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Sample records for black pine plantations

  1. Modelling the productivity of Anatolian black pine plantations in Turkey

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    Şükrü Teoman Güner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the relationships between height growth (site index of Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasina (Lamb. Holmboe and site factors of the plantation areas in Turkey. Data were collected from 118 sample plots by taking into consideration the variations of aspect, altitude, slope position, slope degree and site class. A representative tree for the productivity and soil samples were taken at each sample plot. Some chemical and physical properties of soil samples were determined in the laboratory. The relationships between site index values of the trees and site factors including parent material, soil, climate and topography were examined by using correlation, stepwise regression and regression tree analysis. Significant linear relations were found between site index of black pine and site factors being altitude, slope degree, slope position, annual rainfall, precipitation amount in the most drought month, solum depth and bedrock including granite, mica schist and dacite. Explanation variance percentage on the site index of black pine was found 54.4% by using regression tree analysis whereas explained variance become 34.7% by stepwise regression analysis.

  2. Effects of silvicultural treatment on the stability of black pine plantations.

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    Paolo Cantiani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Black pine plantations have been established at the purpose of recovering a forest cover to marginal soils, mostly throughout the Apennines range in Italy, since the end of the eighteenth century and up to the mid 1900. Both the decay of forest cover and soil erosion were the outcome of the long-lasting overuse through the intensive forest exploitation practices, grazing of the forest floor and wildfires, occurring since many centuries ago. The primary function of pine reafforestation was therefore to re-establish a first cover with a pioneer species, preparatory to future mixed forest types based on the natural reintroduction of broadleaves originally living in the same areas, mainly deciduous oaks and beech in the upper part. These goals have been partly met over the wide reafforestation area; the key functions of pine stands are today the protection against soil erosion and the hydrological regulation of catchments. The pine stands have been assuming today also a scenic role because they have been incorporated in the landscape physiognomy. A series of thinning up to the regeneration phase had been planned by foresters since the design of these plantations, but many stands have grown unthinned and fully stocked for a long time, this condition contributing a less mechanical stability of trees. Alternative forms of regeneration in grown-up stands have been and are being tested to improve both the natural and artificial establishment of indigenous species, but thinnings remain, even if a tardy measure, the main practice enforceable to these pine forests. The results of experimental trials undertaken in the black pine forest stand located in Pratomagno casentinese (Arezzo are being reported in the paper. The study started in 1978 and the following theses were tested (A heavy thinning from below; (B moderate thinning from below; (C control. Three thinnings were carried out in 1978, 1999 and 2009 at the ages of 24, 45 and 55. The action over time of

  3. 晋西刺槐和油松人工林密度效应规律%Plantation density effect characteristics of black locust and pitch pine plantation in the West Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玉宝; 王百田; 陈微; 文万荣; 赵铭军

    2011-01-01

    According to data of 59 sample trees of black locust and pitch pine plantations in the west Shanxi, the variation characteristics of density effect with stand age were investigated to draft growth model of DBH of single and density effect model by fitting . The results showed as folliws the density effect became more and more obvious with the increase of forest age, while breast diameter in growth progress and negative correlation coefficient of density increased. When the forest age reached a certain standard, the correlation coefficient growth rate declined. The forest ages were 13 years old Robinia pseudoacacia on the north-facing slope; 10 yeare old on the semi-north-facing slope; 8 years old R. Pseudoacacia on the semi-north-facing slope in Ji County; 13 years old Pinus tabulaeformis Carr on the semi-north-facing slope and south-facing slope in Fangshan County. Different slopes gave different responses for density. The correlation coefficient of north-facing slope R. Pseudoacacia Linn in Fangshan County was smaller than that of semi-north-facing slope; the correlation coefficient of south-facing slope of P. Tabulaeformis Carr in Fangshan County was smaller than that of semi-north-facing slope. Plantation in different slope aspect had different first artificial afforestation density and tending management.%根据刺槐和油松人工林59株解析木资料,分析林分密度效应随年龄变化特征,拟合了单株胸径生长模型和密度效应模型.研究表明,随林龄增长,林木胸径生长与密度负相关系数增大,密度影响逐渐显著.但达一定林龄后,相关系数增幅变小,位于方山县阳坡刺槐林林龄为13 a,半阳坡为10a;位于吉县半阳坡刺槐林林龄为8a;位于方山县半阳坡和阴坡油松林林龄为13 a.不同坡向对密度响应不同.方山县阳坡刺槐林密度效应较半阳坡滞后;方山县阴坡油松林密度效应较半阳坡滞后.因此,不同坡向的人工林初植密度、抚育经营措施应不同.

  4. Modeling Pine Plantation NEP Using Landsat

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    Wynne, R. H.; Potter, C. S.; Blinn, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) ecosystem process model predicts terrestrial ecosystem fluxes using satellite-based inputs at a maximum geographic resolution of 30 meters to infer variability in forest carbon fluxes. We are using CASA to model pine plantation net ecosystem production (NEP) under a range of standard silvicultural prescriptions, primarily thinning by fertilization interactions. Landsat scenes from WRS path/row 14/35, 21/37, and 16/34 are being used. Within each frame, all available cloud-free scenes within a two- to three-year period have been obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center processed to L1T, and subsequently converted to top-of-atmosphere reflectance using standard methods and the latest calibration parameter files. Atmospheric amelioration started with dark object subtraction (band minimum) and only proceeded to more complex techniques as necessary. Subsequent to preprocessing, the reduced simple ratio (RSR; using global min/max) was calculated for all images for each WRS path/row. Pure pine pixels in each frame were identified using unsupervised classification of the most recent leaf-off scene. We developed four age classes using two decades of Landsat data over each WRS path/row. CASA runs, which require soil parameters, and gridded climate/solar radiation in addition to satellite-derived vegetation indices, are now complete. Soil respiration and productivity estimates are being evaluated using a regionwide network of validation sites spanning the range of loblolly pine (Texas to Virginia). Preliminary results indicate that Landsat-based process modeling (1) is necessary for the scale at which land is actually managed and (2) produces estimates with an accuracy and precision affording improved understanding and management of forest ecosystems.

  5. Flux agreement above a Scots pine plantation

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    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Blanford, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    The surface energy exchange of 12m high Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany, was measured with a variety of methods during a 11-day period of fine weather in mid-May 1992. Net radiation and rate of thermal storage were measured with conventional net radiometers, soil heat flux discs and temperature-based storage models. The turbulent fluxes discussed in this report were obtained with an interchanging Bowen ratio energy budget system (BREB, at 14 m), two one-propeller eddy correlation systems (OPEC systems 1 and 2 at 17m), a 1-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 3) at 15 m, all on one “low” tower, and a 3-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 22) at 22 m on the “high” tower that was about 46 m distant. All systems measured sensible and latent heat (H and LE) directly, except for OPEC systems 1 and 2 which estimated LE as a residual term in the surface energy balance. Closure of turbulent fluxes from the two SEC systems was around 80% for daytime and 30% for night, with closure of 1-dimensional SEC system 3 exceeding that of 3-dimensional SEC system 22. The night measurements of turbulent fluxes contained considerable uncertainty, especially with the BREB system where measured gradients often yielded erroneous fluxes due to problems inherent in the method (i.e., computational instability as Bowen's ratio approaches -1). Also, both eddy correlation system designs (OPEC and SEC) appeared to underestimate |H| during stable conditions at night. In addition, both sonic systems (1- and 3-dimensional) underestimated |LE| during stable conditions. The underestimate of |H| at night generated residual estimates of OPEC LE containing a “phantom dew” error that erroneously decreased daily LE totals by about 10 percent. These special night problems are circumvented here by comparing results for daytime periods only, rather than for full days. To summarize, turbulent fluxes on the low tower from OPEC system 2 and the adjacent

  6. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

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    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  7. Carbon and water vapor balance in a subtropical pine plantation

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    Posse G

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation has been proposed as an effective tool for protecting primary and/or secondary forests and for mitigating atmospheric CO2. However, the dynamics of primary productivity differs between plantations and natural forests. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential for carbon storage of a commercial pine plantation by determining its carbon balance. Measurements started when trees were aged 6 and ended when they were older than 8 years. We measured CO2 and water vapor concentrations using the Eddy covariance method. Gross primary productivity in 2010 and 2011 was 4290 ± 473 g C m-2 and 4015 ± 485 g C m-2, respectively. Ecosystem respiration ranged between 7 and 20 g C m-2 d-1, reaching peaks in all Februaries. Of the 30 months monitored, the plantation acted as carbon source for 21 months and as carbon sink for 6 months, while values close to neutrality were obtained during 3 months. The positive balance representing CO2 loss by the system was most likely due to the cut branches left on the ground following pruning activities. The plantation was subjected to pruning in January and September 2008 and to sanitary pruning in October 2010. In all cases, cut branches were not removed but remained on the ground. Residue management seems to have a very important impact on carbon balance.

  8. Low tortoise abundances in pine forest plantations in forest-shrubland transition areas

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    Rodríguez-Caro, Roberto C.; Oedekoven, Cornelia S.; Graciá, Eva; Anadón, José D.; Buckland, Stephen T.; Esteve-Selma, Miguel A.; Martinez, Julia; Giménez, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    In the transition between Mediterranean forest and the arid subtropical shrublands of the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, humans have transformed habitat since ancient times. Understanding the role of the original mosaic landscapes in wildlife species and the effects of the current changes as pine forest plantations, performed even outside the forest ecological boundaries, are important conservation issues. We studied variation in the density of the endangered spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) in three areas that include the four most common land types within the species’ range (pine forests, natural shrubs, dryland crop fields, and abandoned crop fields). Tortoise densities were estimated using a two-stage modeling approach with line transect distance sampling. Densities in dryland crop fields, abandoned crop fields and natural shrubs were higher (>6 individuals/ha) than in pine forests (1.25 individuals/ha). We also found large variation in density in the pine forests. Recent pine plantations showed higher densities than mature pine forests where shrub and herbaceous cover was taller and thicker. We hypothesize that mature pine forest might constrain tortoise activity by acting as partial barriers to movements. This issue is relevant for management purposes given that large areas in the tortoise’s range have recently been converted to pine plantations. PMID:28273135

  9. Thinning pine plantations to reestablish oak openings species in northwestern Ohio.

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    Abella, Scott R

    2010-09-01

    Globally the area in forest plantations is rising by 2% annually, increasing the importance of plantations for production of human goods and services and for ecological functions such as carbon storage and biodiversity conservation. Specifically in the Great Lakes states and provinces of Midwestern North America, thousands of hectares of pine plantations were established in the early and mid-1900s to revegetate abandoned agricultural fields that had replaced mixed-species forests and oak-prairie ecosystems. Plantation establishment also was intended to bolster the timber base. Management priorities have shifted, with many resource managers currently seeking to manage existing plantations for promoting mixed-species ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to assess plant succession and the reestablishment of oak savanna and prairie species after thinning 14 plantations of Pinus resinosa and strobus in northwestern Ohio, USA. Thinning reduced tree basal area by an average of 75%. Plant communities were sampled on 0.05-ha plots one and 3 years after thinning and compared to 10 unthinned control plantations. By 3 years after thinning, thinned plots contained 2-3 times more species and 14 times more plant cover than control plots. The species composition of colonizing plants was most strongly correlated with residual pine basal area and soil variables related to drainage (e.g., sand concentration, available water capacity). Although plant composition was dominated by widespread colonizers such as Erechtites hieraciifolia, the coefficient of conservatism (indicative of species of more intact, undisturbed communities) significantly increased on thinned plots from year 1 to 3. This finding, coupled with the presence of four rare, state-listed Ohio species whose eight plot occurrences all were on thinned plots, suggests that plant composition is moving towards species typifying more high-quality savanna and prairie habitats.

  10. Management Effects on Soil Respiration in North Carolina Coastal Plain Loblolly Pine Plantations

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    Gavazzi, M.; McNulty, S.; Noormets, A.; Treasure, E.

    2012-12-01

    Loblolly pine is the most widely planted tree for plantation management in the southern US. In the southern coastal plain, where much of the original longleaf pine and bottomland hardwood forests have been converted to loblolly pine plantations, inland areas are commonly characterized by deep organic soils that can store up to 80 kg C m-2. Intensive management activities on these sites disturb the forest floor and soil and their impact on soil respiration rates and long term soil storage capabilities is unclear. We measured soil respiration rates in three loblolly pine plantations being managed with a combination of ditching, bedding, clearcutting, thinning and fertilization. Sites and management regimes represented a wide range of real world conditions found in managed southern US forestry plantations. Soil efflux rates along with soil temperature and moisture were measured throughout the year at four to six plots on each site and best fit relationships were developed. Annual soil respiration rates where modeled using 30-minute soil temperature and moisture measurements recorded at a centralized meteorological station on each site. Soil efflux rates were highly correlated with soil temperature and moisture, but interaction between the two effects was uncommon. Soil temperature was the primary driver of soil respiration rates, but rates were suppressed under high soil moisture content. Modeled annual soil efflux rates were higher the first two years following clearcut harvest and thinning operations, but lower two years following fertilization. Rates were lower in the gaps, where entire tree rows were removed, compared to thinned areas, especially on the unfertilized site. Results indicate that soil respiration rates can be strongly impacted by forest management practices; however, the period of increased soil CO2 efflux due to site disturbance may last only a few years.

  11. Ground Spider Guilds and Functional Diversity in Native Pine Woodlands and Eucalyptus Plantations.

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    Corcuera, Pablo; Valverde, Pedro Luis; Jiménez, María Luisa; Ponce-Mendoza, Alejandro; De la Rosa, Gabriela; Nieto, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation structure and floristics have a strong influence on the relative abundance of spider guilds and functional diversity of terrestrial arthropods. Human activities have transformed much of the temperate woodlands. The aim of this study was to test five predictions related to the guild distribution and functional diversity of the ground spider communities of Eucalyptus plantations and native pine woodlands in western Mexico. Spiders were collected every fortnight from September to November from 15 pitfalls positioned in each of the eight sites. We also assessed the cover of grasses, herbs, shrubs, and leaf litter in each site. We found that the abundances of ground hunters and sheet weavers between plantations and pine woodlands were different. Nevertheless, there was not a consistent difference between sites of each of the vegetation types. Most species of ground hunters, sheet web weavers, and many other hunters were associated with litter and the grass cover. Nonetheless, in some cases, species of different families belonging to the same guild responded to different variables. Wolf spiders were related to the grass Aristida stricta Micheaux, 1803, while the species of the other families of ground hunters were associated with leaf litter. One Eucalyptus plantation and one pine woodland had the highest functional diversity of all sites. These sites have a well developed litter and grass cover. Our study suggests that the abundance of litter and a high cover of grasses explain the occurrence of species with different traits, and these habitat components results in a high functional diversity.

  12. COMPARISON OF MOLECULAR AND GENETIC PROPERTIES OF PINE (Pinus sylvestris L.) SEED PLANTATIONS IN BOSNIA AND HERCEGOVINA

    OpenAIRE

    Ballian, D.; Konnert, M.; Bogunić, F.

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses the genetic structure of the pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clones in the multiclone seed plantations of Kozji Grm (KG) and Šamin Gaj (ŠG). The clones in both seed plantations originate from natural populations of common pine in Bosnia and Hercegovina; KG (40 clones): Gornji Janj – 10 clones, Klekovača 7, Kaljina Bioštica 16, Romanija Glasinac 6, Igman 1, while the ŠG plantation contains 20 clones from one population (Igman). The genetic structure was analysed using 9 enzyme sy...

  13. Above- and belowground competition from longleaf pine plantations limits performance of reintroduced herbaceous species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.B. Harrington; C.M. Dagley; M.B. Edwards.

    2003-10-01

    Although overstory trees limit the abundance and species richness of herbaceous vegetation in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood because of confounding among limiting factors. In fall 1998, research was initiated to determine the separate effects of above- and belowground competition and needlefall from overstory pines on understory plant performance. Three 13- to 15-yr-old plantations near Aiken, SC, were thinned to 0, 25, 50, or 100% of nonthinned basal area (19.5 m2 ha-1). Combinations of trenching (to eliminate root competition) and needlefall were applied to areas within each plot, and containerized seedlings of 14 perennial herbaceous species and longleaf pine were planted within each. Overstory crown closure ranged from 0 to 81%, and soil water and available nitrogen varied consistently with pine stocking, trenching, or their combination. Cover of planted species decreased an average of 16.5 and 14.1% as a result of above- and below-ground competition, respectively. Depending on species, needlefall effects were positive, negative, or negligible. Results indicate that understory restoration will be most successful when herbaceous species are established within canopy openings (0.1-0.2 ha) managed to minimize negative effects from above- and belowground competition and needlefall.

  14. Improving seedling growth in longleaf pine plantations with nematicidal soil fumigants.

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    Ruehle, J L

    1969-07-01

    In-row, preplanting fumigation with DD and DBCP in a longleaf pine plantation was evaluated for nematode control, improved seedling survival, and early and uniform release of seedlings from the grass stage. Only DD significantly lowered the nematode population during the first growing season. DBCP not only failed to control nematodes, but was phytotoxic. Fumigation had little effect on seedling survival. Seedlings in rows fumigated with DD started height growth earlier and produced taller trees after 5 years than those in nonfumigated rows.

  15. Soil-plant-atmosphere conditions regulating convective cloud formation above southeastern US pine plantations.

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    Manoli, Gabriele; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Novick, Kimberly; Oishi, Andrew Christopher; Noormets, Asko; Marani, Marco; Katul, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) occupy more than 20% of the forested area in the southern United States, represent more than 50% of the standing pine volume in this region, and remove from the atmosphere about 500 g C m-2 per year through net ecosystem exchange. Hence, their significance as a major regional carbon sink can hardly be disputed. What is disputed is whether the proliferation of young plantations replacing old forest in the southern United States will alter key aspects of the hydrologic cycle, including convective rainfall, which is the focus of the present work. Ecosystem fluxes of sensible (Hs) and latent heat (LE) and large-scale, slowly evolving free atmospheric temperature and water vapor content are known to be first-order controls on the formation of convective clouds in the atmospheric boundary layer. These controlling processes are here described by a zero-order analytical model aimed at assessing how plantations of different ages may regulate the persistence and transition of the atmospheric system between cloudy and cloudless conditions. Using the analytical model together with field observations, the roles of ecosystem Hs and LE on convective cloud formation are explored relative to the entrainment of heat and moisture from the free atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that cloudy-cloudless regimes at the land surface are regulated by a nonlinear relation between the Bowen ratio Bo=Hs/LE and root-zone soil water content, suggesting that young/mature pines ecosystems have the ability to recirculate available water (through rainfall predisposition mechanisms). Such nonlinearity was not detected in a much older pine stand, suggesting a higher tolerance to drought but a limited control on boundary layer dynamics. These results enable the generation of hypotheses about the impacts on convective cloud formation driven by afforestation/deforestation and groundwater depletion projected to increase following increased human population in the

  16. Insecticidal activity of alpha-cypermethrin against small banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in forest plantations and thickets

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    Prokocka Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris plantations and thickets damaged by biotic and abiotic factors are particularly attractive to small-banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus, whose larvae excavate feeding tunnels in the stems of young trees, causing their death. There are no chemical methods that can be applied to protect forest plantations and thickets against this pest. Therefore, the studies were undertaken aimed at the assessment of the efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin used to reduce the numbers of this pest within restock areas. The scope of work included laboratory and field estimation of insecticidal activity of alpha-cypermethrin.

  17. Performance of Planted Herbaceous Species in Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) Plantations: Overstory Effects of Competition and Needlefall

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    Dagley, C.M.

    2001-07-03

    Research to determine the separate effects of above-ground and below-ground competition and needlefall of over-story pines on under-story plant performance. Periodic monitoring of over-story crown closure, soil water content, temperature, and nutrients were conducted. Results indicate competition for light had a more determental effect on performance of herbaceous species in longleaf pine plantations than that resulting from competition for below-ground resources.

  18. Application of Wenner Configuration to Estimate Soil Water Content in Pine Plantations on Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the mean value of surface soil water content rapidly, accurately, and nonintrusively, field investigations on soil electrical resistivity (SER) with the Yokogawa 324400 earth resistivity meter and the surface (0-150 cm) soil water content (SWC) with time domain reflectometry (TDR), together with the abiotic factors including soil texture, structure,and salinity concentrations were conducted in the Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) plantations on a sandy land. The measurement of SER was based on the 4-probe Wenner configuration method. Relationships between the values of SWC and SER were obtained based on analysis of the abiotic factors of the research site, which play a key role in affecting the soil electrical resistivity. Results indicate that the SER meter could be used to estimate the mean value of SWC in the Mongolian pine plantations on the sandy land during the growing seasons. The bulky nature of the equipment simplified the cumbersome measurements of soil water content with the general methods. It must be noted that the Wenner configuration method could only provide the mean values of the SWC, and the soil texture, structure,temperature, and solute concentrations influenced the SER and further affected the estimation of the SWC by the SER meter. Therefore, the results of this study could be applied on a sandy land during the growing seasons only. However,the SWC of other soil types also may be obtained according to the individual soil types using the procedures of this study.

  19. Developmental Trends of Black Spruce Fibre Attributes in Maturing Plantations

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    Peter F. Newton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the temporal developmental patterns of commercially relevant fibre attributes (tracheid length and diameters, wall thickness, specific surface area, wood density, microfibril angle, fibre coarseness, and modulus of elasticity and their interrelationships within maturing black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. plantations. A size-based stratified random sample procedure within 5 semimature plantations located in the Canadian Boreal Forest Region was used to select 50 trees from which radial cross-sectional xylem sequences at breast-height (1.3 m were cut and analyzed. Statistically, the graphical and linear correlation analyses indicated that the attributes exhibited significant (p≤0.05 relationships among themselves and with morphological tree characteristics. Relative variation of each annually measured attribute declined with increasing size class (basal area quintile. The transitional shifts in temporal correlation patterns occurring at the time of approximate crown closure where suggestive of intrinsic differences in juvenile and mature wood formation processes. The temporal cumulative development patterns of all 8 of the annually measured attributes varied systematically with tree size and exhibited the most rapid rates of change before the trees reached a cambial age of 20 years. At approximately 50 years after establishment, plantation mean attribute values were not dissimilar from those reported for more mature natural-origin stands.

  20. Effects of pruning in Monterey pine plantations affected by Fusarium circinatum

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    Bezos, D.; Lomba, J. M.; Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Fernandez, M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell (1998) is the causal agent of Pitch Canker Disease (PCD) in Pinus species, producing damage to the main trunk and lateral branches as well as causing branch dieback. The disease has been detected recently in northern Spain in Pinus spp. seedlings at nurseries and in Pinus radiata D. Don adult trees in plantations. Fusarium circinatum seems to require a wound to enter the tree, not only that as caused by insects but also that resulting from damage by humans, i.e. mechanical wounds. However, the effects of pruning on the infection process have yet to be studied. The aim of the present study was to know how the presence of mechanical damage caused by pruning affects PCD occurrence and severity in P. radiata plantations. Fifty P. radiata plots (pruned and unpruned) distributed throughout 16 sites affected by F. circinatum in the Cantabria region (northern Spain) were studied. Symptoms of PCD presence, such as dieback, oozing cankers and trunk deformation were evaluated in 25 trees per plot and related to pruning effect. A significant relationship between pruning and the number of cankers per tree was observed, concluding that wounds caused by pruning increase the chance of pathogen infection. Other trunk symptoms, such as the presence of resin outside the cankers, were also higher in pruned plots. These results should be taken into account for future management of Monterey Pine plantations. (Author) 36 refs.

  1. Soil Inorganic Nitrogen and Microbial biomass Carbon and Nitrogen Under Pine Plantations in Zhanggutai Sandy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhan-Yuan; CHEN Fu-Sheng; ZENG De-Hui; ZHAO Qiong; CHEN Guang-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of soil inorganic nitrogen (NH+4-N and NO-3N) and microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) under 30-year-old fenced Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica Litvin (SF), unfenced P. sylvestris L. var. mongolica Litvin (SUF), and unfenced Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. (DUF) plantations in the Zhanggutai sandy soil of China were studied during Apr. to Oct. 2004 by the in situ closed-top core incubation method. All mentioned C and N indices in each stand type fluctuated over time. The ranges of inorganic N, Cmic, and Nmic contents in the three stand types were 0.7-2.6, 40.0-128.9, and 5.4-15.2 μg g-1, respectively. The average contents of soil NH+4-N and Cmic under the three 30-year-old pine plantations were not different. However, soil NO-3-N and total inorganic N contents decreased in the order of SUF > SF > DUF, the Nmic content was in the order of SF = SUF > DUF, and the Cmic:Nmic ratio was in the order of SUF = DUF > SF. Seasonal variations were observed in soil inorganic N, microbial biomass, and plant growth. These seasonal variations had certain correlations with microbe and plant N use in the soil, and their competition for NH+4-N was mostly regulated by soil N availability. The influence of tree species on inorganic N and Nmic were mainly because of differences in litter quality. Lack of grazing decreased the Cmic:N ratio owing to decreased carbon output and increased the ability of soil to supply N. The soil N supply under the P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantation was lower than under the P. densiflora plantation.

  2. Understory plant diversity assessment of Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations in Yunnan, China

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    Qiu, J. X.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a key objective for managers of both natural forests and plantations, and biodiversity assessments are important tools to improve conservation of endangered species. Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis is a native Chinese tree species used in plantations. This study evaluated differences in understory diversity among Szemao pine plantations (SP and other local current vegetation types: secondary evergreen forests (SE and abandoned farmlands (AF in Yunnan Province. Sampling was performed at three elevation ranges, where species richness, species cover, and environmental variables in the herb and shrub layers were measured. We found that indexes for average richness and Shannon–Wiener diversity were higher in SE than in SP, which were in turn higher than in AF, while the index for evenness was higher in SP. These indexes increased with elevation in SP and AF, but were higher at low and medium elevations in SE. Inclusion of environmental factors highlighted elevation differences, with water content (at herb layer and soil type (at shrub layer being the most significant variables. In conclusion, plantations of Szemao pine negatively affect understory diversity in Yunnan, and furthermore, only a few rare or threatened species could be found in the plantations. Nature reserves and transplanting could protect threatened species if established before plantations.La sostenibilidad es un objetivo clave para la gestión tanto de bosques naturales como de plantaciones, mientras que los estudios sobre biodiversidad constituyen herramientas muy útiles para mejorar la conservación de especies amenazadas. El pino Szemao (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis es un árbol nativo de China que se usa en plantaciones. Este estudio evalúa la diversidad del sotobosque en plantaciones de pino Szemao (SP y otros tipos de vegetación local, como bosques secundarios perennifolios (SE y tierras de cultivo abandonadas (AF, en la provincia de

  3. Estimating groundwater evapotranspiration by a subtropical pine plantation using diurnal water table fluctuations: Implications from night-time water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Junliang; Ostergaard, Kasper T.; Guyot, Adrien; Fujiwara, Stephen; Lockington, David A.

    2016-11-01

    Exotic pine plantations have replaced large areas of the native forests for timber production in the subtropical coastal Australia. To evaluate potential impacts of changes in vegetation on local groundwater discharge, we estimated groundwater evapotranspiration (ETg) by the pine plantation using diurnal water table fluctuations for the dry season of 2012 from August 1st to December 31st. The modified White method was used to estimate the ETg, considering the night-time water use by pine trees (Tn). Depth-dependent specific yields were also determined both experimentally and numerically for estimation of ETg. Night-time water use by pine trees was comprehensively investigated using a combination of groundwater level, sap flow, tree growth, specific yield, soil matric potential and climatic variables measurements. Results reveal a constant average transpiration flux of 0.02 mm h-1 at the plot scale from 23:00 to 05:00 during the study period, which verified the presence of night-time water use. The total ETg for the period investigated was 259.0 mm with an accumulated Tn of 64.5 mm, resulting in an error of 25% on accumulated evapotranspiration from the groundwater if night-time water use was neglected. The results indicate that the development of commercial pine plantations may result in groundwater losses in these areas. It is also recommended that any future application of diurnal water table fluctuation based methods investigate the validity of the zero night-time water use assumption prior to use.

  4. Soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands after selective silvicultural treatments: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Butti, Fabrizio; De Meo, Isabella; Bianchetto, Elisa; Landi, Silvia; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wildfires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this reafforestation was to re-establish the pine as a first cover, pioneer species. A series of thinning activities were therefore planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. The project Selpibiolife (LIFE13 BIO/IT/000282) has the main objective to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance soil biodiversity under black pine stands. The monitoring will be carried out by comparing selective and traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) to areas without any silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting). The monitoring survey was carried out in Pratomagno and Amiata Val D'Orcia areas on the Appennines (Italy) and involved different biotic levels: microorganisms, mesofauna, nematodes and macrofauna (Coleoptera). The results displayed a significant difference between the overall biodiversity of the two areas. In particular, microbial diversity assessed by both biochemical (microbial biomass, microbial respiration, metabolic quotient) and molecular (PCR-DGGE) approaches highlighted different a composition and activity of microbial communities within the two areas before thinning. Furthermore, little but significant differences were observed for mesofauna and nematode community as well which displayed a higher diversity level in Amiata areas compared to Pratomagno. In contrast, Coleoptera showed higher richness values in Pratomagno, where the wood degrader Nebria tibialis specie dominated, compared to Amiata. As expected, a general degraded biodiversity was observed in both areas before thinning.

  5. Monitoring endophyte populations in pine plantations and native oak forests in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Martin-Garcia, J.; Rodriguez-Ceinos, S.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    The replacement of native forest with plantations of other species may have important impacts on ecosystems. Some of these impacts have been widely studied, but very little is known about the effects on fungal communities and specifically endo phytic fungi. In this study, endophyte assemblages in pine plantations (Pinus sylvestris, P. nigra and P. pinaster) and native oak forests (Quercus pyrenaica) in the north of the province of Palencia (Spain) were analyzed. For this purpose, samples of needles/leaves and twigs were collected from three trees in each of three plots sampled per host species. The samples were later processed in the laboratory to identify all of the endo phytic species present. In addition, an exhaustive survey was carried out of the twelve sites to collect data on the environmental, crown condition, dendrometric and soil variables that may affect the distribution of the fungi. The endophyte assemblages isolated from P. sylvestris and P. nigra were closely related to each other, but were different from those isolated from P. pinaster. The endophytes isolated from Q. pyrenaica were less closely related to those from the other hosts, and therefore preservation of oak stands is important to prevent the loss of fungal diversity. Finally, the distribution of the endophyte communities was related to some of the environmental variables considered. (Author) 42 refs.

  6. Contributions of biogenic volatile organic compounds to net ecosystem carbon flux in a ponderosa pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Brown, Nicole C.; Schade, Gunnar W.; Misson, Laurent; Lee, Anita; McKay, Megan; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2012-12-01

    When assessing net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB), respiration is generally assumed to be the only significant loss of carbon to the atmosphere. However, carbon is also emitted from ecosystems in the form of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Here we consider the magnitude of systematic difference caused by omitting this additional carbon loss from the net ecosystem carbon balance, as compared to the NEE term, of the ponderosa pine plantation at Blodgett Forest. We find that 9.4 (range 6.2-12.5) g C m-2 yr-1 were emitted from this ecosystem as BVOCs. This is 4.0 (2.0-7.9) % of annual NEE, and neglecting this additional loss of carbon causes an overestimation of carbon storage for this rapidly growing commercial forest plantation. For ecosystems that are not storing carbon as rapidly, where photosynthesis and respiration are more closely balanced, ignoring BVOC emission may cause a larger error in the estimation of NECB.

  7. ENERGY BALANCE AND CO2 EXCHANGE BEHAVIOUR IN SUB-TROPICAL YOUNG PINE (Pinus roxburghii PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Bhattacharya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to understand the seasonal and annual energy balance behaviour of young and growing sub-tropical chir pine (Pinus roxburghii plantation of eight years age in the Doon valley, India and its coupling with CO2 exchange. The seasonal cycle of dekadal daytime latent heat fluxes mostly followed net radiation cycle with two minima and range between 50–200 Wm-2 but differed from the latter during the period when soil wetness and cloudiness were not coupled. Dekadal evaporative fraction closely followed the seasonal dryness-wetness cycle thus minimizing the effect of wind on energy partitioning as compared to diurnal variation. Daytime latent heat fluxes were found to have linear relationship with canopy net assimilation rate (Y = 0.023X + 0.171, R2 = 0.80 though nonlinearity exists between canopy latent heat flux and hourly net CO2 assimilation rate . Night-time plant respiration was found to have linear relationship (Y = 0.088 + 1.736, R2 = 0.72 with night-time average vapour pressure deficit (VPD. Daily average soil respiration was found to be non-linearly correlated to average soil temperatures (Y = -0.034X2 + 1.676X – 5.382, R2 = 0.63 The coupled use of empirical models, seasonal energy fluxes and associated parameters would be useful to annual water and carbon accounting in subtropical pine ecosystem of India in the absence high-response eddy covariance tower.

  8. Numerical and functional responses of forest bats to a major insect pest in pine plantations.

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    Yohan Charbonnier

    Full Text Available Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances.We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming [corrected]. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests.

  9. Numerical and functional responses of forest bats to a major insect pest in pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances.We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming [corrected]. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests.

  10. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jianming, E-mail: jianming.xue@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 29237, Christchurch (New Zealand); Kimberley, Mark O., E-mail: mark.kimberley@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Ross, Craig, E-mail: rossc@landcareresearch.co.nz [Landcare, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Gielen, Gerty, E-mail: gerty.gielen@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Tremblay, Louis A., E-mail: louis.tremblay@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Champeau, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.champeau@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); Horswell, Jacqui, E-mail: jacqui.horswell@esr.cri.nz [ESR, P O Box 50-348, Porirua (New Zealand); Wang, Hailong, E-mail: hailong@zafu.edu.cn [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Key Laboratory of Soil Contamination Bioremediation of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin' an, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 311300 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup −1}, equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha{sup −1} of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0–50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0–20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25–50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the

  11. Ancient split of major genetic lineages of European Black Pine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naydenov, Krassimir D.; Naydenov, Michel K.; Alexandrov, Alexander; Vasilevski, Kole; Gyuleva, Veselka; Matevski, Vlado; Nikolic, Biljana; Goudiaby, Venceslas; Bogunic, Faruk; Paitaridou, Despina; Christou, Andreas; Goia, Irina; Carcaillet, Christopher; Alcantara, Adrian Escudero; Ture, Cengiz; Gulcu, Suleyman; Peruzzi, Lorenzo; Kamary, Salim; Bojovic, Srdjan; Hinkov, Georgi; Tsarev, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    The European Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) has a long and complex history. Genetic distance and frequency analyses identified three differentiated genetic groups, which corresponded to three wide geographical areas: Westerns Mediterranean, Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor. These groups shared comm

  12. Wood dimensions and value in the Austrian pine plantations in Forest Estate "Sombor"-Forest Unit "Subotica"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship and interaction between quantitative (number and dimensions of trees and value indicators in Austrian pine plantations were researched in Forest Management Unit „Subotičke Šume” (Forest Estate „Sombor” - FA „Subotica”. As the measurement of quantitative elements is more simple, their effect on wood value can be used as a rather reliable support in the value estimation of standing trees. The analysis of the research results shows that there is a strong inter-relationship of the study elements, so they can be a good foundation for the estimation of standing timber value in artificial Austrian pine plantations at the given site.

  13. Height-diameter relationships for Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria: optimal combination of model type and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vassileva Stankova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The height-diameter relationship is an important and extensivelyinvestigated forest model, but generalized and mixed-effects models of wider applicability are currently lacking in the forest modeling literature for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in Bulgaria. Considering the practical advantages of deterministic and mixed-effects models, the present study aims to derive a generalized deterministic height-diameter relationship and a simple mixed-effects model for plantation-grown Scots pine in Bulgaria. Ten generalized and six local models of adequate mathematical properties were selected and examined in several subsequent steps with a representative data set.A deterministic model was derived for tree height reconstruction fromthe individual tree diameters, stand dominant height and diameter,number of trees per hectare and stand age. Mixed-effects models weredeveloped from the individual-tree and stand diameters and heights applicable to determine the height-diameter relationship in field surveys. Both types of models can be applied with confidence, according to their advantages and specifications, for estimating the height-diameter relationship of Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria, presenting a unique contribution for the particular species, study area and type of model. The choice of the tested models is relevant to the height-diameter relationship investigation of biologically related and geographically close species and types of stands and the study procedure allows repetition of the work to provide reliable solutions of the problem where information on such type of model is deficient or incomplete.

  14. Variability of needle structure in Siberian stone pine in provenance plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour is one of the most common trees in Siberia. Its natural range is from the Ural Mountains to the Aldan river and from the Arctic Circle to northern Mongolia. The climate in natural Siberian stone pine sites influences the whole plant organism, particularly its needle structure, and the response to thisoccurs at specific morphological and anatomical levels. The genotypical and environmental effects on needle structure in different Siberianstone pine ecotypes are very little known. One effective way to examine and to separate genotypical effects from environmental ones is byusing a common garden experiment. The purpose is to analyze morphological and anatomical needle variability in Siberian stone pinemarginal populations that have been grown in provenance plantations in southern West Siberia, Russia. The needle samples were collectedin the provenance plantation located 30 km south of Tomsk (the southeastern West Siberian Plain, southern limit of the taiga zone,optimum site conditions for Siberian stone pine. We investigated the grafts of mother trees taken from natural sites. Four ecotypeswere selected for the study. Three ecotypes originated from northern (Urengoy, western (Neviyansk, and eastern (Severobaikalskmarginal populations. The fourth, the Tomsk ecotype, was a local control. The local Tomsk ecotype grows on a site where natural conditions are worse due to reduction of mean annual temperature and increase of the humid factor northward, humidity reduction eastward and its rise westward. Variability of 10 needle morphologicaland anatomical characteristics was studied. The northern ecotype had smaller needle length (28%, leaf cross-section area (21%, mesophyll area (29%, mesophyll cell size (27%, and conducting bundle area (16% but the number of stomata per unit leaf area increased by 16% over the local Tomsk ecotype. The resin canal area, epidermal andhypodermal

  15. Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir: a comparison of species richness in native western North American forests and Patagonian plantations from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroetaveña, C; Cázares, E; Rajchenberg, M

    2007-07-01

    The putative ectomycorrhizal fungal species registered from sporocarps associated with ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests in their natural range distribution (i.e., western Canada, USA, and Mexico) and from plantations in south Argentina and other parts of the world are listed. One hundred and fifty seven taxa are reported for native ponderosa pine forests and 514 taxa for native Douglas-fir forests based on available literature and databases. A small group of genera comprises a high proportion of the species richness for native Douglas-fir (i.e., Cortinarius, Inocybe, and Russula), whereas in native ponderosa pine, the species richness is more evenly distributed among several genera. The comparison between ectomycorrhizal species richness associated with both trees in native forests and in Patagonia (Argentina) shows far fewer species in the latter, with 18 taxa for the ponderosa pine and 15 for the Douglas-fir. Epigeous species richness is clearly dominant in native Douglas-fir, whereas a more balanced relation epigeous/hypogeous richness is observed for native ponderosa pine; a similar trend was observed for Patagonian plantations. Most fungi in Patagonian Douglas-fir plantations have not been recorded in plantations elsewhere, except Suillus lakei and Thelephora terrestris, and only 56% of the fungal taxa recorded in Douglas-fir plantations around the world are known from native forests, the other taxa being new associations for this host, suggesting that new tree + ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa associations are favored in artificial situations as plantations.

  16. [Branch growth of Korean pine plantation based on nonlinear mixed model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hong; Li, Feng-Ri; Jia, Wei-Wei; Dong, Li-Hu

    2013-07-01

    Based on the branch analysis data from 36 sample trees in a Korean pine plantation in Mengjiagang Forest Farm of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, and by using Mitcherlich and Richards equations as the models of branch diameter and branch length growth, respectively, the effects of sampling plot and sample tree were investigated, and the nonlinear mixed models of branch diameter and branch length growth were established by the PROC NLMIXED procedure of SAS software. The evaluation statistics such as Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), -2Log likelihood, and likelihood ratio test (LRT) were used to compare the prediction precisions of the models. When considering plot effect, and taking alpha1 and alpha3 and beta1 and beta3 as the random parameters, respectively, the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance. When considering tree effect, and taking alpha2 and alpha3 and beta2 and beta3 as the random parameters, respectively, the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance. The nonlinear mixed model could not only reflect the mean variation of branch growth, but also show the differences among the individual trees. No matter considering plot effect or tree effect, the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better than that of the ordinary regression analysis model. Moreover, the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better when considering tree effect than considering plot effect.

  17. Damages and causes of death in plantations with containerised seedlings of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the central of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumburg, Jan

    2000-07-01

    In 1972, 94 forest areas were planted with containerised seedlings, 83 with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 11 with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), in the central of Sweden. In the first season after planting, 99% of the Scots pine and 98% of the Norway spruce seedlings survived. Three seasons after plantation, 67% of Scots pine and 62% of Norway spruce were alive. The most common type of known damages causing mortality were mammals and insects. Vegetation was registered as the cause of mortality at some occasions in Scots pine plantations, whereas vegetation never was considered as the cause of death in Norway spruce plantations. The average size of the scarification patches were 0.25 m{sup 2} and 0.4 m{sup 2} in Scots pine and Norway spruce respectively. In Scots pine plantations there were 1600 planted seedlings ha{sup -1} and in Norway spruce there were 1550 ha{sup -1}. After the third growing season, the numbers of main crop plants, including naturally regenerated hardwood and softwood plants, were 1500 ha{sup -1} for Scots pine and 1350 ha{sup -1} for Norway spruce. The studied plantings had been approved if the recommended number of seedlings had been planted. As there always is some mortality among planted seedlings, in the present study 35-40%, this phenomenon has to be taken into consideration when dimensioning the number of seedlings which are to be planted.

  18. The effects of precommercial thinning and midstory-control on the flora and fauna of young longleaf pine plantations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Robert.

    2007-05-01

    I examined the effects of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration using plantation silviculture on the avian, small mammal, and herpetofauna communities on the Savannah River Site, a National Environmental Research Park near Aiken, South Carolina. Vertebrate populations were surveyed from 1995 through 2003 on a series of plantations that had been precommercially thinned and/or received midstory-control via herbicides between 1994 and 1996. Understory and overstory vegetation was surveyed from 1994 through 2004. Thinning and midstory vegetation reduction treatments had greater herbaceous cover than the control through 2004 after a 1-2 year decline on midstory-control plots. Initially, thinned plots had the greatest herbaceous cover. However from 1998 through 2004, the combined treatment had the most herbaceous cover. Without midstory-control, thinning released midstory hardwoods. The effect of thinning or midstory-control alone on bird abundance was positive but short-lived. The positive effects were larger and persisted longer on combined treatment plots. My results indicate that precommercial thinning longleaf plantations, particularly when combined with midstory-control and prescribed fire, had a modest beneficial impact on avian communities by developing stand conditions more typical of natural longleaf stands maintained by periodic fire. All treatments resulted in short-term increases in small mammal abundance, but effects were minimal by 5-7 years after treatment. By 2001, pine basal area had returned to pre-treatment levels on thinned plots suggesting that frequent thinning may be required to maintain abundant and diverse small mammal communities in longleaf pine plantations. I did not detect any treatment related differences in herpetofauna abundance. These results suggest that restoring longleaf with a combination of precommercial thinning, midstory-control with herbicides, and prescribed fire can have a short-term positive effect on the avian and small

  19. Factors for converting hazelnut (Corylus avellana L) into black alder (Alnus glutinosa Yalt.) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkaya, Ali; Durkaya, Birsen

    2009-07-01

    Hazelnut plantations, which are a major source of income for the villagers in the eastern Black sea region are notable to provide sufficient income to the villagers due to price fluctuations and sudden falls witnessed in recent years. Alternative investments in place of hazelnut cultivation are being investigated in order to prevent migration to urban areas and to increase the welfare of the rural population in the region. Black alder plantation investments have been assessed as one of the most essential alternative investment tools within the framework of the study Assessment was carried out by comparing expected possible net present values (NPV). Although value increase occurs 12-18 years later more income can be obtained through black alder than hazelnut plantation. In hazelnut plantations, the best NPV emerged in the lower zone. NPV was positive in the moderate zone but values were close to zero. In upper zone, positive NPV couldn't emerge. As a result, it was understood that black alder plantation investment is an effective alternative for hazelnut plantations.

  20. Soil seed bank and the effect of needle litter layer on seedling emergence in a tropical pine plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Andrea; Baruch, Zdravko

    2011-09-01

    The soil seed bank is the basis for community establishment and permanence and plays a primary role in natural restoration of degraded or altered ecosystems. As part of a restoration project, this study aimed to quantify the soil seed bank and to evaluate the effect of the needle litter layer on seedling emergence. Soil samples from a pine plantation were collected at random in the field and set to germinate in a greenhouse. Half of them were covered by a 6cm layer of dead pine needles simulating field conditions. In the field, 20 x 20cm plots were established, half were left intact and half were cleaned from the litter needles. All four treatments had 15 replicates and seedling emergence was recorded during six months. Soil seed bank density was 1 222/m2 from 17 morphotypes. In the field, the number of morphotypes and seedlings was only 9% and 6% respectively, of those emerged in the greenhouse, possibly due to watering and lack of predation in the latter. In both cases, herbs and graminoids were the dominant emerging seedlings, making up to 70-90% of the total. The needle layer didn't prevent seeds from reaching the soil but strongly reduced (> 50%) seedling emergence, although high variability within treatments resulted in no statistically significant differences. These results show that the needle layer hinders germination and/or emergence of seedlings from the seed bank. Its removal may be a recommended technique to accelerate natural restoration in pine plantations.

  1. Occurrence of a black mildew in Santalum album plantation at Anakulam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

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    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Anakulam sub-unit of the Trivandrum Division of the Kerala Forest Development Corporation has planted 7.84 ha of sandal wood trees in Block V, including the plantation of 5200 plants in the year 2010 and 3000 plants during the year 2011 at a spacing of 3x3m. This area is located at an altitude of 300m. The entire sandal wood plantation is being affected with a black mildew fungus, identified as Asterina congesta.

  2. Evaluation of Four Methods for Predicting Carbon Stocks of Korean Pine Plantations in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilin Gao

    Full Text Available A total of 89 trees of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis were destructively sampled from the plantations in Heilongjiang Province, P.R. China. The sample trees were measured and calculated for the biomass and carbon stocks of tree components (i.e., stem, branch, foliage and root. Both compatible biomass and carbon stock models were developed with the total biomass and total carbon stocks as the constraints, respectively. Four methods were used to evaluate the carbon stocks of tree components. The first method predicted carbon stocks directly by the compatible carbon stocks models (Method 1. The other three methods indirectly predicted the carbon stocks in two steps: (1 estimating the biomass by the compatible biomass models, and (2 multiplying the estimated biomass by three different carbon conversion factors (i.e., carbon conversion factor 0.5 (Method 2, average carbon concentration of the sample trees (Method 3, and average carbon concentration of each tree component (Method 4. The prediction errors of estimating the carbon stocks were compared and tested for the differences between the four methods. The results showed that the compatible biomass and carbon models with tree diameter (D as the sole independent variable performed well so that Method 1 was the best method for predicting the carbon stocks of tree components and total. There were significant differences among the four methods for the carbon stock of stem. Method 2 produced the largest error, especially for stem and total. Methods 3 and Method 4 were slightly worse than Method 1, but the differences were not statistically significant. In practice, the indirect method using the mean carbon concentration of individual trees was sufficient to obtain accurate carbon stocks estimation if carbon stocks models are not available.

  3. Forest thinning and soil respiration in a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianwu; Qi, Ye; Xu, Ming; Misson, Laurent; Goldstein, Allen H

    2005-01-01

    Soil respiration is controlled by soil temperature, soil water, fine roots, microbial activity, and soil physical and chemical properties. Forest thinning changes soil temperature, soil water content, and root density and activity, and thus changes soil respiration. We measured soil respiration monthly and soil temperature and volumetric soil water continuously in a young ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. & C. Laws.) plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California from June 1998 to May 2000 (before a thinning that removed 30% of the biomass), and from May to December 2001 (after thinning). Thinning increased the spatial homogeneity of soil temperature and respiration. We conducted a multivariate analysis with two independent variables of soil temperature and water and a categorical variable representing the thinning event to simulate soil respiration and assess the effect of thinning. Thinning did not change the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature or to water, but decreased total soil respiration by 13% at a given temperature and water content. This decrease in soil respiration was likely associated with the decrease in root density after thinning. With a model driven by continuous soil temperature and water time series, we estimated that total soil respiration was 948, 949 and 831 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the years 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively. Although thinning reduced soil respiration at a given temperature and water content, because of natural climate variability and the thinning effect on soil temperature and water, actual cumulative soil respiration showed no clear trend following thinning. We conclude that the effect of forest thinning on soil respiration is the combined result of a decrease in root respiration, an increase in soil organic matter, and changes in soil temperature and water due to both thinning and interannual climate variability.

  4. Eddy covariance methane measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Long term methane flux measurements have been mostly performed with plant or soil enclosure techniques on specific components of an ecosystem. New fast response methane analyzers make it possible to use the eddy covariance (EC technique instead. The EC technique is advantageous because it allows continuous flux measurements integrating over a larger and more representative area including the complete ecosystem, and allows fluxes to be observed as environmental conditions change naturally without disturbance. We deployed the closed-path Fast Methane analyzer (FMA from Los Gatos Research Ltd and demonstrate its performance for EC measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation at the Blodgett Forest site in central California. The fluctuations of the CH4 concentration measured at 10 Hz appear to be small and their standard deviation is comparable to the magnitude of the signal noise (±5 ppbv. Consequently, the power spectra typically have a white noise signature at the high frequency end (a slope of +1. Nevertheless, in the frequency range important for turbulent exchange, the cospectra of CH4 compare very well with all other scalar cospectra confirming the quality of the FMA measurements are good for the EC technique. We furthermore evaluate the complications of combined open and closed-path measurements when applying the Webb-Pearman-Leuning (WPL corrections (Webb et al., 1980 and the consequences of a phase lag between the water vapor and methane signal inside the closed path system. The results of diurnal variations of CH4 concentrations and fluxes are summarized and compared to the monthly results of process-based model calculations.

  5. Height-diameter relationships for Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria: optimal combination of model type and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vassileva Stankova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The height-diameter relationship is an important and extensively investigated forest model, but generalized and mixed-effects models of wider applicability are currently lacking in the forest modeling literature for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in Bulgaria. Considering the practical advantages of deterministic and mixed-effects models, the present study aims to derive a generalized deterministic height-diameter relationship and a simple mixed-effects model for plantation-grown Scots pine in Bulgaria. Ten generalized and six local models of adequate mathematical properties were selected and examined in several subsequent steps with a representative data set. A deterministic model was derived for tree height reconstruction from the individual tree diameters, stand dominant height and diameter, number of trees per hectare and stand age. Mixed-effects models were developed from the individual-tree and stand diameters and heights applicable to determine the height-diameter relationship in field surveys. Both types of models can be applied with confidence, according to their advantages and specifications, for estimating the height-diameter relationship of Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria, presenting a unique contribution for the particular species, study area and type of model. The choice of the tested models is relevant to the height-diameter relationship investigation of biologically related and geographically close species and types of stands and the study procedure allows repetition of the work to provide reliable solutions of the problem where information on such type of model is deficient or incomplete. 

  6. Temporal changes in nitrogen acquisition of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) associated with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. L. Lopez C.; C. Mizota; ; Y. Nobori; T. Sasaki; T. Yamanaka

    2014-01-01

    The alien woody legume, black locust (Robinia pseudoaca-cia), has invaded Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) forests located in Japan’s coastal plain and hill regions where gaps are formed in pine forests after nematode infestation. Nitrogen fixation by legumes acceler-ates N cycling in forest ecosystems. We studied temporal change in the annual tree-ring resolution N stable isotope composition (δ15N, a per mil deviation of δ15N/14N ratio, relative to atmospheric N2δ15N=0‰) at two natural locations of Japanese black pine forest with black locust that differed in the time since black locust establishment (Shohnai in north-east and Kita-Kyushu in southwest Japan). Analyzed tree-rings covered the period from 1990/1992 to 2009. N acquisition by Japanese black pine from black locust N input to the soil was evidenced by temporal shifting of N stable isotope composition on the annual pine tree rings. With pro-gressive development of the forest stand,δ15N values of earlier tree-ringsδ15N of -5‰) from black pine associated with black locust shifted to-wards values similar to those of black locustδ15N values nearly to-1‰), which suggests acquisition of N by N2 fixation (Shohnai site). In con-trast, in a forest where black locust had settled for two or three genera-tions, in a black pine stand (Kita-Kyushu site), longer periods of N en-richment in the soil were reflected in the elevated tree-ringδ15N values of newly established black pine trees. Based on tree-ringδ15N data from the Shohnai site, we determined that about 10 years after black locust establishment, soil N had already been enriched by black locust N, this, in turn, contributed to N fertilization of surrounding trees in mixed stands.

  7. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steve [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); McDonald, Timothy [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Fasina, Oladiran [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gallagher, Tom [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Smidt, Mathew [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Mitchell, Dana [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Klepac, John [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Jason [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Sprinkle, Wes [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Carter, Emily [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Grace, Johnny [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Rummer, Robert [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Corley, Frank [Corley Land Services, Chapman, AL (United States); Somerville, Grant [Tigercat, Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    /PMH versus 68 gt/PMH for a comparable conventional system. Machine rate costs for felling and skidding were $2.31/gt and $3.72/gt for the high tonnage, and conventional systems, respectively. However, the most significant result of the project is that the high tonnage system was shown to be relatively insensitive to tree size. This ability to maintain felling and skidding productivity and cost as tree size decreases is a breakthrough in harvesting systems for southern pine plantations. The concept of transpirational drying of woody biomass was tested at an industrial scale at multiple locations during this project. Felled trees were allowed to dry in two scenarios: 1) in bunches where they were felled, and 2) in roadside piles. Although the wood piled in large piles at roadside did experience drying, the wood left in bunches experienced a greater moisture reduction. Drying times of 72 days in the late summer resulted in mean wood moisture content of 26% for skidder bunches and 39% for the large pile at roadside as compared to moisture contents of 55% to 58% for freshly cut trees. An existing whole-tree chipper, Precision 2675, was modified to allow production of chips smaller than the traditional pulp size chip (i.e. “microchips”). Feed rates and knife placements were retained in the new design, while additional pockets were incorporated in the chipper disk to allow the attachment of either four knives for pulp chips or eight knives for microchips. This design facilitated switching between the energy and pulp chip product options at relatively low expense (about ½ day downtime). Chipping of whole-trees into pulp chips and microchips with the Precision 2675 disk chipper resulted in average productivities of 79.5 gt/PMH and 70.7 gt/PMH, respectively. Production rates of the chipper were lower when producing microchips by about 10% relative to producing pulp chips, but rates were similar to those achievable when making clean pulp chips. Particle size analysis for clean

  8. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.

  9. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Sanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm, medium (up to 10 cm, and deep (up to 15 cm tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ.

  10. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Bhardwaj, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  11. Eddy covariance methane measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. P. P. Smeets

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Long term methane flux measurements have been mostly performed with plant or soil enclosure techniques on specific components of an ecosystem. New fast response methane analyzers make it possible to use the eddy covariance (EC technique instead. The EC technique is advantageous because it allows continuous flux measurements integrating over a larger and more representative area including the complete ecosystem, and allows fluxes to be observed as environmental conditions change naturally without disturbance. We deployed the closed-path Fast Methane Analyser (FMA from Los Gatos Research Ltd and demonstrate its performance for EC measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation at the Blodgett Forest site in central California. CH4 concentrations measured at 10 Hz showed a relatively high noise level that was caused by a software related problem. Nevertheless, in the frequency range important for turbulent exchange, the cospectra of CH4 compare very well with all other scalar cospectra confirming the quality of the FMA measurements are good for the EC technique. The low-pass filtering characteristics of our closed-path system and the use of the Webb-Pearman-Leuning (WPL corrections for a combination of open and closed-path sensors are discussed using a large ensemble of cospectra. The diurnal variation of the methane concentration was up to 60 ppbv with an average of 1843 ppbv. Concentrations increased from morning to late afternoon as upslope flow from the valley below carried polluted air to the site, and then decreased through the night as downslope flow carried cleaner air from aloft. The fluxes were consistently directed downward with a well defined diurnal pattern, averaging −35±40 ng m−2 s−1 during the daytime. The detection limit of the system was estimated at 22 ng m−2 s−1. The average CH4 deposition during the daytime was higher than the average value for

  12. Effectiveness and safety of botanical pesticides applied in black pepper (Piper nigrum) plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratno,

    2008-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L) is an important commodity of Indonesia, which has been cultivated since the 6th century. The plant plays an important role in local economies since 95% of the plantations are cultivated by smallholder farmers. Because of this important economic value, proper plant produ

  13. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON THE CARBON DIOXIDE, WATER, AND SENSIBLE HEAT FLUXES ABOVE A PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION IN THE SIERRA NEVADA, CA. (R826601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractFluxes of CO2, water vapor, and sensible heat were measured by the eddy covariance method above a young ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (CA) over two growing seasons (1 June¯10 September 1997 and 1 May&#...

  14. Overstory and understory relationships in longleaf pine plantations 14 years after thinning and woody control.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Timothy, B.

    2011-09-09

    To develop silvicultural strategies for restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas, mortality and growth of overstory pines and midstory hardwoods and abundance and species richness of herbs were studied for 14 years after pine thinning and nonpine woody control. Pine cover in thinned stands was about half of that in nonthinned stands through year 5, but it lagged by only 8% and 3% in years 9 and 14, respectively, because of vigorous crown responses. Despite a cumulative mortality of 64% of hardwood stems from prescribed fires in years 0, 4, and 9, hardwood basal area in thinned stands (2.1 m2/ha) was three times that in nonthinned stands (0.7 m2/ha) in year 14. Thinning was associated with 13%-22% more cover and six to eight more species of herbs in years 3-8 but only 6% more cover and two more species in year 14 because of accelerated growth of pine cover and hardwood basal area. However, similar increases in cover and richness of herb species in the woody control treatment were retained through year 14 because it had sustained reductions in hardwood and shrub abundance. Silvicultural strategies that substantially delay encroachment by pines, hardwoods, and shrubs will be those most effective at retaining herb species in longleaf pine savannas, including planting pines at wide spacing, periodic thinning and woody control, and frequent burning.

  15. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  16. Variability of needle structure in Siberian stone pine in provenance plantations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the most common trees in Siberia. Its natural range is from the Ural Mountains to the Aldan river and from the Arctic Circle to northern Mongolia. The climate in natural Siberian stone pine sites influences the whole plant organism, particularly its needle structure, and the response to thisoccurs at specific morphological and anatomical levels. The genotypical and environmental effects on needle structure in different Siberianstone pine ...

  17. Whole Tree Chipping Systems in Coppice Natural Stands and Young Pine Plantations in Castilla y Leon (Central Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laina, R.; Tolosana, E.; Martinez-Ferrari, R.; Ambrosio, Y. (ETSI Montes, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)). e-mail: eduardo.tolosana@upm.es

    2008-10-15

    In the beginning of forest energy sector development in Spain, it is necessary to evaluate the amount of resources and the cost of future supply operations. Aiming to get know-how about biomass harvesting in silvicultural operations regarding small trees - Scots pine and Quercus pyrenaica oak thinnings - under domestic conditions, this research experience has been funded by Castilla y Leon Regional Government and CESEFOR Castilian Forest Foundation A research team from the Dept. of Forest Economy and management aet the Forestry Faculty (E.T.S.I. Montes) from the Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain) has sampled five different biomass harvesting sites. Using whole tree - in some cases, tree sections - harvesting systems with conventional forest harvesters, followed by hauling off by forest forwarders and chipping aet landing using truck or tractor-mounted drum chippers in four sites and a hammer grinder in the remaining one, cost and productivities has shown to be strongly size-dependant. Furthermore, productivity has shown to be lower in the sites in which crosscutting was necessary. Cost figures for bigger trees - greater than 10 cm dbh - are similar to those reported in Nordic references and clearly lower in pine plantations than in oak coppices

  18. Nutrient Dynamics of Fine Roots in the Mixed Plantation of Poplar and Black Locust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Mingpu; Jiang Sannai; Jia Liming

    2006-01-01

    The mixed plantation of poplar (Populus spp.)and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is one of the typical mixed stands with nitrogen-fixing and non-nitrogen-fixing species.Interaction between the two species in the mixed stand is harmonious and productivity is high,making this kind of mixed plantation a very successful pattern on poor sandy sites in north China.In this study,the fine root decomposition of the two species was investigated in the mixed plantation of 27-year-old Canadian poplar (P.canadansis)and 22-year-old black locust on sandy sites along the Chaobai River in Beijing.Mechanism of harmonious interaction between the two species was observed in the view of the nutrient cycle of fine roots.Results showed that:(1) the fine root decomposition of Canadian poplar and black locust trees was different.Concentrations of N,Ca and Mg gradually increased and those of P and K gradually decreased in the fine roots of poplar during the period of decomposition.Concentrations of N,P and K gradually decreased in the fine roots of black locust during decomposition.The speed of nutrient decomposition in mixed fine roots of the two species fell between the speed of the two pure samples.(2) During decomposition,the annual return amount of N,K and Mg in fine roots of black locust was highest,followed by the mixed fine roots of the two species,and then the fine roots of poplar.(3) The increased return amount of N in mixed fine roots could improve the N nutrient condition of poplar trees.The return amount of P in poplar Fine roots was greater than that of black locust,which could improve the P nutrient of black locust trees.The interaction of mutual supplements of N and P nutrient cycle of fine roots between these two species formed.

  19. Development of merchantable volume equations for natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of stem standing volume is very useful for both sustainable management of timber resources and practical purposes in forestry. Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. are important raw material of forest products industry of Turkey. With ever changing market conditions, there is a need to accurately estimate tree volumes utilizing multiple upper stem merchantability limits. This is not currently possible with the existing total stem volume tables for these three species. Nowadays, taper equations are the best way to estimate volume for saw timber and biomass purposes. In this study, variable exponent taper equations evaluated and fitted to data come from 253 destructively sampled trees which were collected in natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir district. For this aim, the taper equations of Lee et al. (2003, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004 were used. A second-order continuous-time autoregressive error structure was used to correct the inherent autocorrelation in the hierarchical data. The proposed models generally performed better for Merchantable tree volume. Results show that the Kozak (2004 taper equation was superior to the other equations in predicting diameter and merchantable height, while The Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model provided the best predictions for merchantable volume than the other models. The one of the important results of this study, the importance of checking fit statistics of taper equations for both diameters and volume estimations.As a results, Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model recommended for estimating diameter at a specific height, height to a specific diameter along the stem, and merchantable volume for brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir analyzed

  20. PARTITIONING OF WATER FLUX IN A SIERRA NEVADA PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION. (R826601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The weather patterns of the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers) strongly influence how water is partitioned between transpiration and evaporation and result in a specific strategy of water use by ponderosa pine trees (Pinus pond...

  1. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-01-01

    The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the v...

  2. Modeling Survival, Yield, Volume Partitioning and Their Response to Thinning for Longleaf Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Samuelson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill. is an important tree species of the southeast U.S. Currently there is no comprehensive stand-level growth and yield model for the species. The model system described here estimates site index (SI if dominant height (Hdom and stand age are known (inversely, the model can project Hdom at any given age if SI is known. The survival (N equation was dependent on stand age and Hdom, predicting greater mortality on stands with larger Hdom. The function that predicts stand basal area (BA for unthinned stands was dependent on N and Hdom. For thinned stands BA was predicted with a competition index that was dependent on stand age. The function that best predicted stand stem volume (outside or inside bark was dependent on BA and Hdom. All functions performed well for a wide range of stand ages and productivity, with coefficients of determination ranging between 0.946 (BA and 0.998 (N. We also developed equations to estimate merchantable volume yield consisting of different combinations of threshold diameter at breast height and top diameter for longleaf pine stands. The equations presented in this study performed similarly or slightly better than other reported models to estimate future N, Hdom and BA. The system presented here provides important new tools for supporting future longleaf pine management and research.

  3. Crown fire and surface fire: effects on myxomycetes inhabiting pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamonytė, Gražina; Motiejūnaitė, Jurga; Iršėnaitė, Reda

    2016-12-01

    Myxomycetes are heterotrophic eukaryote organisms that have three life stages, none of which are known to be resistant to fire. The response of myxobiota to different severity of fire is not well known either. We examined myxomycetes in Pinus mugo plantations following a crown fire and in Pinus sylvestris plantations following a surface fire during the first three years after the wildfire event in forested coastal sand dunes in western Lithuania. Additionally, we investigated myxomycetes in corresponding unburned stands. All studied sites (unburned and burned) bore rather different myxomycete assemblages but the disparities of the species compositions between both burn types were more pronounced showing that fire severity had stronger impact on myxomycete species composition than the pre-fire stand type. Analysis of myxomycete assemblages (including the results from field collections, bark and litter cultures) showed that surface fire sites bore the highest number of post-fire species compared to crown fire and unburned sites. Dynamic annual changes in species composition were observed in all studied sites but only crown fire plots showed a clear chronosequence of post-fire myxomycete assemblages. Fire impact promoted establishment and/or sporulation of myxomycete species that are rare in similar unburned stands, or are usually confined to other types of forests and substrata. In addition, individual myxomycete species tended to switch substratum usage during the course of vegetation succession, with a final return to their usual substrata. This possibly signaled the end of early stage of post-fire succession.

  4. Variability of Growth Indicators and Generative Development of the Siberian and Korean Stone Pines at the Plantation in the «Green Zone» of Krasnoyarsk City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Matveeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and seed production of Siberian and Korean stone pines at the age of 24–41 years in the «Izvestkovaya» plantation, located in the area of educational and experimental forest enterprise of the Siberian State Technological University (so-called «Green Zone» of Krasnoyarsk City were analyzed. It has been found that Korean stone pine (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. is behind of Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour in growth rate, the formation of cones and microstrobiles. Inter-and intraspecific variation in the formation of tree crown, cones and seeds size were significant, which allowed selection of individual trees with better reproduction characteristics.

  5. Partitioning of water flux in a Sierra Nevada ponderosa pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpius, M.R.; Panek, J.A.; Nikolov, N.T.; McKay, M.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2003-01-01

    The weather patterns of the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers) strongly influence how water is partitioned between transpiration and evaporation and result in a specific strategy of water use by ponderosa pine trees (Pinus ponderosa) in this region. To investigate how year-round water fluxes were partitioned in a young ponderosa pine ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, water fluxes were continually measured from June 2000 to May 2001 using a combination of sap flow and eddy covariance techniques (above- and below-canopy). Water fluxes were modeled at our study site using a biophysical model, FORFLUX. During summer and fall water fluxes were equally partitioned between transpiration and soil evaporation while transpiration dominated the water fluxes in winter and spring. The trees had high rates of canopy conductance and transpiration in the early morning and mid-late afternoon and a mid-day depression during the dry season. We used a diurnal centroid analysis to show that the timing of high canopy conductance and transpiration relative to high vapor pressure deficit (D) shifted with soil moisture: during periods of low soil moisture canopy conductance and transpiration peaked early in the day when D was low. Conversely, during periods of high soil moisture canopy conductance and transpiration peaked at the same time or later in the day than D. Our observations suggest a general strategy by the pine trees in which they maximize stomatal conductance, and therefore carbon fixation, throughout the day on warm sunny days with high soil moisture (i.e. warm periods in winter and late spring) and maximize stomatal conductance and carbon fixation in the morning through the dry periods. FORFLUX model estimates of evaporation and transpiration were close to measured/calculated values during the dry period, including the drought, but underestimated transpiration and overestimated evaporation during the wet period. ?? 2003

  6. Use of pine nuts by grizzly and black bears in the Yellowstone area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine C.

    1983-01-01

    The large seeds (pine nuts) of whitebark pine are commonly eaten in the spring (March-May) and fall (September-November) by grizzly and black bears in Yellowstone National Park and adjacent areas (Craighead and Craighead 1972, Blanchard 1978, Mealey 1980) and western Montana (Tisch 1961; J. Sumner and J. J. Craighead, unpubl. rep., Montant Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, 1973). Similar nuts from limber pine are eaten by grizzly bears on the east Rocky Mountain Front of northwestern Montana (Schallenberger and Jonkel, annual rep., Border Grizzly Project, Univ. Montana, Missoula, 1980). The nuts of the European stone pine (P. cembra) are an important food for brown bears (U. arctos) throughout the taiga zone in the Soviet Union (Pavlov and Zhdanov 1972, Ustinov 1972, Yazan 1972). Both the production of whitebark pine cones (Forcella 1977, Blanchard 1978, Mealey 1980) and the quantity of nuts consumed by bears vary annually (Mealey 1975, Blancard 1978). Pine nuts are also an important food for red squirrels in whitebark forests. In fall, squirrels remove cones from trees and cache them in middens. Bears as well as other mammalian and avian seed predators compete with squirrels for whitebark nuts (Forcella 1977, Tomback 1977). Confusion about the ripening process of whitebark pine cones has resulted in errors in the literature on the availability of pine nuts as a bear food. Whitebark cones are indehiscent and do not disintegrate (Tomback 1981). Vertebrate foraging probably leaves few, if any, seed-bearing cones on trees by late fall; the cones remaining abscise sometime thereafter (Tomback 1981). Because cones do not abscise or release their seed in fall, bears may obtain pine nuts in 2 ways. Black bears may climb whitebark pine trees and break off cone-bearing brnahces to feed on cones (Tisch 1961, Mealey 1975, Forcella 1977); or both black bears and grizzly bears may raid squirrel caches to feed on pine nuts (Tisch 1961, Craighead and Craighead 1972

  7. [Genetic polymorphism of clones and their seed progeny in the scotch pine clone plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Demkovich, A E

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variation at 12 allozyme loci (10 of them being polymorphic ones) has been studied in the archive-clone plantation of 23 Pinus sylvestris plus-trees and their seed progeny in the south-east of Ukraine. More than a half of clones had 4-8 heterozygous loci, whereas their seed progeny was marked by a lower variation than maternal trees. Seed progeny was obtained at a high outcrossing rate (t(m) = 95%). The clone progeny was characterized by a high percentage of abnormal allele segregation in megagametophytes. There was also a high frequency of significant deviation in distribution of seed embryo genotypes from the theoretically expected one according to the Hardy-Weinberg law.

  8. [Topsoil phosphorus forms and availability of different soil and water conservation plantations in typical black soil region, northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Rui-Ying; Wang, En-Heng; Xia, Xiang-You; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Aiming to understand soil phosphorus status of plantations in typical black soil region of Northeast China, the topsoil (0-10 cm) phosphorus fractionations and its availability were examined in four soil and water conservation plantations dominantly composed of Larix gmelini, Fraxinus mandshurica, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Populus nigra var. italica x P. cathayan, respectively. The results showed that total P, Olsen-P and the concentration of different P fractionations in F. mandshurica and P. nigra var. italica x P. cathayan plantations were significantly higher than that of the other two coniferous plantations. Organic P was the major fractionation in the four plantations' topsoil, and sodium hydroxide extractable organic P (NaOH-Po ) representing moderately labile organic phosphorus was predominant, which accounted for 58.9% of total P. The contents of H2O-Pi and NaHCO3-P which were more labile to plant were lower, only accounting for 1.2% and 6.6% of total P, respectively. Except for NaHCO3-Po, all the other P fractions of four plantations correlated with each other, and they also had significant correlations with soil organic matter, total P, Olsen-P. Compared with the coniferous plantations, the broadleaf plantations presented higher availability of phosphorus.

  9. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  10. Low Nitrogen Retention in Soil and Litter under Conditions without Plants in a Subtropical Pine Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil acts as a major sink for added nitrogen (N in forests, but it remains unclear about the capacity of soil to immobilize N under conditions without plant roots and whether added N interacts with ecosystem N to affect N retention. We added 15NH415NO3 to in situ soil columns (with leaching and leaf litter (without leaching of two tree species in a subtropical Pinus elliottii plantation. Soil and litter were collected three or eight months after N addition to measure concentrations of indigenous and exogenous N. About 70% of exogenous N was retained in soil three months after N addition, of which 65.9% were in inorganic forms. Eight months after N addition, 16.0% of exogenous N was retained in soil and 9.8%–13.6% was immobilized in litter. N addition increased the mineral release and nitrification of soil indigenous N. Loss of litter indigenous N was also increased by N addition. Our results suggest that N deposition on lands with low root activities or low soil carbon (C contents may lead to increased N output due to low N immobilization. Moreover, the effects of added N on ecosystem indigenous N may decrease the capacity of soil and litter in N retention.

  11. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, E.; Oral, H. V.; Akburak, S.; Makineci, E.; Yilmaz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils. Area of study: Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain) and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41° 09’-41° 12’ N latitude and 28° 54’-29° 00’ E longitude in Turkey. Material and methods: Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm) and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Research highlights: Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots. (Author)

  12. Spatial variability of throughfall in a Chinese Pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Weiqing; ZHANG Zhiqiang; WU Jun; XIAO Jinqiang

    2007-01-01

    The interception of rainfall by vegetation and the subsequent evaporation of intercepted water from the canopy surface play an important role in hydrological processes,and the water and energy balance of forest ecosystems.Spatial variability of interception has different effects on water yield from watersheds located in different climatic and biome regions.In order to explain the spatial patterns of interception,we adopted grid-sampling method to install rain-gauges to measure throughfall.Results show that the coefficient of variation (Cv) of throughfall tends to decline as rain intensity increases.After the canopy is saturated,Cv of throughfall remained at a constant value,which is close to the Cv of the canopy leaf area index (LAI) value 0.18.Thus,the Cv of LAI is regarded as the extremum of that of throughfall.Because of the special characteristic of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis),and the lower droopy branches,negative values for interception account for only 13% of the total samples.Furthermore,the max is above 70% of gross rainfall.

  13. Height-diameter model for black locust, Anatolian black pine and Taurus cedar tree species in Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    ÇATAL, Yılmaz

    2012-01-01

    The height of a tree is important for assessing tree volume and site index. Diameter of breast height-tree height releation equations are often used to predict the mean tree height for trees in case only diameter at breast height is measured. This study aim describes between the tree heights with diameter of breast height relationships for artificially grown black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) and Taurus cedar (C...

  14. Predicting dissolved organic nitrogen export from a poorly drained loblolly pine plantation using the forestry version of DRAINMOD-NII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S.; Youssef, M. M.; Skaggs, R. W.; Chescheir, G. M.; Amatya, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is one of the main nitrogen forms exported from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems and it plays important ecological functions in receiving surface water bodies. The DRAINMOD-NII forestry model was developed to predict water, carbon and nitrogen dynamics in drained forest ecosystems. We present an extended version of the model to predict DON export from drained forested lands. A new module has been added to the model to describe key mechanisms and processes regulating DON losses from forested lands. DON production rates was linked to the surface letter and soil microbial compartments and root exudates. The Langmuir isotherm was used to quantify the assumed instantaneous equilibrium between DON in solid and aqueous phases. DON transport with groundwater flow is simulated using numerical solutions to the advection-dispersion-reaction equation. We calibrated and validated the modified model using 21 years of water flow and DON loading data measured at the outlets of three forested (loblolly pine plantations) watersheds located in eastern North Carolina, USA. Field-testing results indicated that the model is capable of reproducing DON export dynamics on both annual and monthly basis. Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were above 0.70 for predicted annual DON losses and above 0.63 for monthly predictions. The good model performance is most likely attributed to accurate predictions of drainage rates and reasonable quantification of biotic and abiotic controls on DON dynamics. Although there are some uncertainties of assumptions and methods adapted by the model, the relatively accurate predictions of DON loads indicates a good performance of the model given the currently limited understanding of these inherent factors and mechanisms controlling DON dynamics.

  15. The Mass Loss and Humification of Stumps and Roots in Masson Pine Plantations Based on Log File Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiao; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Tan, Bo; Xu, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Fei; Liu, Hui; Justine, Meta Francis

    2016-01-01

    Stumps account for a large proportion of coarse woody debris in managed forests, but their decay dynamics are poorly understood. The loss of mass and the degree of humification of the above-ground woody debris, below-ground woody debris, bark and root system (R1, 10 mm ≥ diameter > 0 mm; R2, 25 mm ≥ diameter >10 mm; 100 mm ≥ R3 > 25 mm; R4 > 100 mm) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) stump systems were evaluated in southwestern China in a chronosequence of plantations cut 1-15 years prior to the study. The results indicated that above-ground woody debris decomposed more quickly than below-ground woody debris and bark, whereas the degree of humification followed the opposite trend. Compared with one-year stumps, the mass losses of 15-year stump systems were 60.4% for above-ground woody debris, 42.1% for below-ground woody debris, 47.3% for bark, 69.9% for R1, 47.3% for R2, 51.0% for R3, and 83.2% for R4. In contrast, below-ground woody debris showed a greater degree of humification compared with other components in the stump system. Among the root system, fine roots (R1, diameter ≤ 10 mm) had the largest k value (0.09), whereas the decay rate of coarser roots (R2, R3, R4; diameter > 10 mm) increased with increasing root diameter. However, coarse roots showed a larger degree of humification (0.2-0.6) than fine roots (0.3-0.4). These results suggest that below-ground woody debris and coarse roots may display a higher degree of humification, showing greater short-term contributions to overall humification when compared with the other components in the stump system.

  16. Deep Soil Carbon Influenced Following Forest Organic Matter Manipulation In A Loblolly Pine Plantation In The Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, J. A.; Mack, J.; Sucre, E.; Leggett, Z.; Roberts, S.; Dewey, J.

    2013-12-01

    Forest harvest residues and forest floor materials are significant sources of mineral soil organic matter and nutrients for regenerating and establishing forests. Harvest residues in particular are occasionally removed, piled, or burned following harvesting. Weyerhaeuser Company established an experimental study to evaluate the effect of the removal and addition of harvest residual and forest-floor on site productivity and soil carbon. This study was installed in a loblolly pine plantation near Millport, Alabama, USA on the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain to test both extremes from complete removal of harvest residues and forest floor to doubling of these materials. This study has been continuously monitored since its establishment in 1994. We have examined the effects of varying forest floor levels on the biomass, soil carbon content, and soil carbon composition in the context of these management activities. Above- and below-ground productivity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and nutrient dynamics have been related to soil organic carbon in mineral soil, size/density fractionation, and lignin and cutin biomarkers from the cupric oxide (CuO)-oxidation technique. We have found that while removing litter and harvest residues has little effect on biomass production and soil carbon, importing litter and harvest residues increases forest productivity and soil carbon content. Interestingly, increased carbon was observed in all depths assessed (O horizon, 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60cm) suggesting that this practice may sequester organic carbon in deep soil horizons. Our biomarker analysis indicated that importing litter and harvest residues increased relative contributions from above ground sources at the 20-40cm depth and increased relative contributions from belowground sources at the 40-60cm depth. These results suggest that organic matter manipulations in managed forests can have significant effects on deep soil carbon that may be resistant to mineralization or the effects of

  17. Results 3 decades after the plantation trials with palebark pine in the mountain of the coastal chain in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Avolio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In Italy the palebark pine (Pinus leucodermis Antoine forms natural populations present in Calabria and Lucania at the borderline between the two regions on calcareous soils and litho-soils. The surface range is about 5700 hectares, distributed in four natural groups of vegetation, two Apennine areas (Alpi, Spina -Zàccana, Pollino and two coastal areas (Palanuda-Pellegrino, Montéa. In the mountain areas the species becomes exclusive and shows resistance to climate harshness at high elevation, ability to colonise ecologically difficult sites, aptitude and specific reliability to artificial spreading. The experimental plan, carried out without any repetition because technically unfeasible in the area, estimated three input variables: plastic bag-grown S2F2 and bare-rooted seedlings S2T2, inter-distance on the terrace (0.5m, 1m, 1.5m, elevation a.s.l. (1400m, 1550m, 1700m. 4 yrs old seedlings, one half plastic bag-grown and one half bare-rooted, were transplanted in autumn in each site on 24 terraces (4x3x2 handmade in summer. Each sampled area was made up of four adjacent terraces for an overall length of 184 m. Transplanting operations were completed in December and an enclosure was set up to protect the plantation from grazing. As a whole, the experimental areas was shaped as a rectangle. Additional terraces, carried out in the lower part, were planted with bare-rooted Austrian pine and Silver fir seedlings at an inter-distance of 1m and provided the direct comparison with the same thesis of palebark pine. Maintenance practices were undertaken in June and in July of the first and second year to eliminate weeds and shrubs along the terraces. The mensurational surveys were carried out in 1982-1983-1987-1994-2007-2009. The quite complete mortality of Austrian pine and Silver fir transplants in 1983-84 made impossible any further

  18. Nitrogen release, tree uptake, and ecosystem retention in a mid-rotation loblolly pine plantation following fertilization with 15N-enriched enhanced efficiency fertilizers.

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is the most frequently limiting nutrient in southern pine plantations.  Previous studies found that only 10 to 25% of applied urea fertilizer N is taken up by trees.  Enhanced efficiency fertilizers could increase tree uptake efficiency by controlling the release of N and/or stabilize N.  Three enhanced efficiency fertilizers were selected as a representation of fertilizers that could be used in forestry: 1) NBPT treated urea (NBPT urea), 2) polymer coated urea (PC urea), and 3) mono...

  19. Carbon and greenhouse gas balances in an age-sequence of temperate pine plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peichl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated differences in the magnitude and partitioning of the carbon (C and greenhouse gas (GHG balances in an age-sequence of four white pine (Pinus strobus L. afforestation stands (7, 20, 35 and 70 years old as of 2009 in southern Ontario, Canada. The 4 year (2004–2008 mean annual carbon dioxide (CO2 exchanges, based on biometric and eddy covariance data, were combined with the 2-year means of static chamber measurements of methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes (2006–2007 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC export below 1 m soil depth (2004–2005. The total ecosystem C pool increased with age from 9 to 160 t C ha−1 across the four stands. Rates of organic matter cycling (i.e. litter-fall and decomposition were similar among the three older stands. In contrast, considerable differences related to stand age and site quality were observed in the magnitude and partitioning of individual CO2 fluxes showing a peak in production and respiration rates in the middle-age (20 year-old stand growing on fertile post-agricultural soil. The DOC export accounted for 10% of net ecosystem production (NEP at the 7 year old stand but 2, CH4 and N2O fluxes was 2.6, 21.6, 13.5 and 4.8 t CO2 eq ha−1 yr−1 for the 7, 20, 35, and 70 year-old stands, respectively. The maximum annual contribution from the combined exchanges of CH4, N2O and DOC to the GHG balance was 8% and 15% in the 7 and 70 year-old stands, respectively, but 2 exchange was the main driver of the GHG balance in these forests. The cumulative CO2 sequestration over the 70 years was estimated at 129 \\unit{t} C and 297 t C ha−1 yr−1 for stands growing on low and high productive sites, respectively. This study highlights the importance of accounting for age and site quality effects on forest C and GHG balances. It further demonstrates a large potential for C sequestration and climate benefits (i.e. cooling effect gained through afforestation of marginal agricultural and

  20. Carbon and greenhouse gas balances in an age-sequence of temperate pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichl, M.; Arain, A. M.; Moore, T. R.; Brodeur, J. J.; Khomik, M.; Ullah, S.; Restrepo-Coupé, N.; McLaren, J.; Pejam, M. R.

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated differences in the magnitude and partitioning of the carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances in an age-sequence of four white pine (Pinus strobus L.) afforestation stands (7, 20, 35 and 70 years old as of 2009) in southern Ontario, Canada. The 4 year (2004-2008) mean annual carbon dioxide (CO2) exchanges, based on biometric and eddy covariance data, were combined with the 2-year means of static chamber measurements of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes (2006-2007) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export below 1 m soil depth (2004-2005). The total ecosystem C pool increased with age from 9 to 160 t C ha-1 across the four stands. Rates of organic matter cycling (i.e. litter-fall and decomposition) were similar among the three older stands. In contrast, considerable differences related to stand age and site quality were observed in the magnitude and partitioning of individual CO2 fluxes showing a peak in production and respiration rates in the middle-age (20 year-old) stand growing on fertile post-agricultural soil. The DOC export accounted for 10% of net ecosystem production (NEP) at the 7 year old stand but < 2% at the three older stands. The GHG balance from the combined exchanges of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes was 2.6, 21.6, 13.5 and 4.8 t CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1 for the 7, 20, 35, and 70 year-old stands, respectively. The maximum annual contribution from the combined exchanges of CH4, N2O and DOC to the GHG balance was 8% and 15% in the 7 and 70 year-old stands, respectively, but < 1% in the two highly productive middle-age (20 and 35 year-old) stands. Averaged over the entire age-sequence, the CO2 exchange was the main driver of the GHG balance in these forests. The cumulative CO2 sequestration over the 70 years was estimated at 129 \\unit{t} C and 297 t C ha-1 yr-1 for stands growing on low and high productive sites, respectively. This study highlights the importance of accounting for age and site quality effects on forest C and

  1. Carbon and greenhouse gas balances in an age sequence of temperate pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichl, M.; Arain, A. M.; Moore, T. R.; Brodeur, J. J.; Khomik, M.; Ullah, S.; Restrepo-Coupé, N.; McLaren, J.; Pejam, M. R.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated differences in the magnitude and partitioning of the carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances in an age sequence of four white pine (Pinus strobus L.) afforestation stands (7, 20, 35 and 70 years old as of 2009) in southern Ontario, Canada. The 4-year (2004-2008) mean annual carbon dioxide (CO2) exchanges, based on biometric and eddy covariance data, were combined with the 2-year means of static chamber measurements of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes (2006-2007) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export below 1 m soil depth (2004-2005). The total ecosystem C pool increased with age from 46 to 197 t C ha-1 across the four stands. Rates of organic matter cycling (i.e. litterfall and decomposition) were similar among the three older stands. In contrast, considerable differences related to stand age and site quality were observed in the magnitude and partitioning of individual CO2 fluxes, showing a peak in production and respiration rates in the middle-age (20-year-old) stand growing on fertile post-agricultural soil. The DOC export accounted for 10% of net ecosystem production (NEP) at the 7-year-old stand but <2% at the three older stands. The GHG balance from the combined exchanges of CO2, CH4 and N2O was 2.6, 21.6, 13.5 and 4.8 t CO2 equivalent ha-1 year-1 for the 7-, 20-, 35- and 70-year-old stands, respectively. The maximum annual contribution from the combined exchanges of CH4 and N2O to the GHG balance was 13 and 8% in the 7- and 70-year-old stands, respectively, but <1% in the two highly productive middle-age (20- and 35-year-old) stands. Averaged over the entire age sequence, the CO2 exchange was the main driver of the GHG balance in these forests. The cumulative CO2 sequestration over the 70 years was estimated at 129 t C and 297 t C ha-1 year-1 for stands growing on low- and high-productivity sites, respectively. This study highlights the importance of accounting for age and site quality effects on forest C and GHG

  2. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace and inundable-terrace landscapes in steppe area of Ukraine. In general, in the forest floor of Samara pine forest marked 34 species of algae with 4 divisions, most of which related to green: Chlorophyta – 22 (65%, Xanthophyta – 8 (23%, Bacillariophyta – 2 (6% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (6%. Among the leading families of the greatest number of species belonged to: Pleurochloridaceae (7 species, Chlorococcaceae (5, Chlamydomonadaceae (4. During all studied seasons in base of algae communities were species resistant to extreme values of all climatic conditions. Total in forest floor of pine forest in Altagir forest marked 42 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta - 23 (55 %, Xanthophyta - 9 (21 %, Cyanophyta - 5 (12 %, Bacillariophyta - 3 (7% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (5%. Systematic structure of list species determine three family, which have the number of species in excess of the average number (2: Pleurochloridaceae, Chlamydomonadaceae and Myrmeciaceae. The base of algae community are moisture-loving and shade-tolerant species, which may be the result of favorable moisture regime. In the forest floor of pine plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace (Samara pine forest and inundable-terrace (Altagir forest landscapes found 64 species of algae with 5 divisions, which are dominated by green algae - 37 species (58%, that exceed xanthophytes - 15 (23%, blue-green 5 (8 %, eustigmatofites 4 (6% and diatoms 3 (5

  3. Black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) activity, foraging and seed dispersal patterns in shaded cocoa plantations versus rainforest in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Diego A; Andresen, Ellen; Estrada, Alejandro; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence has shown that primates worldwide use agroecosystems as temporary or permanent habitats. Detailed information on how these primates are using these systems is scant, and yet their role as seed dispersers is often implied. The main objective of this study was to compare the activity, foraging patterns and seed dispersal role of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting shaded cocoa plantations and rainforest in southern Chiapas, Mexico. We gathered data on three monkey groups living in shaded cocoa plantations and three groups living in rainforest, using focal sampling, and collecting fecal samples. General activity and foraging patterns were similar in both habitats, with the exception that monkeys in the cocoa habitat spent more time feeding on petioles. Monkeys in shaded cocoa plantations dispersed 51,369 seeds (4% were seeds ≥3 mm width) of 16 plant species. Monkeys in the rainforest dispersed 6,536 seeds (78% were seeds ≥3 mm width) of 13 plant species. Our data suggest that the difference between habitats in the proportion of large versus small seeds dispersed reflects differences in fruit species abundance and availability in cocoa versus forest. Mean seed dispersal distances were statistically similar in both habitats (cocoa = 149 m, forest = 86 m). We conclude that the studied cocoa plantations provide all elements necessary to constitute a long-term permanent habitat for black howler monkeys. In turn, howler monkeys living in these plantations are able to maintain their functional role as seed dispersers for those native tree and liana species present within their areas of activities.

  4. Humus characteristics and seasonal changes of soil arthropod communities in a natural sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Meric; Makineci, Ender

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the effects of conversion of natural stands into plantations, soil invertebrate micro- and macroarthropod communities were evaluated for their abundance and richness in a sessile oak (SO; Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (AP; Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation. Sites were sampled four times a year in 3-month intervals from May 2009 to February 2010. Humus characteristics such as total mass; carbon, lignin, and cellulose contents; and C/N ratio were significantly different between SO and AP. Statistically significant differences were detected on soil pH, carbon and nitrogen contents, and electrical conductivity between the two sites. The number of microarthropods was higher in AP than in the SO site. The annual mean abundance values of microarthropods in a square meter were 67,763 in AP and 50,542 in SO, and the annual mean abundance values of macroarthropods were 921 m(-2) in AP and 427 m(-2) in SO. Among the soil microarthropods, Acari and Collembola were the dominant groups. Shannon's diversity index was more affected by evenness than species number despite the species diversity (H') of soil arthropods being generally higher in the SO stand. The abundance of microarthropods showed clear seasonal trends depending upon the humidity of the soil.

  5. Yield prediction of young black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. plantations for woody biomass production using allometric relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Böhm

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is an increasingly popular tree species for the production of woody biomass for bioenergy generation with short rotation coppices. Due to its potential to produce large amounts of biomass yields even under unfavourable growth conditions, this tree species is especially suitable for marginal sites, such as can be found in the post mining area of NE-Germany. Current research aims to reliably predict the yield potential of black locust short rotation coppices, but suffers from a lack of sufficient exact allometric functions until recently. This is especially true for the early growth years, which are of special importance for short rotation coppices. The objective of this study was to develop allometric equations based on tree height and shoot basal diameter (SBD for estimating yields of young black locust plantations. Therefore, dendrometric data were collected in a two, three, four and fourteen years old black locust short rotation forest located in the reclamation area of an opencast-lignite mining area in the Lower Lusatian region (Germany and used for equation developing. Until measurement, none of the plantations had been harvested. Closed correlations between SBD and tree height were observed, as well as between these parameters and single tree mass. The scattering of single tree masses could be explained slightly better by the SBD than by the tree height. In the year before a harvest an even better prediction probability of woody biomass was obtainable when both parameters were simultaneously interrelated with the single tree mass. The results illustrate that the woody above ground biomass of young black locust plantations can be estimated sufficiently precisely based on the easy determinable parameters tree height and particularly SBD.

  6. Yield prediction of young black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. plantations for woody biomass production using allometric relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Böhm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is an increasingly popular tree species for the production of woody biomass for bioenergy generation with short rotation coppices. Due to its potential to produce large amounts of biomass yields even under unfavourable growth conditions, this tree species is especially suitable for marginal sites, such as can be found in the post mining area of NE-Germany. Current research aims to reliably predict the yield potential of black locust short rotation coppices, but suffers from a lack of sufficient exact allometric functions until recently. This is especially true for the early growth years, which are of special importance for short rotation coppices. The objective of this study was to develop allometric equations based on tree height and shoot basal diameter (SBD for estimating yields of young black locust plantations. Therefore, dendrometric data were collected in a two, three, four and fourteen years old black locust short rotation forest located in the reclamation area of an opencast-lignite mining area in the Lower Lusatian region (Germany and used for equation developing. Until measurement, none of the plantations had been harvested. Closed correlations between SBD and tree height were observed, as well as between these parameters and single tree mass. The scattering of single tree masses could be explained slightly better by the SBD than by the tree height. In the year before a harvest an even better prediction probability of woody biomass was obtainable when both parameters were simultaneously interrelated with the single tree mass. The results illustrate that the woody above ground biomass of young black locust plantations can be estimated sufficiently precisely based on the easy determinable parameters tree height and particularly SBD.

  7. Air pollution damage to Austrian pine in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, E.; Davis, S.H. Jr.

    1967-11-01

    Following a period of high pollution, extensive needle damage was observed on Austrian pine trees. Since the species is common in New Jersey, it was possible to obtain an approximation of its sensitivity. In nurseries, Christmas tree plantations and park areas, which included many species of conifers in addition to Austrian pine, species specifically noted as free from apparent damage were white pine (Pinus strobus), scotch pine (P. sylvestris), red pine (P. resinosa), Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica glauca), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Colorado spruce (P. pungens), white spruce (P. canadensis), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), and many varieties of juniper, arbor vitae, hemlock, and yew. During the survey needle damage, which could be traced back to the episode of 24 June, was also observed on Japanese red pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. Thunbergil). The injury to Japanese red pine was identical to that on Austrian pine, but on Japanese black pine the damage appeared not on the current year's needles, but on 1-year-old needles and it did not have the distinctive dividing line between injured and healthy tissue. These two species did not occur in sufficient number to allow further evaluation. Austrian pine has been cited in the literature as very tolerant of industrial smoke. Currently, German foresters are advising aginst the use of spruce and firs in industrial areas and are recommending ''resistant species as Austrian pine.'' In New Jersey fluoride damage has been observed on Austrian pine on occasion over the past 20 years. Because of the damage also caused by photochemical smog in New Jersey, the resistance of the species should be reevaluated. A need may develop for a breeding program to provide resistant material to the highly polluted metropolitan areas.

  8. Four new tree-ring chronologies from old black pine forests of Sandıras Mountain (Mugla, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Doğan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sandıras Mountain is located in southwest of Gölgeli Mountain, which lies parallel to border of Aegean and Mediterranean Regions, in Southwestern Anatolia. This mountainous area is one of the natural distribution areas of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. and has the oldest black pine communities in Turkey. Monumental black pine stands and the large number of individual monumental trees can be observed between the 1200 and 2000 m elevations of the mountain (especially north slope of the mountain. In this paper, we present preliminary results of a dendrochronological research on old black pine trees of Sandıras Mountain. Four new tree-ring chronologies were built from upper and lower elevations of south and north slopes of the mountain. The shortest and the longest chronologies were 241 and 820 years-long (obtained from upper elevation of the north slope, respectively. In this research, we record the most sensitive black pine trees (mean sensitivity value is 0.27 of Turkey from the north slope of Sandıras Mountain.

  9. Sampling Size Required for Determining Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Properties at Early Establishment of Second Rotation Hoop Pine Plantations in Subtropical Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Investigations into forest soils face the problem of the high level of spatial variability that is an inherent property of all forest soils. In order to investigate the effect of changes in residue management practices on soil properties in hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex A. Cunn.) plantations of subtropical Australia it was important to understand the intensity of sampling effort required to overcome the spatial variability induced by those changes. Harvest residues were formed into windrows to prevent nitrogen (N) losses through volatilisation and erosion that had previously occurred as a result of pile and burn operations. We selected second rotation (2R) hoop pine sites where the windrows (10-15 m apart) had been formed 1, 2 and 3 years prior to sampling in order to examine the spatial variability in soil carbon (C)and N and in potential mineralisable N (PMN) in the areas beneath and between (inter-) the windrows. We examined the implications of soil variability on the number of samples required to detect differences in means for specific soil properties,at different ages and at specified levels of accuracy. Sample size needed to accurately reflect differences between means was not affected by the position where the samples were taken relative to the windrows but differed according to the parameter to be sampled. The relative soil sampling size required for detecting differences between means of a soil property in the inter-windrow and beneath-windrow positions was highly dependent on the soil property assessed and the acceptable relative sampling error. An alternative strategy for soil sampling should be considered, if the estimated sample size exceeds 50 replications. The possible solution to this problem is collection of composite soil samples allowing a substantial reduction in the number of samples required for chemical analysis without loss in the precision of the mean estimates for a particular soil property.

  10. Climate effects on fire regimes and tree recruitment in Black Hills ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter M

    2006-10-01

    Climate influences forest structure through effects on both species demography (recruitment and mortality) and disturbance regimes. Here, I compare multi-century chronologies of regional fire years and tree recruitment from ponderosa pine forests in the Black Hills of southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming to reconstructions of precipitation and global circulation indices. Regional fire years were affected by droughts and variations in both Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Fires were synchronous with La Niñas, cool phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and warm phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). These quasi-periodic circulation features are associated with drought conditions over much of the western United States. The opposite pattern (El Niño, warm PDO, cool AMO) was associated with fewer fires than expected. Regional tree recruitment largely occurred during wet periods in precipitation reconstructions, with the most abundant recruitment coeval with an extended pluvial from the late 1700s to early 1800s. Widespread even-aged cohorts likely were not the result of large crown fires causing overstory mortality, but rather were caused by optimal climate conditions that contributed to synchronous regional recruitment and longer intervals between surface fires. Synchronous recruitment driven by climate is an example of the Moran effect. The presence of abundant fire-scarred trees in multi-aged stands supports a prevailing historical model for ponderosa pine forests in which recurrent surface fires affected heterogenous forest structure, although the Black Hills apparently had a greater range of fire behavior and resulting forest structure over multi-decadal time scales than ponderosa pine forests of the Southwest that burned more often.

  11. Effects of soil moisture and soil depth on nitrogen mineralization process under Mongolian pine plantations in Zhanggutai sandy land, P. R. China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENFu-sheng; ZENGDe-hui; SINGHAnandNarain; CHENGuang-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The rates of soil N mineralization at soil depths of 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-0 cm and moisture regimes were measured at three sand-fixation plantations of Pinus sylve.stris var. mongolica by laboratory aerobic incubation method. The results showed that average rates of soil net N-mineralization across soil depth varied from 1.06 to 7.52 mg ~ kg 1.month qat soil depths from 0 to 60 cm. Statistical analyses indicated that the effects of different soil depths, moistures and their interactions on net N-mineralization rates were significant (P<0.05). The net N-mineralization rates significantly decreased with increasing soil depths and at depth 0-15 cm accounted for 60.52% of that at depth of 0-50 cm. There was no difference in soil net N-mineralization rates between half and fully-saturated water treatments, however these rates were substantially higher than that without water treatment (P < 0.05). The factors influencing N mineralization process have to be studied further in these semiarid pine ecosystems.

  12. Reflection on plant cover of climate change: Decline Anatolian black pines on district between Afsin-Goksun (Kahramanmaras, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Duran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine decline Anatolian black pines [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe] on Tuluce hill district between Afsin-Goksun region in Kahramanmaras province. As a result of the Ecological (climate, soil, air pollution and Biological (insect, fungus, parasite plant etc. researches; other factors the exception of drought have no priority affection on black pine deaths. As on Turkey, drought conditions have dominated on the region after the year 1994. These changes have been occurred by constantly deaths in community of black pines on the south-facing slope (between the years 2000-2009. Increasing temperature and evaporation, decreasing relative humidity and rainfall-runoff is clearly for the region. In addition, there were not air pollution and infected primer insect-fungus damage. This also strengthens the impact of drought. Identified areas of tree deaths in recent years are generally near the inner regions (the steppe areas. Climate change and drought must be an indication of pushing towards more humid areas of black pine forests which is able to approaching much more onto the steppes of inner Anatolian.

  13. O cultivo da araucária para produção de pinhões como ferramenta para a conservação Plantation of Brazilian pine to nuts production as a conservation tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A madeira da araucária (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze teve grande importância econômica no Brasil, principalmente entre 1930 e 1970. O desmatamento ocasionou a redução drástica do tamanho populacional de araucária e atualmente ela integra a lista de espécies brasileiras ameaçadas de extinção. O objetivo dessa revisão foi apresentar o potencial de geração de renda do cultivo de araucária para produção de pinhões e a consequente conservação da espécie. Segundo o que se observou na literatura, o pinhão pode gerar mais renda que a madeira da araucária, quando são utilizadas técnicas de manejo adequadas. O cultivo da araucária com interesse econômico do pinhão é uma ferramenta eficaz para aumentar os plantios e diminuir a exploração das araucárias remanescentes. É necessário propor estratégias em parceria entre organizações de produtores e coletores, pesquisadores e órgãos governamentais brasileiros para desenvolver e aprimorar técnicas adequadas de manejo, processamento e comercialização do pinhão. The wood of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze had great economic importance in Brazil, mainly between 1930 to 1970. The deforestation caused a drastic reduction in population size of Brazilian pine and currently it integrates the list of Brazilian threatened species. The aim of thisreview was to present the potential of generating income from Brazilian pine plantation for pine nuts production and the consequent species conservation. According to the literature, pine nuts can generate more income than Brazilian pine wood, when used appropriate management techniques. The plantation with economic interest in pine nuts is an effective tool to increase planting and reduce exploitation of the Brazilian pine remaining. It is necessary to propose strategies in partnership among producer and collectors organizations, researchers and Brazilians government agencies to develop and improve

  14. A case study in Bangka Island, Indonesia on the utilization of pesticides in black pepper plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratno,; Taniwiryono, D.; Brink, van den P.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Habits and consequences of pesticide use in pepper plantations were studied in Indonesia. The first study was conducted by questioning 117 farmers about their habits in pesticide use and determining pesticide residues on pepper berries on Bangka Island. Meanwhile, the second study was completed by a

  15. Size of coarse woody debris 5 years after girdling and removal treatments in 50-year-old Loblolly PIne Plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M. Boyd [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2004-01-01

    PP 108 -113 in: Connor, Kristina F., ed. 2004. Proceedings of the 12th biennial southern silvicultural research conference. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS71. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 594 p. Abstract: In 1996, a study began at Savannah River Site to investigate large-scale replicated forest areas to control coarse woody debris for integrated biodiversity objectives. Research design was a randomized complete block with four treatments replicated in four blocks, resulting in 16 plots. The treatments applied to 50-year-old loblolly pine stands were (1) control, (2) girdling of 25 percent of trees to create catastrophic simulation, (3) annual removal of down woody debris > 10 cm in diameter, and (4) annual removal of both standing and down woody debris > 10 cm in diameter. The study tracks coarse woody debris recruitment and loading, rates of decomposition, and effects on the forest ecosystem.

  16. Effect of heat treatment on the physical and mechanical properties of compression and opposite wood of Black pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türker Dündar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of commercial heat treatment on physical and mechanical properties of compression wood (CW and opposite wood (OW of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold was investigated. Black pine logs containing CW were cut parallel to the pith and separated into CW and OW sections. A commercial heat treatment process was applied to pine lumber at 180 and 210 ºC for 3 hours. Water absorption (WA, contact angle (CA, swelling, modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, and impact bending strength (IBS were measured. The results showed that heat treatment decreased water absorption and swelling of the CW and OW of black pine. Heat treatment at 210 °C temperature decreased the longitudinal swelling of CW by 51.4%. Higher immersion time lowered the effect of heat treatment on the WA values. The CA values of the CW and OW increased due to heat treatment. Heat treatment reduced the MOR, MOE, and IBS values. The results indicated that MOR, MOE, and CA values were highly affected in the CW; on the other hand, the IBS value was highly affected in the OW by heat treatment compared to control groups. The results indicate that heat-stabilized CW can be used more widely and effectively in the forest products industry.

  17. Economic Impact of Net Carbon Payments and Bioenergy Production in Fertilized and Non-Fertilized Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prativa Shrestha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sequestering carbon in forest stands and using woody bioenergy are two potential ways to utilize forests in mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Such forestry related strategies are, however, greatly influenced by carbon and bioenergy markets. This study investigates the impact of both carbon and woody bioenergy markets on land expectation value (LEV and rotation age of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. forests in the southeastern United States for two scenarios—one with thinning and no fertilization and the other with thinning and fertilization. Economic analysis was conducted using a modified Hartman model. The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 emitted during various activities such as management of stands, harvesting, and product decay was included in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with a range of carbon offset, wood for bioenergy, and forest product prices. The results showed that LEV increased in both management scenarios as the price of carbon and wood for bioenergy increased. However, the results indicated that the management scenario without fertilizer was optimal at low carbon prices and the management scenario with fertilizer was optimal at higher carbon prices for medium and low forest product prices. Carbon payments had a greater impact on LEV than prices for wood utilized for bioenergy. Also, increase in the carbon price increased the optimal rotation age, whereas, wood prices for bioenergy had little impact. The management scenario without fertilizer was found to have longer optimal rotation ages.

  18. Effect of O horizon and Forest Harvest Residue Manipulations on Soil Organic Matter Content and Composition of a Loblolly Pine Plantation in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, J.; Mack, J.; Dewey, J.; Sucre, E.; Leggett, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Forest harvest residues and forest floor materials are significant sources of mineral soil organic matter and nutrients for regenerating and establishing forests. Harvest residues in particular are occasionally removed, piled, or burned following harvesting. While the forest floor is never purposely removed during operational harvesting and site preparation, they could become in high demand as bioenergy markets develop. Weyerhaeuser Company established an experimental study to evaluate the effect of forest-floor manipulation on site productivity and soil carbon. This study was installed in a loblolly pine plantation near Millport, Alabama, USA on the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain to test both extremes from complete removal of harvest residues and forest floor to doubling of these materials. This study has been continuously monitored since its establishment in 1994. We have examined the effects of varying forest floor levels on the biomass, soil carbon content, and soil carbon composition in the context of these management activities. Above- and below-ground productivity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and nutrient dynamics have been related to soil organic carbon in mineral soil size/density fractionation and lignin and cutin biomarkers from the cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation technique. We have found that while removing litter and harvest residues has little effect on biomass production and soil carbon, importing litter and harvest residues increases forest productivity and soil carbon content. Interestingly, increased carbon was observed in all depths assessed (O horizon, 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60cm) suggesting that this practice may sequester organic carbon in deep soil horizons. Our biomarker analysis indicated that importing litter and harvest residues increased relative contributions from above ground sources at the 20-40cm depth and increased relative contributions from belowground sources at the 40-60cm depth. These results suggest that organic matter manipulations

  19. Distribution of black carbon in Ponderosa pine litter and soils following the High Park wildfire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Boot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC, the heterogeneous product of burned biomass, is a critical component in the global carbon cycle, yet timescales and mechanisms for incorporation into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park Fire, which took place in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire intenstiy and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C, nitrogen (N, and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane Ponderosa pine litter, 0–5 cm soils, and 5–15 cm soils four months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn intensity on %C, C stocks, %N and black carbon (g kg−1 C, and g m−2. We developed and implemented the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes, but that there was no difference in black carbon content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the litter in burned sites (19 g kg−1 C, while BC stocks were greatest in the 5–15 cm subsurface soils (23 g m−2. At the time of sampling, none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into to either the 0–5 cm or 5–15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B5CA : B6CA (less condensed to more condensed BC indicated there was significantly more older, more processed BC at depth. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely transported off the surface through erosion events. Future work examining mechanisms for BC transport will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global carbon cycle.

  20. Distribution of black carbon in Ponderosa pine litter and soils following the High Park wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C. M.; Haddix, M.; Paustian, K.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), the heterogeneous product of burned biomass, is a critical component in the global carbon cycle, yet timescales and mechanisms for incorporation into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park Fire, which took place in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire intenstiy and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane Ponderosa pine litter, 0-5 cm soils, and 5-15 cm soils four months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn intensity on %C, C stocks, %N and black carbon (g kg-1 C, and g m-2). We developed and implemented the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes, but that there was no difference in black carbon content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the litter in burned sites (19 g kg-1 C), while BC stocks were greatest in the 5-15 cm subsurface soils (23 g m-2). At the time of sampling, none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into to either the 0-5 cm or 5-15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B5CA : B6CA (less condensed to more condensed BC) indicated there was significantly more older, more processed BC at depth. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely transported off the surface through erosion events. Future work examining mechanisms for BC transport will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global carbon cycle.

  1. Determination of potential hazelnut plantation areas based GIS model case study: Samsun city of central Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could be created. Samsun city is one of the most important hazelnut production centres in Central Black Sea region. The main objective of this study is to determine potential hazelnut areas in Samsun city located Central Black Sea Region according to current regulations using geographic information system technique regarding to support hazelnut policy developers and organizations. According to the criteria dictated by government regulations, potential hazelnut area in Samsun province was determined and 86973 ha of the total area is suitable hazelnut area which is about 9.3% of whole province.

  2. Interactive effects of nocturnal transpiration and climate change on the root hydraulic redistribution and carbon and water budgets of southern United States pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Ogée, Jérôme; Noormets, Asko; Jouangy, Julien; Gavazzi, Michael; Treasure, Emrys; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steve G; King, John S

    2012-06-01

    Deep root water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) have been shown to play a major role in forest ecosystems during drought, but little is known about the impact of climate change, fertilization and soil characteristics on HR and its consequences on water and carbon fluxes. Using data from three mid-rotation loblolly pine plantations, and simulations with the process-based model MuSICA, this study indicated that HR can mitigate the effects of soil drying and had important implications for carbon uptake potential and net ecosystem exchange (NEE), especially when N fertilization is considered. At the coastal site (C), characterized by deep organic soil, HR increased dry season tree transpiration (T) by up to 40%, and such an increase affected NEE through major changes in gross primary productivity (GPP). Deep-rooted trees did not necessarily translate into a large volume of HR unless soil texture allowed large water potential gradients to occur, as was the case at the sandy site (S). At the Piedmont site (P) characterized by a shallow clay-loam soil, HR was low but not negligible, representing up to 10% of T. In the absence of HR, it was predicted that at the C, S and P sites, annual GPP would have been diminished by 19, 7 and 9%, respectively. Under future climate conditions HR was predicted to be reduced by up to 25% at the C site, reducing the resilience of trees to precipitation deficits. The effect of HR on T and GPP was predicted to diminish under future conditions by 12 and 6% at the C and P sites, respectively. Under future conditions, T was predicted to stay the same at the P site, but to be marginally reduced at the C site and slightly increased at the S site. Future conditions and N fertilization would decrease T by 25% at the C site, by 15% at the P site and by 8% at the S site. At the C and S sites, GPP was estimated to increase by 18% and by >70% under future conditions, respectively, with little effect of N fertilization. At the P site, future

  3. Biomass Equations and Carbon Content of Young Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Trees from Plantations and Coppices on Sandy Soils in South-Western Romanian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Liviu CIUVĂŢ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to develop biomass equations for young black locust trees from plantations and coppices established in South-West Romania. A destructive method was used to develop allometric biomass equations and to assess the carbon content of the individual tree and its biomass components. 418 black locust young trees (1-4 years old from 27 plots established in plantations and coppices growing on sandy soils in Dolj and Olt counties were sampled. Simple linear regression models were developed for biomass estimation. The results shown that root collar diameter was the most accurate biomass predictor, whilst intercept and slope values were similar to those identified in other recent studies. The specific carbon content (mean values was 45% for roots and 48% for leaves, similar to the values provided by Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change.

  4. Effects of climatic factors on height growth components in Austrian black pine. [Pinus nigra nigricans, Arn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyon, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Weekly (or biweekly) leader shoot growth was assessed over 3 growing seasons (1982-1984) and annual shoot length was measured over 6 years (1979-1984) for a 30 seedlings (age: 11 years) sampled in a naturally regenerated stand of black pine, located at Mont Ventoux in southern France. The number of internodes (stem units) was assessed over the same period (1979-1984). Annual shoot length of a given year appeared as mainly controlled by the number of internodes initiated during the summer of the previous year. Investigations of climatic factors taking place during the assumed initiation stage, have shown a significant correlation between the annual leader shoot length and the cummulated rainfall of June, July and September of the previous year. By contrast, the correlations between the temperature factors during the assumed time of initiation and number of initiated internodes of the same year were not significant. The weekly shoot growth was significantly related to the average of minimum air temperature of the same period, at the time of height growth, that is to say April and May. Finally the possibility of integrating these results into growth models is discussed.

  5. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  6. Construction Technology of Ecological Tea Plantation in Mindong Black-green Tea Area%闽东红绿茶产区生态茶园建设技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨如兴; 张磊; 陈芝芝; 吴志丹

    2014-01-01

    阐述了闽东生态茶园建设措施和目标,总结出适合闽东红绿茶生产的新垦茶园、茶林嵌合型和纯茶种植老茶园生态建设技术。%In this paper, construction measures and objectives of ecological tea plantation in Mindong area were elaborated, and thus construction technology of ecological tea plantation was suggested for the newly-reclaimed young tea plantation, mosaic type plantation of tea and woods, and ageing single-tea plantation, to be proper for the production of black tea and green tea in Mindong area.

  7. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T Rota

    Full Text Available Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  8. Distribution of black carbon in ponderosa pine forest floor and soils following the High Park wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C. M.; Haddix, M.; Paustian, K.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Biomass burning produces black carbon (BC), effectively transferring a fraction of the biomass C from an actively cycling pool to a passive C pool, which may be stored in the soil. Yet the timescales and mechanisms for incorporation of BC into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park fire (HPF), which occurred in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire severity and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane ponderosa pine forest floor (litter plus O-horizon) and soils at 0-5 and 5-15 cm depth 4 months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn severity on %C, C stocks, %N and BC. We used the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes but that there was no difference in BPCA-C content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the forest floor at burned sites (19 g BPCA-C kg-1 C), while BC stocks were greatest in the 5-15 cm subsurface soils (23 g BPCA-C m-2). At the time of sampling, unburned and burned soils had equivalent BC content, indicating none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into either the 0-5 or 5-15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B6CA : total BPCAs, an index of the degree of aromatic C condensation, suggested that BC in the 5-15 cm soil layer may have been formed at higher temperatures or experienced selective degradation relative to the forest floor and 0-5 cm soils. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely lost, either through erosion events, degradation or translocation to deeper soils. Future work examining mechanisms for BC losses from forest soils will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global

  9. Is spatial structure the key to promote plant diversity in Mediterranean forets plantations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Moreno, P.; Quero, J.L.; Poorter, L.; Bonet, F.J.; Zamora, R.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean forest plantations are currently under an intense debate related to their ecological function, sustainability and future performance. In several Mediterranean countries, efforts are directed to convert pine plantations into mixed and more diverse forests. This research aims to evaluate

  10. Pine as Fast Food: Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Cockatoo in a Forestry Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, William D.; Hugh Finn; Jackson Parker; Ken Dods

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby's Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby's Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158,025...

  11. Runoff and inter-rill erosion in a Maritime Pine and a Eucalypt plantation following wildfire and terracing in north-central Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Martinho A.S.; Machado, Ana I.; Serpa, Dalila; Faria, Sílvia R.; Prats, Sergio A.; Varela, María E.T.; González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, J. Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how terracing affected overland flow and associated sediment losses, at the micro-plot scale (0.25 m2), in recently burnt stands of the two principal forest types in north-central Portugal, i.e. mono-specific stands of Maritime Pine and Eucalypt. Terracing is an increasingly common practice of slope engineering in the study region but its impacts on runoff and erosion are poorly studied. Non-terraced plots at the Eucalypt and the Pine site revealed simi...

  12. Traps and attractants for wood-boring insects in ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Sheryl L; Negrón, José F; Jacobi, William R

    2008-04-01

    Recent large-scale wildfires have increased populations of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Because little is known about possible impacts of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills, land managers are interested in developing monitoring techniques such as flight trapping with semiochemical baits. Two trap designs and four semiochemical attractants were tested in a recently burned ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in the Black Hills. Modified panel and funnel traps were tested in combination with the attractants, which included a woodborer standard (ethanol and alpha-pinene), standard plus 3-carene, standard plus ipsenol, and standard plus ipsdienol. We found that funnel traps were equally efficient or more efficient in capturing wood-boring insects than modified panel traps. Trap catches of cerambycids increased when we added the Ips spp. pheromone components (ipsenol or ipsdienol) or the host monoterpene (3-carene) to the woodborer standard. During the summers of 2003 and 2004, 18 cerambycid, 14 buprestid, and five siricid species were collected. One species of cerambycid, Monochamus clamator (LeConte), composed 49 and 40% of the 2003 and 2004 trap catches, respectively. Two other cerambycids, Acanthocinus obliquus (LeConte) and Acmaeops proteus (Kirby), also were frequently collected. Flight trap data indicated that some species were present throughout the summer, whereas others were caught only at the beginning or end of the summer.

  13. Effects of different soil preparation techniques on the Anatolian Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Çalışkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of different soil preparation treatments on regeneration of black pine success were examined and some suggestions were given according to the results. Twelve sample plots were randomly set in the research area. The size of each sample plot was 4 m². Sample plots were seeded equally with a total number of 2304 (48 seeds per m2 seeds in April 2012. The number of surviving seedlings was recorded every month from May to November in 2012. Surviving seedlings were recorded again in November 2013 and growths of thirty seedlings which are selected randomly from the all sample plots were examined. It was found that soil treatment with machine was more successful in regeneration at semi-arid regions like Cerkes-Turkey. Plowing equipment as mechanical soil cultivation has more economically advantageous in first years. However, the success and quality of seedlings were better in soil preparation with ripper equipment compared to plowing.

  14. Short-time phosphorus losses by overland flow in burnt pine and eucalypt plantations in north-central Portugal: A study at micro-plot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R V; Serpa, D; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decades, wildfires have affected vast areas of Mediterranean ecosystems leading to a variety of negative on- and off-site environmental impacts. Research on fire-affected areas has given more attention to sediment losses by fire-enhanced overland flow than to nutrient exports, especially in the Mediterranean region. To address this knowledge gap for post-fire losses of phosphorus (P) by overland flow, a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal was selected and instrumented immediately after a wildfire. Three slopes were selected for their contrasting forest types (eucalypt vs. pine) and parent materials (granite vs. schist). The selected study sites were a eucalypt site on granite (BEG), a eucalypt site on schist (BES) and a maritime pine site on schist (BPS). Micro-plots were monitored over a period of six months, i.e. till the construction of terraces for reforestation obliged to the removal of the plots. During this 6-month period, overland flow samples were collected at 1- to 2-weekly intervals, depending on rainfall. Total P and PO4-P losses differed markedly between the two types of forests on schist, being lower at the pine site than at the eucalypt site, probably due to the presence of a protective layer of pine needle cast. Parent material did not play an important role in PO4-P losses by overland flow but it did in TP losses, with significantly lower values at the eucalypt site on granite than that on schist. These differences in TP losses can be attributed to the coarser texture of granite soils, typically promoting infiltration and decreasing runoff. The present findings provided further insights into the spatial and temporal patterns of post-fire soil nutrient losses in fire-prone forest types during the initial stages of the window-of-disturbance, which can be useful for defining post-fire emergency measures to reduce the risk of soil fertility losses.

  15. Physiological and morphological properties of the Japanese black and red pine trees (Pinus thundergii Parl. and P. densiflora sieb. et zucc. ) on the resistance to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaki, A.; Hasegawa, M.

    1974-01-01

    The physiological effects of SO/sub 2/ to Japanese black and red pines (Pinus Thunbergii Parl. and P. densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) have been studied. After exposure to 3 ppm of SO/sub 2/ gas, photosynthesis by the 1-0 year old seedlings of black pine was conducted for 3 hours with 200..mu..C /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ under 20,000 lux. Hot water soluble materials from the seedlings were analyzed. The results indicated that photosynthetic ability of seedlings exposed to SO/sub 2/ decreased 19% of that of the control seedlings. The rate of the photosynthesis decreased 22% when the seedlings were cultivated under nutrient defficient condition. The radioactivity of fixed amino acids, organic acids and sugar components in the seedlings exposed to SO/sub 2/ decreased 28%, 58% and 8% respectively, of the control plants. The organic acid components were analyzed by paper chromatography and gas chromatography. The results showed a quantitative decrease of critic and succinic acids and especially remarkable decrease of malic acid. Japanese red pine seedlings which are more sensitive to SO/sub 2/ than black pine seedlings were analyzed under similar conditions. The differences of sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ between these two plants were compared and discussed. Concerning the decrease of photosynthetic ability, changes of morphological structures in chloroplast were observed by an electron microscopy. The deformation of lamellar structures of chloroplast exposed to SO/sub 2/ was found.

  16. Shady Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Frida

    2011-01-01

    This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between...

  17. Determination of potential hazelnut plantation areas based GIS model case study: Samsun city of central Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu; Fikret Saygın; Gülden Balcı; Orhan Dengiz; Hüsnü Demirsoy

    2014-01-01

    Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could b...

  18. La fauna edafica en bosques y plantaciones de coniferas de la estacion San Lorenzo-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Soil fauna in forest and pine plantations from San Lorenzo station-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamorro Bello Clara

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En la estacion de San Lorenzo-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta-(2280 m. se seleccionaron suelos (Tropaquepts, bajo usos de bosque nativo y plantacion de pinos. La coleccion de las comunidades edafofaunisticas se realizo con base en la aplicacion de tecnicas de Barber y Berlesse, para su posterior determinacion hasta el nivel de familia. Se determino la biodiversidad medida en el Indice de Brillouin, las densidades poblacionales, su distribucion en el perfil del suelo, y los Indices de Riqueza y Constancia, para cada uno de los horizontes edaficos.Soils in San Lorenzo Station-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta-(2280m were selected in two different uses: forest and pine plantations. Fauna was coleected out from the soils by Pitfall and Berlesse methods to be determinated up to family levels. Biodiversity, populations, fauna distribution into soil profile, and richness and constancy indexes, were determinated in soil horizons. Biodiversity, richness and Constancy Indexes are affected when natural condition are disturbed, generally by man action. This perturbation speed up the natural population growth when another population controllers have disappea.

  19. Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, and a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic and Edaphic Conditions-Isotopic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanton, J. P.; Mortazavi, B.

    2004-11-04

    During the past year we have submitted two manuscripts. 1. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions (in Press). Oecologia 2. Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Use of Keeling plots for determining sources of dissolved organic carbon in nearshore and open ocean systems (Published in Limnology and Oceanography (2004) Vol 49 pages 102-108). 3. Mortazavi, B., J. L. Prater, and J. P. Chanton (2004). A field-based method for simultaneous measurements of the 18O and 13C of soil CO2 efflux. Biogeosciences Vol 1:1-16 Most recent products delivered: Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Abiotic and biotic controls on the 13C of respired CO2 in the southeastern US forest mosaics and a new technique for measuring the of soil CO2 efflux. Joint Biosphere Stable Isotope Network (US) and Stable Isotopes in Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange (EU) 2004 Meeting, Interlaken, Switzerland, March 31-April 4, 2004. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003. Prater, J., Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Measurement of discrimination against 13C during photosynthesis and quantification of the short-term variability of 13C over a diurnal cycle. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003.

  20. Hydrophobicity of an Entisol under loblolly pine (Pinus taeda plantation Hidrofobicidade em Neossolo litólico sob plantação de Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Branco de Freitas Maia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The understanding of soil carbon stabilization processes can be very useful in the development of mitigation techniques for CO2 emissions and global warming. The greater the hydrophobicity of soil organic matter the more stabilized soil organic carbon. Therefore,  hydrophobicity can be a sensitive index to characterize
    the ‘quality’ of soil organic matter. In this context, the present work aimed to characterize the chemical  structures of humic acids collected at three different depths in a hydrophobic Entisol (Neossolo under  loblolly plantation. The results of spectroscopic and chemical analyses (UV-Vis, fluorescence, EPR and X-ray diffractometry indicated that, as soil depth increased, so did the content of conjugated organic structures, aromatic groups, and free organic radicals, leading to higher humification indices. Aliphatic groups in these fractions were more concentrated in the surface layer than in deeper ones, which can be explained by the constant input of litter. The greater hydrophobicity of the surface soil sample was due to these non-humic components of the organic matter, as suberin and cutin.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.62.93

    Compreender os processos de estabilização do carbono no solo pode ser muito útil no desenvolvimento de técnicas de mitigação das  emissões de CO2 e do aquecimento global. Quanto maior a hidrofobicidade da matéria orgânica do solo, mais estabilizado é o carbono do solo. Portanto, a  hidrofobicidade pode ser usada como indicador para  caracterizar a qualidade da matéria orgânica do solo. O presente trabalho caracterizou as

  1. Mycorrhizae of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii): Protection of seedlings from acid mist and effect of acid mist on mycorrhiza formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, Noritoshi; Kikuchi, Junichi; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    1993-01-01

    To determine the effects of acid precipitation on Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) with and without mycorrhizae (Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker et Couch), 1-year-old seedlings were exposed to simulated acid rain mist, pH 3.0, for 10 min per day twice a week for 3 or 4 months. Simulated acid mist adversely affected the transpiration rate and lowered the extractable phosphorus content on seedlings, but seedlings with mycorrhizae were less affected by acid mist than were nonmycorrhizal seedlings. Simulated acid mist also retarded mycorrhiza formation. 41 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Comparative Characterization of the Effects of the Climate–Tree–Growth Relationship in Anatolian Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) on Wood Treatability

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the climate-tree-growth relationship on treatability were investigated in the Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) based on the altitudinal locations at approximately 960 m (B1) and 1010 m (B2) in the former coniferous afforestation area in Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey. This was achieved by analysis of the 1º branches at 1, 2, and 3 m tree heights above ground level for the periods 82/98 (March 1982 to February 1998) and 98/04 (March 1998 to Fe...

  3. Plantio adensado não controla a sigatoka-negra da bananeira Dense plantation do not control banana black-sigatoka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luadir Gasparotto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Algumas publicações relatam que o adensamento populacional dos bananais reduz a severidade da sigatoka-negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Instalou-se um ensaio com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos 1.600, 2.000, 2.400, 2.800 e 3.200 plantas.ha-1 da cultivar D'Angola foram instalados em parcelas agrupadas de 2.000 m² cada. O tamanho das parcelas foi fixo e o número de plantas por parcela variou conforme o espaçamento adotado para cada população. A área de 2.000 m² foi dividida em quatro subáreas de 500 m², considerando-as como parcelas. Em cada subárea selecionaram-se 15 plantas centrais para serem avaliadas. Na época do florescimento registraram-se a severidade da doença na folha n.°10 e o número de folhas viáveis. Na colheita, a altura e o diâmetro do pseudocaule e o peso dos cachos, das pencas e dos frutos. A análise conjunta dos dados indica que todos os tratamentos foram semelhantes entre si e que o adensamento das plantas não controlou a sigatoka-negra.Many publications show that plantations of high density of bananas decrease the severity of black-sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis. To test this hypothesis it was instaled an experiment with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments were density plant of 1.600, 2.000, 2.400, 2.800 e 3.200 plant.ha-1. The cultivar planted was D'Angola and each plot had fixed 2.000 m², the number of plants in each plot changed in accordance with the treatment tested. The plots were divided in four subplots of 500 m² where 15 plants located in the center were measured. The evaluation of severity was carried out in the leaf number ten during the flowering period. It was also evaluated the numbers of viable leaves, height, diameter and weight of production (banch, bunches and fruits. The analyses did not show effect of high density in the parameter measured and it was conclued that the treatments tested had not control black-sigatoka.

  4. Effects of pre-treatment on the nitrogen isotope composition of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) tree-rings as affected by high N input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, M Larry Lopez; Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Nobori, Yoshihiro

    2011-11-15

    Temporal changes in the acquisition of nitrogen (N) are recorded in tree-rings together with unique N isotopic values. Some debate continues regarding the importance of wood pre-treatment in isotope analysis and, thus, this study focuses on the removal of labile components to determine the intrinsic nature of N in tree-rings. The total concentration and stable isotopic value of N in annual tree-rings were determined for two cores from Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) from areas colonized by black cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). One core sample was also collected from a control site, without cormorants. Sharp increases in tree-ring δ(15)N values associated with migration of the cormorant population indicate positive incorporation of N from soils, whereas a less pronounced trend was observed for ring samples for periods without or substantially less migration, and for those obtained from the control site. All labile N components were removed by repeated extraction with toluene/ethanol (1:1) solution. Radial translocation of labile N is limited in tree-rings from Japanese black pine, providing intrinsic records on N acquisition. The difference in N isotopic values (up to 7.0‰) following pre-treatment was statistically significant for trees affected by the avian colony, whereas the pre-treatment of the control samples did not influence N values. The implication is that in agreement with previous studies pre-treatment is not necessary when trees are exposed to natural N concentrations in the soil but the removal of enriched δ(15)N labile components is necessary when woody plants are exposed to unusually high inputs of N into soils. However, the temporal trend in tree-ring δ(15)N series of the avian N affected trees did not change. Thus, if the priority is not the value but the trend then pre-treatment is not necessary.

  5. 基于非线性混合模型的红松人工林枝条生长%Branch growth of Korean pine plantation based on nonlinear mixed model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春红; 李凤日; 贾炜玮; 董利虎

    2013-01-01

    Based on the branch analysis data from 36 sample trees in a Korean pine plantation in Mengjiagang Forest Farm of Heilongjiang Province,Northeast China,and by using Mitcherlich and Richards equations as the models of branch diameter and branch length growth,respectively,the effects of sampling plot and sample tree were investigated,and the nonlinear mixed models of branch diameter and branch length growth were established by the PROC NLMIXED procedure of SAS software.The evaluation statistics such as Akaike information criterion (AIC),Bayesian information criterion (BIC),-2Log likelihood,and likelihood ratio test (LRT) were used to compare the prediction precisions of the models.When considering plot effect,and taking α1 and α3 andβ1 andβ3 as the random parameters,respectively,the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance.When considering tree effect,and taking α2 and α3 andβ2 andβ3 as the random parameters,respectively,the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance.The nonlinear mixed model could not only reflect the mean variation of branch growth,but also show the differences among the individual trees.No matter considering plot effect or tree effect,the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better than that of the ordinary regression analysis model.Moreover,the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better when considering tree effect than considering plot effect.%基于黑龙江省孟家岗林场36株红松人工林的枝解析数据,以单分子式和理查德方程作为枝条基径(BD)和枝长(BL)生长模型,分别考虑样地效应和样木效应,利用SAS软件的PROC NLMIXED模块构建了枝条基径和枝长生长的非线性混合模型.采用Akaike信息准则(AIC)、贝叶斯信息准则(BIC)、对数似然值(-2Log likelihood)和似然比检验(LRT)等评价指标对所构建模型的精度进行比较.结果表明:当考虑样地效应时,α1、α3

  6. Effect of Heat Treatment Upon the Compression Strength of Black Pine and Spruce – A Comparison Between Wood Originating From Mature Trees Vs. Thinnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina OLARESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of anexperimental study performed with black pine (Pinusnigra L. and spruce (Picea abies L. wood, originatingfrom mature trees and thinnings cut from the sameparcel from the Stroesti-Arges region in Romania.After air drying and conditioning, the defect-freetest boards were cut into standard 20x20x60mmsamples for the compression test. The compressionstrength was measured and the rupture mode incompression was analyzed.Therefore, the sampleswere first dried to oven-dry state, then heat-treated athigh temperatures (180 and 200ºC for 1, 2, 3 and 4hours. Sets of 10 samples from each wood species,wood assortment and treating regime were tested.The obtained results were comparativelyanalyzed for the two species (pine vs. spruce and forthe two wood assortments (mature wood vs, thinwood. Then they were also expressed relatively tothe mass loss, considered to be the main indiactor ofthe degradation suffered by wood during the heattreatment.A graph was drawn for each species andassortment in order to establish the optimum treatingregime, considering the correlated influence of theheat treatment conditions upon all three analyzedproperties (mass loss, dimensional stability andcompression strength.The results of the present research are to bevalorized at the manufacturing of solid wood panelsmade from heat-treated lamellas.

  7. Phosphorus fractions and phosphomonoesterase activities in sandy soils under a temperate savanna and a neighboring Mongolian pine plantation%沙地疏林草地和樟子松人工林土壤中不同形态磷素含量和磷酸单酯酶活性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琼; 曾德慧

    2006-01-01

    为评价我国北方大规模人工造林对土壤磷素转化及磷素有效性的影响,对半干旱沙地樟子松人工林和天然植被(疏林草地)不同层次(0~5 cm, 5~20 cm)土壤中不同形态磷组分和磷酸单酯酶活性进行了比较.结果表明:除人工林土壤中活性有机磷不受土壤深度影响外,各样地表层土壤中各种磷素含量和酶活性均显著高于低层土壤,但分层效应在人工林中低于疏林草地;与疏林草地土壤相比,除Al-P外,人工林土壤中各种磷素绝对含量和酶活性均显著降低,总有机磷和Ca-P在全磷中的比例显著下降,而活性磷,Al-P和Fe-P占全磷的比例增加.可见表层土壤是磷素转化最活跃的区域,凋落物分解是土壤磷的主要来源;用樟子松进行人工造林促进了有机磷的矿化和Ca-P的溶解,提高了土壤磷素的有效性,同时导致土壤总磷库逐渐耗竭.要维持该人工防护林功能和稳定性,必须对地被物予以保护,并进行适当施肥.表3参38.%To assess the effects of savanna afforestation on soil phosphorus (P) transformations in eastern Horqin Sandy Land, China, P fractions and phosphomonoesterase activities were examined in two soil horizons (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm) under a savanna and an adjacent 30-year-old Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Var. mongolica Litv.) plantation on a P-deficient semi-arid sandy soil. The results showed that all soil P fractions and phosphomonoesterase activities decreased with soil depth at both sites except that labile organic P under the plantation was constant with soil depth. In contrast to savanna, soils under Mongolian pine plantation had lower phosphomonoesterase activities and concentrations of all P fractions (with an exception of Al-P), lower proportions of organic P and Ca-P in total P, and higher proportions of labile P, Al-P and Fe-P in total P. These results suggested that P transformations mainly occurred in surface soils, and P recycled through

  8. Limited Growth Recovery after Drought-Induced Forest Dieback in Very Defoliated Trees of Two Pine Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guada, Guillermo; Camarero, J. Julio; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Cerrillo, Rafael M. Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine) located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width) and intra-annual (xylogenesis) scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized 3 years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die. PMID:27066053

  9. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Gökhan; Korkut, Süleyman; Korkut, Derya Sevim

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Yenice-Zonguldak Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and for varying durations. The physical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties were determined. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and compression strength, and Janka-hardness were determined. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements by the stylus method were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Four main roughness parameters, mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), root mean square roughness (Rq), and maximum roughness (Ry) obtained from the surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant difference was determined (p=0.05) between physical and technological properties, and surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Ry, Rq) for three temperatures and three durations of heat treatment. Based on the findings in this study, the results showed that density, swelling, compression strength, Janka-hardness and surface roughness values decreased with increasing treatment temperature and treatment times. Increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens. Camiyani Black Pine wood could be utilized by using proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in strength values in areas where working, stability, and surface smoothness, such as in window frames, are important factors.

  10. An overview of industrial tree plantation conflicts in the global South: conflicts, trends, and resistance struggles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Overbeek (Wilfridus); M. Kröger (Markus); J. Gerber (Julien-François)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the past two decades, industrial tree plantations (ITPs), typically large-scale, intensively managed, even-age monoculture plantations, mostly exotic trees like fast-growing eucalyptus, pine and acacia species, but also rubber and oil palm, all destined for industrial processe s

  11. Environmental baseline survey report for West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge and parcel 21D in the vicinity of the East Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, David A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE?s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site

  12. Field testing various container types in New Brunswick: A fifth year report on test areas established in 1985 with black spruce, white spruce and jack pine seedlings. Technique No. 92:05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Report on a containerized seedling response trial established in 1984/85 to determine which container type produces the best growing medium for seedling development over a five-year period. The trial used jack pine, white spruce and black spruce seedlings in various types of styroblock, paperpot, low density poly, and bareroot configurations. Response was determined by measuring and monitoring percent survival, change in height growth, volume, total height, and 1990 leaders length.

  13. Flower and fruit production and insect pollination of the endangered Chilean tree, Gomortega keule in native forest, exotic pine plantation and agricultural environments Producción de flores y frutas y polinización por insectos de Gomortega keule en bosque nativo y en terrenos agrícolas, un árbol chileno en peligro de extinción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONYA A LANDER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to discover whether patterns of flower and fruit production for Gomortega keule, an endangered Chilean tree, differ between exotic pine plantation, agricultural and native forest environments. A pilot study was also undertaken to identify the primary pollinators of G. keule. Although similar proportions of G. keule trees flowered in the agricultural and native forest áreas, more trees in the agricultural sites produced fruit compared to trees in the native forest sites. Flowering and fruiting of G. keule was extremely rare in the exotic pine plantations. Our data show that G. keule flowers are predominantly visited by syrphid flies in March-April, and that syrphids carry a greater proportion of G. keule pollen than the other insects collected. Native forest and low intensity agricultural systems appear to provide habitat in which syrphids forage and G. keule is able to produce fruit successfully, but exotic pine plantation does not; suggesting that a landscape made up of a mosaic of different landuse types is not necessarily inimical to the continued reproduction of G. keule, but that the combination and types of landuses and intensity of management must be carefully considered.El presente estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de establecer si los patrones de producción de flores y frutos de Gomortega keule (Gomortegaceae, un árbol chileno en peligro de extinción, son diferentes entre áreas de plantaciones de pinos exóticos, terrenos agrícolas y áreas de bosque nativo. También fue llevado a cabo un estudio piloto para identificar los principales polinizadores de G. keule. A pesar de que en tierras agrícolas y en áreas de bosque nativo floreció una proporción similar de árboles de G. keule, en zonas agrícolas fructificó una mayor proporción en comparación con los árboles de áreas de bosque nativo. La floración y fructificación de G. keule fue extremadamente rara en las áreas de plantaciones de

  14. Short-term dynamics of Quercus ilex advance regeneration in a Pinus nigra plantation after the creation of small canopy gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Garcia-Barreda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of the research is to analyse the role of Quercus ilex advance regeneration in the stand regeneration of pine plantations after small-sized canopy openings, and to assess the influence of the forest stand and the canopy opening. The performance of the advance regeneration under the pine plantation is also examined.Area of study: A Pinus nigra plantation in dry Continental Mediterranean climate in eastern Spain.Materials and Methods: The tree regeneration of ten canopy openings of 0.17-0.43 ha was monitored during five years after treatment. It was also sampled in 0.12 ha-plots in the non-treated pine plantation surrounding the openings.Main results: An important increase in the height of Q. ilex regeneration was observed in the openings, unlike what was found in the intact pine plantation. In the pine plantation, stand density showed a moderate positive influence on the density of Q. ilex regeneration, whereas in the canopy gaps Q. ilex height was negatively influenced by stand density before the opening.Research highlights: The canopy opening triggered a response in Q. ilex advance regeneration, although height growth rates seemed to reduce over time. The results support the view that promoting Q. ilex in pine plantations may require different management strategies depending on the characteristics of the pine overstorey and on the density and size of the advance regeneration.Key words: Mediterranean forest; stand initiation; seedling resprout; group selection cutting; truffle

  15. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT UPON DIMENSIONAL STABILITY AND MASS LOSS OF BLACK PINE AND SPRUCE WOOD ORIGINATING FROM MATURE TREES VS. THINNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CAMPEAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of anexperimental study performed with black pine (Pinusnigra L. and spruce (Picea abies L. wood, originatingfrom mature trees and thinnings cut from the sameparcel from the Stroesti-Arges region in Romania.After air drying and conditioning, the defect-freeboards were cut into standard samples 30x20x20mm.These were first dried to oven-dry state, then heattreatedat high temperatures (180 and 200ºC for 1, 2,3 and 4 hours. Weightings before and after heattreatmentallowed establishing the mass loss. Thetotal linear and volumic swelling coefficients were alsodetermined both for the heat-treated and untreatedsamples, in order to establish the effect of the heattreatmentupon the dimensional stability. The resultswere comparatively analyzed for the two species (pineand spruce, for the two grades (mature and thinwood, in order to establish for each the optimumtreating conditions, namely the ones which allow forthe maximum improvement of the dimensionalstability, without affecting significantly the wood mass(and implicitely the mechanical strengths. The resultsof the present research are to be valorized at themanufacturing of solid wood panels made from heattreatedlamellas

  16. Training community health workers to reduce health disparities in Alabama's Black Belt: the Pine Apple Heart Disease and Stroke Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhajda, Melissa C; Cornell, Carol E; Brownstein, J Nell; Littleton, Mary Ann; Stalker, Varena G; Bittner, Vera A; Lewis, Cora E; Raczynski, James M

    2006-01-01

    African American women have significantly higher mortality rates from heart disease and stroke than White women despite advances in treatment and the management of risk factors. Community health workers (CHWs) serve important roles in culturally relevant programs to prevent disease and promote health. This article describes the Pine Apple Heart and Stroke Project's activities to (1) revise the Women's Wellness Sourcebook Module III: Heart and Stroke to be consistent with national guidelines on heart disease and stroke and to meet the needs of African American women living in rural southern communities; (2) train CHWs using the revised curriculum; and (3) evaluate the training program. Revisions of the curriculum were based on recommendations by an expert advisory panel, the staff of a rural health clinic, and feedback from CHWs during training. Questionnaires after training revealed positive changes in CHWs' knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and self-reported risk reduction behaviors related to heart disease, stroke, cancer, and patient-provider communication. This study provides a CHW training curriculum that may be useful to others in establishing heart disease and stroke programs in rural underserved communities.

  17. Forest age stands affect soil respiration and litterfall in a Black pine forest managed by a shelterwood system in the Central Spain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Candel, David; Viñegla Pérez, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure generates on soil respiration and litterfall quantity. The effect of stand age on these variables was studied in a shelterwood system Spanish Black pine chronosequence in central Iberian Peninsula composed of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100-year-old. For each stand age, six forest stands with similar characteristics of soil type and site preparation were used. Also, a forest area ranging 80-120 years old and without forest intervention was selected and used as control. We also measured organic matter, C:N ratio, soil moisture and pH in the top 10 mineral soil at each compartment. Soil respiration measurements were carried out in three time points (3, 8 and 12 days). Results showed a clear trend in soil respiration, comparing all the experimental areas. Soil respiration showed the same trend in all stands. It initially showed higher rates, reaching stability in the middle of the measurement process and finally lightly increasing the respiration rate. The older stands had significantly higher soil respiration than the younger stands. Soil organic matter values were also higher in the more mature stands. C:N ratio showed the opposite trend, showing lower values in the less mature stands. More mature stands clearly showed more quantity of litterfall than the younger ones and there was a positive correlation between soil respiration and litterfall. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differenced groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40 years old and from 39 to 1 years old, taking into account both soil respiration and litterfall quantity, also separately. Our results suggest that the control plot has a better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1 years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil respiration.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REPORT FOR WEST BLACK OAK RIDGE, EAST BLACK OAK RIDGE, MCKINNEY RIDGE, WEST PINE RIDGE, AND PARCEL 21D IN THE VICINITY OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. King

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. The goal is to obtain all media no-further-investigation (NFI) determinations for the subject parcels considering existing soils. To augment the existing soils-only NFI determinations, samples of groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment were collected to support all media NFI decisions. The only updates presented here are those that were made after the original issuance of the NFI documents. In the subject parcel where the soils NFI determination was not completed for approval (Parcel 21d), the full process has been performed to address the soils as well. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only NFI

  19. Pine as fast food: foraging ecology of an endangered cockatoo in a forestry landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D Stock

    Full Text Available Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby's Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby's Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158,025 seeds ha(-1 over a large area (c. 15,000 ha. Carnaby's Cockatoos fed throughout these plantations and removed almost the entire annual crop of pine cones. Peak cockatoo abundance coincided with pine seed maturation. Pine seed had energy and protein contents equivalent to native food sources and, critically, is available in summer when breeding pairs have young offspring to feed. This strong and enduring ecological association clearly suggests that removing pine will have a significant impact on this endangered species unless restoration strategies, to establish alternative food sources, are implemented.

  20. Pine as fast food: foraging ecology of an endangered cockatoo in a forestry landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, William D; Finn, Hugh; Parker, Jackson; Dods, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby's Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby's Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158,025 seeds ha(-1)) over a large area (c. 15,000 ha). Carnaby's Cockatoos fed throughout these plantations and removed almost the entire annual crop of pine cones. Peak cockatoo abundance coincided with pine seed maturation. Pine seed had energy and protein contents equivalent to native food sources and, critically, is available in summer when breeding pairs have young offspring to feed. This strong and enduring ecological association clearly suggests that removing pine will have a significant impact on this endangered species unless restoration strategies, to establish alternative food sources, are implemented.

  1. Pine as Fast Food: Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Cockatoo in a Forestry Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, William D.; Finn, Hugh; Parker, Jackson; Dods, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby’s Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158 025 seeds ha−1) over a large area (c. 15 000 ha). Carnaby’s Cockatoos fed throughout these plantations and removed almost the entire annual crop of pine cones. Peak cockatoo abundance coincided with pine seed maturation. Pine seed had energy and protein contents equivalent to native food sources and, critically, is available in summer when breeding pairs have young offspring to feed. This strong and enduring ecological association clearly suggests that removing pine will have a significant impact on this endangered species unless restoration strategies, to establish alternative food sources, are implemented. PMID:23593413

  2. Effects of Patagonian pine forestry on native breeding birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Pescador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective is to assess the influences of the tree stand age and other forestry management practices on species richness, composition, and distribution of the Patagonian pine plantation bird assemblages. Area of Study: The work was carried out in forested plots of Ponderosa pine located at the Lanín National Park (Patagonia, Argentina.Material and Methods: Birds were sampled using 25 m fixed radius point counts, at four plots varying in age, management, and forest structure. Main Results: A total of 2090 individuals belonging to 34 bird species were observed, their numbers vary significantly depending on the different modes of plantation management. The population density of the 14 most abundant bird species was compared among the four plantation plots and ten species don’t show statistically significant differences in their population density among the different forest plots. The California Quail, the White-Crested Elaenia and the Southern House Wren showed higher densities in pine plantations with lower tree densities and fewer cutting treatments. The Diuca Finch had high densities in the younger plantations not subjected to any treatment. Research highlights: Most of these bird species are opportunistic and a few are found more regularly in these non-native woods than in other native forested or afforested areas. Our data suggest that a mixed scenario based on a mosaic of plantation with patches of native deciduous forest may help maximize the bird diversity in the management of northwestern Patagonian plantation landscapes.Keywords: Bird population; diversity; exotic plantations; Patagonia; tree-age.

  3. Auriacusite, Fe3+Cu2+AsO4O, the first M 3+ member of the olivenite group, from the Black Pine mine, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stuart J.; Kampf, Anthony R.; Poirier, Glenn; Raudsepp, Mati; Steele, Ian M.

    2010-05-01

    Auriacusite, ideally Fe3+Cu2+AsO4O, is a new arsenate mineral (IMA2009-037) and the Fe3+ analogue of olivenite, from the Black Pine mine, 14.5 km NW of Philipsburg, Granite Co., Montana, USA. It occurs lining quartz vughs and coating quartz crystals and is associated with segnitite, brochantite, malachite, tetrahedrite and pyrite. Auriacusite forms fibrous crystals up to about 5 µm in width and up to about 100 µm in length, which are intergrown to form fibrous mats. Individual crystals are a brownish golden yellow, whilst the fibrous mats are ochreous yellow. The crystals have a silky lustre and a brownish yellow streak. Mohs hardness is about 3 (estimated). The fracture is irregular and the tenacity is brittle. Auriacusite crystals are biaxial (+), with α = 1.830(5), β = 1.865(5) and γ = 1.910(5), measured using white light, and with 2 V meas. = 83(3)º and 2 V calc. = 84.6º. Orientation: X = a, Y = c, Z = b. Crystals are nonpleochroic or too weakly so to be observed. The empirical formula (based on 5 O atoms) is (Fe{1.33/3+}Cu0.85Zn0.03)Σ2.21(As0.51Sb0.27Si0.04 S0.02Te0.01)Σ0.85O5. Auriacusite is orthorhombic, space group Pnnm, a = 8.6235(7), b = 8.2757(7), c = 5.9501(5) Å, V = 424.63(6) Å3, Z = 4. The five strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [ d obs in Å / ( I) / hkl]: 4.884 / (100) / 101, 001; 2.991 / (92) / 220; 2.476 / (85) / 311; 2.416 / (83) / 022; 2.669 / (74) / 221. The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data utilising synchrotron radiation and refined to R 1 = 0.1010 on the basis of 951 unique reflections with F o > 4σ F. Auriacusite is identified as a member of the olivenite group with Fe3+ replacing Zn2+ or Cu2+ in trigonal bipyramidal coordination. Evidence suggests that auriacusite is an intermediate member between olivenite and an as yet undescribed Fe3+Fe3+-dominant member. The name is derived from the Latin auri (golden yellow) and acus (needle), in reference to its colour and

  4. Variation in cone and seed characteristics in a clonal seed orchard of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivacioglu, A; Ayan, S

    2010-01-01

    Cone and seed characteristics of Anatolian black pine were investigated in a clonal seed orchard for two years, 2002 and 2006. The orchard, originated from Kastamonu-Karadere seed stand was established in 1993 by using 1 year-old grafts in an area of 13 ha, at Hanönü-Günlüburun, northern Turkey and includes 30 clones. The results showed that, significant variation exists among clones for 14 of cone and seed traits for 2006. The clones had cone wet weight in range of 16.92 to 38.51 g, whereas this value varied in range of 11.16 to 24.06 g for cone dry weight. Cone length varied from 55.19 to 74.43 mm, while cone width varied in range of 26.66 to 36 57 mm. The range of scale number and fertile scale number varied from 80.02 to 110.64 and 38.03 to 56.20, respectively. Among the clones, the seed and filled seed number were 6.70-24.97 and 5.79-21.12, respectively. The 1000 seed weight varied in range of 20.36 to 29.73 g. The respective values of average seed length and width were 6.29 mm and 3.57 mm, while wing length and width were 19.59 mm and 7.21 mm. The average seed efficiency was 13.5%. Coefficients of variation among grafts (CV(G)) were mostly bigger than among clones (CV(c)), indicating high variation within the population. Year to year correlation coefficients for seed and cone characteristics were varied from moderate (0.58) to strong (0.83). The respective broad sense heritability values of clone mean basis (H2) for cone dry weight, cone width, 1000 seed weight were 0.77, 0.83 and 0.76. The seed efficiency had a H2 value of 0.43.

  5. [The pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Ido; Mendel, Zvi

    2002-09-01

    The pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) is considered to be a serious pest of medical importance. The hair on the dorsum of the last instar larvae of the moth may cause urticarial reactions (erucism) as well as eye problems and temporary blindness. In Israel, the pest occurs in all pine plantations as well as on ornamental pine trees in urban areas. The biology, ecology and management of the moth population are discussed as well as the mechanism of action of the urticarial hairs and their medical significance. Awareness of the life cycle and ecology of the pest may reduce the contact of the population with the urticarial hairs and prevent the morbidity caused by it.

  6. Plantation-Seeding Forest Plantations – the New Method for Regeneration of Coniferous Forests at Large Clearings on Burned Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tarakanov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The new method of restoration of coniferous stands on large felling areas on burnt lands that lack seed trees is discussed. It involves limited planting of big grafted seedlings of quality wood, that have a high level of seed production, with the purpose of the subsequent natural sowing on these territories. Results of two-year-old research on approbation of the method on cuttings on large felling areas on burnt lands in conditions of the mid-Ob' river pine forests are stated. A good viability of «seed cultures» is noted. There is damage of the grafting pines by elk. Therefore there is a problem of protecting plantations against elk. For preservation of a high level of genetic variability of pine stands it is desirable to use in «seed cultures» the best trees from local plantings.

  7. Estimation of nonpoint-source loads of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and total suspended solids in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins, Michigan, by use of the PLOAD model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Jodoin, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    The Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project partners planned a 3-year assessment study of the surface water in the Lake St. Clair drainage basins in Michigan. This study included water-quality monitoring and analysis, collection of discrete (grab) and automatic water-quality samples, monitoring of bacteria, and the creation of a database to store all relevant data collected from past and future field-data-collection programs. In cooperation with the Lake St. Clair Monitoring Project, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed nonpoint-source loads of nutrients and total suspended solids in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins. The principal tool for the assessment study was the USEPA’s PLOAD model, a simplified GIS-based numerical program that generates gross estimates of pollutant loads. In this study, annual loads were computed for each watershed using the USEPA’s Simple Method, which is based on scientific studies showing a correlation between different land-use types and loading rates. The two land-use data sets used in the study (representing 1992 and 2001) show a maximum of 0.02-percent change in any of the 15 land use categories between the two timeframes. This small change in land use is reflected in the PLOAD results of the study area between the two time periods. PLOAD model results for the 2001 land-use data include total-nitrogen loads from the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins of approximately 495,599 lb/yr, 156,561 lb/yr, and 121,212 lb/yr, respectively; total-phosphorus loads of 80,777 lb/yr, 25,493 lb/yr, and 19,655 lb/yr, respectively; and total-suspended-solids loads of 5,613,282 lb/yr, 1,831,045 lb/yr, and 1,480,352 lb/yr, respectively. The subbasins in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basin with comparatively high loads are characterized by comparatively high percentages of industrial, commercial, transportation, or residential land use. The results from the PLOAD model provide useful information about the approximate average annual loading

  8. Stand structure and yield of the mixed white poplar and black locust plantations on sandy ridges between the Danube and Tisza rivers in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the stand structure and yield of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) forests mixed with white (Populus alba L.) in various proportions, partly applying a new methodological approach. The main stand structure and yield factors were determined separately for each species, measured stem by stem, using the volume functions prepared for each species. The ratio of the volumes of the species (A and B) in mixed and in pure stands (based on volume tables) was determined. A close relationship has been found between the ratio by relative total volume and the proportion (by the number of stems) of the species. The relative surplus in the volume of the mixed stands varied between 1.24-1.55 at the age of 16 compared to the control, i.e. the yield of pure stands of the species concerned. The trial has also proven that if two species have a fast initial growth rate and a similar rotation age, they can be planted in mixed stands resulting in mutual advantages.

  9. Spatial variation in the storages and age-related dynamics of forest carbon sequestration in different climate zones-evidence from black locust plantations on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taijun Li

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L. in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China's Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p < 0.001. The C carrying capacity of the plantations was measured at 166.4 Mg C ha-1 (1 Mg = 106 g in the semi-humid zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha-1. Soil organic C (SOC increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010. However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y. The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011, yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha-1 to 28.4 Mg C ha-1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y. The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y, the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration.

  10. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds.

  11. 不同土壤层次和土壤水分对章古台樟子松固沙林土壤N矿化过程的影响%Effects of soil moisture and soil depth on nitrogen mineralization process under Mongolian pine plantations in Zhanggutai sandy land, P. R. China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伏生; 曾德慧; SINGH Anand Narain; 陈广生

    2005-01-01

    选择章古台地区三块典型樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica)人工固沙林为研究对象,采用实验室好氧培养法测定了不同土壤层次和在不同水分条件下的N矿化过程.结果表明:土壤0-60 cm 层N净矿化速率垂直变化范围为1.06-7.52 mg·kg-1·month-1;土壤层次和含水量及其交互作用对土壤N净矿化速率的影响均达到差异显著(P<0.05);净矿化速率随着土壤层次的加深而明显下降,0-15 cm层占总净矿化量的60.52%;半饱和与饱和含水量处理差异不显著,但均高于不加水处理.为此,在半干旱地区必须进一步加强开展调控生态系统N矿化、循环及其收支平衡影响因素的研究.%The rates of soil N mineralization at soil depths of 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm and moisture regimes were measured at three sand-fixation plantations of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica by laboratory aerobic incubation method. The results showed that average rates of soil net N-mineralization across soil depth varied from 1.06 to 7.52 mg·kg-1·month -1at soil depths from 0 to 60 cm. Statistical analyses indicated that the effects of different soil depths, moistures and their interactions on net N-mineralization rates were significant (P < 0.05). The net N-mineralization rates significantly decreased with increasing soil depths and at depth 0-15 cm accounted for 60.52% of that at depth of 0-60 cm. There was no difference in soil net N-mineralization rates between half and fully-saturated water treatments, however these rates were substantially higher than that without water treatment (P < 0.05). The factors influencing N mineralization process have to be studied further in these semiarid pine ecosystems.

  12. The push for plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben; Casse, Thorkil; Nielsen, Thomas Theis

    2013-01-01

    We observe signs of social differentiation, where poor households end up serving as causal labour for the richer families on their acacia plantations. In addition, the poor can be rendered more vulnerable after becoming labourers, because they may not longer have an alternative source of income, ...

  13. Woody species diversity in forest plantations in a mountainous region of Beijing, China: effects of sampling scale and species selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Zhang

    Full Text Available The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr., planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr., and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer, while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation.

  14. Soil erosion: perennial crop plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Plantation agriculture is an important form of land-use in the tropics. Large areas of natural and regenerated forest have been cleared for growing oil palm, rubber, cocoa, coffee, and other perennial tree crops. These crops grown both on large scale plantations and by smallholders are important sou

  15. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar.

  16. Changes in weed infestations on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris cultivated on black soil near Wrocław in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012 on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris. During this period, 542 phytosociological relevés were made using the Braun-Blanquet method. In total, 46 weed species were found. In 1989–1995, the occurrence of 36 segetal species was reported. The highest cover indices were determined for Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Galium aparine, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Elymus repens were the dominant species, as well. Analysis of the frequency of occurrence revealed one constant species (Chenopodium album, two frequent species (Amaranthus retroflexus and Galium aparine, and two medium-frequent species (Echinochloa crus-galli and Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora. In 2006–2012, the occurrence of 40 weed species on the sugar beet plantations was recorded. The plantations were clearly dominated by Chenopodium album, accompanied by Polygonum persicaria and Polygonum lapathifolium ssp. lapathifolium. Other dominant species comprised Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, and Fallopia convolvulus. The Chenopodium album was a constant component of the sugar beet plantations. In turn, no frequent species were observed and six medium-frequent species were found (Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Noteworthy, the presence of previously unreported species, e.g., Abutilon theophrasti, Hyoscyamus niger, or Artemisia vulgaris, was revealed. These species are rare components in sugar beet crops. A reverse phenomenon, i.e., the disappearance of some species such as Euphorbia helioscopia, Malva neglecta, Rumex acetosella, Sinapis arvensis, or Sisymbrium officinale, was also observed.

  17. Dynamics of soil nutrients in larch plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Deren; Chen Jinglian

    1999-01-01

    The annual dynamic changes of soil nutrients were measured in pure larch plantation and in mixed larch plantation in the arboretum of Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science, Huhehaote. The results showed that soil nutrients in pure larch plantations changed rapidly in July and August. The variation of soil nutrients is more stable in mixed larch plantation. Compared with the pure larch plantation, the content of soil nutrients in mixed larch plantation obviously increased. The soil degradation occurred in the pure larch plantation, and related to the forest age.

  18. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  19. Efficiency of Using Permanent Seed Sources for Conservation of Genetic Pool of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Ivanovskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of electrophoretic isoenzyme, analysis of permanent seed sources of Scots pine from Belarus is conducted. Research revealed that almost all of the analyzed plus stands, genetic reserves, seed orchards of the I order provenance and 71.5 % of seed orchards of the II order support maintenance of the level of average heterozygosity characteristic of Scots pine in Belarus. It is shown that in the plantation and population, seed from permanent seed sources can ensure the conservation of the species gene pool at higher productivity than created forest plantations.

  20. Overview of Rattan Plantation Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Rattans are climbing spiny plants that are regarded as an important kind of commercial non-timber forest products. Rattan resources are dwindling rapidly due to over-exploitation in the wild and the loss of tropical forest cover. These threaten the sustainable utilization of rattan resources and long-term survival of the rattan industry. The development of rattan plantation and the improvement of management technique are hence important. The major issues on plantation management are reviewed in this pap...

  1. The Relationships Between Diameter Stump Height (d0.30) and Diameter Breast Height (d1.30) for Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris (L.)) in West Black Sea RegionThe Relationships Between Diameter Stump Height (d0.30) and Diameter Breast Height (d1.30) for Scotc

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENYURT, Muammer

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is proposed to determine the relationship between the diameter at stump height (d0.3) and diameter breast height (d1.30) for Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris (L.)) in West Black Sea Region including Kastamonu, Bolu and Ankara forest regional offices. For this purpose, 101 temporary sample plots were obtained and 1111 tree measurements for stump height (d0.3) and diameter breast height (d1.3) were carried out. The different regression models were selected and compared to some ...

  2. Development of the tree and shrub component and recovery techniques in a burnt pine forest, Castel Fusano, Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A five-year study (2000-2005 was established in a part of Castel Fusano (Rome pinewood burned in 2000. The aims of the research were: i to analyse the behaviour of the coenoses after fire; ii to verify the post-fire growth and canopy recovery of the Mediterranean maquis; iii to evaluate natural regeneration of italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.; iv to verify the effectiveness of italian stone pine plantation in enhancing the establishment of the forest cover. Permanent research plots were established to evaluate features and dynamics of the Mediterranean maquis as well as mortality and development of 1-year-old italian stone pine (ca.500 ha-1 seedlings. Two different plantation systems were applied: blocks of three seedlings at 8x8 m distance; one seedling at 5x5 m distance. After five growing seasons from the fire, only 700 stools ha-1 have resprouted, mainly holm oak (48%, whose only 38% of good vigour. Canopy cover of the broad-leaved species is not enough to assure a quick forest establishment. Combined pine plantation with the maquis species, has given satisfactory results, though the mortality was quite high because of the game damages. The block planting performed better for growth and survival of seedlings. This last plantation system could be a rational choice to assure, in a relative short time, forest recovery and mixed stands characterised by a considerable presence of natural vegetation.

  3. Silvicultural interpretation of natural vegetation dynamics in ageing Scots pine stands for their conversion into mixed broadleaved stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, V.; Geudens, G.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Lust, N.

    2006-01-01

    In many West-European regions there is principal consensus on the conversion of homogeneous even-aged Scots pine plantations into mixed broadleaved stands. In recent years, interest is growing for conversion management in which managers try to maximise the use of natural processes by steering or acc

  4. Effects of a Control Release Nitrogen Fertilizer and Thinning on the Nitrogen Dynamics of a Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine Stand in the Piedmont of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot, James Robertson

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen deficiency is characteristic of many mid-rotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the Piedmont region of the southeastern USA. Fertilization with urea is the most common method used to correct this deficiency. Previous studies show that urea fertilization produces a rapid pulse of available nitrogen (N) with only a portion being utilized by plantation trees. Controlled release fertilizers release available N more slowly over a longer period of time and therefore may ...

  5. Comparative studies on functional diversity of soil microbial community of larch plantations with different ages in black soil region, northeastern China%黑土区不同林龄落叶松人工林土壤微生物群落功能多样性的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞英; 杨小燕; 王恩姮; 邹莉; 陈祥伟

    2013-01-01

    Metabolism diversity of soil microbial carbon sources of surface soil (0-20 cm) from 21-, 30-, 40-, and 52-year-old larch (Larix gmelini) plantations in typical black soil region of northeastern China was studied by using the method of Biolog-ECO microplate culture. Results showed that the average well color development (AWCD) increased gradually with forest age increasing, varying from 0.41 to 1.40 and 0.20 to 0. 69 (cultured for 168 hrs) for 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil depth, respectively. The peak value of microbial functional diversity was found in 52-year-old plantations, followed by 40-, 30-, 21-year-old in consequence. The microbial functional diversity indices in shallower soil depth all showed higher values; for soil in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, richness index was 12-25 and 6-14, Shannon-Weiner diversity index was 2. 55-3. 12 and 1. 83-2. 62, Simpson diversity index was 0. 89-0. 95 and 0. 76-0. 91 , Mclntosh index was 4. 22-9. 49 and 2. 52-6. 18 , respectively. The utilization efficiency of six carbon sources by the soil microbial community also increased when plantations grew from 21 to 52-year-old. Sensitive carbon sources to cause microbial metabolic differences were carbohydrates, polymers and amines for soil of 0-10 cm, and carboxylic acids in addition to carbohydrates and amines for 10-20 cm also. The significant relationships were observed between the metabolic diversity of microbial communities and soil physical and chemical properties. We conclude that functional diversity of soil microbial community in larch plantations increases gradually with the increase of forest age, and soil microbial functional diversity can be improved by implementing plantation vegetations recovery. The results presented in this paper could further suggest a reference for revealing transmutation of soil quality under plantations of black soil region, northeastern China.%采用Biolog-ECO微平板检测法,以21、30、40和52年生落叶松人工林土壤为对

  6. Breeding bird community response to establishing intercropped switchgrass in intensively-managed pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Zachary G.; Riffell, Samuel K.; Wheat, Bradley R.; Miller, Darrin A.; Martin, James A.; Vilella, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) between tree rows within young pine (Pinus spp.) plantations is a potential method to generate lignocellulosic biofuel feedstocks within intensively managed forests. Intensively managed pine supports a diverse avian assemblage potentially affected by establishment and maintenance of an annual biomass feedstock via changes in plant communities, dead wood resources, and habitat structure. We sought to understand how establishing switchgrass on an operational scale affects bird communities within intercropped plantations as compared to typical intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest. We conducted breeding bird point counts using distance sampling for three years (2011–2013) following establishment of intercropped switchgrass stands (6 replicates), traditionally-managed pine plantations, and switchgrass-only plots (0.1 km2 minimum) in Kemper Co., MS. We detected 59 breeding bird species from 11,195 detections. Neotropical migrants and forest-edge associated species were less abundant in intercropped plots than controls the first two years after establishment and more abundant in year three. Short distance migrants and residents were scarce in intercropped and control plots initially, and did not differ between these two treatments in any year. Species associated with pine-grass habitat structure were less abundant initially in intercropped plots, but converged with pine controls in subsequent years. Switchgrass monocultures provided minimal resources for birds. If songbird conservation is a management priority, managers should consider potential reductions of some breeding birds for one to two years following intercropping. It is unclear how these relationships may change outside the breeding season and as stands age.

  7. Carbon and nitrogen status of decomposing roots in three adjacent coniferous plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyeob Jeong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the carbon (C and nitrogen (N status of decomposing roots in three adjacent plantations consisting of one deciduous (larch: Larix leptolepis and two evergreen (red pine: Pinus densiflora; rigitaeda pine: P. rigitaeda species planted in the same year (1963 under similar site conditions. The mass loss rates and C and N status of three diameter classes of roots (UF < 2 mm, F 2-5 mm, CF 5-10 mm in diameter were examined in the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil using in situ buried root bags for 496 days.The remaining mass of decomposing roots was significantly higher for larch (69.0% than for red pine (59.6% or rigitaeda pine (59.1% over 496 days. The mass loss rates of decomposing roots did not differ significantly among the three root diameter classes, but the C and N status of decomposing roots was affected by the tree species. The larch roots showed low C concentrations but high N concentrations, C and N remaining compared to the pine roots over the study period. The results indicate that the substrate quality indicators of roots were not attributed to the mass loss rates, C and N status of decomposing roots in three coniferous tree species grown under similar environmental conditions.

  8. Suitability of pines and other conifers as hosts for the invasive Mediterranean pine engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2008-06-01

    The invasive Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was detected in North America in 2004, and it is currently distributed in the southern Central Valley of California. It originates from the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and Asia, and it reproduces on pines (Pinus spp.). To identify potentially vulnerable native and adventive hosts in North America, no-choice host range tests were conducted in the laboratory on 22 conifer species. The beetle reproduced on four pines from its native Eurasian range--Aleppo, Canary Island, Italian stone, and Scots pines; 11 native North American pines--eastern white, grey, jack, Jeffrey, loblolly, Monterey, ponderosa, red, Sierra lodgepole, singleleaf pinyon, and sugar pines; and four native nonpines--Douglas-fir, black and white spruce, and tamarack. Among nonpines, fewer progeny developed and they were of smaller size on Douglas-fir and tamarack, but sex ratios of progeny were nearly 1:1 on all hosts. Last, beetles did not develop on white fir, incense cedar, and coast redwood. With loblolly pine, the first new adults emerged 42 d after parental females were introduced into host logs at temperatures of 20-33 degrees C and 523.5 or 334.7 accumulated degree-days based on lower development thresholds of 13.6 or 18 degrees C, respectively.

  9. [Biogeochemical cycles in natural forest and conifer plantations in the high mountains of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Juan Diego; González, María Isabel; Gallardo, Juan Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Plant litter production and decomposition are two important processes in forest ecosystems, since they provide the main organic matter input to soil and regulate nutrient cycling. With the aim to study these processes, litterfall, standing litter and nutrient return were studied for three years in an oak forest (Quercus humboldtii), pine (Pinus patula) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) plantations, located in highlands of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Evaluation methods included: fine litter collection at fortnightly intervals using litter traps; the litter layer samples at the end of each sampling year and chemical analyses of both litterfall and standing litter. Fine litter fall observed was similar in oak forest (7.5 Mg ha/y) and in pine (7.8 Mg ha/y), but very low in cypress (3.5 Mg ha/y). Litter standing was 1.76, 1.73 and 1.3 Mg ha/y in oak, pine and cypress, respectively. The mean residence time of the standing litter was of 3.3 years for cypress, 2.1 years for pine and 1.8 years for oak forests. In contrast, the total amount of retained elements (N, P, S, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in the standing litter was higher in pine (115 kg/ha), followed by oak (78 kg/ha) and cypress (24 kg/ha). Oak forests showed the lowest mean residence time of nutrients and the highest nutrients return to the soil as a consequence of a faster decomposition. Thus, a higher nutrient supply to soils from oaks than from tree plantations, seems to be an ecological advantage for recovering and maintaining the main ecosystem functioning features, which needs to be taken into account in restoration programs in this highly degraded Andean mountains.

  10. Response of young ponderosa pines, shrubs, and grasses to two release treatments. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, P.M.; Everest, G.A.

    1996-07-01

    To release a young pine plantation on a medium site in central California, herbicides and mulches were applied soon after planting to study their effectiveness. Bearclover is an aggressive shrub species that resprouts from rhizomes after disturbance, and must be controlled if young conifer seedlings are to become established. After 4 years, resprouting bearclover plants numbered 282,000 per acre in the control, but less than 4,000 per acre in the plots treated by herbicides. Mean foliar cover was 63 percent versus 1 percent for control and herbicide plots, respectively. Ponderosa pine seedlings were significantly taller, had larger mean diameters, and survived better in the herbicide treatment than counterparts in mulched plots and control. The 5-foot square mulches were ineffective for controlling bearclover. Cheatgrass invaded the plantation in the second year, and after 2 more years became abundant in herbicide plots and plentiful in the control.

  11. Postplanting Nutritional Augmentation of Jeffrey Pine Seedlings on an Infertile Sierran Site

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Broadcast fertilization with an array of amendments was investigated for its capacity to stimulate growth and enhance nutrition of a three-year-old Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.) plantation growing on an acidic Sierra Nevada surface mine. Four formulations that differed in N source, duration of release, and the suite of nutrients provided were evaluated, with each applied using four rates. Free Flow 29-3-4, a conventional amendment featuring urea as its near exclusive N source,...

  12. Providing habitat for native mammals through understory enhancement in forestry plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Javier A; Grez, Audrey A; Estades, Cristián F

    2013-10-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) expects forestry plantations to contribute to biodiversity conservation. A well-developed understory in forestry plantations might serve as a surrogate habitat for native species and mitigate the negative effect of plantations on species richness. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by removing the understory in Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) plantations in central Chile and assessing changes in species richness and abundance of medium-sized mammals. Frequency of occurrence of mammals, including kodkods (Leopardus guigna), culpeo foxes (Pseudalopex culpaeus), lesser grisons (Conepatus chinga), and Southern pudu deer (Pudu puda), was low in forest stands with little to no understory relative to stands with well-developed undergrowth vegetation. After removing the understory, their frequency of occurrence decreased significantly, whereas in control stands, where understory was not removed, their frequency did not change. This result strongly supports the idea that facilitating the development of undergrowth vegetation may turn forestry stands into secondary habitats as opposed to their containing no habitat for native mammals. This forestry practice could contribute to conservation of biological diversity as it pertains to CBD targets.

  13. Pine nut allergy in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falliers, C J

    1989-03-01

    Anaphylaxis and other acute allergic reactions following the ingestion of pine--or pinon--nuts are documented and reviewed in perspective. Systemic allergic reactions to other relatively uncommon or "exotic" foods are also considered. Although hypersensitivity to more than one type of "nuts" is reported by some individuals, no significant cross-reactivity between any of these, or between pine pollen, pine resin, and pine nuts has been demonstrated.

  14. Auriacusite, Fe[superscript 3+]Cu[superscript 2+]AsO[subscript 4]O, the first M[superscript 3+] member of the olivenite group, from the Black Pine mine, Montana, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Stuart J.; Kampf, Anthony R.; Poirier, Glenn; Raudsepp, Mati; Steele, Ian M. (CMN); (NHM-LA); (UC); (UBC)

    2011-08-16

    Auriacusite, ideally Fe{sup 3+}Cu{sup 2+}AsO{sub 4}O, is a new arsenate mineral (IMA2009-037) and the Fe{sup 3+} analogue of olivenite, from the Black Pine mine, 14.5 km NW of Philipsburg, Granite Co., Montana, USA. It occurs lining quartz vughs and coating quartz crystals and is associated with segnitite, brochantite, malachite, tetrahedrite and pyrite. Auriacusite forms fibrous crystals up to about 5 {micro}m in width and up to about 100 {micro}m in length, which are intergrown to form fibrous mats. Individual crystals are a brownish golden yellow, whilst the fibrous mats are ochreous yellow. The crystals have a silky lustre and a brownish yellow streak. Mohs hardness is about 3 (estimated). The fracture is irregular and the tenacity is brittle. Auriacusite crystals are biaxial (+), with {alpha} = 1.830(5), {beta} = 1.865(5) and {gamma} = 1.910(5), measured using white light, and with 2V{sub meas.} = 83(3){sup o} and 2V{sub calc.} = 84.6{sup o}. Orientation: X = a, Y = c, Z = b. Crystals are nonpleochroic or too weakly so to be observed. The empirical formula (based on 5 O atoms) is (Fe{sub 1.33}{sup 3+}Cu{sub 0.85}Zn{sub 0.03}){sub {Sigma}2.21}(As{sub 0.51}Sb{sub 0.27}Si{sub 0.04}S{sub 0.02}Te{sub 0.01}){sub {Sigma}0.85}O{sub 5}. Auriacusite is orthorhombic, space group Pnnm, a = 8.6235(7), b = 8.2757(7), c = 5.9501(5) {angstrom}, V = 424.63(6) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 4. The five strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [d{sub obs} in {angstrom}/(I)/hkl]: 4.884/(100)/101, 001; 2.991/(92)/220; 2.476/(85)/311; 2.416/(83)/022; 2.669/(74)/221. The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data utilising synchrotron radiation and refined to R{sub 1} = 0.1010 on the basis of 951 unique reflections with F {alpha} > 4{sigma}F. Auriacusite is identified as a member of the olivenite group with Fe{sup 3+} replacing Zn{sup 2+} or Cu{sup 2+} in trigonal bipyramidal coordination. Evidence suggests that auriacusite is an intermediate

  15. Restoring a disappearing ecosystem: the Longleaf Pine Savanna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Timothy B. [USFS; Miller, Karl V. [University of Georgia; Park, Noreen

    2013-05-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) savannas of the southeastern United States contain some of the worlds most diverse plant communities, along with a unique complement of wildlife. Their traditionally open canopy structure and rich understory of grasses and herbs were critical to their vigor. However, a long history of land-use practices such as logging, farming, and fire exclusion have reduced this once-widespread ecosystem to only 3 percent of its original range. At six longleaf pine plantations in South Carolina, Tim Harrington with the Pacific Northwest Research Station and collaborators with the Southern Research Station used various treatments (including prescribed burns, tree thinning, and herbicide applications) to alter the forest structure and tracked how successful each one was in advancing savanna restoration over a 14-year period. They found that typical planting densities for wood production in plantations create dense understory shade that excludes many native herbaceous species important to savannas and associated wildlife. The scientists found that although tree thinning alone did not result in sustained gains, a combination of controlled burning, thinning, and herbicide treatments to reduce woody plants was an effective strategy for recovering the savanna ecosystem. The scientists also found that these efforts must be repeated periodically for enduring benefits.

  16. Effects of Precommercial Thinning and Midstory Control on Avian and Small Mammal Communities during Longleaf Pine Savanna Restoration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Vanessa R [Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College; Kilgo, John C [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station

    2015-01-01

    Abstract - Restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savanna is a goal of many southern land managers, and longleaf plantations may provide a mechanism for savanna restoration. However, the effects of silvicultural treatments used in the management of longleaf pine plantations on wildlife communities are relatively unknown. Beginning in 1994, we examined effects of longleaf pine restoration with plantation silviculture on avian and small mammal communities using four treatments in four 8- to 11- year-old plantations within the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Treatments included prescribed burning every 3 to 5 years, plus: (1) no additional treatment (burn-only control); (2) precommercial thinning; (3) non-pine woody control with herbicides; and (4) combined thinning and woody control. We surveyed birds (1996-2003) using 50-m point counts and small mammals with removal trapping. Thinning and woody control alone had short-lived effects on avian communities, and the combination treatment increased avian parameters over the burn-only control in all years. Small mammal abundance showed similar trends as avian abundance for all three treatments when compared with the burn-only control, but only for 2 years post-treatment. Both avian and small mammal communities were temporarily enhanced by controlling woody vegetation with chemicals in addition to prescribed fire and thinning. Therefore, precommercial thinning in longleaf plantations, particularly when combined with woody control and prescribed fire, may benefit early-successional avian and small mammal communities by developing stand conditions more typical of natural longleaf stands maintained by periodic fire.

  17. Barrenia, a new genus associated with roots of switchgrass and pine in the oligotrophic pine barrens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Emily; Luo, Jing; Naik, Abhishek; Preteroti, Thomas; Zhang, Ning

    2015-12-01

    A new genus Barrenia is described based on multi-gene phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic and ecological characters. Isolated from roots of switchgrass and pitch pine in the acidic and oligotrophic New Jersey Pine Barrens in this study, Barrenia likely has a wide distribution because its internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence has high similarity with a number of GenBank sequences from various ecological studies. The majority of these matching samples were from roots of plants in acidic, nutrient-poor environments, as well as from managed sugarcane plantations. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS, LSU, and RPB1 sequence data strongly support that Barrenia is a monophyletic clade in Helotiales, distinct from any known taxa. Barrenia is phylogenetically close to Acidomelania, Loramyces, Mollisia, and Phialocephala fortinii - Acephala applanata species complex (PAC), the dark septate endophytes. Barrenia can be distinguished from Loramyces and Mollisia by its association with living plant roots. Taxa in PAC also are root endophytes but they have complex phialid arrangements that appear to be lacking in Barrenia. Plant-fungal interaction experiments showed that Barrenia panicia and Acidomelania panicicola significantly promoted root hair growth in switchgrass. Results from this work will facilitate ecological and evolutionary studies on root-associated fungi.

  18. Plantation livelihoods in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2014-01-01

    , few studies have examined these issues at the local level or analysed the interplay between plantation forest expansion, household vulnerability, and community resilience to climatic disturbances. The article documents the extent to which the introduction of acacia tree species has reinforced existing...... inequalities in landholding, which in turn increases household vulnerability to natural disturbances. This has resulted in the emergence of a social-ecological context characterized by decreasing resilience. The most vulnerable households are those of the landless and ethnic minorities, both of which depend...

  19. Plantation agriculture in the tropics - environmental issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    Plantation agriculture is more than 400 years old and contributes to the regional and national economies in many tropical countries. This paper reviews some of the main environmental issues related to plantation agriculture with perennial crops, including soil erosion, soil fertility decline, pollut

  20. The role of tree age in triggering convective clouds: implications for plantation forestry expansion in the Southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, G.; Domec, J. C.; Novick, K. A.; Oishi, A. C.; Marani, M.; Katul, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Southeastern United States includes some of the most intensively managed forests worldwide and conversion from natural forests to pine plantations is projected to increase. Currently, natural and unmanaged forests are being replaced with young, fast growing loblolly pine plantations to cope with an increasing demand for timber. These large scale land cover/management changes can impact key features of the hydrological cycle such as the generation of convective rainfall (i.e. thermodynamic precipitation). The role of stand age in regulating land-atmosphere feedback mechanisms is here investigated by the combined use of field observations and modeling. We use simple analytical solutions to describe the diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and the lifting condensation level so as to derive relations for cloudy/cloudless conditions (a proxy for the predisposition of the system to trigger convective rainfall) as a function of soil water content (SWC) and free atmosphere (FA) conditions. Results from four study sites suggest that young pine plantations maximize soil water depletion while minimizing rainfall suppression, thereby reducing the risk of water stress. In contrast, mature pine stands are more tolerant to drought, and cloud formation becomes nearly independent of the soil conditions. Our findings suggest that the impact of land cover, and therefore management practices, on ABL processes is encoded in the non-linear response of the Bowen ratio to changes in the SWC. Given the observed FA conditions in the Southeastern US, age-related changes in the surface energy fluxes can modify cloud cover and rainfall recycling mechanisms.

  1. Liming and fertilisation in Pinus taeda plantations with severe nutrient deficiency in savanna soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils with high acidity and low exchangeable bases may be responsible for low yields of Pinus taeda in a forest plantation at Jaguariaíva, Paraná State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liming and fertilisation, applied over litter, on two selected areas with Pinus taeda plantations. Soil, litter and pine needles were evaluated for K, Ca and Mg concentrations and soil acidity parameters. Seven treatments were applied: (i complete (N, P, K, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and lime; (ii without N, P, and K; (iii without Zn, Cu, B, and Mo; (iv without K; (v without Zn; (vi without lime; and (vii control (without nutrients and lime. Soil samples were collected at five soil depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm simultaneously with litter samples. Needles were also collected from the first and second pine flushes. Liming induced soil pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increases, and the opposite was observed for Al3+ and Al saturation. Fertilisation increased soil exchangeable K+ concentrations and needle and litter K concentrations. The low Ca and Mg concentrations found in the plant needles might be attributable to their low mobility.

  2. Leaf area index estimation in a pine plantation with LAI-2000 under direct sunlight conditions: relationship with inventory and hydrologic variables; Estimacion del indice de area foliar en pinares de repolacion con LAI-2000 bajo radiacion solar directa: relacion con variables de inventario e hidrologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, A.; Campo, A. D. del

    2011-07-01

    LAI is a key factor in light and rainfall interception processes in forest stands and, for this reason, is called to play an important role in global change adaptive silviculture. Therefore, it is necessary to develop practical and operative methodologies to measure this parameter as well as simple relationships with other silviculture variables. This work has studied 1) the feasibility of LAI-2000 sensor in estimating LAI-stand when readings are taken under direct sunlight conditions; and 2) the ability of LAI in studying rainfall partitioned into throughfall (T) in an Aleppo pine stand after different thinning intensities, as well as its relationships to basal area, (G), cover (FCC), and tree density (D). Results showed that the angular correction scheme applied to LAI-2000 direct-sunlight readings stabilized them for different solar angles, allowing a better operational use of LAI-2000 in Mediterranean areas, where uniform overcast conditions are difficult to meet and predict. Forest cover showed the highest predictive ability of LAI (R{sup 2} = 0.98; S = 0.28), then G (R{sup 2} = 0.96; S = 0.43) and D (R{sup 2} = 0.50; S = 0.28). In the hydrological plane, T increased with thinning intensity, being G the most explanatory variable (R{sup 2} = 0.81; S = 3.07) and LAI the one that showed the poorest relation with it (R{sup 2} = 0.69; S = 3.95). These results open a way for forest hydrologic modeling taking LAI as an input variable either estimated form LAI-2000 or deducted from inventory data. (Author) 36 refs.

  3. Ecosystem-based greenhouse budgets in oil palm plantations differ with plantation age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Hassler, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; June, Tania; Veldkamp, Edzo; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Global increase in demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia. Oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia, together with those in Kalimantan, are responsible for half of the world's palm oil production. Available studies point to plantations being large carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks due to the high photosynthetic rates of oil palm as a result of high fertilizer inputs, especially in large-scale plantations. However, methane (CH4) uptake in the soil of oil palm plantations is reduced and soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions increased right after nitrogen (N) fertilization. Greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets at the ecosystem level are still missing, and the few available information was derived from mature plantations, pointing to a lack of knowledge on the changes of these GHG budgets with plantation age. With the aim of quantifying CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2-year old (non-productive) oil palm plantation and was subsequently moved to a 12-year old (productive) plantation. Both sites were on Acrisol soils and were located in Jambi province, Sumatra. Chamber-based measurements of soil GHG fluxes were also carried out along the EC footprint. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE), based on EC measurement, showed that the non-productive plantation was a strong CO2 source (990 g C m-2 yr-1) whereas the productive plantation was a CO2 sink (-790 g C m-2 yr-1). For CH4 fluxes, both plantations showed similar soil CH4 uptake that led to a small carbon sink of (~1.3 g C m-2 yr-1). Soil N2O fluxes were high in the productive plantation (3.26 ± 1.73 kg N ha-1 yr-1), as measurements were carried out in a plantation with high fertilization rates. In the non-productive plantation, soil N2O fluxes were lower and were associated with fertilization events. Our results show that the global warming potential of a non-productive oil

  4. Mixing effects of understory plant litter on decomposition and nutrient release of tree litter in two plantations in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    Full Text Available Understory vegetation plays a crucial role in carbon and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems; however, it is not clear how understory species affect tree litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics. In this study, we examined the impacts of understory litter on the decomposition and nutrient release of tree litter both in a pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and a poplar (Populus × xiaozhuanica plantation in Northeast China. Leaf litter of tree species, and senesced aboveground materials from two dominant understory species, Artemisia scoparia and Setaria viridis in the pine stand and Elymus villifer and A. sieversiana in the poplar stand, were collected. Mass loss and N and P fluxes of single-species litter and three-species mixtures in each of the two forests were quantified. Data from single-species litterbags were used to generate predicted mass loss and N and P fluxes for the mixed-species litterbags. In the mixture from the pine stand, the observed mass loss and N release did not differ from the predicted value, whereas the observed P release was greater than the predicted value. However, the presence of understory litter decelerated the mass loss and did not affect N and P releases from the pine litter. In the poplar stand, litter mixture presented a positive non-additive effect on litter mass loss and P release, but an addition effect on N release. The presence of understory species accelerated only N release of poplar litter. Moreover, the responses of mass loss and N and P releases of understory litter in the mixtures varied with species in both pine and poplar plantations. Our results suggest that the effects of understory species on tree litter decomposition vary with tree species, and also highlight the importance of understory species in litter decomposition and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems.

  5. 黑碳添加对杉木人工林土壤微生物量碳氮的影响%Effects of Black Carbon Application on Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon and Nitrogen in the Plantation of Cunninghamia Lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳芳; 高人; 尹云锋; 杨玉盛; 马红亮; 李淑香

    2011-01-01

    As a common soil component, black carbon (BC) plays an important role in forest carbon and nitrogen cycles. However, few studies on effects of BC application on soil microbial biomass car- bon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) in forest soils have been conducted. BC produced from the pyrolysis of branch and leaf litters of Cunninghamia lanceolata at 350 ℃ in capped muffle furnace for 2 h was incorporated into test soil at rates of 0% (CO), 1% (C1) and 5% (C5) based on dried soil mass, and incubated for 28 days at 25 ℃. The results showed that the MBC decreased quickly under different treatments at the early stage of incubation, but increased steadily in later phase. The MBN increased gradually with incubation duration under the higher BC-amended treatments, but the pattern was signif- icantly different for the unamended soil, and tended to decrease throughout the experiment. Higher ap- plication levels provided further enhancement of MBC and MBN with the order as C5 〉 C1 〉 C0. In ad- dition, DOC and DON decreased with BC application and incubation duration.%向杉木人工林土壤中分别添加不同用量黑碳,以0%(C0)、1%(C1)和5%(C5)添加量(质量分数)作为不同处理,通过28d室内培养实验,研究了黑碳添加对土壤微生物量碳(ymc)和微生物量氮(MBN)的影响.结果表明,各处理土攘MBC含量变化趋势是前期急剧减少,后期增加,并趋于稳定;黑碳添加在一定程度上缓解了土壤MBN含量的减少,并随着黑碳添加量的增加,土壤MBN含量呈现增加的趋势.整个培养过程中,除第1d外,黑碳添加处理的土壤MBC和MBN含量始终高于对照处理,C5〉C1〉CO.同时,土壤可溶性碳(DOC)和可溶性氮(DON)含量也因黑碳的添加而呈现减少的趋势.

  6. Obstacles for Plantation to Get FSC Certification in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The development of plantation plays a very important role in forestry industry development in China because of its unique advantages. However, the ecological and environmental issues urgently require sustainable plantation development. FSC certification for sustainable forest management balances the economic, environmental and social benefits and contributes to sustainable development of plantation. FSC certification for plantation is significantly important to China with the most plantation area in the wor...

  7. Influence of plant community structure on vulnerability to drought of semiarid pine woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Cherubini, Paolo; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Querejeta, José Ignacio

    2010-05-01

    The growth, water status and water use efficiency of trees are sensitive to drought. The severity of drought experienced by trees can be magnified or diminished depending on plant community structure and density. This is especially important in semiarid environments. In dense afforested plantations, high inter-tree competition for soil water could increase the water stress of trees in comparison to plants in an open woodland. On the other hand, the shading effect of the tree canopy and the increased soil infiltration capacity in semiarid afforested stands could prevail over competition and buffer the drought effect. Thus, in dense afforested plantations, greater inter-tree competition but more favourable microclimatic conditions may have opposite effects, and the prevalence of one of them could depend on annual meteorological conditions. To test these hypotheses, we made a long term assessment (50 years) of tree ring growth and isotopic composition of Pinus halepensis in two nearby communities: an afforested pine stand and an open pine woodland with under storey (shrub land), both located in semiarid SE Spain (Murcia). We sampled 10 trees per site and we measured tree ring width. The individual time series were detrended and the mean chronology was calculated for each series. On selected five trees per location, the annual δ13C and δ18O were measured on cellulose extracted from latewood. The relationships between measured variables and meteorological (temperature and precipitation) data, provided by the Spanish Agency of Meteorology, were statistically assessed with linear regression analyses. We found a strong significant correlation between the standardized mean chronologies of pines in both communities. In both sites, the mean sensitivity of the mean chronologies was high: 0.37 in the open pine woodland (ow) and 0.54 in the afforested stand (as), suggesting that the individual growth series have a clear common signal. Our results show significant positive

  8. Pine invasions in treeless environments: dispersal overruns microsite heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Escudero, Adrián; García, Rafael A; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Langdon, Bárbara; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Esquivel, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    Understanding biological invasions patterns and mechanisms is highly needed for forecasting and managing these processes and their negative impacts. At small scales, ecological processes driving plant invasions are expected to produce a spatially explicit pattern driven by propagule pressure and local ground heterogeneity. Our aim was to determine the interplay between the intensity of seed rain, using distance to a mature plantation as a proxy, and microsite heterogeneity in the spreading of Pinus contorta in the treeless Patagonian steppe. Three one-hectare plots were located under different degrees of P. contorta invasion (Coyhaique Alto, 45° 30'S and 71° 42'W). We fitted three types of inhomogeneous Poisson models to each pine plot in an attempt for describing the observed pattern as accurately as possible: the "dispersal" models, "local ground heterogeneity" models, and "combined" models, using both types of covariates. To include the temporal axis in the invasion process, we analyzed both the pattern of young and old recruits and also of all recruits together. As hypothesized, the spatial patterns of recruited pines showed coarse scale heterogeneity. Early pine invasion spatial patterns in our Patagonian steppe site is not different from expectations of inhomogeneous Poisson processes taking into consideration a linear and negative dependency of pine recruit intensity on the distance to afforestations. Models including ground-cover predictors were able to describe the point pattern process only in a couple of cases but never better than dispersal models. This finding concurs with the idea that early invasions depend more on seed pressure than on the biotic and abiotic relationships seed and seedlings establish at the microsite scale. Our results show that without a timely and active management, P. contorta will invade the Patagonian steppe independently of the local ground-cover conditions.

  9. Solid Wood Products from Eucalypts Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To improve and diversify the use of tropical plantation timbers in Southern China, with support from International Tropical Timber Organizations (ITTO), a research project was started in 2002 focusing on development of processing and manufacturing technologies to promote production of value-added wood products from eucalypts plantations. This project will also facilitate the formulation of forest management strategy in China to supplement the diminishing supply of timber from the natural forests. The sp...

  10. Estimating exotic gene flow into native pine stands: zygotic vs. gametic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, G M; Vendramin, G G; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring contemporary gene flow from widespread exotic plantations is becoming an important problem in forest conservation genetics. In plants, where both seed and pollen disperse, three components of exotic gene flow with potentially unequal consequences should be, but have not been, explicitly distinguished: zygotic, male gametic and female gametic. Building on a previous model for estimating contemporary rates of zygotic and male gametic gene flow among plant populations, we present here an approach that additionally estimates the third (female gametic) gene flow component, based on a combination of uni- and biparentally inherited markers. Using this method and a combined set of chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites, we estimate gene flow rates from exotic plantations into two Iberian relict stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Results show neither zygotic nor female gametic gene flow but moderate (6-8%) male gametic introgression for both species, implying significant dispersal of pollen, but not of seeds, from exotic plantations into native stands shortly after introduced trees reached reproductive maturity. Numerical simulation results suggest that the model yields reasonably accurate estimates for our empirical data sets, especially for larger samples. We discuss conservation management implications of observed levels of exposure to nonlocal genes and identify research needs to determine potentially associated hazards. Our approach should be useful for plant ecologists and ecosystem managers interested in the vectors of contemporary genetic connectivity among discrete plant populations.

  11. Soil CO2 Efflux and Root Productivity in a Switchgrass and Loblolly Pine Intercropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliza Shrestha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass intercropped with loblolly pine plantations can provide valuable feedstock for bioenergy production while providing ancillary benefits like controlling competing vegetation and enhancing soil C. Better understanding of the impact of intercropping on pine and switchgrass productivity is required for evaluating the long-term sustainability of this agroforestry system, along with the impacts on soil C dynamics (soil CO2 efflux; RS. RS is the result of root respiration (RA and heterotrophic respiration (RH, which are used to estimate net C ecosystem exchange. We measured RS in intercropped and monoculture stands of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.. The root exclusion core technique was used to estimate RA and RH. The results showed pure switchgrass had significantly higher RS rates (July, August and September, root biomass and length relative to intercropped switchgrass, while there were no significant changes in RS and roots between intercropped and monoculture loblolly pine stands. A significant decrease in switchgrass root productivity in the intercropped stands versus monoculture stands could account for differences in the observed RS. The proportions of RS attributed to RA in the intercropped stand were 31% and 22% in the summer and fall respectively, indicating that the majority of the RS was heterotrophic-driven. Ancillary benefits provided by planting switchgrass between unutilized pine rows can be considered unless the goal is to increase switchgrass production.

  12. Malaria-associated rubber plantations in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Kaewwaen, Wuthichai; Maneekan, Pannamas; Pimnon, Suntorn

    2013-01-01

    Rubber forestry is intentionally used as a land management strategy. The propagation of rubber plantations in tropic and subtropic regions appears to influence the economical, sociological and ecological aspects of sustainable development as well as human well-being and health. Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries are the world's largest producers of natural rubber products; interestingly, agricultural workers on rubber plantations are at risk for malaria and other vector-borne diseases. The idea of malaria-associated rubber plantations (MRPs) encompasses the complex epidemiological settings that result from interactions among human movements and activities, land cover/land use changes, agri-environmental and climatic conditions and vector population dynamics. This paper discusses apparent issues pertaining to the connections between rubber plantations and the populations at high risk for malaria. The following questions are addressed: (i) What are the current and future consequences of rubber plantations in Thailand and Southeast Asia relative to malaria epidemics or outbreaks of other vector-borne diseases? (ii) To what extent is malaria transmission in Thailand related to the forest versus rubber plantations? and (iii) What are the vulnerabilities of rubber agricultural workers to malaria, and how contagious is malaria in these areas?

  13. Evaporation from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris following natural re-colonisation of the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul H. Haria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, changing land-use practices in the uplands of Scotland have resulted in increased re-colonisation of wet heath moorland by natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris woodland. The simple semi-empirical water use model, HYLUC, was used to determine the change in water balance with increasing natural pine colonisation. The model worked well for 1996. However, values of soil moisture deficit simulated by HYLUC diverged significantly from measurements in 1997 when rainfall quantity and intensities were less. Measured interception by the forest canopy (interception by the undergrowth was not measured was very different from HYLUC simulated values. By changing interception parameters to those optimised against measured canopy interception, HYLUC simulated changing soil moisture deficits better and gave more confidence in the resulting transpiration values. The results showed that natural pine woodland interception may be similar to plantation stands although the physical structure of the natural and plantation forests are different. Though having fewer storage sites for interception in the canopy, the natural pine woodland had greater ventilation and so evaporation of intercepted rainfall was enhanced, especially during low intensity rainfall. To understand the hydrological changes that would result with changing land-use (an expansion of natural forests into the wet heath land, the modelled outputs of the wet heath and mature forest sites were compared. Evaporation, a combination of transpiration and interception, was 41% greater for the forest site than for the wet heath moorland. This may have significant consequences for the rainfall-runoff relationship and consequently for the hydrological response of the catchment as the natural woodland cover increases Keywords: Evaporation; interception; transpiration; water balance; Scots pine; forest

  14. Evaluating Predators and Competitors in Wisconsin Red Pine Forests for Attraction to Mountain Pine Beetle Pheromones for Anticipatory Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Krause, Adam; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an irruptive tree-killing species native to pine forests of western North America. Two potential pathways of spread to eastern forests have recently been identified. First, warming temperatures have driven range expansion from British Columbia into Albertan jack pine forests that are contiguous with the Great Lakes region. Second, high temperatures and drought have fostered largescale outbreaks within the historical range, creating economic incentives to salvage killed timber by transporting logs to midwestern markets, which risks accidental introduction. We evaluated the extent to which local predators and competitors that exploit bark beetle semiochemicals would respond to D. ponderosae in Wisconsin. We emulated D. ponderosae attack by deploying lures containing synthetic aggregation pheromones with and without host tree compounds and blank control traps in six red pine plantations over 2 yr. Predator populations were high in these stands, as evidenced by catches in positive control traps, baited with pheromones of local bark beetles and were deployed distant from behavioral choice plots. Only one predator, Thanasimus dubius F. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was attracted to D. ponderosae's aggregation pheromones relative to blank controls, and its attraction was relatively weak. The most common bark beetles attracted to these pheromones were lower stem and root colonizers, which likely would facilitate rather than compete with D. ponderosae. There was some, but weak, attraction of potentially competing Ips species. Other factors that might influence natural enemy impacts on D. ponderosae in midwestern forests, such as phenological synchrony and exploitation of male-produced pheromones, are discussed.

  15. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  16. Short communication. Tomography as a method to study umbrella pine (Pinus pinea) cones and nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, A.; Pereira, H.; Tomé, M.; Silva, J.; Fontes, L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Umbrella or stone pine (Pinus pinea) nuts are one of the most valuable and expensive non-wood forest products in Portugal. The increasing market and landowner's interest resulted on a high expansion of plantation areas. This study tests the feasibility of using tomography to characterize pine cones and nuts. Area of study: The research was carried out in pine stand, with nine years, grafted in 2011, on Herdade of Machoqueira do Grou, near Coruche, in Portugal’s central area. Material and Methods: Starting in June 2015, ten pine cones in their final stage of development, were randomly monthly collected, and evaluated with tomography equipment commonly used in clinical medicine, according to Protocol Abdomen Mean. A sequence of images corresponding to 1mm-spaced cross-sections were obtained and reconstructed to produce a 3D model. The segmented images were worked using free image processing software, like RadiAnt Dicom Viewer, Data Viewer and Ctvox. Main results: The cone’s structures were clearly visible on the images, and it was possible to easily identify empty pine nuts. Although expensive, tomography is an easy and quick application technique that allows to assess the internal structures, through the contrast of materials densities, allowing to estimate pine nut’s size and empty nut’s proportion. By analysis of ninety images, it was obtained, an estimated mean value of 25.5 % empty nuts. Research highlights: Results showed the potential of tomography as a screening tool to be used in industry and research areas, for analysis and diagnostic of stone pine cone’s structures. (Author)

  17. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schelhas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and enemy tribes, led to the establishment of the fire dependent and fire tolerant longleaf pine across the southern landscape. In the last 3 centuries however, the range of longleaf ecosystem has been gradually replaced first by agriculture and then by loblolly pine farming. The joint effects of agricultural expansion, intense logging of the longleaf in the late 1800s, expanded fire control since the early 20th century, and subsequent bare-root planting beginning in the 1930s, has permitted loblolly pine to become dominantly established in the south. Longleaf and loblolly pines represent two distinct woodland uses and represent separate human values. This study investigated the change from longleaf pine use to loblolly pine farming in Southern US from perspectives of human values of land and natural resources.

  18. Current Situation and Challenges of Plantation Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The area of plantation in China ranks the first in the world. But, many challenges are still faced in the development of China’s plantation. A review of plantation in China was presented and the challenges were analyzed. The plantation features juvenile and middle age class with low diameter at breast height. There are the risks of pests and diseases in plantation, the potential decline in land fertility and bio-diversity, all of which are unfavorable to a healthy development of plantations.

  19. The structure of tree stand and wood-destroying fungi of native pine biogeocoenoses of the Russian plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Storozhenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The author considered age structures of virgin indigenous pine forests of natural origin as well as plantations in the subzones of taiga, zones of mixed forests, deciduous forests and forest-steppe of the Russian plain. Native pine forests are heterogeneous by their structural characteristics. This heterogeneity is caused by high demands of the species to understory light requirements as well as by frequent pyrogenic influence that determine the age structure of stand forests. Virgin pine forests have up to 14 age generations and from 5 to 20 % of stand trees affected by fungi of biotrophic complex. That has a direct connection with their dynamic status. In the pine forests of digressive dynamic faze, where the initial age generations accommodate the major biomass amount, this volume may grow up to 50 %. Pine species planted discounting regularities of formation of stable forest communities are subject to spotty attacks by fungi of biotrophic complex. A species composition of wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex causing rot defects of pines in the entire longitudinal gradient of pine distribution within the Russian Plain stays virtually unchanged. Significant changes can be noted only in the occurrence of certain types of wood destroying fungi. The main types of wood biotrophic fungi include: Climacocystis borealis (Fr. Kotl. et Pouzar, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr. Bref., Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr. Pat.; Porodaedalea chrysoloma (Fr. Fiasson et Niemelä; Phellinus pini (Thore: Fr. A. Ames [= Porodaedalea pini (Brot.: Fr. Murrill]. In the uneven-aged pine forests of natural origin, mottled butt rot does not form drying out spots and exists in the stands as an ordinary component of the total biotrophic defeat. Wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex are evolutionary determined as one of the endogenic mechanisms of destruction of unstable forest structures and formation of stable ones. The author also evaluated the volumes of biotrophic

  20. Spider community responds to litter complexity: insights from a small-scale experiment in an exotic pine stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana R. Podgaiski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Conservation of biodiversity in agroecosystems is an urgent need, and a suitable approach to maximize animal biodiversity and their services is the restoration of habitat heterogeneity. Here we investigated the value of increasing litter complexity in tree plantations of exotic pine for ground spiders. We hypothesized that increasing the litter complexity of these systems, as it would be the case in ecologically designed plantations, would increase spider aggregations. We performed a small-scale litter manipulation experiment within an exotic pine stand in the municipality of Minas do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and compared spider diversity in simple (only pine needles and complex substrates (with the addition of diverse native broadleaves. We found 1,110 spiders, 19 families and 32 morphospecies. The most abundant families were Linyphiidae, Theridiidae and Salticidade, and the dominant morphospecies were Thymoites sp. 2 and Lygarina sp. Web-building spiders represented 61% of total spider abundance, and 17 species, while hunting spiders, 49% and 15 species. As expected, densities of spider individuals and species from both web-building and hunting spiders were higher in complex litter substrate. Potential preys (Collembola also responded positively to the treatment, and had influence of spider community patterns. Our results suggest that ensuring some degree of plant and litter diversity within pine stands (e.g. understory establishment might foster spider aggregations and possibly help to conserve their diversity at local-scales.

  1. Comparison of throughfall and soil solution chemistry between a high-density Corsican pine stand and a naturally regenerated silver birch stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schrijver, A; Nachtergale, L; Staelens, J; Luyssaert, S; De Keersmaeker, L

    2004-09-01

    In Flanders, critical loads for acidification and eutrophication are exceeded in the majority of the forest stands, and many previously nitrogen limited forest ecosystems have become nitrogen saturated. The present study investigates whether a naturally regenerated stand of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) contributes less to the acidification and eutrophication of the forest soil than a high-density plantation of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio Maire). Throughfall deposition of inorganic nitrogen was about 3.5 times higher in the Corsican pine stand than in the birch stand. Potassium throughfall deposition was significantly higher under birch due to higher canopy leaching. Magnesium throughfall deposition was significantly higher under the pine canopy due to higher dry deposition. The lower nitrogen throughfall deposition in the birch stand was reflected in a 60% lower nitrate percolation at 1m depth compared with pine. Nitrate soil percolation is linked to losses of aluminium and base cations.

  2. Bionenergy potential of radiata pine platantions in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acuna, E.; Espinosa, M.; Cancino, J.; Rubilar, R.; Munoz, F. [Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile)

    2008-07-01

    The bioenergy potential for electricity and ethanol production of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in Chile was modeled in a regional basis using inventory data by age class. Specific gravity equations by age and growing region, wood moisture content variability, and efficiency of a hypothetical power plant were used to estimate the amount of electricity produced by biomass at harvesting age including logging residues. Ethanol production was obtained using laboratory derived conversion equations from material collected from plantations at different ages. Uncertainty analyses of bioenergy production were obtained using probabilistic distribution functions and assumptions of 2.0 million radiata pine plantations by year 2030. Parameters used to run uncertainty analyses included rotation length, growth rates, annual planting, logging residues production by harvesting age, and power plant efficiency. Simulations were obtained for 25 years, from 2006 until 2030. Our results suggest that in year 2030, power generation may reach 1160 PJ using current harvesting practices, however use of logging residues may provide additional 290.34 PJ. Estimates of production for year 2010 would be able to supply full non-industrial power demand. Estimates of ethanol production were 6,22 x 107 L in 2006 and 39,82 x 107 L by year 2030 for stem harvesting, and 1,5 x 107 L in year 2006 and 9,95 x 107 L by year 2030 for logging residues. Ethanol generated by forest residues would be enough to meet fuel transportation government's requirement of 2% ethanol use by year 2010 in the Chilean Metropolitan Region.

  3. Features of soil enzyme activities and the number of microorganisms in plantations and their relationships with soil nutrients in the Qinling Mountains,. China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang FU; Zengwen LIU; Fangfang CUI

    2009-01-01

    We studied the distribution of soil nutrients, the number of soil microorganisms, soil enzyme activities, and their relationships in pure and mixed plantations. Soil enzyme activities, the number of soil microorganisms, and soil nutrients were measured in plantations of Chinese pine (Pinustabulaeformis), larch (Larix kaempferi), sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata), Manchurian catalpa (Catalpa fargesii), and mixed plantations in the Qinling Mountains, China. Compared with pure plantations, the conifer-broad-leaved broadleaf mixed plantations increased total N, available N, total P, available K, and organic matter in the forest soil; promoted the activities ofinvertase and urease by 16.7% and 53.8%; and increased the total amount of soil microorganisms by 95.9% and the number of bacteria by 104.5% (p<0.05). The correlations between soil enzymes, number of microorganisms, and soil nutrients were significant(p<0.05), and the correlations between the number of soil bacteria and basic nutrient prosperities (total N, available N, available K, and organic matter (OM)) were significant or highly significant. The correlations between the number of soil actinomycetes, and soil total N, available N, OM, and pH were also significant or highly significant. A suitable mixture of planted conifers and broad-leaved species improves the quality and amount of soil nutrients, increases the number of soil microorganisms and changes their redistribution. The change of soil enzymes and the number of soil microorganisms are indications of the change tendency of soil nutrients.

  4. Effects of spacing on early growth rate and carbon sequestration in Pinus brut ia Ten. plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkan, N.; Aydin, A.C.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of initial spacing on early growth and carbon sequestration rates in Turkish red pine plantations up to 12 years old, established with improved seeds and deep soil cultivation. Area of study: The study was conducted on experimental sites established in two locations within the Turkish red pine natural distribution areas, namely Du acı and Nebiler close to Antalya city. Material and methods: Data were collected from the experimental sites established as a Nelder design (fan-shaped), with 72 rays and 18 arcs (circles), and trees were planted (almost square) at distances ranging from 1.15 to 4.77 m. Soil type of both sites is loamy, with soil clay content varying between 70-87% in Duacı and 51-70% in Nebiler. Soils are deep being more than one m in both sites, but rockier in Nebiler, providing better soil drainage in this site. Main results: The results showed that mean total height was greater at closer spacing than those of wider spacing until age eight. Growth retardation at wider spacing in early years may be related to water loss due to evaporation in hot summer days and weed suppression. Following the age eight, competition among trees appears to be the major factor reducing the growth and carbon fixation. Diameter at breast height and individual tree volume increased, while stand volume, mean annual volume increment and annual carbon storage per hectare considerably decreased for wider spacing. Our results suggest that in order to obtain higher yield and more carbon fixation, short rotation plantations should initially be established in closer spacing, followed by thinning in subsequent years as required by silvicultural concerns. In this context, spacing 3.0 × 1.0 m or 3.0 × 1.5 m (3.0 and 4.5 m2 growing area per tree, respectively) seems to be more plausible, providing farm machinery for maintenance and harvesting. We also found that mean annual volume increment per unit area can be

  5. Hemipteran diversity in Endau-Rompin plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Asraf; Rahim, Faszly

    2015-09-01

    Study on hemipteran at Endau Rompin Plantation (LER), Pahang was conducted at oil palm plantation planted at different type of soils. The aim of the study was to determine hemipteran diversity in oil palm ecosystem. Sampling was done from April 2012 to September 2012 by using Malaise and impact traps. Cicadellidae was the most abundance and dominance family with 105 individuals and 6 species (=morphospecies) recorded. The rarefaction curve becomes flatter to the right indicating a reasonable number of individual samples have been taken. Peat area show high Shannon index and Margalef index values compared to clay area.There were significant differences in hemipteran community between three type of soils (χ2=98.751,df=58,p<0.05). As such, hemipteran abundance in oil palm plantation is affected by the type of soil.

  6. Adaptation of stone pines Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc. to various environmental factors in the testing sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kuznetsova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Provenance trials of Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc. (here after «studied species» were studied. In our study we assessed the growth parameters as well as anatomical and morphological parameters of the studied species corresponding to different provenances of their testing in the south of the Krasnoyarsk and Khabarovsk territories.We determined that the growth rate of trees corresponding to different provenances is determined not only by the inherited characteristics, but also by adaptation. At both experimental regions the offspring of trees corresponding to local provenance are clearly better adapted. Nevertheless, at Krasnoyarsk Krai provenance trials, we found that the phenotypic indicators and degree of preservation of the offspring of two Korean pine corresponding to Obluchensky and Chuguevsky provenances are at the same level as for the local Siberian pine. Tree rings widths have been measured for the Siberian pine corresponding to different provenances at both plantations. We conclude that at the Ermakovskoe plantation there is a positive impact of the environmental conditions on tree-ring width for Korean pine corresponding to different provenances, and in Khabarovsk Krai there is a negative impact of the environmental conditions on tree-ring width for the Siberian pine corresponding to different provenances.

  7. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Teak Plantations of Different Agro-Climatic Zones and Age-Gradations of Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkuri Chiranjeeva Reddy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon sequestration potential of teak plantations in different agro-climatic zones of Southern India, viz. Northern Dry Zone, Northern Transition Zone, and Hilly Zone were studied. Teak plantations belonging to three age gradations viz. 10, 15 and 20 years were considered for the study. Above ground biomass was computed based on volume estimation and wood density after considering three 10 x 10 m plots. Carbon sequestration potential of teak plantations on farmlands differed significantly with respect to agro-climatic zones and age. Teak plantations raised on the farmlands of Northern Transition Zone had significantly higher above ground biomass than that in Northern Dry Zone and Hilly Zone at all the three age-gradations. Consequently, total above ground carbon sequestered was also significantly higher among the teak plantations of the Northern Transition Zone (247.47 t/ha than that in Hilly Zone (157.60 t/ha and NDZ (103.73 t/ha. For obvious reasons total amount of carbon sequestered was significantly higher in 20-year plantations (330.00 t/ha than in 15-year (108.53 t/ha and 10-year plantations (70.27 t/ha. Perhaps optimal average annual rainfall of 749 mm and medium black soil in Northern Transition Zone have contributed to the higher biomass in teak. Poor rainfall in Northern Dry Zone (<585 mm and poor soil conditions (lateritic formations in Hilly Zone must have contributed to the poorer growth of teak in these zones.

  8. Forest litter stocks in Korean pine-broad-leaved forests of the southern Sikhote Alin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data on the forest litter of the Korean pine-broad-leaved forests of the South of Primorsky krai. The focus of the research is plantations dominated by Korean pine; areas of the main tree species with ages of 50, 80, 130 and 200 years were selected. The dynamics of the forest litter stock in the pine and broadleaved forests of different ages according to the measurement results for the season in 2014 is stated. In the studied plantation, the forest litter stock varies between 9.7–20.3 t ha-1. The greatest value of the forest litter stock is recorded in old-growth cedar forest (200 years. Relatively high power and the stock of litter are typical for young Korean pine forest that can explain the lower speed of the litter properties change against the dynamics of taxation indicators of the forest stand. The difference between the amount of the litter in the 200-year-old and remaining pine trees are statistically significant at p = 0.05. The dependence of the litter power on the age is not revealed. The coefficient of the forest litter decomposition ranges from 2.55–10.60 that characterizes the high speed of its rotting. The highest coefficient of the litter decomposition has an old-growing pine forest. The schedule of seasonal humidity fluctuations of the forest litter on the chosen plot is made; with increasing cedar forest age, the volumetric moisture content of the forest litter increases; volumetric moisture content on the plots remain relatively unchanged during the season. The area of the Korean pine forests of Primorsky State Academy of Agriculture is 6835 ha. The amount of carbon stock in the forest litter is 38.7 thousand tons C. in this area, while the system of regional assessment of the forest carbon balance estimates this index as 24.3 tons С. The data obtained can be used to adjust the coefficients of regional assessment of the forest carbon balance for cedar forests of Primorsky krai.

  9. The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Süleyman; Akgül, Mehmet; Dündar, Turker

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to wood species to improve their dimensional stability. This study examined the effect of heat treatment on certain mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens obtained from Bolu, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at varying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 degrees C) for varying durations (2, 6 and 10h). The test results of heat-treated Scots pine and control samples showed that technological properties including compression strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength and tension strength perpendicular to grain suffered with heat treatment, and increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens.

  10. Current Status and Advancements in Research of Plantation Nutrient Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Run; ZHANG Changshun; SUN Yongyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces concepts and current research status of plantation nutrients cyclings, and analyzes main contents of plantation nutrients cycling as nutrients contents, accumulation and distribution of nutrients elements, understory species and forest litter. At the same time, the paper summarizes the problems in plantation nutrients cycling and its prospects.

  11. Shifts in soil fungal communities in Tuber melanosporum plantations over a 20-year transition from agriculture fields to oak woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To explore the diversity of soil fungi found in black truffle (Tuber melanosporum plantations following the introduction of the mycorrhizal-colonized host tree, (Quercus ilex, through the development of the brûlé and production of mature sporocarps.Area of study: This research was carried out province of Teruel, Aragon (central eastern Spain.Material and Methods: Soil samples from 6 plantations were collected beneath Q. ilex trees inoculated with T. melanosporum, of 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 20 years after out planting in truffle plantations. Soil DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified and sequenced to compare soil fungi present at different ages.Main results: As tree age increased, we observed an increased frequency of T. melanosporum (from 8% to 71% of sequenced colonies and concomitant decrease in the combined frequency of Fusarium spp. and Phoma spp. (from 64% to 3%.Research highlights: There are important shifts in species richness and in functional groups in the soil fungal communities in maturing black truffle-oak woodland plantations. The observed inverse relationship between the frequency of soil endophytic and/or pathogenic fungi and that of the mycorrhizal mutualist T. melanosporum provides support to continue a deeper analysis of shifts in fungal communities and functional groups where there is a transition from agriculture fields to woodlands.Abbreviations used: Ectomycorrhiza (ECM fungus; Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM; Operational taxonomic unit (OTU.

  12. Allergic Reactions to Pine Nut: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, B; Novak, N

    2015-01-01

    Pine nut is a nutrient-rich food with a beneficial impact on human health. The many bioactive constituents of pine nut interact synergistically to affect human physiology in a favorable way. However, pine nut can trigger dangerous allergic reactions. Severe anaphylactic reactions to pine nut accounted for most of the 45 cases reported in the scientific literature. Pine nut allergy seems to be characterized by low IgE cross-reactivity with other commonly consumed nuts and a high monosensitization rate. The present review provides updated information on allergic reactions to pine nut, molecular characterization of its allergens, and potential homologies with other nut allergens.

  13. Developing Two Additive Biomass Equations for Three Coniferous Plantation Species in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihu Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantification of tree biomass is critical and essential for calculating carbon storage, as well as for studying climate change, forest health, forest productivity, nutrient cycling, etc. Tree biomass is typically estimated using statistical models. In this study, a total of 289 trees were harvested and measured for stem, root, branch, and foliage biomass from three coniferous plantation species in northeastern P.R. China. We developed two additive systems of biomass equations based on tree diameter (D only and both tree diameter (D and height (H. For each system, likelihood analysis was used to verify the error structures of power functions in order to determine if logarithmic transformation should be applied on both sides of biomass equations. The model coefficients were simultaneously estimated using seemingly unrelated regression (SUR. The results indicated that stem biomass had the largest relative contribution to total biomass, while foliage biomass had the smallest relative proportion for the three species. The root to shoot ratio averaged 0.27 for Korean pine, 0.25 for larch, and 0.23 for Mongolian pine. The two additive biomass systems obtained good model fitting and prediction performance, of which the model Ra2 > 0.80, and the percent mean absolute bias (MAB%, was <17%. The second additive system (D and H had a relatively greater Ra2 and smaller root mean square error (RMSE. The model coefficient for the predictor H was statistically significant in eight of the twelve models, depending on tree species and biomass component. Adding tree height into the system of biomass equations can marginally improve model fitting and performance, especially for total, aboveground, and stem biomass. The two additive systems developed in this study can be applied to estimate individual tree biomass of three coniferous plantation species in the Chinese National Forest Inventory.

  14. Traits of Masson Pine Affecting Attack of Pine Wood Nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Shi; You-Qing Luo; Ji-Ying Song; Hai-Wei Wu; Lei Wang; Gary Z. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Masson pine characteristics were analyzed in five sample plots in Zhejiang Province, China.Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacked Masson pines in the lower diameter classes.Among the 10 tree characteristics examined, mean crown width, percentage of bole with crown, 5-year cumulative diameter growth, and resin amount showed significant variation between successfully attacked and unattacked trees.The attacked trees had a lower percentage of the bole covered with tree crown, lower crown width, lower radial growth in the last 5 years, and produced less induced resinosis than unattacked trees.Results allowed for effective ranking of the pine forest based on individual tree resistance to PWN.This Index of resistance should be considered throughout the development of an "Evaluation Criterion and Indicator System".The preceding ranking can be used to evaluate the resistance and resiliency of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN's invasion, which is similar to Pest Risk Analysis (PRA).

  15. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A.; Runyon, Justin B.; Jenkins, Michael J.; Giunta, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species. PMID:26332317

  16. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  17. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A Gray

    Full Text Available The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp. are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  18. Assessing escapes from short rotation plantations of the invasive tree species Robinia pseudoacacia L. in Mediterranean ecosystems: a study in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crosti R

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is a fast growing tree species native to temperate North America, and widely diffused and naturalized in Europe. It is one of the candidate species for establishing bioenergy plantations on marginal lands in temperate and sub-Mediterranean regions. This potential is in contrast to its well-known invasive habit, leading to a potential damage to plant biodiversity in many European countries. Advise against black locust plantation in regions where it is already invasive has been issued by several international reports, as well as the adoption of mitigation measures (e.g., “containment” buffer zones to prevent the spread of the species into natural and semi-natural habitats. In the Mediterranean basin, however, no studies have been carried out aimed at quantifying the escape rate of black locust saplings from plantation stands and its recruitment into natural habitats, together with the effectiveness of a buffer zone in reducing the spread. In this study we investigated the spread of black locust along 35 transects surrounding three 20-year- old plantations and including three different land cover types: abandoned arable land, semi-natural woodland and a buffer zone (orchards with a low degree of farming input. In addition, the effect of soil disturbance on seed propagation was investigated. Our results demonstrate that the density of black locust regeneration is strongly affected by the land cover, abandoned agricultural land being the most prone to black locust colonization. Contrastingly, the spread was minimal in the buffer zone and negligible in semi-natural woodland. During the investigated year, seed generative propagation was also negligible. The semi-natural woodland seems to resist well to black locust invasion, though further observations are needed to assess the consequences of stand harvesting disturbance as well, according to local standard forest management. Buffer zones seem to be very

  19. Species determination of pine nuts in commercial samples causing pine nut syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Aase Æ.; Jessen, Flemming; Ballin, Nicolai Z.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of pine nuts from the species of Pinus armandii has been reported to cause dysgeusia, commonly known as pine mouth, or pine nut syndrome (PNS). However, the number of reports on pine nut consumptions of the different species and PNS is limited. This leaves open the possibility...

  20. Growth and nutrition response of young sweetgum plantations to repeated nitrogen fertilization on two site types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.A.D.A. [USDA Forest Service, Pineville, LA (United States); Burger, J.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Kaczmarek, D.J. [Mead Westvaco Forest Science and Technology, Summerville, SC (United States); Kane, M.B. [International Paper Corp., Ridgeland, MS (United States). Silviculture Research and Technology

    2004-10-01

    Short-rotation intensive tree culture is being investigated in the southern United States as a method of producing hardwood fiber, but little is known about the early productivity and nutritional needs of these systems, especially on different site types. We studied the growth and foliar nutrition response of two sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations on a converted agricultural field and a pine cutover site to biannual applications of three nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates: 0, 5 6, and 112 kg N ha{sup -1}. The trees did not respond to treatment at any age on the agricultural field site, but the fertilized trees on the cutover site had about 60% greater biomass at ages 5 and 6. Fertilization doubled foliar biomass on the cutover site in the years fertilizer was applied. Stem biomass was directly related to foliar biomass, but the relationship was age-specific at both sites. Stem biomass was also related to the foliar N concentration. Foliar critical values of N were about 18 g N kg{sup -1}. Foliage phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents were diluted by the N fertilization-induced growth responses at both sites. Fertilization of young intensive-culture sweetgum plantations is necessary for optimum foliar N concentrations and foliar and stem biomass production, but is site-specific. (author)

  1. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacity while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.

  2. Reflection on plant cover of climate change: Decline Anatolian black pines on district between Afsin-Goksun (Kahramanmaras, Turkeyİklim değişikliğinin bitki örtüsüne yansımasına bir örnek: Göksun-Afşin arası (Kahramanmaraş sahadaki Karaçam kurumaları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Duran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine decline Anatolian black pines [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe] on Tuluce hill district between Afsin-Goksun region in Kahramanmaras province. As a result of the Ecological (climate, soil, air pollution and Biological (insect, fungus, parasite plant etc. researches; other factors the exception of drought have no priority affection on black pine deaths. As on Turkey, drought conditions have dominated on the region after the year 1994. These changes have been occurred by constantly deaths in community of black pines on the south-facing slope (between the years 2000-2009. Increasing temperature and evaporation, decreasing relative humidity and rainfall-runoff is clearly for the region. In addition, there were not air pollution and infected primer insect-fungus damage. This also strengthens the impact of drought.Identified areas of tree deaths in recent years are generally near the inner regions (the steppe areas. Climate change and drought must be an indication of pushing towards more humid areas of black pine forests which is able to approaching much more onto the steppes of inner Anatolian.ÖzetBu çalışmada, Kahramanmaraş ili Göksun-Afşin ilçeleri arasında kalan Tülüce tepe mevkisindeki Anadolu karaçamı [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe] kurumalarının sebepleri araştırılmıştır. Ekolojik (iklim, toprak, hava kirliliği vd. ve biyotik (böcek, mantar, parazit bitki vd. incelemeler sonunda, kuraklık dışındaki diğer unsurların kurumalar üzerinde önemli ve öncelikli bir etkisi görülmemiştir. Türkiye genelinde olduğu gibi, 1994 yılı sonrası bölgede de kurak koşullar egemen olmuştur. Bu nedenle (2000–2009 yılları arası, güney bakılı yamaçta gruplar halinde karaçam kurumaları yaşanmıştır. İncelenen iklimsel parametrelerden sıcaklık ve buharlaşmada artma, bağıl nem ve yağış-akışta azalma belirgindir. Bunun

  3. [Dynamic changes of surface soil organic carbon and light-fraction organic carbon after mobile dune afforestation with Mongolian pine in Horqin Sandy Land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wen; Li, Yu-qiang; Wang, Shao-kun; Feng, Jing; Su, Na

    2011-08-01

    This paper studied the dynamic changes of surface (0-15 cm) soil organic carbon (SOC) and light-fraction organic carbon (LFOC) in 25- and 35-year-old sand-fixing Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) plantations in Horqin Sandy Land, with a mobile dune as a comparison site. After the afforestation on mobile dune, the content of coarse sand in soil decreased, while that of fine sand and clay-silt increased significantly. The SOC and LFOC contents also increased significantly, but tended to decrease with increasing soil depth. Afforestation increased the storages of SOC and LFOC in surface soil, and the increment increased with plantation age. In the two plantations, the increment of surface soil LFOC storage was much higher than that of SOC storage, suggesting that mobile dune afforestation had a larger effect on surface soil LFOC than on SOC.

  4. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  5. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  6. Multi-functional energy plantation; Multifunktionella bioenergiodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies; Berndes, Goeran; Fredriksson, Fredrik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory; Kaaberger, Tomas [Ecotraffic, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    There exists a significant potential for utilising perennial energy plantations in protecting and restoring polluted water and land resources in Sweden. By optimising the design, location and management, several additional environmental services could be obtained which will increase the value of the energy plantations, thereby improving future market conditions for biomass. Multi-functional energy plantations (mainly Salix but also energy grass) can be divided into two categories, those designed for dedicated environmental services (e.g. vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and shelter belts against soil erosion), and those generating more general benefits (e.g. soil carbon accumulation, increased soil fertility, cadmium removal and increased hunting potential). The practical potential of those two categories is estimated to be equivalent to up to 3% and more than 20% of the total Swedish arable land, respectively. The regional conditions of utilising multi-functional plantations vary, however, with the best possibilities in densely populated areas dominated by farmland. The economic value of multi-functional plantations is normally highest for those designed for dedicated environmental services. Purification of wastewater has the highest value, which could exceed the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, followed by treatment of polluted drainage water in vegetation filters and buffer zones (equivalent to more than half of the production cost), recirculation of sewage sludge (around half of the production cost), erosion control (around one fourth) and increased hunting potential (up to 15% of the production cost). The value of increased hunting potential varies due to nearness to larger cities and in which part of Sweden the plantation is located. The economic value of cadmium removal and increased soil fertility is equivalent to a few percent of the production cost, but the value of cadmium removal might increase in the

  7. The May October energy budget of a Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Kessler, A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes measurements of the Hartheim forest energy budget for the 157-day period of May 11 Oct. 14, 1992. Data were collected as 30-min means. Energy available to the forest was measured with net radiometers and soil heat flux discs; sensible heat exchange between the canopy and atmosphere was measured with two “One-Propeller Eddy Correlation” (OPEC) systems, and latent energy (evapotranspiration or ET) was determined as a residual in the surface energy balance equation. Net rediation, change in thermal storage, and sensible heat flux were verified by independent measurements during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX, May 11 12), and again during the “HartX2” experiment over 20 days late in the summer (Sep. 10 29). Specifically, sensible heat estimates from the two adjacent OPEC sensor sets were in close agreement throughout the summer, and in excellent agreement with measurements of sonic eddy correlation systems in May and September. The eddy correlation/energy balance technique was observed to overestimate occurrence of dew, leading to an underestimate of daily ET of about 5%. After taking dew into account, estimates of OPEC ET totaled 358 mm over the 5.1-month period, which is in quite good agreement with an ET estimate of 328 mm from a hydrologic water balance. An observed decrease in forest ET in July and August was clearly associated with low rainfall and increased soil water deficit. The OPEC system required only modest technical supervision, and generated a data yield of 99.5% over the period DOY 144 288. The documented verification and precision of this energy budget appears to be unmatched by any other long-term forest study reported to date.

  8. ANNUAL OZONE DEPOSITION TO A PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION IN THE SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS. (R826601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Seasonal variability of monoterpene emission factors for a ponderosa pine plantation in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Holzinger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpene fluxes have been measured over an 11 month period from June 2003 to April 2004. During all seasons ambient air temperature was the environmental factor most closely related to the measured emission rates. The monoterpene flux was modeled using a basal emission rate multiplied by an exponential function of a temperature, following the typical practice for modelling temperature dependent biogenic emissions. A basal emission of 1.0 μmol h−1 m−2 (at 30°C, based on leaf area and a temperature dependence (β of 0.12°C−1 reproduced measured summer emissions well but underestimated spring and winter measured emissions by 60–130%. The total annual monoterpene emission may be underestimated by ~50% when using a model optimized to reproduce monoterpene emissions in summer. The long term dataset also reveals an indirect connection between non-stomatal ozone and monoterpene flux beyond the dependence on temperature that has been shown for both fluxes.

  10. Eddy covariance methane measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, C.J.P.P.; Holzinger, R.; Vigano, I.; Goldstein, A.H.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-01-01

    Long term methane flux measurements have been mostly performed with plant or soil enclosure techniques on specific components of an ecosystem. New fast response methane analyzers make it possible to use the eddy covariance (EC) technique instead. The EC technique is advantageous because it allows co

  11. Management of black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was the first forest tree species to be imported from North America to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century. It is the most important fast-growing stand-forming tree species in Hungary . Black locust plantations can be successfully established in response to arange of economic and ecological opportunities. Plantation survival and productivity are maximized by matching the species' growth characteristics with silvicultura l options and land management needs. In the paper the sequence of forest tending operations in black locust stands is proposed, based on results of long-term st and structure and forest yield trials. Implementing good silvicultural plans and models will lead to profitable black locust stands and greater acceptance of the species by land managers. Black locust would also beavery useful species for energy productions as the related research results have been shown in the paper .

  12. Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Pine Project Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Pine-grassland Project includes 261 ac of mid– to late-rotation loblolly pine which were managed with a heavy pine thin (50-60...

  13. Citizen participatory dioxin monitoring campaign by pine needles as biomonitor of ambient air dioxin pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komichi, I.; Takatori, A. [Environmental Research Institute Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Environment and Informations; Vrzic, B. [Maxxam Analytics Inc. HRMS Laboratory, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The needle-type leaves of Japanese black pine trees (hereafter abbreviated as pine needles) have been used as an effective bio-monitor of ambient air pollution. Miyata Laboratory of Setsunan University has reported that the pine needles accumulate PCDDs and PCDFs (hereafter abbreviated as D/F) through photosynthesis and respiration during their lifetime. On the basis of this study, we have revealed the correlation between ambient air and pine needle concentrations to be estimated at or near 1:10 by analyzing long term continuous ambient dioxin monitoring data and that of pine needles sampled from the same area as ambient air in the Kanagawa Prefecture in 1999. Since then, the citizen groups of each local area all over Japan have started monitoring the ambient air dioxin concentration levels by using pine needles. Samples analyzed during these 5 years totaled more than 650 throughout Japan. The results of these citizen participatory environmental monitoring activities are the tremendous effects achieved in reducing the dioxin levels. This occurs through observation of the dioxin emission sources such as Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Plants as well as the Industrial Waste Incineration plants, which exist in numbers exceeding several thousands in Japan. This short paper will present the results of 56 municipalities of western Japan where ambient air dioxin levels have improved steadily against local averages during these 5 years.

  14. [Effects of different type urban forest plantations on soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui-zhen; Chen, Ming-yue; Cai, Chun-ju; Zhu, Ning

    2009-12-01

    Aimed to study the effects of different urban forest plantations on soil fertility, soil samples were collected from eight mono-cultured plantations (Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Phellodendron amurense, Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Quercus mongolica) and one mixed plantation (P. sylvestris var. mongolica + F. mandshurica + Picea koraiensis + P. amurense + B. platyphylla) established in Northeast Forestry University's Urban Forestry Demonstration Research Base in the 1950s, with two sites of neighboring farmland and abandoned farmland as the control. The soils in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica were near neutral, those in mixed plantation, L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis were slightly acidic, and that in Q. mongolica was acidic. The contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, available P and K, and hydrolysable N tended to decrease with soil depth. There existed significant differences in the chemical indices of the same soil layers among different plantations. The soil fertility was decreased in the order of F. mandshurica > P. amurense > mixed plantation > J. mandshurica > B. platyphylla > abandoned farmland > farmland > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > L. gmelinii > Q. mongolica > P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, suggesting that the soil fertility in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica and in mixed plantation increased, while that in needle-leaved forest plantations tended to decrease.

  15. Use of isotopic sulfur to determine whitebark pine consumption by Yellowstone bears: a reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Servheen, Christopher; Robbins, Charles T.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2014-01-01

    Use of naturally occurring stable isotopes to estimate assimilated diet of bears is one of the single greatest breakthroughs in nutritional ecology during the past 20 years. Previous research in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), USA, established a positive relationship between the stable isotope of sulfur (δ34S) and consumption of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) seeds. That work combined a limited sample of hair, blood clots, and serum. Here we use a much larger sample to reassess those findings. We contrasted δ34S values in spring hair and serum with abundance of seeds of whitebark pine in samples collected from grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) in the GYE during 2000–2010. Although we found a positive relationship between δ34S values in spring hair and pine seed abundance for grizzly bears, the coefficients of determination were small (R2 ≤ 0.097); we failed to find a similar relationship with black bears. Values of δ34S in spring hair were larger in black bears and δ34S values in serum of grizzly bears were lowest in September and October, a time when we expect δ34S to peak if whitebark pine seeds were the sole source of high δ34S. The relationship between δ34S in bear tissue and the consumption of whitebark pine seeds, as originally reported, may not be as clean a method as proposed. Data we present here suggest other foods have high values of δ34S, and there is spatial heterogeneity affecting the δ34S values in whitebark pine, which must be addressed.

  16. Image Processing Based Girth Monitoring and Recording System for Rubber Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chathura Thilakarathne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the girth and continuous monitoring of the increase in girth is one of the most important processes in rubber plantations since identification of girth deficiencies would enable planters to take corrective actions to ensure a good yield from the plantation. This research paper presents an image processing based girth measurement & recording system that can replace existing manual process in an efficient and economical manner. The system uses a digital image of the tree which uses the current number drawn on the tree to identify the tree number & its width. The image is threshold first & then filtered out using several filtering criterion to identify possible candidates for numbers. Identified blobs are then fed to the Tesseract OCR for number recognition. Threshold image is then filtered again with different criterion to segment out the black strip drawn on the tree which is then used to calculate the width of the tree using calibration parameters. Once the tree number is identified & width is calculated the girth the measured girth of the tree is stored in the data base under the identified tree number. The results obtained from the system indicated significant improvement in efficiency & economy for main plantations. As future developments we are proposing a standard commercial system for girth measurement using standardized 2D Bar Codes as tree identifiers

  17. Plantation future of bamboo in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhao-hua; MikioKOBAYASHI

    2004-01-01

    In the past, utilization of bamboo resources in China has been traditionally dominated by direct consumption of local farmers as minor forest products with weak linkage with market. In recent years, the over-supply of grains and rapid degradation of agricultural environment call for alternative crops that can be developed through integrating the environmental plantation with the market demands. Closely associated with forestry and agriculture, bamboo is able to deal with the new challenges which China's agriculture is facing. Of 534 documented bamboo species in China, 153 species produce edibleshoots and of which 56 species are recommended for agricultural plantation; 139 species provide timbers and of which 58 species recommended; 116 species can be splited as good strips for weaving and of which 22 species recommended; 88 species are considered as garden bamboos and of which 34 species recommended; 45 species are able to produce paper pulp and of which 18 species recommended.

  18. Anaphylaxis to pine nuts and immunological cross-reactivity with pine pollen proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, G; Roncarolo, D; Dama, A; Mistrello, G

    2000-01-01

    Despite the wide use of pine nuts, the fruit of Pinus pinea, only a few reports of allergic reactions to them have been published. We present herein a case of food allergy to pine nuts in a patient who showed no clinical symptoms to pine pollen despite the presence in her serum of specific IgE antibodies. In order to verify whether the reaction against pine nuts was IgE mediated, specific IgE against pine nuts and pollen were evaluated by skin-prick test, prick by prick and RAST. Immunoblotting and immunoblotting-inhibition were used to evaluate the allergenic components of both extracts and their cross-reactivity. Prick by prick with fresh pine nuts and RAST with pine nut and pine pollen extracts showed that the patient had high levels of specific IgE against both extracts. Immunoblotting experiments showed the presence in serum of IgE antibodies against several components in pine nuts and pollen. Immunoblotting-inhibition experiments demonstrated the presence of some cross-reacting components. These data confirm the existence of food allergy induced by pine nuts. This sensitization to pine nuts developed with no symptoms of pine pollinosis. Development of pollinosis may require a longer time of exposure to allergens. Based on the cross-reactivity between pine nut and pine pollen extracts, cosensitization to these two allergens could be possible.

  19. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  20. Optimization of Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliza Hidayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of making North Sumatera  as a barometer of national oil palm industry require efforts commodities and agro-industry development of oil palm. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financed plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement obliged and bound to make at least the same smallholder plantation productivity with business partners, so that the refund rate to banks become larger and prosperous people as a plantation owner. Generally low productivity of smallholder plantations under normal potential caused a lot of old and damaged plants with plant material at random. The purpose of revitalizing oil palm plantations which are to increase their competitiveness through increased farm productivity. The research aims to identify potential criteria in influencing plantation productivity improvement priorities to be observed and followed up in order to improve the competitiveness of destinations and make North Sumatera barometer of national palm oil can be achieved. Research conducted with Analytical Network Process (ANP, to find the effect of dependency relationships between factors or criteria with the knowledge of the experts in order to produce an objective opinion and relevant depict the actual situation. 

  1. The role of plantation forestry in sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivetić Vladan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of types of forest plantations and their role in sustainable development, with an emphasis on the definition of artificially established (planted forests and forest plantations. Forest plantations, the most productive part of planted forests, play a significant role in fulfilling the principles of sustainable development. Plantation forestry can provide additional quantities of roundwood and fuelwood (including biomass, additional products in the form of non-timber forest products and additional services in the form of shelterbelts and phytoremediation.

  2. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  3. Roadside bear viewing opportunities in Yellowstone National Park: characteristics, trends, and influence of whitebark pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Gunther, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Opportunities for viewing grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) from roadways in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have increased in recent years. Unlike the panhandling bears common prior to the 1970s, current viewing usually involves bears feeding on natural foods. We define roadside bear viewing opportunities that cause traffic congestion as ‘‘bear-jams.’’ We investigated characteristics of bear-jams and their frequency relative to whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) cone production, an important fall food for bears, during 1990–2004. We observed a difference in diel distribution of bear-jams between species (x2=70.609, 4 df, Ptimes higher during poor cone crop years than good. We suggest that native foods found in road corridors may be especially important to some individual bears during years exhibiting poor whitebark pine crops. We discuss management implications of threats to whitebark pine and increasing habituation of bears to people.

  4. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    OpenAIRE

    John Schelhas; Indrajit Majumdar; Yaoqi Zhang

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and ...

  5. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  6. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buotte, Polly C; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Preisler, Haiganoush K; Abatzoglou, John T; Raffa, Kenneth F; Logan, Jesse A

    2016-12-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle are not well understood, yet are important considerations in whether to list whitebark pine as a threatened or endangered species. We sought to increase the understanding of climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pine forests, which are less well understood than in lodgepole pine, by quantifying climate-beetle relationships, analyzing climate influences during the recent outbreak, and estimating the suitability of future climate for beetle outbreaks. We developed a statistical model of the probability of whitebark pine mortality in the GYE that included temperature effects on beetle development and survival, precipitation effects on host tree condition, beetle population size, and stand characteristics. Estimated probability of whitebark pine mortality increased with higher winter minimum temperature, indicating greater beetle winter survival; higher fall temperature, indicating synchronous beetle emergence; lower two-year summer precipitation, indicating increased potential for host tree stress; increasing beetle populations; stand age; and increasing percent composition of whitebark pine within a stand. The recent outbreak occurred during a period of higher-than-normal regional winter temperatures, suitable fall temperatures, and low summer precipitation. In contrast to lodgepole pine systems, area with mortality was linked to precipitation variability even at high beetle populations. Projections from climate models indicate future climate conditions will likely provide favorable conditions for beetle outbreaks within nearly all current whitebark pine habitat in the GYE by

  7. Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention

  8. Yield model for unthinned Sitka spruce plantations in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omiyale, O.; Joyce, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past few decades the construction of yield models, has progressed from the graphical through mathematical and biomathematic approach. The development of a biomathematical growth model for Sitka spruce plantations is described. It is suggested that this technique can serve as a basis for general yield model construction of plantation species in Ireland. (Refs. 15).

  9. Green Gold. On variations of truth in plantation forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it was joined

  10. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcü, Süleyman; Bilir, Nebi

    2017-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p > 0.05) for the characters, while there were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA). Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  11. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Fire in Whitebark Pine Stands on two Mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a long-lived tree species that exists throughout high elevation and treeline forest communities of western North America. It is the foundation of a diminishing ecosystem that supports Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and black bears (U. americana). Several factors are directly linked to the decline of the whitebark pine ecosystem: mortality from recent and widespread mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, infestation by the invasive white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, an exotic fungal canker that weakens and eventually kills white pines), and fire suppression that may have altered the historic fire regime and enabled fire-intolerant tree species to encroach upon whitebark pine stands. The synergistic effects of these factors have led to a dramatic decline in whitebark pine communities throughout its native range, and in response land managers and conservationists have called for research to better understand the ecological dynamics of this little studied ecosystem. My research uses dendrochronology to investigate the fire history of whitebark pine stands on three mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, via fire-scar and age structure analyses. I present here the results from the fire-scar analyses from Morrell Mountain where I obtained 40 cross sections from dead and down whitebark pines. Individual tree mean fire return intervals (MFRI) range from 33 to 119 years, with a stand MFRI of 49 years that includes fire scars dating to the 16th century. Fire events scarred multiple trees in AD 1754, 1796, and 1843, indicating a mixed-severity fire regime. The majority of the samples recorded a frost event in AD 1601, perhaps evidence of the AD 1600 eruption of Mt. Huaynapatina in the Peruvian Andes. My research not only provides an historical framework for land managers, but also provides an opportunity to examine long

  12. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years. Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: Model I considered N pools contained in the litterfall, N pools in the soil microbial biomass and available soil N (mineral N; Model II considered the N pools in the soil, potentially mineralizable N and the export of N through wood harvesting; and Model III (N balance was defined as the difference between the initial soil N pool (0-10 cm and the export of N, taking the application of N fertilizer into account. Model I showed that N pools could supply 27 - 70 % of the N demands of eucalyptus trees at different ages. Model II suggested that the soil N pool may be sufficient for 4 - 5 rotations of 5 years. According to the N balance, these N pools would be sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for more than 15 rotations of 5 years. The organic pools contribute with different levels of N and together are sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for several rotations.

  13. Ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia turnover in a longleaf pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Joseph J; Mitchell, Robert J; Kuehn, Kevin A; Pecot, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Elucidation of the patterns and controls of carbon (C) flow and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests has been hindered by a poor understanding of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia (EFM) dynamics. In this study, EFM standing biomass (based on soil ergosterol concentrations), production (based on ergosterol accrual in ingrowth cores), and turnover rate (the quotient of annual production and average standing biomass estimates) were assessed in a 25-yr-old longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) plantation where C flow was manipulated by foliar scorching and N fertilization for 5 yr before study initiation. In the controls, EFM standing biomass was 30 ± 7 g m(-2) , production was 279 ± 63 g m(-2)  yr(-1) , and turnover rate was 10 ± 3 times yr(-1) . The scorched × fertilized treatment had significantly higher EFM standing biomass (38 ± 8 g m(-2) ), significantly lower production (205 ± 28 g m(-2)  yr(-1) ), and a trend of decreased turnover rate (6 ± 1 times yr(-1) ). The EFM turnover estimates, which are among the first reported for natural systems, indicate that EFM are a dynamic component of ecosystems, and that conventional assessments have probably underestimated the role of EFM in C flow and nutrient cycling.

  14. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    ’s a lifestyle I enjoy.” For Monáe, the tuxedo is both working clothes and a superhero uniform. Together with futuristic references to Fritz Lang’s dystopian Metropolis, her trademark starched shirt and tuxedo also recall Weimar and pre-war Berlin. While outwardly dissimilar, Sioux’s and Monáe’s shared black...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses....

  15. Even-Aged vs. Uneven-Aged Silviculture: Implications for Multifunctional Management of Southern Pine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated even- and uneven-aged silvicultural options for slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. using empirical data and the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS model. Data were collected from a mature unthinned slash pine plantation in a flatwoods site in Florida, and used to simulate six scenarios of even- and uneven-aged silvicultural regimes applied to slash pine stands, including a no-action option. These alternative silvicultural regimes were evaluated for multiple benefits including timber production, carbon storage and stand structural diversity over a period of 100 years. None of the silvicultural regimes maximized all the benefits. While even-aged management options were more efficient in total merchantable timber production (9.78 to 11.02 m3·ha−1·year−1 and overall carbon stocks (3.05 to 3.47 metric tons·ha−1·year−1, uneven-aged management options created overall more complex stand structure (Stand Structural Diversity (computed from Shannon’s Indices values = 1.92 and maintained a steady flow of yields, particularly sawtimber (34.29 to 58.46 m3·ha−1 every 10 year and aboveground carbon stocks (56.9 to 77.2 metric tons·ha−1. Optimal achievement of multiple benefits across the landscape, therefore, may require maintaining an assortment of management strategies. Both even- and uneven-aged management options have the potential to improve production and carbon storage of pine forests and are a substantial improvement over no action.

  16. Tall oil precursors in three western pines: ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonvolatile diethyl ether extracts (NVEE) from ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pines were analyzed to determine the amounts and chemical composition of the tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables) and turpentine precursors available from these species. The results showed that crude tall oil compositions would be approximately as follows (% resin acids, % fatty acids, % nonsaponifiables); ponderosa pine - sapwood (15, 75, 10), heartwood (78, 7, 15); lodgepole pine - sapwood (24, 57, 19), heartwood (51, 26, 23); limber pine - sapwood (10, 82, 8), heartwood (23, 60, 17). The larger nonsaponifiables content, as compared to southern pines, is the major factor in explaining the greater difficulty in the distillative refining of tall oil from these western species. Eight resin acids were found in ponderosa and lodgepole pine: palustric, isopimaric, abietic, dehydroabietic, and neoabietic acids predominated. Seven resin acids were identified from limber pine: anticopalic, isopimaric, abietic, and dehydroabietic acids predominated. The free and esterfied fatty acids from these species contained predominantly oleic and linoleic acids. In addition limber pine contained major amounts of 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid. The nonsaponifiables contained mostly diterpenes and the sterols, sitosterol and campesterol. The major turpentine components were: ponderosa pine - ..beta..-pinene and 3-carene; lodgepole pine - ..beta..-phellandrene; and limber pine - 3-carene, ..beta..-phellandrene, ..cap alpha..-piene, and ..beta..-pinene.

  17. Development of secondary pine forests after pine wilt disease in western Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Michiro [Natural History Museum and Inst., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The development of secondary Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine) forests after pine wilt disease was studied through phytosociological analysis, estimation of forest structure before disease and size-structure, tree ring and stem analyses. Following the end of the disease, the growth of previously suppressed small oak trees was accelerated. This is quite different from the development of forests following fire, which starts with the establishment of pine seedlings. Pine wilt disease shifted the dominance of secondary forests from Pinus densiflora to Quercus serrata oak forest. In pine forests, disturbance by fire is important for forest maintenance. In contrast, disturbance by pine wilt disease leads to an acceleration of succession from pine forest to oak forest. 50 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  18. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmalik Sudarmalik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.Keywords: industrial plantation forest, property right, principal agent, the state position, authority

  19. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  20. Pine nuts: the mycobiota and potential mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbörner, M

    2001-05-01

    The mycobiota of pine nuts was investigated. In total, 1832 fungi belonging to 31 species and 15 genera (Ascomycota, 2; Zygomycota, 3; mitosporic fungi, 10) could be isolated. Cladosporium spp. dominated the mycobiota with 685 isolations followed by Phoma macrostoma with 351 isolations. Overall, 16 potentially mycotoxigenic species were present on pine nuts.

  1. Long term carbon fluxes in south eastern U.S. pine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, R. G.; Martin, T.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Sharp, J.

    2015-12-01

    Forests in the southeastern U.S. are a critical component of the national carbon balance storing a third of the total forest carbon (C) in conterminous USA. South eastern forests occupy 60% of the land area, with a large fraction dominated by the genus Pinus distributed in almost equal proportions of naturally-regenerated and planted stands. These stands often differ in structure (e.g., stem density, leaf area index (LAI)) and in the intensity with which they are managed (e.g. naturally-regenerated, older pine stands are often managed less intensively, with prescribed fire). We measured C fluxes using the eddy covariance approach (net ecosystem production, -NEP) in planted (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) and naturally-regenerated mixed stand of long leaf (Pinus palustris Mill) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) accompanied by biometric estimations of C balance. Measurements spanned more than a decade and included interannual climatic variability ranging from severe droughts (e.g. Palmer Drought severity index (PDSI) averaged -2.7 from January 2000 to May 2002, and -3.3 from June 2006 to April 2008), to years with tropical storms. Annual NEP for the older, naturally-regenerated stand fluctuated from -1.60 to -5.38 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 with an average of -2.73 ± 1.17 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 while in plantations after canopy closure NEP fluctuated from -4.0 to -8.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 with an average of -6.17 ± 1.34 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Annual NEP in naturally-regenerated pine was mainly driven by a combination of water availability and understory burning while in plantations it was driven by water availability after canopy closure. Woody and above ground net primary productivity (NPP) followed gross ecosystem carbon exchange (GEE) in both ecosystems. Naturally-regenerated and planted pine are a strong carbon sink under the current management and environmental fluctuations accumulating 28 and 130 Mg C ha-1 in a decade, respectively, and are among the most productive forests in

  2. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas; Mertz, Ole

    2013-01-01

    -wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol, but its suitability has also......C/ha) and orange (76 tC/ha) plantations have a much lower C content, and oil palm (45 tC/ha) has the lowest C potential, assuming that the yield is not used as biofuel. There is considerable C sequestration potential in plantations if they are established on land with modest C content such as degraded forest...

  3. Features of Scots pine radial growth in conditions of provenance trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Sergey; Kuzmina, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Provenance trial of Scots pine in Boguchany forestry of Krasnoyarsk krai is conducted on two different soils - dark-grey loam forest soil and sod-podzol sandy soil. Complex of negative factors for plant growth and development appears in dry conditions of sandy soil. It could results in decrease of resistance to diseases. Sandy soils in different climatic zones have such common traits as low absorbing capacity, poorness of elemental nutrition, low microbiological activity and moisture capacity, very high water permeability. But Scots pine trees growing in such conditions could have certain advantages and perspectives of use. In the scope of climate change (global warming) the study of Scots pine growth on sandy soil become urgent because of more frequent appearance of dry seasons. Purpose of the work is revelation of radial growth features of Scots pine with different origin in dry conditions of sandy soil and assessment of external factors influence. The main feature of radial growth of majority of studied pine provenances in conditions of sandy soil is presence of significant variation of increment with distinct decline in 25-years old with loss of tree rings in a number of cases. The reason of it is complex of factors: deficit of June precipitation and next following outbreak of fungal disease. Found «frost rings» for all trees of studied clymatypes in 1992 are the consequence of temperature decline from May 21 to June 2 - from 23 down to 2 degree Celsius. Perspective climatypes with biggest radial increments and least sensitivity to fungal disease were revealed. Eniseysk and Vikhorevka (from Krasnoyarsk krai and Irkutsk oblast)provenances of pine have the biggest radial increments, the least sensitivity to Cenangium dieback and smallest increments decline. These climatypes are in the group of perspective provenances and in present time they are recommended for wide trial in the region for future use in plantation forest growing. Kandalaksha (Murmansk oblast

  4. The effect of some wood preservatives on the thermal degradation of Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomak, Eylem D., E-mail: eylemdizman@yahoo.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Baysal, Ergun, E-mail: bergun@mu.edu.tr [Mugla University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Kotekli, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Peker, Huseyin, E-mail: peker100@hotmail.com [Artvin Coruh University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 06100 Artvin (Turkey)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scots pine samples were impregnated with 10 commercial wood preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal degradation of wood was evaluated by TG, DTG and DTA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal behavior of treated wood differed from that of untreated wood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron containing wood preservatives yielded more charcoal than other preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boric oxide and metal compounds in the formulations may affect char weight. - Abstract: Wood has been a structural material for many years; however, its ability to burn has limited its use in some applications. This study aims to evaluate the effect of commercial wood preservatives having concentration of 4% on the thermal behavior of Scots pine wood, and compare the fire retardant effectiveness of these preservatives with that of boron compounds. Thermal degradation of treated and untreated wood samples was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal behavior of treated wood differed from thermal behavior of untreated wood in terms of a high char yield. Results showed that weight loss of wood reduced while char yield increased in the charring phase of the pyrolysis in the boron containing preservative treated wood accompanying with pyrolysis temperature lowered. The highest char yield was obtained from the samples treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in the all treated groups.

  5. Microfibril angle variability in Masson Pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) using X-ray diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Bo; Fei Ben-hua; Yu Yan; Zhao Rong-jun

    2007-01-01

    The microfibril angle of fiber walls is an ultra-microscopic feature affecting the performance of wood products. It is therefore essential to get more definitive information to improve selection and utilization. X-ray diffraction is a rapid method for measuring micro fibril angles. In this paper, the variability of microfibril angle in plantation-grown Masson pine was investigated by peak-fitting method. This method was compared with the traditional hand-drawn method, 40% peak height method and half peak height method. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that the microfibril angle changed as a function of the position in the tree.The mean micro fibril angle decreased more gradually as the distance increased from the pith and reached the same level in mature wood. The microfibril angle also seemed to decrease clearly from the base upward. Differences of angle-intensity curves between heartwood and sapwood were also examined.

  6. Testing the effectiveness of pine needlecast in reducing post-fire soil erosion using complementary experimental approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C. P. M.; Shakesby, R. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Urbanek, E.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean wildfire activity has increased markedly in recent decades, leading to enhanced runoff and erosion. Limiting post-fire on-site soil degradation and off-site flooding and sedimentation, however, often has a low priority because of the high costs of materials and labour needed to implement many recognised techniques (e.g. seeding, hydromulching, installing logs along the contour). However, in pine plantations, the crowns may only be scorched so that after fire the needlecast can form a comparatively dense ground cover. Its post-fire erosion-limiting effectiveness is virtually unknown in the Mediterranean context, despite potentially protecting soil with minimal effort (requiring only a delay to existing salvage logging procedures at most). As part of the DESIRE research programme, this paper presents results from two complementary approaches testing the erosion-limiting effectiveness of needlecast. (1) Near Moinhos, central Portugal, two 8m2 erosion plots were established immediately post-fire in September 2009 on a steep (30°) slope representative of an adjacent burnt Pinus pinaster plantation. Soil erosion was monitored during a 3-month pre-treatment phase. Needles were then applied to one plot at a density (37.7% cover) measured on a post-fire pine plantation. Soil losses from treated and untreated plots were then monitored until April 2011. By taking the percentage increase or decrease in erosion between the two monitoring phases for the untreated control plot as the 'expected' pattern, the erosion-limiting effectiveness of needles applied to the treated plot could then be determined. (2) Six adjacent rectangular 1.23m2 lysimeters were filled with gravel and sand, and capped by 10 cm of topsoil taken from a long unburnt Pinus pinaster plantation. They were set at 15° and left open to natural rainfall. This angle was considered the steepest possible from logistical and soil stability points of view. All lysimeters underwent a phase under bare soil

  7. ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF CROWN FIRES OF PINE PLANTINGS IN THE VORONEZH GREEN ZONE Экологическая оценка последствий верховых пожаров в сосновых насаждениях зеленой зоны г. Воронежа

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaralunga V. V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates the taxation parameters of the pine plantations that was damaged by fire in 2010 in Suburban forestry of the Voronezh region and was calculated the basic ecological functions they performed before death. The intercommunication was found between increasing level of air pollution in the study areas and growing of heart and pulmonary morbidity of population

  8. Effect of damaged pine needles on growth and development of pine caterpillar larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lili; LI Zhenyu; LI Hailin; HAN Ruidong; ZHAO Yongli

    2006-01-01

    Chinese pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis)larvae were fed with pine needles of different degrees of damage to evaluate the effects of pine needles on the growth and development of larvae.The results showed that the nutritional index of the larvae declines after feeding on the damaged pine needlings.The lowest amount of food ingested and voided feces,the lowest nutritional index,slowest development,lightest pupae and most mortality were found in those pine caterpillar larvae fed with pine needles which were 50% damaged.The damaged pine needles significantly affected the population dynamics of Chinese pine caterpillars.The nutritional indices of larvae fed with 25% and 75% damaged pine needles were similar.The nutritional index of the dark morphs was higher than that of the tinted morphs,however,their mortality was lower than that of the tinted morphs.This phenomenon was reversed at the later stage of development when the larvae were fed on 50% damaged pine needles.

  9. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  10. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  11. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  12. Biomass production of young lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia stands in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansons A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a source of renewable energy is gaining an increasing importance in the context of emission targets set by the European Union. Large areas of abandoned agricultural land with different soils are potentially available for establishment of biomass plantations in the Baltic states. Considering soil and climatic requirements as well as traits characteristic for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm and the scarcity of published knowledge, we assessed the above-ground biomass of Pinus contorta in comparison to that of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and factors affecting biomass production. Data were collected in 3 experimental trials, located in two sites in central part of Latvia: Zvirgzde and Kuldiga (56°41’ N, 24°28’ E and 57°03’ N, 21°57’ E, respectively. Trials were established with density 5000 tree ha-1, using seed material from Canada (50°08’-60°15’ N, 116°25’-132°50’ W and two Pinus contorta stands with unknown origin growing in Latvia. Results reveal that absolute dry aboveground biomass of Pinus contorta reaches 114 ± 6.4 t ha-1 at age 16 on a fertile former arable land, 48 ± 3.6 and 94 ± 9.4 t ha-1 at age 22 and 25, respectively, on a sandy forest land (Vacciniosa forest type. The biomass is significantly (p < 0.01 and considerably (more than two-fold higher than that of the native Pinus sylvestris and the productivity is similar (in fertile soils or higher (on poor soils than reported for other species in energy-wood plantations. Provenance was a significant factor affecting the above-ground biomass, and the ranking of provenances did not change significantly between different soil conditions. It provides opportunities for further improvement of productivity using selection.

  13. Anaphylaxis induced by pine nuts in two young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, M Dolores; Lombardero, Manuel; San Ireneo, Mercedes Martinez; Muñoz, M Carmen

    2003-08-01

    Pine nuts are the seeds of Pinus pinea. There are few reported cases of allergy to pine nut. We describe two young girls with anaphylaxis caused by small amounts of pine nuts. Specific IgE to pine nut was demonstrated by skin prick tests and RAST but no IgE to other nuts and pine pollen was detected. The patients had IgE against a pine nut protein band with apparent molecular weights of approximately 17 kDa that could be considered as the main allergen. Our patients were monosensitized to pine nut and the 17-kDa protein could be correlated with the severe clinical symptoms.

  14. Performance and value of CAD-deficient pine- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailian Li; Houmin Chang; Hasan Jameel

    2007-02-28

    The southern US produces 58% of the nation's timber, much of it grown in intensively managed plantations of genetically improved loblolly pine. One of the fastest-growing loblolly pine selections made by the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program, whose progeny are widely planted, is also the only known natural carrier of a rare gene, cadn1. This allele codes for deficiency in an enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of lignin precursors. This study is to characterize this candidate gene for marker-assisted selection and deployment in the breeding program. This research will enhance the sustainability of forest production in the South, where land-use pressures will limit the total area available in the future for intensively managed plantations. Furthermore, this research will provide information to establish higher-value plantation forests with more desirable wood/fiber quality traits. A rare mutant allele (cad-n1) of the cad gene in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) causes a deficiency in the production of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). The effects of this allele were examined by comparing wood density and growth traits of cad-n1 heterozygous trees with those of wild-type trees in a 10-year-old open-pollinated family trial growing under two levels of fertilization in Scotland County, North Carolina. In all, 200 trees were sampled with 100 trees for each treatment. Wood density measurements were collected from wood cores at breast height using x-ray densitometry. We found that the substitution of cad-n1 for a wild-type allele (Cad) was associated with a significant effect on wood density. The cad-n1 heterozygotes had a significantly higher wood density (+2.6%) compared to wild-type trees. The higher density was apparently due to the higher percentage of latewood in the heterozygotes. The fertilization effect was highly significant for both growth and wood density traits. While no cad genotype

  15. Plantation Forests for Sustainable Wood Supply and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    With the implementation of Natural Forests Protection Program, wood resource base in China is shifting from naturally grown forests to plantation forests. This paper reviews: 1) The evolution of Chinese decade-long reforestation program and its contribution to sustainable wood supply and development, and 2) impacts of "China's Natural Forest Protection Program and " Fast-Growing and High-Yield Plantation Program in China " on China's wood supply and sustainability. In addition, this paper highlights Chi...

  16. Nutrient Management for Eucalypt Plantations in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Eucalypts are very popular for revegetation in many parts of south China because of their capacity to tolerate degraded sites and unfertile soils,and their fast growth potential to coppice. This paper reviews a decade of field trials in china, undertaken as part of several bilateral researchprograms in plantation forestry, concerning the use of fertilizers, harvest residue management and inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi. One of the key questions addressed is whether the productivity of plantation ...

  17. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-10-30

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible.

  18. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmalik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.

  19. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alexander

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

  20. Effect of Continuous Plantation of Chinese Fir on Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGYING-XIANG; CHENJIN-LIN

    1995-01-01

    The changes in soil fertility under continuous plantation of Chinese fir were studied by comparing soil samples from different forest stands:the first and second plantations of Chinese fir,evergreen broad-leaved forests,and clear-cut and burnt Chinese fir land located at Xihou Village,Nanping of Fujian Province.The soils were humic red soil originated from weathered coarse granite of the Presinian system.Soil pH,CEC,base saturation ,exchangeable Ca2+,exchangeable Mg2+ and A1-P declined after continuous plantation of Chinese fir.The same trends were also found in the soils under broad-leaved stands and slash burnt lands.The explantation was that not merely the biological nature of the Chinese fir itself but the natural leaching of nutrients,soil erosion and nutrient losses due to clear cutting and slash burning of the preceduing plantation caused the soil deterioration .Only some of main soil nutrients decreased after continuous plantation of Chinese fir,depending on specific silvicultural system,which was different from the conclusions in some other reports which showed that all main nutrients,such as OM,total N,available P and available K decreased,Some neccessary step to make up for the lost base,to apply P fertilizer and to avoid buring on clear cut lands could be taken to prevent soil degradation and yield decline in the system of continuous plantation of Chinese fir.

  1. Systemic allergic reaction to pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-02-01

    This case report describes a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts, confirmed by an open, oral provocation test. Skin prick testing with the aqueous allergen revealed an immediate positive prick test, and histamine release from basophil leukocytes to the aqueous allergen was demonstrated. Radioallergosorbent test demonstrated specific IgE antibodies to pine nuts. In a review of medical literature, we found no reports of either oral provocation tests confirming a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts or demonstration of specific IgE antibodies.

  2. [Pine mouth syndrome: a global problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redal-Baigorri, Ana Belén

    2011-12-01

    Pinemouth syndrome is characterised by the development of metallogeusia two days after the ingestion of Chinese pine nuts. The symptoms disappear 7-14 days later. The distribution of Chinese pine nuts not suitable for human consumption, is caused by an increasing demand due to price differences. The reason for the taste disturbances is unknown, some suggest turpentine-based products in its composition, and others have studied the fatty acid content of pine nuts and the properties of pinolenic acid. So far the presence of pesticides or mycotoxins is been ruled out, but the puzzle remains unsolved.

  3. "Pine mouth" syndrome: cacogeusia following ingestion of pine nuts (genus: pinus). An emerging problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Marc-David

    2010-06-01

    We report a case of cacogeusia, specifically metallogeusia (a perceived metallic or bitter taste) following pine nut ingestion. A 36-year-old male presented with cacogeusia one day following ingestion of 10-15 roasted pine nuts (genus: Pinus). Symptoms became worst on post-exposure day 2 and progressively improved without treatment over 5 days. There were no other symptoms and physical examination was unrevealing. All symptoms resolved without sequalae. We contemporaneously report a rise in pine nut-associated cacogeusia reported online during the first quarter of 2009, and a significant rise in online searches related to pine nut-associated cacogeusia (or what the online public has termed "pine mouth") during this time. Most online contributors note a similar cacogeusia 1-3 days following pine nut ingestion lasting for up to 2 weeks. All cases seem self-limited. Patients occasionally describe abdominal cramping and nausea after eating the nuts. Raw, cooked, and processed nuts (in pesto, for example) are implicated. While there appears to be an association between pine nut ingestion and cacogeusia, little is known about this condition, nor can any specific mechanism of specific cause be identified. It is not known if a specific species of pine nut can be implicated. "Pine mouth" appears to be an emerging problem.

  4. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling early growth in a (longleaf pine x slash pine) x slash pine BC(1) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, C.; Kubisiak, L.; Nelson, D.; Stine, M.

    2002-04-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were employed to map the genome and quantitative trait loci controlling the early growth of a pine hybrid F(1) tree ( Pinus palustris Mill. x P. elliottii Engl.) and a recurrent slash pine tree ( P. elliottii Engl.) in a (longleaf pine x slash pine) x slash pine BC(1) family consisting of 258 progeny. Of the 150 hybrid F(1) parent-specific RAPD markers, 133 were mapped into 17 linkage groups covering a genetic distance of 1,338.2 cM. Of the 116 slash pine parent-specific RAPD markers, 83 were mapped into 19 linkage groups covering a genetic distance of 994.6 cM. A total of 11 different marker intervals were found to be significantly associated with 13 of the 20 traits on height and diameter growth using MAPMAKER/QTL. Nine of the eleven marker intervals were unique to the hybrid parent 488 genome, and two were unique to the recurrent parent 18-27 genome. The amount of phenotypic variance explained by the putative QTLs ranged from 3.6% to 11.0%. Different QTLs were detected at different ages. Two marker intervals from the hybrid parent 488 were found to have QTL by environment interactions.

  5. Of peasants, plantations, and immigrant proletarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Martí­nez

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Dominican Sugar Plantations: Production and Foreign Labor Integration. MARTIN F. MURPHY. New York: Praeger, 1991. xii + 186 pp. (Cloth US$49.95 Peasants in Distress: Poverty and Unemployment in the Dominican Republic. ROSEMARY VARGAS-LUNDIUS. Boulder CO: Westview 1991. xxi + 387 pp. (Paper US$ 32.95 Few other places in the Caribbean region have as great a potential for international conflict as the island of Hispaniola. The historical antagonism between Haiti and the Dominican Republic is no doubt known to readers of this journal, as is the recent upsurge in tension between the two countries, which culminated in the expulsion of tens of thousands of Haitian immigrants from the Dominican Republic, from June to September 1991. The quickening pace of events, added to the worsening spiral of economic hardship gripping both nations, threaten to render obsolete even the most recent analyses of relations between the two countries. Even so, against the background of an increasingly acrimonious debate between the Dominican government and international human rights organizations accusing it of enslaving Haitian immigrants in the cane flelds, the appearance of two works by long-time students of the migration of Haitians as cane workers to the Dominican Republic is particularly timely.

  6. Rejuvenated sycamore cuttings for energy plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, S.B. Jr.; Elam, W.W. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Khan, Mohammad [Pakistan Forest Inst., Peshawar (Pakistan). Forestry Research Div.

    1995-12-31

    Rejuvination of mature, progeny tested American sycamore trees is needed to increase rooting success of cuttings for energy plantations. Studies conducted in Mississippi (U.S.A.) indicated that hedging of stock plants and spraying the stock plants with benzyl adenine may rejuvinate the cuttings. Percentages of cuttings with early bud break in one study and with sprouts and roots after nine months in another study were increased. The rooted cuttings grew rapidly like juvenile material and showed no plagiotrophic effects during the first year after transplanting. At the end of that year the dry weight was 2.13 Mg ha{sup -1} (1.2 m x 3.6 m spacing) and was distributed in stems (31%), branches (14%), leaves (24%) and roots (31%). An IBA rooting powder decreased rooting success. Planting cuttings directly in the nursery, rather than first in the greenhouse, increased success when frost was absent. Use of cuttings of greater than 14 m diameter with a node within 2 cm of the base increased success. Clonal differences in frost susceptibility of sprouting cuttings were observed. (author)

  7. Radiation and energy balance dynamics over young chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) system in Doon of western Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nilendu Singh; Bimal K Bhattacharya; M K Nanda; Prafulla Soni; Jai Singh Parihar

    2014-10-01

    The regional impacts of future climate changes are principally driven by changes in energy fluxes. In this study, measurements on micrometeorological and biophysical variables along with surface energy exchange were made over a coniferous subtropical chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) plantation ecosystem at Forest Research Institute, Doon valley, India. The energy balance components were analyzed for two years to understand the variability of surface energy fluxes, their drivers, and closure pattern. The period covered two growth cycles of pine in the years 2010 and 2011 without and with understory growth. Net short wave and long wave radiative fluxes substantially varied with cloud dynamics, season, rainfall induced surface wetness, and green growth. The study clearly brought out the intimate link of albedo dynamics in chir pine system with dynamics of leaf area index (LAI), soil moisture, and changes in understory background. Rainfall was found to have tight linear coupling with latent heat fluxes. Latent heat flux during monsoon period was found to be higher in higher rainfall year (2010) than in lower rainfall year (2011). Higher or lower pre-monsoon sensible heat fluxes were succeeded by noticeably higher or lower monsoon rainfall respectively. Proportion of latent heat flux to net radiation typically followed the growth curve of green vegetation fraction, but with time lag. The analysis of energy balance closure (EBC) showed that the residual energy varied largely within ±30% of net available energy and the non-closure periods were marked by higher rainspells or forced clearance of understory growths.

  8. Search for major genes with progeny test data to accelerate the development of genetically superior loblolly pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NCSU

    2003-12-30

    This research project is to develop a novel approach that fully utilized the current breeding materials and genetic test information available from the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program to identify major genes that are segregating for growth and disease resistance in loblolly pine. If major genes can be identified in the existing breeding population, they can be utilized directly in the conventional loblolly pine breeding program. With the putative genotypes of parents identified, tree breeders can make effective decisions on management of breeding populations and operational deployment of genetically superior trees. Forest productivity will be significantly enhanced if genetically superior genotypes with major genes for economically important traits could be deployed in an operational plantation program. The overall objective of the project is to develop genetic model and analytical methods for major gene detection with progeny test data and accelerate the development of genetically superior loblolly pine. Specifically, there are three main tasks: (1) Develop genetic models for major gene detection and implement statistical methods and develop computer software for screening progeny test data; (2) Confirm major gene segregation with molecular markers; and (3) Develop strategies for using major genes for tree breeding.

  9. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  10. Quantification of acetone emission from pine plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; (邵敏); Jürgen; Wildt

    2002-01-01

    Acetone emission from pine plants (pinus sylvestris) is measured by continuously stirred tank reactor. Under a constant light intensity, acetone emission rates increase exponentially with leaf temperature. When leaf temperature is kept constant, acetone emission increases with light intensity. And acetone emission in darkness is also detected. Acetone emitted from pine is quickly labeled by 13C when the plants are exposed to air with 630 mg/m3 13CO2. However, no more than 20% of acetone is 13C labeled. Acetone emission from pine may be due to both leaf temperature- controlled process and light intensity-controlled process. Based on these understandings, an algorithm is used to describe the short term acetone emission rates from pine.

  11. Longleaf Pine Survival, Growth, and Recruitment Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This experiment was to determine mean survivorship, growth rate, and recruitment rate of longleaf pine seedlings planted on different soil types on the refuge. Open...

  12. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  13. Effects of mixture and thinning in a tree farming valuable broadleaves plantation more than 20 years after the establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Corazzesi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of peduncolate Oak plantation trials where the Oak is mixed to wild Cherry and narrow-leaf Ash per line and per close mixture with different proportions (25% and 50% of N-fixing species (Black Locust and Italian Alder are described in the paper. The plantation, carried out in winter 1988-89, was framed into a reafforestation plan for spoil banks restoration. On a share of the plantation area, free thinnings foreseeing the release of about 70 target trees per hectare, were undertaken in 2001 and 2003; 21% and 27% of basal area were removed, respectively. In the latter trial, the crowns of target trees were completely isolated by felling all the surrounding trees. The performances of valuable timber broadleaves, the effects of intercropping and thinning on the growth of Oak target trees were analysed. Three inventories (2001, 2004 and 2008 and the annual monitoring of target trees growth were performed at the purpose. The two peduncolate Oak and narrow-leaf Ash trees showed the best performances among the set of valuable broadleaves, whilst wild cherry resulted not suited to local site conditions. A higher tree mortality occurred in the mixture with Black Locust. The mixture with both Nfixing species provided a stimulus to the Oak growth both in terms of dbh and tree height. Italian Alder resulted anyway less competitive and easy to manage, considering its progressive self-thinning, while Black Locust was aggressive enough to necessitate the control of its development by pollarding 7 years after the plantation. In the thinned plots, target trees showed significant diameter increments in comparison with control plots; maintaining year by year constant dbh increments of about 1 cm and crown’s diameter increment of about 50 cm. Intercropping with Italian Alder showed to be more effective than thinning on growth of the target trees. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso

  14. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  15. Loblolly Pine Productivity and Water Relations in Response to Throughfall Reduction and Fertilizer Application on a Poorly Drained Site in Northern Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell G. Wightman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. forests are of great ecological and economic value in the southeastern United States, where nutrient availability frequently limits productivity. The impact of fertilizer application on the growth and water relations of loblolly pine has been investigated by numerous studies; however, few field experiments have examined the effects of drought. Drought is of particular interest due to the potential for climate change to alter soil water availability. In this study, we investigated the impact of fertilizer application and a 30% reduction in throughfall on loblolly pine productivity, transpiration, hydraulic conductance, and stomatal conductance. The study was installed in a ten-year-old loblolly pine plantation on a somewhat poorly drained site in northern Florida. Throughfall reduction did not impact tree productivity or water relations of the trees. This lack of response was attributed to abundant rainfall and the ability of trees to access the shallow water table at this site. Fertilizer application increased basal area production by 20% and maximum leaf area index by 0.5 m2∙m−2, but it did not affect whole-tree hydraulic conductance or the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. During the spring, when leaf area and vapor pressure deficit were high, the fertilizer-only treatment increased monthly transpiration by 17% when compared to the control. This relationship, however, was not significant during the rest of the year.

  16. Response of pine forest to disturbance of pine wood nematode with interpretative structural model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan SHI; Youqing LUO; Xiaosu YAN; Weiping CHEN; Ping JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), originating from North America, causes destructive pine wilt disease. Different pine forest ecosystems have different resistances to B. xylophilus,and after its invasion, the resilience and restoration direction of different ecosystems also varies. In this study, an interpretative structural model was applied for analyzing the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance. The result showed that a five-degree multi-stage hierarchical system affected the response of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance, in which direct affecting factors are resistance and resilience. Furthermore,the analysis to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree factors showed that not only does distribution pattern of plant species and pine's ecological features affect the resistance of pine forests' ecosystem, but removal of attacked trees and other measures also influence the resistance through indirectly affecting the damage degree of Monochamus alternatus and distribution pattern of plant species. As for resilience,it is influenced directly by soil factors, hydrology,surrounding species provenance and biological character-istics of the second and jointly dominant species, and the climate factors can also have a direct or indirect effect on it by affecting the above factors. Among the fifth elements,the elevation, gradient and slope direction, topographical factors, diversity of geographical location and improve-ment of prevention technology all influence the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance.

  17. Soil CO2 Efflux in a Mixed Pine-Oak Forest in Valsaín (Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Inclán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-surface CO2 efflux and its spatial and temporal variation were investigated in a southern Mediterranean, mixed pine-oak forest ecosystem on the northern slopes of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Spain from February 2006 to July 2006. Measurements of soil CO2 efflux, soil temperatures, and moisture were conducted in nine 1963-m2 sampling plots distributed in a gradient around the ecotone between Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pyrenaica Lam. forest stands. Total soil organic matter, Walkey-Black C, particulate organic matter, organic matter fraction below 53 μm, total soil nitrogen content, total soil organic carbon content, and pH were also measured under three representative mature oak, pine, and mixed pine-oak forest stands. Soil respiration showed a typical seasonal pattern with minimums in winter and summer, and maximums in spring, more pronounced in oak and oak-pine stands. Soil respiration values were highest in pine stands during winter and in oak stands during spring and summer.

  18. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  19. 油松人工林林木生物量研究%Research pinus tabulaeformis forest plantation biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马保明; 高海平; 颜楠

    2012-01-01

      以山西省吕梁地区方山县峪口花果山油松人工林为对象,在同一地区选择并设置4块标准地,然后利用直接收获法中的平均木法测定选定所在标准地的生物量,对峪口一带的油松人工林群落生物量、生物量在各器官的分配情况以及峪口地区各种林分密度下油松人工林的生物量进行研究和分析.结果显示:①样地 SX-LL-FC-P03-R1、SX-LL-FC-P03-R2、SX-LL-FC-P03-R3、SX-LL-DC-P08的群落生物量分别是70.03t/hm2、131.78t/hm2、122.75 t/hm2、99.83 t/hm2;②林分中乔木所包含的生物量在总生物量中占有的绝大部分,为97.99 t/hm2,枯落物层次之,3.03 t/hm2,草本层再次,0.62 t/hm2,灌木层最少,0.35 t/hm2;③油松人工林的树干、树枝、树叶、树根的生物量的分配虽然受立地条件和树龄等客观因素的影响而呈现一定差异性,但单株林木中各个器官生物量所占的比例仍呈现出一些规律:总生物量中树干约占38.44%,树枝约占27.47%,树叶约占18.05%,根系约占16.04%;④不同密度的油松人工林对群落的总生物量也有相当大的影响,SX-LL-FC-P03-R1样地的林分密度为790株/hm2,群落总生物量为70.03 t/hm2,SX-LL-FC-P03-R2样地的林分密度为2170株/hm2,群落总生物量为131.78 t/hm2,SX-LL-FC-P03-R3样地的林分密度为2120株/hm2,群落总生物量为122.75 t/hm2,SX-LL-DC-P08样地的林分密度为2250株/hm2,群落总生物量为99.83 t/hm2.%  To Shanxi Luliang Fangshan County yukou in Huaguoshan Chinese pine plantation select the object, in the same area and set of four standard ground, and then use the average wood Determination direct harvest method selected where the standard of biomassChinese pine planta-tion of yukou along the community biomass, biomass distribution in various organs, as well yukou regional variety of Chinese pine plantation stand density biomass research and analysis. The results showed that: ① The plot SX-LL-FC-P03-R1

  20. RAPD linkage mapping in a longleaf pine x slash pine F1 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisiak, T L; Nelson, C D; Nance, W L; Stine, M

    1995-06-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to construct linkage maps of the parent of a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englm.) F1 family. A total of 247 segregating loci [233 (1∶1), 14 (3∶1)] and 87 polymorphic (between parents), but non-segregating, loci were identified. The 233 loci segregating 1∶1 (testcross configuration) were used to construct parent-specific linkage maps, 132 for the longleaf-pine parent and 101 for the slash-pine parent. The resulting linkage maps consisted of 122 marker loci in 18 groups (three or more loci) and three pairs (1367.5 cM) for longleaf pine, and 91 marker loci in 13 groups and six pairs for slash pine (952.9 cM). Genome size estimates based on two-point linkage data ranged from 2348 to 2392 cM for longleaf pine, and from 2292 to 2372 cM for slash pine. Linkage of 3∶1 loci to testcross loci in each of the parental maps was used to infer further linkages within maps, as well as potentially homologous counterparts between maps. Three of the longleaf-pine linkage groups appear to be potentially homologous counterparts to four different slash-pine linkage groups. The number of heterozygous loci (previously testcross in parents) per F1 individual, ranged from 96 to 130. With the 87 polymorphic, but non-segregating, loci that should also be heterozygous in the F1 progeny, a maximum of 183-217 heterozygous loci could be available for mapping early height growth (EHG) loci and for applying genomic selection in backcross populations.

  1. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  2. The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy

    2010-12-01

    This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market.

  3. Black thread disease, control measures and yield stimulation in Hevea brasiliensis in Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, J.

    1972-01-01

    Described are investigations, carried out in 1963 to 1971 in Hevea brasiliensis at the Firestone Plantation at Harbel in Liberia. Studied was the tapping panel disease, black thread, caused by the fungus Phytophthora palmivora. The emphasis of the investigations was on control of the disease with th

  4. Study on Cultivation Nutrition of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations with Multi-generation Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the previous study on cultivation nutrition of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations of first generation, the cultivation nutrition of C. lanceolata plantations with multi-generation was studied. The results show that there are significant differences in the growth, development and nutrient assimilation among C. lanceolata plantations with different generations and nutrition conditions. These differences are closely related to the land fertility decline of C. lanceolata plantations. This paper de...

  5. Demarcation of Seabuckthorn Plantations in Three Northern Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) planting areas in the three northern areas (north, northeast and northwest) of China are divided into five planting zones: the semi-humid forest prairie climate zone for ecological and economic types of seabuckthorn plantations in the southern part of the Loess Plateau; the semi-arid steppe climate zone for similar types of plantations in the central part of the Loess Plateau; the arid desert steppe climate zone for ecological type of seabuckthorn plantations in the northern part of the Loess Plateau; the semi-arid and semi-humid steppe climate zone again for ecological and economic types of plantations in northern Hebei and western Liaoning and the cold humid steppe climate zone for economic types of plantations in the northern part of northeast China. The aim of this demarcation is to avoid a random introduction of seabuckthorn. In each of the five zones,objectives should be set and suitable seabuckthorn species, subspecies and varieties should be planted according to site conditions,seed sources and methods of tree breeding. The cultivation centers, bases, stations, or units should be established and successful models of seedling and planting methods should be encouraged. The principle of matching trees with suitable site conditions and adjusting measures to local conditions should be practiced. From a strategic viewpoint of solving ecological and economic problems of seabuckthorn development in the three northern areas, every seabuckthorn center must have its own germplasm nursery, standard plantation for popularizing, excellent seed and seedling nurseries and sufficient afforestation areas for demonstration and propaganda purposes. These measures would improve the ecological environment and promote economic and social development in the three northern areas of China.

  6. Solar Decathlon 2015 - Indigo Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Vincent [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-05-30

    The Solar Decathlon competition challenges students across the country to design and build a net-zero, market ready solar powered home. The bi-annual competition consists of ten contests that seek to balance the home on a scale of innovation. The ten contests were selected by to organizers to address all aspects of housing, including architecture, market appeal, engineering, communication, affordability, comfort, appliances, home life, commuting, and energy balance. Along with the criteria associated with the contests, the competition includes several design constraints that mirror those found in practical housing applications: including (but certainly not limited to) lot lines, building height, and ADA accessibility. The Solar Decathlon 2015 was held at the Orange Country Great Park in Irvine, CA. The 2015 competition was Clemson University’s first entry into the Solar Decathlon and was a notable milestone in the continued development of a home, called Indigo Pine. From the beginning, the team reconsidered the notion of sustainability as related to both the design of a home and the competition itself. The designing and building process for the home reflects a process which seamlessly moves between thinking and making to develop a comprehensive design with a method and innovations that challenge the conventions of residential construction. This report is a summary of the activities of the Clemson University team during the two-year duration of the project leading to the participation in the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine California.

  7. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  8. Pine Savannah restoration monitoring –Tammany Holding Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monitor the response of pine flatwood/savannah to restoration and management actions including brush removal, prescribed burning and planting longleaf pine...

  9. Characterization of pine nuts in the U.S. market, including those associated with "pine mouth", by GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Handy, Sara M; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-03-14

    Taste disturbances following consumption of pine nuts, referred to as "pine mouth", have been reported by consumers in the United States and Europe. Nuts of Pinus armandii have been associated with pine mouth, and a diagnostic index (DI) measuring the content of Δ5-unsaturated fatty acids relative to that of their fatty acid precursors has been proposed for identifying nuts from this species. A 100 m SLB-IL 111 GC column was used to improve fatty acid separations, and 45 pine nut samples were analyzed, including pine mouth-associated samples. This study examined the use of a DI for the identification of mixtures of pine nut species and showed the limitation of morphological characteristics for species identification. DI values for many commercial samples did not match those of known reference species, indicating that the majority of pine nuts collected in the U.S. market, including those associated with pine mouth, are mixtures of nuts from different Pinus species.

  10. 78 FR 52498 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Eureka, Nevada. The... Standard Time. All RAC meetings are subject to change or cancellation. For status of the White Pine-Nye...

  11. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  12. Evolutionary fire ecology: lessons learned from pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, Juli G

    2015-05-01

    Macroevolutionary studies of the genus Pinus provide the oldest current evidence of fire as an evolutionary pressure on plants and date back to ca. 125 million years ago (Ma). Microevolutionary studies show that fire traits are variable within and among populations, especially among those subject to different fire regimes. In addition, there is increasing evidence of an inherited genetic basis to variability in fire traits. Added together, pines provide compelling evidence that fire can exert an evolutionary pressure on plants and, thus, shape biodiversity. In addition, evolutionary fire ecology is providing insights to improve the management of pine forests under changing conditions. The lessons learned from pines may guide research on the evolutionary ecology of other taxa.

  13. First record of the Kuwana pine mealybug Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana) in Italy: a new threat to Italian pine forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, Mauro; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-02-19

    The Asiatic Kuwana pine mealybug, Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana, 1902) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), is reported in Italy for the first time. It was detected in September 2015 on maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, and stone pine, Pinus pinea, trees growing in the town of Cervia (Ravenna Province), Northern Italy. The mealybug has caused yellowing and decline of the pine trees. Pinus pinea is recorded here as a new host for C. pini.

  14. Short Communication. Restoring monoculture plantation using stand spatial structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. To improve the quality of monoculture plantations in China.Area of study. structure-based forest management was conducted in Rocky Mountain Area of Northern China.Material and Methods. Stand spatial structure indicators of mingling degree, uniform angle index, neighborhood comparison and opening degree were comparably investigated to understand the changes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantations.Main results. The results indicated that structure-based forest management accounted for 0.403 and 0.448 of the significant variations in mingling degree and opening degree increments, and had no essential changes in uniform angle index and neighborhood comparison. Structure-based forest management is greatly beneficial to plantation quality, and it can be a source of improvement on stand structure.Research highlights. This improved information is essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on how best to restore degraded forests in China as well as the rest of the world.Key words: monoculture plantation; structure-based forest management; stand spatial structure; forest restoration

  15. Yaughan and Curriboo Plantations: Studies in Afro-American Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    involving the plantation’s viability over the long run were conducted in a separate circuit from those involving daily pro- visioning . As the analysis...Wheaton, Thomas R., Jr. 1976 La ceramica clasica del area de Huejotzingo, Puebla . Comunicaciones. 13:25-32. 1980 Architecture at Curriboo and Yaughan

  16. Yaughan and Curriboo Plantations. Studies in Afro-American Archaeology,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    the plantation’s viability over the long run were conducted in a separate circuit from those involving daily pro- visioning . As the analysis of the...York. Wheaton, Thomas R., Jr. 1976 La ceramica clasica del area de Huejotzingo, Puebla . Comunicaciones. 13:25-32. 1980 Architecture at Curriboo and

  17. Plantation Patriarchy and Structural Violence: Women Workers in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kurian (Rachel); K. Jayawardena (Kumari)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Plantation production began in Sri Lanka in the early 19th century under British colonial rule, when the government provided financial incentives and infrastructural support for the commercialisation and export of agricultural crops in line with promoting laissez-faire

  18. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650...

  19. Yield models for commercial willow biomass plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, Blas [Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-801 01 Joensuu (Finland); Aronsson, Paer [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7016, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    A yield model for willow plantations for bioenergy production in Sweden was developed based on recorded production of 2082 commercial plantations during the period 1989-2005. The model predicts yield for the first, second and third harvest using oats (avena) production as agro-climatic index. The mean annual yields were 2.6, 4.2 and 4.5 oven dry tonnes (odt) per hectare during the first, second and third cutting cycles, respectively. The yield correlated inversely with the length of the cutting cycle. The results of the study show significant differences between growers, which suggest the importance of proper management in the establishment and tending of the plantations. Model estimates for 25% of the best growers vary from 4.0 to 6.3 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 5-year-rotation plantations during the first cutting cycle, and from 5.4 to 7.1 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 4-year-rotations for the second cutting cycle. The proposed model can be applied in policy making and for management planning. (author)

  20. Extracting DNA from submerged pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M Megan; Williams, Claire G

    2004-10-01

    A DNA extraction protocol for submerged pine logs was developed with the following properties: (i) high molecular weight DNA, (ii) PCR amplification of chloroplast and nuclear sequences, and (iii) high sequence homology to voucher pine specimens. The DNA extraction protocol was modified from a cetyltrimehtylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by adding stringent electrophoretic purification, proteinase K, RNAse, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Gene Releaser. Chloroplast rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) could be amplified. Nuclear ribosomal sequences had >95% homology to Pinus taeda and Pinus palustris. Microsatellite polymorphism for PtTX2082 matched 2 of 14 known P. taeda alleles. Our results show DNA analysis for submerged conifer wood is feasible.

  1. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  2. IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF C2-C10 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ABOVE A SIERRA NEVADA PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fully automated GC-FID system was designed and built to measure ambient concentrations of C2-C10 volatile organic compounds, including many oxygenated compounds, without using liquid cryogen. It was deployed at Blodgett Forest Research Station in Georgetown, CA USA, 38 deg 53' ...

  3. EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF ENERGY USE BLACK LOCUST (Robinia pseudoacacia L. DENDROMASS ACQUIRED IN FOREST STANDS GROWING ON CLAY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur KRASZKIEWICZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in the assessed capacity using for energy purposes dendromass black locust acquired in three forest stands growing on clay soils. It was found that the test conditions black locust grows well in clay soils very rich, and its timber, in terms of energy use, has a desirable physicochemical properties. Whereas the energy of black locust plantations located on clay soils may be an alternative to gain valuable energy resource.

  4. Mountain pine beetle attack associated with low levels of 4-allylanisole in ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Jay J; Snyder, Aaron I; Bower, Nathan W; Snyder, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is the most important insect pest in southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Tree mortality is hastened by the various fungal pathogens that are symbiotic with the beetles. The phenylpropanoid 4-allylanisole is an antifungal and semiochemical for some pine beetle species. We analyzed 4-allylanisole and monoterpene profiles in the xylem oleoresin from a total of 107 trees at six sites from two chemotypes of ponderosa pine found in Colorado and New Mexico using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Although monoterpene profiles were essentially the same in attacked and nonattacked trees, significantly lower levels of 4-allylanisole were found in attacked trees compared with trees that showed no evidence of attack for both chemotypes.

  5. Missing Rings, Synchronous Growth, and Ecological Disturbance in a 36-Year Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida Provenance Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Leland

    Full Text Available Provenance studies are an increasingly important analog for understanding how trees adapted to particular climatic conditions might respond to climate change. Dendrochronological analysis can illuminate differences among trees from different seed sources in terms of absolute annual growth and sensitivity to external growth factors. We analyzed annual radial growth of 567 36-year-old pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill. trees from 27 seed sources to evaluate their performance in a New Jersey Pine Barrens provenance experiment. Unexpectedly, missing rings were prevalent in most trees, and some years-1992, 1999, and 2006-had a particularly high frequency of missing rings across the plantation. Trees from local seed sources (<55 km away from the plantation had a significantly smaller percentage of missing rings from 1980-2009 (mean: 5.0%, relative to northernmost and southernmost sources (mean: 9.3% and 7.9%, respectively. Some years with a high frequency of missing rings coincide with outbreaks of defoliating insects or dry growing season conditions. The propensity for missing rings synchronized annual variations in growth across all trees and might have complicated the detection of potential differences in interannual variability among seed sources. Average ring width was significantly larger in seed sources from both the southernmost and warmest origins compared to the northernmost and coldest seed sources in most years. Local seed sources had the highest average radial growth. Adaptation to local environmental conditions and disturbances might have influenced the higher growth rate found in local seed sources. These findings underscore the need to understand the integrative impact of multiple environmental drivers, such as disturbance agents and climate change, on tree growth, forest dynamics, and the carbon cycle.

  6. Host Preference by Monochamus alternatus (Hope) during Maturation Feeding on Pine Species and Masson Pine Provenances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Host preferences pine of the sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternates (Hope), during maturation feeding on 8 conifer trees and 40 masson pine provenances, were investigated using 3 types of laboratory bioassay of consistent feeding preference, feeding area and visitation frequency. M. alternatus adults have the highest frequency of feeding and prefer to feed on the branches of P. massoniana and P. densiflora and had significant host selectivity on 8 conifer trees in the area of Nanjing. The adult feeding vi...

  7. Workshop proceedings: research and management in whitebark pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine C.; Coen, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to exchange information on on-going and soon-to-be-initiated whitebark pine research and management projects. By doing so we hope to encourage future work on this valuable species. We also hope to promote the use of consistent methods for evaluation and investigation of whitebark pine, and to provide avenues of collaboration. Speakers will present information on a variety of topics related to whitebark pine management and research. Featured presentation topics include anthropomorphic utilization of whitepark pine forests, whitebark pine natural regeneration, blister rust and the decline of whitebark pine, blister rust resistance studies, ecological mapping of the species, restoration and management projects, and survey/monitoring techniques. Information gained from these presentations may hopefully be used in the planning of future projects for the conservation of whitebark pine.

  8. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  9. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  10. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: evidence for a major gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A W; Sniezko, R A; Kegley, A; Burns, K S

    2014-02-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections from >100 limber pine trees confirm that genetic segregation of a stem symptom-free trait to blister rust is consistent with inheritance by a single dominant resistance (R) gene, and the resistance allele appears to be distinct from the R allele in western white pine. Following previous conventions, we are naming the R gene for limber pine "Cr4." The frequency of the Cr4 allele across healthy and recently invaded populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains was unexpectedly high (5.0%, ranging from 0 to 13.9%). Cr4 is in equilibrium, suggesting that it is not a product of a recent mutation and may have other adaptive significance within the species, possibly related to other abiotic or biotic stress factors. The identification of Cr4 in native populations of limber pine early in the invasion progress in this region provides useful information for predicting near-term impacts and structuring long-term management strategies.

  11. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Cochard, H.; Mencuccini, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nolè, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.

    2009-01-01

    The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the po

  12. Forested habitat preferences by Chilean citizens: Implications for biodiversity conservation in Pinus radiata plantations Preferencia por hábitats forestales por ciudadanos chilenos: Implicancias para la conservación de biodiversidad en plantaciones de Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLE PÜSCHEL-HOENEISEN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for conservation outside protected areas has prompted the modification of productive practices to allow the maintenance of wild biota in productive landscapes such as those associated to timber production. Forest plantations could cooperate in conserving biodiversity outside protected areas if they have a developed understory. However, the success of the production changes depends on the social support they receive. Therefore, we evaluate Chilean citizens' preference for five habitats of different types of forest management. In addition, we assessed perceptions regarding the relationship between pine plantations and native wildlife through surveys administered in Chillán, Santiago and six rural localities in the VII and VIII region. Despite there is not a unanimous opinion regarding pine plantations as a threat to biodiversity, people prefer pine plantations that serve as habitat for endangered fauna. In fact, they agree on paying more for forest products to contribute to conservation in forest plantations, and actually prefer plantations with a developed understory better than those without it. This would suggest that measures aimed at conservation in forest plantations could be supported by the Chilean society.La necesidad de la conservación fuera de áreas protegidas ha llevado a la modificación de las prácticas productivas para permitir el mantenimiento de la biota silvestre en paisajes productivos tales como los asociados a la producción de madera. Las plantaciones forestales podrían cooperar en la conservación de la biodiversidad fuera de áreas protegidas si tienen un sotobosque desarrollado. Sin embargo, el éxito de los cambios en la producción depende del apoyo social que estos reciben. Así, evaluamos la preferencia por cinco paisajes con diferentes tipos de manejo forestal. Además, se evaluó la percepción acerca de la relación entre las plantaciones de pino y la fauna nativa a través de encuestas realizadas en

  13. Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) shoot-feeding characteristics and overwintering behavior in Scotch pine Christmas trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, R A; Lawrence, R K; Heaton, G C

    2001-04-01

    Overwintering behavior of Tomicus piniperda (L.) was studied in a Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Christmas tree plantation in Indiana (1992-1994) and a plantation in Michigan (1994). In general, adults feed inside shoots during summer, then move to overwintering sites at the base of trees in autumn. In early autumn, adults were most often found in shoot-feeding tunnels that were still surrounded by green needles, whereas few were in tunnels surrounded by yellow or brown needles. For all years and sites combined, the range in the percentage of recently tunneled shoots that contained live T. piniperda adults decreased from 89 to 96% in mid-October, to 15- 66% in early November, to 2-10% in mid-November, and to 0-2% by late November to early December. In each year, the first subfreezing temperatures in autumn occurred in October, before most adults left the shoots. Of 1,285 T. piniperda-tunneled shoots, one to seven tunnels (mean = 1.6) and zero to three adults were found per infested shoot. Of these 1,285 attacked shoots, 55% of the shoots had one tunnel, 33% had two, 9% had three, 3% had four, and trees were dissected in January 1993. Eighty percent of the tunneled shoots were in the upper quarter of the tree crown and 98% were in the upper half. For the four trees inspected in January, one live adult was found in a shoot and 85 adults were found in the outer bark along the lower trunk from 1 cm below the soil line to 19 cm above the soil line. No overwintering adults were found outside the trunk in the duff or soil near the base of each test tree. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of surveying, timing the cutting of Christmas trees, and cutting height for Christmas trees.

  14. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  15. Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

  16. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change.

  17. Growth and structure of a young Aleppo pine planted forest after thinning for diversification and wildfire prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruiz-Mirazo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: In the Mediterranean, low timber-production forests are frequently thinned to promote biodiversity and reduce wildfire risk, but few studies in the region have addressed such goals. The aim of this research was to compare six thinning regimes applied to create a fuelbreak in a young Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill. planted forest.Area of study: A semiarid continental high plateau in south-eastern Spain.Material and Methods: Three thinning intensities (Light, Medium and Heavy were combined with two thinning methods: i Random (tree selection, and ii Regular (tree spacing. Tree growth and stand structure measurements were made four years following treatments.Main results: Heavy Random thinning successfully transformed the regular tree plantation pattern into a close-to-random spatial tree distribution. Heavy Regular thinning (followed by the Medium Regular and Heavy Random regimes significantly reduced growth in stand basal area and biomass. Individual tree growth, in contrast, was greater in Heavy and Medium thinnings than in Light ones, which were similar to the Control.Research highlights: Heavy Random thinning seemed the most appropriate in a youngAleppo pine planted forest to reduce fire risk and artificial tree distribution simultaneously. Light Regular thinning avoids understocking the stand and may be the most suitable treatment for creating a fuelbreak when the undergrowth poses a high fire risk.Keywords: Pinus halepensis; Mediterranean; Forest structure; Tree growth; Wildfire risk; Diversity.

  18. Economic Feasibility of Managing Loblolly Pine Forests for Water Production under Climate Change in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Susaeta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the impacts of climate change, forest management, and different forest productivity conditions on the water yield and profitability of loblolly pine stands in the southeastern United States. Using the 3-PG (Physiological Processes Predicting Growth model, we determined different climatic projections and then employed a stand level economic model that incorporates, for example, prices for timber and increased water yield. We found that, under changing climatic conditions, water yield increases with thinnings and low levels of tree planting density. On average, under moderate climatic conditions, water yield increases by 584 kL·ha−1 and 97 kL·ha−1 for low and high productivity conditions, respectively. Under extreme climatic conditions, water yield increases by 100 kL·ha−1 for low productivity conditions. Land expectation values increase by 96% ($6653.7 ha−1 and 95% ($6424.1 ha−1 for each climatic scenario compared to those obtained for unthinned loblolly pine plantations managed only for timber production and under current climatic conditions. The contributions of payments for increased water yield to the land values were 38% ($2530.1 ha−1 and 30% ($1894.8 ha−1. Results suggest that payments for water yield may be a “win-win” strategy to sustainably improve water supply and the economic conditions of forest ownership in the region.

  19. Effect of Removal of Woody Biomass after Clearcutting and Intercropping Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum with Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda on Rodent Diversity and Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based feedstocks have long been considered viable, potential sources for biofuels. However, concerns regarding production effects may outweigh gains like carbon savings. Additional information is needed to understand environmental effects of growing feedstocks, including effects on wildlife communities and populations. We used a randomized and replicated experimental design to examine initial effects of biofuel feedstock treatment options, including removal of woody biomass after clearcutting and intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, on rodents to 2 years post-treatment in regenerating pine plantations in North Carolina, USA. Rodent community composition did not change with switchgrass production or residual biomass removal treatments. Further, residual biomass removal had no influence on rodent population abundances. However, Peromyscus leucopus was found in the greatest abundance and had the greatest survival in treatments without switchgrass. In contrast, abundance of invasive Mus musculus was greatest in switchgrass treatments. Other native species, such as Sigmodon hispidus, were not influenced by the presence of switchgrass. Our results suggest that planting of switchgrass, but not biomass removal, had species-specific effects on rodents at least 2 years post-planting in an intensively managed southern pine system. Determining ecological mechanisms underlying our observed species associations with switchgrass will be integral for understanding long-term sustainability of biofuels production in southern pine forest.

  20. A new density model of Cryptomeria fortunei plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xidian; Huang Langzeng; Chen Baohui

    2006-01-01

    According to the volume increase model of an average individual tree in a plant population and the theory of invariable final output,we put forward a new density model of plant population: V-β=ANβ+B.Here N means the stand density and V stands for average individual tree volume;A,B and β are parameters that change with growth stage.Using the density variation of standard plots of Cryptromeriafortunei plantation to verify the new model,it turns out that this model can well simulate the population density effect law of C.fortunei plantation,and it is markedly better and shows higher accuracy than the commonly used reciprocal model of density effect and secondary-effect model.Let β=1,we can obtain the reciprocal model of density effect,which means the reciprocal model of density effect is only a special case of this new model.

  1. Resinous plants as an economic alternative to bioenergy plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, J.J.

    1985-10-01

    The resin-producing xerophytic species Grindelia camporum is an economical alternative for bioenergy plantations in arid lands. A hypothetical bioenergy farm consists of the land and agricultural facilities needed to grow, harvest and transport 272,100 Mg of biomass to the central processing plant, where the plant material is extracted and the bagasse is converted into electricity. A farm of this type could produce plant extractives that are equivalent to crude oil, with a net positive energy balance. Economic analyses of a series of scenarios based on a plantation of this size indicate that bioenergy production in arid lands must be integrated with the generation of higher-priced chemica commodities, such as naval stores rosin.

  2. Growth and yield models for Dahurian larch plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jinlan

    1999-01-01

    Several equations were seiected using nonlinear regression analysis for setting up growth and yield models of Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) plantations. Data of 405 stem analysis trees were collected from 336 temporary plots throughout the Daxing'an Mountains. Results showed that the Richards equation was the best model for estimating tree height, stand mean height and stand dominant height by age; the Power equation was the fittest model for predicting tree volume by DBH and tree height, and the Logarithmic stand volume equation was good for predicting stand volume from age, mean height, basal area and other stand variables. These models can be used to construct volume tables, site index table and other forestry tables for Dahurian plantations.

  3. Relationship between environmental parameters and Pinus sylvestris L. site index in forest plantations in northern Spain acidic plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueis T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of forest productivity at early stages of stand development may help to define the most appropriate silviculture treatment to be applied for each stand. Site index (dominant height at a reference age is a useful tool for forest productivity estimation. The aim of this study was to develop a model to predict site index for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in northern Spain acidic plateau by using soil (physical, chemical and biochemical, climatic and physiographic parameters. To meet this objective, data from 35 stands classified into three different site quality classes and 63 soil, climatic and physiographic parameters were examined in order to develop a discriminant model. After selecting 12 discriminant models which were biologically consistent and presented the higher cross-validated rate of correct classification, a model including four parameters (latitude, inorganic Al, porosity and microbial biomass carbon as predictors was chosen. The discriminant model classified 71% of cases correctly and no inferior-quality stands were misassigned to the highest quality class. Soil and physiographic parameters included in the above model are easily obtainable in the field or by simple laboratory analysis, thus our results can be easily integrated in operational forestry to determine site quality.

  4. Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

  5. SOCIAL EXCLUSION: GUATEMALAN YOUTH WITHIN COFFEE PLANTATIONS AT SOCONUSCO CHIAPAS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Mexico's southern border is the entry point for different migratory flows, mainly from Central America, these flows have taken place under socioeconomic contexts and conditions which demand the constant livelihood strategies pursuit from people. This paper is focused on the agricultural laborers from Guatemalan origin, within coffee plantation farms at the Soconusco, Chiapas. The main objective is arguing how the lack of access -or restricted access- to education and the precarious inclus...

  6. Evapotranspiration of a pine-switchgrass intercropping bioenergy system measured by combined surface renewal and energy balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M.; Noormets, A.; Domec, J. C.; Rosa, R.; Williamson, J.; Boone, J.; Sucre, E.; Trnka, M.; King, J.

    2015-12-01

    Intercropping bioenergy grasses within traditional pine silvicultural systems provides an opportunity for economic diversification and regional bioenergy production in a way that complements existing land use systems. Bioenergy intercropping in pine plantations does not compete with food production for land and it is thought will increase ecosystem resource-use efficiencies. As the frequency and intensity of drought is expected to increase with the changing climate, maximizing water use-efficiency of intercropped bioenergy systems will become increasingly important for long-term economic and environmental sustainability. The presented study is focused on evapotranspiration (ET) of an experimental pine-switchgrass intercropping system in the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina. We measured ET of two pure switchgrass fields, two pure pine stands and two pine-switchgrass intercropping systems using combined surface renewal (SR) and energy balance (EB) method throughout 2015. SR is based on high-frequency measurement of air temperature at or above canopy. As previously demonstrated, temperature time series are associated with identifiable, repeated patterns called "turbulent coherent structures". These coherent structures are considered to be responsible for most of the turbulent transport. Statistical analysis of the coherent structures in temperature time series allows quantification of sensible heat flux density (H) from the investigated area. Information about H can be combined with measurement of net radiation and soil heat flux density to indirectly obtain ET estimates as a residual of the energy balance equation. Despite the recent progress in the SR method, there is no standard methodology and each method available includes assumptions which require more research. To validate our SR estimates of ET, we used an eddy covariance (EC) system placed temporarily next to the each SR station as a comparative measurement of H. The conference contribution will include

  7. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  8. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  9. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva

    Full Text Available Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira. We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  10. THE WATER USE BY FOREST PLANTATIONS – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Lucia Caldato

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810562This review aims to present some of the main results and infer about the current state-of-the-art of the controversy related to the water use by forest plantations. Several studies have been carried out in this area in different regions, mainly in Australia, South Africa, Europe, India and Brazil. However, according to authors, the controversy persists and it is necessary that the scientific results are understood by the community in order to avoid the predominance of myths and half-truths. In this way, the current review intends to summarize some scientific results concerning the main hydrologic aspects of the plantations (interception, transpiration and catchment water balance, the relationship between the high productivity and the water use efficiency, and the importance of the establishment of forest management plan focused on the river watershed scale, in order to contribute to hydrological sustainability.  The results coincide that the relationship between the forest plantations and the water depends on the region, species, environmental conditions  and management practices on the watershed scale.

  11. Fiscal and Monetary Policy for The Development of Indonesian Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyadi Suharyadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global monetary crisis in 2007-2008 and the focus of development on climate changesmake it important to promote a healthy economic growth based on the local resources, Theeconomic crisis, which has slowed down the economic growth and has caused job losseswhich result in increasing unemployment and poverty, should alter the focus of Indonesianeconomic development in the future to be based on renewable and sustainable local resources.Indonesia is an agricultural and maritime country so these two aspects should be thecore of the growth. In agricultural culture, plantation sector is the source of sustainable economicgrowth because of its geographical, demographic, and cultural potentials. The problemsin plantation sector are the low growth of areas and productivity as well as its limitedend-products. The research findings indicated that in order to increase areas, there should bea guarantee on investment, interest rate, and little retribution or good governance. To increaseproductivity, we need a guarantee on fertilizer price, interest rate, and wages, as wellas pricing factors to avoid market distortion. This is very important relating to the economicstimulus policy which is essential to revitalize from the economic doom in the future.Keywords: plantation sector, area, productivity, investment, interest rate, and wages

  12. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  13. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  14. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  15. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

  16. Comparison of insect biodiversity between organic and conventional plantations in Kodagu, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a comparative analysis of ground insects and fruit eating butterflies on 29 different plantations in Kodagu District of Karnataka which is one of the rich biodiversity zones of the Western Ghats. These included organic and conventional coffee and cardamom plantations using different levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A total number of 457 ground insect species were collected using pit-fall traps which included 92 species of ants and 123 species of beetles, among other insect taxa that we measured. Similarly, 25 species of butterflies belonging to the family Nymphalidae were collected using bait traps. We found a clear negative effect on the ground insect species diversity (Shannon index and evenness (Shannon evenness index in pesticide treated plantations as compared to the organic plantations. A similar negative effect was observed for butterfly diversity in plantations using pesticides. Our results corroborate the value of organic plantations in supporting higher levels of biodiversity.

  17. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Hervé; Koricheva, Julia; Loreau, Michel; Mereu, Simone; Messier, Christian; Muys, Bart; Nolet, Philippe; Paquette, Alain; Parker, John; Perring, Mike; Ponette, Quentin; Potvin, Catherine; Reich, Peter; Smith, Andy; Weih, Martin; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and disadvantages of mixed species plantations. The network currently consists of 18 experiments, distributed over 36 sites and five ecoregions. With plantations 1-15 years old, TreeDivNet can already provide relevant data for forest policy and management. In this paper, we highlight some early results on the carbon sequestration and pest resistance potential of more diverse plantations. Finally, suggestions are made for new, innovative experiments in understudied regions to complement the existing network.

  18. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions.

  19. Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

    2006-05-04

    The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

  20. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Hervé; Koricheva, Julia; LOREAU, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and...

  1. State and Trend Analysis of Industrial Plantation Development in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper firstly reviewed industrial plantation development in the main forestry countries worldwide, and then summarized the state and trend of the R & D of industrial plantation in foreign countries in terms of genetic improvement, breeding techniques, site evaluation techniques, density control techniques, long-term productivity maintenance techniques and diseases and pests control techniques. In the meantime, the three management models employed in industrial plantations abroad was introduced, i.e. int...

  2. Whitebark pine, grizzly bears, and red squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Kendall, K.C.; Reinhart, D.P.; Tomback, D.F.; Arno, S.F.; Keane, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Appropriately enough, much of this book is devoted to discussing management challenges and techniques. However, the impetus for action—the desire to save whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)—necessarily arises from the extent to which we cherish it for its beauty and its connections with other things that we value. Whitebark pine is at the hub of a fascinating web of relationships. It is the stuff of great stories (cf. Quammen 1994). One of the more interesting of these stories pertains to the dependence of certain grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) populations on its seeds, and the role that red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) play as an agent of transfer between tree and bear.

  3. Acousto-Convective Drying of Pine Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    An experimental investigation of the process of drying pine nut grains has been carried out by three methods: acousto-convective, thermoconvective, and thermal. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the dynamics of the processes of moisture extraction from the nut grains for the considered drying methods have been made. To elucidate the mechanism of moisture extraction from the pine nut grains, we carried out a separate investigation of the process of drying the nut shell and the kernel. The obtained experimental data on the acousto-convective drying of nuts are well described by the relaxation model, the data on the thermoconvective drying are well described by the bilinear law, and the data on the thermal drying are well described by the combined method consisting of three time steps characterized by different kinetic regimes of drying.

  4. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.

    2001-04-30

    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community.

  5. Prospects of Applying Feed Processing Technologies Based on Industrial Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Petrus Ginting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The potency of plantation sectors (palm oil, sugar cane and cacao as alternative feed resources for ruminants has been acknowledged since 20 – 25 years ago. However, the level of utilization of these feeds in small ruminant production system has been very low and sporadic. The typical chemical and physical characteristics of most of those feedstuffs required some steps of processing in order to improve their nutritional quality and to ease their handling. Small ruminants, like sheep and goats have relatively higher metabolic energy requirement per kg BW and anatomically have lower gut capacity to process lignocelluose materials compared to large ruminants. It is, therefore, these animals nutritionally face more constraints in handling lignocellulose and bulky materials mostly found in industrial by products or crop-residues from plantations. Physical processes (chopping, phyiscal separation, hydrothermal, chemical processes (ammoniation, hydrolyses and oxidative treatments and bio-conversions (fermentation, ensiling have been recommended as alternative technologies in maximizing the utilization of those feedstuffs for small ruminant animals. The principal mechanisms of those treatments are: (i breaking the linkages between structural carbohydrate and lignin so that it could be easily digested by the animal enzyme systems and (ii preserving the material from being spoilage due to its high moisture content or for feed stocking purposes. Priorities for choosing the most effective processing technology for implementation or adoption is depent largely on the scale of feed production. Ammoniation, chopping, physical separation, ensiling or bio-conversion are several technologies mostly recommended for small scale operation in situ. These alternative technologies should be able to be adopted by small-holders living around the plantation area. The commercial or large scale feed production could be implemented by the plantation industry by giving high

  6. The effect of water limitation on volatile emission, tree defense response, and brood success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in two pine hosts, lodgepole and jack pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka eLusebrink

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera and measured through monoterpene emission from tree boles and concentration of defensive compounds in phloem, needles, and necrotic tissues. Lodgepole pine generally emitted higher amounts of monoterpenes than jack pine; particularly from fungal-inoculated trees. Compared to non-inoculated trees, fungal inoculation increased monoterpene emission in both species, whereas water treatment had no effect on monoterpene emission. The phloem of both pine species contains (--α-pinene, the precursor of the beetle’s aggregation pheromone, however lodgepole pine contains two times as much as jack pine. The concentration of defensive compounds was 70-fold greater in the lesion tissue in jack pine, but only 10-fold in lodgepole pine compared to healthy phloem tissue in each species, respectively. Water-deficit treatment inhibited an increase of L-limonene as response to fungal inoculation in lodgepole pine phloem. The amount of myrcene in jack pine phloem was higher in water-deficit trees compared to ambient trees. Beetles reared in jack pine were not affected by either water or biological treatment, whereas beetles reared in lodgepole pine benefited from fungal inoculation by producing larger and heavier female offspring. Female beetles that emerged from jack pine bolts contained more fat than those that emerged from lodgepole pine, even though lodgepole pine phloem had a higher nitrogen content than jack pine phloem. These results suggest that jack pine chemistry

  7. [Testate amoebas of pine forests in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A A; Krasil'nikov, P A

    2011-01-01

    The population of testate amoebas in the soils of pine forests in Mexico has been studied. In total, 68 species, varieties, and types of testate amoebas with cosmopolite distribution were found. The species diversity of the testate population includes hygrophilous species that differ from hygrophilous species with luvisols in higher andosols. Comparative analysis using the results of one available study of soil testate amoebas from Mexico has been carried out [Bonnet, 1977].

  8. Aflatoxin in Tunisian aleppo pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrif, E; Jemmali, M; Pohland, A E; Campbell, A D

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-six of 50 Aleppo pine nuts samples collected throughout Tunisia showed relatively high levels of contamination by aflatoxin. Some samples contained as much as 2000 ppb aflatoxin B1, and very few contained less than 100 ppb. Total aflatoxins as high as 7550 ppb were found. A traditional pudding, widely consumed in Tunisia, which was prepared from contaminated nuts still contained more than 80% of the aflatoxin originally present in the nuts.

  9. More Trees, More Poverty? The Socioeconomic Effects of Tree Plantations in Chile, 2001-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Krister; Lawrence, Duncan; Zavaleta, Jennifer; Guariguata, Manuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Tree plantations play a controversial role in many nations' efforts to balance goals for economic development, ecological conservation, and social justice. This paper seeks to contribute to this debate by analyzing the socioeconomic impact of such plantations. We focus our study on Chile, a country that has experienced extraordinary growth of industrial tree plantations. Our analysis draws on a unique dataset with longitudinal observations collected in 180 municipal territories during 2001-2011. Employing panel data regression techniques, we find that growth in plantation area is associated with higher than average rates of poverty during this period.

  10. Mapping Deciduous Rubber Plantation Areas and Stand Ages with PALSAR and Landsat Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Kou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and updated finer resolution maps of rubber plantations and stand ages are needed to understand and assess the impacts of rubber plantations on regional ecosystem processes. This study presented a simple method for mapping rubber plantation areas and their stand ages by integration of PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images. The L-band PALSAR 50-m mosaic images were used to map forests (including both natural forests and rubber trees and non-forests. For those PALSAR-based forest pixels, we analyzed the multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We first studied phenological signatures of deciduous rubber plantations (defoliation and foliation and natural forests through analysis of surface reflectance, Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and generated a map of rubber plantations in 2009. We then analyzed phenological signatures of rubber plantations with different stand ages and generated a map, in 2009, of rubber plantation stand ages (≤5, 6–10, >10 years-old based on multi-temporal Landsat images. The resultant maps clearly illustrated how rubber plantations have expanded into the mountains in the study area over the years. The results in this study demonstrate the potential of integrating microwave (e.g., PALSAR and optical remote sensing in the characterization of rubber plantations and their expansion over time.

  11. More Trees, More Poverty? The Socioeconomic Effects of Tree Plantations in Chile, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Krister; Lawrence, Duncan; Zavaleta, Jennifer; Guariguata, Manuel R

    2016-01-01

    Tree plantations play a controversial role in many nations' efforts to balance goals for economic development, ecological conservation, and social justice. This paper seeks to contribute to this debate by analyzing the socioeconomic impact of such plantations. We focus our study on Chile, a country that has experienced extraordinary growth of industrial tree plantations. Our analysis draws on a unique dataset with longitudinal observations collected in 180 municipal territories during 2001-2011. Employing panel data regression techniques, we find that growth in plantation area is associated with higher than average rates of poverty during this period.

  12. Postplanting Nutritional Augmentation of Jeffrey Pine Seedlings on an Infertile Sierran Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger F. Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Broadcast fertilization with an array of amendments was investigated for its capacity to stimulate growth and enhance nutrition of a three-year-old Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. plantation growing on an acidic Sierra Nevada surface mine. Four formulations that differed in N source, duration of release, and the suite of nutrients provided were evaluated, with each applied using four rates. Free Flow 29-3-4, a conventional amendment featuring urea as its near exclusive N source, and High N 22-4-6, a controlled release formulation containing ammoniacal, nitrate, and urea N, were the most stimulatory while an organic formulation relying exclusively on a municipal biosolid N source, Milorganite 6-2-0, was the least so. The lowest application rates employed were inadequate while the most advantageous was not the highest rate for any formulation. Foliar analysis revealed that improved N nutrition was probably critical in the favorable growth responses to fertilization, that of P was a likely contributor, and amelioration of potential Mn toxicity may have assumed an accessory role.

  13. Nitrogen decreases and precipitation increases ectomycorrhizal extramatrical mycelia production in a longleaf pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Stephanie E; Hendricks, Joseph J; Mitchell, Robert J; Kuehn, Kevin A; Pecot, Stephen D

    2007-06-01

    The rates and controls of ectomycorrhizal fungal production were assessed in a 22-year-old longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantation using a complete factorial design that included two foliar scorching (control and 95% plus needle scorch) and two nitrogen (N) fertilization (control and 5 g N m(-2) year(-1)) treatments during an annual assessment. Ectomycorrhizal fungi production comprised of extramatrical mycelia, Hartig nets and mantles on fine root tips, and sporocarps was estimated to be 49 g m(-2) year(-1) in the control treatment plots. Extramatrical mycelia accounted for approximately 95% of the total mycorrhizal production estimate. Mycorrhizal production rates did not vary significantly among sample periods throughout the annual assessment (p = 0.1366). In addition, reduction in foliar leaf area via experimental scorching treatments did not influence mycorrhizal production (p = 0.9374), suggesting that stored carbon (C) may decouple the linkage between current photosynthate production and ectomycorrhizal fungi dynamics in this forest type. Nitrogen fertilization had a negative effect, whereas precipitation had a positive effect on mycorrhizal fungi production (p = 0.0292; r (2) = 0.42). These results support the widely speculated but poorly documented supposition that mycorrhizal fungi are a large and dynamic component of C flow and nutrient cycling dynamics in forest ecosystems.

  14. New Particle Formation Above a Loblolly Pine Forest at a New Tower Site in Central Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerger, V.; O'Halloran, T. L.; Barr, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    We present initial results investigating the environmental controls on new particle formation events at a new research site in central Virginia. The Sweet Briar College Land-Atmosphere Research Station (SBC-LARS) became operational in July, 2014 and features a 37-meter tower within a ~30 year-old loblolly pine plantation that is surrounded by mixed deciduous forest at the eastern edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The tower supports meteorological instruments at three different heights (2, 26, and 37 meters) and two air sampling inlets located above the canopy. The inlets draw air samples into a climate-controlled shed where precursor gas concentrations (ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides) are determined by gas analyzers. Aerosol size distributions between 10 and 470 nm are measured every 3 minutes by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). For this study, aerosol size distributions from July through November 2014 were analyzed along with HYSPLIT backwards trajectories, meteorological measurements, gas concentrations, and the condensational sink, to investigate controls on new particle formation. This station and corresponding dataset will contribute to a better understanding of the contribution of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions to aerosol formation in the southeastern United States.

  15. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  16. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.; Bentz, Barbara J.; Raffa, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined...

  17. Health assessment of pine forest as affected by geothermal activities: Presence of Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig (Homoptera: Aphidae associated with higher concentrations of boron on pine needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Arturo Del Rio Mora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on assessments of the air pollution and deposition caused by geothermal fields on the forest health and presence of pests have been few documented to date. In the geothermal field "Los Humeros", located between the borders of the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico was realized a forest health monitoring to know the assessment could have these emissions of sulphur (S and other two chemical elements measured by their concentrations on leaf tissues in the surrounding forests. For it were evaluated the forest healthy and pest insects registered at 20 stands of which were chosen completely at random 40 trees in total/site of the species Pinus montezumae and P. teocotein natural stands and plantations and picked up leaf tissue samples representatives per stand to determine the contents of sulphur (S, boron (B and arsenic (As representing each forest stand. The results of the study revealed that the presence of forest pests are not related to the proximity of the sites to emissions from stationary sources of emissions and moreover the amount of these 3 chemical substances monitored do not have none influence on the forest healthy sites condition, except for the Monterey pine aphid Essigella californica Essig, which seems to be directly associated with higher Boron content in the needles (mean=167.47±32.15, and peak 635.46 ppm and proximity of emission sources geothermal vents or where it is believed all these chemical elements are carried down by air currents to specific points and deposited in the stands. The general model obtained and with significance of R2=56.6 and P value 0.0033 for the presence of Monterey Pine aphid and the three main pollutants released from smoke plumes in geothermal systems is [D: Essigella]= -0.2088 + 1.880E-0.5 (A:SO4+ 0.002245 (B:B + 1.248 (C:As. The results suggest the use of aphid species as bioindicators of polluted sites.

  18. Exploiting Genetic Variation of Fiber Components and Morphology in Juvenile Loblolly Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hou-Min; Kadia, John F.; Li, Bailian; Sederoff, Ron

    2005-06-30

    straightness were found with cellulose content, fiber length and coarseness, suggesting that selection on growth or stem straightness would results in favorable response in chemical wood traits. We have developed a series of methods for application of functional genomics to understanding the molecular basis of traits important to tree breeding for improved chemical and physical properties of wood. Two types of technologies were used, microarray analysis of gene expression, and profiling of soluble metabolites from wood forming tissues. We were able to correlate wood property phenotypes with expression of specific genes and with the abundance of specific metabolites using a new database and appropriate statistical tools. These results implicate a series of candidate genes for cellulose content, lignin content, hemicellulose content and specific extractible metabolites. Future work should integrate such studies in mapping populations and genetic maps to make more precise associations of traits with gene locations in order to increase the predictive power of molecular markers, and to distinguish between different candidate genes associated by linkage or by function. This study has found that loblolly pine families differed significantly for cellulose yield, fiber length, fiber coarseness, and less for lignin content. The implication for forest industry is that genetic testing and selection for these traits is possible and practical. With sufficient genetic variation, we could improve cellulose yield, fiber length, fiber coarseness, and reduce lignin content in Loblolly pine. With the continued progress in molecular research, some candidate genes may be used for selecting cellulose content, lignin content, hemicellulose content and specific extractible metabolites. This would accelerate current breeding and testing program significantly, and produce pine plantations with not only high productivity, but desirable wood properties as well.

  19. Avian Assemblages Differ between Old-Growth and Mature White Pine Forests of Ontario, Canada: A Role for Supercanopy Trees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Anthony. Kirk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We predicted that bird diversity and abundance of some bird species would be higher in old-growth stands than in mature pine stands because of the greater structural diversity in old growth. We also predicted that patch size of stands should be influential. To test these predictions, we modeled counts of 79 bird species from 52 stands in 5 regions in the province of Ontario, Canada in relation to habitat at the local and landscape extents. Neither total species richness nor abundance differed between stand types. No significant difference was found in bird assemblages between stand types using ordination analysis. However, more Neotropical migrants were found in old-growth stands than in mature stands, while the reverse was true for short-distance migrants. Twenty-five species had higher counts in old-growth stands - three significantly so: Brown Creeper Certhia americana, Northern Parula Setophaga americana, and Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea. Supercanopy pine (> 60 cm dbh was a significant (P 40 cm/dbh was a significant positive predictor for Brown Creeper, Pine Warbler Setophaga pinus, and total species richness. The density of supercanopy and medium/large pine explained a small but significant amount of variation in bird assemblages (1%, after considering age, other tree variables (9%, and landscape metrics. Patch size was significant for Evening Grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertinus and total abundance. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC thresholds, Brown Creeper required a minimum of 62 stems/ha of medium/large pine. Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus and Black-throated Green Warbler required a minimum of 14 and 23 stems/ha of supercanopy pine, respectively. Blackburnian Warbler Setophaga fusca required a minimum stand age of 66 years. Current targets in shelterwood seed cuts for pine appear to be just within range for Brown Creeper - at least for the first cut, but not for subsequent cuts. We recommend that forest

  20. Disaster risk assessment at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzani A. Makhado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports about disaster risk assessment undertaken at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were followed to collect data. A total of eight experienced foresters and fire fighters were purposively sampled for interview at Roburnia Plantation. A questionnaire survey was also used to collect the data. Risk levels were quantified using the risks equations of Wisner et al. (2004 and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR 2002. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, single factor was also applied. This study found that Roburnia Plantation is highly exposed to fire risks. The mean (± s.d. output from the Wisner risk equation shows that fire is the highest risk at 7.7 ± 0.3, followed by harsh weather conditions at 5.6 ± 0.4 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 2.3 ± 0.2. Similarly, the mean (± s.d. output from the UNISDR risk equation also shows that fire is the highest risk at 2.9 ± 0.2, followed by harsh weather conditions at 2.2 ± 0.3 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 1.3 ± 0.2. There was no significant deference in the risk analysis outputs (p = 0.13. This study also found that the number of fire incidents were low during summer, but increased during winter and spring. This variation is mainly due to a converse relationship with rainfall, because the availability of rain moistens the area as well as the fuel. When the area and fuel is moist, fire incidents are reduced, but they increase with a decrease in fuel moisture.

  1. Urban gardens promote bee foraging over natural habitats and plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2016-03-01

    Increasing human land use for agriculture and housing leads to the loss of natural habitat and to widespread declines in wild bees. Bee foraging dynamics and fitness depend on the availability of resources in the surrounding landscape, but how precisely landscape related resource differences affect bee foraging patterns remains unclear. To investigate how landscape and its interaction with season and weather drive foraging and resource intake in social bees, we experimentally compared foraging activity, the allocation of foragers to different resources (pollen, nectar, and resin) and overall resource intake in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria (Apidae, Meliponini). Bee colonies were monitored in different seasons over two years. We compared foraging patterns and resource intake between the bees' natural habitat (forests) and two landscapes differently altered by humans (suburban gardens and agricultural macadamia plantations). We found foraging activity as well as pollen and nectar forager numbers to be highest in suburban gardens, intermediate in forests and low in plantations. Foraging patterns further differed between seasons, but seasonal variations strongly differed between landscapes. Sugar and pollen intake was low in plantations, but contrary with our predictions, it was even higher in gardens than in forests. In contrast, resin intake was similar across landscapes. Consequently, differences in resource availability between natural and altered landscapes strongly affect foraging patterns and thus resource intake in social bees. While agricultural monocultures largely reduce foraging success, suburban gardens can increase resource intake well above rates found in natural habitats of bees, indicating that human activities can both decrease and increase the availability of resources in a landscape and thus reduce or enhance bee fitness.

  2. Estimating productivity of tropical forest plantations by climatic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, D.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents an alternative method of estimating wood production at regional/global levels from tropical plantations based on climatic variables. A generic model for estimating potential yield in tropical plantations was formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) as a case study. Available data of teak sample plots from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast, consisting of 153 plots distributed over 38 meteorological stations were used. A new base age invariant site index function was developed and the site index of each plot was estimated. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of each plot from existing yield tables was then interpolated. Treating MAI at 50 years (rotation age) as potential yield of teak, a model was constructed which could explain about 59% variance of the potential yield. Models constructed for estimating the maximum MAI and the site index of teak explained the variability up to 61% and 57% respectively. The models underestimated the productivity of teak in Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. The rainfall and the relative humidity have been identified as the most important climatic variables influencing the growth of teak. The length of the growing season and the temperature of the warmest month of the growing season were found significant in the models. The temperature and the day length (sunshine) have not been found to be the limiting factors for the growth of teak. However, the maximum temperature beyond a certain upper limit has a negative effect on growth. The study indicates that this upper limit is around 33 deg C for teak. The models could be used to forecast the potential yield of the existing as well as planned teak plantations in the tropical region. 109 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

  3. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    OpenAIRE

    Charlote Wink; Dalvan José Reinert; Ivanor Müller; José Miguel Reichert; Luciano Jacomet

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was ...

  4. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and

  5. Occupational exposure of Sri Lankan tea plantation workers to paraquat.

    OpenAIRE

    Chester, G.; Gurunathan, G; Jones, N; Woollen, B H

    1993-01-01

    Absorption of the herbicide paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) by mixer-loaders and spray operators on a Sri Lankan tea plantation was assessed over five consecutive days of spraying. Beginning on the day before spraying started and continuing for each of the five spraying days and for seven days after the last day of spraying, 24-hour urine samples were collected from each of the workers. Potential dermal exposure was assessed during further applications of paraquat on the day after ...

  6. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  7. Development and implementation of a highly-multiplexed SNP array for genetic mapping in maritime pine and comparative mapping with loblolly pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garnier-Géré Pauline

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most abundant source of genetic variation among individuals of a species. New genotyping technologies allow examining hundreds to thousands of SNPs in a single reaction for a wide range of applications such as genetic diversity analysis, linkage mapping, fine QTL mapping, association studies, marker-assisted or genome-wide selection. In this paper, we evaluated the potential of highly-multiplexed SNP genotyping for genetic mapping in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait., the main conifer used for commercial plantation in southwestern Europe. Results We designed a custom GoldenGate assay for 1,536 SNPs detected through the resequencing of gene fragments (707 in vitro SNPs/Indels and from Sanger-derived Expressed Sequenced Tags assembled into a unigene set (829 in silico SNPs/Indels. Offspring from three-generation outbred (G2 and inbred (F2 pedigrees were genotyped. The success rate of the assay was 63.6% and 74.8% for in silico and in vitro SNPs, respectively. A genotyping error rate of 0.4% was further estimated from segregating data of SNPs belonging to the same gene. Overall, 394 SNPs were available for mapping. A total of 287 SNPs were integrated with previously mapped markers in the G2 parental maps, while 179 SNPs were localized on the map generated from the analysis of the F2 progeny. Based on 98 markers segregating in both pedigrees, we were able to generate a consensus map comprising 357 SNPs from 292 different loci. Finally, the analysis of sequence homology between mapped markers and their orthologs in a Pinus taeda linkage map, made it possible to align the 12 linkage groups of both species. Conclusions Our results show that the GoldenGate assay can be used successfully for high-throughput SNP genotyping in maritime pine, a conifer species that has a genome seven times the size of the human genome. This SNP-array will be extended thanks to recent sequencing effort using

  8. Effect of pine foliage damage on the incidence of larval diapause in the pine caterpillar Dendrolimus punctatus(Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Li Huang; Guo-Hong Wang; Zhong He; Feng Ge

    2008-01-01

    The pine caterpillar Dendrolimus punctatus (Walker) with a larval facultative diapause is one of the most destructive insect pests of the pine tree Pinus massoniana in China. The larvae feeding on pine trees with different damage levels were studied to determine the induction of diapause under both laboratory and field conditions. Developmental duration of larvae before the third instar was the longest when fed with 75%-90%damaged needles, followed by 25%-40% damaged needles and intact pine needles, whereas mortalities did not differ among different treatments under the conditions of 25℃ and critical photoperiod 13.5:10.5 L:D. At 25℃, no diapause was induced under 15:9 L:D, whereas 100% diapause occurred under 12:12 L:D regardless of the levels of needle damage.Incidences of larvae entering diapause when they were fed with intact, 25%-40% and 75%90% damaged pine needles were 51.7%, 70.8% and 81% under 13.5:10.5 L:D, respectively.Similar results were obtained in the field experiment. Incidence of diapause was significantly different among the pine needle damage levels of pine trees when the photoperiod was close to the critical day length, indicating that the effect of host plants on diapause induction was dependent on the range of photoperiod. The content of amino acid and sugar decreased and tannin increased in pine needles after feeding by the pine caterpillars, suggesting that changed levels of nutrients in damaged needles or a particular substance emitted by damaged pine trees was perhaps involved in the diapause induction of the pine caterpillar.

  9. 78 FR 30847 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. ] SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka,...

  10. 77 FR 58095 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  11. 76 FR 41451 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  12. 77 FR 45331 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  13. 76 FR 48800 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting cancellation. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee meeting scheduled in...

  14. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  15. Some metals in aboveground biomass of Scots pine in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis; Stupak, Inge;

    2014-01-01

    The stocks of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and aluminium (Al) in different compartments of the aboveground tree biomass were estimated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Lithuania. Simulated removals of metals due to the forest biomass extraction in a model Scots pine stands...

  16. Cacogeusia following pine nut ingestion: a six patient case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Rachael L; Scully, Crispian; Gandhi, Shan; Raber-Durlacher, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective case series of 6 patients complaining of a bad taste (cacogeusia) specifically metallogeusia, following the ingestion of pine nuts.(1) The taste arose always within 48h of ingestion, and in all but one patient spontaneously resolved within 14 days. Pine nuts also have a potential for triggering anaphylaxis.(2).

  17. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  18. Bird community comparisons of four plantations and conservation concerns in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Fasheng; Yang, Qiongfang; Lin, Yongbiao; Xu, Guoliang; Greenberg, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Plantations of non-native, fast-growing trees are increasing in the tropics and subtropics, perhaps with negative consequences for the native avifauna. We studied bird diversity in 4 types of plantations in South China to determine which plantation types are especially detrimental, and compared our findings with studies in nearby natural forests to assess the magnitude of the negative impact. A total of 57 species was recorded. The mean capture rate of understory birds was 1.7 individuals 100-net-h(-1). Bird richness and capture rate were lower in plantations than in nearby natural forests. Babblers (Timaliidae), primarily forest-dependent species in South China, were particularly under-represented in plantations. Species richness, composition and bird density, particularly of understory birds, differed between plantation types. Plantations of Schima, which is native to South China, had the highest species richness according to point count data. Plantations of Acacia (non-native) supported the highest understory species richness and produced the highest capture rate of understory birds, probably because of their complex structure and high arthropod abundance. If bird diversity is to be considered, we strongly recommend that future re-afforestation projects in South China should, as far as possible, use mixed native tree species, and especially Schima, ahead of the other species.

  19. Short-rotation eucalypt plantations in Brazil: Social and environmental issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brasil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences

    1995-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the historical and current legislative, social, and environmental aspects of the establishment of large-scale eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The report consolidates the vast experience and knowledge relating to these forest plantation systems and highlights lessons learned and new trends. The overview should prove useful to those interested in comparing or beginning similar endeavors.

  20. Age of oil palm plantations causes a strong change in surface biophysical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabajo, Clifton; le Maire, Guerric; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, Indonesia has experienced dramatic land transformations with an expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests. As vegetation is a modifier of the climate near the ground these large-scale land transformations are expected to have major impacts on the surface biophysical variables i.e. surface temperature, albedo, and vegetation indices, e.g. the NDVI. Remote sensing data are needed to assess such changes at regional scale. We used 2 Landsat images from Jambi Province in Sumatra/Indonesia covering a chronosequence of oil palm plantations to study the 20 - 25 years life cycle of oil palm plantations and its relation with biophysical variables. Our results show large differences between the surface temperature of young oil palm plantations and forest (up to 9.5 ± 1.5 °C) indicating that the surface temperature is raised substantially after the establishment of oil palm plantations following the removal of forests. During the oil palm plantation lifecycle the surface temperature differences gradually decreases and approaches zero around an oil palm plantation age of 10 years. Similarly, NDVI increases and the albedo decreases approaching typical values of forests. Our results show that in order to assess the full climate effects of oil palm expansion biophysical processes play an important role and the full life cycle of oil palm plantations need to be considered.

  1. [Effects of stand structure regulation on soil labile organic carbon in Pinus elliottii plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gui-Xia; Liu, Yuan-Qiu; Li, Lian-Lian; Liu, Wu; Zan, Yu-Ting; Huo, Bing-Nan; He, Mu-Jiao

    2014-05-01

    Taking 21-year-old Pinus elliottii pure plantation as the control, effects of enrichment planting with broadleaf trees (Liquidambar fornosana) after thinning the conifer trees (P. elliottii) on soil labile organic carbon of different plantations, including 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old P. elliottii and 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantations, were investigated. The results showed that the contents of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) significantly increased in the 6-year-old and 9-year-old plantations compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. Soil labile organic carbon contents in the 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantation increased significantly than those in 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old stands, and the DOC, ROC and MBC contents increased by 113.1%, 53.3% and 54.6%, respectively, compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. The results suggested that replanting with broadleaf trees are an effective measure to improve the soil ecological function in pure P. elliottii plantation.

  2. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Francisco R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes. As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5% of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: http://www.scbi.uma.es/pindb/. It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including

  3. An innovative aerial assessment of Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem mountain pine beetle-caused whitebark pine mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, William W; Logan, Jesse A; Kern, Wilson R

    2013-03-01

    An innovative aerial survey method called the Landscape Assessment System (LAS) was used to assess mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae)-caused mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) across the species distribution in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE; 894 774 ha). This large-scale implementation of the LAS method consisted of 8673 km of flight lines, along which 4653 geo-tagged, oblique aerial photos were captured at the catchment level (a subset of 12-digit USGS hydrologic units) and geographic information system (GIS) processed. The Mountain Pine Beetle-caused Mortality Rating System, a landscape-scale classification system designed specifically to measure the cumulative effects of recent and older MPB attacks on whitebark pine, was used to classify mortality with a rating from 0 to 6 based on the amount of red (recent attack) and gray (old attack) trees visible. The approach achieved a photo inventory of 79% of the GYE whitebark pine distribution. For the remaining 21%, mortality levels were estimated based on an interpolated surface. Results that combine the photo-inventoried and interpolated mortality indicate that nearly half (46%) of the GYE whitebark pine distribution showed severe mortality (3-4 or 5.3-5.4 rating), 36% showed moderate mortality (2-2.9 rating), 13% showed low mortality (1-1.9 rating), and 5% showed trace levels of mortality (0-0.9). These results reveal that the proliferation of MPB in the subalpine zone of the GYE due to climate warming has led to whitebark pine mortality that is more severe and widespread than indicated from either previous modeling research or USDA Forest Service Aerial Detection surveys. Sixteen of the 22 major mountain ranges of the GYE have experienced widespread moderate-to-severe mortality. The majority of catchments in the other six mountain ranges show low-to-moderate mortality. Refugia from MPB outbreaks, at least for now, also exist and correspond to locations that have colder

  4. FROM UAS DATA ACQUISITION TO ACTIONABLE INFORMATION – HOW AN END-TO-END SOLUTION HELPS OIL PALM PLANTATION OPERATORS TO PERFORM A MORE SUSTAINABLE PLANTATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoffmann

    2016-06-01

    The research results describe how operators can successfully make use of a UAS-based solution together with the developed software solution to improve their efficiency in oil palm plantation management.

  5. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Ligniinifraktion vaikutus mustalipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Rantanen, K.; Ekman, J.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find relationships between the structure of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties (pyrolysis time, char burning time, and swelling) of softwood and hardwood kraft black liquors. In this conjunction, pine and birch chips, as well as their two mixtures (the mass ratios of pine chips to birch chips were 80:20 and 60:40), were delignified by conventional kraft pulping. In each cook series, a liquor sample was withdrawn at certain time intervals to obtain liquor samples with different chemical composition. The black liquors obtained were analyzed with respect to the content of lignin and `lignin monomers`, but also the molecular-mass distribution and the mass average molecular mass of lignin were made. In addition, the dissolved lignin was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Further data on the chemical structures of lignin in black liquors were obtained by identifying various degradation products formed from this material during oxidative (CuO oxidation) and pyrolytic treatments. Several correlations between the `structural parameters` of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties of black liquor were found. These correlations were significant especially in the case of pine cook. The results revealed many findings which are, together with the earlier data, useful for a better understanding of the thermochemical behavior of different kraft black liquors during combustion in a recovery furnace. (author)

  6. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  7. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan P Keville

    Full Text Available Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP (Pinus albicaulis ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺ concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  8. [Comparison of heavy metal elements between natural and plantation forests in a subtropical Montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Wan, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals as one of major pollutants is harmful to the health of forest ecosystems. In the present paper, the concentrations of thirteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se and Cd) were compared between natural and plantation forests in the Mt. Lushan by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results suggest that the soil of natural forest had higher concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, and Cd than the plantation forest except for Cr. The soil of natural forest had a higher level of heavy metals than that of the plantation forest as a whole. This might be due to that the natural forest has longer age than the plantation forest, and fixed soil heavy metals take a longer period of time than the plantation forest.

  9. Can mangrove plantation enhance the functional diversity of macrobenthic community in polluted mangroves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jonathan Y S; Cheung, Napo K M

    2017-03-15

    Mangrove plantation is widely applied to re-establish the plant community in degraded mangroves, but its effectiveness to restore the ecological functions of macrobenthic community remains poorly known, especially when pollution may overwhelm its potential positive effect. Here, we tested the effect of mangrove plantation on the ecological functions of macrobenthic community in a polluted mangrove by analyzing biological traits of macrobenthos and calculating functional diversity. Mangrove plantation was shown to enhance the functional diversity and restore the ecological functions of macrobenthic community, depending on seasonality. Given the polluted sediment, however, typical traits of opportunistic species (e.g. small and short-lived) prevailed in all habitats and sampling times. We conclude that mangrove plantation can help diversify the ecological functions of macrobenthic community, but its effectiveness is likely reduced by pollution. From the management perspective, therefore, pollution sources must be stringently regulated and mangrove plantation should be conducted to fully recover degraded mangroves.

  10. Eco-exergy and emergy based self-organization of three forest plantations in lower subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bio-thermodynamic structures of a mixed native species plantation, a conifer plantation and an Acacia mangium plantation in Southern China were quantified over a period of 15 years based on eco-exergy methods. The efficiencies of structural development and maintenance were qu...

  11. NMR analysis of oils from pine nuts ( Pinus sibirica) and seeds of common pine ( Pinus silvestris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Gaidukevich, O. A.; Klyuev, A. Yu.; Kulakova, A. N.; Petlitskaya, N. M.; Rykove, S. V.

    2007-07-01

    We studied the fatty-acid composition of oils from pine nuts and seeds of common pine using PMR and 13C NMR and gas chromatography. We found that the main components of the glycerides are palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, γ-linolenic, pinolenic, and cis-9-eicosenoic acids. The oils contain about 2% sn-1,2-diacylglycerides in addition to triglycerides.

  12. Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Alimohamadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development,it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in termof polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province.These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.

  13. Understory succession in post-agricultural oak plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunet, Jörg; Valtinat, Karin; Mayr, Marian Lajos;

    2011-01-01

    The herbaceous understory forms the richest stratum in temperate broadleaved forests in terms of plant diversity. Understanding the process of understory succession is thus of critical importance for the development of management guidelines for biodiversity restoration in post-agricultural planta......The herbaceous understory forms the richest stratum in temperate broadleaved forests in terms of plant diversity. Understanding the process of understory succession is thus of critical importance for the development of management guidelines for biodiversity restoration in post......, and woody species. The group of forest specialists may approach the richness of continuously forested sites after 60-80 years in non-fragmented plantations, but many forest species were sensitive to habitat fragmentation. Open-land species richness decreased during succession, while the richness of woody...... species and of generalists remained stable, and were not affected by fragmentation. Abundance of generalists gradually decreased in non-fragmented plantations, probably due to competition from colonizing forest specialists. Soil pH in post-arable stands remained consistently higher than in continuously...

  14. Working With Plantation Communities: A Reflection of Social Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Saili

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The plantation industry in Malaysia is aggressively expanding over the past decade driven by global demands for palm oil as a food staple and more recently bio fuels. The rapid growth in the industry is heavily dependent upon high labour and workforce. Such intensity has carried out social impact on the communities including plantation workers, small holders and their dependents. Therefore, this paper will outline what appear to be never ending issues impetus social problems. Ethnic conflict, fighting, gambling, alcohol abuses are only a few issues that call for immediate multi-action plan from all involved stakeholders. Those issues can be the causes as well as the effects. The contributing factors form a chain reaction to the whole social dynamics in the plantation’s climate.The main aim is hence to breach the gap between industries, practitioners, and academicians in order to develop the competencies of the next generation social workers. They can play their roles in tackling the social issues, taking into account the different contexts and environment.

  15. Epidemiological aspects of snake bites on a Liberian rubber plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahel, E

    1980-12-01

    During a one-year period 95 patients with a history of snake bite were admitted to the hospital of a Liberian rubber plantation. The population at risk included the field workers (tappers and slashers) with an incidence of 4.2 symptomatic snake bites per thousand per year. The incidence of symptomatic bites was 1.7 per thousand in the group of non-field employees and 0.4 per thousand per year in the group of non-employees. The temporary disability was between 3 and 5 days, and the loss of workings days due to snake bites was one day per 10,000 working days on the plantation. Among the 95 patients 27 did not show any symptoms of envenoming except occasional fang marks. 64 patients developed cytotoxic symptoms alone. In this group, the night adder (Causus maculatus) was the main responsible snake. 4 patients showed signs of systemic envenoming. Two were haematological and two were neurological in nature and caused by Bitis species and Naja species, respectively. No fatalities were noted. A definite maximum of snake bites was observed during October and November which corresponds to the transition from rainy to dry season.

  16. Water Absorbing Plantation Clay for Vertical Greenery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lih-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arises of environmental conscious, the usage of vertical garden system has become more popular in urban cities. Citizens can enjoys the benefits of energy and cost saving besides ornamental effect. More investigations have been conducted on green facades led to the cities ecological enhancement.However, limited plants species can be planted for green facades systems as this system does not provide sufficient soil and nutrients for common plants. Alternative plantation methods such as planted box and felt system required additional maintenance attention. The idea of using clay composite which consists of nutritious soil, water absorbing polymer and flexible cement clay potentially become alternative vertical greenery systems that offers economic and sustainable plantation platform for more variety of plants.The fabricating of clay composite involved three processes, they are: mixing, moulding and drying. Physical properties characterisation (density, pH, compression test, aging test and water immersion test were tested on the dried fabricated clay composite to ensure their sustainability in tropical climate. The results showed that clay composite with 1.5 wt% of cement and 0.3 wt% superabsorbent polymer shows optimum water absorbing properties. This system are expected to enable more agriculture activities in urban living.

  17. Biomass and nitrogen dynamics in an irrigated hybrid poplar plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A 3-year study measured the effects of ground cover treatments and nitrogen fertilization on biomass and nitrogen dynamics in an irrigated hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr. x P. trichocarpa Torr. and Gray, clone NC-9922) plantation in northern Wisconsin. Annually fertilized (112 kg N/ha/yr) and unfertilized plots were either maintained weed-free (bare soil), allowed to revegetate with native weeds, or seeded to birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). Trees in bare soil plots responded to fertilization primarily in the third growing season, but total biomass of 3-year-old trees was not increased by annual fertilization. High nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the soil solution suggested significant leaching in both unfertilized and fertilized bare soil plots in the first growing season, and in fertilized plots the second season. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations declined sharply in fertilized bare soil plots during the third growing season. Cover crop biomass was greatest in the second year and declined thereafter due to declines in below-ground components. Fertilization increased tree growth in these plots, but cover crop treatments had no effect. Results of this study suggest that, under irrigated conditions, a cover crop can substantially reduce leaching losses of nutrients and serve as a slow-release pool of nitrogen after the trees achieve crown closure. Fertilization is not recommended in these plantations until the second growing season if a cover crop is present and the third growing season if complete weed control is practiced.

  18. Prediction and identification of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin as a food allergen (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Pine nut allergy cases have been reported, but pine nut allergens remain to be identified and characterized. Korean pine nut is one of the major varieties of pine nuts that are widely consumed. Vicilins belong to one of a few protein families that contain more than 85% of the known food a...

  19. Oceanic heat sources to Pine Island Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloff, M. R.; Gilroy, A. R.; Gille, S. T.; Subramanian, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid melting of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica has been attributed to increased basal melting of its grounded ice-shelf. Recent work suggests that an increased ocean heat supply to Pine Island Bay (PIB) is responsible for this increased melting. There is no consensus, however, on the origin of this increased ocean heat. We use a 2008-2010 state estimate of the Southern Ocean to diagnose the heat budget on the PIB continental shelf. In times of minimal sea-ice coverage, air-sea fluxes dominate the budget. Sea-ice is present over much of the year, however, and on average advection and parameterized small-scale mixing are equally important. The average air-sea fluxes and small scale mixing both act to cool the continental shelf waters, while advection by the large-scale circulation tends to warm these waters. The warmest waters are found on the eastern PIB continental shelf where bathymetric features cause increased advective fluxes and mixing. The average circulation along the PIB continental shelf is eastward consisting of approximately 1 Sv along shelf flow augmented by 1 Sv of across shelf flow to be balanced by a 2 Sv outflow along the eastern PIB shelf. Numerical simulations of passive tracer releases reveal the advective pathways of these waters that reach the continental shelf.

  20. Wind noise under a pine tree canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that infrasonic wind noise levels are lower for arrays placed in forests and under vegetation than for those in open areas. In this research, the wind noise levels, turbulence spectra, and wind velocity profiles are measured in a pine forest. A prediction of the wind noise spectra from the measured meteorological parameters is developed based on recent research on wind noise above a flat plane. The resulting wind noise spectrum is the sum of the low frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-shear interaction near and above the tops of the trees and higher frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction near the ground within the tree layer. The convection velocity of the low frequency wind noise corresponds to the wind speed above the trees while the measurements showed that the wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction is near stationary and is generated by the slow moving turbulence adjacent to the ground. Comparison of the predicted wind noise spectrum with the measured wind noise spectrum shows good agreement for four measurement sets. The prediction can be applied to meteorological estimates to predict the wind noise under other pine forests.

  1. Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M. E.; Gyenge, J. E.; Urquiza, M. M.; Varela, S.

    2012-11-01

    More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to understand how management practices can help to increase their adaptability to climate change. Growth magnitude and period, specific hydraulic conductivity, and anatomical traits (early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter, cell-wall thickness, tracheid length and bordered pit dimensions) were measured in the ring 2008-2009, which was formed during drought conditions. This drought event decreased annual stem growth by 30-38% and 58-65% respect to previous mean growth, in open vs. closed stand trees, respectively, indicating a higher sensitivity of the latter, which is opposite to reports from the same species growing in managed native forests in USA. Some wood anatomical variables did differ in more water stressed trees (lower cell wall thickness of early wood cells and higher proportion of small-lumen cells in late wood), which in turn did not affect wood function (hydraulic conductivity and resistance to implosion). Other anatomical variables (tracheid length, pit dimensions, early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter of early wood cells) did not differ between tree sizes and plantation density. The results suggest that severe drought affects differentially the amount but not the function and quality of formed wood in ponderosa pine growing at different competition levels. (Author) 41 refs.

  2. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  3. Molecular characterization and virulence of Beauveria spp. from the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevim, Ali; Demir, Ismail; Demirbağ, Zihni

    2010-10-01

    The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Den. & Schiff.) is one of the most harmful pests to pine species in Mediterranean countries including Turkey. Caterpillars of T. pityocampa are not only significantly harmful to forest trees but also responsible for various allergic reactions in humans and animals. In this study, in order to find a more effective and safe biological control agent against T. pityocampa, we investigated fungal pathogens of T. pityocampa in the Black Sea Region of Turkey and tested their pathogenicity on it. Five different fungi were isolated and identified based on their morphological and molecular characteristics including ITS and partial sequence of EF1-[alpha]. Based on these characteristics, four isolates were identified as Beauveria bassiana cf. Clade C (Rehner and Buckley in Mycologia 97:84-98, 2005) and one isolate was identified as Beauveria bassiana. Among these isolates, B. bassiana KTU-24, B. bassiana cf. Clade C KTU-66 and KTU-67 showed the highest virulence with 100% mortality within 10 days after application. B. bassiana isolate KTU-24 produced the highest mycosis value with %100. Consequently, B. bassiana KTU-24 seems to be good candidate for further investigation as a possible biological control agent against this pest.

  4. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  5. ESCORRENTÍA SUPERFICIAL EN BOSQUES MONTANOS NATURALES Y PLANTADOS DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA (COLOMBIA SURFACE RUNOFF IN NATURAL MONTANE FORESTS AND FOREST PLANTATIONS IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Andrés Ruiz Suescún

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. y plantados de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fueron medidos los flujos de escorrentía superficial (ES por un periodo de tiempo de 16 meses. Se implementaron parcelas cerradas de escorrentía superficial de 10 m de largo x 2 m de ancho, tanques colectores y sistemas de registro volumétrico. Los flujos fueron de 23,19 mm año-1 (1,07 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de roble; 35,13 mm año-1 (1,61 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de pino pátula y 230,64 mm año-1 (11,05 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de ciprés. Mediante análisis de componentes principales (ACP se identificaron las relaciones existentes entre las variables hidrológicas y los flujos de ES, y por medio de análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos para los flujos de ES por cobertura en función de la precipitación, la precipitación en el bosque y la intensidad de lluvia promedio, variables que mostraron alta relación con la ES según el ACP.In natural montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl., in pine (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, surface runoff flows (SRF were measured over 16 months. Runoff was measured using 10 m long x 2 m wide runoff bounded plots, collector tanks and a volumetric counter system. SRF were 23,19 mm year -1 (1,07 % of rainfall for oak forest; 35,13 mm year -1 (1,61 % of rainfall for pine and 230,64 mm year-1 (11,05 % of rainfall for cypress plantations. Relationships between hydrological variables and SRF were identified by a principal components analysis (PCA. For each one of the stands, multiple regression analysis was used to fit models of SRF on rainfall, throughfall and mean intensity of rainfall, variables that, according to the PCA

  6. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on N2O emissions from a rubber plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Ji, Hong-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Sha, Li-Qing; Liu, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Wei; Dong, Yu-Xin; Bai, Xiao-Long; Lin, You-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Zheng, Xun-Hua

    2016-06-01

    To gain the effects of N fertilizer applications on N2O emissions and local climate change in fertilized rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in the tropics, we measured N2O fluxes from fertilized (75 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and unfertilized rubber plantations at Xishuangbanna in southwest China over a 2-year period. The N2O emissions from the fertilized and unfertilized plots were 4.0 and 2.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively, and the N2O emission factor was 1.96%. Soil moisture, soil temperature, and the area weighted mean ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4+-N) content controlled the variations in N2O flux from the fertilized and unfertilized rubber plantations. NH4+-N did not influence temporal changes in N2O emissions from the trench, slope, or terrace plots, but controlled spatial variations in N2O emissions among the treatments. On a unit area basis, the 100-year carbon dioxide equivalence of the fertilized rubber plantation N2O offsets 5.8% and 31.5% of carbon sink of the rubber plantation and local tropical rainforest, respectively. When entire land area in Xishuangbanna is considered, N2O emissions from fertilized rubber plantations offset 17.1% of the tropical rainforest’s carbon sink. The results show that if tropical rainforests are converted to fertilized rubber plantations, regional N2O emissions may enhance local climate warming.

  7. Movement of genotypes of Ceratocystis fimbriata within and among Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria A; Harrington, Thomas C; Alfenas, Acelino C; Mizubuti, Eduardo S G

    2011-08-01

    Ceratocystis wilt on eucalyptus, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, was first recognized in 1997 in the state of Bahia, Brazil, but is now known in five other states and in four other countries. C. fimbriata is a native, soilborne pathogen in some parts of Brazil but we hypothesized that genotypes of the pathogen have been moved among plantations in rooted cuttings collected from diseased trees and within plantations on cutting tools. We used six microsatellite markers to identify 78 genotypes of C. fimbriata among 177 isolates from individual trees in 20 eucalyptus plantations. The highest gene and genotypic diversity values were found in plantations on formerly wild Cerrado forest in Minas Gerais, suggesting that the fungus was in the soil prior to planting eucalyptus. In contrast, one or only a few genotypes were found in plantations on previous pastureland (with no woody hosts) in Bahia and São Paulo, and most of these genotypes were found in a Bahian nursery or in one of two Bahian plantations that were sources for rooted cuttings. Sources of cuttings tended to be dominated by one or a few genotypes that may have been spread within the plantation on cutting tools.

  8. ACCOUNTING PARADIGM OF LIVED EXPERIENCES IN ACTION RESEARCH: THE CASE OF MALAYSIAN PLANTATION WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Susela DEVI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces action research as a possible new method to reduce the distance between idealism and accounting practice, thus contributing to the accounting literature. The source of this paper is an on-going large research project. The project has three objectives. Firstly, to provide evidence of the utilisation of accounting methods in the Malaya plantation industry from its earliest beginnings through to the introduction of accounting tools such as budgets, leading to the creation of a social and economic underclass in Malaysia. Secondly, to examine the extent to which accounting information provided in the Annual Reports of Malaysian plantation companies is used in determining the wages of plantation workers on the grounds that workers in the plantation industry have been and still are, among the most poorly paid in Malaysia, and perhaps the world. Interestingly, the wages of plantation workers are determined through a negotiation process between the National Union of Plantation Workers and the Malaysian Agricultural Producers Association. This paper draws from this research project and explicates the utilisation of the Action Research methodology in reporting the “lived experiences” of those affected by Management Accounting budgets and demonstrating how the parties to wage negotiation, the employers, union and employees, can better derive value from accounting information provided within the annual reports of Malaysian plantation companies.

  9. Community perceptions towards the establishment of an urban forest plantation: a case of Dzivaresekwa, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mureva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of urban forest communities not only depend on the government and nongovernmental organizations, but also strongly rely on local community stewardship. A study was carried out to assess community perceptions on the establishment of an urban forest plantation among urban residents in Dzivaresekwa, an urban area in Harare. Randomized systematic sampling was used to select 150 households and one resident per household was interviewed using a pretested questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The objectives of the study were to determine how age and gender and employment status variables, were related to the urban residents’ perceptions towards establishment of a forest plantation in an urban area. Most females (58.3% viewed the plantation as a threat while most men (51.7% viewed the plantation as a recreational area. The highest proportion (61.9% of the middle age group (21-40 years perceived the plantation as a source of employment. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.040 between gender and the general perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. However, there was no statistically significant relationship (p = 0.203 between age groups and the perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. It is concluded that the community had diverse perceptions on urban community forestry.

  10. Identifying Sugarcane Plantation using LANDSAT-8 Images with Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono, Sidik; Nadirah

    2016-11-01

    The use of remote sensing has been highly beneficial in the identification and also mapping and monitoring of plantations. The identification of plantations includes the physiology, disease, environmental conditions, and also the production and time of harvesting. It can be done by doing satellite imagery classification. However, to reach the final result of identification, it could be carried out by getting the solid ground truth information. This paper will discuss about detection of sugarcane plantation in Magetan district of East Java province area by using LANDSAT-8 image with specific approach of phenology profile using EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) value from satellite data, as an alternative vegetation index to address some of the limitation of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). Method of classification used for detecting sugarcane plantation is Support Vector machines (SVM), which is a promising machine learning methodology. It has the ability to generalize well even with limited training samples and complex data. A number of samples of phenology profile for training purpose using SVMs are obtained from the area that identified as sugarcane plantation during field campaign in 2015. The same manner is also done for the objects instead of sugarcane plantation with relatively the same number of samples. The result of the research shows that Remote Sensing is able to detect the sugarcane plantation cross the district with good accuracy.

  11. Simulating Harvest Schedule for Timber Management and Multipurpose Management in Teak Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Tiryana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of teak plantations in Java requires an improvement of the existing yield regulation method to optimize multiple benefits of the plantations at risk of stand destruction. This study was therefore aimed to formulate an alternative harvest scheduling model that integrates risk of stand destruction for supporting multipurpose management of teak plantations. The proposed model used a state-space planning model to simulate the dynamic of plantations due to timber harvesting and stand destruction, and then sought optimal solutions for 2 management scenarios, i.e. timber management that optimized total harvest volume and multipurpose management that optimized net present value (NPV while increasing carbon stocks. Using a case study on a typical teak plantation, this study confirmed that increasing destruction rates reduced harvest volumes, NPV, carbon stocks, and resulted in imbalanced ending age-class structures. Reducing cutting-age limit increased harvest volumes and NPV, but it also reduced carbon stocks of the plantations. Although the multipurpose management generated lower financial benefit, it maintained carbon stocks and produced better ending age-class structures compared to timber management. The proposed harvest scheduling model provides a useful planning tool for managing teak plantations.

  12. [Carbon storage and its allocation in mixed alder-cypress plantations at different age stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Guo

    2008-07-01

    The 10-, 15-, 20- and 25-year-old mixed alder (Alnus cremastogyne)-cypress (Cupressus funebris) plantations and the 30-year-old pure cypress plantation succeeded from mixed alder-cypress plantation in the hilly area of central Sichuan Basin were chosen as test objects to study the dynamic changes and allocation patterns of their carbon storage. The results showed that the vegetation carbon storage in mixed alder-cypress plantations increased continually from the age stage of 10- to 30-year, and reached 52.40 t x hm(-2) at the age stage of 30-year. The vegetation carbon storage of arbor layer at each age stage was more than 85.59% of the total, and the soil carbon storage within 0-40 cm layer increased significantly (P 0.05). The carbon storage of the mixed alder-cypress plantations increased significantly from the age stage of 10- to 15-year, with the maximum (118.13 t x hm(-2)) at the age stage of 15-year, but declined from the age stage of 15- to 25-year while increased slightly from the age stage of 25- to 30-year. The proportion of vegetation carbon storage increased continually from the age stage of 10- to 30-year, whereas that of soil carbon storage was in adverse. Comparing with other types of plantations in China, mixed alder-cypress plantation had a lower storage of carbon.

  13. The weed species composition in a reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. plantation for energy purposes depending on its age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment, carried out in nine production fields of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea grown for energy purposes, evaluated the effect of plantation age on the occurrence and species composition of weeds. The selected plantations were divided into 3 groups that were conventionally called “young” (1–2 years old, “middle-aged” (3–5 years old, and “older” plantations (6–8 years old. Regardless of plantation age, altogether 43 species were found in the experimental fields. Moreover, 6 species were common for all the plantations and were found in them regardless of plantation age. The least species, only 18, were found on the “young” plantations, almost twice more on the “older” ones (30 species, whereas the largest spectrum of species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations (33 species. In the “young” plantations, annual weeds were the most common, with the highest constancy and coverage index found for Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora and Echinochloa crus-galli. The greatest variation in species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations. However, only 4 species achieved the highest constancy and coverage index: Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Cirsium arvense, Poa trivialis and Taraxacum officinale. Furthermore, perennial weeds were found to be dominant in the “older” plantations. Within this group, Poa trivialis, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Plantago maior, and Cirsium arvense had the highest constancy and coverage index.

  14. Water use efficiency of a banana plantation in a screenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, J.; Dicken, U.; Grava, A.; Cohen, S.

    2009-04-01

    Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is becoming increasingly popular in arid and semi-arid regions due to the resulting decreased water use and increased fruit quality. This study focused on measurements of water vapor and CO2 fluxes in a large commercial flat-roof banana screenhouse in northern Israel whose dimensions were 300 m long, 200 m wide and 6 m high. Measurements were conducted using an eddy covariance system deployed on a pole near the center of the screenhouse, allowing a minimum fetch of 100 m in all wind directions. The system measured the three air velocity components, air sonic temperature, air humidity and CO2 concentration. Measurements were conducted during 21 days between July 7th (DOY 189) and August 17th 2007 (DOY 230). During this period the banana plants grew from 2.8 to 4.6 m height and leaf area index increased from 0.5 to 1.8. Additional measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux enabled the analysis of energy balance closure. Energy balance closure analysis gave the regression line Y = 0.85X - 0.5 (R2 = 0.84) where Y represents the consumed energy (latent plus sensible heat fluxes) and X represents the available energy (net radiation minus soil heat flux). This result (slope close to unity) validates the measured evapotranspiration (latent heat flux). Farmer's irrigation increased during the measurement period due to both plant growth and climate variation. Daily evapotranspiration of the plantation increased from 1.7 to 3.2 mm of water during the measurement period. Daily water consumption was on average 70% of the applied irrigation, suggesting that the plantation was over-irrigated. The water use efficiency (WUE) was defined as the total daily mass of CO2 consumed by the plantation per unit mass of water used. Results show that WUE generally increased during the measurement period, implying that larger banana plants were more efficient in using the available water than smaller plants.

  15. Paired comparison of water, energy and carbon exchanges over two young maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.): effects of thinning and weeding in the early stage of tree growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreaux, Virginie; Lamaud, Eric; Bosc, Alexandre; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Medlyn, Belinda E; Loustau, Denis

    2011-09-01

    The effects of management practices on energy, water and carbon exchanges were investigated in a young pine plantation in south-west France. In 2009-10, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2)O and heat fluxes were monitored using the eddy covariance and sap flow techniques in a control plot (C) with a developed gorse layer, and an adjacent plot that was mechanically weeded and thinned (W). Despite large differences in the total leaf area index and canopy structure, the annual net radiation absorbed was only 4% lower in plot W. We showed that higher albedo in this plot was offset by lower emitted long-wave radiation. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) from plot W was 15% lower, due to lower rainfall interception and transpiration by the tree canopy, partly counterbalanced by the larger evaporation from both soil and regrowing weedy vegetation. The drainage belowground from plot W was larger by 113 mm annually. The seasonal variability of ET was driven by the dynamics of the soil and weed layers, which was more severely affected by drought in plot C. Conversely, the temporal changes in pine transpiration and stem diameter growth were synchronous between sites despite higher soil water content in the weeded plot. At the annual scale, both plots were carbon sinks, but thinning and weeding reduced the carbon uptake by 73%: annual carbon uptake was 243 and 65 g C m(-2) on plots C and W, respectively. Summer drought dramatically impacted the net ecosystem exchange: plot C became a carbon source as the gross primary production (GPP) severely decreased. However, plot W remained a carbon sink during drought, as a result of decreases in both GPP and ecosystem respiration (R(E)). In winter, both plots were carbon sources, plots C and W emitting 67.5 and 32.4 g C m(-2), respectively. Overall, this study highlighted the significant contribution of the gorse layer to mass and energy exchange in young pine plantations.

  16. Responses of soil microbial respiration to plantations depend on soil properties in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-jie; YAN Yue; FU Xiang-ping; YANG Jie; ZHANG Su-yan; XU Shan; TANG Zheng; LI Zhong-fang; LU Shun-bao

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the impact of plantation on microbial respiration (MR) is vitaly important to understand the interactions between belowground metabolism and land use change. In this study, cumulative MR was determined by alkali absorption method in 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 days from the soil in a representative plantations in the subtropical region of China. The treatment of plantations contained no plant (CK), orange trees (Citrus reticulata)+Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) (GB), orange trees (C. reticulata)+Bahia grass (P.notatum)+soybean (Giycine max(L.)Merril) (GBH). Results showed that plantation had signiifcant effects on microbial respiration and the responses of microbial respiration to plantation from different soil layers and topographies were different: in 0–20 cm in uphil: GB>GBH>CK; in 20–40 cm in uphil: GBH>CK>GB; in 0–20 cm in downhil: GBH>CK>GB; in 20–40 cm in downhil: GB>CK>GBH. Furthermore, plantation also altered the relationships between MR and soil properties. In CK, microbial respiration was positively correlated with NH4+ and soil total N, and negatively correlated with soil moisture, pH, NO3–, and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). In GB, microbial respira-tion under GB signiifcantly negatively correlated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In GBH, microbial respiration under GBH was positively correlated with NH4+, MBC, total soil carbon (TC), and total soil nitrogen (TN), and negatively correlated with soil moisture (SM), pH, NO3–, and DOC. The underlying mechanisms could be attributed to soil heterogeneity and the effects of plantation on soil properties. Our results also showed that plantation signiifcantly increased soil C storage, which suggested plantation is a key measure to enhance soil C sequestration and mitigate global CO2 emission, especialy for the soil with low initial soil carbon content or bared soil.

  17. Ultrasound-associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYing; WANGZhen-yu; CHENXiao-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Experiment on ultrasound- associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) was conducted in Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China. The factors affecting extraction yield, such as ultrasonic frequency, extracting temperature, extracting time and the ratio of material to liquid (ratio of Korean pine seed to absolute alcohol), were analyzed under specific condition and the optimal extracting parameters were obtained as the ultrasonic frequency 32 000 Hz, the extracting temperature 80℃, the extracting time 50 rain, and the ratio of material to liquid 1: 30. The study demonstrates that ultrasound is a reliable and great efficiency tool for the fast extraction of Korean pine seed oil。

  18. A New Flavonoid in Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-yan; SHI Xiao-feng; WANG Dong-dong; MA Qu-huan; ZHANG Jun-min; LI Chong

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of flavonoids in pine needles of Cedrus deodara.Methods Flavonoids were isolated and purified from ethyl acetate extract of pine needles by chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20.Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence.Results Five flavonoids were isolated and purified.Their structures were identified as cedrusone A(1),myricetin(2),2R,3R-dihydromyricetin(3),quercctin(4),and 2R,3R-dihydroquercetin(5).Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound.Compounds 2-5 are isolated from pine needles of this genus for the first time.

  19. Sessile Animals on an Artificial Fish Reef with Pine Tree

    OpenAIRE

    吉永, 圭輔; ヨシナガ, ケイスケ; YOSHINAGA, Keisuke

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out to reveal the sessile animals attached to a pine tree reef. The artificial reef was placed off the coast of Ibusuki City in Kagoshima Bay on 21 December 1995. A piece of pine log was recovered from this reef on 30 October 1998, and animal community attached to the pine log was examined. Abundant ship-worms, Teredo navalis japonica, burrowed their ways from the cut end to the core. Sessile animals clung to the bark. There were also observed many other animals within ...

  20. Some biological aspects of Leucothyreus femoratus (Burmeister (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, in oil palm plantations from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Martínez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The scarabaeid Leucothyreus femoratus (Burmeister is described as causing damage to oil palm leaves, marking its first report as a pest in Colombia. The presence of this insect has necessitated determination of its life cycle, biometrics and food consumption as important aspects of its biology. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions in the municipality of San Vicente, Santander, Colombia. Mass rearing of L. femoratus was conducted, simulating field conditions and eating habits under laboratory conditions. Its life cycle and description of its developmental stages were determined, taking into account stage-specific survival. The duration of the life cycle of L. femoratus was determined to be 170.4±6.53, with an overall survival rate of 96.7%. Biometrical measurements were taken of the insect’s width, length and weight. Adults are black, and males and females are differentiated by size and by colour of their legs. The width, length and weight of the insect are proportional to the growth stage. Daily food consumption rate was evaluated in adult L. femoratus, and damage to leaves of Elaeis guineensis is described. Adult L. femoratus consumed 13 mm2 of foliage per day, and injury to leaves of E. guineensis was square or rectangular in shape. This insect’s life cycle duration and size are factors that could be considered in determining its feeding habits and pest status. Details of the life cycle, physical description and consumption rate of L. femoratus can help in the development of strategies to manage its populations in oil palm plantations.

  1. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: m.sweet@derby.ac.uk [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  2. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-11-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  3. Host deception: predaceous fungus, Esteya vermicola, entices pine wood nematode by mimicking the scent of pine tree for nutrient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, seedlings in the field protected the pine trees from pine wilt disease to some extent, indicating that it is a potential bio-control agent against PWN. Previous research had demonstrated that the living fungal mycelia of E. vermicola continuously produced certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which were responsible for the PWN attraction. However, identity of these VOCs remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report the identification of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor produced by living mycelia of E. vermicola, the same volatile compounds emitted from PWN host pine tree, as the major VOCs for PWN attraction using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In addition, we also confirmed the host deception behavior of E. vermicola to PWN by using synthetic VOCs in a straightforward laboratory bioassay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This research result has demonstrated that the endoparasitic nematophagous fungus, E. vermicola, mimics the scent of PWN host pine tree to entice PWN for the nutrient. The identification of the attractive VOCs emitted from the fungus E. vermicola is of significance in better understanding parasitic mechanism of the fungus and the co-evolution in the two organisms and will aid management of the pine wilt disease.

  4. Study on Drying Characteristic of Chinese Fir and Poplar Plantation Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYongdong; LIXiaoling

    2004-01-01

    The drying characteristic was studied for plantation wood of Chinese fir and poplar, which are typical plantation wood of southern and northern part of China, respectively. Through lO0-degree-method the drying characteristic and basic drying condition were gotten, then drying schedule was developed for practical drying, the results showed that the drying schedule is suitable for Chinese fir and poplar plantation lumber, but shrinkage is large. The recommendation was made that enough dead weight is needed to decrease shrinkage in drying process. The drying quality of the two species of lumber is good in conventional drying method.

  5. Acute formic acid poisoning in a rubber plantation worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattatrai Kashinath More

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the workers in a rubber plantation in South India, ingestion of formic acid either accidentally or with suicidal intention is a common problem. Formic acid is diluted and used for coagulation of rubber latex. Easy availability makes formic acid a common poison. The aim of this article is to study the case of formic acid poisoning, its complications and management. Patient was managed symptomatically. Antidote was not used and no nasogastric aspiration was done. Patient had dysphagia; nutrition was maintained with open gastrostomy done on day 5 and subsequent enteral feeding. Measures to prevent anticipated complications were undertaken. Stricture of the esophagus is a common complication leading to long-term morbidity. After initial management, all patients should be on follow-up for prevention and management of strictures. Workers should be educated on complications of formic acid poisoning and easy availability should be curtailed by enforcing remedial measures.

  6. What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara J. Bond; Gary A. Ritchie

    2002-07-21

    In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that

  7. Intratree Variability of Cleavage Resistance of Chinese Fir from Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ming; REN Haiqing; LUO Xiuqin; YIN Yafang

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the variation of cleavage resistance of Chinese fir wood from plantation.Six trees of 36 years old were investigated,and the cleavage resistance properties for 672 samples made of the trees were tested.The samples were cut from the sapwood and heartwood at different directions (south and north) and heights (1.3,3.3,5.3 and 7.3 m) of the trees.The result showed that:tangential cleavage resistance was higher than radial one, and cleavage resistance of sapwood was higher than that of heartwood,but there was no significant difference in cleavage resistances between sections of the north and the south of the trees.There was a little variation in cleavage resistance between the radial and tangential from butt to top log,which shows alittle decrease with the height from 1.3 to 5.3 m,but a rise in the top of the trees.

  8. Black gold

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, MW

    2016-01-01

    Following the Yom Kippur war of October 1973, OPEC raises the price of oil by 70% along with a 5% reduction in oil production. Len Saunders a highly skilled and knowledgeable British engineer for Jaguar motors, is approached by the UK energy commission in the January of 1974 to create a new propulsion system; using a secret document from a German WW2 scientist, that they have come into possession of. Len Saunders sets to work on creating the holy grail of energy. Seven years later 1981, Haidar Farooq the Kuwait oil minister working at OPEC and head of a secret organisation named Black Gold bec

  9. On the relative contributions of wind vs. animals to seed dispersal of four Sierra Nevada pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B

    2008-07-01

    Selective pressures that influence the form of seed dispersal syndromes are poorly understood. Morphology of plant propagules is often used to infer the means of dispersal, but morphology can be misleading. Several species of pines, for example, have winged seeds adapted for wind dispersal but owe much of their establishment to scatter-hoarding animals. Here the relative importance of wind vs. animal dispersal is assessed for four species of pines of the eastern Sierra Nevada that have winged seeds but differed in seed size: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta murrayana, 8 mg); ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa ponderosa, 56 mg); Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi, 160 mg); and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana, 231 mg). Pre-dispersal seed mortality eliminated much of the ponderosa pine seed crop (66%), but had much less effect on Jeffrey pine (32% of seeds destroyed), lodgepole pine (29%), and sugar pine (7%). When cones opened most filled seeds were dispersed by wind. Animals removed > 99% of wind-dispersed Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds from the ground within 60 days, but animals gathered only 93% of lodgepole pine seeds and 38% of ponderosa pine seeds during the same period. Animals gathered and scatter hoarded radioactively labeled ponderosa, Jeffrey, and sugar pine seeds, making a total of 2103 caches over three years of study. Only three lodgepole pine caches were found. Caches typically contained 1-4 seeds buried 5-20 mm deep, depths suitable for seedling emergence. Although Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds are initially wind dispersed, nearly all seedlings arise from animal caches. Lodgepole pine is almost exclusively wind dispersed, with animals acting as seed predators. Animals treated ponderosa pine in an intermediate fashion. Two-phased dispersal of large, winged pine seeds appears adaptive; initial wind dispersal helps to minimize pre-dispersal seed mortality whereas scatter hoarding by animals places seeds in sites with a higher probability of seedling establishment.

  10. Quantifying the Impacts of Systemic Acquired Resistance to Pitch Canker on Monterey Pine Growth Rate and Hyperspectral Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum, is a disease affecting Monterey pine (Pinus radiata and many other pine species throughout the world. The impact of pitch canker on Pinus radiata may be limited by systemic acquired resistance (SAR, a phenomenon that elevates resistance to a pathogen after initial challenge by that pathogen or another microorganism. Allocation of resources to defense, as a consequence of SAR, is presumed to reduce resources available to support growth and reproduction, but specific fitness consequences associated with SAR in P. radiata have not been measured. To quantify impacts of SAR on growth rate, a 2 × 2 factorial experiment was established in which trees were either primed for SAR or unprimed, with half the trees in each of those two groups being inoculated with the pitch canker pathogen and the other half not inoculated. Priming for SAR was accomplished by inoculating one branch with F. circinatum and removing inoculated branches prior to subsequent challenge inoculations (= disease treatments. Disease treatments included three inoculations that were removed for measurement of lesion length, and three additional inoculations that remained on the tree as a representation of persistent disease. Control trees were mock inoculated with water. Main effects of priming and disease did not result in significant effects on growth rate. Based on hyperspectral canopy reflectance data, diseased trees were associated with higher difference vegetation index values and biomass. The absence of a negative impact on growth rate associated with SAR suggests that induction of resistance may have utility as a tool for management of pitch canker in plantations.

  11. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  12. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) convicilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Albillos, Silvia M; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Tankersley, Boyce; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-07-01

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that Korean pine convicilin was post-translationally processed. The N-terminal peptide sequences of its components were determined. These peptides could be mapped to a protein translated from an embryo abundant transcript isolated in this study. Similar to vicilin, native convicilin appeared to be homotrimeric. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that this protein is less resistant to thermal treatment than Korean pine vicilin. Its transition temperature was 75.57 °C compared with 84.13 °C for vicilin. The urea induced folding-unfolding equilibrium of pine convicilin monitored by intrinsic fluorescence could be interpreted in terms of a two-state model, with a Cm of 4.41 ± 0.15 M.

  13. Interim Report - Assess Wet Pine Savanna Response to Refuge Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Interim report provides the summary of plant inventory within a pine savanna on the MS Sandhill Crane NWR in 2011. 136 species of plants were noted in the survey.

  14. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes. The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  15. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  16. Vermicompost enhances germination of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lazcano, Cristina; Sampedro, Luis; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Domínguez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of vermicompost on the germination and early development of six different progenies of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). We compared the effects of incorporating solid vermicompost into the potting media to those of vermicompost water extract to asses the extent of not physically-mediated positive effects. The incorporation of vermicompost in the growing media of maritime pine increased germination by 16%, and particularly, addition of vermicom...

  17. Allergy to pine nuts in a bird fancier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, A; Vermeulen, A; Dieges, P H; van Toorenenbergen, A W

    1996-10-01

    A patient is described with the bird-egg syndrome who experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating some of her parrot's food (pine nuts: Pinus pinea). Specific IgE against this nut and another pine nut (P. cembra) was demonstrated by RAST. Cross-reactivity between these botanically related seeds was shown by RAST inhibition. Besides avian antigens, bird food antigens should be taken into consideration when symptoms of allergy occur on exposure to birds.

  18. Pine nut use in the Early Holocene and beyond: The danger cave archaeobotanical record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuts of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) from Early Holocene strata in Danger Cave, Utah, are distinguishable by seed-coat sculpturing from pine nuts of single-needled pinyon (Pinus monophylla), which occur in strata dating nuts in archaeological sites, but the morphology of the pine nuts in Danger Cave strongly indicate they were deposited by human foragers who brought small quantities with them for food for at least the last 7500 years. Large-scale transport of pine nuts to Danger Cave from distant hinterlands is unlikely, however. The seamless transition from limber pine to pinyon pine nuts in the Danger Cave record suggests that foragers who had utilized limber pine as a food resource easily switched to using pinyon pine nuts when pinyon pine migrated into the region at the close of the Early Holocene.

  19. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  20. The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody R. Stallings

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry plantations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

  1. Incidence of malaria is clustered and buffers around plantations: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Wibowo

    2015-12-01

    Malaria incidence is clustered and buffers around plantations at <1000 m. Malaria hot spots are displayed as risk maps that are useful for monitoring and spatial targeting of prevention and control measures against the disease.

  2. Suitability of online 3D visualization technique in oil palm plantation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Ruzinoor Che; Nordin, Norani; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm industry has been the backbone for the growth of Malaysia economy. The exports of this commodity increasing almost every year. Therefore, there are many studies focusing on how to help this industry increased its productivity. In order to increase the productivity, the management of oil palm plantation need to be improved and strengthen. One of the solution in helping the oil palm manager is by implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation using game engine technology. The potential of this application is that it can helps in fertilizer and irrigation management. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to investigate the issues in managing oil palm plantation from the view of oil palm manager by interview. The results from this interview will helps in identifying the suitable issues could be highlight in implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation management.

  3. Fire, red squirrels, whitebark pine, and Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podruzny, Shannon; Reinhart, D.P.; Mattson, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) habitats are important to Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) as refugia and sources of food. Ecological relationships between whitebark pine, red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and grizzly bear use of pine seeds on Mt. Washburn in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, were examined during 1984-86. Following large-scale fires in 1988, we repeated the study in 1995-97 to examine the effects of fire on availability of whitebark pine seed in red squirrel middens and on bear use of middens. Half of the total length of the original line transects burned. We found no red squirrel middens in burned areas. Post-fire linear-abundance (no./km) of active squirrel middens that were pooled from burned and unburned areas decreased 27% compared to pre-fire abundance, but increased in unburned portions of some habitat types. Mean size of active middens decreased 54% post-fire. Use of pine seeds by bears (linear abundance of excavated middens) in pooled burned and unburned habitats decreased by 64%, likely due to the combined effects of reduced midden availability and smaller midden size. We discourage any further large-scale losses of seed producing trees from management-prescribed fires or timber harvesting until the effects of fire on ecological relationships in the whitebark pine zone are better understood.

  4. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.

  5. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine.

  6. Losses of soil carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: erosion and decomposition estimated by δ(13) C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Damris, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-09-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha(-1) after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ(13) C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ(13) C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The (13) C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that δ(13) C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of δ(13) C values with depth.

  7. Reducing the infectivity and richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous Quercus ilex forest through soil preparations for truffle plantation establishment: A bioassay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Molina-Grau, Sara; Reyna, Santiago

    2015-11-01

    In the early years of a black truffle plantation, the field proliferation of the nursery-inoculated fungi can be hampered by native ectomycorrhizal fungi colonising the seedling roots. Reducing the soil ectomycorrhizal infectivity in the planting hole before introducing the inoculated seedling could be an effective strategy to reduce this problem. Three bioassays were conducted to evaluate the impact of several soil preparations on the ectomycorrhizal infectivity and richness of a Quercus ilex soil in a truffle-producing region. Microwaves, quicklime, and acetic acid significantly decreased the percent root colonisation and morphotype richness of the native ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, they also decreased seedling survival or growth. Peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite did not show a significant negative effect on the soil ectomycorrhizal community. The results support the potential of soil preparation for reducing the ectomycorrhizal infectivity of forest soils, thus being a promising strategy to reduce the early colonisation by native fungi in truffle plantations. However, the indications of damage to the seedling development must be addressed.

  8. Developing risk hypotheses and selecting species for assessing non-target impacts of GM trees with novel traits: the case of altered-lignin pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Louise A; Todd, Jacqui H; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Walter, Christian; Wagner, Armin; Barratt, Barbara I P

    2010-01-01

    A procedure is presented for developing environmental risk hypotheses associated with the deployment of forest trees genetically modified to have altered wood properties and for selecting non-target species to test these hypotheses. Altered-lignin Pinus radiata trees intended for use in New Zealand are used as a hypothetical case study to illustrate our approach. Firstly, environmental management goals (such as wood production, flood control or preservation of biodiversity) were identified and linked to the forest attributes they require. Necessary conditions for each attribute were listed and appropriate assessment endpoints for them developed. For example, biological control of pests may be one condition necessary for a forest to have healthy trees, and the diversity and abundance of natural enemy species in the forest could be an appropriate assessment endpoint for measuring this condition. A conceptual model describing the relationships between an altered-lignin GM pine tree and potentially affected invertebrates and micro-organisms in a plantation forest was used to develop a set of risk hypotheses describing how the GM trees might affect each assessment endpoint. Because purified lignin does not represent the properties it imparts to wood, maximum hazard dose tests with non-target organisms, as are used to inform toxin risk assessment, cannot be conducted. Alternative experiments, based on current knowledge of the responses of organisms to lignin, must be designed. A screening method was adapted and applied to a database of invertebrate species known to inhabit New Zealand pine forests to identify and prioritize non-target invertebrate species that could be used as experimental subjects for examining these hypotheses. The screening model and its application are presented, along with a set of recommendations for pre-release tests with GM pines and potentially affected invertebrates and micro-organisms.

  9. Localized spatial and temporal attack dynamics of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, B.J.; Powell, J.A.; Logan, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    Colonization of a host tree by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) involves chemical communication that enables a massive aggregation of beetles on a single resource, thereby ensuring host death and subsequent beetle population survival. Beetle populations have evolved a mechanism for termination of colonization on a lodgepole pine tree at optimal beetle densities, with a concomitant switch of attacks to nearby trees. Observations of the daily spatial and temporal attack process of mountain pine beetles (nonepidemic) attacking lodgepole pine suggest that beetles switch attacks to a new host tree before the original focus tree is fully colonized, and that verbenone, an antiaggregating pheromone, may be acting within a tree rather than between trees.

  10. Perlakuan Akuntansi Aktiva Tetap Dan Penerapan Metode Depresiasi Pada PT. Bakrie Sumatera Plantations, TBK.

    OpenAIRE

    Mellisa, Shanti

    2011-01-01

    PT. Bakrie Sumatera Plantations Tbk. is a company engaged in oil palm and rubber plantations. In order to achieve company goals that have been defined, companies need a variety of factors of production. One of the factors of production necessary to facilitate and streamline operational activities whose value is sufficiently large fixed assets. In preparing this thesis, the author discusses research on the method of depreciation of fixed assets. The purpose of this study was to determine wheth...

  11. Soil carbon stocks decrease following conversion of secondary forests to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha(-1) in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha(-1) to an increase of 8 Mg C ha(-1). In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes.

  12. Monitoring of oil palm plantations and growth variations with a dense vegetation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Khar Chun; Koay, Jun Yi; Tey, Seng Heng

    2014-01-01

    -PACT) and Fresnel Phase Corrections. The iterative solutions of the radiative transfer model are computed with input based on ground truth measurements of physical parameters of oil palm plantations in the state of Perak, Malaysia, and compared with the SAR images obtained from RADARSAT2. Preliminary results...... are analyzed for dominant scattering mechanisms as well as monitoring of growth variation of oil palm trees for further development of operation models for long term monitoring of oil palm plantations....

  13. A Study on the Effects of Insect Pests and Diseases on Intensively Managed Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Basedon the results of monitoring the environment of China National Afforestation Project (NAP) and the investigation on insect pests and diseases in 1.2 million ha of plantations, the author elaborates the areas, species and causes of insect pests and diseases occurring in the project's areas and provides fundamental theory for guiding environmental protection and plantation establishment in a sound way. Since the project's activities strictly follovved the guideline of environmental protection in past...

  14. Research on Change of Rhizosphere Soil Properties of Chinese fir Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This article emphatically reviews the difference of soil biological activities, biochemical activities and soil chemical properties between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of first rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb) Hook) plantation. It also reviews their dynamic patterns during Chinese fir plantation development. The results show that the contents of organic and inorganic nutrients in the rhizosphere soil of young, half-mature and near-mature Chinese fir of first-rotation ...

  15. Technology Aspect and Feasibility Analysis of Sugarcane Slash Management on dry land sugarcane Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sugar cane plantation have the potential to produce organic fertilizers such as compost from organic waste litter cane. Based on research conducted by Toharisman (1991), litter weight of harvested sugar cane reach 20-25 tons/ha. Litter is made up of the wood on the leaves, shoots, and sugarcane are not transported to the factory. Untapped potential by sugar cane plantations in an effort to increase sugar production. It is seen by still doing the burning litter after several d...

  16. The relationship between immigration and labour market performance in Sabah’s oil palm plantation sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kasim Mansur

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between immigration and labor market performance in Sabah region's oil palm plantation industry. The labour market performance refers to the wages and employment of local workers in the oil palm plantation sector. The relationship of these variables can be in short run or/ and in the long run. This study uses Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to examine the relationship between the immigration and labour market performance. In...

  17. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5–4.8 Mha (24–26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7–3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8–0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57–60% versus 15–16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development. PMID:27605501

  18. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5–4.8 Mha (24–26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7–3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8–0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57–60% versus 15–16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  19. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  20. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  1. Biomass and nutrient cycle in fertilized and unfertilized pine, mixed birch and pine and spruce stands on a drained mire.

    OpenAIRE

    Finér, Leena

    1989-01-01

    Biomass, biomass increment and nutrient cycling were studied in (1) a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, (2) a Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand and (3) a mixed birch (Betula pubescens)/pine stand on a drained mire at Ilomantsi, eastern Finland in 1979-85. In addition, the effect of NPK and micronutrient fertilizer treatment was studied. Above-ground and root measurements were taken. These data formed the basis of stand biomass and nutrient cycle simulations of fertilized and unfertilized s...

  2. System analysis of a bio-energy plantation: full greenhouse gas balance and energy accounting (POPFULL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Berhongaray, G.; Broeckx, L.; De Groote, T.; ElKasmioui, O.; Fichot, R.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Verlinden, M.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    In recent year the environmental impact of fossil fuels and their reduced availability are leading to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources, among them bio-energy. However, the cost/benefit in establishing, managing, and using these plantations for energy production should be quantified together with their environmental impact. In this project we are performing a full life cycle analysis (LCA) balance of the most important greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O and O3), together with full energy accounting of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with fast-growing trees. We established the plantation two years ago and we have been monitoring net fluxes of CO2, N2O, CH4, and O3, in combination with biomass pools (incl. soil) and fluxes, and volatile organic carbon (VOCs). This poplar plantation will be monitored for another two years then harvested and transformed into bio-energy. For the energy accounting we are performing a life cycle analysis and energy efficiency assessments over the entire cycle of the plantation until the production of electricity and heat. Here we present an overview of the results from the first two years from the plantation establishment, and some of the projections based on these first results.

  3. The potential, variety, and nutrient content of natural vegetation as feedstuffs grown under cashewnut plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sutedi

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant production is limited by the quality, the sufficiency and the continuation of feed supply, especially during the dry season. The objective of the study was to find out the potency, type and quality of natural vegetation grown under cashewnut plantation. The study was carried out by exploration of existing natural vegetation resources in cashewnut plantation area. Results showed that native pasture growing under cashewnut plantation area comprised of dry-tolerant grasses and legumes, such as Setaria sp., Themeda sp., Calopogonium mucunoides, and Desmodium sp. The fresh yield and the dry matter production of natural vegetation grown under less than eight years old of cashewnut plantation was lower compared to those grown under cashewnut plantation of more than eight years old. This may be due to shading by the tree crop, which is known to reduce the photosynthetically active radiation reaching the ground of vegetation. It seems that, light is the critical factor affecting the growth of vegetation underneath tree canopies. Carrying capacity of native forages grown under cashewnut plantation was only 0.5 animal unit of ruminant/ha/year.

  4. Mixed forest plantations can efficiently filter rainfall deposits of sulfur and chlorine in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hairong; Yang, Wanqin; Wu, Fuzhong; Tan, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Forest filtering is a well-known and efficient method for diminishing atmospheric pollutant (such as SO42‑ and Cl‑) inputs to soil and water; however, the filtering efficiencies of forests vary depending on the regional vegetation and climate. The rainy area of West China has suffered from heavy rainfall and human activity, which has potentially resulted in large amounts of sulfur and chlorine deposition, but little information is available regarding the filtering effects of typical plantations. Therefore, the migration of SO42‑ and Cl‑ from rainfall to throughfall, stemflow and runoff were investigated in a camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) plantation, a cryptomeria (Cryptomeria fortunei) plantation and a mixed plantation in a 9-month forest hydrology experiment. The results indicated the following: (i) The total SO42‑ and Cl‑ deposition was 43.05 kg ha‑1 and 5.25 kg ha‑1, respectively. (ii) The cover layer had the highest interception rate (60.08%), followed by the soil layer (16.02%) and canopy layer (12.85%). (iii) The mixed plantation resulted in the highest SO42‑ (37.23%) and Cl‑ (51.91%) interception rates at the forest ecosystem scale, and the interception rate increased with increasing rainfall. These results indicate that mixed plantations can effectively filter SO42‑ and Cl‑ in this area and in similar areas.

  5. Soil carbon budget in different-aged Chinese fir plantations in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shebao Yu; Dan Wang; Wei Dai; Ping Li

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the age effect on soil carbon balance in forest ecosystems is important for other material cycles and forest man-agement. In this research we investigated soil organic carbon density, litter production, litter decomposition rate, soil respiration, and soil mi-crobial properties in a chronosequence of four Chinese fir plantations of 7, 16, 23 and 29 years at Dagangshan mountain range, Jiangxi Province, south China. There was a significant increasing trend in litter production with increasing plantation age. Litter decomposition rate and soil respira-tion, however, declined from the 7-year to the 16-year plantation, and then increased after 16 years. This was largely dependent on soil micro-organisms. Soil carbon output was higher than carbon input before 16 years, and total soil carbon stock declined from 35.98 t·ha-1 in the 7-year plantation to 30.12 t·ha-1 in the 16-year plantation. Greater litter produc-tion could not explain the greater soil carbon stock, suggesting that forest growth impacted this microbial process that controlled rates of soil car-bon balance together with litter and soil respiration. The results highlight the importance of the development stage in assessing soil carbon budget and its significance to future management of Chinese fir plantations.

  6. [Root exudates and soil microbes in three Picea asperata plantations with different stand ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Jiang, Xian-Min; Yin, Hua-Jun; Yin, Chun-Ying; Wei, Yu-Hang; Liu, Qing

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of in situ root exudates and soil microbial composition among three Picea asperata plantations with different stand ages (9, 13 and 31 a) in Miyaluo, west Sichuan, China. The results showed that the secretion rates of root exudation per fine biomass, length, surface area and tip were significantly different among the three plantations with different stand ages. The secretion rate of root exudation was the highest in the 9-year-old plantation stand. The root activity of P. asperata was the weakest in the 13-year-old plantation stand. Besides, soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were significantly different among the three plantation stands. MBC and MBN contents of rhizosphere soil gradually increased with stand ages, while those of non-rhizosphere soil were the largest in the 13-year-old plantation stand. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and their summation in rhizosphere soil presented a trend of high-low-high with stand ages. The opposite pattern was found in the PLFAs of bacteria, fungi, the summation of PLFA, and the ratio of fungi number to bacteria in non-rhizosphere soil. It is suggested that root exudates might have a positive rhizosphere effect on soil microbial biomass C, N and PLFAs of functional groups.

  7. An Empirical Assessment of Transgene Flow from a Bt Transgenic Poplar Plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Xingling; Lv, Jinhui; Jia, Huixia; Zhao, Shutang; Lu, Mengzhu

    2017-01-01

    To assess the possible impact of transgenic poplar plantations on the ecosystem, we analyzed the frequency and distance of gene flow from a mature male transgenic Populus nigra plantation carrying the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene (Bt poplar) and the survival of Bt poplar seeds. The resultant Bt poplar seeds occurred at a frequency of ~0.15% at 0 m to ~0.02% at 500 m from the Bt poplar plantation. The germination of Bt poplar seeds diminished within three weeks in the field (germination rate from 68% to 0%) compared to 48% after three weeks of storage at 4°C. The survival rate of seedlings in the field was 0% without any treatment but increased to 1.7% under the addition of four treatments (cleaning and trimming, watering, weeding, and covering with plastic film to maintain moisture) after being seeded in the field for eight weeks. The results of this study indicate that gene flow originating from the Bt poplar plantation occurred at an extremely low level through pollen or seeds under natural conditions. This study provides first-hand field data on the extent of transgene flow in poplar plantations and offers guidance for the risk assessment of transgenic poplar plantations.