in the United States. Although the differential association between substance use and physical aggression has been empirically proven, no tests have assessed the moderating effects of sociocultural differences in such associations. The purpose of this study is to test the moderating impact of race/ethnicity-as an indicator of sociocultural differences--on the associations between substance use and adolescent aggression, by conducting a validity assessment of a physical aggression measure for high school students with emphasis on Hispanics and other minorities. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis of the 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, with a representative sample of all U.S. high school students, was conducted. Contingency table and chi-square test evaluated the statistical relationship between substance use (alcohol, marijuana, either, or both) and self-reports of physical aggression, race/ethnicity, age, and sex of the respondent. Three logistic regression analyses assessed the effect of race/ethnicity on the likelihood of reporting physical aggression by overall substance use and type of substance use. Statistical significant associations were found between physical aggression and alcohol and/or marijuana use. The self-report of substance use (marijuana or alcohol) and alcohol use significantly increased the likelihood of physical aggression across races/ethnicities, highest among racial/ethnic minorities (Blacks > Hispanic > Others > Whites). The differential impact of substance use on physical aggression was confirmed, and such impact was moderated by the sociocultural context (race/ethnicity) of the adolescent. In-depth validity assessments are needed to confirm this study's predictive validity findings.

  12. "I Always Felt I Had to Prove My Manhood": Homosexuality, Masculinity, Gender Role Strain, and HIV Risk Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men. (United States)

    Fields, Errol Lamont; Bogart, Laura M; Smith, Katherine C; Malebranche, David J; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A


    Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental-family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention.

  13. Annual changes in fecal sex hormones with corresponding changes in reproductive behaviors in Thai sarus crane, black-headed Ibis, and Lesser Adjutant Stork. (United States)

    Tumkiratiwong, Panas; Poothong, Songklod; Taksintum, Wut; Suekkhachat, Hataitip; Kanchanabanca, Pongvarut; Suwapat, Phongpipat


    We monitored annual fecal sex hormones and reproductive displays of five individuals of males and females Thai sarus crane (Grus antigone sharpii), a flock of five males and females black-headed Ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus), and five pair bonded lesser adjutant stork (Leptoptilos javanicus), all maintained in captivity at Bangprha Waterbird Breeding Research Center. Reproductive behaviors were observed during 0600-1800 h, for four days during the second week of each month and feces were collected monthly to determine annual male total testosterone (mTT) and female estradiol (fE2) levels by radioimmunoassay. Thai sarus crane exhibited a peak mTT in August following a fE2, with a surge in July. Black-headed ibis demonstrated a peak mTT in January prior to a fE2 with a surge in March. Lesser adjutant stork showed a maximal mTT coincidently with fE2 with a surge in October. Thai sarus crane frequently displayed courtship in May-October, corresponding well with higher mTT rather than fE2 levels. Black-headed ibis showed courtship-copulation displays in January, simultaneously with mTT, but not with fE2 surge. Lesser adjutant stork often displayed courtship-copulation in October-January, seemingly corresponded with higher mTT and fE2 levels during October-December and October-November, respectively. Male and female lesser adjutant stork displayed egg-incubation and chick-rearing behaviors in November-January and December-June, respectively. We suggest that mTT and/or fE2 apparently played an important role in regulation of courtship-copulation displays but did not relate to both egg-incubation and chickrearing behaviors.

  14. Exploring the validity and statistical utility of a racism scale among Black men who have sex with men: a pilot study. (United States)

    Smith, William Pastor


    The primary purpose of this two-phased study was to examine the structural validity and statistical utility of a racism scale specific to Black men who have sex with men (MSM) who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area and Baltimore, Maryland. Phase I involved pretesting a 10-item racism measure with 20 Black MSM. Based on pretest findings, the scale was adapted into a 21-item racism scale for use in collecting data on 166 respondents in Phase II. Exploratory factor analysis of the 21-item racism scale resulted in a 19-item, two-factor solution. The two factors or subscales were the following: General Racism and Relationships and Racism. Confirmatory factor analysis was used in testing construct validity of the factored racism scale. Specifically, the two racism factors were combined with three homophobia factors into a confirmatory factor analysis model. Based on a summary of the fit indices, both comparative and incremental were equal to .90, suggesting an adequate convergence of the racism and homophobia dimensions into a single social oppression construct. Statistical utility of the two racism subscales was demonstrated when regression analysis revealed that the gay-identified men versus bisexual-identified men in the sample were more likely to experience increased racism within the context of intimate relationships and less likely to be exposed to repeated experiences of general racism. Overall, the findings in this study highlight the importance of continuing to explore the psychometric properties of a racism scale that accounts for the unique psychosocial concerns experienced by Black MSM.

  15. Intersecting Race and Gender Cues are Associated with Perceptions of Gay Men's Preferred Sexual Roles. (United States)

    Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L


    Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men's stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men's perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men's self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities.

  16. Interseccionalidade de gênero, classe e raça e vulnerabilidade de adolescentes negras às DST/aids Intersectionality of gender, class and race, and vulnerability of black female adolescents to STD/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella R. Taquette


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a vulnerabilidade ao HIV/aids de adolescentes femininas moradoras de favelas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODO: foi utilizada uma combinação de métodos, quantitativo e qualitativo. Na etapa quantitativa, realizou-se um estudo observacional de corte transversal por meio de entrevistas e exames clínico/laboratoriais para diagnóstico de DST, e, na qualitativa, desenvolveram-se grupos focais sobre os temas sexualidade, gênero e raça. RESULTADOS: foram entrevistadas 816 adolescentes de 10 diferentes comunidades, com um grupo focal em cada favela: 74% eram negras, 39% eram sexualmente ativas e destas 24,4% eram portadoras de DST. Houve uma relação estatisticamente significativa entre a variável raça/cor negra e a atividade sexual. Na fase qualitativa, evidenciou-se que a discriminação racial sofrida é cotidiana e contribui para a construção de autoimagem negativa que aliada a pobreza, violência de gênero e dificuldade de acesso aos serviços de saúde ampliam a vulnerabilidade às DST/aids. CONCLUSÃO: o estudo sugere a criação de políticas que proporcionem o aumento da oferta de serviços de atendimento ginecológico a esse público, com ações que favoreçam a utilização de preservativo feminino e contribuam para reduzir a desigualdade social, de gênero e de raça.OBJECTIVE: To verify the vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of female adolescents that live in poor communities of the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: It was carried out with quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative phase was a cross-sectional study, through interviews of 816 adolescents and clinical/laboratory tests in ten different slums, and the qualitative phase was done on one focus group about sexuality of gender and race in each community. RESULTS: 74% of the adolescents were black, 39% had sexual activity and 24.4% of those had STD. A statistical significant association occurred between the black color/race and sexual activity

  17. Origins and Destinies: Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in America



    Introduction. 1. Origins and Destinies: Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in American History--Silvia Pedraza. 2. Origins and Destinies: Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in Contemporary America--Ruben G. Rumbaut. COLOR AND CASTE. NATIVES AND AFRICANS. 3. North American Indians and Demography of Contact--Russell Thornton. 4. From Sundown to Sunup: Slavery and the Making of the Black Community--George P. Rawick. 5. Farewell--We're Good and Gone: The Great Black Migration from the PostBellum Sout...

  18. Economic scarcity alters the perception of race. (United States)

    Krosch, Amy R; Amodio, David M


    When the economy declines, racial minorities are hit the hardest. Although existing explanations for this effect focus on institutional causes, recent psychological findings suggest that scarcity may also alter perceptions of race in ways that exacerbate discrimination. We tested the hypothesis that economic resource scarcity causes decision makers to perceive African Americans as "Blacker" and that this visual distortion elicits disparities in the allocation of resources. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that scarcity altered perceptions of race, lowering subjects' psychophysical threshold for seeing a mixed-race face as "Black" as opposed to "White." In studies 3 and 4, scarcity led subjects to visualize African American faces as darker and more "stereotypically Black," compared with a control condition. When presented to naïve subjects, face representations produced under scarcity elicited smaller allocations than control-condition representations. Together, these findings introduce a novel perceptual account for the proliferation of racial disparities under economic scarcity.

  19. Race: The Challenge of the 90s. (United States)

    Guess, Jerry M.


    Although there have been improvements for Black Americans in civil rights, economic opportunity, and political influence over the past 30 years, serious social inequities remain, and race relations have in many ways worsened. Chronicles numerous instances of violence, discrimination, inequality, political underrepresentation, and socioeconomic…

  20. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Hypertensive US-Born Blacks and Foreign-Born Blacks: Analysis of the CAATCH Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Williams


    Full Text Available Background. Evidence shows that blacks exhibit greater daytime sleepiness compared with whites, based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. In addition, sleep complaints might differ based on individuals’ country of origin. However, it is not clear whether individuals’ country of origin has any influence on excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS. Study Objectives. We tested the hypothesis that US-born blacks would show a greater level of EDS compared with foreign-born blacks. The potential effects of sociodemographic and medical risk were also determined. Design. We used the Counseling African-Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH data. CAATCH is a group randomized clinical trial that was conducted among 30 community healthcare centers in New York, yielding baseline data for 1,058 hypertensive black patients. Results. Results of univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that US-born blacks were nearly twice as likely as their foreign-born black counterparts to exhibit EDS (OR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.30–2.68, P<0.001. After adjusting for effects of age, sex, education, employment, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and smoking habit, US-born blacks were 69% more likely than their counterparts to exhibit EDS (OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.11–2.57, P<0.01. Conclusion. Findings demonstrate the importance of considering individuals’ country of origin, in addition to their race and ethnicity, when analyzing epidemiologic sleep data.

  1. Contextualizing Race: African American College Choice in an Evolving Affirmative Action Era (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Briscoe, Kamilah


    Using a critical race theory framework, this study examines the ways in which race and racialized ideologies are manifested in high-stakes college admissions, the debate over affirmative action, and the college choice behavior of Black high school students. This study allows for the voices of Black high school students in California to describe…

  2. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Association between Arrest and Unprotected Anal Sex among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: The P18 Cohort Study. (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C; Kapadia, Farzana; Bates, Francesca C; Blachman-Forshay, Jaclyn; Halkitis, Perry N


    This analysis aimed to determine whether the relationship between a history of arrest and unprotected anal sex (UAS) is the same for Black/Latino gay, bisexual, and other young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as compared to White/Asian/Pacific Islander (API) YMSM in New York City (NYC). Baseline audio-computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) and interviewer-administered survey data from a sample of 576 YMSM aged 18-19 years old who self-reported being HIV-negative were analyzed. Data included history of arrest and incarceration as well as UAS in the past 30 days. Race/ethnicity was an effect modifier of the association between arrest and UAS among YMSM: White/API YMSM with a lifetime arrest history were more than three times as likely to report UAS, and Black/Latino YMSM with a lifetime history of arrest were approximately 70 % less likely to report UAS as compared with White/API YMSM with no reported arrest history. Race/ethnicity may modify the relationship between arrest and sexual risk behavior because the etiology of arrest differs by race, as partially evidenced by racial/ethnic disparities in police stop, arrest, and incarceration rates in NYC. Arrest could not only be an indicator of risky behavior for White/API YMSM but also an indicator of discrimination for Black/Latino YMSM. Further research is needed to assess whether the differential associations observed here vis-à-vis race/ethnicity are robust across different populations and different health outcomes.

  3. Differential associations between the food environment near schools and childhood overweight across race/ethnicity, gender, and grade. (United States)

    Sánchez, Brisa N; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Uscilka, Ali; Baek, Jonggyu; Zhang, Lindy


    Epidemiologic studies have observed influences of the food environment near schools on children's overweight status but have not systematically assessed the associations by race, sex, and grade. The authors examined whether the associations between franchised fast food restaurant or convenience store density near schools and overweight varied by these factors using data for 926,018 children (31.3% white, 55.1% Hispanic, 5.7% black, and 8% Asian) in fifth, seventh, or ninth grade, nested in 6,362 schools. Cross-sectional data were from the 2007 California physical fitness test (also known as "Fitnessgram"), InfoUSA, the California Department of Education, and the 2000 US Census. In adjusted models, the overweight prevalence ratio comparing children in schools with 1 or more versus 0 fast food restaurants was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.03), with a higher prevalence ratio among girls compared with boys. The association varied by student's race/ethnicity (P = 0.003): Among Hispanics, the prevalence ratio = 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.03); among blacks, the prevalence ratio = 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.06), but among Asians the prevalence ratio = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.97). For each additional convenience store, the prevalence ratio was 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.01), with a higher prevalence ratio among fifth grade children. Nuanced understanding of the impact of food environments near schools by race/ethnicity, sex, and grade may help to elucidate the etiology of childhood overweight and related race/ethnic disparities.

  4. A comparative analysis of homosexual behaviors, sex role preferences, and anal sex proclivities in Latino and non-Latino men. (United States)

    Jeffries, William L


    Machismo prescribes that homosexual encounters among Latino men are conducted along highly gendered lines: men tend to be anally insertive or receptive over the lifecourse, but not both. Some have argued that Latino men have more lifecourse homosexual behaviors in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. This is often due to the perception that Latin America has quasi-institutionalized homosexuality, which sharply contrasts it with the United States. Although scholars suggest that sex role preferences and greater likelihoods for homosexual behaviors exist among Latino men in the United States, limited empirical data validate these claims. Latino/non-Latino differences in male homosexual behaviors and sex role preferences were analyzed by using the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative, probability sample of 4,928 men. Findings revealed that non-Mexican Latino, but not Mexican, men had increased likelihoods of ever having anal sex than non-Latino Whites and oral sex than non-Latino Blacks. These relationships remained after controlling for age, education, and foreign birth. Latino men preferred insertive or receptive sex in comparison to non-Latino Blacks and Whites, but this difference disappeared after education was controlled. In full and reduced models, Mexican men tended to be orifice-specific (oral or anal), while non-Mexican Latinos were more oriented to both oral and anal sex. Controlling for other factors, all Latinos were more likely than non-Latino Blacks and Whites to refuse to answer male homosexual behavior questions. The implications of race/ethnicity are discussed for homosexual behavior patterns among U.S. men.

  5. Looking the part: social status cues shape race perception. (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Penner, Andrew M; Saperstein, Aliya; Scheutz, Matthias; Ambady, Nalini


    It is commonly believed that race is perceived through another's facial features, such as skin color. In the present research, we demonstrate that cues to social status that often surround a face systematically change the perception of its race. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along White-Black morph continua and that were presented with high-status or low-status attire. Low-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as Black, whereas high-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as White; and this influence grew stronger as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 1). When faces with high-status attire were categorized as Black or faces with low-status attire were categorized as White, participants' hand movements nevertheless revealed a simultaneous attraction to select the other race-category response (stereotypically tied to the status cue) before arriving at a final categorization. Further, this attraction effect grew as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 2). Computational simulations then demonstrated that these effects may be accounted for by a neurally plausible person categorization system, in which contextual cues come to trigger stereotypes that in turn influence race perception. Together, the findings show how stereotypes interact with physical cues to shape person categorization, and suggest that social and contextual factors guide the perception of race.

  6. Marriage and the homosexual body: it's about race. (United States)

    Keenan, Deirdre


    Any analogy between race and homosexuality cannot erase the fact that skin color has marked and continues to mark bodies for special punishment and necessary protection. Yet, the analogy has also been forged in the struggles against sexual discrimination and in the courts to recognize same-sex marriage as a basic civil right. My purposes here are, first, to review the role the race-sexual orientation analogy has played in same-sex marriage debates, second to examine the analogy within the context of race and queer theories and, finally, to suggest a racial dimension to sexuality that marks the homosexual body.

  7. Race and sex in a lifetime. (United States)

    Meador, Betty De Shong


    The Jungian analysts who participated in the writing of this paper(1) explicitly or implicitly address issues of social and political stasis, retrogression and change via their particular usages of the concept of the transcendent function. Singer proposes that the transcendent function is a term that is usually applied to individuals in whom symbolic material appears that suggests the reconciling of opposites, leading to psycho-spiritual growth. He also looks at the notion of the transcendent function as it can appear in a similar way in the collective psyche. In addition, he gives attention to the opposite phenomenon-what might be called the descendent function-as it appears in the collective psyche and its leadership, wherein symbolic material can create the division of groups of people into opposites, mobilizing destructive rather than transformative experience. Meador states that Jung designated the mediating process of assimilating unconscious images and ideas into consciousness as the transcendent function. Just as this synthesizing process can produce insight in the individual, it can also be applied to changes in collective society. Embedded collective assumptions tend to shift when opposites collide, as they did, for example, in the turmoils of the 1960s. Her contribution focuses on the recent revolution in racial and sexual attitudes as the product of a collective struggle between certain ingrained social mores from the past and conflicting new points of view. Samuels' conclusion is that the concept of the transcendent function has little value with respect to political problems. His contribution focuses on: (i) The limitations of using ideas (such as the transcendent function) derived from analysis with individuals in furtherance of an understanding of social and political phenomena. (ii) The specific problem of a lack of credible psycho-political models for social progress and regress-he argues that the transcendent function is not useful in this regard. (iii) The question of political aggression, violence and conflict in society is explored from the standpoint of the transcendent function so as to investigate its possible role in the management of political conflict. Samuels severely criticizes what he terms 'triangulation' and 'hyper-reflection' on the part of analysts who engage with political debates and issues. (iv) Leadership is examined from the standpoint of the transcendent function which, again, does not seem pertinent. Rather, new discoveries in family psychology about the role of the father have greater possibilities as a basis for new thinking about leadership.

  8. The Race Race: Assimilation in America (United States)

    Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael


    Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…

  9. Association of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Environmental Factors with Risk of Overweight Among Adolescents in California, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gittelsohn, PhD


    Full Text Available IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the California Health Interview Survey 2003, we estimated the prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, combined as a single measure (AROW, body mass index ≥85th percentile. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between AROW and risk factors.ResultsTwenty-nine percent of California adolescents were AROW. The prevalence of AROW differed significantly by sex and race. Boys were more likely than girls to be AROW (33% vs 25%. American Indians/Pacific Islanders/others (39% were at highest risk, followed by Hispanics (37%, blacks (35%, whites (23%, and Asians (15%. For boys, older age, Hispanic or American Indian/Pacific Islander/other race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and longer residence in the United States were significantly associated with AROW. For girls, Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and poor dietary habits were significantly associated with AROW.ConclusionThe high prevalence of AROW among California adolescents in most racial/ethnic groups indicates the need for culturally specific and appropriate interventions to prevent and treat overweight.

  10. Race to the Top

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The global race in developing and deploying green energy technology can be a win-win game "Clean energy race" has become a catchphrase for journalists and bloggers to attract reader eyes. Googling that, one will be

  11. Bridged Race Population Estimates (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  12. Using Grindr, a Smartphone Social-Networking Application, to Increase HIV Self-Testing Among Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men in Los Angeles, 2014. (United States)

    Huang, Emily; Marlin, Robert W; Young, Sean D; Medline, Alex; Klausner, Jeffrey D


    In Los Angeles County, about 25% of men who have sex with men (MSM) are HIV-positive but unaware of their status. An advertisement publicizing free HIV self-tests was placed on Grindr, a smartphone social-networking application, from April 17 to May 29, 2014. Users were linked to to choose a self-test delivery method: U.S. mail, a Walgreens voucher, or from a vending machine. Black or Latino MSM ≥ 18 years old were invited to take a testing experiences survey. During the campaign, the website received 11,939 unique visitors (average: 284 per day) and 334 self-test requests. Among 57 survey respondents, 55 (97%) reported that using the self-test was easy; two persons reported testing HIV positive and both sought medical care. Social networking application self-testing promotion resulted in a large number of self-test requests and has high potential to reach untested high-risk populations who will link to care if they test positive.

  13. Postencoding cognitive processes in the cross-race effect: Categorization and individuation during face recognition. (United States)

    Ho, Michael R; Pezdek, Kathy


    The cross-race effect (CRE) describes the finding that same-race faces are recognized more accurately than cross-race faces. According to social-cognitive theories of the CRE, processes of categorization and individuation at encoding account for differential recognition of same- and cross-race faces. Recent face memory research has suggested that similar but distinct categorization and individuation processes also occur postencoding, at recognition. Using a divided-attention paradigm, in Experiments 1A and 1B we tested and confirmed the hypothesis that distinct postencoding categorization and individuation processes occur during the recognition of same- and cross-race faces. Specifically, postencoding configural divided-attention tasks impaired recognition accuracy more for same-race than for cross-race faces; on the other hand, for White (but not Black) participants, postencoding featural divided-attention tasks impaired recognition accuracy more for cross-race than for same-race faces. A social categorization paradigm used in Experiments 2A and 2B tested the hypothesis that the postencoding in-group or out-group social orientation to faces affects categorization and individuation processes during the recognition of same-race and cross-race faces. Postencoding out-group orientation to faces resulted in categorization for White but not for Black participants. This was evidenced by White participants' impaired recognition accuracy for same-race but not for cross-race out-group faces. Postencoding in-group orientation to faces had no effect on recognition accuracy for either same-race or cross-race faces. The results of Experiments 2A and 2B suggest that this social orientation facilitates White but not Black participants' individuation and categorization processes at recognition. Models of recognition memory for same-race and cross-race faces need to account for processing differences that occur at both encoding and recognition.

  14. An 'other-race' effect in age estimation from faces. (United States)

    Dehon, H; Brédart, S


    Previous studies have shown that, in person-recognition tasks, people perform better for faces belonging to their own race than for those belonging to another race. Recently, however, this 'other-race' effect has also been found in a sex-discrimination task (O'Toole et al, 1996 Perception 25 669-676). In the present study, we investigated whether this finding extends to age perception. Caucasian and African participants were asked to estimate the age of Caucasian and African faces. The main result of this experiment was a significant 'race of subject' x 'race of face' interaction showing that Caucasian participants performed better at evaluating Caucasian faces than African faces. However, African participants performed equally with both type of faces. This result is explained by the Africans' time of residence in Belgium. The implication of this 'other-race' effect for age estimation is discussed with respect to eyewitness reports.

  15. Examining patient race and area predictors of inpatient admission for schizophrenia among hospital users in California. (United States)

    Durbin, Anna; Rudoler, David; Durbin, Janet; Laporte, Audrey; Callaghan, Russell C


    According to international research African-Caribbean and Black African populations have increased risk of hospitalization for schizophrenia, compared to Whites. Less is known about admission risk for other racial-ethnic groups. This study investigated racial-ethnic differences in hospital admission for schizophrenia in California. It also investigated the influence of area social factors (racial-ethnic neighborhood composition, and per capita income) and health service factors (presence of primary care clinics). The study sample included individuals admitted to a California hospital during 1990-2005 with a primary appendicitis related diagnosis, and without a prior or concurrent indication of schizophrenia. The adjusted logistic model examined how patient racial-ethnicity (White, Black, Hispanic, Other), other personal, area social characteristics and presence of primary care clinics influenced hospital admissions for schizophrenia. Black individuals were almost twice as likely as Whites to be admitted while Hispanics and Other race individuals were less to be admitted. In addition, male sex, having more comorbidities and living in areas with greater proportions of non-Whites increased risk. The increased risk for Blacks compared to Whites was consistent with the existing literature. However, this is among the first studies to report that Hispanics had a reduced risk of admission for schizophrenia, compared to Whites. Future studies may want to include a broader range of health services to better understand patterns of care use among individuals with schizophrenia.

  16. The other-race effect in children from a multiracial population: A cross-cultural comparison. (United States)

    Tham, Diana Su Yun; Bremner, J Gavin; Hay, Dennis


    The role of experience with other-race faces in the development of the other-race effect was investigated through a cross-cultural comparison between 5- and 6-year-olds and 13- and 14-year-olds raised in a monoracial (British White, n=83) population and a multiracial (Malaysian Chinese, n=68) population. British White children showed an other-race effect to three other-race faces (Chinese, Malay, and African Black) that was stable across age. Malaysian Chinese children showed a recognition deficit for less experienced faces (African Black) but showed a recognition advantage for faces of which they have direct or indirect experience. Interestingly, younger (Malaysian Chinese) children showed no other-race effect for female faces such that they can recognize all female faces regardless of race. These findings point to the importance of early race and gender experiences in reorganizing the face representation to accommodate changes in experience across development.

  17. "You're Really Gonna Kick Us All Out?" Sustaining Safe Spaces for Community-Based HIV Prevention and Control among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Garcia

    Full Text Available Black men who have sex with men (BMSM experience among the highest rates of HIV infection in the United States. We conducted a community-based ethnography in New York City to identify the structural and environmental factors that influence BMSMs vulnerability to HIV and their engagement with HIV prevention services. Methods included participant observation at community-based organizations (CBOs in New York City, in-depth interviews with 31 BMSM, and 17 key informant interviews. Our conceptual framework shows how creating and sustaining safe spaces could be a critical environmental approach to reduce vulnerability to HIV among BMSM. Participant observation, in-depth and key informant interviews revealed that fear and mistrust characterized men's relation to social and public institutions, such as churches, schools, and the police. This fear and mistrust created HIV vulnerability among the BMSM in our sample by challenging engagement with services. Our findings suggest that to be successful, HIV prevention efforts must address these structural and environmental vulnerabilities. Among the CBOs that we studied, "safe spaces" emerged as an important tool for addressing these environmental vulnerabilities. CBOs used safe spaces to provide social support, to address stigma, to prepare men for the workforce, and to foster a sense of community among BMSM. In addition, safe spaces were used for HIV and STI testing and treatment campaigns. Our ethnographic findings suggest that safe spaces represent a promising but so far under-utilized part of HIV prevention infrastructure. Safe spaces seem integral to high impact comprehensive HIV prevention efforts, and may be considered more appropriately as part of HIV capacity-building rather than being nested within program-specific funding structures.

  18. Na ante-sala da discriminação: o preço dos atributos de sexo e cor no Brasil (1989-1999 On the threshold of discrimination: the burden of sex and race attributes in Brazil (1989-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Biderman


    undertake a solid analysis of the level of discrimination which prevails in the labor market, we sought, in this paper, to control the effects of individual attributes (such as age and schooling and of workplace characteristics (formal labor relations, geographical location and job ladder position. Based on a comparison between two microdata sources provided by PNAD (National Research by Domicile Sampling, relative to the years of 1989 and 1999, it was possible to establish three different results. In the first place, it was perceived that, in relation to women, market discrimination is even higher than that measured by the mere difference between their income and the income of men; in relation to black men and women, the net effect which could be attributed to income discrimination does not appear as high, since other, and at times more important, factors act simultaneously, explaining the significant salary differences which distinguish them from white workers. In the second place, it was observed that the 1990's usher a reduction in the intensity with which factors connected to race and sex discrimination affect such inequalities; this reduction, however, is still small, deriving mainly from the important losses in the average salary of men, especially white men. In the third place, when observed in relation to the different positions in income distribution, inequality determinants vary in importantce, and factors related to sex and color discrimination appear as the most decisive, especially among women and blacks who may reach top positions in the social ladder.

  19. Narrowing in categorical responding to other-race face classes by infants. (United States)

    Quinn, Paul C; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier; Tanaka, James W


    Infants can form object categories based on perceptual cues, but their ability to form categories based on differential experience is less clear. Here we examined whether infants filter through perceptual differences among faces from different other-race classes and represent them as a single other-race class different only from own-race faces. We used a familiarization/novelty-preference procedure to investigate category formation for two other-race face classes (Black vs. Asian) by White 6- and 9-month-olds. The data indicated that while White 6-month-olds categorically represented the distinction between Black and Asian faces, White 9-month-olds formed a broad other-race category inclusive of Black and Asian faces, but exclusive of own-race White faces. The findings provide evidence that narrowing can occur for mental processes other than discrimination: category formation is also affected. The results suggest that frequency of experience with own-race versus other-race classes of faces may propel infants to contrast own-race faces with other-race faces, but not different classes of other-race faces with each other.

  20. Toward a Race Pedagogy for Black Faculty (United States)

    Closson, Rosemary B.; Bowman, Lorenzo; Merriweather, Lisa R.


    Educators are consciously or unconsciously guided by pedagogy and make critical decisions about praxis--content, strategy, structure--based on their pedagogical beliefs. The intentional use of pedagogy is often advanced as a key to being an effective educator. A wealth of literature is directed toward helping White educators develop a race…

  1. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  2. Examining Race and Ethnicity Information in Medicare Administrative Data. (United States)

    Filice, Clara E; Joynt, Karen E


    Racial and ethnic disparities are observed in the health status and health outcomes of Medicare beneficiaries. Reducing these disparities is a national priority, and having high-quality data on individuals' race and ethnicity is critical for researchers working to do so. However, using Medicare data to identify race and ethnicity is not straightforward. Currently, Medicare largely relies on Social Security Administration data for information about Medicare beneficiary race and ethnicity. Directly self-reported race and ethnicity information is collected for subsets of Medicare beneficiaries but is not explicitly collected for the purpose of populating race/ethnicity information in the Medicare administrative record. As a consequence of historical data collection practices, the quality of Medicare's administrative data on race and ethnicity varies substantially by racial/ethnic group; the data are generally much more accurate for whites and blacks than for other racial/ethnic groups. Identification of Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander beneficiaries has improved through use of an imputation algorithm recently applied to the Medicare administrative database. To improve the accuracy of race/ethnicity data for Medicare beneficiaries, researchers have developed techniques such as geocoding and surname analysis that indirectly assign Medicare beneficiary race and ethnicity. However, these techniques are relatively new and data may not be widely available. Understanding the strengths and limitations of different approaches to identifying race and ethnicity will help researchers choose the best method for their particular purpose, and help policymakers interpret studies using these measures.

  3. Determinants of Life Satisfaction: A Note on a Race-Interaction Hypothesis. (United States)

    Usui, Wayne; And Others


    Compared the life satisfaction of elderly Whites and Blacks. Showed that most factors influencing life satisfaction of elderly people have similar effects among Blacks and Whites. Although greater numbers of physical impairments lead to lower life satisfaction for both races, the negative effect is considerably stronger among Blacks. (Author/JAC)

  4. Interracial Dating and Marriage Preferences Among Blacks, Chicanos and Anglos. (United States)

    Davis, Emory G.; Qualls, Phyllis E.

    The study determined: (1) differences in dating preference attitudes for Black Chicano, and Anglo men regarding women of another race; (2) differences in dating preference attitudes for black, Chicano, and Anglo women regarding men of another race; (3) whether parental influence is perceived by college students to be more determinative in dating…

  5. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.


    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...

  6. The Amazing Mathematical Race (United States)

    Noblitt, Bethany A.; Buckley, Brooke E.


    Teams, pit stops, clues, time limits, fast forwards, challenges, and prizes are all components of the CBS hit show "The Amazing Race." They were also elements of the Amazing Mathematical Race sponsored by the Math and Stats Club at Northern Kentucky University in April 2009. Held in recognition of Math Awareness Month, which is advocated…

  7. Prejudice and Race Relations. (United States)

    Mack, Raymond W., Ed.

    Contents of this book comprises: Introduction--A decade of change; (1) Race and its consequences: Beliefs and acts; (2) Race relations in different societies: A comparative perspective; (3) Implementing discrimination: the institutional impact of prejudice; (4) Leaders in change: A set of profiles; and (5) Options facing Americans: Pathos to…

  8. Black Cinderella: Multicultural Literature and School Curriculum (United States)

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian


    This article discusses diversity issues evident in fairy tales and explores the pedagogical implications for adding counter-narratives in the school curriculum. Critical Race Theory is employed. In order to uncover contradictory discourses of race within Black cultures, four Africana (African, African American, and Caribbean) Cinderella tale types…

  9. TT race data logger



    This report is made to accomplish the demand from TriCAT Racing motor race team. They suggest if it was possible to create a device capable to log data from a motorbike during a race or testing seasons, mentioning some other similar systems out on the market, but is really expensive. Taking an initial idea, we thought about one way to design a system capable of satisfy the demand of our contractor, trying to reduce costs on the design. At this point we accept the project offered by TriCAT ...

  10. Discrimination by Race and Class and the Impact of School Quality (United States)

    Jud, G. Donald; Walker, James L.


    Explores the extent of discrimination by race and class recently experienced by black men in the labor market and in the educational process. The differential impact of school quality by race and class upon future earnings is measured. (Author/DB)

  11. Beyond race and place: distal sociological determinants of HIV disparities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max-Louis G Buot

    Full Text Available Informed behavior change as an HIV prevention tool has yielded unequal successes across populations. Despite decades of HIV education, some individuals remain at high risk. The mainstream media often portrays these risk factors as products of race and national borders; however, a rich body of recent literature proposes a host of complex social factors that influence behavior, including, but not limited to: poverty, income inequality, stigmatizing social institutions and health care access. We examined the relationship between numerous social indicators and HIV incidence across eighty large U.S. cities in 1990 and 2000. During this time, major correlating factors included income inequality, poverty, educational attainment, residential segregation and marriage rates. However, these ecological factors were weighted differentially across risk groups (e.g. heterosexual, intravenous drug use, men who have sex with men (MSM. Heterosexual risk rose significantly with poor economic indicators, while MSM risk depended more heavily on anti-homosexual stigma (as measured by same-sex marriage laws. HIV incidence among black individuals correlated significantly with numerous economic factors but also with segregation and imbalances in the male:female ratio (often an effect of mass incarceration. Our results support an overall model of HIV ecology where poverty, income inequality and social inequality (in the form of institutionalized racism and anti-homosexual stigma have over time developed into synergistic drivers of disease transmission in the U.S., inhibiting information-based prevention efforts. The relative weights of these distal factors vary over time and by HIV risk group. Our testable model may be more generally applicable within the U.S. and beyond.

  12. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Running Club


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20 May, starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the route, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at:

  13. CERN Relay Race 2009

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 14th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. More details on how to register your team for the relay race

  14. The Role of Geographic and Network Factors in Racial Disparities in HIV Among Young Men Who have Sex with Men: An Egocentric Network Study. (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa M; Latkin, Carl A; Muth, Stephen Q


    The objective of this study was to characterize and compare individual and sexual network characteristics of Black, White, and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as potential drivers of racial disparities in HIV. Egocentric network interviews were conducted with 175 diverse YMSM who described 837 sex partners within 167 sexual-active egos. Sexual partner alter attributes were summarized by ego. Descriptives of ego demographics, sexual partner demographics, and network characteristics were calculated by race of the ego and compared. No racial differences were found in individual engagement in HIV risk behaviors or concurrent sexual partnership. Racial differences were found in partner characteristics, including female gender, non-gay sexual orientations, older age, and residence in a high HIV prevalence neighborhood. Racial differences in relationship characteristics included type of relationships (i.e., main partner) and strength of relationships. Network characteristics also showed differences, including sexual network density and assortativity by race. Most racial differences were in the direction of effects that would tend to increase HIV incidence among Black YMSM. These data suggest that racial disparities in HIV may be driven and/or maintained by a combination of racial differences in partner characteristics, assortativity by race, and increased sexual network density, rather than differences in individual's HIV risk behaviors.

  15. Income and race/ethnicity influence dietary fiber intake and vegetable consumption. (United States)

    Storey, Maureen; Anderson, Patricia


    Grains, fruits, and vegetables are the primary sources of dietary fiber (DF), with the white potato contributing nearly 7% of the DF to the US food supply. The DF composition of the white potato-with or without the skin and regardless of cooking method-compares well with the DF content of other vegetables. Many health benefits, including improved gastrointestinal health, are attributed to greater DF consumption; however, less than 3% of males and females have an adequate intake of DF. Because of this population-wide shortfall, DF is considered to be a nutrient of concern. In this study, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010, we examined the mean intake of DF across sex, age, race/ethnicity, family income, and poverty threshold. This study shows that mean intake of DF is far below recommendations, with children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years consuming an average of less than 14 g of DF per day. Adults 20+ years old consume, on average, about 17 g of DF per day, and men consume significantly more DF than women. Non-Hispanic black adults consume significantly less DF compared with other race/ethnic groups. Lower family income and living at less than 131% of poverty were associated with lower DF intakes among adults. Federal and local government policies should encourage consumption of all vegetables, including the white potato, as an important source of DF.

  16. 76 FR 38396 - Notice of Availability of Proposed Data Collection Standards for Race, Ethnicity, Primary... (United States)


    ... sexual orientation and gender identity. With this notice, the Office of Minority Health requests comment... this type of data. The focus was to develop data collection standards for race, ethnicity, sex,...

  17. Genetic parameters of racing merit of Thoroughbred horses in steeplechase races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Stefler


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate variance components of racing ability in Thoroughbreds involved in steeplechase races. Race results were collected from steeplechase races in France (n=9041, in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n=8314 and contained the results of overall 106 020 runs from 1998 to 2003. Performance was measured by two criteria: earnings and ranks after mathematical transformation. The effects of year, sex, age, and race were considered as fixed, animal, permanent environment and maternal as random. Maternal environmental component for ranks were 0.021 in France and 0.000 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Estimated heritabilities for the ranking criteria were 0.18 (repeatability 0.33 in France and 0.06 (repeatability 0.19 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The high genetic correlation between the two traits (0.94 and 0.97 gives the opportunity to find out the most suitable criteria for breeding value estimation.

  18. "What Is Critical Whiteness Doing in Our Nice Field Like Critical Race Theory?" Applying CRT and CWS to Understand the White Imaginations of White Teacher Candidates (United States)

    Matias, Cheryl E.; Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Garrison-Wade, Dorothy F.; Tandon, Madhavi; Galindo, Rene


    Critical Race Theory (CRT) revolutionized how we investigate race in education. Centralizing counter-stories from people of color becomes essential for decentralizing white normative discourse--a process we refer to as realities within the Black imagination. Yet, few studies examine how whites respond to centering the Black imagination, especially…

  19. Biogeographical ancestry and race. (United States)

    Gannett, Lisa


    The use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research is controversial-for example, in the comparison of disease risk in different groups or as a means of making use of or controlling for population structure in the mapping of genes to chromosomes. Biogeographical ancestry (BGA) has been recommended as a more accurate and appropriate category. BGA is a product of the collaboration between biological anthropologist Mark Shriver from Pennsylvania State University and molecular biologist Tony Frudakis from the now-defunct biotechnology start-up company DNAPrint genomics, Inc. Shriver and Frudakis portray BGA as a measure of the 'biological', 'genetic', 'natural', and 'objective' components of race and ethnicity, what philosophers of science would call a natural kind. This paper argues that BGA is not a natural kind that escapes social and political connotations of race and ethnicity, as Shriver and Frudakis and other proponents believe, but a construction that is built upon race-as race has been socially constructed in the European scientific and philosophical traditions. More specifically, BGA is not a global category of biological and anthropological classification but a local category shaped by the U.S. context of its production, especially the forensic aim of being able to predict the race or ethnicity of an unknown suspect based on DNA found at the crime scene. Therefore, caution needs to be exercised in the embrace of BGA as an alternative to the use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research.

  20. Gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health among Black South African men who have sex with men: A further exploration of unexpected findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Sandfort; H. Bos; J. Knox; V. Reddy


    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated,

  1. Decomposing Black-White Disparities in Heart Disease Mortality in the United States, 1973-2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis. (United States)

    Kramer, Michael R; Valderrama, Amy L; Casper, Michele L


    Against the backdrop of late 20th century declines in heart disease mortality in the United States, race-specific rates diverged because of slower declines among blacks compared with whites. To characterize the temporal dynamics of emerging black-white racial disparities in heart disease mortality, we decomposed race-sex-specific trends in an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of US mortality data for all diseases of the heart among adults aged ≥35 years from 1973 to 2010. The black-white gap was largest among adults aged 35-59 years (rate ratios ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 for men and from 2.3 to 4.0 for women) and widened with successive birth cohorts, particularly for men. APC model estimates suggested strong independent trends across generations ("cohort effects") but only modest period changes. Among men, cohort-specific black-white racial differences emerged in the 1920-1960 birth cohorts. The apparent strength of the cohort trends raises questions about life-course inequalities in the social and health environments experienced by blacks and whites which could have affected their biomedical and behavioral risk factors for heart disease. The APC results suggest that the genesis of racial disparities is neither static nor restricted to a single time scale such as age or period, and they support the importance of equity in life-course exposures for reducing racial disparities in heart disease.

  2. Viewing Race in the Comfort Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Hughes


    Full Text Available Carter suggests the concept of a “comfort zone” to explain the inability of dramatic African American programs to be successful on television. He argues that a workable formula has been developed for successful African American series, “portray black people in a way that would be acceptable to the millions of potential purchasers (whites of advertised products. That is, non-threatening and willing to ‘stay in their place.’”. Using a data set constructed from television ratings and shares, this study examines “black-centeredness” within the context of program success and failure. The comfort zone concept argues Black-centered television series are only successful in a comedic genre because White audiences, who have the majority of the ratings power, will only watch Black-centered series with which they are comfortable. The findings suggest that, in general, race, that is Black-centeredness, did not negatively influence program ratings or shares.

  3. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.


    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...... responses for the single stimuli. It has been pointed out that fast guesses (e.g. anticipatory responses) interfere with this test, and a correction procedure ('kill-the-twin' procedure) has been suggested. In this note we formally derive this procedure and extend it to the case in which redundant stimuli...... are presented with onset asynchrony. We demonstrate how the kill-the-twin procedure is used in a statistical test of the race model prediction....

  4. Research Sources and Microforms in Black Studies: An Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Ridinger, Robert B. Marks


    Analyzes 93 reference works and 23 microform collections concerning the Black American experience in 13 subject areas of the social sciences (anthropology, biography, race relations and civil rights, the Black church, communication studies, economics, education, dance, genealogy, Black history, sports, women's studies, and literature and language)…

  5. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19 May starting at 12-15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details of the course and of how to register your team for the relay race can be found here. Some advice for all runners from the Medical Service can also be found here.   

  6. [Content of Thyroid and Sex Steroid Hormones in Young-of-the-Year of Black Sea Trout Salmo trutta labrax from Two Spatial Groups for Different Duration of Starvation]. (United States)

    Pavlov, D S; Pavlov, E D; Ganzha, E V; Kostin, V V


    The content of thyroid and sex steroid hormones is determined in fish-farm juveniles of Black Sea trout 5.5 months old, from the bottom and pelagic spatial groups differing in the probability of future selection of the resident or anadromous life strategies, respectively. Differences in the concentration of the aforementioned hormones are found in young-of-the-year corresponding to those in the migratory and resident forms of yearlings of trout. In the juveniles from the pelagic group at the age 0+, the level of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and testosterone is higher than in specimens from the bottom group. Prolonged starvation results in a higher content of triiodthyronine, thyroxine, and testosterone in the blood of juveniles from both spatial groups. The concentration of estradiol-17β increases in pelagic specimens and decreases in bottom specimens.

  7. Passing the baton: Community-based ethnography to design a randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among Black men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Colson, Paul W; Parker, Caroline; Hirsch, Jennifer S


    Although HIV interventions and clinical trials increasingly report the use of mixed methods, studies have not reported on the process through which ethnographic or qualitative findings are incorporated into RCT designs. We conducted a community-based ethnography on social and structural factors that may affect the acceptance of and adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). We then devised the treatment arm of an adherence clinical trial drawing on findings from the community-based ethnography. This article describes how ethnographic findings informed the RCT and identifies distilled themes and findings that could be included as part of an RCT. The enhanced intervention includes in-person support groups, online support groups, peer navigation, and text message reminders. By describing key process-related facilitators and barriers to conducting meaningful mixed methods research, we provide important insights for the practice of designing clinical trials for 'real-world' community settings.

  8. Explaining Race, Poverty, and Gender Disparities in Advanced Course-Taking (United States)

    Conger, Dylan; Long, Mark C.; Iatarola, Patrice


    We use panel data on Florida high school students to examine race, poverty, and gender disparities in advanced course-taking. While white students are more likely to take advanced courses than black and Hispanic students, these disparities are eliminated when we condition on observable pre-high school characteristics. In fact, black and Hispanic…

  9. A Political Investment: Revisiting Race and Racism in the Research Process (United States)

    Rollock, Nicola


    This paper draws upon a two-year Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded study into the educational strategies of the black middle classes to examine the role of race and racism in the research process. Specifically, it explores how my political positioning and experiences of racism, as a black female scholar, shaped not only my…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Štrbac


    Full Text Available Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of year and month of birth, sex, year and season of race, age, racetrack, distance and type of start on trotter horse racing times. Data from the Association for Trotting Sport of Serbia (UKSS for the registered horses and races in the period from 1998 to 2010 were used. The database is comprised of data for 1263 horses over a total of 14398 races. After calculating descriptive statistics of racing times, the effect of fixed factors using the general linear model (GLM was examined. The average racing time achieved was 84.21s, and ranged from 73.8 to 132.2s. All of the tested factors had a statistically significant effect on the observed racing times. Thus, each of these factors should be included in future models for genetic prediction of the suitability of animals use as parents of further generations of racing trotters. This should increase the rate of genetic progress and competitiveness of the animals at both national and international levels.

  11. Race to catch up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, Johannes


    In summer 2010, Manz AG presented a turnkey concept for producing thin-film modules made of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide. Faced with a massive drop in prices, the equipment manufacturer has now made improvements. Thin-film modules made of micromorphous silicon, on the other hand, are increasingly struggling to keep up in this race. (orig.)

  12. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul


    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour...

  13. Race, Racism, and Darwinism (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.


    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  14. Aerodynamics of Race Cars (United States)

    Katz, Joseph


    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  15. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.


    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  16. 2005 CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez


    The CERN Relay Race takes place each year in May and sees participants from all areas of the CERN staff. The winners in 2005 were The Shabbys with Los Latinos Volantes in second and Charmilles Technologies a close third. To add a touch of colour and levity, the CERN Jazz Club provided music at the finishing line.

  17. Academicians and Race Relations (United States)

    Hildebrand, Robert F.


    Discusses the activities and attitudes of a group of academicians active in one area of current social change--race relations--in a mideastern urban area, with respect to their roles and their institutions' roles in the current social change. (Author/JM)

  18. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke


    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  19. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke


    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  20. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN relay race, now in its 39th year, is already a well-known tradition, but this year the organizers say the event will have even more of a festival feeling. Just off the starting line of the CERN relay race.For the past few years, spectators and runners at the CERN relay race have been able to enjoy a beer while listening to music from the CERN music and jazz clubs. But this year the organizers are aiming for "even more of a festival atmosphere". As David Nisbet, President of the CERN running club and organizer of the relay race, says: "Work is not just about getting your head down and doing the theory, it’s also about enjoying the company of your colleagues." This year, on top of music from the Santa Luis Band and the Canettes Blues Band, there will be demonstrations from the Aikido and softball clubs, a stretching session by the Fitness club, as well as various stalls and of course, the well-earned beer from AGLUP, the B...

  1. Molecular analysis allows inference into HIV transmission among young men who have sex with men in the United States (United States)

    WHITESIDE, Y. Omar; SONG, Ruiguang; WERTHEIM, Joel O.; OSTER, Alexandra M.


    Objective To understand the spread of HIV among and between age and racial/ethnic groups of men who engage in male-to-male sexual contact (men who have sex with men, MSM) in the United States. Design Analysis of HIV-1 pol sequences for MSM collected through the U.S. National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS) during 2001–2012. Methods Pairwise genetic distance was calculated to determine potential transmission partners (those with very closely related nucleotide sequences, i.e., distance ≤1.5%). We described race/ethnicity and age of potential transmission partners of MSM. Results Of 23,048 MSM with HIV sequences submitted to NHSS during 2000–2012, we identified potential transmission partners for 8,880 (39%). Most potential transmission partners were of the same race/ethnicity (78% for blacks/African Americans, 64% for whites, and 49% for Hispanics/Latinos). This assortative mixing was even more pronounced in the youngest age groups. Significantly fewer young black/African American and Hispanic/Latino MSM had older potential transmission partners compared with young white MSM. Conclusion Black/African American MSM, who are more profoundly affected by HIV, were more likely to have potential HIV transmission partners who were of the same race/ethnicity and similar in age, suggesting that disparities in HIV infections are in large part not due to age-disassortative relationships. Concerted efforts to increase access to pre-exposure prophylaxis, quality HIV care, and effective treatment are needed to interrupt transmission chains among young, black/African American MSM. PMID:26558547

  2. Dose-response associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and subsequent childhood obesity: effect modification by maternal race/ethnicity in a low-income US cohort. (United States)

    Sharma, Andrea J; Cogswell, Mary E; Li, Ruowei


    Studies suggest that children exposed to cigarette smoke in utero are at risk of becoming obese. Few researchers have evaluated the dose-response association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity or whether this association varies by maternal race/ethnicity. The authors obtained retrospective cohort data by linking records from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System and the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System on 155,411 low-income children born during 1995-2001 in 9 US states and 2 tribal nations. The authors examined maternal smoking status, duration of smoking, quantity of smoking, and both duration and quantity combined. Childhood obesity was based on a body mass index greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for sex and age, assessed at age 2-4 years. Maternal race/ethnicity modified the association between smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity. Among non-Hispanic White mothers, both duration and quantity of smoking were positively associated with childhood obesity in a dose-response manner. Among non-Hispanic Black mothers, only heavy smoking was positively associated with childhood obesity. Among Hispanics, American Indians/Alaska Natives, and Asians/Pacific Islanders, smoking was not associated with childhood obesity. The inconsistent association between smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity across race/ethnicity categories merits further investigation into potential explanations for this variation, which may include confounding, reporting bias, or unexplored biologic mechanisms.

  3. Testing the Invariance of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey's Sexual Behavior Questionnaire Across Gender, Ethnicity/Race, and Generation. (United States)

    Zhou, Anne Q; Hsueh, Loretta; Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Sotelo, Frank L; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A


    Federal and state policies are based on data from surveys that examine sexual-related cognitions and behaviors through self-reports of attitudes and actions. No study has yet examined their factorial invariance--specifically, whether the relationship between items assessing sexual behavior and their underlying construct differ depending on gender, ethnicity/race, or age. This study examined the factor structure of four items from the sexual behavior questionnaire part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). As NHANES provided different versions of the survey per gender, invariance was tested across gender to determine whether subsequent tests across ethnicity/race and generation could be done across gender. Items were not invariant across gender groups so data files for women and men were not collapsed. Across ethnicity/race for both genders, and across generation for women, items were configurally invariant, and exhibited metric invariance across Latino/Latina and Black participants for both genders. Across generation for men, the configural invariance model could not be identified so the baseline models were examined. The four item one factor model fit well for the Millennial and GenerationX groups but was a poor fit for the baby boomer and silent generation groups, suggesting that gender moderated the invariance across generation. Thus, comparisons between ethnic/racial and generational groups should not be made between the genders or even within gender. Findings highlight the need for programs and interventions that promote a more inclusive definition of "having had sex."

  4. Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men. (United States)

    Wulaningsih, W; Van Hemelrijck, M; Michaelsson, K; Kanarek, N; Nelson, W G; Ix, J H; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S


    Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). From NHANES III, we selected 1412 men aged 20+ who participated in the morning session of Phase I (1988-1991) with serum measurements of Pi, sex hormones, and vitamin D. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate crude and geometric mean Pi by total and estimated free testosterone and estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (AAG), and vitamin D. Similar analyses were performed while stratifying by race/ethnicity and vitamin D levels. We found a lack of statistically significant difference in geometric means of Pi across quintiles of concentrations of sex hormones, indicating a tight regulation of Pi. However, Pi levels were inversely associated with calculated free testosterone in non-Hispanic black men, with geometric mean levels of Pi of 1.16 and 1.02 ng/mL for those in the lowest and highest quintiles of free testosterone, respectively (p-trend sex hormones, vitamin D, and Pi in men. The observed effects of race/ethnicity and vitamin D indicate a complex association involving various regulators of Pi homeostasis.

  5. Why bioethics cannot figure out what to do with race. (United States)

    Burton, Olivette R


    Race and religion are integral parts of bioethics. Harm and oppression, with the aim of social and political control, have been wrought in the name of religion against Blacks and people of color as embodied in the Ten Commandments, the Inquisition, and in the history of the Holy Crusades. Missionaries came armed with Judeo/Christian beliefs went to nations of people of color who had their own belief systems and forced change and caused untold harms because the indigenous belief systems were incompatible with their own. The indigenous people were denounced as ungodly, pagan, uncivilized, and savage. Hence, laws were enacted because of their perceived need to structure a sense of morality and to create and build a culture for these indigenous people of color. To date bioethics continues to be informed by a Western worldview that is Judeo/Christian in belief and orientation. However, missing from bioethical discourse in America is the historical influence of the Black Church as a cultural repository, which continues to influence the culture of Africans and Blacks. Cultural aspects of peoples of color are still largely ignored today. In attempting to deal with issues of race while steering clear of the religious and cultural impact of the Black Church, bioethics finds itself in the middle of a distressing situation: it simply cannot figure out what to do with race.

  6. The Institutional Decimation of Black American Males. (United States)

    Stewart, James B.; Scott, Joseph W.


    In 1970, there were 85 Black men for every 100 Black women in major American cities. Factors which produced this imbalance in the sex ratio of Blacks include educational, health care, public assistance, and penal correction systems, labor market mechanisms, and the military. (Author/MC)

  7. Nutrition for adventure racing. (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K


    Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance.

  8. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club


    This year’s CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20th May at 12h00. This annual event is for teams of 6 runners covering distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner receives a souvenir prize. As usual, there will be a programme of entertainments from 12h in the arrival area, in front of the Restaurant no. 1. Drinks, food, CERN club information and music will be available for the pleasure of both runners and spectators. The race starts at 12h15, with results and prize giving at 13:15.   For details of the race, and of how to sign up a team, please visit: The event is organised by the CERN Running Club with the support of the CERN Staff Association.  

  9. Space race functional responses. (United States)

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran


    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats.

  10. The racing dragon

    CERN Multimedia


    Dating back nearly 2000 years, the ancient Chinese tradition of Dragon Boat Racing was originally a celebration that fell on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month as a gesture to please the Gods and bring forth necessary rains to cultivate the lands. Now the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, too, participates in this tradition, though not so much to please the Gods on the ritualistic date, but to bring forth giant smiles on the faces of members. Dragon Boat Racing has been rising steadily in popularity in Europe since the mid nineties and with the great potential to host and promote Dragon Boat Racing in the Geneva area, the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, has taken the initiative to bring the sport to the region. Some members of the Club traveled to Dole in June to participate in the Festival Dragon Boat 2009. Under perfect sunny conditions, the team triumphed in their first ever tournament, cruising to a convincing first place overall finish. T...

  11. Improved survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and disparities by age, race, and socioeconomic status by decade, 1983–2012 (United States)

    Li, Jie; Hong, Guobin; Li, Dan; Mallampati, Saradhi; Zhou, Xiuling; Zhou, Cuiling; Zhang, Hongyu; Cheng, Zhibin; Shan, Hong; Ma, Haiqing


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), accounting for the majority of liver cancer, is a highly aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis and therefore adds up the financial burden. Incidence data of HCC in three decades during 1983-2012 were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database with incidence rates of 1.9, 3.1 and 4.9 per 100,000 respectively. In addition, to evaluate the survival changes in the same period, a total of 63,640 HCC cancer cases were accessed from SEER database. The six-month relative survival rates improved each decade from 31.0% to 42.9% to 57.2% and the higher increase can be seen in the last two decades. More importantly, the disparities of survival among different racial groups and socioeconomic status (SES) were confirmed by the inferiority of survival in Black race and high-poverty group respectively. This research analyzed the incidence and survival data of HCC in the past three decades and may help predict the future trends of incidence and survival. Furthermore, this study may help better design healthcare policies and clinical management programs to balance the disparities of survival between SES groups, races, ages and sexes confirmed in this study and thereby improve the clinical management of HCC. PMID:27486977

  12. Nursing Career Choice and Holland's Theory: Are Men and Blacks Different? (United States)

    Hecht, Amy B.


    Examined race and sex differences in personality profile among nursing students. The Self Directed Search was administered to students entering baccalaureate nursing programs. Results generally supported Holland's typology. Race and sex differences in SDS codes were not significant. Some differences were found in socioeconomic characteristics.…

  13. Genetics against race: Science, politics and affirmative action in Brazil. (United States)

    Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter


    This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil's black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social--rather than a biological--category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences.

  14. Gender Nonconformity, Discrimination, and Mental Health Among Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Further Exploration of Unexpected Findings. (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo; Bos, Henny; Knox, Justin; Reddy, Vasu


    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated, and to explore more in-depth how gender nonconformity relates to health. Cook et al. found that feminine men were not more likely to be depressed despite the observation that they were more likely to be discriminated against and that discrimination increased the likelihood of depression. This is in contrast to what studies among gay and bisexual men in Western countries have consistently shown. In the current study, 196 Black South African MSM (ages between 18 and 40; M age, 26.65 years) were surveyed. Assessments included stressors (identity confusion, internalized homophobia, and sexual orientation-based discrimination) and resilience factors (openness about one's sexual orientation, social support, and identification with the gay community). We observed that gender-nonconforming men were not more likely to be depressed despite having experienced more discrimination, which was associated with depression. The same relationships were observed when considering anxiety as the mental health outcome. We found an indirect negative effect of gender nonconformity on depression through internalized homophobia, suggesting that, in this population, internalized homophobia masks the effect of discrimination on mental distress. Implications for the sexual minority stress model, used to guide our analyses, are discussed. Further research is needed to disentangle the complex relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health among MSM populations.

  15. O efeito do sexo: políticas de raça, gênero e miscigenação The effect of sex: race, gender and miscegenation politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmundo de Araújo Pinho


    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma discussão das implicações políticas e teóricas da miscigenação como uma formação discursiva, que produz como seu centro a figura idealizada e essencializada do mestiço - mulata ou mulato. Em segundo lugar, toma o caso concreto da construção de duas figuras de gênero racializadas no ambiente da chamada reafricanização da cultura e da política em Salvador: o brau e a beleza negra. O primeiro, uma performance masculina hiper-sexualizada e agressiva, marcada por releituras juvenis vernáculas da "cultura" funk-soul; a segunda, um ideal de mulher e de beleza feminina, oscilante entre políticas de identidade e formas de subjetivação definidas pela relação com o mercado. Em ambos os casos, observa-se a encenação de uma crítica prática ao "regime de verdade" da miscigenação.This article discusses political and theoretical implications of miscegenation as a discursive formation, which engenders in its center the idealized character of the mestizo - mulatto. Secondly, it takes the concrete case of two racialized gender figures in the context of the so called re-Africanization of culture and politics in Salvador, Brazil: brau and black beauty. The first, a hyper-sexualized male performance, characterized by youth vernacular re-readings of the funk-soul "culture", and the second, an ideal of woman and female beauty oscillating between identity politics and subjectification forms defined by the relationship with the consumer market. In both cases there is a game constructed from a practical critique of the "truth regime" of miscegenation.

  16. Intergenerational transmission of prejudice, sex role stereotyping, and intolerance. (United States)

    O'Bryan, Megan; Fishbein, Harold D; Ritchey, P Neal


    The attitudes of 111 ninth and eleventh graders and both of their biological parents were independently assessed for prejudice against people with HIV/ AIDS, homosexuals, Blacks, and fat people, as well as for male and female sex role stereotyping. This study corrected for two shortcomings in previous research: neglecting to assess both parents and assessing only a single domain of prejudice. We addressed the intergenerational transmission of prejudice and stereotyping using three competing models: same-sex, parent equivalent, and differential effects. Using multiple regressions in which parents' scores were entered separately, along with control variables, different maternal and paternal influences were detected. Mothers were the primary influence for prejudice regarding HIV/AIDS, fatness, and race, and fathers were the primary influence for male and female stereotyping and prejudice against homosexuals, supporting the differential effects model. We also established that prejudice and stereotyping in specific domains reflected a more general proclivity to be intolerant. In contrast to prejudice and stereotyping in specific domains, fathers and mothers about equally shaped the adolescents' intolerance, supporting the parent equivalent model.

  17. Racing for the Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    No one knows when the people ofMacheng City began to employthe marriage custom of racingfor the bed, once a custom unique to theTujia ethnic minority. It is said that at the end of awedding, bride and bridegroom enter thebridal chamber together and race for thebed. The one who is the first to sit on thebed will be the master of the new familyIt sounds unreasonable, but quite anumber of people believe in it.Therefore, on the wedding night, manybrides and bridegrooms try their best to

  18. Race By Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller


    In this paper, we explore the qualities of sharing biometric data in re- al-time between athletes, in order to increase two motivational factors for gym- goers: Enjoyment and social interaction. We present a novel smartphone appli- cation, called Race By Hearts, which enables competition based...... on heart rate data sharing between users in real-time. Through an empirical study conducted in the gym, we show that sharing biometric data in real-time can strengthen so- cial relations between participants, increase motivation, and improve the en- joyment of the fitness activity. Nevertheless, we found...

  19. Dietary Patterns Derived Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis are Stable and Generalizable Across Race, Region, and Gender Subgroups in the REGARDS Study (United States)

    Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Shikany, James M.; Roth, David L.; Newby, P. K.


    Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of intake patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups. Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who completed the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, and sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the “Convenience” pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the “Plant-based” pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the “Sweets/Fats” pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the “Southern” pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the “Alcohol/Salads” pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusion: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex, and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts. PMID:25988129

  20. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander


    ’s a lifestyle I enjoy.” For Monáe, the tuxedo is both working clothes and a superhero uniform. Together with futuristic references to Fritz Lang’s dystopian Metropolis, her trademark starched shirt and tuxedo also recall Weimar and pre-war Berlin. While outwardly dissimilar, Sioux’s and Monáe’s shared black...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses....

  1. Unity in diversity: results of a randomized clinical culturally tailored pilot HIV prevention intervention trial in Baltimore, Maryland, for African American men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Tobin, Karin; Kuramoto, Satoko J; German, Danielle; Fields, Errol; Spikes, Pilgrim S; Patterson, Jocelyn; Latkin, Carl


    Unity in Diversity was a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored HIV prevention intervention for African American men who have sex with men. The intervention condition was six group-based sessions and one individual session. The control condition was a single-session HIV prevention review. Participants were aged 18 years or older, identified as African American/Black race, reported having at least two sex partners in the prior 90 days (at least one of whom must be a male partner), unprotected anal sex with male partner in the prior 90 days, and willing to test for HIV. Retention exceeded 95% at 3-month follow-up. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for baseline risk, HIV status, and health insurance indicate intervention efficacy in decreasing the number of male sex partners and marginal effects on condom use with male partners and HIV-negative/unknown partners. Specifically, intervention condition was associated with increased odds of zero male sex partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26-7.28), condom use with male partners (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 0.95-7.36), and HIV-negative/unknown status partners (AOR = 3.19, 95% CI = 0.98-10.38) at follow-up. These results contribute to the limited number of culturally appropriate models of HIV prevention intervention that are urgently needed for African American men who have sex with men to address their persistently high rates of HIV.

  2. Embracing Race: Why We Need Race-Conscious Education Policy. (United States)

    Moses, Michele S.

    This book examines unsolved issues of race and education, emphasizing four major race-conscious education policies: bilingual education, multicultural curricula, affirmative action, and remedial education. It suggests that such policies are critical to fostering self-determination and personal autonomy in students who would otherwise receive a…

  3. When is 'race' a race? 1946-2003. (United States)

    Gissis, Snait B


    There has been a widely perceived sense of a contemporary resurgence of the category of race in western genetics, epidemiology and medicine. In what follows, some important American and British journals in these fields are surveyed for their content from 1946-2003, with the aim of comparatively tracing the use of the race category among American, British and Israeli authors. Three crucial stages are delineated along this time line, and the correlations between the use of the race category and developments in genetics, as well as the changing guidelines for researchers in the USA, are examined. Concepts of individuality and collectivity in the three fields are analysed in relation to the use of 'race' in the surveyed journals; there follows also a discussion of some recent critical reflections on that use. It is concluded that there has been both continuity in, and reconstruction of, the roles of 'race' within the genetic/medical discourse.

  4. Risk factors and hospitalization costs of Dementia patients: Examining race and gender variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baqar Husaini


    Full Text Available Aims: To examine the variation in risk factors and hospitalization costs among four elderly dementia cohorts by race and gender. Materials and Methods: The 2008 Tennessee Hospital Discharged database was examined. The prevalence, risk factors and cost of inpatient care of dementia were examined for individuals aged 65 years and above, across the four race gender cohorts - white males (WM, black males (BM, white females (WF, and black females (BF. Results: 3.6% of patients hospitalized in 2008 had dementia. Dementia was higher among females than males, and higher among blacks than whites. Further, BF had higher prevalence of dementia than WF; similarly, BM had a higher prevalence of dementia than WM. Overall, six risk factors were associated with dementia for the entire sample including HTN, DM, CKD, CHF, COPD, and stroke. These risk factors varied slightly in predicting dementia by race and gender. Hospital costs were 14% higher among dementia patients compared to non-dementia patients. Conclusions: There exist significant race and gender disparities in prevalence of dementia. A greater degree of co-morbidity, increased duration of hospital stay, and more frequent hospitalizations, may result in a higher cost of inpatient dementia care. Aggressive management of risk factors may subsequently reduce stroke and cost of dementia care, especially in the black population. Race and gender dependent milestones for management of these risk factors should be considered.

  5. Sex Stereotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper analyzes the social phenomenon—sex stereotype.The paper illustrates the characteristics of stereotype and discusses about the factors which influence sex stereotypes and the reasons of its existence.And it also found the positive role that sex stereotype plays in the communication.

  6. Teacher Race and School Discipline (United States)

    Lindsay, Constance A.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.


    Does having a teacher of the same race make it more or less likely that students are subject to exclusionary school discipline? In this study, the authors analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at…

  7. Two Patterns of Race Relations. (United States)

    Bonilla, Eduardo Seda

    What North Americans term "race" is not structurally isomorphic to and, thus, not synonymous with what Latin Americans apply the term to. The social identities determined by "race", and consequently the expected behavior ascribed to these identities, are so dissimilar that meetings between persons of both cultures produce uncertainty and discord.…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This annual horse race takes place in every township of the north Tibetan grassland,one by one,starting from August 1st. The principal activities are usually a horse race and a blessing by touching the foreheads of people by a Rinpoche.

  9. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart;

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  10. 2008 annual CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia


    Dear runners, The 2008 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 24 September at 6.00 p.m. This 5.4 km race consists of 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. Past races have attracted runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, with starting times staggered to ensure that (in theory) all runners finish together. However, if the popularity of the race continues to grow (95 runners took part last year), its format may be modified to a classic single start. For more information and to complete the online entry form, go to

  11. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 18 May between 12.15 and 12.35. This year, weather permitting, there will be some new attractions in the start/finish area on the field behind the Main Building. You will be able to: listen to music played by the CERN Jazz Club; buy drinks at the bar organised by the CERN Running Club; buy lunch served directly on the terrace by the restaurant Novae. ATTENTION: concerning traffic, the recommendations are the same as always: If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  12. Making Waves: The Theory and Practice of Black Feminism. (United States)

    Taylor, Ula Y.


    Identifies crucial elements of black feminist theory as they surface in the scholarship and activism of black women at the end of the second wave of feminism in the 1970s and the beginnings of the third wave of feminism in the 1980s and 1990s. Socially constructed categories of race and power are emphasized. (SLD)

  13. Rate of renal cell carcinoma subtypes in different races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sankin


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We sought to identify racial differences among histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC between black and non-black patients in an equal-access health care system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established a multi-institutional, prospective database of patients undergoing partial or radical nephrectomy between January 1, 2000 and Sept 31, 2009. For the purposes of this study, data captured included age at diagnosis, race, tumor size, presence of lymphovascular invasion, presence of capsular invasion, margin status, and tumor histology. RESULTS: 204 kidney tumors were identified (Table-1. Of these, 117 (57.4% were in black patients and 87 (42.6% were in non-black patients. Age at surgery ranged from 37 to 87 with a median of 62. Tumor size ranged from 1.0 to 22.0 cm with a median of 5.0 cm. Overall, tumors were composed of clear cell RCC in 97 cases (47.5%, papillary RCC in 65 cases (31.9%, chromophobe RCC in 13 cases (6.4%, collecting duct/medullary RCC in 2 cases (1.0%, RCC with multiple histological subtypes in 8 cases (3.9%, malignant tumors of other origin in 6 cases (2.9%, and benign histology in 13 cases (6.4%. Among black patients, papillary RCC was seen in 56 cases (47.9%, compared to 9 cases (10.3% among non-black patients (p < 0.001 (Table-2. Clear cell RCC was present in 38 (32.5% of black patients and in 59 (67.8% of non-blacks (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, papillary RCC had a much higher occurrence among black patients compared to non-black patients. This is the first study to document such a great racial disparity among RCC subtypes.

  14. Black and white women's attitudes toward interracial marriage. (United States)

    Paset, P S; Taylor, R D


    50 white women and 50 black women, US citizens between the ages 18 and 23 years, were asked to rate their attitudes about interracial marriage on a 10-point response scale. The white women were somewhat more favorable, if not significantly so, than the black women about men and women of their race marrying persons of another race. However, scorers at the extremes of the scale were significantly different. The white women tended to cluster at the scale extreme favoring interracial marriage, whereas the black women tended to cluster at the other unfavorable extreme. Implications and research needs are discussed.

  15. AFSC/RACE/GAP: RACE Groundfish Survey Photo Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Groundfish Assessment Program (GAP) is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and...

  16. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle A Mode

    Full Text Available Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675. At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03, with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001. Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04. While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  17. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality. (United States)

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B


    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (pincome inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  18. The Black Hole in Science Ranks. (United States)

    Rasekoala, Elizabeth

    This paper reviews four decades of research on race and education in Great Britain and discusses the deficit theories of underachievement that serve as the structure of most of the studies. Focus is placed on black youth of Caribbean origin and how they perform in British schools. Consideration is also given to constructive frameworks from gender…

  19. From navigation to negotiation: an examination of the lived experiences of Black gay male alumni of historically Black colleges and universities. (United States)

    Ford, Obie


    This research presents an examination of Black gay men and their lived experiences while undergraduates at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Based on 10 in-depth interviews with self-identified Black gay men, the author presents four emergent themes, which reveal the complex ways in which Black gay men navigate and negotiate the intersections of their multiple identities as related to race, sexual orientation, and gender at HBCUs. The findings of this research have implications for larger discussions of community, Black masculinity, and gay identity in predominantly Black and non-Black contexts.

  20. Adventure Racing for the Rest of Us (United States)

    Moorman, Marta K.; English, Kathleen A.


    Adventure racing got started in the 1990s. The Eco-Challenge and Primal Quest races were multi-day events that included challenging physical activities and extreme conditions. Today, highly publicized adventure races like the Eco-Challenge and Amazing Race usually feature elite athletes or celebrities completing exotic tasks or globe-hopping to…

  1. Les performances de la race taurine Somba en milieu paysan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adoméfa, K.


    Full Text Available The Performances of Somba Cattle Race in Rural Area. Aiming to improve and preserve Somba cattle race in its birthplace, morphometrical and zootechnical characterisations studies have been managed from November 1995 to November 1996. White-black coat is the most represented. It was followed by blackwhite, black and fawn. The Somba cattle race is small sized with 96.6 cm to the withers and 172 ± 13 kg weight. The barymetrical equation established for all age animals is P= 139.10-6(PT2.88 with a determination coefficient of 0.98. The birth weight is 12 ± 3 kg. The daily weight gains range from 96 g/day between 1 and 2 years to 104 g/day between 2 and 3 years. The fertility rate is 60.9%, and first calving age is 5 years. The interval between calvings is 18 months. The productivity per cow is 0.58 calf a year or 26.59 kg of calf and the productivity per 100 kg of cow is 15.92 kg calf. Those parameters show that the Somba is small sized and height but is prolific with a fertility rate of 60.9% in the harsh conditions in which the animals move. The breeding improvement would pass by the breeding environment improvement as feeding, watering and animal health; the bull-calves castration and to moderate milking in order to insure a better development of calves in the herds.

  2. Is race a 'salient…' or 'dominant identity' in the early 21st century: The evidence of UK survey data on respondents' sense of who they are. (United States)

    Aspinall, Peter J; Song, Miri


    The term 'master status', coined by Everett Hughes in 1945 with special reference to race, was conceptualised as one which, in most social situations, will dominate all others. Since then race and other collective social identities have become key features of people's lives, shaping their 'life scripts'. But is race still a 'master' or 'dominant identity' and, if not, what has replaced it? Analyses of recent social surveys show that race has lost its position to family, religion (in the South Asian and Black groups) and (amongst young mixed race people) also age/life-stage and study/work. However, many of these different identity attributes are consistently selected, suggesting the possibility - confirmed in in-depth interviews - that they may work through each other via intersectionality. In Britain race appears to have been undermined by the rise of 'Muslim' identity, the increasing importance of 'mixed race', and the fragmentation of identity now increasingly interwoven with other attributes like religion.

  3. The 2009 Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The 2009 CERN Relay Race was as popular as ever, with a record number of 88 teams competing. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://', 'false', 288, 216, '', '1178303', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); Even the rain didn’t dampen the spirits, and it still managed to capture the ‘festival feeling’ with live music, beer and stalls from various CERN clubs set up outside Restaurant 1. The Powercuts on the podium after win...

  4. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  5. Oxytocin eliminates the own-race bias in face recognition memory. (United States)

    Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Pezdek, Kathy; Saldivar, Sesar; Steelman, Erin


    The neuropeptide Oxytocin influences a number of social behaviors, including processing of faces. We examined whether Oxytocin facilitates the processing of out-group faces and reduce the own-race bias (ORB). The ORB is a robust phenomenon characterized by poor recognition memory of other-race faces compared to the same-race faces. In Experiment 1, participants received intranasal solutions of Oxytocin or placebo prior to viewing White and Black faces. On a subsequent recognition test, whereas in the placebo condition the same-race faces were better recognized than other-race faces, in the Oxytocin condition Black and White faces were equally well recognized, effectively eliminating the ORB. In Experiment 2, Oxytocin was administered after the study phase. The ORB resulted, but Oxytocin did not significantly reduce the effect. This study is the first to show that Oxytocin can enhance face memory of out-group members and underscore the importance of social encoding mechanisms underlying the own-race bias. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav.

  6. Chromosome landmarks and autosome-sex chromosome translocations in Rumex hastatulus, a plant with XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system. (United States)

    Grabowska-Joachimiak, Aleksandra; Kula, Adam; Książczyk, Tomasz; Chojnicka, Joanna; Sliwinska, Elwira; Joachimiak, Andrzej J


    Rumex hastatulus is the North American endemic dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. It is differentiated into two chromosomal races: Texas (T) race characterised by a simple XX/XY sex chromosome system and North Carolina (NC) race with a polymorphic XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system. The gross karyotype morphology in NC race resembles the derived type, but chromosomal changes that occurred during its evolution are poorly understood. Our C-banding/DAPI and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments demonstrated that Y chromosomes of both races are enriched in DAPI-positive sequences and that the emergence of polymorphic sex chromosome system was accompanied by the break of ancestral Y chromosome and switch in the localization of 5S rDNA, from autosomes to sex chromosomes (X and Y2). Two contrasting domains were detected within North Carolina Y chromosomes: the older, highly heterochromatinised, inherited from the original Y chromosome and the younger, euchromatic, representing translocated autosomal material. The flow-cytometric DNA estimation showed ∼3.5 % genome downsizing in the North Carolina race. Our results are in contradiction to earlier reports on the lack of heterochromatin within Y chromosomes of this species and enable unambiguous identification of autosomes involved in the autosome-heterosome translocation, providing useful chromosome landmarks for further studies on the karyotype and sex chromosome differentiation in this species.

  7. Prejudice Is More than Black and White (United States)

    Davis, Marlene A.


    Describes a simple pictorial exercise to identify and explore elementary school students' preconceived notions about sex, race, and physical disabilities. By constructively challenging these attitudes, teachers can help students realize how unfounded these views are. Such activities should occur year-round, not just on Martin Luther King's…

  8. Race-Based Health Disparities and the Digital Divide: Implications for Nursing Practice. (United States)

    Price, Zula


    Knowledge of the sources of race-based health disparities could improve nursing practice and education in minority underserved communities. This purpose of this paper was to consider if Black-nonBlack health disparities were at least in part explained by Black-nonBlack disparities in access to Internet-based health information. With data on the U.S. adult population from the 2012 General Social Survey, the parameters of a health production function in which computer usage as an input was estimated. It was found that while there are Black-nonBlack disparities in health, once computer usage was accounted for, Black-nonBlack health disparities disappeared. This suggests nursing and health interventions that improve Internet access for Black patients in underserved communities could improve the health of Black Americans and close the racial health disparities gap. These findings complement recent nursing researchfindings that suggest closing Black-nonBlack disparities in computer access, the "digital divide," can render nursing practice more effective in providing care to minority and underserved communities.

  9. Stacking the Jury: Legal Professionals' Peremptory Challenges Reflect Jurors' Levels of Implicit Race Bias. (United States)

    Morrison, Mike; DeVaul-Fetters, Amanda; Gawronski, Bertram


    Most legal systems are based on the premise that defendants are treated as innocent until proven guilty and that decisions will be unbiased and solely based on the facts of the case. The validity of this assumption has been questioned for cases involving racial minority members, in that racial bias among jury members may influence jury decisions. The current research shows that legal professionals are adept at identifying jurors with levels of implicit race bias that are consistent with their legal interests. Using a simulated voir dire, professionals assigned to the role of defense lawyer for a Black defendant were more likely to exclude jurors with high levels of implicit race bias, whereas prosecutors of a Black defendant did the opposite. There was no relation between professionals' peremptory challenges and jurors' levels of explicit race bias. Implications for the role of racial bias in legal decision making are discussed.

  10. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E


    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  11. Trends in Marital Happiness by Gender and Race, 1973 to 2006 (United States)

    Corra, Mamadi; Carter, Shannon K.; Carter, J. Scott; Knox, David


    This article uses data from the 1973-2006 General Social Survey to assess the interactive impact of race and gender on marital happiness over time. Findings indicate independent and significant effects for both variables, with Whites and husbands reporting greater marital happiness than Blacks and wives. Comparing four subgroups (White husbands,…

  12. A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Own- and Cross-Race Face Spaces (United States)

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.


    We examined predictions derived from Valentine's (1991) Multidimensional Space (MDS) framework for own- and other-race face processing. A set of 20 computerized faces was generated from a single prototype. Each face was saved as Black and White, changing only skin tone, such that structurally identical faces were represented in both race…

  13. Race/Ethnicity and Early Mathematics Skills: Relations between Home, Classroom, and Mathematics Achievement (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Susan; Galindo, Claudia


    This study used Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort data to examine influences of the home and classroom learning environments on kindergarten mathematics achievement of Black, Latino, and White children. Regardless of race/ethnicity, children who started kindergarten proficient in mathematics earned spring scores about 7-8…

  14. Perceptions of Police Disrespect during Vehicle Stops: A Race-Based Analysis (United States)

    Warren, Patricia Y.


    Blacks and Whites perceive American social institutions in very different terms, and views of the police are no exception. Prior research has consistently demonstrated that race is one of the most salient predictors of attitudes toward the police, with African Americans expressing more dissatisfaction than Whites. The purpose of this research is…

  15. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality (United States)

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.


    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

  16. A prospective study of statin use and mortality among 67,385 blacks and whites in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipworth L


    Full Text Available Loren Lipworth,1 Sergio Fazio,1,2 Edmond K Kabagambe,1 Heather M Munro,3 Victor C Nwazue,1 Robert E Tarone,3 Joseph K McLaughlin,3 William J Blot,1,3 Uchechukwu KA Sampson1,2,41Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; 4Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USAPurpose: The primary objective of this study is to examine the race-specific associations between statin use and overall mortality, as well as cardiovascular and cancer mortality, among blacks and whites in the Southeastern United States (US. Little is known about these associations in blacks.Patients and methods: The Southern Community Cohort Study is an ongoing, prospective cohort study, which enrolled from 2002 through 2009 nearly 86,000 participants aged 40–79 years. We used Cox regression models to estimate race-specific hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI for overall and cause-specific mortality associated with statin use based on self-reported hypercholesterolemia and treatment at cohort entry. Mean age at cohort entry was 51.4 years in blacks (n=48,825 and 53.5 years in whites (n=18,560. Sixty-one percent of participants were women. Whites were more likely to have self-reported hypercholesterolemia (40% versus 27%, P<0.001, and to report being treated with either statins (52% versus 47%, P<0.001 or combination lipid therapy (9% versus 4%, P<0.001 compared with blacks, regardless of sex. During follow-up (median: 5.6 years 5,199 participants died. Compared with untreated hypercholesterolemic individuals, statin use was associated with reduced all-cause mortality (adjusted HR [aHR] 0.86; 95% CI 0.77–0.95 and cardiovascular disease mortality overall (aHR 0.75; 95% CI 0.64–0.89 and among whites (aHR 0.67; 95

  17. Race or Resource? BMI, Race, and Other Social Factors as Risk Factors for Interlimb Differences among Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors with Lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine T. Dean


    Full Text Available Introduction. High BMI is a risk factor for upper body breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL onset. Black cancer survivors are more likely to have high BMI than White cancer survivors. While observational analyses suggest up to 2.2 times increased risk of BCRL onset for Black breast cancer survivors, no studies have explored race or other social factors that may affect BCRL severity, operationalized by interlimb volume difference (ILD. Materials and Methods. ILD was measured by perometry for 296 overweight (25 > BMI 6 months from treatment in the WISER Survivor trial. Multivariable linear regression examined associations between social and physical factors and ILD. Results. Neither Black race (−0.26, p=0.89 nor BMI (0.22, p=0.10 was associated with ILD. Attending college (−4.89, p=0.03 was the strongest factor associated with ILD, followed by having more lymph nodes removed (4.75, p=0.01, >25% BCRL care adherence (4.10, p=0.01, and years since treatment (0.55, p<0.001. Discussion. Neither race nor BMI was associated with ILD among overweight cancer survivors. Education, a proxy for resource level, was the strongest factor associated with greater ILD. Tailoring physical activity and weight loss interventions designed to address BCRL severity by resource rather than race should be considered.

  18. When Does Race Matter? Race, Sex, and Dating at an Elite University (United States)

    McClintock, Elizabeth Aura


    This paper unites quantitative and qualitative data from the College Social Life Survey (n = 732) to describe and explain patterns of racial homophily in undergraduate sexual/romantic relationships at an elite university, a closed social setting. It expands the literature on interracial romantic unions by comparing homophily in hookups…

  19. Breaking the race barrier. (United States)

    Minrath, M


    Through the reflective process of analyzing one's own feelings and reactions to the ethnic minority patient, the white therapist develops an inner clarity that serves as a resource to cope with the unique conflicts one must confront in interracial practice. Only when the therapist has come to some resolution of his or her own feelings about the plight of ethnic minorities in this country can this acumen develop. Although the therapeutic skills applied in psychotherapy with ethnic minorities are in no way different from overall therapeutic skills, certain techniques may be especially useful in interracial practice. For instance, a discussion of the meaning of race and ethnicity in the relationship may curtail racial distortion, prevent stereotyping, and lead to the creation of a therapeutic alliance. When dealing with transference and countertransference issues, the therapist must be particularly attentive to the representation of these same distortions and stereotypes. Formulating clinical problems from dual perspectives, theoretical and sociocultural, is an arduous, but necessary task. Finally, the white therapist must be able to view ethnic minority patients as individuals. Although these patients cope with special problems which must be acknowledged and dealt with in therapy, the therapist must realize there is a common ground on which to communicate. On this common ground, therapists discover the foundation of interracial clinical practice is the ability to accept and respect their patients and themselves as individuals who may have similar anxieties, problems, experiences, and goals. It is through the recognition and sharing of the fundamental human bond that ethnic and racial differences, which may have detrimental effects on interpersonal relationships, are transcended.

  20. Race consciousness and the health of African Americans. (United States)

    Watts, Rosalyn J


    The historical experience of African Americans in our country has been shaped by the institution of slavery, dehumanization of blacks, segregation, pursuit of civil rights, and racism in contemporary American society. Disparities in health care provide compelling evidence that issues of race or skin color for the descendants of slaves and other ethnic minorities persist in the 21st century. Nurses providing care for African Americans must bridge the racial divide and incorporate culturally relevant content in the health history. As an integral aspect of their professional growth as culturally competent health care providers, they must incorporate the idea of "race consciousness" which is described as an awareness of the historical journey of the group, knowledge of disparities in health care for the people, and a self appraisal of one's attitudes and biases toward the group.

  1. Black psyllium (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  2. Do theories of crime or violence explain race differences in delinquency? (United States)

    Felson, Richard B; Deane, Glenn; Armstrong, David P


    We examine race differences in delinquency using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We use a new method that permits an examination of offense specialization. We argue that an examination of offense patterns provides an opportunity for testing theoretical explanations of race effects. If race differences in violent crime reflect race differences in serious crime, then theories of crime can explain race effects. Otherwise, theories of violence are needed to explain the phenomenon. Our results suggest that black adolescents have higher rates of violence, particularly armed violence, but they do not have higher rates of serious (or minor) property or drug crime. Race differences in violence are generally stronger for adolescents who would otherwise be at lower risk: girls and adolescents from educated and intact families. Puerto Rican adolescents also have higher rates of violence than Anglos, but other Hispanic groups do not. We conclude with a discussion of the implication of the empirical literature (including our results) for various theoretical explanations of race differences in violence.

  3. Emotional expressions preferentially elicit implicit evaluations of faces also varying in race or age. (United States)

    Craig, Belinda M; Lipp, Ottmar V; Mallan, Kimberley M


    Both facial cues of group membership (race, age, and sex) and emotional expressions can elicit implicit evaluations to guide subsequent social behavior. There is, however, little research addressing whether group membership cues or emotional expressions are more influential in the formation of implicit evaluations of faces when both cues are simultaneously present. The current study aimed to determine this. Emotional expressions but not race or age cues elicited implicit evaluations in a series of affective priming tasks with emotional Caucasian and African faces (Experiments 1 and 2) and young and old faces (Experiment 3). Spontaneous evaluations of group membership cues of race and age only occurred when those cues were task relevant, suggesting the preferential influence of emotional expressions in the formation of implicit evaluations of others when cues of race or age are not salient. Implications for implicit prejudice, face perception, and person construal are discussed.

  4. Party Animals or Responsible Men: Social Class, Race, and Masculinity on Campus (United States)

    Sweeney, Brian


    Studies of collegiate party and hookup culture tend to overlook variation along social class and racial/ethnic lines. Drawing on interview data at a "party school" in the Midwest, I examine the meanings and practices of drinking and casual sex for a group of class and race-diverse fraternity men. While more privileged men draw on ideas…

  5. Hidden markers, open secrets: on naming, race-marking, and race-making in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske


    Full Text Available Focuses on how in Cuba race-marking was interrelated with surname-giving, also after the abolition of slavery. Through researching life histories on the local level in the Cienfuegos region, the author examines names of former slaves, finding that these were after abolition in notarial records often marked with the adjectives s.o.a., or "sin otro apellido" (without other surname, taking into account the Iberian double surname tradition. This, according to him, points to a stigmatization of these black citizens and related to their former status as possession, and is thus a racial marker, only more hidden than the open racial assignations during slavery. He relates these postemancipation surnames of former slaves to the dotation of surnames during slavery, whereby most surnames of slaves were those of the last owner of the slaves. He also discusses differences in name-giving between the notarial records and everyday life. He further indicates that a new racism developed in the Cuban society of the late 19th c. and early 20th c., which was voiced more openly in the realm of culture, and regarding events as incarceration and death, and more hidden within the civil and judicial spheres, where the fiction of a race-blind republic was maintained.

  6. RACE pulls for shared control (United States)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.


    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  7. Exploring racial variations in the spousal sex ratio of killing. (United States)

    Regoeczi, W C


    The following article examines differences in the social situation of intimate partners as an explanation of racial differences in the female to male ratio of spousal homicides in Canada. An analysis of homicide data from 1961 to 1983 generated by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics reveals that the ratio of women killing their husbands to men killing their wives is highest for Aboriginals and lowest for Blacks, with the ratio for Whites falling in between. The possible sources of racial differences in this ratio include the proportion of couples (a) in common-law relationships, (b) who are co-residing as opposed to being separated, and (c) for whom there is a substantial age disparity between the partners. These factors are related to the spousal sex ratio of killing more generally. An exploration of interracial homicide patterns and racial variation in jealousy-motivated homicides was also undertaken. The findings reveal that controlling for the above factors substantially reduces the importance of race in predicting the gender of the homicide victim.

  8. "You Ain't My Daddy!": Black Male Teachers and the Politics of Surrogate Fatherhood (United States)

    Brockenbrough, Ed


    Recent scholarship on male teachers across several national contexts has investigated the dilemmas of hegemonic masculinity for male educators while only recently beginning to examine race as a mediator of masculinity politics in teaching. Conversely, an emergent body of work on Black male teachers has centred analyses of race and culture, but has…

  9. Differences in Physical Activity between Black and White Girls Living in Rural and Urban Areas. (United States)

    Felton, Gwen M.; Dowda, Marsha; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell R.


    Examined the relationship of race and rural/urban setting to physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental factors associated with physical activity among eighth grade girls. More differences related to race than setting. Black girls were less active and more heavy than white girls. Enjoyment of physical education and family involvement in…

  10. Sex determination


    McCullagh, W. McK. H.


    How the sex of offspring is determined has puzzled philosophers and scientists for millennia. Modern science has identified both genetic and environmental factors, but the question is still not yet fully answered.

  11. Neglect subtypes, race, and poverty: individual, family, and service characteristics. (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Zhou, Pan


    Recent child maltreatment research has highlighted the very different context of poverty for Black and White children. Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment and strongly associated with poverty. Neglect is, however, not a unitary construct. We lack an understanding of whether reporting of and responding to different types of neglect may vary by poverty, race, or the intersection of the two. Administrative census, child welfare, welfare, health, and education data were used to examine how family and community poverty factors associate with various subtypes of neglect and subsequent case dispositions for Black and White children. Black children reported to child welfare reside in far poorer communities than Whites, even after taking into account family income (Aid to Families with Dependent Children [AFDC]/Temporary Aid to Needy Families [TANF]). Black children were more commonly reported and substantiated for severe and basic needs neglect. Community poverty indicators had a different relationship to report disposition for Black as compared to White children after controlling for neglect subtypes, child and family characteristics. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  12. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus


    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  13. Eye-tracking the own-race bias in face recognition: revealing the perceptual and socio-cognitive mechanisms. (United States)

    Hills, Peter J; Pake, J Michael


    Own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces and may even be viewed differently as measured by an eye-tracker (Goldinger, Papesh, & He, 2009). Alternatively, observer race might direct eye-movements (Blais, Jack, Scheepers, Fiset, & Caldara, 2008). Observer differences in eye-movements are likely to be based on experience of the physiognomic characteristics that are differentially discriminating for Black and White faces. Two experiments are reported that employed standard old/new recognition paradigms in which Black and White observers viewed Black and White faces with their eye-movements recorded. Experiment 1 showed that there were observer race differences in terms of the features scanned but observers employed the same strategy across different types of faces. Experiment 2 demonstrated that other-race faces could be recognised more accurately if participants had their first fixation directed to more diagnostic features using fixation crosses. These results are entirely consistent with those presented by Blais et al. (2008) and with the perceptual interpretation that the own-race bias is due to inappropriate attention allocated to the facial features (Hills & Lewis, 2006, 2011).

  14. Black Holes (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre


    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  15. Urban Black Violence: The Effect of Male Joblessness and Family Disruption


    Sampson, Robert


    This paper examines the relationships among unemployment, crime, and family disruption in the black "underclass." The main hypothesis tested is that the effect of black adult male joblessness on black crime is mediated largely through its effects on family disruption. The study examines race-specific rates of robbery and homicide by juveniles and adults in over 150 U.S. cities in 1980. The results show that the scarcity of employed black men increases the prevalence of families headed by fema...

  16. Other People's Daughters: Critical Race Feminism and Black Girls' Education (United States)

    Evans-Winters, Venus E.; Esposito, Jennifer


    In her 1995 article, "Sapphire Bound!", legal scholar Regina Austin calls for minority female scholars in the legal field to straightforwardly, unapologetically, and strategically use their intellectual pursuits to advocate on behalf of poor and working class minority women. Even though Austin is arguing from the perspective of a woman of color,…

  17. Race, Space, and Cumulative Disadvantage: A Case Study of the Subprime Lending Collapse. (United States)

    Rugh, Jacob S; Albright, Len; Massey, Douglas S


    In this article, we describe how residential segregation and individual racial disparities generate racialized patterns of subprime lending and lead to financial loss among black borrowers in segregated cities. We conceptualize race as a cumulative disadvantage because of its direct and indirect effects on socioeconomic status at the individual and neighborhood levels, with consequences that reverberate across a borrower's life and between generations. Using Baltimore, Maryland as a case study setting, we combine data from reports filed under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act with additional loan-level data from mortgage-backed securities. We find that race and neighborhood racial segregation are critical factors explaining black disadvantage across successive stages in the process of lending and foreclosure, controlling for differences in borrower credit scores, income, occupancy status, and loan-to-value ratios. We analyze the cumulative cost of predatory lending to black borrowers in terms of reduced disposable income and lost wealth. We find the cost to be substantial. Black borrowers paid an estimated additional 5 to 11 percent in monthly payments and those that completed foreclosure in the sample lost an excess of $2 million in home equity. These costs were magnified in mostly black neighborhoods and in turn heavily concentrated in communities of color. By elucidating the mechanisms that link black segregation to discrimination we demonstrate how processes of cumulative disadvantage continue to undermine black socioeconomic status in the United States today.

  18. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting lung cancer or dying from lung cancer varies by race ...

  19. China's Shineray Racing Team Hits International Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ China Shineray International Motocross Racing Team is Chongqing Shineray Group's international racing team, established in March 2004. in less than two years, this team has developed into the representative of numerous Chinese enterprises.

  20. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: results from a nationally representative United States sample. (United States)

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender


    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time.

  1. Sex reversal in Betta splendens Regan with emphasis on the problem of sex determination. (United States)

    Lowe, T P; Larkin, J R


    To gain insight into the sex-determining mechanism of the Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, sex-reversed individuals were bred and the ratios of the spawnings were examined. Sex-reversal of 245 females was undertaken by ovariectomizing them; of these, 104 became sex-reversed. Twenty-three of these latter fish were mated to normal females and eleven spawnings were raised to maturity. These spawnings resulted in all female broods or mixed broods. Were the male fish heterogametic, a view currently held by some authors, no males would be produced in these spawnings. Thus, male heterogamety was not substaintiated in this study. Contrary to other studies, the experimental sex reversal of females is not a rare event since nearly two-thirds of the fish that survived the surgery became sex-reversed. Gross dissection and histological observation of sex-reversed fish revealed a regenerated, unpaired duct which remained after the ovaries had been removed. The tissue of the regenerate was testicular and contained active spermatogenesis. Some alterative methods of sex determination which may apply to the Betta are examined. These include the possibility of two different sex-determining races, the effects of exogenous factors, and a polygenic system of sex determination.

  2. Participants' ratings of male physicians who vary in race and communication style. (United States)

    Aruguete, Mara S; Roberts, Carlos A


    Research has shown minorities receive lower quality health care than White persons even with socioeconomic conditions controlled. This difference may partially be related to racially biased attitudes and impaired communication in interracial relationships between physicians and patients. This study investigated the effect of physicians' race and nonverbal communication style on participants' evaluations. Patients at a local health clinic were participants (N = 116: 84% Black, 16% White). Each participant viewed one of four videotapes showing varied race of a physician (Black or White) and the physician's nonverbal behavior (expressing concern or distance), and then completed a questionnaire evaluating the depicted physician. Overall, participants did not give significantly different preferences for physicians of the same race. However, participants' evaluations were significantly associated with physicians' nonverbal style. Nonverbal concern was associated with highest satisfaction, trust, self-disclosure, recall of information, likelihood of recommending the physician, and intent to comply with the physician's recommendations. When male and female participants were compared, preference for a physician of the same race was found only among male participants who viewed verbally distant physicians. Results suggest that social skills are more important than race in shaping patients' perceptions of physicians.

  3. A Developmental Investigation of Other-Race Contact and the Own-Race Face Effect (United States)

    Walker, Pamela M.; Hewstone, Miles


    Research over the past two decades has demonstrated that individuals are better at recognizing and discriminating faces of their own race versus other races. The own-race effect has typically been investigated in relation to recognition memory; however, some evidence supports an own-race effect at the level of perceptual encoding in adults. The…

  4. CERN Road Race | 7 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke, CERN Running Club


    The 2015 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday, 7 October at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over three laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 minutes to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all the runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over one lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judging best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by the registration fee of 10 CHF. Children are free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and t...

  5. Race Relations in Sociological Theory. (United States)

    Rex, John

    This book seeks to develop sociological theory adequate to deal with the various uses to which racism has been put. How particular political orders apply "scientific" rationalizations, including race, to disguise their true origins in force, violence, and usurpation is demonstrated. Analysis of exploitative conditions starts with an objective…

  6. Two-Dice Horse Race (United States)

    Foster, Colin; Martin, David


    We analyse the "two-dice horse race" task often used in lower secondary school, in which two ordinary dice are thrown repeatedly and each time the sum of the scores determines which horse (numbered 1 to 12) moves forwards one space.

  7. Race, Culture and Moral Education. (United States)

    Dummett, Ann


    Maintains that the great need in moral education is to consider general moral standards and arguments first and apply these to behavior affecting racial inequality, rather than to start from a concentration on racism, working back towards morality. Considers the consequences of confusing race with culture or viewing religion only as a…

  8. CERN Road Race | 1 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke


    The 2014 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 1 October at 18:15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter for free and each child will receive a medal. More information, and the online entry form, can be fo...

  9. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts (United States)

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.


    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  10. Race, science and a novel: an interdisciplinary dialogue. (United States)

    Burns, Lawrence; Lanoix, Monique; Melnychuk, Ryan M; Pauly, Bernie


    In the novel Racists by Kunal Basu (2006), two competing scientists initiate an experiment that they believe will prove which race is superior. The research subjects, one white and one black infant, are sequestered on an isolated island in the care of a mute nurse. The contest must be waged in a 'natural laboratory' with no artificial interventions and with the prospect that one will die at the hands of the other. The politics of empire, the slave trade and the advent of a new scientific way of viewing life, Darwinism, set the stage for the fictional experiment, but the ramifications of such thinking extend into the present. Coming from the disciplines of nursing, philosophy and science, we discuss how a novel can illuminate the moral dimensions of science and healthcare. The critical distance afforded by the novel provides a rich terrain for the examination of issues such as race, care and the purity of science. Despite the recent dominance of social explanations of race, science requires the examination of the differences between human beings at the biological level. The view that biology is destiny is a powerful one with dangerous consequences, especially since the belief that certain human beings' destinies are far worthier than others is a corollary of such a view. In this paper, we present the cross-disciplinary conversation, which has been facilitated by this novel. We hope this will inform ethics educators of the rich potential of using fiction as a pedagogical tool.

  11. Differences in Colorectal Cancer Outcomes by Race and Insurance. (United States)

    Tawk, Rima; Abner, Adrian; Ashford, Alicestine; Brown, Clyde Perry


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer among African American women and the third most common cancer for African American men. The mortality rate from CRC is highest among African Americans compared to any other racial or ethnic group. Much of the disparity in mortality is likely due to diagnosis at later stages of the disease, which could result from unequal access to screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of race and insurance status on CRC outcomes among CRC patients. Data were drawn from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Logistic regressions models were used to examine the odds of receiving treatment after adjusting for insurance, race, and other variables. Cox proportional hazard models were used to measure the risk of CRC death after adjusting for sociodemographic and tumor characteristics when associating race and insurance with CRC-related death. Blacks were diagnosed at more advanced stages of disease than whites and had an increased risk of death from both colon and rectal cancers. Lacking insurance was associated with an increase in CRC related-deaths. Findings from this study could help profile and target patients with the greatest disparities in CRC health outcomes.

  12. Differences in Colorectal Cancer Outcomes by Race and Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Tawk


    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer among African American women and the third most common cancer for African American men. The mortality rate from CRC is highest among African Americans compared to any other racial or ethnic group. Much of the disparity in mortality is likely due to diagnosis at later stages of the disease, which could result from unequal access to screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of race and insurance status on CRC outcomes among CRC patients. Data were drawn from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Logistic regressions models were used to examine the odds of receiving treatment after adjusting for insurance, race, and other variables. Cox proportional hazard models were used to measure the risk of CRC death after adjusting for sociodemographic and tumor characteristics when associating race and insurance with CRC-related death. Blacks were diagnosed at more advanced stages of disease than whites and had an increased risk of death from both colon and rectal cancers. Lacking insurance was associated with an increase in CRC related-deaths. Findings from this study could help profile and target patients with the greatest disparities in CRC health outcomes.

  13. Design and Implementation of Navigation Algorithm for Intelligent Racing Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praween Sinha


    Full Text Available Design and implementation of navigation algorithm for intelligent racing car. The paper describes the implementation of intelligent racing car that can recognize the track automatically to run onthe specifically designed complex racing track. The objective is to recognize and and modify the actual performance of the movements of the car during its pathway by getting information in real time from IRsensors in the system. The travel trajectory consists of continuous black line of about 25 millimeters in width, on a white background in order to have acceptable functioning. Analyzing of the sensor readingswas done during the travel, capturing data at the fixed sampling rate and this data was used as inputs to the newly developed algorithm to achieve corrections on the decision speed and control movements. Amicrocontroller assigns the required movement turn and speeds to optimize the performance in order to get a closer behavior as humans could do it without a vision system to catch its environment. The task of this work was to develop an efficient navigation algorithm and it has been successfully implemented in a Motorola S12X 16-bit microcontroller.

  14. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown


    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  15. The development of race-based perceptual categorization: skin color dominates early category judgments. (United States)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Stepanova, Elena V; Dotsch, Ron; Todorov, Alexander


    Prior research on the development of race-based categorization has concluded that children understand the perceptual basis of race categories from as early as age 4 (e.g. Aboud, 1988). However, such work has rarely separated the influence of skin color from other physiognomic features considered by adults to be diagnostic of race categories. In two studies focusing on Black-White race categorization judgments in children between the ages of 4 and 9, as well as in adults, we find that categorization decisions in early childhood are determined almost entirely by attention to skin color, with attention to other physiognomic features exerting only a small influence on judgments as late as middle childhood. We further find that when skin color cues are largely eliminated from the stimuli, adults readily shift almost entirely to focus on other physiognomic features. However, 6- and 8-year-old children show only a limited ability to shift attention to facial physiognomy and so perform poorly on the task. These results demonstrate that attention to 'race' in younger children is better conceptualized as attention to skin color, inviting a reinterpretation of past work focusing on children's race-related cognition.

  16. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 106 - Guidelines for Eliminating Discrimination and Denial of Services on the Basis of Race, Color... (United States)


    ... Services on the Basis of Race, Color, National Origin, Sex, and Handicap in Vocational Education Programs A... RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES... Vocational Education Programs Editorial Note: For the text of these guidelines, see 34 CFR part 100,...

  17. Measuring Distributional Inequality: Relative Body Mass Index Distributions by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Education, United States (1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Houle


    Full Text Available Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.

  18. Rate of change in adiposity and its relationship to concomitant changes in cardiovascular risk variables among biracial (black-white) children and young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study. (United States)

    Srinivasan, S R; Myers, L; Berenson, G S


    To assess the annual rate of change in adiposity and its relationship to concomitant changes in cardiovascular risk variables during childhood and young adulthood, serial data on black and white children (n = 3,459; initial and follow-up mean age, 8.1 and 14.4 years) and young adults (n = 1,263; initial and follow-up mean age, 22.5 and 30.9 years) enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study were examined. Body mass index (BMI) and sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds were used as indicators of adiposity. In addition, measurements were made of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose. Annualized rate of change for each variable was estimated. The rate of increase in adiposity was significantly more pronounced during childhood versus adulthood. Race difference (blacks > whites) in the rate of increase in adiposity was seen only among females. Females, black females in particular, displayed greater rate of increase in adiposity than males. In a multivariate analysis, the rate of increase in adiposity was related independently of baseline age and baseline adiposity to adverse changes in measured cardiovascular risk variables, except glucose. Many of these associations were modulated significantly by race, sex, and age group. The impact was relatively greater for blood pressure and LDL cholesterol in adults and for triglycerides in children. The changes in blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were greater in whites, while the rate of increase in insulin was greater in blacks. Females displayed greater changes in blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and insulin. On the other hand, the rate of increase in triglycerides was greater in males. These results indicate that increases in adiposity regardless of initial status of body fatness alter cardiovascular risk variables towards increased risk beginning in childhood, and

  19. Hospital admissions: An examination of race and health insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gass


    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of racial differences and differences in insurance status on source of hospital admissions.  The data source was the 2001 National Hospital Discharge Survey and included a sub-sample of 104,185 patients.  58.3% of patients were admitted through the emergency room, 75.0% of patients were White, 19.7% were Black, and 61.5% were on government insurance or uninsured.  Black patients were found to have significantly higher levels of emergency room admissions (69.1%=p < .0001, regardless of insurance status (gov’t/self-pay, 73.7%=p < .0001, private insurance, 59.5%=p < .0001.  Patients on government insurance or self-payment had significantly higher levels of emergency room admissions (65.8%=p < .0001.  Regression analysis showed that both race and insurance type are significant predictors (p < .0001 of Source of Admission to the hospital.  Percent probabilities confirmed this finding.  Thus, it was concluded that racial differences witnessed in source of admission were not mediated by insurance type and that race and insurance type are significant, independent predictors of hospital admission source.

  20. Hospital admissions: An examination of race and health insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gass


    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of racial differences and differences in insurance status on source of hospital admissions. The data source was the 2001 National Hospital Discharge Survey and included a sub-sample of 104,185 patients. 58.3% of patients were admitted through the emergency room, 75.0% of patients were White, 19.7% were Black, and 61.5% were on government insurance or uninsured. Black patients were found to have significantly higher levels of emergency room admissions (69.1%=p < .0001, regardless of insurance status (gov’t/self-pay, 73.7%=p < .0001, private insurance, 59.5%=p < .0001. Patients on government insurance or self-payment had significantly higher levels of emergency room admissions (65.8%=p < .0001. Regression analysis showed that both race and insurance type are significant predictors (p < .0001 of Source of Admission to the hospital. Percent probabilities confirmed this finding. Thus, it was concluded that racial differences witnessed in source of admission were not mediated by insurance type and that race and insurance type are significant, independent predictors of hospital admission source.

  1. The spectre of race in American medicine. (United States)

    Fofana, Mariam O


    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race-the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful-has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalisation of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient's risk of certain conditions (eg, sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful, and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today's physicians will be better armed to discern-and correct-the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices.

  2. All Sexed Up: a resposta de mulheres lésbicas negras jovens ao sexo (mais seguro em Johannesburg, África do Sul All Sexed Up: young black lesbian women's responses to safe(r sex in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zethu Matebeni


    unfamiliar and sometimes unsympathetic health-related service providers. Furthermore, limited research on lesbians and lesbian health in South Africa makes it difficult for lesbian women to know what sexual health issues affect them specifically, where and how to address these issues. There is a general misconception that safe sex issues do not affect lesbian women as much as they affect heterosexual women. The paper presents views of a group of young self-identified lesbian women in South Africa between the ages of 18 and 35. Through self-administered questionnaires and discussions these women share their experiences and thoughts of lesbian (safe sex and how they have related and continue to relate sexually with other women in the time of HIV and Aids.

  3. Effects of pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. (United States)

    de Jongh, B E; Paul, D A; Hoffman, M; Locke, R


    To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Retrospective cohort study of maternal deliveries at a single regional center from 2009 to 2010 time period (n = 11,711). Generalized linear models were used for the analysis to estimate an adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Analysis controlled for diabetes, chronic hypertension, previous preterm birth, smoking and insurance status. The demographics of the study population were as follows, race/ethnicity had predominance in the White/Non-Hispanic population with 60.1%, followed by the Black/Non-Hispanic population 24.2%, the Hispanic population with 10.3% and the Asian population with 5.4%. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight showed that the population with a normal body mass index (BMI) was 49.4%, followed by the population being overweight with 26.2%, and last, the population which was obese with 24.4%. Maternal obesity increased the odds of prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian population (aOR 1.40, CI 1.12-1.75; aOR 2.20, CI 1.23-3.95; aOR 3.07, CI 1.16-8.13, respectively). Although the Black/Non-Hispanic population prematurity rate remains higher than the other race/ethnicity populations, the Black/Non-Hispanic population did not have an increased odds of prematurity in obese mothers (OR 0.87; CI 0.68-1.19). Unlike White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic mothers, normal pre-pregnancy BMI in Black/Non-Hispanic mothers was not associated with lower odds for prematurity. The odds for mothers of the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian populations, for delivering a premature infant, were significantly increased when obese. Analysis controlled for chronic hypertension, diabetes, insurance status, prior preterm birth and smoking. Obesity is a risk factor for prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic population, but not for the

  4. Race and prevalence of large bowel polyps among the low-income and uninsured in South Carolina (United States)

    Wallace, Kristin; Brandt, Heather M.; Bearden, James D.; Blankenship, Bridgette F.; Caldwell, Renay; Dunn, James; Hegedus, Patricia; Hoffman, Brenda J.; Marsh, Courtney H.; Marsh, William H.; Melvin, Cathy L.; Seabrook, March E.; Sterba, Ronald E.; Stinson, Mary Lou; Thibault, Annie; Berger, Franklin G.; Alberg, Anthony J.


    Background Compared to whites, blacks have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates and are at greater risk for early onset disease. The reasons for this racial disparity are poorly understood, but one contributing factor could be differences in access to high quality screening and medical care. Aims The present study was carried out to assess whether a racial difference in prevalence of large bowel polyps persists within a poor and uninsured population (n=233, 124 blacks, 91 whites, 18 other) undergoing screening colonoscopy. Methods Eligible patients were uninsured, asymptomatic, had no personal history of colorectal neoplasia, and were between the ages 45–64 years (blacks) or 50–64 years (whites, other). We examined the prevalence of any adenoma (conventional, serrated) and then difference in adenoma/polyp type by race and age categories. Results Prevalence for ≥ 1 adenoma was 37% (95% CI 31%–43%) for all races combined and 36% in blacks < 50 years, 38% in blacks ≥ 50 years, 35% in whites. When stratified by race, blacks had a higher prevalence of large conventional proximal neoplasia (8%) compared to whites (2%) (p-value =0.06) but a lower prevalence of any serrated-like polyp (blacks 18%, whites 32%); p-value=0.02) and sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (blacks 2%, whites 8% chi-square p-value; p=0.05). Conclusions Within this uninsured population the overall prevalence of adenomas was high and nearly equal by race, but the racial differences observed between serrated and conventional polyp types emphasizes the importance of taking polyp type into account in future research on this topic. PMID:26386856

  5. A statistical analysis of the effect of warfare on the human secondary sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graffelman, J.; Hoekstra, R.F.


    Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and s

  6. How white and black bodies are perceived depends on what emotion is expressed (United States)

    Watson, Rebecca; de Gelder, Beatrice


    Body language is a powerful indicator of others’ emotions in social interactions, with positive signals triggering approach and negative ones retreat and defensiveness. Intergroup and interracial factors can influence these interactions, sometimes leading to aggressive or even violent behaviour. Despite its obvious social relevance however, the interaction between body expression and race remains unexplored, with explanations of the impact of race being almost exclusively based on the role of race in face recognition. In the current fMRI study we scanned white European participants while they viewed affective (angry and happy) body postures of both same race (white) and other race (black) individuals. To assess the difference between implicit and explicit recognition participants performed either an explicit emotion categorisation task, or an irrelevant shape judgement task. Brain activity was modulated by race in a number of brain regions across both tasks. Race-related activity appeared to be task- as well as emotion- specific. Overall, the other-race effects appeared to be driven by positive emotions, while same-race effects were observed for negative emotions. A race specific effect was also observed in right amygdala reflecting increased activation for explicit recognition of angry white body expressions. Overall, these results provide the first clear evidence that race influences affective body perception. PMID:28128279

  7. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Kandil


    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  8. Disparities in self-reported diabetes mellitus among Arab, Chaldean, and black Americans in Southeast Michigan. (United States)

    Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhouri, Monty; Dallo, Florence; Templin, Thomas; Khoury, Radwan; Fakhouri, Haifa


    Diabetes mellitus is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects minorities. Using a cross sectional, convenience sample, we estimated the prevalence of self-reported diabetes for Whites (n = 212), Arabs (n = 1,303), Chaldeans (n = 828), and Blacks (n = 789) in southeast Michigan. In addition, using a logistic regression model, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between ethnicity and diabetes before and after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic status, health care, chronic conditions, and health behavior variables. The overall age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 7.0%. Estimates were highest for Blacks (8.0%) followed by Arabs and Whites (7.0% for each group) and Chaldeans (6.0%). In the fully adjusted model, the association between ethnicity and diabetes was not statistically significant. Future studies should collect more detailed socioeconomic status, acculturation and health behavior information, which are factors that may affect the relationship between race/ethnicity and diabetes.

  9. [Lethal sex]. (United States)

    Rabinerson, David; Ben-Shitrit, Gadi; Glezerman, Marek


    Asphyxiophilic sex is a form of autoerotic activity, in which the user creates mechanical means (such as hanging or bondage) in order to achieve cerebral hypoxia, which, in turn, enhances sexual, as well as orgasmic, stimulus. Failure of safety mechanisms, created by the user, may lead to instant death as a result of asphyxiation or strangulation. This kind of sexual practice is more prevalent among men than in women. In cases of death, it is difficult to relate it to the sexual practice itself. Suicide and homicide are the main differential diagnoses. Closely related derivatives of asphyxiophilic sex are anesthesiophilia (inhalation of variable volatile substances) and electrophilia (use of electric current during sexual activity)--both also intended to enhance the sexual stimulation. These forms of sexual practice are less prevalent than asphyxiophilia.

  10. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women (United States)

    Gleason, Michael


    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  11. The Construction of Black High-Achiever Identities in a Predominantly White High School (United States)

    Andrews, Dorinda J. Carter


    In this article, I examine how black students construct their racial and achievement self-concepts in a predominantly white high school to enact a black achiever identity. By listening to these students talk about the importance of race and achievement to their lives, I came to understand how racialized the task of achieving was for them even…

  12. Assessing Attitudes of White University Students toward Blacks in a Changing Context. (United States)

    Minatoya, Lydia Yuriko; Sedlacek, William E.


    Measured the attitudes of 259 White college students toward Blacks using a revised version of the Situational Attitude Scale (SAS-14). Results showed students tended to react more negatively to situations where the word "Black" was inserted, compared with situations where race was not indicated. (JAC)

  13. "Fight the Power": An Exploration of the Black Student Activist Scholar (United States)

    Quinney, Dominick Nelson


    This dissertation explored the lived experiences of eight Black Student Activist Scholars on the campus of a Predominantly White Institution (PWI). Through the use of Critical Race Theory, and Sociopolitical Development, it was discovered that Black students understand their activist and civic engagement to be that of a "duty of…

  14. Factors Affecting the Link between Physical Discipline and Child Externalizing Problems in Black and White Families (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Black, Maureen M.; Everson, Mark D.


    We examined contextual factors that may affect the impact of physical discipline on later child behavior problems among high-risk Black and White families. We examined race, parental warmth, and early child problems as potential moderators of the discipline-behavior problem link. The sample included 442 White and Black children and their…

  15. Fast men slow more than fast women in a 10 kilometer road race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Deaner


    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have demonstrated that men are more likely than women to slow in the marathon (footrace. This study investigated whether the sex difference in pacing occurs for a shorter race distance. Materials & Methods. Data were acquired from the Bolder Boulder 10 km road race for the years 2008–2013, which encompassed 191,693 performances. There were two pacing measures, percentage change in pace of the first 3 miles relative to the final 3.2 miles and percentage change in pace of the first mile relative to the final 5.2 miles. Pacing was analyzed as a continuous variable and as two categorical variables, as follows: “maintain the pace,” defined as slowing <5% and “marked slowing,” defined as slowing ≥10%. Results. Among the fastest (men < 48:40; women < 55:27 and second fastest (men < 53:54; women < 60:28 sex-specific finishing time sextiles, men slowed significantly more than women with both pacing measures, but there were no consistently significant sex differences in pacing among the slower four sextiles. For the fastest sextile, the odds for women were 1.96 (first pacing measure and 1.36 (second measure times greater than men to maintain the pace. For the fastest sextile, the odds for women were 0.46 (first measure and 0.65 (second measure times that of men to exhibit marked slowing. Multiple regression indicated that being older was associated with lesser slowing, but the sex difference among faster runners persisted when age was controlled. Conclusions. There was a sex difference in pacing during a 10 km race where glycogen depletion is not typically relevant. These results support the hypothesis that the sex difference in pacing partly reflects a sex difference in decision making.

  16. Sex during Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy A A ... safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during all stages ...

  17. When Sex Is Painful (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  18. Sex during Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  19. Consequences of black exceptionalism? Interracial unions with blacks, depressive symptoms, and relationship satisfaction. (United States)

    Kroeger, Rhiannon A; Williams, Kristi


    Using data from Wave 4 (2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 7,466), we examine potential consequences of black exceptionalism in the context of interracial relationships among nonblack respondents. While increasing racial diversity and climbing rates of interracial unions have fostered the notion that racial boundaries within the United States are fading, our results add to the accumulating evidence that racial/ethnic boundaries persist in U.S. society. Results suggest that among non-Black respondents there is more stigma and disapproval attached to relationships with Blacks than there are to relationships with members of other racial/ethnic groups. Specifically, our results indicate that nonblack individuals with black partners have significantly more depressive symptoms and less relationship satisfaction than their counterparts with nonblack partners, regardless of respondent race and whether the nonblack partner is the same versus a different race from the respondent. Further, the relationship between partner race and depressive symptoms is partially and significantly mediated by relationship satisfaction.

  20. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y; Zambrana, Ruth E; Doamekpor, Lauren A; Lopez, Lenny


    Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES "gets under the skin" to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education) associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs) in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years) and post high school (i.e., associates degree) educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001) compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001). These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond examining

  1. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gniesha Y. Dinwiddie


    Full Text Available Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs. Socioeconomic status (SES is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES “gets under the skin” to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP, an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years and post high school (i.e., associates degree educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001 and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001 compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001 and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001. These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond

  2. The Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Congressional Cosponsorship Network

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Alison; Desmarais, Bruce A; Clark, Christopher J; Moscardelli, Vincent G


    Previous research indicates that race, ethnicity, and gender influence legislative behavior in important ways. The bulk of this research, however, focuses on the way these characteristics shape an individual legislator's behavior, making it less clear how they account for relationships between legislators. We study the cosponsorship process in order to understand the race and gender based dynamics underlying the relational component of representation. Using a temporal exponential random graph model, we examine the U.S. House cosponsorship network from 1981 through 2004. We find that Black and Latino members of Congress are at a comparative disadvantage as a result of race-based assortative mixing in the cosponsorship process, yet this disadvantage is mitigated by the electoral pressures that all members face. Members representing districts with significant racial and ethnic minority populations are more likely to support their minority colleagues. We also find that women members do not appear to face a simila...

  3. "We Especially Welcome Applications from Members of Visible Minority Groups": Reflections on Race, Gender and Life at Three Universities (United States)

    Henry, Annette


    This autoethnographic account documents and analyses university life as a racialised woman who has worked in both Canadian and American universities. The theoretical framework draws from critical perspectives on race, black feminisms and narrative and autoethnographic research methodologies. The study involves a range of data sources that provide…

  4. The Effect of Similarity/Dissimilarity of Race and Personal Interests on Empathy and Altruism in Second Graders. (United States)

    Panofsky, Anne D.

    The experiment reported in this dissertation investigated the effect of similarity/dissimilarity of race and personal interests on empathy and altruism in second graders. It was hypothesized that white children would empathize more with other white children than with black children. It was also hypothesized that white children would empathize more…

  5. Black tea (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  6. The Defining Moment: Children's Conceptualization of Race and Experiences with Racial Discrimination. (United States)

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hannon, Lonnie; Fernandez, Jose R; Cockerham, William C


    This paper examines whether children of marginalized racial/ethnic groups have an awareness of race at earlier ages than youth from non-marginalized groups, documents their experiences with racial discrimination, and utilizes a modified racism-related stress model to explore the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-esteem. Data were collected for non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic children aged 7 - 12 using face-to-face interviews (n = 175). The concept of race was measured by assessing whether children could define race, if not a standard definition was provided. Racial discrimination was measured using the Williams Every-day-Discrimination Scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Scale, and ethnic identity was assessed using the Multi-group Ethnic Identity Measure. Non-Hispanic black children were able to define race more accurately, but overall, Hispanic children encountered more racial discrimination, with frequent reports of ethnic slurs. Additionally, after accounting for ethnic identity, perceived racial discrimination remained a salient stressor that contributed to low self-esteem.

  7. A note on race, ethnicity and nativity differentials in remarriage in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McNamee


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to produce up-to-date estimates of race/ethnic/nativity differentials for remarriage and repartnership among women in the United States and to see if these differences are due to across-group differences in demographic characteristics. First, we produce lifetable estimates of remarriage and repartnering for white, black, U.S. born Latina and foreign born Latina women. Next, we estimate race/ethnic/nativity differentials for remarriage and repartnership using event-history analysis with and without controls for demographic characteristics. The results suggest a continued overall decline in remarriage rates, while many women repartner by cohabitating. Whites are more likely than blacks or Latinas to remarry and they are also more likely to repartner. Race/ethnic/nativity differentials remain even after accounting for variations in demographic characteristics. This suggests that race/ethnic/nativity differentials in remarriage and repartnering rates, rather than ameliorating disadvantages associated with divorce, reinforce these differentials.

  8. Critical Race Theory, race equity, and public health: toward antiracism praxis. (United States)

    Ford, Chandra L; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O


    Racial scholars argue that racism produces rates of morbidity, mortality, and overall well-being that vary depending on socially assigned race. Eliminating racism is therefore central to achieving health equity, but this requires new paradigms that are responsive to structural racism's contemporary influence on health, health inequities, and research. Critical Race Theory is an emerging transdisciplinary, race-equity methodology that originated in legal studies and is grounded in social justice. Critical Race Theory's tools for conducting research and practice are intended to elucidate contemporary racial phenomena, expand the vocabulary with which to discuss complex racial concepts, and challenge racial hierarchies. We introduce Critical Race Theory to the public health community, highlight key Critical Race Theory characteristics (race consciousness, emphases on contemporary societal dynamics and socially marginalized groups, and praxis between research and practice) and describe Critical Race Theory's contribution to a study on racism and HIV testing among African Americans.

  9. Serious Play: Race, Game, Asian American Literature


    Fickle, Tara


    "Serious Play: Race, Game, Asian American Literature," argues that games are narrative fantasies of perfectly equal opportunity that can help us reconceive of what it means to be a minority in contemporary America. Race's idiomatic evolution into a "race card" points not just to identity's growing immateriality and "virtualization" but to its increasingly intimate relationship with the ludic. Asian American authors in particular have seized upon the possibilities of transforming identity into...

  10. Picture Books about Blacks: An Interview with Opal Moore. (United States)

    MacCann, Donnarae; Richard, Olga


    Presents an interview with Opal Moore, who discusses Black imagery in picture books published in the last four years and the institutions that circulate that imagery. Topics discussed include the issue of race pride; interracial themes; appropriate illustrations; African versus African-American books; and the roles of publishers, books reviewers,…

  11. Paranoid personality disorder in the United States: the role of race, illicit drug use, and income. (United States)

    Raza, Gina T; DeMarce, Josephine M; Lash, Steven J; Parker, Jefferson D


    Differential rates of schizophrenia and paranoia symptoms have been found for Black and White individuals. Paranoid personality disorder shares symptoms with schizophrenia, yet has received minimal attention with regard to potential racial differences. In a sample consisting of 180 substance use disorder treatment-seeking individuals, the association between the diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder and the variables of race, cannabis use disorder, and income were examined. Results extended previous findings to paranoid personality disorder, supporting the hypothesis that Black individuals would be diagnosed with higher rates of paranoid personality disorder. Cannabis use disorder status and income did not predict paranoid personality disorder diagnoses.

  12. Births per U.S. woman? Depends on race, ethnicity. (United States)

    Haub, C


    A profile of mothers giving birth is presented for the US for 1990 based on race and ethnicity. Some of the complexities involved in compiling racial and ethnic data are described. The total fertility rate was 2.1 for all American women, 1.1 for Japanese Americans, and 3.2 for Hawaiians and Mexican Americans. The number of births per woman was derived from state birth registration data, which culls data from preadmission hospital forms filled out by the mother. The denominator of the birth rate comes from the number of women in the specified age group as determined by the Census. The problem arises from self-reports themselves. Consistency between recording systems has been improved since 1989 when births were counted based on mother's race and ethnicity. There have been greater percentages of interracial births for which race of both parents were known, and the trend was for 15% of the births for race of the father not to be reported in 1990. The data revealed that in 1990, Mexican Americans and Hawaiians had the highest birth rate of 3.2, which was comparable to developing countries in Latin America. The other Hispanic group was another high fertility group for a developed country. Low fertility was found among Japanese, Chinese, and Cuban Americans. The actual numbers revealed that non-Hispanic whites constitute 2.6 million out of 4.2 million children born in the US. 595,100 were Hispanics, 661,700 were non-Hispanic blacks, 142,000 were Asian or Pacific Islander, and less than 40,000 were American Indian. Teenage pregnancy was considerable among the ethnic populations: nearly 25% of African Americans, and about 20% of American Indians, Puerto Ricans, Hawaiians, and Mexican Americans having births to women under 20 years of age. The birthing patterns were different among minority groups. Hispanic women had early childbearing and continued childbearing throughout the reproductive years. Black and American Indian women tended to complete childbearing early. Asian

  13. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span. (United States)

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B


    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people.



    Lipsky, Sherry; Kernic, Mary A.; Qiu, Qian; Hasin, Deborah S.


    This study sought to examine specific types of potentially traumatic experiences as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the moderating effect of race/ethnicity and major depressive disorder (MDD) among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic U.S. women. The study sample was drawn from two waves of the National Epidemiologic Surveys of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and childhood trauma were the strongest predictors of...

  15. Testing a Theoretical Model of the Stress Process in Alzheimer's Caregivers With Race as a Moderator


    Hilgeman, Michelle M.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Sun, Fei; DeCoster, Jamie; Allen, Rebecca S.; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Burgio, Louis D.


    Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to test the stress process model (SPM; Pearlin, Mullan, Semple, & Skaff, 1990) in a racially diverse sample of Alzheimer's caregivers (CGs) using structural equation modeling (SEM) and regression techniques. A secondary aim was to examine race or ethnicity as a moderator of the relation between latent constructs (e.g., subjective stressors and role strain) in the SPM. Sample: Participants included White or Caucasian (n = 212), Black or African Americ...

  16. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis


    Nikulina, Valentina


    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N = 675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls foll...

  17. Constituents of political cognition: Race, party politics, and the alliance detection system. (United States)

    Pietraszewski, David; Curry, Oliver Scott; Petersen, Michael Bang; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John


    Research suggests that the mind contains a set of adaptations for detecting alliances: an alliance detection system, which monitors for, encodes, and stores alliance information and then modifies the activation of stored alliance categories according to how likely they will predict behavior within a particular social interaction. Previous studies have established the activation of this system when exposed to explicit competition or cooperation between individuals. In the current studies we examine if shared political opinions produce these same effects. In particular, (1) if participants will spontaneously categorize individuals according to the parties they support, even when explicit cooperation and antagonism are absent, and (2) if party support is sufficiently powerful to decrease participants' categorization by an orthogonal but typically-diagnostic alliance cue (in this case the target's race). Evidence was found for both: Participants spontaneously and implicitly kept track of who supported which party, and when party cross-cut race-such that the race of targets was not predictive of party support-categorization by race was dramatically reduced. To verify that these results reflected the operation of a cognitive system for modifying the activation of alliance categories, and not just socially-relevant categories in general, an identical set of studies was also conducted with in which party was either crossed with sex or age (neither of which is predicted to be primarily an alliance category). As predicted, categorization by party occurred to the same degree, and there was no reduction in either categorization by sex or by age. All effects were replicated across two sets of between-subjects conditions. These studies provide the first direct empirical evidence that party politics engages the mind's systems for detecting alliances and establish two important social categorization phenomena: (1) that categorization by age is, like sex, not affected by alliance

  18. "Being Black Is Like Being a Soldier in Iraq": Metaphorical Expressions of Blackness in an Urban Community (United States)

    Woodson, Ashley N.


    Metaphor and metaphorical expressions are phenomenon of interest in teacher education research, critical race literature, and research on black communicative practices. Only marginal concerted attention has been paid to students' metaphorical expressions, and what these expressions might tell us about students' racial identities and lived…

  19. Arms Race in Maghreb Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Maghreb countries competitive altitude towards each other’ s has reached a higher level by entering an arms race.Morocco and Al ̄geria have dominated more than 50 percent of the Africa’ s imported weapons,mainly because of inherited cold war mentality of competi ̄tion and hostility. Maghreb countries competition has drugged the re ̄gion into a chaos that threatens regional stability obviously which af ̄fect the domestic political stability,since military spending weakens the financial capacity of states.

  20. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Vainionpää


    Full Text Available A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp. at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  1. Black Populations and Economic Growth: An Extreme Bounds Analysis of Mississippi County-Level Data


    Young, Andrew; Higgins, Matthew; Levy, Daniel


    We use Mississippi county-level data on (per capita) income and the percentages of populations that are Black (henceforth "Black") to examine the relationship between race and economic growth. The analysis is also conditioned on 40 other economic and socio-demographic variables. Given a negative and statistically significant partial correlation between income growth and Black, we ask if it is robust to exhaustive combinations of other conditioning variables (taken 3 at a time). The evidence ...

  2. Genomics of sex determination. (United States)

    Zhang, Jisen; Boualem, Adnane; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Ming, Ray


    Sex determination is a major switch in the evolutionary history of angiosperm, resulting 11% monoecious and dioecious species. The genomic sequences of papaya sex chromosomes unveiled the molecular basis of recombination suppression in the sex determination region, and candidate genes for sex determination. Identification and analyses of sex determination genes in cucurbits and maize demonstrated conservation of sex determination mechanism in one lineage and divergence between the two systems. Epigenetic control and hormonal influence of sex determination were elucidated in both plants and animals. Intensive investigation of potential sex determination genes in model species will improve our understanding of sex determination gene network. Such network will in turn accelerate the identification of sex determination genes in dioecious species with sex chromosomes, which are burdensome due to no recombination in sex determining regions. The sex determination genes in dioecious species are crucial for understanding the origin of dioecy and sex chromosomes, particularly in their early stage of evolution.

  3. Rethinking homicide: violence, race, and the politics of gender. (United States)

    Stark, E


    Although homicide is the fourth leading cause of premature mortality in the United States and the leading cause of death for young blacks, the health professions have been largely oblivious to violence. Prevailing explanations contribute to this neglect by emphasizing biological or psychiatric factors that make homicide unpredictable and cultural and environmental factors such as the emergence of a new "underclass" that link violence to race. Focusing on instances where no other crime is involved, this article proposes that "primary" homicide be reconceptualized as a by-product of interpersonal violence, a broad category of social entrapment rooted in the politics of gender inequality and including wife abuse, child abuse, and assaults by friends and acquaintances. The data show that blacks are no more violent than whites, though they are arrested and die more often as the consequence of violence. In addition, a majority of homicides are between social partners or involve gender stereotypes, are preceded by a series of assaults that are known to service providers, and grow out of "intense social engagement" about issues of male control and independence. Professional failure to respond appropriately is a major reason why assaults become fatal, particularly among blacks. An international strategy that combines sanctions against interpersonal assault, gun control, and the empowerment of survivors might prevent half of all homicides.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava


    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also

  5. Race, Economics, and Public Policy (United States)

    Henderson, Vivian W.


    Suggests that the black person's fundamental problem in 1976 and for the future is a hard-core economic class problem generated by rapid advances in technology, changes in the industrial and employment structure, escalation of occupational requirements, and increasingly regressive tax structures on all levels of government. (Author/AM)

  6. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T


    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  7. Sex Differences and Sex Identification in the Small-Scaled Scorpionfish, Scorpaena Porcus (Scorpaenidae, Scorpaeniformes

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    Peskov V. N.


    Full Text Available Sex differences and the ability to determine the sex of Scorpaena porcus (Linnaeus, 1758 on morphological characters were studied in the population inhabiting coastal waters of the Black Sea near the southern coast of Crimea. These differences were revealed in size (females are larger than males and in proportions of the body. It is found that variation of the absolute and relative values in plastic characters is higher in females compared with males. It is shown that in 92 % of individuals belonging to S. porcus we can determine the sex using morphological characters with a probability of 99.9-100 %.

  8. Romanticism and Eroticism among Black and White College Students. (United States)

    Houston, Lawrence N.


    A questionnaire was administered to 1,142 Black and White university students of both sexes in an effort to determine the relationship between eroticism, romanticism and sexual identity. Results indicated that males were more erotic, females more romantic, and that the discrepancy was greater for Blacks than for Whites. (Author/CM)

  9. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture (United States)

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil


    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  10. Kinematics of cross-country ski racing. (United States)

    Bilodeau, B; Rundell, K W; Roy, B; Boulay, M R


    This study investigated the evolution of skiing velocity, cycle length, and cycle rate in elite and subelite skiers during cross-country ski races. Senior male cross-country skiers engaged respectively in a 30-km skating race (N = 34) or a 50-km classical race (N = 27) were videotaped as they skied two different sections of 30 m, a 7 degrees uphill, and a flat section. In the skating race, most skiers used the offset technique on uphill and the 2-skate on flat, while the preferred techniques during the classical race were the diagonal stride for uphill and double-poling on flat. Results demonstrated that faster skiers had longer cycle lengths than slower skiers except for the flat sections of the classical race. Cycle rate was not different between skiers of different performance levels in any circumstances or races. Decreased velocity observed during the second half of the skating race was almost entirely due to a decrease in cycle length. We conclude that slower athletes should emphasize extending cycle length during their technical training. Therefore, skiers should place an emphasis on strength and power training to increase their kick and pole pushes and enhance cycle length.

  11. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges (United States)

    Auty, Geoff


    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  12. Race- en toerfietsen : mogelijkheden voor meer veiligheid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. & Gent, P. van


    Racing and touring bicycles: opportunities for greater safety; Questionnaire study and expert assessment. Racing and touring cyclists often practise their sport on public roads in the presence of other road users. For this reason, hazardous situations may occur that increasingly result in crashes in

  13. Family identity: black-white interracial family health experience. (United States)

    Byrd, Marcia Marie; Garwick, Ann Williams


    The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to describe how eight Black-White couples with school-aged children constructed their interracial family identity through developmental transitions and interpreted race to their children. Within and across-case data analytic strategies were used to identify commonalities and variations in how Black men and White women in couple relationships formed their family identities over time. Coming together was the core theme described by the Black-White couples as they negotiated the process of forming a family identity. Four major tasks in the construction of interracial family identity emerged: (a) understanding and resolving family of origin chaos and turmoil, (b) transcending Black-White racial history, (c) articulating the interracial family's racial standpoint, and (d) explaining race to biracial children across the developmental stages. The findings guide family nurses in promoting family identity formation as a component of family health within the nurse-family partnership with Black-White mixed-race families.

  14. Online sex-seeking behaviors of men who have sex with men in New York City. (United States)

    Grosskopf, Nicholas A; Harris, Jenine K; Wallace, Barbara C; Nanin, Jose E


    The ongoing HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City and the increased use of Internet sexual social networking websites by MSM fosters a need to understand the characteristics and sex-related behaviors of this group. The authors conducted an online survey of 195 MSM who use sexual social networking websites in New York City. Demographic characteristics, sexual sensation seeking, and HIV optimism-skepticism were compared among participants reporting sex with and without condom use (safe sex and high-risk sex, respectively) with partners met online. There was no difference in income, education, race, or employment status between the groups. The groups differed significantly in age, sexual sensation seeking, and HIV optimism-skepticism. In a multivariate logistic regression both HIV optimism-skepticism (p seeking (p behavior (pseudo-R(2) = .24). This information should be considered when developing interventions for this group. For example, to reach those with high sexual sensation seeking, public health professionals should design sex-positive prevention messages for online distribution that highlight safer sex without condemning risky sexual practices.

  15. Estimating populations of men who have sex with men in the southern United States. (United States)

    Lieb, Spencer; Thompson, Daniel R; Misra, Shyam; Gates, Gary J; Duffus, Wayne A; Fallon, Stephen J; Liberti, Thomas M; Foust, Evelyn M; Malow, Robert M


    Population estimates of men who have sex with men (MSM) by state and race/ethnicity are lacking, hampering effective HIV epidemic monitoring and targeting of outreach and prevention efforts. We created three models to estimate the proportion and number of adult males who are MSM in 17 southern states. Model A used state-specific census data stratified by rural/suburban/urban area and national estimates of the percentage MSM in corresponding areas. Model B used a national estimate of the percentage MSM and state-specific household census data. Model C partitioned the statewide estimates by race/ethnicity. Statewide Models A and B estimates of the percentages MSM were strongly correlated (r = 0.74; r-squared = 0.55; p < 0.001) and had similar means (5.82% and 5.88%, respectively) and medians (5.5% and 5.2%, respectively). The estimated percentage MSM in the South was 6.0% (range 3.6-13.2%; median, 5.4%). The combined estimated number of MSM was 2.4 million, including 1,656,500 (69%) whites, 339,400 (14%) blacks, 368,800 (15%) Hispanics, 34,600 (1.4%) Asian/Pacific Islanders, 7,700 (0.3%) American Indians/Alaska Natives, and 11,000 (0.5%) others. The estimates showed considerable variability in state-specific racial/ethnic percentages MSM. MSM population estimates enable better assessment of community vulnerability, HIV/AIDS surveillance, and allocation of resources. Data availability and computational ease of our models suggest other states could similarly estimate their MSM populations.

  16. Obesity and Cancer Screening according to Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan


    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing. Comparison of prostate cancer screening, mammography, and Pap smears implies a gender difference in the relationship between screening behavior and weight. In colorectal cancer (CRC screening, the relationship between weight and screening in men is inconsistent, while there is a trend towards lower CRC screening in higher weight women.

  17. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. (United States)

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A


    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind.

  18. Pattern of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone (West Africa

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    Bari Arfan ul


    Full Text Available Background: Physical differences among human populations may lead to variable prevalence of skin disorders in different ethnicities. Skin infections are one of the important curable and largely preventable categories of skin disorders in the communities. Aim: The purpose of the study was to see the patterns of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone and to compare with other ethnic populations. Materials and Methods: Local blacks of all age groups presenting in Dermatology out patient department of Pak Field Hospital (established as a part of UN peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone were included (from Nov 2004 to Oct 2005. Relevant clinical history and physical examination was done. Laboratory investigations were carried out when indicated. Skin diseases were broadly classified into two major categories i.e., infective and noninfective. Among infective, sexually transmitted infections were again separated. Nonblack settlers in the area and UN troops were not included in the study. Data was recorded and analyzed by Microsoft Excel program. Results: 3011 patients belonging to different local tribes having a variety of skin disorders were seen. Patients were of all ages and both sexes ranging from one month to 73 years of age. The Infective skin disorders were seen in 61.7% patients and most prevalent were superficial fungal infections (41.2% followed by, sexually transmitted infections (9.9% and parasitic infections (6.5%. Bacterial and viral infections were rare and so was the scabies. More than 90% parasitic infections were onchocerciasis with full spectrum of cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion: Pattern of skin infections in blacks varies considerably from other ethnic races. Environmental factors, geographical location and free existence of vector for onchocerciasis in West African region, possibly have a significant influence in this variable prevalence.

  19. Race, color, and income inequality across the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Bailey


    Full Text Available Background: Racial inequality in the U.S. is typically described in terms of stark categorical difference, as compared to the more gradational stratification based on skin color often said to prevail in parts of Latin America. However, nationally representative data with both types of measures have not been available to explicitly test this contrast. Objective: We use novel, recently released data from the U.S. and 18 Latin American countries to describe household income inequality across the region by perceived skin color and racial self-identification, and examine which measure better captures racial disparities in each national context. Results: We document color and racial hierarchies across the Americas, revealing some unexpected patterns. White advantage and indigenous disadvantage are fairly consistent features, whereas blacks at times have higher mean incomes than other racial populations. Income inequality can best be understood in some countries using racial categories alone, in others using skin color; in a few countries, including the U.S., a combination of skin color and self-identified race best explains income variation. Conclusions: These results complicate theoretical debates about U.S. racial exceptionalism and methodological debates about how best to measure race. Rather than supporting one measure over another, our cross-national analysis underscores race‟s multidimensionality. The variation in patterns of inequality also defies common comparisons between the U.S. on the one hand and a singular Latin America on the other.

  20. Education and Alcohol Consumption among Older Americans; Black-White Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari


    Full Text Available Abstract:Purpose: Although the link between education and alcohol consumption is known, limited information exists on racial differences in this link. We conducted the current study to test Black- White differences in the association between education and alcohol consumption among older adults in the United States. Methods: This cross-sectional survey enrolled 1,493 Black (n=734 and White (n=759 older adults (age 66 or more in United States. Data came from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001. Race, demographics, socio-economics, and alcohol consumption were measured. Independent variable was education level. Outcome was alcohol consumption. Race was the focal moderator. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results: Education was positively associated with ever drinking in the pooled sample. Race, however, interacted with education level on drinking, suggesting a smaller effect of education on drinking for Blacks compared to Whites. Among Whites, high school graduation and college graduation were associated with increased odds of ever drinking, net of covariates. Among Blacks, high school graduation but not college graduation was associated with ever drinking. Conclusion: Blacks and Whites differ in how socio-economic status (i.e. education shapes behaviors health behaviors (i.e. drinking. How race modifies consequences and correlates of social determinants of health is not yet clear. College graduation may result in the same level of change to the social network and income of race group members. Lower effect of education on health of Blacks may be due to the structural role of race and racism that has resulted in lower job availability and pay for Blacks.

  1. Sex-linked dominant (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  2. Cardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier


    Full Text Available In cycling as in other types of strenuous exercise, there exists a risk of sudden death. It is important both to understand its causes and to see if the behavior of certain biomarkers might highlight athletes at risk. Many reports describe changes in biomarkers after strenuous exercise (Nie et al., 2011, but interpreting these changes, and notably distinguishing normal physiological responses from pathological changes, is not easy. Here we have focused on the kinetics of different cardiac biomarkers: creatin kinase (CK, creating kinase midbrain (CK-MB, myoglobin (MYO, highly sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP. The population studied was a group of young trained cyclists participating in a 177-km cycling race. The group of individuals was selected for maximal homogeneity. Their annual training volume was between 10,000 and 16,000 kilometers. The rhythm of races is comparable and averages 35 km/h, depending on the race’s difficulty. The cardiac frequency was recorded via a heart rate monitor. Three blood tests were taken. The first blood test, T0, was taken approximately 2 hours before the start of the race and was intended to gather values which would act as references for the following tests. The second blood test, T1, was realized within 5 minutes of their arrival. The third and final blood test, T3, was taken 3 hours following their arrival. The CK, CK-MB, MYO, hs-TnT and NT-proBNP were measured on the Roche Diagnostic modular E (Manhein, Germany. For the statistical analysis, an ANOVA and post hoc test of Scheffé were calculated with the Statistica Software version 9.1. We noticed an important significant variation in the cardiac frequency between T0 and T1 (p < 0.0001, T0 and T3 (p < 0.0001, and T1 and T3 (p < 0.01. Table 1 shows the results obtained for the different biomarkers. CK and CK-MB showed significant variation between T0-T1 and T0-T3 (p < 0.0001. Myoglobin increased significantly

  3. Relationship of race and poverty to lower extremity function and decline: findings from the Women's Health and Aging Study. (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland James; Kasper, Judith D; Szanton, Sarah L; Frick, Kevin D; Fried, Linda P; Simonsick, Eleanor M


    Race- and poverty-related disparities in physical function are well documented, though little is known about effects of race and poverty on functional decline and the progression of disability. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between race, poverty and lower extremity function using data from moderately to severely disabled women in the U.S. Women's Health and Aging Study. Severity of lower extremity functional limitation was determined from scaled responses of reported difficulty walking (1/4) mile, walking across a room, climbing stairs, and stooping, crouching or kneeling. Usual walking speed assessed over 4m was our objective measure of function. Of the 996 women who described themselves as black or white, 284 (29%) were black and 367 (37%) were living at or below 100% of the federal poverty level. Independent of demographic and health-related factors, among white women, the poor exhibited consistently worse lower extremity function than the non-poor; this association, however, was not observed in black women. Among the non-poor, black women had slower walking speeds, and reported more limitation in lower extremity function than their non-poor white counterparts, even after adjusting for demographic variables and health-related characteristics. After 3 years, accounting for baseline function, demographic and health-related factors, race and poverty status were unrelated to functional decline. Thus, while race and poverty status were associated with functional deficits in old age, they do not appear to impact the rate of functional decline or progression of disability over 3 years.

  4. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

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    de Jongh Beatriz E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA, and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.

  5. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis. (United States)

    Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz


    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N=675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls followed into adulthood (M(age)=41). Health indicators (C-Reactive Protein [CRP], hypertension, and pulmonary functioning) were assessed through blood collection and measurements by a registered nurse. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models to control for clustering of participants in childhood neighborhoods. Main effects showed that growing up Black predicted CRP and hypertension elevations, despite controlling for neglect and childhood family and neighborhood poverty and their interactions. Multivariate results showed that race and childhood adversities interacted to predict adult health outcomes. Childhood family poverty predicted increased risk for hypertension for Blacks, not Whites. In contrast, among Whites, childhood neglect predicted elevated CRP. Childhood neighborhood poverty interacted with childhood family poverty to predict pulmonary functioning in adulthood. Gender differences in health indicators were also observed. The effects of childhood neglect, childhood poverty, and growing up Black in the United States are manifest in physical health outcomes assessed 30 years later. Implications are discussed.

  6. “Fair Play”: A Videogame Designed to Address Implicit Race Bias Through Active Perspective Taking (United States)

    Kaatz, Anna; Chu, Sarah; Ramirez, Dennis; Samson-Samuel, Clem; Carnes, Molly


    Abstract Objective: Having diverse faculty in academic health centers will help diversify the healthcare workforce and reduce health disparities. Implicit race bias is one factor that contributes to the underrepresentation of Black faculty. We designed the videogame “Fair Play” in which players assume the role of a Black graduate student named Jamal Davis. As Jamal, players experience subtle race bias while completing “quests” to obtain a science degree. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to play the game would have greater empathy for Jamal and lower implicit race bias than participants randomized to read narrative text describing Jamal's experience. Materials and Methods: University of Wisconsin–Madison graduate students were recruited via e-mail and randomly assigned to play “Fair Play” or read narrative text through an online link. Upon completion, participants took an Implicit Association Test to measure implicit bias and answered survey questions assessing empathy toward Jamal and awareness of bias. Results: As hypothesized, gameplayers showed the least implicit bias but only when they also showed high empathy for Jamal (P=0.013). Gameplayers did not show greater empathy than text readers, and women in the text condition reported the greatest empathy for Jamal (P=0.008). However, high empathy only predicted lower levels of implicit bias among those who actively took Jamal's perspective through gameplay (P=0.014). Conclusions: A videogame in which players experience subtle race bias as a Black graduate student has the potential to reduce implicit bias, possibly because of a game's ability to foster empathy through active perspective taking. PMID:26192644

  7. Addressing Gender Issues in the Historically Black College and University Community: A Challenge and Call to Action. (United States)

    Bonner, Florence B.


    Black women struggle for parity with men and white women in the U.S. academy. Examines gender issues at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), noting patterns of gender inequity and discrimination. These disparities are confounded by and in conflict with issues of race. Addresses the consequence of lack of attention to gender…

  8. Comparison of the Bender Gestalt Test for Both Black and White Brain-Damaged Patients Using Two Scoring Systems (United States)

    Butler, Oliver T.; And Others


    This study tested for cultural bias in the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Subjects were 72 black and white patients diagnosed as either brain damaged or psychiatric. Bender protocols were scored by Pascal-Suttell and Hain systems. No race effect appeared except for the Pascal-Suttell system for which blacks scored significantly better. (Author)

  9. "Waiting for Superman" to Save Black People: Racial Representation and the Official Antiracism of Neoliberal School Reform (United States)

    Dumas, Michael J.


    The author argues that the documentary, "Waiting for Superman," effectively employs bodies and texts in ways that reproduce hegemonic constructions of race, and more specifically, offers an image and imagination of black engagement in education that reinforces neoliberal-multicultural narratives about black disinterest in, and…

  10. Face-blind for other-race faces: Individual differences in other-race recognition impairments. (United States)

    Wan, Lulu; Crookes, Kate; Dawel, Amy; Pidcock, Madeleine; Hall, Ashleigh; McKone, Elinor


    We report the existence of a previously undescribed group of people, namely individuals who are so poor at recognition of other-race faces that they meet criteria for clinical-level impairment (i.e., they are "face-blind" for other-race faces). Testing 550 participants, and using the well-validated Cambridge Face Memory Test for diagnosing face blindness, results show the rate of other-race face blindness to be nontrivial, specifically 8.1% of Caucasians and Asians raised in majority own-race countries. Results also show risk factors for other-race face blindness to include: a lack of interracial contact; and being at the lower end of the normal range of general face recognition ability (i.e., even for own-race faces); but not applying less individuating effort to other-race than own-race faces. Findings provide a potential resolution of contradictory evidence concerning the importance of the other-race effect (ORE), by explaining how it is possible for the mean ORE to be modest in size (suggesting a genuine but minor problem), and simultaneously for individuals to suffer major functional consequences in the real world (e.g., eyewitness misidentification of other-race offenders leading to wrongful imprisonment). Findings imply that, in legal settings, evaluating an eyewitness's chance of having made an other-race misidentification requires information about the underlying face recognition abilities of the individual witness. Additionally, analogy with prosopagnosia (inability to recognize even own-race faces) suggests everyday social interactions with other-race people, such as those between colleagues in the workplace, will be seriously impacted by the ORE in some people. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Race, depressive symptoms, and all-cause mortality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari


    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the well-established association between baseline depressive symptoms and risk of all cause-mortality, limited information exists on racial differences in the residual effects of baseline depressive symptoms above and beyond socio-economic status (SES and physical health on this link. The current study compared Blacks and Whites for the residual effects of depressive symptoms over SES and health on risk of long-term all-cause mortality in the United States. Methods: Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives Study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of U.S. adults with up to 25 years of follow up. The study followed 3,361 Blacks or Whites for all-cause mortality between 1986 and 2011. The main predictor of interest was baseline depressive symptoms measured at 1986 using an 11- item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D. Covariates included baseline demographics (age and gender, SES (education and income, and health [chronic medical conditions (CMC, self-rated health, and body mass index (BMI] measured at 1986. Race (Black versus White was the focal moderator. We ran a series of Cox proportional hazard models, in the pooled sample and also stratified by race. Results: In the pooled sample, higher depressive symptoms at baseline were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality except when the CMC, SRH, and BMI were added to the model. In this later model, race interacted with baseline depressive symptoms, suggesting a larger effect of depressive symptoms on mortality among Whites compared to Blacks. Among Whites, depressive symptoms were associated with increased risk of mortality, after controlling for SES, but not after controlling for health (CMC, SRH and BMI as well. Among Blacks, depressive symptoms were not associated with mortality before that health was introduced to the model. After controlling for health, baseline depressive symptoms showed an inverse association with all

  12. Facial resemblance to emotions: group differences, impression effects, and race stereotypes. (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc


    The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2 demonstrated that objective resemblance to emotion expressions influences trait impressions even when statistically controlling possible confounding influences of attractiveness and babyfaceness. It further demonstrated that emotion overgeneralization is moderated by face race and that racial differences in emotion resemblance contribute to White perceivers' stereotypes of Blacks and Asians. These results suggest that intergroup relations may be strained not only by cultural stereotypes but also by adaptive responses to emotion expressions that are overgeneralized to groups whose faces subtly resemble particular emotions.

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases in the Southeastern United States: location, race, and social context. (United States)

    Farley, Thomas A


    Heterosexual transmission of HIV in the United States appears to be following the epidemiologic pattern of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as syphilis and gonorrhea, disproportionately affecting blacks in the Southeastern region. Nationwide, rates of syphilis and gonorrhea are nearly 30 times higher in blacks than in whites, and this racial disparity underlies most of the regional and county-level differences in rates. The racial disparity cannot be explained by traditional measures of socioeconomic differences, and it cannot be explained by individual-level determinants of sexual behavior, but rather reflects deeper group-level social and environmental factors for which race is a marker. A theoretical model based on previous ecologic studies is proposed to explain the relationship between racial discrimination and elevated rates of STDs in blacks. Key factors in the model include: 1) chronic joblessness, 2) drug and alcohol marketing, 3) social disorganization (or social capital), and 4) male incarceration.

  14. The Effect of Race and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Long-Term Survival after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Thomas Efird


    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a known predictor of decreased long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Differences in survival by race have not been examined. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of CABG patients between 2002 and 2011. Long-term survival was compared in patients with and without COPD and stratified by race. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were computed using a Cox regression model. Results: A total of 984 (20% patients had COPD (black n=182; white n=802 at the time of CABG (N=4,801. The median follow-up for study participants was 4.4 years. White but not black race was observed to be a statistically significant predictor of decreased survival among COPD patients (no COPD: HR=1.0; white COPD: adjusted HR=1.5, 95%CI=1.3-1.7; black COPD: adjusted HR=1.2, 0.90-1.7. Conclusion: Contrary to the expected increased risk of mortality among black COPD patients in the general population, a similar survival disadvantage was not observed in our CABG population.

  15. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  16. Introduction to the Culture, Health & Sexuality Virtual Special Issue on sex, sexuality and sex work. (United States)

    Allman, Dan; Ditmore, Melissa Hope


    This article provides an editorial introduction to a virtual special issue on sex work and prostitution. It offers a brief history of sex work studies as published in the journal Culture, Health & Sexuality; reflects on the breadth and scope of papers the journal has published; considers the contribution of the journal's papers to the wellbeing and sexuality of people who sell sex; and envisions future areas of inquiry for sex work studies. As authors, we identify major themes within the journal's archive, including activism, agency, context, discourse, hazard, health, legalisation, love, place, power, race, relationships, stigma and vulnerabilities. In particular, we reflect on how HIV has created an environment in which issues of culture, health and sexuality have come to be disentangled from the moral agendas of earlier years. As a venue for the dissemination of a reinvigorated scholarship, Culture, Health & Sexuality provides a platform for a community of often like-minded, rigorous thinkers, to provide new and established perspectives, methods and voices and to present important developments in studies of sex, sexuality and sex work.

  17. The racing-game effect: why do video racing games increase risk-taking inclinations? (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg


    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on risk taking was partially mediated by changes in self-perceptions as a reckless driver. These effects were evident only when the individual played racing games that reward traffic violations rather than racing games that do not reward traffic violations (Study 3) and when the individual was an active player of such games rather than a passive observer (Study 4). In sum, the results underline the potential negative impact of racing games on traffic safety.

  18. Toward a Social Psychology of Race and Race Relations for the Twenty-First Century. (United States)

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Sommers, Samuel R


    The United States, like many nations, continues to experience rapid growth in its racial minority population and is projected to attain so-called majority-minority status by 2050. Along with these demographic changes, staggering racial disparities persist in health, wealth, and overall well-being. In this article, we review the social psychological literature on race and race relations, beginning with the seemingly simple question: What is race? Drawing on research from different fields, we forward a model of race as dynamic, malleable, and socially constructed, shifting across time, place, perceiver, and target. We then use classic theoretical perspectives on intergroup relations to frame and then consider new questions regarding contemporary racial dynamics. We next consider research on racial diversity, focusing on its effects during interpersonal encounters and for groups. We close by highlighting emerging topics that should top the research agenda for the social psychology of race and race relations in the twenty-first century.

  19. Group Sex and Prevalent Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men. (United States)

    Rice, Cara E; Lynch, Courtney D; Norris, Alison H; Davis, John A; Fields, Karen S; Ervin, Melissa; Turner, Abigail Norris


    We evaluated the direct relation between group sex and prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a cross-sectional study of men who have sex with men (MSM) presenting at an urban STI clinic in the Midwestern US. Among 231 men who enrolled and reported that they have sex with men, we collected behavioral data using a combination of interviewer and self-administered surveys and extracted STI data from electronic health records. We used modified Poisson regression to examine the unadjusted and adjusted associations between group sex participation and prevalent STI. One-quarter of participants (n = 58) reported group sex participation in the last 3 months. Eighteen percent of participants (n = 42) had gonorrhea and 19 % (n = 45) had chlamydial infection. Men who reported recent group sex were more likely to be HIV-positive, to report recent drug use, and to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past 3 months. After adjustment for age, race, and recent drug use, recent participation in group sex was associated with prevalent gonorrhea infection (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.11, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = [1.13, 3.95]) but not chlamydia infection (PR = 1.03, 95 % CI = [0.58, 1.84]). We performed a sensitivity analysis in which we also adjusted for unprotected receptive anal intercourse and the results were not substantively changed. In summary, participation in group sex in the past 3 months was associated with a more than twofold increased prevalence of gonorrhea, but not with chlamydia. These findings support group sex participation as a potential contributor to increased STI prevalence.

  20. Prevalence of prostate adenocarcinoma according to race in an university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Milton S


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of prostate cancer and to assess potential associations between race and prostate adenocarcinoma according to age in patients followed in an outpatient service of general urology in an university hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of men aged from 40 to 79 years, followed during the period from 1999 to 2001. Patients were classified according to race in White, Mulatto and Black. Those with abnormal digital rectal examination and/or serum level of prostate specific antigen (PSA > 4.0 ng/ml, underwent a transrectal prostate biopsy. RESULTS: 580 patients with mean age of 60.7 ± 10.0 years were studied, with 116 Whites (20.0%, 276 Mulattos (47.6% and 188 Blacks (32.4%. There was no significant difference regarding the mean age (p = 0.62, serum level of PSA (p = 0.65 and prevalence of prostate adenocarcinoma between Whites, Mulattos and Blacks (p = 0.36. While studying the association between race classified in 2 groups (Whites versus Mulattos and Blacks and prostate adenocarcinoma according to age, no association was found when the total group was assessed, neither among those with age above 60 years old. In the group between 40 and 60 years, even though without statistical significance, the estimate of prevalence ratio was 2.2 (CI 95%: 0.52 to 9.0; p = 0.38. CONCLUSION: Prostate adenocarcinoma was found in 16.6% of the patients aged between 40 and 79 years. We did not find a racial influence in our population.

  1. The Racing-Game Effect: Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?


    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg


    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players’ risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure,sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on r...

  2. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  3. Race as a Variable in Agenda Setting. (United States)

    Miller, Randy E.; Wanta, Wayne


    Examines, based on a survey, potential differences between races in the agenda-setting process. Finds that whites and minorities do not have different issue agendas and do not differ on the magnitude of agenda-setting effects. (TB)

  4. AFSC/RACE/GAP: RACEBASE Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Division is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and related ecological and...

  5. Human nomenclature: from race to racism. (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos


    Throughout time, evolutionary biologists have attempted to classify human beings according to a nomenclature based on supposed patterns of biological differences that have been used to suggest hierarchical categories. Recent genetic evidence disproves the assumption that races are genetically distinct human populations. Several studies refute human categorization as a severely flawed yardstick. For many, race is a construct that must be overcome in order to eradicate racism. Personal experiences of racism, harassment and discrimination are associated with multiple indicators of poorer physical and mental health status. Additionally, socio-economic differentials are likely to be a fundamental explanation for the observed inequalities in health status among minority groups. This commentary examines the discrepancies that race, ethnicity and similar human nomenclatures present. Furthermore, the potentially harmful consequences of the "scientific" use of race, in the form of stereotyping and racism, are discussed.

  6. Racing to be an indispensable utility

    CERN Multimedia


    "Every major IT supplier is rushing to be involved in the global computing grid, eager to take advantage of the developments and experience they will gain. Why? Because the race is on to become an IT utility" (1 page).

  7. The effects of prediction on the perception for own-race and other-race faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Ran

    Full Text Available Human beings do not passively perceive important social features about others such as race and age in social interactions. Instead, it is proposed that humans might continuously generate predictions about these social features based on prior similar experiences. Pre-awareness of racial information conveyed by others' faces enables individuals to act in "culturally appropriate" ways, which is useful for interpersonal relations in different ethnicity groups. However, little is known about the effects of prediction on the perception for own-race and other-race faces. Here, we addressed this issue using high temporal resolution event-related potential techniques. In total, data from 24 participants (13 women and 11 men were analyzed. It was found that the N170 amplitudes elicited by other-race faces, but not own-race faces, were significantly smaller in the predictable condition compared to the unpredictable condition, reflecting a switch to holistic processing of other-race faces when those faces were predictable. In this respect, top-down prediction about face race might contribute to the elimination of the other-race effect (one face recognition impairment. Furthermore, smaller P300 amplitudes were observed for the predictable than for unpredictable conditions, which suggested that the prediction of race reduced the neural responses of human brains.

  8. Family emotion expressivity, emotion regulation, and the link to psychopathology: examination across race. (United States)

    Morelen, Diana; Jacob, Marni L; Suveg, Cynthia; Jones, Anna; Thomassin, Kristel


    Research has established links between parental emotion socialization behaviours and youth emotional and psychological outcomes; however, no study has simultaneously compared these relations for White, Black, and Asian individuals. In this study, emerging adults identifying as White (n= 61), Black (n= 51), or Asian (n= 56) retrospectively reported on parents' emotion socialization behaviours during childhood, existing emotion regulation (ER) skills, and current psychopathology symptoms. Asian participants reported fewer positive displays of emotions in their families during childhood than White and Black participants. Despite this difference, low expression of positive emotions in families during childhood did not relate to negative outcomes for Asian participants but was linked for White and Black participants. Overall, Asian participants reported more difficulties with ER than Black or White participants, and relations between ER difficulties and psychopathology varied by racial group. The findings emphasize the need to consider race when conducting research on emotion functioning with families and highlight emotion dysregulation as a potential treatment target for White, Black, and Asian individuals.

  9. [Race and the use of dental health services by the elderly]. (United States)

    Souza, Eliane Helena Alvim de; Oliveira, Pierre Andrade Pereira de; Paegle, Ana Claudia; Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras de


    We analyze if race can be considered a limiting factor in the use of dental services by the elderly. This study is of an analytical nature, with the use of secondary data collected by the National Survey of Oral Health in 2003. Those examined who declared themselves as being white, brown or black in the 65 to 74-year-old age bracket were included. The sample was composed of 5,108 elderly people: 2,575 whites and 2,533 blacks. Of the whites, 3.8% stated that they had never been to the dentist, while this figure was 7.8% for the blacks. Even after the adjustment for interception for prosthetics and dental pain, the chance of elderly blacks not having used dental services at least once in their life is 0.62 OR less than for elderly whites. Of those who used the services, 21.2% of the elderly whites visited the dentist in the last year, while for elderly blacks the figure was 14.2%, in the adjusted model for interception for prosthetics and dental pain the OR was 0.60. All the relations were statistically significant (pdental services by the elderly and even after the adjustments the elderly blacks continue to manifest greater resistance to the use of oral health services.

  10. The Impact of Race in Male Breast Cancer Treatment and Outcome in the United States: A Population-Based Analysis of 4,279 Patients

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    Jacob Y. Shin


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the racial differences in treatment and overall survival (OS of male breast cancer (MBC patients. Data were extracted from the NCI SEER database that included population-based registries from 1988 to 2010 and analyzed using SPSS 20.0. 4,279 MBC patients were identified. 3,266 (76.3% patients were White, 552 (12.9% Black, 246 (5.7% Hispanic, and 215 (5.0% Asian. Black patients were more likely to be diagnosed at younger age (P<0.001, have advanced stage disease (P=0.001, and be unmarried (P<0.001 and less likely to undergo lymph node dissection (P=0.006. When stratified by stage, there was no difference in receipt of primary treatment by race. The 5-year OS for White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian races was 73.8%, 66.3%, 74.0%, and 85.3% (P<0.001. This significant worse 5-year OS for Blacks persisted regardless of age, stage II or III disease, and grade 2 or 3 disease. On multivariate analysis, Black race was a significant independent prognostic factor for worse OS. Blacks were less likely to receive lymph node dissection of which patients may derive benefit, though we did not observe receipt of primary treatment, after stratifying for disease stage, to be an underlying factor contributing to racial outcome differences.

  11. Trends in sex hormone concentrations in US males: 1988-1991 to 1999-2004. (United States)

    Nyante, S J; Graubard, B I; Li, Y; McQuillan, G M; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S; Bradwin, G; McGlynn, K A


    Previous studies suggest that male testosterone concentrations have declined over time. To explore this in a large US population, we examined testosterone and free testosterone concentrations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1988-1991 and 1999-2004. We also examined sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol, and androstanediol glucuronide (3α-diol-G) over the same period. Non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American men from 1988-1991 and 1999-2004 NHANES surveys who were ≥20 years old and had serum from morning blood draws were included in this analysis (1988-1991: N = 1,413; 1999-2004: N = 902). Testosterone, estradiol and SHBG were measured by competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassays and 3α-diol-G was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Free testosterone was calculated using testosterone and SHBG values. Adjusted mean hormone concentrations were estimated using linear regression, accounting for NHANES sampling weights and design, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol use and smoking. Differences in adjusted mean concentrations (Δ) and two-sided p-values were calculated; p 1988-1991 and 1999-2004, but there was little change in testosterone, free testosterone, or SHBG (Δ: 3α-diol-G = -1.83 ng/mL, p 1988-1991 and 1999-2004 in the US general population. Subgroup analyses suggest that SHBG and 3α-diol-G declined in young white men, estradiol declined in white and Mexican-American men, and free testosterone increased in young black men. These changes may be related to the increasing prevalence of reproductive disorders in young men.

  12. The arms race between fishers (United States)

    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Quirijns, Floor J.; HilleRisLambers, Reinier; De Wilde, Jan W.; Den Heijer, Willem M.

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing fleets. Double beam trawling, introduced in the early 1960s, proved a successful fishing method to catch deep burying flatfish, in particular sole. In less than 10 years, the otter trawl fleet was replaced by a highly specialised beam trawling fleet, despite an initial doubling of the loss rate of vessels due to stability problems. Engine power, size of the beam trawl, number of tickler chains and fishing speed rapidly increased and fishing activities expanded into previously lightly fished grounds and seasons. Following the ban on flatfish trawling within the 12 nautical mile zone for vessels of more than 300 hp in 1975 and with the restriction of engine power to 2000 hp in 1987, the beam trawl fleet bifurcated. Changes in the fleet capacity were related to the economic results and showed a cyclic pattern with a period of 6-7 years. The arms race between fishers was fuelled by competitive interactions among fishers: while the catchability of the fleet more than doubled in the ten years following the introduction of the beam trawl, a decline in catchability was observed in reference beam trawlers that remained the same. Vessel performance was not only affected by the technological characteristics but also by the number and characteristics of competing vessels.

  13. Health domains and race in generic preference-based health-related quality of life instruments in the United States literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cristina de Aguiar Pereira


    Full Text Available Race differences in health have been extensively analyzed and documented in the literature, especially between African Americans or blacks and whites in the United States. Despite the vast literature in the area, the majority of studies that explore the relationship between race and health use outcomes such as self-rated health, mortality or morbidity, and disability, but very few use Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL measures and their domains or dimensions. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of the relationship between race and health domains that are commonly used in preference-based HRQoL measures. We investigated the literature on race, physical health, mental health, pain and discomfort, cognition, neurologic spectrum domains, dexterity, ambulation, vitality and social functioning domains. We conducted a literature search and review using the key words race and the health domain of interest, using medical and social sciences databases, such as MEDLINE/Pubmed, Web of Science, and the Google Scholar portal.The majority of the studies identified in the literature show that African Americans or blacks in the United States tend to have lower scores than whites throughout a variety of health domains found in preference-based HRQoL measures. This review also emphasizes the scarcity of studies that investigate some health domains, such as social functioning, dexterity, vitality and neurologic spectrum domains, and therefore we identify the need for more studies focusing on race and measures that address such domains.

  14. Association between race, obesity and diabetes in elderly community dwellers: data from the FIBRA study. (United States)

    Moretto, Maria Clara; Fontaine, Anne Marie; Garcia, Cássia de Almeida Merlo Sarzedo; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Guariento, Maria Elena


    This study sought to investigate the effect of race on measures of body fat (body mass index - BMI, waist circumference - WC and waist-hip ratio - WHR), as well as its relationship with diabetes, among elderly individuals living in urban areas in seven places in Brazil, according to gender. This is a cross-sectional study carried out with a probabilistic sample comprising 2,566 individuals with 65 years of age or more who participated in the FIBRA Study (Frailty in Elderly Brazilians). We used several self-reported sociodemographic variables (gender, age, race, schooling and family income), anthropometric measures of general (BMI) and abdominal obesity (WC and WHR) and self-reported diabetes. Adjusting for schooling and income, white race was associated with higher WC values (p = 0.001) and WHR (p > 0.001) for male gender, regardless of diabetes status. However, when we considered only diabetic individuals, black race became associated with general (BMI) (p = 0.007) and central obesity (CC) (p > 0.001), only among women.

  15. Nutrition assessment of horse-racing athletes. (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Snider, O Sue; Windish, Jennifer


    Athletes involved in horse racing face weight restrictions like wrestlers and dancers; however, the literature is sparse pertaining to nutritional habits of jockeys. The practice of "making weight" causes these athletes to engage in potentially unhealthy practices. A gap in nutritionally sound practices and methods used by jockeys was identified and a desire for nutrition education was expressed to Cooperative Extension of Delaware by representatives of the riders at Delaware Park Race Track. Nutrition assessment was done using the Nutrition Care Process. Twenty jockeys were interviewed using an assessment form developed to target areas of disordered eating. Body mass index (BMI), mean weight loss on race day, methods of weight loss and ease of weight maintenance were examined. The jockeys were also asked for areas they wished to receive nutrition education on in the future. The BMI of the 20 jockeys ranged from 17.0 to 21.4 during racing season, with only one jockey in the "underweight" category. This range increased to 19.1-24.0 when the riders were not riding. The most common method of weight loss was the use of steam rooms, to lose an average 2.5 lb in 1 day. Eight of 20, the most common response, reported it very easy to maintain their racing weight. The jockeys reported interest in future education sessions on meal planning and healthy food ideas. The assessment was used as the basis to develop nutrition education materials and presentations for the riders at the race track.

  16. Learning Race from Face: A Survey. (United States)

    Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Hou, Zeng-Guang


    Faces convey a wealth of social signals, including race, expression, identity, age and gender, all of which have attracted increasing attention from multi-disciplinary research, such as psychology, neuroscience, computer science, to name a few. Gleaned from recent advances in computer vision, computer graphics, and machine learning, computational intelligence based racial face analysis has been particularly popular due to its significant potential and broader impacts in extensive real-world applications, such as security and defense, surveillance, human computer interface (HCI), biometric-based identification, among others. These studies raise an important question: How implicit, non-declarative racial category can be conceptually modeled and quantitatively inferred from the face? Nevertheless, race classification is challenging due to its ambiguity and complexity depending on context and criteria. To address this challenge, recently, significant efforts have been reported toward race detection and categorization in the community. This survey provides a comprehensive and critical review of the state-of-the-art advances in face-race perception, principles, algorithms, and applications. We first discuss race perception problem formulation and motivation, while highlighting the conceptual potentials of racial face processing. Next, taxonomy of feature representational models, algorithms, performance and racial databases are presented with systematic discussions within the unified learning scenario. Finally, in order to stimulate future research in this field, we also highlight the major opportunities and challenges, as well as potentially important cross-cutting themes and research directions for the issue of learning race from face.

  17. Affirmative action and the Black women in South Africa. (United States)

    Serote, P


    An overview was given of how affirmative action for Blacks and women in South Africa in fact marginalizes Black women. The definition of the problem influences the solution; affirmative action obscures the complex nature of discrimination experienced by Black women by class, role, and culture and focuses only on gender and race. Secondly, the power of White women and Black men supercede the power of Black women. Apartheid benefitted White women over Black men. Affirmative action, as shifting power between groups, would solidify White women's power. The debates have taken place within university and academic contexts, a place where Black women have been excluded and the dominant groups are White men, followed by White women, and then Black men. The debate in the private sector also is devoid of Black women's voices; multinationals began to hire and train Black male managers, and there was criticism that standards were falling. Recruitment of Black women is unknown, but only 1.1% of managers are Black. Visibility within the academic and private sector debates has excluded Black women. In the articulation of ideas, most literature has been written by White men. The intersection of power and privilege belongs to males and White women as part of the larger dominant ideology. Black women's marginalization means their issues will not be addressed. The people who stand to benefit the most from affirmative action are those who are in need of improved living conditions, literacy, and employment, or those excluded from jobs and position in spite of being qualified. Black women without a societal power base have no bargaining power. To insure that Black women benefit, there is need to treat Black women as a distinctive group with priority. There is also a need to examine the myths that have been spun around Black women, their needs, abilities, and controlling images. There is a need to integrate Black womens ideas into the mainstream and recognize that maybe Black women need

  18. The effect of school quality on black-white health differences: evidence from segregated southern schools. (United States)

    Frisvold, David; Golberstein, Ezra


    This study assesses the effect of black-white differences in school quality on black-white differences in health in later life resulting from the racial convergence in school quality for cohorts born between 1910 and 1950 in southern states with segregated schools. Using data from the 1984-2007 National Health Interview Surveys linked to race-specific data on school quality, we find that reductions in the black-white gap in school quality led to modest reductions in the black-white gap in disability.

  19. Willingness of men who have sex with men (MSM in the United States to be circumcised as adults to reduce the risk of HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin B Begley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circumcision reduces HIV acquisition among heterosexual men in Africa, but it is unclear if circumcision may reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM in the United States, or whether MSM would be willing to be circumcised if recommended. METHODS: We interviewed presumed-HIV negative MSM at gay pride events in 2006. We asked uncircumcised respondents about willingness to be circumcised if it were proven to reduce risk of HIV among MSM and perceived barriers to circumcision. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify covariates associated with willingness to be circumcised. RESULTS: Of 780 MSM, 133 (17% were uncircumcised. Of these, 71 (53% were willing to be circumcised. Willingness was associated with black race (exact odds ratio [OR]: 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-9.8, non-injection drug use (OR: 6.1, 95% CI: 1.8-23.7 and perceived reduced risk of penile cancer (OR: 4.7, 95% CI: 2.0-11.9. The most commonly endorsed concerns about circumcision were post-surgical pain and wound infection. CONCLUSIONS: Over half of uncircumcised MSM, especially black MSM, expressed willingness to be circumcised. Perceived risks and benefits of circumcision should be a part of educational materials if circumcision is recommended for MSM in the United States.

  20. To Have or Not To Have? A Preliminary Analysis of Higher Education Funding Disparities in the Post-Ayers v Fordice Era: Evidence form Critical Race Theory. (United States)

    Brady, Kevin; Eatman, Timothy; Parker, Laurence


    Reviews higher education racial desegregation equity since the U.S. Supreme Court's 1992 "Fordice" decision. Discusses historically black colleges and universities' future status and African-American students' progress, using finance data analyzed and interpreted via critical race theory. HBCU's receive inferior state appropriation levels,…