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Sample records for black pdms structures

  1. Accounting for PDMS shrinkage when replicating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used material for fabrication of microfluidic devices and for replication of micro- and nanotextured surfaces. Shrinkage of PDMS in the fabrication process can lead to leaking devices and poor alignment of layers. However, corrections to the mold master are seldom applied to counteract the shrinkage of PDMS. Also, to perform metrological measurements using replica techniques one has to take the shrinkage into account. Thus we report a study of the shrinkage of PDMS with several different mixing ratios and curing temperatures. The shrinkage factor, with its associated uncertainty, for PDMS in the range 40 to 120 °C is provided. By applying this correction factor, it is possible to replicate structures with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.2% in lateral dimensions using typical curing temperatures and PDMS mixing ratios in the range 1:6 to 1:20 (agent:base). (technical note)

  2. A new approach to fabricate pdms structures using femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Hamsapriya

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is commonly used to prototype micro and nano featured components due to its beneficial properties. PDMS based devices have been used for diverse applications such as cell culturing, cell sorting and sensors. Motivated by such diverse applications possible through pure PDMS and reinforced PDMS, numerous efforts have been directed towards developing novel fabrication techniques. Prototyping 2D and 3D pure and reinforced PDMS microdevices normally require a long curing time and must go through multiple steps. This research explores the possibility of fabricating microscale and nanoscale structures directly from PDMS resin using femtosecond laser processing. This study offers an alternative fabrication route that potentially lead to a new way for prototyping of pure and reinforced PDMS devices, and the generation of hybrid nanomaterials. In depth investigation of femtosecond laser irradiation of PDMS resin reveals that the process is highly intensity-dependent. At low to intermediate intensity regime, femtosecond laser beam is able to rapidly cure the resin and create micron-sized structures directly from PDMS resin. At higher intensity regime, a total break-down of the resin material occurs and leads to the formation of PDMS nanoparticles. This work demonstrates a new way of rapid curing of PDMS resin on a microsecond timescale using femtosecond laser irradiation. The proposed technique permits maskless singlestep curing and is capable of fabricating 2D and 3D structures in micro-scale. Reinforced PDMS microstructures also have been fabricated through this method. The proposed technique permits both reinforcement and rapid curing and is ideal for fabricating reinforced structures in microscale. The strength of the nanofiber reinforced PDMS microstructures has been investigated by means of Nanoindentation test. The results showed significant improvement in strength of the material. Hybrid PDMS-Si and hybrid PDMS-Al nanoparticle aggregate

  3. Accounting for PDMS shrinkage when replicating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul-Erik;

    2014-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used material for fabrication of microfluidic devices and for replication of micro- and nanotextured surfaces. Shrinkage of PDMS in the fabrication process can lead to leaking devices and poor alignment of layers. However, corrections to the mold master are...... seldom applied to counteract the shrinkage of PDMS. Also, to perform metrological measurements using replica techniques one has to take the shrinkage into account. Thus we report a study of the shrinkage of PDMS with several different mixing ratios and curing temperatures. The shrinkage factor, with its...

  4. How does the molecular network structure influence PDMS elastomer wettability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Matthew; Genzer, Jan

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is one of the most common elastomers, with applications ranging from medical devices to absorbents for water treatment. Fundamental understanding of how liquids spread on the surface of and absorb into PDMS networks is of critical importance for the design and use of another application - microfluidic devices. We have systematically studied the effects of polymer molecular weight, loading of tetra-functional crosslinker, end-group chemical functionality, and the extent of dilution of the curing mixture on the mechanical and surface properties of end-linked PDMS networks. The gel and sol fractions, storage and loss moduli, liquid swelling ratios, and water contact angles have all been shown to vary greatly based on the aforementioned variables. Similar trends were observed for the commercial PDMS material, Sylgard-184. Our results have confirmed theories predicting the relationships between modulus and swelling. Furthermore, we have provided new evidence for the strong influence that substrate modulus and molecular network structure have on the wettability of PDMS elastomers. These findings will aid in the design and implementation of efficient microfluidics and other PDMS-based materials that involve the transport of liquids.

  5. [The Study of PDMS Grating Structure Gradient Preparation Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-guang; Yang, Jiang-tao; Kang, Ning; Guo, Hao; Tang, Jun; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chen-yang

    2015-12-01

    Because traditional method for tunable grating fabrication has harsh process condition, complex fabrication process, high costs and long cycle. Proposed a low-cost, simple process, can be prepared in large quantities gradient grating process method, based on self-assembly process using the rigid film/flexible substrate and oxygen plasma method prepared a micron scale gradient grating. Use of plasma free time controllability and excellent elastic of PDMS obtained the desired grating. First, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was spin-coated layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film on the thin film, two-layer film to be cured PDMS film after bending and treated with an oxygen plasma (plasma), in generating a rigid surface oxide layer, With flexible PET rigid layer applied uniform stress, when the stress exceeds the critical value, the PDMS substrate to form a self-assembled structure grating fold. Due to changes in prestressed bending, so the PDMS film formation period and height of the grating stepped fold, which is graded grating. Using visible light as the performance test light source for graded grating and selecting first-order diffracted as the detection target. The authors can see the grating has a good diffraction effects and achieves good spectral effect. Experiments show that graded grating has obvious diffraction grating, and the diffraction angle varies significantly, and can be widely used for stress measurement, the flexible gradient grating prepared by this method can also be used to detect changes in the stress strain as a miniature device, the future is expected for miniature spectrometer, scanners, optical communications and other fields. PMID:26964244

  6. Optimization of a PDMS structure for energy harvesting under compressive forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Zhu, D.; Cao, Z.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the optimisation of a PDMS structure for energy harvesting applications. The PDMS structure was optimised using ANSYS simulation. The fabrication processes were also optimised for maximum PDMS ferroelectret energy harvesting performance. The optimised PDMS structure was fabricated using a 3D-printed plastic mould. The ANSYS simulation and experiment results demonstrated the variation in energy harvesting performance of the PDMS ferroelectret depending upon the different void geometry. The optimised operating frequency is determined by the geometry of the voids inside ferroelectrets and the Young's modulus of the PDMS. The peak voltage and energy generated per strike under a compressive load was obtained experimentally as a function of force applied and frequency. The experimental maximum peak output power of an optimised PDMS structure with an area of 2×2 cm2 was 0.46 μW across an optimum load resistance of 21 MΩ under a square wave force of 800 N and 17 Hz.

  7. Beam pen lithography based on arrayed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-pyramids spin-coated with carbon black photo-resist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new method for preparing a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold which can be used in beam pen lithography for patterning a photo-resist (PR) layer in a maskless and direct-write manner. The PDMS mold contains an array of micro-pyramids on its surface and is spin-coated with a layer of carbon black PR which is an opaque material. Because of the arrayed pyramidal surface profile, the spin-coated carbon black PR layer is either thinner at the pyramid tips or does not cover the tips at all, which allows ultraviolet (UV) light to pass through the PDMS mold and forms an array of UV beams. The aperture size of the UV beams can be controlled at a sub-micrometer scale and hence can be used for micro/nano-patterning. Applying this carbon black-PR-coated PDMS mold in beam pen lithography along with a metal lift-off process, various metal dot patterns with a dot-size around 400 to 500 nm are successfully obtained. Both experimental results and theoretical analysis are given along with possible improvements and applications in the future. (paper)

  8. Study on hierarchical structured PDMS for surface super-hydrophobicity using imprinting with ultrafast laser structured models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Wenjun; Jiang, Gedong; Mei, Xuesong; Wang, Zibao; Wang, Kedian; Cui, Jianlei

    2016-02-01

    We report a simple and inexpensive method for producing super-hydrophobic surfaces through direct replication of micro/nano-structures on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) from a replication master prepared by ultrafast-laser texturing process. Gratings were obtained on 304L stainless steel plate using picosecond laser ablation. It has been used as a master with grating areas of different structural features. PDMS negative replica was prepared from the masters, and PDMS positive replica was prepared from the negative replica thereafter. Wettability of samples of the steel master, negative and positive replicas was distinguished using the apparent contact angle (CA) of water drop. Relationships between the CAs on three kinds of samples and structural features were presented. Super-hydrophobic behavior with self-cleaning, exhibited by a water contact angle of 164.5° and sliding angle of 8.44°, was observed on the PDMS negative replica surface. The negative and positive replicas were sputtered on gold films, which were used to metalized PDMS and eliminate the submicron/nano-structures in hierarchical structures. Results prove that submicro/nano-structures of hierarchical structures enhance the hydrophobicity of material surface remarkably. This replication method can be applied for large scale production of micro/nano textured super-hydrophobic surfaces for commercial applications.

  9. Synthesis and electrochemical study of a hybrid structure based on PDMS-TEOS and titania nanotubes for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic implants and devices are widely used in the orthopedic and orthodontic clinical areas. However, several problems regarding their adhesion with the living tissues and inflammatory responses due to the release of metallic ions to the medium have been reported. The modification of the metallic surfaces and the use of biocompatible protective coatings are two approaches to solve such issues. In this study, in order to improve the adhesion properties and to increase the corrosion resistance of metallic Ti substrates we have obtained a hybrid structure based on TiO2 nanotubular arrays and PDMS-TEOS films. TiO2 nanotubes have been prepared with two different diameters by means of electrochemical anodization. PDMS-TEOS films have been prepared by the sol–gel method. The morphological and the elemental analysis of the structures have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization curves have been performed during immersion of the samples in Kokubo’s simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C to study the effect of structure layers and tube diameter on the protective properties. The obtained results show that the modification of the surface structure of TiO2 and the application of PDMS-TEOS film is a promising strategy for the development of implant materials. (paper)

  10. MICROPHASE SEPARATED STRUCTURES AND PROPERTIES OF PDMS-MDI-PEG COPOLYMER SURFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-xia Fang; Li-bang Feng; Li-min Wu

    2009-01-01

    A series of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-4,4'-diphenylmethanediisocyanate(MDI)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) multiblock copolymers were synthesized by employing two-step growth polymerization and investigated by AFM, XPS, contact angle system, protein adsorption and platelets adhesion measurements, respectively. It was found that as the molecular weight of PDMS increased, the surface of copolymers had increasing phase separation, while the increase in the molecular weight of PEG decreased the phase separation extents of the copolymer surface. XPS and contact angle measurements showed that the greater the phase separation extent was, the lower both the surface enrichment of PDMS and the surface free energy of the copolymer film were. The protein adsorption experiments indicated that the best phase separation did not exhibit the best biocompatibility.

  11. A simple method for fabricating multi-layer PDMS structures for 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Mengying

    2010-01-01

    We report a simple methodology to fabricate PDMS multi-layer microfluidic chips. A PDMS slab was surface-treated by trichloro (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl) silane, and acts as a reusable transferring layer. Uniformity of the thickness of the patterned PDMS layer and the well-alignment could be achieved due to the transparency and proper flexibility of this transferring layer. Surface treatment results are confirmed by XPS and contact angle testing, while bonding forces between different layers were measured for better understanding of the transferring process. We have also designed and fabricated a few simple types of 3D PDMS chip, especially one consisting of 6 thin layers (each with thickness of 50 μm), to demonstrate the potential utilization of this technique. 3D fluorescence images were taken by a confocal microscope to illustrate the spatial characters of essential parts. This fabrication method is confirmed to be fast, simple, repeatable, low cost and possible to be mechanized for mass production. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

  12. Time-Dependent Wetting Behavior of PDMS Surfaces with Bio-Inspired, Hierarchical Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Himanshu

    2015-12-28

    Wetting of rough surfaces involves time-dependent effects, such as surface deformations, non-uniform filling of surface pores within or outside the contact area, and surface chemistries, but the detailed impact of these phenomena on wetting is not entirely clear. Understanding these effects is crucial for designing coatings for a wide range of applications, such as membrane-based oil-water separation and desalination, waterproof linings/windows for automobiles, aircrafts, and naval vessels, and antibiofouling. Herein, we report on time-dependent contact angles of water droplets on a rough polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface that cannot be completely described by the conventional Cassie-Baxter or Wenzel models or the recently proposed Cassie-impregnated model. Shells of sand dollars (Dendraster excentricus) were used as lithography-free, robust templates to produce rough PDMS surfaces with hierarchical, periodic features ranging from 10-7-10-4 m. Under saturated vapor conditions, we found that in the short-term (<1 min), the contact angle of a sessile water droplet on the templated PDMS, θSDT = 140° ± 3°, was accurately described by the Cassie-Baxter model (predicted θSDT = 137°); however, after 90 min, θSDT fell to 110°. Fluorescent confocal microscopy confirmed that the initial reduction in θSDT to 110° (the Wenzel limit) was primarily a Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel transition during which pores within the contact area filled gradually, and more rapidly for ethanol-water mixtures. After 90 min, the contact line of the water droplet became pinned, perhaps caused by viscoelastic deformation of the PDMS around the contact line, and a significant volume of water began to flow from the droplet to pores outside the contact region, causing θSDT to decrease to 65° over 48 h on the rough surface. The system we present here to explore the concept of contact angle time dependence (dynamics) and modeling of natural surfaces provides insights into the design and

  13. Time-Dependent Wetting Behavior of PDMS Surfaces with Bioinspired, Hierarchical Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Himanshu; Schrader, Alex M; Lee, Dong Woog; Gallo, Adair; Chen, Szu-Ying; Kaufman, Yair; Das, Saurabh; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2016-03-30

    Wetting of rough surfaces involves time-dependent effects, such as surface deformations, nonuniform filling of surface pores within or outside the contact area, and surface chemistries, but the detailed impact of these phenomena on wetting is not entirely clear. Understanding these effects is crucial for designing coatings for a wide range of applications, such as membrane-based oil-water separation and desalination, waterproof linings/windows for automobiles, aircrafts, and naval vessels, and antibiofouling. Herein, we report on time-dependent contact angles of water droplets on a rough polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface that cannot be completely described by the conventional Cassie-Baxter or Wenzel models or the recently proposed Cassie-impregnated model. Shells of sand dollars (Dendraster excentricus) were used as lithography-free, robust templates to produce rough PDMS surfaces with hierarchical, periodic features ranging from 1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-4) m. Under saturated vapor conditions, we found that in the short term (flow from the droplet to pores outside the contact region, causing θSDT to decrease to 65° over 48 h on the rough surface. The system we present here to explore the concept of contact angle time dependence (dynamics) and modeling of natural surfaces provides insights into the design and development of long- and short-lived coatings. PMID:26709928

  14. Photolithographic surface micromachining of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiqiang; Lam, Raymond H W; Fu, Jianping

    2012-01-21

    A major technical hurdle in microfluidics is the difficulty in achieving high fidelity lithographic patterning on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Here, we report a simple yet highly precise and repeatable PDMS surface micromachining method using direct photolithography followed by reactive ion etching (RIE). Our method to achieve surface patterning of PDMS applied an O(2) plasma treatment to PDMS to activate its surface to overcome the challenge of poor photoresist adhesion on PDMS for photolithography. Our photolithographic PDMS surface micromachining technique is compatible with conventional soft lithography techniques and other silicon-based surface and bulk micromachining methods. To illustrate the general application of our method, we demonstrated fabrication of large microfiltration membranes and free-standing beam structures in PDMS. PMID:22089984

  15. Silver nanowire-embedded PDMS with a multiscale structure for a highly sensitive and robust flexible pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yunsik; Byun, Junghwan; Seong, Narkhyeon; Ha, Jewook; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Taehoon; Im, Hwarim; Kim, Donghyun; Hong, Yongtaek

    2015-04-14

    The development of highly sensitive pressure sensors with a low-cost and facile fabrication technique is desirable for electronic skins and wearable sensing devices. Here a low-cost and facile fabrication strategy to obtain multiscale-structured elastomeric electrodes and a highly sensitive and robust flexible pressure sensor is presented. The principles of spontaneous buckle formation of the PDMS surface and the embedding of silver nanowires are used to fabricate the multiscale-structured elastomeric electrode. By laminating the multiscale-structured elastomeric electrode onto the dielectric layer/bottom electrode template, the pressure sensor can be obtained. The pressure sensor is based on the capacitive sensing mechanism and shows high sensitivity (>3.8 kPa(-1)), fast response and relaxation time (sensor arrays and they can detect the spatial distribution of the applied pressure. It is also demonstrated that the fingertip pressure sensing device can sense the pressure distribution of each finger, when grabbing an object. PMID:25779911

  16. Nanoporous materials from stable and metastable structures of 1,2-PB-b-PDMS block copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulte, Lars; Grydgaard, Anne; Jakobsen, Mathilde R.;

    2011-01-01

    Experimental procedures used at the preparation and characterization stages of nanoporous materials (NPM) from 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymers are presented. The NPM were obtained from self-assembled block copolymers after firstly cross-linking 1,2-PB (the...... characterization of the materials at different stages of preparation includes gravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, small angle x-ray scattering, electron microscopy and isothermal nitrogen adsorption experiments....

  17. Fabrication of PDMS (poly-dimethyl siloxane) molding and 3D structure by two-photon absorption induced by an ultrafast laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shin Wook; Lee, Seong Ku; Cho, Mi Jung; Kong, Hong Jin; Yang, Dong-Yol; Park, Sang-hu; Lim, Tae-woo; Kim, Ran Hee; Lee, Kwang-Sup

    2004-12-01

    Multi-photon absorption phenomena induced by ultra fast laser have been considered for many applications of microfabrications such as metal ablation, glass etching and photopolymerization. Among the applications, the photopolymerization by two-photon absorption (TPA) has been regarded as a new microfabricating method. It is possible to be used in photo mask correcting, diffractive optical element and micro machining. The TPA photopolymerization is made possible to fabricate a complicated three dimensional structure which the conventional photomask technology has not been able to make. Furthermore the TPA photopolymerization process applied to a two dimensional structure fabrication may take shorter time than the old process since the absence of etching and deposition processes. Recently we have made a simple 3D structure and applied the technique to PDMS(poly-dimethyl siloxane) molding.

  18. PCL-b-PDMS-b-PCL复合环氧树脂的表面结构%Surface Structure of Epoxy Resin Blended with PCL-b-PDMS-b-PCL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧琴; 金承钰; 范文春; 梁齐

    2009-01-01

    利用原子力显微镜(AFM)中的敲击模式原子力显微镜(TM-AFM)和摩擦力显微镜(FFM)对不同含量聚己内酯-b-聚二甲基硅氧烷-b-聚己内酯三嵌段(PCL-b-PDMS-b-PCL)共聚物复合环氧树脂的表面富集结构进行了分析研究.TM-AFM测试在不同作用力下得到了PCL-b-PDMS-b-PCL含量不同环氧树脂表面及其亚表面的分相结构;同时利用FFM对其表面进行摩擦和磨损试验.结果表明,PCL-b-PDMS-b-PCL含量不同时摩擦性能表现出较大的变化,当其质量分数达到30%时,表面性能达到了稳定.接触角试验也验证了以上的结果.

  19. 3D structures of liquid-phase GaIn alloy embedded in PDMS with freeze casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassler, Andrew; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-11-21

    Liquid phase electronic circuits are created by freeze casting gallium-indium (GaIn) alloys, such as eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn), and encapsulating these frozen components within an elastomer. These metal alloys are liquid at room temperature, and can be cast using either injection or a vacuum to fill a PDMS mold and placing the mold in a freezer. Once solidified, a GaIn alloy segment can be manipulated, altered, or bonded to other circuit elements. A stretchable circuit can be fabricated by placing frozen components onto an elastomer substrate, which can be either patterned or flat, and sealing with an additional layer of elastomer. Circuits produced in this fashion are soft, stretchable, and can have complex 3D channel geometries. In contrast, current fabrication techniques, including needle injection, mask deposition, and microcontact printing, are limited to 2D planar designs. Additionally, freeze casting fabrication can create closed loops, multi-terminal circuits with branching features, and large area geometries. PMID:24067934

  20. The Study of PDMS Grating Structure Gradient Preparation Techniques%PD MS梯度光栅结构制备技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨光; 杨江涛; 康宁; 郭浩; 唐军; 刘俊; 薛晨阳

    2015-01-01

    polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film on the thin film ,two-layer film to be cured PDMS film after bending and treated with an oxygen plasma (plasma) ,in generating a rigid surface oxide layer ,With flexi-ble PET rigid layer applied uniform stress ,when the stress exceeds the critical value ,the PDMS substrate to form a self-assem-bled structure grating fold .Due to changes in prestressed bending ,so the PDMS film formation period and height of the grating stepped fold ,which is graded grating .Using visible light as the performance test light source for graded grating and selecting first-order diffracted as the detection target .The authors can see the grating has a good diffraction effects and achieves good spectral effect .Experiments show that graded grating has obvious diffraction grating ,and the diffraction angle varies significant-ly ,and can be widely used for stress measurement ,the flexible gradient grating prepared by this method can also be used to de-tect changes in the stress strain as a miniature device ,the future is expected for miniature spectrometer ,scanners ,optical com-munications and other fields .

  1. Phase Structure of Higher Spin Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Yi-Nan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the phase structures of the black holes with one single higher spin hair, focusing specifically on the spin 3 and spin tilde 4 black holes. Based on dimensional analysis and the requirement of having consistent thermodynamics, we derive an universal formula relating the entropy and the conserved charges for arbitrary AdS3 higher spin black holes. Then we use it to study the phase structure of the higher spin black holes. We find that there are six branches of solutions in the spin 3 gravity, eight branches of solutions in the spin tilde 4 gravity and twelve branches of solutions in the G2 gravity. In each case, all branches are related by a simple angle shift in the entropy functions. In the spin 3 case, we reproduce all the results found before. In the spin tilde 4 case, we find that in the low temperature it is at the BTZ branch while in the high temperature it transits to one of two other branches, depending on the signature of the chemical potential, a reflection of charge co...

  2. Evaluating structural and microstructural changes of PDMS –SiO2 hybrid materials after sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PDMS–SiO2 hybrid materials obtained by sol–gel process have been extensively studied over the past years due to its promising biomedical applications namely as bone substitutes, catheters, and drug delivery devices. Regardless of the intended biomedical application, all these materials should go through a sterilization process before interfacing with a living structure. However, it is unclear whether they undergo structural and microstructural changes when subjected to sterilization by gamma irradiation. This paper addresses this issue by showing that a sol–gel processed biomaterial based on the PDMS–CaO–SiO2 hybrid system suffers only small structural changes when submitted to a radiation dose of 25 kGy, the dose usually recommended to achieve a Sterility Assurance Level of 10−6 when the natural contamination level and microorganism types cannot be calculated. The characterization was assessed by FT-IR, 29Si–{1H} CP-MAS, thermal analysis (DTG), and SEM. - Highlights: • Hybrid PDMS–SiO2 materials were subjected to sterilization by γ-irradiation. • Materials suffer only small structural changes when irradiated. • Characterization was assessed by FT-IR, 29Si-{1H} CP-MAS, DTG and SEM

  3. Evaluating structural and microstructural changes of PDMS –SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials after sterilization by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. Carlos [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lancastre, Joana [Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, IST, University of Lisbon, E.N 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Vaz Fernandes, M. Helena [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Margaça, Fernanda M.A.; Ferreira, Luís [Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, IST, University of Lisbon, E.N 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Miranda Salvado, Isabel M., E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-03-01

    PDMS–SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials obtained by sol–gel process have been extensively studied over the past years due to its promising biomedical applications namely as bone substitutes, catheters, and drug delivery devices. Regardless of the intended biomedical application, all these materials should go through a sterilization process before interfacing with a living structure. However, it is unclear whether they undergo structural and microstructural changes when subjected to sterilization by gamma irradiation. This paper addresses this issue by showing that a sol–gel processed biomaterial based on the PDMS–CaO–SiO{sub 2} hybrid system suffers only small structural changes when submitted to a radiation dose of 25 kGy, the dose usually recommended to achieve a Sterility Assurance Level of 10{sup −6} when the natural contamination level and microorganism types cannot be calculated. The characterization was assessed by FT-IR, {sup 29}Si–{"1H} CP-MAS, thermal analysis (DTG), and SEM. - Highlights: • Hybrid PDMS–SiO{sub 2} materials were subjected to sterilization by γ-irradiation. • Materials suffer only small structural changes when irradiated. • Characterization was assessed by FT-IR, {sup 29}Si-{"1H} CP-MAS, DTG and SEM.

  4. PDMS implementation in nuclear power plant piping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduced the implementation of PDMS in piping design of Nuclear Power Plant, from creating coding rule, building full 3D models for each system to hope have a suit of 3D mode in Nuclear Power Plant Design, including the most difficult piping design, equipment, HVAC, cable trays, structure and supports etc detail design to achieve the goal of mastering PDMS, Multiple-discipline collaborative design and apply it broadly in the Nuclear Power industry. (authors)

  5. Fabrication and transfer of fragile 3D PDMS microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a method for PDMS microfabrication of fragile membranes and 3D fluidic networks, using a surface modified water-dissolvable release material, poly(vinyl alcohol), as a tool for handling, transfer and release of fragile polymer microstructures. The method is well suited for the fabrication of complex multilayer microfluidic devices, here shown for a PDMS device with a thin gas permeable membrane and closely spaced holes for vertical interlayer connections fabricated in a single layer. To the authors’ knowledge, this constitutes the most advanced PDMS fabrication method for the combination of thin, fragile structures and 3D fluidics networks, and hence a considerable step in the direction of making PDMS fabrication of complex microfluidic devices a routine endeavour. (paper)

  6. Fabrication and transfer of fragile 3D PDMS microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikael Karlsson, J.; Haraldsson, Tommy; Carlborg, Carl Fredrik; Hansson, Jonas; Russom, Aman; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2012-08-01

    We present a method for PDMS microfabrication of fragile membranes and 3D fluidic networks, using a surface modified water-dissolvable release material, poly(vinyl alcohol), as a tool for handling, transfer and release of fragile polymer microstructures. The method is well suited for the fabrication of complex multilayer microfluidic devices, here shown for a PDMS device with a thin gas permeable membrane and closely spaced holes for vertical interlayer connections fabricated in a single layer. To the authors’ knowledge, this constitutes the most advanced PDMS fabrication method for the combination of thin, fragile structures and 3D fluidics networks, and hence a considerable step in the direction of making PDMS fabrication of complex microfluidic devices a routine endeavour.

  7. A novel simple preparation method of a hydrogel mold for PDMS micro-fluidic device fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method to prepare a very thick master mold for poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) casting was investigated by using a hydrogel ultraviolet (UV) curing process through a film mask. A simple process of dispensing of hydrogel, UV curing through a photomask and rinsing enabled the construction of micro-hydrogel structures in a fast manner. These hydrogel structures can be used as a mold for PDMS casting for PDMS fluidic chip fabrication. This method allows the fast construction of very thick micro-structures more than 1 mm. The characterizations about vertical sidewall and adhesion enhancement between the substrate and micro-structures were studied. The application of a PDMS fluidic chip, which was prepared from the hydrogel mold by PDMS casting, to some fluidic flow rate tests was demonstrated. This method is fast and simple to prepare a PDMS casting mold at low cost and can be applied in micro-fabrication of biochemical chips and micro-fluidic devices. (paper)

  8. Modulating surface stiffness of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with kiloelectronvolt ion patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyin; Fu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study is to investigate the modulated surface properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with kiloelectronvolt ions. By irradiating the PDMS surface with a focused ion beam (FIB, keV Ga+), nano/microscale patterns of controlled stiffness can be fabricated with ion fluence ranging from 0.1-20 pC µm-2. The following nanoindentation measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed that Young’s modulus increased exponentially with the increase of ion fluence and reached 2 GPa. The stiffening was found to be less significant with irradiation at a higher ion incident angle and lower accelerating voltage. Raman spectroscopy results also confirmed that disordering caused by cross-linking and hydrogen release occurred on the target PDMS surface. By modelling and experimenting on PDMS-Si3N4 bilayer structures, the volume reduction ratios of PDMS with ion beam and electron beam irradiation were estimated. The proposed site specific modulating method and understanding of detailed governing mechanisms will allow the tuning of the PDMS surface with great accuracy and flexibility towards future applications in tissue engineering and microfabrication.

  9. Modulating surface stiffness of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with kiloelectronvolt ion patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is to investigate the modulated surface properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with kiloelectronvolt ions. By irradiating the PDMS surface with a focused ion beam (FIB, keV Ga+), nano/microscale patterns of controlled stiffness can be fabricated with ion fluence ranging from 0.1–20 pC µm−2. The following nanoindentation measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed that Young’s modulus increased exponentially with the increase of ion fluence and reached 2 GPa. The stiffening was found to be less significant with irradiation at a higher ion incident angle and lower accelerating voltage. Raman spectroscopy results also confirmed that disordering caused by cross-linking and hydrogen release occurred on the target PDMS surface. By modelling and experimenting on PDMS-Si3N4 bilayer structures, the volume reduction ratios of PDMS with ion beam and electron beam irradiation were estimated. The proposed site specific modulating method and understanding of detailed governing mechanisms will allow the tuning of the PDMS surface with great accuracy and flexibility towards future applications in tissue engineering and microfabrication. (paper)

  10. Observational strong gravity and quantum black hole structure

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Quantum considerations have led many theorists to believe that classical black hole physics is modified not just deep inside black holes but at horizon scales, or even further outward. The near-horizon regime has just begun to be observationally probed for astrophysical black holes -- both by LIGO, and by the Event Horizon Telescope. This suggests exciting prospects for observational constraints on or discovery of new quantum black hole structure.

  11. Structural characterization of allomelanin from black oat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Mónika; Berkesi, Ottó; Darula, Zsuzsanna; May, Nóra Veronika; Palágyi, András

    2016-10-01

    The brown to black coloration found in plants is due to the melanins, which have been relatively poorly investigated among the plant pigments. The aim of this work was to study the dark pigment extracted from the black oat hull with respect to composition and structure. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were applied for the characterization of the pigment. UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed that the extracted material displays a broadband, structureless absorption profile a common feature of melanins. MALDI-TOF MS measurements demonstrated that oat melanin is a homopolymer built up from p-coumaric acid and consists mainly of low molecular weight (527-1499 Da) oligomers of 3-9 monomer units. The tetramer oligomer proved to be dominant. The results of the FT-IR analysis indicated that oat melanin is a fully conjugated aromatic system containing tetrasubstituted aromatic rings linked by CC coupling. The in vitro preparation of melanin from p-coumaric acid by horseradish peroxidase was performed for comparison. The resulting polymer consisted of oligomers of 4-9 monomer units similarly to those in oat melanin. However, the building blocks proved to be connected to each other via COC linkages in contrast with the CC linkages in oat melanin. PMID:27427433

  12. Lifetime of Nano-Structured Black Silicon for Photovoltaic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk;

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present recent results of lifetime optimization for nano-structured black silicon and its photovoltaic applications. Black silicon nano-structures provide significant reduction of silicon surface reflection due to highly corrugated nanostructures with excellent light trapping...

  13. Visualisation and characterisation of heterogeneous bimodal PDMS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Fleury, Clemence;

    2014-01-01

    The existence of short-chain domains in heterogeneous bimodal PDMS networks has been confirmed visually, for the first time, through confocal fluorescence microscopy. The networks were prepared using a controlled reaction scheme where short PDMS chains were reacted below the gelation point into...... bimodal networks with short-chain domains within a long-chain network. The average sizes of the short-chain domains were found to vary from 2.1 to 5.7 mm depending on the short-chain content. The visualised network structure could be correlated thereafter to the elastic properties, which were determined...... by rheology. All heterogeneous bimodal networks displayed significantly lower moduli than mono-modal PDMS elastomers prepared from the long polymer chains. Low-loss moduli as well as low-sol fractions indicate that low-elastic moduli can be obtained without compromising the network's structure...

  14. Primordial Structure of Massive Black Hole Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.; Rubin, Sergei G.; Sakharov, Alexander S.(Department of Physics, CERN, 1211, Geneva 23, Switzerland)

    2004-01-01

    We describe a mechanism of the primordial black holes formation that can explain the existence of a population of supermassive black holes in galactic bulges. The mechanism is based on the formation of black holes from closed domain walls. The origin of such domain walls could be a result of the evolution of an effectively massless scalar field during inflation. The initial non-equilibrium distribution of the scalar field imposed by background de-Sitter fluctuations gives rise to the spectrum...

  15. Domain structure of black hole space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the domain structure for stationary black hole space-times. The domain structure lives on the submanifold of fixed points of the Killing vector fields. Depending on which Killing vector field has fixed points the submanifold is naturally divided into domains. The domain structure provides invariants of the space-time, both topological and continuous. It is defined for any space-time dimension and any number of Killing vector fields. We examine the domain structure for asymptotically flat space-times and find a canonical form for the metric of such space-times. The domain structure generalizes the rod structure introduced for space-times with D-2 commuting Killing vector fields. We analyze in detail the domain structure for Minkowski space, the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole and the Myers-Perry black hole in six and seven dimensions. Finally, we consider the possible domain structures for asymptotically flat black holes in six and seven dimensions.

  16. Anti-stiction coating of PDMS moulds for rapid microchannel fabrication by double replica moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Guisheng; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report a simple and precise method to rapidly replicate master structures for fast microchannel fabrication by double replica moulding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). A PDMS mould was surface-treated by vapour phase deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS),...

  17. Structure of Black Male Students Academic Achievement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascoe, Barbara

    Educational policies and practices have been largely unsuccessful in closing the achievement gap between Black and White students "Schwartz, 2001". This achievement gap is especially problematic for Black students in science "Maton, Hrabrowski, - Schmitt, 2000. Given the fact that the Black-White achievement gap is still an enigma, the purpose of this article is to address the Black female-Black male academic achievement gap in science majors. Addressing barriers that Black male students may experience as college science and engineering majors, this article presents marketing strategies relative to politics, emotional intelligence, and issues with respect to how science teaching, and Black male students' responses to it, are different. Many Black male students may need to experience a paradigm shift, which structures and enhances their science achievement. Paradigm shifts are necessary because exceptional academic ability and motivation are not enough to get Black males from their first year in a science, technology, education, and mathematics "STEM" major to a bachelor's degree in science and engineering. The conclusions focus on the balance of truth-slippery slopes concerning the confluence of science teachers' further ado and Black male students' theories, methods, and values that position their academic achievement in science and engineering majors.

  18. Black Hole Structure in Schwarzschild Coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proffitt D.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of the interior region of both stationary and rotating black holes, it is customary to switch to a set of in-falling coordinates to avoid problems posed by the coordinate singularity at the event horizon. I take the view here that to understand the physics of black holes, we need to restrict ourselves to book keeper or Schwarzschild coordinates of a distant observer if we are to derive measurable properties. I show that one can derive interesting properties of black holes th at might explain some of the observational evidence available without the necessity of introducing further ad hoc conjectures.

  19. EFFECT OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF PDMS ON MORPHOLOGY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PP/PDMS BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-yong Zhao; Wei-wei Yap; Rong-ni Du; Qin Zhang; Qiang Fu; Ze-hao Qiu; Su-lan Yuan

    2009-01-01

    A series of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with varied molecular weights (Mw = 3x106,1x106 and 0.5x106)were melt blended with PP to investigate the effect of PDMS molecular weight (MW) on the morphology and mechanical properties of PP/PDMS blends.Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination showed that the size of PDMS domains was dependent on the MW of PDMS.It was found that the lower the value of PDMS MW,the better dispersion of the PDMS domains in the PP matrix.Tensile and Izod impact tests revealed that the addition of PDMS with lower MW would lead to a more significant increase in impact strength of the blends compared with the blends with higher MW ones,while the influence of the molecular weight on tensile strengths of the blends was relatively small in the MW range studied.Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results also showed that the crystallization temperature of PP was increased with decreasing PDMS MW,indicating a better nucleation capability of lower MW of PDMS.Melting flow rate (MFR)measurements indicated that the processibility of PP could be enhanced by adding PDMS,and again the lower MW PDMS resulted in better data.Our work demonstrates that not only the processibility but also the mechanical properties of PP could be enhanced to a more significant degree by using low MW PDMS than the higher ones.

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 2-x}CoSm{sub x}O{sub 4}-nanoparticles and Fe{sub 2-x}CoSm{sub x}O{sub 4}-PDMS magnetoelastomers as a function of Sm content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Mariano M.; Mietta, Jose L.; Soledad Antonel, P. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica de Materiales, Ambiente y Energia (INQUIMAE), Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Cantilo s/n (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, Oscar E. [Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Cantilo s/n (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martin Negri, R. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica de Materiales, Ambiente y Energia (INQUIMAE), Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Cantilo s/n (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jorge, Guillermo, E-mail: gjorge@df.uba.ar [Instituto de Fisica de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Cantilo s/n (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, J.M. Gutierrez 1150 (1613), Los Polvorines, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-02-15

    We have synthesized magnetic Fe{sub 2-x}CoSm{sub x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs) by means of the coprecipitation method, varying Sm content from x=0 to x=0.5. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed agreement between the metal proportion of the obtained nanoparticles and the stoichiometric mixture of cations used for the synthesis. Part of the particles were heated at 800 Degree-Sign C, and both were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope imaging and magnetization measurements. Physical and magnetic properties were analyzed as a function of Sm content, before and after the heating treatment. A phase segregation is found for the calcined nanoparticles with large Sm content. The magnetic remanence, saturation and coercive field were investigated as a function of Sm content for both heated and unheated (as-prepared) particles. Polydimethylsiloxane-NPs magnetoelastomers were prepared and cured under an external uniform magnetic field, obtaining structured anisotropic composites, in which inorganic needles (columnar micrometric structures) oriented in the direction of the magnetic field are formed. Young modulus and remanent magnetic moment were measured and magnetization time relaxation experiments were performed in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the needles in order to determine the magnetic and elastic anisotropy of the composites. The elastic modulus measured parallel to the needles resulted almost twice in magnitude with respect to the perpendicular modulus. The measured magnetic anisotropy of the composites is probably due to the enhanced interparticle interaction within a needle and the freezing of an preferred easy axis distribution among the particles at the curing process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study magnetic and physical properties of Sm-substituted Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 4} nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by the coprecipitation method. Black

  1. Black Hole Structure in Schwarzschild Coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Proffitt D.

    2014-01-01

    In the analysis of the interior region of both stationary and rotating black holes, it is customary to switch to a set of in-falling coordinates to avoid problems posed by the coordinate singularity at the event horizon. I take the view here that to understand the physics of black holes, we need to restrict ourselves to book keeper or Schwarzschild coordinates of a distant observer if we are to derive measurable properties. I show that one can derive interesting proper...

  2. Self-regenerating and hybrid irreversible/reversible PDMS microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Letícia S.; Piazzetta, Maria H. O.; Duarte-Junior, Gerson F.; Coltro, Wendell K. T.; Carrilho, Emanuel; Gobbi, Angelo L.; Lima, Renato S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper outlines a straightforward, fast, and low-cost method to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chips. Termed sandwich bonding (SWB), this method requires only a laboratory oven. Initially, SWB relies on the reversible bonding of a coverslip over PDMS channels. The coverslip is smaller than the substrate, leaving a border around the substrate exposed. Subsequently, a liquid composed of PDMS monomers and a curing agent is poured onto the structure. Finally, the cover is cured. We focused on PDMS/glass chips because of their key advantages in microfluidics. Despite its simplicity, this method created high-performance microfluidic channels. Such structures featured self-regeneration after leakages and hybrid irreversible/reversible behavior. The reversible nature was achieved by removing the cover of PDMS with acetone. Thus, the PDMS substrate and glass coverslip could be detached for reuse. These abilities are essential in the stages of research and development. Additionally, SWB avoids the use of surface oxidation, half-cured PDMS as an adhesive, and surface chemical modification. As a consequence, SWB allows surface modifications before the bonding, a long time for alignment, the enclosure of sub-micron channels, and the prototyping of hybrid devices. Here, the technique was successfully applied to bond PDMS to Au and Al.

  3. Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2012-11-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was investigated as an alternative to Nafion as an air cathode catalyst binder in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Cathodes were constructed around either stainless steel (SS) mesh or copper mesh using PDMS as both catalyst binder and diffusion layer, and compared to cathodes of the same structure having a Nafion binder. With PDMS binder, copper mesh cathodes produced a maximum power of 1710 ± 1 mW m -2, while SS mesh had a slightly lower power of 1680 ± 12 mW m -2, with both values comparable to those obtained with Nafion binder. Cathodes with PDMS binder had stable power production of 1510 ± 22 mW m -2 (copper) and 1480 ± 56 mW m -2 (SS) over 15 days at cycle 15, compared to a 40% decrease in power with the Nafion binder. Cathodes with the PDMS binder had lower total cathode impedance than those with Nafion. This is due to a large decrease in diffusion resistance, because hydrophobic PDMS effectively prevented catalyst sites from filling up with water, improving oxygen mass transfer. The cost of PDMS is only 0.23% of that of Nafion. These results showed that PDMS is a very effective and low-cost alternative to Nafion binder that will be useful for large scale construction of these cathodes for MFC applications. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Phase structure of fuzzy black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digal, S.; Govindarajan, T. R.; Gupta, Kumar S.; Martin, X.

    2012-01-01

    Noncommutative deformations of the BTZ black holes are described by non- commutative cylinders. We study the scalar fields in this background. The spectrum is studied analytically and through numerical simulations we establish the existence of novel `stripe phases'. These are different from stripes on Moyal spaces and stable due to topo- logical obstruction.

  5. Universal Near-Horizon Conformal Structure and Black Hole Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sayan K.; Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha

    It is shown that a massless scalar probe reveals a universal near-horizon conformal structure for a wide class of black holes, including the BTZ. The central charge of the corresponding Virasoro algebra contains information about the black hole. With a suitable quantization condition on the central charge, the CFT associated with the black hole in our approach is consistent with the recent observation of Witten, where the dual theory for the BTZ in the AdS/CFT framework has been identified with the construction of Frenkel, Lepowsky and Meurman. This CFT admits the Fischer-Griess monster group as its symmetry. The logarithm of the dimension of a specific representation of the monster group has been identified by Witten as the entropy of the BTZ black hole. Our algebraic approach shows that a wide class of black holes share the same near-horizon conformal structure as that for the BTZ. With a suitable quantization condition, the CFT's for all these black holes in our formalism can be identified with the FLM model, although not through the AdS/CFT correspondence. The corresponding entropy for the BTZ provides a lower bound for the entropy of this entire class of black holes.

  6. Holographic shell model: Stack data structure inside black holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Aharon

    2014-03-01

    Rather than tiling the black hole horizon by Planck area patches, we suggest that bits of information inhabit, universally and holographically, the entire black core interior, a bit per a light sheet unit interval of order Planck area difference. The number of distinguishable (tagged by a binary code) configurations, counted within the context of a discrete holographic shell model, is given by the Catalan series. The area entropy formula is recovered, including Cardy's universal logarithmic correction, and the equipartition of mass per degree of freedom is proven. The black hole information storage resembles, in the count procedure, the so-called stack data structure.

  7. Characterization of the structure of PM-16E furnace black

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlakov, V.P.; Fialkov, A.S.; Smirnov, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the structure of PM-16E furnace black in the initial and graphitized states has been carried out with the aid of phase-contact electron microscopy with direct resolution of the carbon layers (002). A two-stage mechanism of the formation of furnace black has been confirmed. In the first stage there is a free-radical mechanism of the formation of the particles of carbon black. In the second stage the orientated deposition of pyrolysis products takes place on the particles and their aggregates in the form of planar carbon layers. The structure of graphitized carbon black is represented in the form of a hollow polyhedron the faces of which consist of packets of continuous closed carbon layers.

  8. Optical waveguides using PDMS-metal oxide hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Arash; Middlebrook, Christopher T.; Mullins, Michael E.

    2015-03-01

    Development of passive and active polymer based optical materials for high data rate waveguide routing and interconnects has gained increased attention because of their excellent properties such as low absorption, cost savings, and ease in fabrication. However, optical polymers are typically limited in the range of their refraction indices. Combining polymeric and inorganic optical materials provides advantages for as development of nano-composites with higher refractive indices with the possibility of being used as an active optical component. In this paper a new composite material is proposed based on polymer-metal oxide nano-composites for use as optical wave guiding structures and components. PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) is utilized for the polymer portion while the inorganic material is titanium dioxide. Refraction indices as high as 1.74 have been reported using these composites. For PDMS-TiO2 hybrids, the higher the ratio of titanium dioxide to PDMS, the higher the resulting refractive index. The index of refraction as a function of the PDMS:TiO2 ratio is reported with an emphasis on use as optical waveguide devices. Absorption spectrum of the nano-composites is measured showing low absorption at 850 nm and high absorption in the UV regime for direct UV laser/light curing. Prototype multimode waveguides are fabricated using soft imprint embossing that is compatible with the low viscosity nano-composite material. Cross dimensional shape and profile show the potential for full scale development utilizing the material set.

  9. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata

    2016-01-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion t...

  10. Adhesion enhancement by a dielectric barrier discharge of PDMS used for flexible and stretchable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, there is a strong tendency to replace rigid electronic assemblies by mechanically flexible and stretchable equivalents. This emerging technology can be applied for biomedical electronics, such as implantable devices and electronics on skin. In the first step of the production process of stretchable electronics, electronic interconnections and components are encapsulated into a thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Afterwards, the electronic structures are completely embedded by placing another PDMS layer on top. It is very important that the metals inside the electronic circuit do not leak out in order to obtain a highly biocompatible system. Therefore, an excellent adhesion between the 2 PDMS layers is of great importance. However, PDMS has a very low surface energy, resulting in poor adhesion properties. Therefore, in this paper, PDMS films are plasma treated with a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating in air at medium pressure (5.0 kPa). Contact angle and XPS measurements reveal that plasma treatment increases the hydrophilicity of the PDMS films due to the incorporation of silanol groups at the expense of methyl groups. T-peel tests show that plasma treatment rapidly imparts adhesion enhancement, but only when both PDMS layers are plasma treated. Results also reveal that it is very important to bond the plasma-treated PDMS films immediately after treatment. In this case, an excellent adhesion is maintained several days after treatment. The ageing behaviour of the plasma-treated PDMS films is also studied in detail: contact angle measurements show that the contact angle increases during storage in air and angle-resolved XPS reveals that this hydrophobic recovery is due to the migration of low molar mass PDMS species to the surface

  11. Horizon structure of rotating Bardeen black hole and particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the horizon structure and ergosphere in a rotating Bardeen regular black hole, which has an additional parameter (g) due to the magnetic charge, apart from the mass (M) and the rotation parameter (a). Interestingly, for each value of the parameter g, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = aE), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < aE it describes a non-extremal black hole with two horizons, and no black hole for a > aE. We find that the extremal value aE is also influenced by the parameter g, and so is the ergosphere. While the value of aE remarkably decreases when compared with the Kerr black hole, the ergosphere becomes thicker with the increase in g.We also study the collision of two equal mass particles near the horizon of this black hole, and explicitly show the effect of the parameter g. The center-of-mass energy (ECM) not only depend on the rotation parameter a, but also on the parameter g. It is demonstrated that the ECM could be arbitrarily high in the extremal cases when one of the colliding particles has a critical angular momentum, thereby suggesting that the rotating Bardeen regular black hole can act as a particle accelerator. (orig.)

  12. Horizon structure of rotating Bardeen black hole and particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa); Amir, Muhammed [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India)

    2015-11-15

    We investigate the horizon structure and ergosphere in a rotating Bardeen regular black hole, which has an additional parameter (g) due to the magnetic charge, apart from the mass (M) and the rotation parameter (a). Interestingly, for each value of the parameter g, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = a{sub E}), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < a{sub E} it describes a non-extremal black hole with two horizons, and no black hole for a > a{sub E}. We find that the extremal value a{sub E} is also influenced by the parameter g, and so is the ergosphere. While the value of a{sub E} remarkably decreases when compared with the Kerr black hole, the ergosphere becomes thicker with the increase in g.We also study the collision of two equal mass particles near the horizon of this black hole, and explicitly show the effect of the parameter g. The center-of-mass energy (E{sub CM}) not only depend on the rotation parameter a, but also on the parameter g. It is demonstrated that the E{sub CM} could be arbitrarily high in the extremal cases when one of the colliding particles has a critical angular momentum, thereby suggesting that the rotating Bardeen regular black hole can act as a particle accelerator. (orig.)

  13. On Invariant Structures of Black Hole Charges

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrara, Sergio(Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, Geneva 23, CH, 1211, Switzerland); Marrani, Alessio; Yeranyan, Armen

    2011-01-01

    We study "minimal degree" complete bases of duality- and "horizontal"- invariant homogeneous polynomials in the flux representation of two-centered black hole solutions in two classes of D=4 Einstein supergravity models with symmetric vector multiplets' scalar manifolds. Both classes exhibit an SL(2,R) "horizontal" symmetry. The first class encompasses N=2 and N=4 matter-coupled theories, with semi-simple U-duality given by SL(2,R) x SO(m,n); the analysis is carried out in the so-called Calab...

  14. Universal near-horizon conformal structure and black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Sayan K; Sen, Siddhartha

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that a massless scalar probe reveals a universal near-horizon conformal structure for a wide class of black holes, including the BTZ. The central charge of the corresponding Virasoro algebra contains information about the black hole. With a suitable quantization condition on the central charge, the CFT associated with the black hole in our approach is consistent with the recent observation of Witten, where the dual theory for the BTZ in the AdS/CFT framework has been identified with the construction of Frenkel, Lepowsky and Meurman. This CFT admits the Fischer-Griess monster group as its symmetry. The logarithm of the dimension of a specific representation of the monster group has been identified by Witten as the entropy of the BTZ black hole. Our algebraic approach shows that a wide class of black holes share the same near-horizon conformal structure as that for the BTZ. With a suitable quantization condition, the CFT's for all these black holes can be identified with the FLM model and the corres...

  15. Global Structure of Exact Scalar Hairy Dynamical Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Zhong-Ying; Lu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We study the global structure of some exact scalar hairy dynamical black holes which were constructed in Einstein gravity either minimally or non-minimally coupled to a scalar field. We find that both the apparent horizon and the local event horizon (measured in luminosity coordinate) monotonically increase with the advanced time as well as the Vaidya mass. At late advanced times, the apparent horizon approaches the event horizon and gradually becomes future outer. Correspondingly, the space-time arrives at stationary black hole states with the relaxation time inversely proportional to the $1/(n-1)$ power of the final black hole mass. These results strongly support the solutions describing the formation of black holes with scalar hair. We also obtain new charged dynamical solutions in the non-minimal theory by introducing an Maxwell field which is non-minimally coupled to the scalar. The presence of the electric charge strongly modifies the dynamical evolution of the space-time.

  16. Sub-15nm Silicon Lines Fabrication via PS-b-PDMS Block Copolymer Lithography

    OpenAIRE

    Sozaraj Rasappa; Lars Schulte; Dipu Borah; Morris, Michael A.; Sokol Ndoni

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of nanodimensioned silicon structures on silicon wafers from thin films of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) block copolymer (BCP) precursor self-assembling into cylindrical morphology in the bulk. The structure alignment of the PS-b-PDMS (33 k–17 k) was conditioned by applying solvent and solvothermal annealingtechniques. BCP nanopatterns formed after the annealing process have been confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) af...

  17. Atomic and electronic structure of exfoliated black phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black phosphorus, a layered two-dimensional crystal with tunable electronic properties and high hole mobility, is quickly emerging as a promising candidate for future electronic and photonic devices. Although theoretical studies using ab initio calculations have tried to predict its atomic and electronic structure, uncertainty in its fundamental properties due to a lack of clear experimental evidence continues to stymie our full understanding and application of this novel material. In this work, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are used to study the crystal structure of few-layer black phosphorus. Directly interpretable annular dark-field images provide a three-dimensional atomic-resolution view of this layered material in which its stacking order and all three lattice parameters can be unambiguously identified. In addition, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is used to measure the conduction band density of states of black phosphorus, which agrees well with the results of density functional theory calculations performed for the experimentally determined crystal. Furthermore, experimental EELS measurements of interband transitions and surface plasmon excitations are also consistent with simulated results. Finally, the effects of oxidation on both the atomic and electronic structure of black phosphorus are analyzed to explain observed device degradation. The transformation of black phosphorus into amorphous PO3 or H3PO3 during oxidation may ultimately be responsible for the degradation of devices exposed to atmosphere over time

  18. Atomic and electronic structure of exfoliated black phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ryan J.; Topsakal, Mehmet; Jeong, Jong Seok; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.; Mkhoyan, K. Andre, E-mail: mkhoyan@umn.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Low, Tony; Robbins, Matthew C.; Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Black phosphorus, a layered two-dimensional crystal with tunable electronic properties and high hole mobility, is quickly emerging as a promising candidate for future electronic and photonic devices. Although theoretical studies using ab initio calculations have tried to predict its atomic and electronic structure, uncertainty in its fundamental properties due to a lack of clear experimental evidence continues to stymie our full understanding and application of this novel material. In this work, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are used to study the crystal structure of few-layer black phosphorus. Directly interpretable annular dark-field images provide a three-dimensional atomic-resolution view of this layered material in which its stacking order and all three lattice parameters can be unambiguously identified. In addition, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is used to measure the conduction band density of states of black phosphorus, which agrees well with the results of density functional theory calculations performed for the experimentally determined crystal. Furthermore, experimental EELS measurements of interband transitions and surface plasmon excitations are also consistent with simulated results. Finally, the effects of oxidation on both the atomic and electronic structure of black phosphorus are analyzed to explain observed device degradation. The transformation of black phosphorus into amorphous PO{sub 3} or H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} during oxidation may ultimately be responsible for the degradation of devices exposed to atmosphere over time.

  19. A boosted Kerr black hole solution and the structure of a general astrophysical black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Ivano Damião

    2016-01-01

    A solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations that describes a boosted Kerr black hole relative to an asymptotic Lorentz frame at the future null infinity is derived. The solution has three parameters (mass, rotation and boost) and corresponds to the most general configuration that an astrophysical black hole must have; it reduces to the Kerr solution when the boost parameter is zero. In this solution the ergosphere is north-south asymmetric, with dominant lobes in the direction opposite to the boost. However the event horizon, the Cauchy horizon and the ring singularity {\\bf --} which are the core of the black hole structure {\\bf --} do not alter, being independent of the boost parameter. Possible consequences for astrophysical processes connected with Penrose processes in the asymmetric ergosphere are discussed.

  20. Structure of black aurora associated with pulsating aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Bruce A.; Lessard, Marc L.; Blandin, Matthew J.; Fernandes, Philip A.

    2015-11-01

    Morphological behavior of black aurora as it relates to pulsating aurora is investigated by examining a collection of ground-based observations from January 2007 in support of the Rocket Observations of Pulsating Aurora rocket campaign. Images were sampled from video recorded by a Xybion intensified camera (30 fps) at Poker Flat Research Range, AK. The primary observations of black aurora recorded during the substorm recovery phase were between separate patches of pulsating aurora as well as pulsating aurora separated from diffuse aurora. In these observations the black aurora forms an apparent firm boundary between the auroral forms in a new behavior that is in contrast with previously reported observations. Also presented for the first time are black curls in conjunction with pulsating aurora. Curl structures that indicate shear plasma flows in the ionosphere may be used as a proxy for converging/diverging electric fields in and above the ionosphere. This new subset of black auroral behavior may provide visual evidence of black aurora as an ionospheric feedback mechanism as related to pulsating aurora.

  1. Biofunctionalization of PDMS-based microfluidic systems

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Bergoi Ibarlucea, Cesar Fernández-Sánchez, Stefanie Demming, Stephanus Büttgenbach & Andreu Llobera ### Abstract Three simple approaches for the selective immobilization of biomolecules on the surface of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic systems that do not require any specific instrumentation, are described and compared. They are based in the introduction of hydroxyl groups on the PDMS surface by direct adsorption of either polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polyvinyl...

  2. Subcrustal structure of the black sea basin from seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovskaya, T. B.; Gobarenko, V. S.; Yegorova, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    The P-wave travel time data from the earthquakes offshore and onshore around the Black Sea are used for the tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) velocity distribution in the lithosphere of the region. The preliminary refinement of the foci parameters (the coordinates and origin time) has reduced the random errors in the travel-time data. The earthquake data were supplemented by the previous deep seismic sounding (DSS) data on the profiles in Crimea and offshore off the Black Sea. The dataset included more than 4000 travel times overall. In order to eliminate the crustal effect, the travel times were reduced to a surface at a depth of 35 km corresponding to the mean Moho depth in the region. The improved crustal model was used for removing the contribution of the crust from the initial data. The new tomography method, which was recently developed by one of the authors and which relies on the assumption of smoothness of the lateral velocity variations, was applied for reconstructing the velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Black Sea up to a depth of 95 km. The lateral velocity variation maps at different depths and the vertical velocity distributions along the meridional and sublatitudinal cross sections across the Black Sea were constructed. High velocities were revealed in the subcrustal lithosphere, and the structural difference below two subbasins—the West Black Sea (WBS) and the East Black Sea (EBS) ones—was established. It shows that the high-velocity body below the WBS is located deeper than below the EBS and is distinguished by higher velocities. Based on these results, it is concluded that the lithosphere beneath the Black Sea has a continental origin.

  3. Influence of Soft Segment Composition on Phase Separated Microstructure of PDMS-Based Multiblock Polyurethane Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taeyi; Weksler, Jadwiga; Padsalgikar, Ajay; Runt, James

    2008-03-01

    Multiblock polyurethane (PU) copolymers with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based soft segments possess intriguing microphase separation behavior and excellent biocompatibility. In this study we investigate the microphase-separated structure of PDMS-PUs with various well-defined soft segment compositions, which is closely connected to the structural and surface properties of these copolymers. The PDMS-PUs are shown to exhibit a three phase, core-shell like morphology. Intra- and intercomponent hydrogen bonding was explored using FTIR spectroscopy and quantitative analysis of hard/soft segment mixing was determined by small-angle X-ray scattering. The presentation will focus on the latest findings, particularly the role of PDMS in controlling the details of the microphase-separated texture.

  4. Resolving the Structure of Black Holes: Philosophizing with a Hammer

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif

    2013-01-01

    We give a broad conceptual review of what we have learned about black holes and their microstate structure from the study of microstate geometries and their string theory limits. We draw upon general relativity, supergravity, string theory and holographic field theory to extract universal ideas and structural features that we expect to be important in resolving the information problem and understanding the microstate structure of Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes. In particular, we emphasize two conceptually and physically distinct ideas, with different underlying energy scales: a) the transition that supports the microstate structure and prevents the formation of a horizon and b) the representation of the detailed microstate structure itself in terms of fluctuations around the transitioned state. We also show that the supergravity mechanism that supports microstate geometries becomes, in the string theory limit, either brane polarization or the excitation of non-Abelian degrees of freedom. We thus argue tha...

  5. On Invariant Structures of Black Hole Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Yeranyan, Armen

    2012-01-01

    We study "minimal degree" complete bases of duality- and "horizontal"- invariant homogeneous polynomials in the flux representation of two-centered black hole solutions in two classes of D=4 Einstein supergravity models with symmetric vector multiplets' scalar manifolds. Both classes exhibit an SL(2,R) "horizontal" symmetry. The first class encompasses N=2 and N=4 matter-coupled theories, with semi-simple U-duality given by SL(2,R) x SO(m,n); the analysis is carried out in the so-called Calabi-Vesentini symplectic frame (exhibiting maximal manifest covariance) and until order six in the fluxes included. The second class, exhibiting a non-trivial "horizontal" stabilizer SO(2), includes N=2 minimally coupled and N=3 matter coupled theories, with U-duality given by the pseudo-unitary group U(r,s) (related to complex flux representations). Finally, we comment on the formulation of special Kaehler geometry in terms of "generalized" groups of type E7.

  6. Holographic Shell Model: Stack Data Structure inside Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Aharon

    2011-01-01

    We suggest that bits of information inhabit, universally and holographically, the entire black hole interior, a bit per a light sheet unit interval of order Planck area difference. The number of distinguishable (tagged by a binary code) configurations, counted within the context of a discrete holographic shell model, is given by the Catalan series. The area entropy formula is recovered, including the universal logarithmic correction, and the equipartition of mass per degree of freedom is proven. The black hole information storage resembles a stack data structure.

  7. Phase structure of black holes and strings on cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the (M,n) phase diagram recently introduced in hep-th/0309116 to investigate the phase structure of black holes and strings on cylinders. We first prove that any static neutral black object on a cylinder can be put into an ansatz for the metric originally proposed in hep-th/0204047, generalizing a result of Wiseman. Using the ansatz, we then show that all branches of solutions obey the first law of thermodynamics and that any solution has an infinite number of copies. The consequences of these two results are analyzed. Based on the new insights and the known branches of solutions, we finally present an extensive discussion of the possible scenarios for the Gregory-Laflamme instability and the black hole/string transition

  8. The causal structure of dynamical charged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sungwook E; Hwang, Dong-il; Stewart, Ewan D; Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: eostm@muon.kaist.ac.k, E-mail: enotsae@gmail.co, E-mail: innocent@muon.kaist.ac.k [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-21

    We study the causal structure of dynamical charged black holes, with a sufficient number of massless fields, using numerical simulations. Neglecting Hawking radiation, the inner horizon is a null Cauchy horizon and a curvature singularity due to mass inflation. When we include Hawking radiation, the inner horizon becomes space-like and is separated from the Cauchy horizon, which is parallel to the out-going null direction. Since a charged black hole must eventually transit to a neutral black hole, we studied the neutralization of the black hole and observed that the inner horizon evolves into a space-like singularity, generating a Cauchy horizon which is parallel to the in-going null direction. Since the mass function is finite around the inner horizon, the inner horizon is regular and penetrable in a general relativistic sense. However, since the curvature functions become trans-Planckian, we cannot say more about the region beyond the inner horizon, and it is natural to say that there is a 'physical' space-like singularity. However, if we assume an exponentially large number of massless scalar fields, our results can be extended beyond the inner horizon. In this case, strong cosmic censorship and black hole complementarity can be violated.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of fluorinated PEO-b-PDMS-b-fluorinated PEO by free radical addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hu Li; Xing Yuan Zhang; Jia Bing Dai

    2009-01-01

    Fluorinated poly(ethylene oxide)propyl-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-propyl fluorinated poly(ethylene oxide)(FPEO-b-PDMS-b-FPEO)was synthesized by a free radical addition of carbon-hydrogen of polyether segments of poly(ethylene oxide)propyl-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-propyl poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO-b-PDMS-b-PEO)to hexafluoropropylene(HFP)using rert-butyl peroxypivalate as an initiator.In order to reduce the possibility of side reaction,the protection and deprotection via silylation were used for the end-hydroxyls in PEO-b-PDMS-b-PEO chain.The structure of Intermediates and FPEO-b-PDMS-b-FPEO was confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared and 1H NMR spectroscopy.The effects of amount of initiator,reaction temperature and time on free radical addition were investigated in detail.

  10. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic PDMS devices from reusable PDMS molds using laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiksacan, Ziya; Tahsin Guler, M.; Aydogdu, Berkan; Bilican, Ismail; Elbuken, Caglar

    2016-03-01

    The conventional fabrication methods for microfluidic devices require cleanroom processes that are costly and time-consuming. We present a novel, facile, and low-cost method for rapid fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds and devices. The method consists of three main fabrication steps: female mold (FM), male mold (MM), and chip fabrication. We use a CO2 laser cutter to pattern a thin, spin-coated PDMS layer for FM fabrication. We then obtain reusable PDMS MM from the FM using PDMS/PDMS casting. Finally, a second casting step is used to replicate PDMS devices from the MM. Demolding of one PDMS layer from another is carried out without any potentially hazardous chemical surface treatment. We have successfully demonstrated that this novel method allows fabrication of microfluidic molds and devices with precise dimensions (thickness, width, length) using a single material, PDMS, which is very common across microfluidic laboratories. The whole process, from idea to device testing, can be completed in 1.5 h in a standard laboratory.

  11. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic PDMS devices from reusable PDMS molds using laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional fabrication methods for microfluidic devices require cleanroom processes that are costly and time-consuming. We present a novel, facile, and low-cost method for rapid fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds and devices. The method consists of three main fabrication steps: female mold (FM), male mold (MM), and chip fabrication. We use a CO2 laser cutter to pattern a thin, spin-coated PDMS layer for FM fabrication. We then obtain reusable PDMS MM from the FM using PDMS/PDMS casting. Finally, a second casting step is used to replicate PDMS devices from the MM. Demolding of one PDMS layer from another is carried out without any potentially hazardous chemical surface treatment. We have successfully demonstrated that this novel method allows fabrication of microfluidic molds and devices with precise dimensions (thickness, width, length) using a single material, PDMS, which is very common across microfluidic laboratories. The whole process, from idea to device testing, can be completed in 1.5 h in a standard laboratory. (paper)

  12. Hairy Black Holes in Massive Gravity: Thermodynamics and Phase Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Capela, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of a static and spherically-symmetric hairy black hole of massive gravity are investigated. The analysis is carried out by enclosing the black hole in a spherical cavity whose surface is maintained at a fixed temperature $T$. It turns out that the ensemble is well-defined only if the "hair" parameter $Q$ characterizing the solution is conserved. Under this condition we compute some relevant thermodynamic quantities, such as thermal energy and entropy, and we study stability and phase structure of the ensemble. In particular, for negative values of the hair parameter, the phase structure is isomorphic to the one of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes in the canonical ensemble. Moreover, the phase-diagram in the plan ($Q,T$) has a line of first-order phase transition that at a critical value of $Q$ terminates in a second-order phase transition. Below this line the dominant phase consists of small, cold black holes that are long-lived and may thus contribute much more to the energy densit...

  13. Influence of 1,2-PB matrix cross-linking on structure and properties of selectively etched 1,2-PB-b-PDMS block copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Vigild, Martin Etchells;

    2007-01-01

    cross-linked samples in toluene was converted into a degree of cross-linking following the Flory scheme; a simple relation between the Flory cross-linking degree and the fraction of consumed double bonds during the cross-linking reaction followed. The structure of the block copolymer at different stages...

  14. A microcasted PDMS vacuum pad and its application for stacking thin ceramic layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A PDMS vacuum pad for stacking very thin green sheets with a 3 µm thick dielectric layer is introduced and fabricated. Its applicability for producing multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is evaluated. Five micro-holes with a diameter and depth of 70 µm are formed on a single vacuum-line unit that is of 120 µm width, 100 µm depth and 2 mm length. Each vacuum-line unit with five micro-holes is deployed at 6 mm intervals on a PDMS vacuum pad of size 166 mm × 166 mm. To fabricate the PDMS vacuum pads, a mold with an obverse structure to that of the PDMS vacuum pad is needed. The metal mold has a two-stage nickel microstructure, the first stage for forming the vacuum lines and the second stage for forming the micro-holes. To fabricate the mold, micromachining processes, including photolithography, nickel/copper electroforming and chemical mechanical polishing, were conducted twice on a precision-machined SUS substrate with a size of 210 mm × 210 mm. The PDMS vacuum pads were fabricated through a microcasting process. Using the PDMS vacuum pad, 320 layers of green sheets, upon which nickel electrodes were patterned on 3 µm thick dielectric layers, were consecutively stacked. It has been observed that the stacked green sheets were very flat and uniform without any distortion or wrinkles. It is believed that the uniform stacking will greatly help to improve the production yield as well as enhance the reliability of MLCCs

  15. Near horizon structure of extremal vanishing horizon black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sadeghian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the near horizon structure of Extremal Vanishing Horizon (EVH black holes, extremal black holes with vanishing horizon area with a vanishing one-cycle on the horizon. We construct the most general near horizon EVH and near-EVH ansatz for the metric and other fields, like dilaton and gauge fields which may be present in the theory. We prove that (1 the near horizon EVH geometry for generic gravity theory in generic dimension has a three dimensional maximally symmetric subspace; (2 if the matter fields of the theory satisfy strong energy condition either this 3d part is AdS3, or the solution is a direct product of a locally 3d flat space and a d−3 dimensional part; (3 these results extend to the near horizon geometry of near-EVH black holes, for which the AdS3 part is replaced with BTZ geometry. We present some specific near horizon EVH geometries in 3, 4 and 5 dimensions for which there is a classification. We also briefly discuss implications of these generic results for generic (gauged supergravity theories and also for the thermodynamics of near-EVH black holes and the EVH/CFT proposal.

  16. Elastic properties of nonstoichiometric reacted PDMS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Hansen, Kristoffer Karsten; Sommer-Larsen, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    The influence of stoichiometry on the elastic modulus of eight-functional end-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) networks was investigated by extensional rheometry with extensions up to more than 100%, and the stress-strain relation was found to be almost linear-a characteristic property for a...

  17. Encapsulated PDMS microspheres with reactive handles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Ma, Baoguang; Li, Li;

    2014-01-01

    stabilizers (sodium dodecyl sulphate and polyvinylalcohol). The temperature is subsequently increased to accelerate the rate of cross-linking and prevent the prepolymer droplets from coalescing. The particle size distribution of cured PDMS microspheres is determined by Mastersizer (laser diffraction). Finally...

  18. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Biplob

    2016-01-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accret...

  19. The phase structure of higher-dimensional black rings and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct an approximate solution for an asymptotically flat, neutral, thin rotating black ring in any dimension D ≥ 5 by matching the near-horizon solution for a bent boosted black string, to a linearized gravity solution away from the horizon. The rotating black ring solution has a regular horizon of topology S1 x SD-3 and incorporates the balancing condition of the ring as a zero-tension condition. For D = 5 our method reproduces the thin ring limit of the exact black ring solution. For D ≥ 6 we show that the black ring has a higher entropy than the Myers-Perry black hole in the ultra-spinning regime. By exploiting the correspondence between ultra-spinning black holes and black membranes on a two-torus, we take steps towards qualitatively completing the phase diagram of rotating blackfolds with a single angular momentum. We are led to propose a connection between MP black holes and black rings, and between MP black holes and black Saturns, through merger transitions involving two kinds of 'pinched' black holes. More generally, the analogy suggests an infinite number of pinched black holes of spherical topology leading to a complicated pattern of connections and mergers between phases

  20. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata

    2016-09-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accretion solutions including shocks. We estimate the energy dissipation at the PSC from where a part of the accreting matter can deflect as outflows and jets. We compare the maximum energy that could be extracted from the PSC and the observed radio luminosity values for several supermassive black hole sources and the observational implications of our present analysis are discussed.

  1. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata

    2016-06-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accretion solutions including shocks. We estimate the energy dissipation at the PSC from where a part of the accreting matter can deflect as outflows and jets. We compare the maximum energy that could be extracted from the PSC and the observed radio luminosity values for several super-massive black hole sources and the observational implications of our present analysis are discussed.

  2. Speckle lithography for fabricating Gaussian, quasi-random 2D structures and black silicon structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingi, Jayachandra; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2015-12-01

    Laser speckle pattern is a granular structure formed due to random coherent wavelet interference and generally considered as noise in optical systems including photolithography. Contrary to this, in this paper, we use the speckle pattern to generate predictable and controlled Gaussian random structures and quasi-random structures photo-lithographically. The random structures made using this proposed speckle lithography technique are quantified based on speckle statistics, radial distribution function (RDF) and fast Fourier transform (FFT). The control over the speckle size, density and speckle clustering facilitates the successful fabrication of black silicon with different surface structures. The controllability and tunability of randomness makes this technique a robust method for fabricating predictable 2D Gaussian random structures and black silicon structures. These structures can enhance the light trapping significantly in solar cells and hence enable improved energy harvesting. Further, this technique can enable efficient fabrication of disordered photonic structures and random media based devices.

  3. Enhancement of the thermo-mechanical properties of PDMS molds for the hot embossing of PMMA microfluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a cost-efficient and rapid prototyping technique for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microfluidic devices using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based hot embossing process. Compared to conventional hot embossing methods, this technique uses PDMS molds with enhanced thermo-mechanical properties. To improve the replication performance, increases in both PDMS stiffness and hardness were achieved through several processing and curing means. First, the amount of curing agent was increased from 1/10 to 1/5 with respect to the amount of prepolymer. Second, the cured PDMS was thermally aged either over three days at 85 °C or for 30 min at 250 °C. Those combined steps led to increases in stiffness and hardness of up to 150% and 32%, respectively, as compared to standard PDMS molds. Using these enhanced molds, structures with features of the order of 100 µm in PMMA are successfully embossed using a standard laboratory press at 150 °C. The PDMS molds and process produce identical structures through multiple embossing cycles (≥10) without any mold damage or deterioration. A Y-shaped microfluidic mixer was fabricated with this technique. The successful demonstration of this enhanced PDMS-based hot embossing technique introduces a new approach for the rapid prototyping of polymer-based microfluidic devices at low-cost. (paper)

  4. Modulation of hepatocarcinoma cell morphology and activity by parylene-C coating on PDMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaré Pereira-Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to understand and locally control the morphogenesis of mammalian cells is a fundamental objective of cell and developmental biology as well as tissue engineering research. We present parylene-C (ParC deposited on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS as a new substratum for in vitro advanced cell culture in the case of Human Hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 cells. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our findings establish that the intrinsic properties of ParC-coated PDMS (ParC/PDMS influence and modulate initial extracellular matrix (ECM; here, type-I collagen surface architecture, as compared to non-coated PDMS substratum. Morphological changes induced by the presence of ParC on PDMS were shown to directly affect liver cell metabolic activity and the expression of transmembrane receptors implicated in cell adhesion and cell-cell interaction. These changes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, which elucidated differences in HepG2 cell adhesion, spreading, and reorganization into two- or three-dimensional structures by neosynthesis of ECM components. Local modulation of cell aggregation was successfully performed using ParC/PDMS micropatterns constructed by simple microfabrication. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated for the first time the modulation of HepG2 cells' behavior in relation to the intrinsic physical properties of PDMS and ParC, enabling the local modulation of cell spreading in a 2D or 3D manner by simple microfabrication techniques. This work will provide promising insights into the development of cell-based platforms that have many applications in the field of in vitro liver tissue engineering, pharmacology and therapeutics.

  5. Study by electronic microscopy of the structure of oxidised carbon blacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an overview of some generalities about the preparation of carbon blacks (preparation by tunnel-based, oven-based, heat-based or other processes), about the process of growth of particles of carbon black, and about the inner crystal structure of carbon black, this research thesis reports a study which comprised the oxidation of a carbon black followed by an examination by electronic microscopy in order to determine the inner structure. After a presentation of the characteristics of the carbon blacks used in this study, the author reports the study of nitric oxidation: study by electronic microscopy of the variation of particle diameter and of the obtained oxidation features, study of the variation of the specific surface, study by X-ray and variation of carbon black density during oxidation. The next parts report the study of the behaviour of a thermal black at temperatures below 1.000 C, and the study of air oxidation of various carbon blacks

  6. Softlithographic partial integration of surface-active nanoparticles in a PDMS matrix for microfluidic biodevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demming, Stefanie; Buettgenbach, Stephanus [Institute for Microtechnology (IMT), Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Alte Salzdahlumer Strasse 203, 38124 Braunschweig (Germany); Hahn, Anne; Barcikowski, Stephan [Nanotechnology Department, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH), Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Edlich, Astrid; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Krull, Rainer [Institute of Biochemical Engineering (IBVT), Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Gaussstrasse 17, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The mergence of microfluidics and nanocomposite materials and their in situ structuring leads to a higher integration level within microsystems technology. Nanoparticles (Cu and Ag) produced via laser radiation were suspended in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) to permanently modify surface material. A microstructuring process was implemented which allows the incorporation of these nanomaterials globally or partially at defined locations within a microbioreactor (MBR) for the determination of their antiseptic and toxic effects on the growth of biomass. Partially structured PDMS with nanoparticle-PDMS composite. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Contemporary genetic structure and postglacial demographic history of the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus, in the Mediterranean and the Black Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissin, E; Micu, D; Janczyszyn-Le Goff, M; Neglia, V; Bat, L; Todorova, V; Panayotova, M; Kruschel, C; Macic, V; Milchakova, N; Keskin, Ç; Anastasopoulou, A; Nasto, I; Zane, L; Planes, S

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the distribution of genetic diversity in the light of past demographic events linked with climatic shifts will help to forecast evolutionary trajectories of ecosystems within the current context of climate change. In this study, mitochondrial sequences and microsatellite loci were analysed using traditional population genetic approaches together with Bayesian dating and the more recent approximate Bayesian computation scenario testing. The genetic structure and demographic history of a commercial fish, the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus, was investigated throughout the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The results suggest that the species recently underwent population expansions, in both seas, likely concomitant with the warming period following the Last Glacial Maximum, 20 000 years ago. A weak contemporaneous genetic differentiation was identified between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. However, the genetic diversity was similar for populations of the two seas, suggesting a high number of colonizers entered the Black Sea during the interglacial period and/or the presence of a refugial population in the Black Sea during the glacial period. Finally, within seas, an east/west genetic differentiation in the Adriatic seems to prevail, whereas the Black Sea does not show any structured spatial genetic pattern of its population. Overall, these results suggest that the Black Sea is not that isolated from the Mediterranean, and both seas revealed similar evolutionary patterns related to climate change and changes in sea level. PMID:26989881

  8. Broadband energy harvesting using acoustic black hole structural tailoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the concept of an acoustic black hole (ABH) as a main design framework for performing dynamic structural tailoring of mechanical systems for vibration energy harvesting applications. The ABH is an integral feature embedded in the host structure that allows for a smooth reduction of the phase velocity, theoretically approaching zero, while minimizing the reflected energy. This mechanism results in structural areas with high energy density that can be effectively exploited to develop enhanced vibration-based energy harvesting. Fully coupled electro-mechanical models of an ABH tapered structure with surface mounted piezo-transducers are developed to numerically simulate the response of the system to both steady state and transient excitations. The design performances are numerically evaluated using structural intensity data as well as the instantaneous voltage/power and energy output produced by the piezo-transducer network. Results show that the dynamically tailored structural design enables a drastic increase in the harvested energy as compared to traditional structures, both under steady state and transient excitation conditions. (papers)

  9. Quantitative Studies on PDMS-PDMS Interface Bonding with Piranha Solution and its Swelling Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon-Lai Chiang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low-cost yet effective method of irreversible bonding between two elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS interfaces using Piranha solution is investigated. Piranha solutions at a weight ratio of 3:1 using different acids and hydrogen peroxide were attempted. The average tensile strengths of the device bonded with concentrated sulfuric acid-based piranha solution and nitric acid-based piranha solution were found to be 200 ± 20 kPa and 100 ± 15 kPa respectively. A PDMS surface treated with Piranha Solution demonstrated an increase in hydrophilicity. In addition, relatively straightforward swelling studies of PDMS using a weight loss method with common organic solvents were also investigated. Experimental results show that hexane, toluene, ethyl acetate, n-propyl alcohol and acetone swell PDMS significantly over a duration of up to 1 h and above; PDMS samples reached a steady state of swelling only after 5 min of immersion in other solvents. This will enable researchers to develop devices for the future according to the interaction between the material and the solvents in contact.

  10. Controlled double emulsification utilizing 3D PDMS microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a PDMS emulsification device that is capable of generating water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions in a controlled manner. Specially designed 3D microchannels are utilized to steer the independently driven water- and oil-phase flows (especially to restrict the attachment of the middle oil-phase flow on the channel surfaces), and to break the continuous flows into monodisperse double emulsions. In addition to channel geometries and fluid flow rates, surfactants and osmotic agents are employed to facilitate the breakup process and stabilize the resulting emulsion structures. In the prototype demonstration, two-level SU-8 molds were fabricated to duplicate PDMS microstructures, which were surface treated and bonded irreversibly to form 3D microchannels. Throughout the emulsification trials, dripping was intentionally induced to generate monodisperse double emulsions with single or multiple aqueous droplets inside each oil drop. It is found that the overall and core sizes of the resulting double emulsions could be adjusted independently, mainly by varying the outer and inner fluid flow rates, respectively. As such, the presented double emulsification device could potentially realize the controllability on emulsion structure and size distribution, which is desired for a variety of biological and pharmaceutical applications

  11. Black Hole Mergers as Probes of Structure Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Munoz, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Observations of gravitational waves from massive black hole (MBH) mergers can provide us with important clues about the era of structure formation in the early universe. Previous research in this field has been limited to calculating merger rates of MBHs using different models where many assumptions are made about the specific values of physical parameters of the mergers, resulting in merger rate estimates that span 5 to 6 orders of magnitude. We develop a semi-analytical, phenomenological model that includes plausible combinations of several physical parameters involved in the mergers. which we then turn around to determine how well LISA observations will be able to enhance our understanding of the universe during the critical z approximately equal to 5-30 structure formation era. We do this by generating synthetic LISA observable data (masses, redshifts, merger rates), which are then analyzed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This allows us to constrain the physical parameters of the mergers.

  12. Using Black Hole Mergers to Explore Structure Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Munoz, E.; Miller, M. Coleman

    2009-01-01

    Observations of gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers will open a new window into the era of structure formation in the early universe. Past efforts have concentrated on calculating merger rates using different physical assumptions, resulting in merger rate estimates that span a wide range (0.1 - 10(exp 4) mergers/year). We develop a semi-analytical, phenomenological model of massive black hole mergers that includes plausible combinations of several physical parameters, which we then turn around to determine how well observations with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to enhance our understanding of the universe during the critical z approximately equal to 5-30 epoch. Our approach involves generating synthetic LISA observable data (total BH masses, BH mass ratios, redshifts, merger rates), which are then analyzed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, thus finding constraints for the physical parameters of the mergers. We find that our method works well at estimating merger parameters and that the number of merger events is a key discriminant among models, therefore making our method robust against observational uncertainties. Our approach can also be extended to more physically-driven models and more general problems in cosmology. This work is supported in part by the Cooperative Education Program at NASA/GSFC.

  13. Structure and Spectroscopy of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liedahl, D; Mauche, C

    2005-02-14

    The warped spacetime near black holes is one of the most exotic observable environments in the Universe. X-ray spectra from active galaxies obtained with the current generation of X-ray observatories reveal line emission that is modified by both special relativistic and general relativistic effects. The interpretation is that we are witnessing X-ray irradiated matter orbiting in an accretion disk around a supermassive black hole, as it prepares to cross the event horizon. This interpretation, however, is based upon highly schematized models of accretion disk structure. This report describes a project to design a detailed computer model of accretion disk atmospheres, with the goal of elucidating the high radiation density environments associated with mass flows in the curved spacetime near gravitationally collapsed objects. We have evolved the capability to generate realistic theoretical X-ray line spectra of accretion disks, thereby providing the means for a workable exploration of the behavior of matter in the strong-field limit of gravitation.

  14. Conversion of actual structure to optimal structure in fir stands of Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Aylak Özdemir, Gafura

    2014-01-01

    Conversion of actual structure to optimal structure in fir stands of Black Sea regionAbstract : In this study, it has been tried to develop an iteration method using natural relationships in order that the spoilt actual structures, that Karadeniz region fir stands have, be taken to the optimal structure. For this purpose, a computer program named as GOKOP has been written using the Visual Basic Application (VBA) Macro programming language of Ms Excel 2000.Keywords: Actual and optimum structur...

  15. Low cost fabrication of polymer composite (h-ZnO + PDMS) material for piezoelectric device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Das, Sonatan; Bharathkumar, Mareddi; Revanth, D.; Karthik, ARB; Sudhakara Sastry, Bala; Ramgopal Rao, V.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible piezoelectric composites offer alternative and/or additional solutions to sensor, actuator and transducer applications. Here in this work, we have successfully fabricated highly flexible piezoelectric composites with poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) using herbal zinc oxide (h-ZnO) as filler having weight fractions up to 50 wt.% by solution casting of dispersions of h-ZnO in PDMS. Excellent piezo properties (Resonant frequency 935 Hz, d*33 29.76 pm V‑1), physiochemical properties (Wurtzite structure ZnO, 380 nm absorbance) and mechanical properties (Young modulus 16.9 MPa) have been optimized with theoretical simulations and observed experimentally for h-ZnO + PDMS. As such, the demonstrated piezoelectric PDMS membranes combined with the excellent properties of these composites open new ways to ‘soft touch’ applications and could serve as a variety of soft and sensitive electromechanical transducers, which are desired for a variety of sensor and energy harvesting applications.

  16. Light-induced atomic desorption from PDMS films and porous glass: application and fundamental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light-induced desorption and diffusion of alkali atoms embedded in dielectric substrates are experimentally and theoretically investigated. The goal is to realize atomic dispensers fully controlled by light, to study the atom-dielectric interaction and to make spectroscopy of atoms confined in micro-nano structures. Very interesting results have been obtained with Rb and Cs in PDMS films and porous glasses

  17. Sub-15nm Silicon Lines Fabrication via PS-b-PDMS Block Copolymer Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasappa, Sozaraj; Schulte, Lars; Borah, Dipu;

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of nanodimensioned silicon structures on silicon wafers from thin films of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) block copolymer (BCP) precursor self-assembling into cylindrical morphology in the bulk. The structure alignment of the PS-b-PDM...... subsequent plasma etching to the underlying substrate by an anisotropic dry etching process. SEM images reveal the formation of silicon nanostructures, notably of sub-15nm dimensions.......This paper describes the fabrication of nanodimensioned silicon structures on silicon wafers from thin films of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) block copolymer (BCP) precursor self-assembling into cylindrical morphology in the bulk. The structure alignment of the PS......-b-PDMS (33 k–17 k) was conditioned by applying solvent and solvothermal annealing techniques. BCP nanopatterns formed after the annealing process have been confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after removal of upper PDMS wetting layer by plasma etching. Silicon nanostructures were obtained by...

  18. Electroosmotic flow in single PDMS nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ran; Li, Dongqing

    2016-06-01

    The electroosmotic flow (EOF) velocity in single PDMS nanochannels with dimensions as small as 20 nm is investigated systematically by the current slope method in this paper. A novel method for the fabrication of single nanochannels on PDMS surfaces is developed. The effects of channel size, ionic concentration of the electrolyte solution and electric field on the EOF velocity in single nanochannels are investigated. The results show that the EOF velocity in smaller nanochannels with overlapped electric double layers (EDL) is proportional to the applied electric field but is smaller than the EOF velocity in microchannels under the same applied electric field. The EOF velocity in relatively large nanochannels without the overlap of EDLs is independent of the channel size and is the same as that in microchannels under the same applied electric field. Furthermore, in smaller nanochannels with overlapped EDLs, the EOF velocity depends on the ionic concentration and also on the channel size. The experimental results reported in this paper are valuable for the future studies of electrokinetic nanofluidics.The electroosmotic flow (EOF) velocity in single PDMS nanochannels with dimensions as small as 20 nm is investigated systematically by the current slope method in this paper. A novel method for the fabrication of single nanochannels on PDMS surfaces is developed. The effects of channel size, ionic concentration of the electrolyte solution and electric field on the EOF velocity in single nanochannels are investigated. The results show that the EOF velocity in smaller nanochannels with overlapped electric double layers (EDL) is proportional to the applied electric field but is smaller than the EOF velocity in microchannels under the same applied electric field. The EOF velocity in relatively large nanochannels without the overlap of EDLs is independent of the channel size and is the same as that in microchannels under the same applied electric field. Furthermore, in

  19. Characterization of Piezoelectric PDMS-Nanoparticle Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, C. J.; Mionic Ebersold, M.; Bowen, P.; Farine, P.-A.; Briand, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the novel fabrication and characterization of elastomeric piezoelectric nanocomposites are explored. Fabrication methods explored herein utilize ball milled barium titanate powder dispersions, along with double walled carbon nanotubes which are dispersed in toluene though the use of an ultrasonic probe. Test devices are then constructed with electrodes made from evaporated gold on polyimide foils and protective dielectrics of pristine PDMS. Two different device construction methods are explored utilizing both direct contact bonding and plasma bonding of the active composite layers to the dielectric/electrode. Test samples are evaluated through the use of a dedicated Berlincourt type piezoelectric d33 meter.

  20. Exploring the "Black Box" of Programming: Applying Systematic Implementation Evaluation to a Structured Camp Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainieri, Tracy L.; Anderson, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Camp scholars have designed structured curricula to engender specific outcomes and to break down the "black box" of programming. Implementation evaluation explores how well a program operates when delivered, further breaking down the black box. The purpose of this study was to explore the implementation of a new structured camp…

  1. A Sensitivity Enhanced MWCNT/PDMS Tactile Sensor Using Micropillars and Low Energy Ar+ Ion Beam Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Azkar Ul Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High sensitive flexible and wearable devices which can detect delicate touches have attracted considerable attentions from researchers for various promising applications. This research was aimed at enhancing the sensitivity of a MWCNT/PDMS piezoresistive tactile sensor through modification of its surface texture in the form of micropillars on MWCNT/PDMS film and subsequent low energy Ar+ ion beam treatment of the micropillars. The introduction of straight micropillars on the MWCNT/PDMS surface increased the sensitivity under gentle touch. Low energy ion beam treatment was performed to induce a stiff layer on the exposed surface of the micropillar structured MWCNT/PDMS film. The low energy ion bombardment stabilized the electrical properties of the MWCNT/PDMS surface and tuned the curvature of micropillars according to the treatment conditions. The straight micropillars which were treated by Ar+ ion with an incident angle of 0° demonstrated the enhanced sensitivity under normal pressure and the curved micropillars which were treated with Ar+ ion with an incident angle of 60° differentiated the direction of an applied shear pressure. The ion beam treatment on micropillar structured MWCNT/PDMS tactile sensors can thus be applied to reliable sensing under gentle touch with directional discrimination.

  2. PDMS Based Thermopnuematic Peristaltic Micropump for Microfluidic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermopnuematic peristaltic micropump for controlling micro litters of fluid was designed and fabricated from multi-stack PDMS structure on glass substrate. Pump structure consists of inlet and outlet, microchannel, three thermopneumatic actuation chambers, and three heaters. In microchannel, fluid is controlled and pumped by peristaltic motion of actuation diaphragm. Actuation diaphragm can bend up and down by exploiting air expansion that is induced by increasing heater temperature. The micropump characteristics were measured as a function of applied voltage and frequency. The flow rate was determined by periodically recording the motion of fluid at Nanoport output and computing flow volume from height difference between consecutive records. From the experiment, an optimum flow rate of 0.82 μl/min is obtained under 14 V three-phase input voltages at 0.033 Hz operating frequency

  3. PDMS-on-silicon microsystems: Integration of polymer micro/nanostructures for new MEMS device functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yi-Chung

    2005-11-01

    grafting of the microstructure onto silicon MEMS devices with high accuracy. The SLLOG process is further extended to allow imprinting of nanoscale features on the surface of the 3D PDMS microstructure. Using SLLOG, this work fabricates two new MEMS devices: a PDMS-on-silicon hybrid actuator and a reconfigurable nanoimprinted PDMS optical grating device, and presents their performance. The developed devices have a simple structural design, yet exhibit very unique functions such as high-speed multi-axis actuation and dynamic optical wavelength tuning. These MEMS device functions originate from combining the high-strain elasticity and optical transparency of the PDMS micro/nanostructures and the fast dynamic response of silicon MEMS actuators. The results shown in this thesis successfully prove the presented technological concept. The concept and fabrication technique developed in this work are to be useful for development of a new type of MEMS devices with reduced manufacturing cost and complexity for future microsystems.

  4. On Black Hole Structures in Scalar-Tensor Theories of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bronnikov, Kirill A; Rodrigues, Denis C

    2016-01-01

    We review some properties of black hole structures appearing in gravity with a massless scalar field, with both minimal and nonminimal coupling. The main properties of the resulting cold black holes are described. The study of black holes in scalar-gravity systems is extended to $k$-essence theories, and some examples are explicitly worked out. In these cases, even while the existence of horizons is possible, the metric regularity requirement on the horizon implies either a cold black type structure or a singular behavior of the scalar field.

  5. Semantic Query Reformulation in Social PDMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifati, Angela; Pacitti, Esther; Draidi, Fady

    2011-01-01

    We consider social peer-to-peer data management systems (PDMS), where each peer maintains both semantic mappings between its schema and some acquaintances, and social links with peer friends. In this context, reformulating a query from a peer's schema into other peer's schemas is a hard problem, as it may generate as many rewritings as the set of mappings from that peer to the outside and transitively on, by eventually traversing the entire network. However, not all the obtained rewritings are relevant to a given query. In this paper, we address this problem by inspecting semantic mappings and social links to find only relevant rewritings. We propose a new notion of 'relevance' of a query with respect to a mapping, and, based on this notion, a new semantic query reformulation approach for social PDMS, which achieves great accuracy and flexibility. To find rapidly the most interesting mappings, we combine several techniques: (i) social links are expressed as FOAF (Friend of a Friend) links to characterize peer...

  6. Black Holes and Quantum Theory: The Fine Structure Constant Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The new dynamical theory of space is further confirmed by showing that the effective “black hole” masses M BH in 19 spherical star systems, from globular clusters to galaxies, with masses M , satisfy the prediction that M BH = α 2 M , where α is the fine structure constant. As well the necessary and unique generalisations of the Schr ̈ odinger and Dirac equations permit the first derivation of gravity from a deeper theory, showing that gravity is a quantum effect of quantum matter interacting with the dynamical space. As well the necessary generalisation of Maxwell’s equations displays the observed light bending effects. Finally it is shown from the generalised Dirac equation where the spacetime mathematical formalism, and the accompanying geodesic prescription for matter trajectories, comes from. The new theory of space is non-local and we see many parallels between this and quantum theory, in addition to the fine structure constant manifesting in both, so supporting the argument that space is a quantum foam system, as implied by the deeper information-theoretic theory known as Process Physics. The spatial dynamics also provides an explanation for the “dark matter” effect and as well the non-locality of the dynamics provides a mechanism for generating the uniformity of the universe, so explaining the cosmological horizon problem.

  7. PDMS-based Optical Leaky Waveguide Coated with Self-assemble Au-NPs for Bio-analytical Detections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for fabricating PDMS-based optical leaky waveguides coated with self-assembled gold nano-particles (Au-NP for bio-analytical detection utilizing the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR effect. In the presented method, a PDMS optical waveguide is first cast in Teflon tubing to form a cylindrical leaky waveguide structure. The de-molded PDMS optical waveguide is then modified with PDDA molecules and coated with a layer of 13 nm Au-NPs for inducing the LSPR effect. The fabricated LSPR sensor is finally connected to multi-mode optic fibers for guiding the detection light. The measured sensitivity of the PDMS waveguide based LSPR sensor for detecting diluted glycerol solutions was 7.25 AU/RIU and 325.97 nm/RIU. Experimental results of a label-free detection of DNA hybridization show that the presented PDMS waveguide based LSPR sensor has a good linear response and has a detection limit of about 10pM, confirming the detection performance of the developed PDMS waveguide-based LSPR sensor.

  8. Development and performance evaluation of Polydimethyl siloxane/Polysulfone (PDMS/PSF) composite membrane for CO2/CH4 separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, M. S.; Lau, K. K.; Yeong, Y. F.

    2016-06-01

    Asymmetric polysulfone (PSF) membrane was developed by phase inversion in this study. Polysulfone (PSF) membrane was modified to develop a composite polymeric membrane. Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) was used to modify the PSF membrane. PDMS/PSF composite membrane was developed by dip coating of PDMS over PSF. Developed membranes were characterized in terms of membrane morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Micro structure of polysulfone (PSF) membrane confirmed that developed membrane was asymmetric. Dense PDMS coating in microstructure of composite membrane was observed. Membrane swelling experiments were performed by immersing developed membranes in water for specific time period. PDMS/PSF composite membrane resisted water swelling as compared to PSF membrane. Performance of the membrane was evaluated before and after swelling within the pressure range of 2-10 bar. Reasonable decrement in permeance and selectivity was observed after membrane swelling. Thus, membrane swelling affected the separation performance of both PSF and PDMS/PSF composite membrane by decreasing the permeance and selectivity values.

  9. Flexible electret energy harvesters with parylene electret on PDMS substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, most vibrational energy harvesters have rigid and resonant structures to harvest energy from periodic motions in specific directions. However, in some situations the motion is random and aperiodic; or the targeted energy source is the strain energy in deformation, rather than the kinetic energy in vibration. Therefore we propose and demonstrate a PDMS-based flexible energy harvester with parylene-C electret that can be attached to any deformable surfaces to harvest the stain energy caused by external deformation. The proposed flexible harvester was fabricated and characterized. The measured power at 20 Hz is 0.18 μW and 82 nW in the compression and bending modes, respectively. Such a harvester has the potential for wearable and implantable electronics applications

  10. Stretchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Liquid Metal-Filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongseob Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A stretchable metamaterial absorber is proposed in this study. The stretchability was achieved by liquid metal and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. To inject liquid metal, microfluidic channels were fabricated using PDMS powers and microfluidic-channel frames, which were built using a three-dimensional printer. A top conductive pattern and ground plane were designed after considering the easy injection of liquid metal. The proposed metamaterial absorber comprises three layers of PDMS substrate. The top layer is for the top conductive pattern, and the bottom layer is for the meandered ground plane. Flat PDMS layers were inserted between the top and bottom PDMS layers. The measured absorptivity of the fabricated absorber was 97.8% at 18.5 GHz, and the absorption frequency increased from 18.5 to 18.65 GHz as the absorber was stretched from its original length (5.2 cm to 6.4 cm.

  11. Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter: The Power Spectrum and Evaporation of Early Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Afshordi, N; McDonald, P; Spergel, D. N.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the possibility that massive primordial black holes are the dominant form of dark matter. Black hole formation generates entropy fluctuations that adds a Poisson noise to the matter power spectrum. We use Lyman-alpha forest observations to constrain this Poisson term in matter power spectrum, then we constrain the mass of black holes to be less than few times 10^4 solar mass. We also find that structures with less than ~ 10^3 primordial black holes evaporate by now.

  12. Internal Structure of Charged AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  13. Internal Structure of Charged AdS Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit(Astroparticle Physics & Cosmology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, 700064, India); Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached...

  14. Thick single-layer positive photoresist mold and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) dry etching for the fabrication of a glass–PDMS–glass microfluidic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is an elastomer widely used in microfluidic devices due to desirable characteristics such as its low cost and moldability. Photoresist patterned to form microfluidic features is often used as a mold, and SU-8 is commonly used. However, negative photoresists like SU-8 are difficult to remove, as compared to positive photoresists. Here, a method of forming microfluidic structures in the PDMS with an AZ9260 thick positive (Novolak-based) photoresist using standard microfabrication technique is reported. The chip consisted of a sandwich structure with glass on the top and bottom and PDMS with microfluidic channels in the middle; these structures have PDMS sidewalls, but are free of PDMS on the bottom and top. A single layer of the positive AZ9260 photoresist was spun to controllable and uniform thicknesses of up to 49 µm and used as a sacrificial mold to create PDMS microfluidic features. Reactive ion etching (RIE) with CF4 and O2 gases and a liftoff technique was used to create these features, and subsequent irreversible bonding to glass was achieved by activation in oxygen plasma by RIE. The final depths of channels were about 20–30 µm. The effect of the gas flow rate ratios on the bonding ability was investigated, and the surfaces of etched PDMS were studied under a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the bonding strength was measured to be 0.85 MPa. The fabricated microfluidic device was tested and shown to be leak free

  15. PTFE-PDMS/PET复合膜制备及其渗透汽化性能%Preparation and pervaporation performances of PTFE-PDMS/PET composite membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德; 李冰冰; 许振良

    2013-01-01

    以聚四氟乙烯(PTFE)微粉填充聚二甲基硅氧烷(PDMS)硅橡胶膜为活性皮层和PET无纺布为底膜,制备了PTFE-PDMS/PET渗透汽化复合膜并用于分离乙醇水溶液,分析了复合膜结构、疏水性、力学性能及溶胀性能.研究表明,随着PDMS复合膜中PTFE含量(质量分数,下同)增加,复合膜结晶度及水接触角增加;断裂伸长率和拉伸强度均呈现先增加后减小的趋势;膜溶胀度呈线性减少.复合膜渗透汽化选择性α和乙醇渗透系数JE随PTFE含量的增加先增加后减少,而水渗透系数Jw呈逐渐减小的趋势,当PTFE填充量为10%时,乙醇渗透系数JE最大.%A novel composite membrane using micron polytetrafluoroetene (PTFE) powder filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the top active layer and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven fabric as the support layer was prepared for the pervaporation of ethanol from water.The crystal structure,mechanical prosperities and swelling degree of composite membranes were characterized.With the increase of the PTFE content,the crystallinity of composite membrane increased but the swelling degree decreased.The elongation at break and the tensile stress of the PTFE filled PDMS membrane first increased and then decreased.The separation selectivity(a)and ethanol permeance (JE)increased quickly to the maximum then decreased slowly but water permeance (Jw) decreased with the increasing of PTFE content in filled PDMS membranes.When the content of the PTFE additive in PDMS composite membrane 10%,the ethanol permeance is the best.

  16. Structure and Mass Absorption of Hypothetical Terrestrial Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    VanDevender, A. P.; VanDevender, J. Pace

    2011-01-01

    The prospect of mini black holes, either primordial or in planned experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, interacting with the earth motivate us to examine how they may be detected and the scope of their impact on the earth. We propose that the more massive of these objects may gravitationally bind matter without significant absorption. Since the wave functions of gravitationally bound atoms orbiting a black hole are analogous to those of electrons around a nucleus, we call such an object t...

  17. PDMS content affects in vitro hemocompatibility of synthetic vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Dario; Losi, Paola; Briganti, Enrica; Sbrana, Silverio; Kull, Silvia; Martinelli, Ilaria; Soldani, Giorgio

    2007-06-01

    An unsolved problem when employing small-diameter vascular grafts for aorto-coronary by-pass and peripheral reconstruction is the early thrombotic occlusion. The PEtU-PDMS is a new elastomeric material, composed of poly(ether)urethane and polydimethylsiloxane, synthesized to realize grafts with improved hemocompatibility characteristics. In order to investigate the effect of PDMS content on hemocompatibility, three different percentages of PDMS containing grafts (10, 25 and 40) were evaluated. Grafts realized with Estane 5714-F1 and silicone medical grade tubes were used as references. The hemocompatibility was investigated by an in vitro circuit in which human anticoagulated blood was circulated into grafts by a peristaltic pump modified to obtain a passive flow. For each experiment, 40 cm length graft was closed into a circular loop and put in rotation for 2 h at 37 degrees C. At the end of the experiments different parameters regarding platelet adhesion and activation were evaluated: circulating platelets count, beta-thromboglobulin release, platelet CD62P expression and amount of monocyte-platelet conjugates. PEtU-PDMS grafts with 25 and 40% of PDMS induced the lowest platelet adhesion, plasma level of beta-TG and amount of monocyte-platelet conjugates. No significative variations were observed in CD62P expression. In conclusion, PDMS content significatively affects blood-graft surface interaction, in fact higher PDMS percentage containing grafts showed the best in vitro hemocompatibility. PMID:17268875

  18. A facile route for irreversible bonding of plastic-PDMS hybrid microdevices at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Linzhi; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2010-05-21

    Plastic materials do not generally form irreversible bonds with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) regardless of oxygen plasma treatment and a subsequent thermal process. In this paper, we perform plastic-PDMS bonding at room temperature, mediated by the formation of a chemically robust amine-epoxy bond at the interfaces. Various plastic materials, such as poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), polyimide (PI), and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were adopted as choices for plastic materials. Irrespective of the plastic materials used, the surfaces were successfully modified with amine and epoxy functionalities, confirmed by the surface characterizations such as water contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and chemically robust and irreversible bonding was successfully achieved within 1 h at room temperature. The bonding strengths of PDMS with PMMA and PC sheets were measured to be 180 and 178 kPa, respectively, and their assemblies containing microchannel structures endured up to 74 and 84 psi (510 and 579 kPa) of introduced compressed air, respectively, without destroying the microdevices, representing a robust and highly stable interfacial bonding. In addition to microchannel-molded PDMS bonded with flat plastic substrates, microchannel-embossed plastics were also bonded with a flat PDMS sheet, and both types of bonded assemblies displayed sufficiently robust bonding, tolerating an intense influx of liquid whose per-minute injection volume was nearly 1000 to 2000 times higher than the total internal volume of the microchannel used. In addition to observing the bonding performance, we also investigated the potential of surface amine and epoxy functionalities as durable chemical adhesives by observing their storage-time-dependent bonding performances. PMID:20445880

  19. Fluorinated ethylene-propylene: a complementary alternative to PDMS for nanoimprint stamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Andrew I. M.; Vasiev, Iskandar; Della-Rosa, Benoit; Gadegaard, Nikolaj

    2016-04-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used by many for nanoimprint applications due to its affordability, ease of preparation, mechanical flexibility, compatibility with imprint resists and transparency to UV light. However PDMS is notoriously flexible, tacky and permeable to air. Here fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP) is considered as a viable and versatile alternative material for nanoimprint stamps. FEP possesses many of the desirable nanoimprint attributes associated with PDMS but crucially also features a range of complementary characteristics, including an order of magnitude more mechanical strength allowing it to handle higher loads than PDMS, an intrinsically non-stick surface and is compatible with oxygen sensitive resists. Unlike elastomeric polymers, FEP is glassy so patterning may be realised via hot embossing. Not only is this a facile and rapid means of physical structuring but it also facilitates combinatorial patterning, providing a versatility beyond that of traditional casting materials. Due to the intrinsically slow creep of FEP both micro- and nanopatterning are successfully performed sequentially. Feature sizes from 45 nm were successfully realised via the hot-embossing method. To further demonstrate the potential of the material, a modified computer numerical control machine is used. It is capable of photo-, nanoimprint- and laser lithography in conjunction with patterned FEP foils. The tool is used to perform pattern transfer into a developmental nanoimprint resist from Micro Resist Technology, mr-NIL210 XP, and Nano SU-8 3005 negative tone photo resist from MicroChem. Ultimately three-tier lithography is performed in unison and advantageous step-and-repeat performance is achieved with fabricated FEP imprint stamps as they demould more compliantly and resist pressure and contamination better than PDMS.

  20. Study of the structure of the particles of channel black of phase-contrasting electron microscopy of high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlakov, V.P.; Fialkov, A.S.; Smirnov, B.N.

    1981-01-01

    The structure of channel black, DG-100, in the initial and graphitized states has been studied by phase-contrasting electron microscopy with a direct resolution of the carbon layers. An individual carbon layer is the main structural element of carbon black. The structure of channel black in the graphitized state looks like a hollow closed polyhedron made up of bundles of continuous carbon layers which can bend and become deformed to a great extent, testifying to the polymeric nature of the structure of channel black. The authors give an interpretation of the roentgen values of the 'dimensions of crystallites' in channel black.

  1. Structure aggregation of carbon black in ethylene-propylene diene polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulus of filled and unfilled Ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM vulcanizates was used to predict the shape-factor of carbon black aggregation in the polymer. Four types of carbon black that vary in particle size and structure were used in this study. Quadratic curves relating the carbon black volume concentration and the modulus ratio of filled and unfilled rubber vulcanizates were used to adopt the shape factor of certain carbon black type. The shape factor of MT, HAF, SRF and Lampblack were 3, 3.75, 4 and 4.25 respectively. X-ray diffraction technique (XRD was also used to evaluate the relative size of crystallite on the filler surface to that of the rubber and correlating it to the shape factor of carbon black aggregation in the polymer. Effect of the pH values and structure of carbon blacks used on the shape factor of filler aggregates were also studied. It was found that the shape factor is independent on the particle size while it is dependent on the pH value and structure of carbon black. Also the crystallites size of the filler is proportional to the shape factor.

  2. Features for Exploiting Black-Box Optimization Problem Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Malitsky, Yuri; Abell, Tinus

    2013-01-01

    Black-box optimization (BBO) problems arise in numerous scientic and engineering applications and are characterized by compu- tationally intensive objective functions, which severely limit the number of evaluations that can be performed. We present a robust set of features that analyze the tness...

  3. Viscoelastic nature of Au nanoparticle–PDMS nanocomposite gels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritu Gupta; Hima K Nagamanasa; Rajesh Ganapathy; Giridhar U Kulkarni

    2015-08-01

    A stable gel of Au nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanocomposite is prepared by employing the curing agent of PDMS elastomer as a reducing agent for the formation of Au nanoparticles by an in-situ process. The viscoelastic nature of these gels is very sensitive to the Au nanoparticle loading and the synthetic temperature conditions. Even a very low Au content of 0.09 wt% is sufficient enough to bring in the transition from sponge state to gel state at room temperature. Higher synthetic temperature also forms sponge formation. Infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy measurements have provided insight into PDMS crosslinking and nanoparticle formation, respectively. The optimization of the gel properties can have direct influence on the processability of Au nanoparticle–PDMS nanocomposite gels, with interesting implications in electronic, optical and microfluidic devices.

  4. Actuation of a Hyperelastic PDMS Membrane Suspended inside a Microfluidic Channel: From Computer Simulation to Microfabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Ribe, Jonas Myren

    2012-01-01

    This Master-project was done in the Department of Physics at NTNU in the spring of 2012. The project develops micro- and nanofabrication processes useful for lab-on-a-chip systems. These systems aim to scale down and automate lab processes primarily in the fields of biomedicine and chemistry.A hyperelastic membrane suspended inside a microfluidic channel was the starting point of the project. The membrane was made from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and structured through physical and chemical...

  5. Holographic Shell Model: Stack Data Structure inside Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Aharon

    2011-01-01

    We suggest that bits of information inhabit, universally and holographically, the entire black hole interior, a bit per a light sheet unit interval of order Planck area difference. The number of distinguishable (tagged by a binary code) configurations, counted within the context of a discrete holographic shell model, is given by the Catalan series. The area entropy formula is recovered, including the universal logarithmic correction, and the equipartition of mass per degree of freedom is prov...

  6. Phase structures of 4D stringy charged black holes in canonical ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qiang; Lu, J. X.; Tan, Xiao-Jun

    2016-08-01

    We study the thermodynamics and phase structures of the asymptotically flat dilatonic black holes in 4 dimensions, placed in a cavity a la York, in string theory for an arbitrary dilaton coupling. We consider these charged black systems in canonical ensemble for which the temperature at the wall of and the charge inside the cavity are fixed. We find that the dilaton coupling plays the key role in the underlying phase structures. The connection of these black holes to higher dimensional brane systems via diagonal (double) and/or direct dimensional reductions indicates that the phase structures of the former may exhaust all possible ones of the latter, which are more difficult to study, under conditions of similar settings. Our study also shows that a diagonal (double) dimensional reduction preserves the underlying phase structure while a direct dimensional reduction has the potential to change it.

  7. Phase structures of 4D stringy charged black holes in canonical ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Qiang; Tan, Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and phase structures of the asymptotically flat dilatonic black holes in 4 dimensions, placed in a cavity {\\it a la} York, in string theory for an arbitrary dilaton coupling. We consider these charged black systems in canonical ensemble for which the temperature at the wall of and the charge inside the cavity are fixed. We find that the dilaton coupling plays the key role in the underlying phase structures. The connection of these black holes to higher dimensional brane systems via diagonal (double) and/or direct dimensional reductions indicates that the phase structures of the former may exhaust all possible ones of the latter, which are more difficult to study, under conditions of similar settings. Our study also shows that a diagonal (double) dimensional reduction preserves the underlying phase structure while a direct dimensional reduction has the potential to change it.

  8. Controlled Contamination of Epoxy Composites with PDMS and Removal by Laser Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Frank; Ledesma, Rodolfo; Cataldo, Daniel; Lin, Yi; Wohl, Christopher; Gupta, Mool; Connell, John

    2016-01-01

    Surface preparation is critical to the performance of adhesively bonded composites. During manufacturing, minute quantities of mold release compounds are inevitably deposited on faying surfaces and may compromise bond performance. To ensure safety, mechanical fasteners and other crack arrest features must be installed in the bondlines of primary structures, which negates some advantages of adhesively bonded construction. Laser ablation is an automated, repeatable, and scalable process with high potential for the surface preparation of metals and composites in critical applications such as primary airframe structures. In this study, laser ablation is evaluated on composite surfaces for the removal of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a common mold release material. Composite panels were contaminated uniformly with PDMS film thicknesses as low as 6.0 nm as measured by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Bond performance was assessed by mechanical testing using a 250 F cure, epoxy adhesive and compared with pre-bond surface inspection results. Water contact angle, optically stimulated electron emission, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy were used to characterize contaminated and laser ablated surfaces. The failure mode obtained from double cantilever beam tests correlated well with surface characterization data. The test results indicated that even low levels of PDMS were not completely removed by laser ablation.

  9. Structure of the black hole's Cauchy horizon singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Burko, L M

    1997-01-01

    We study the Cauchy horizon (CH) singularity of a spherical charged black hole perturbed nonlinearly by a self-gravitating massless scalar field. We show numerically that the singularity is weak both at the early and at the late sections of the CH, where the focusing of the area coordinate $r$ is strong. In the early section the metric is almost Reissner-Nordström, and the fields behave according to perturbation analysis. We find exact analytical expressions for the gradients of $r$ and of the scalar field, which are valid at both sections. We then verify these analytical results numerically.

  10. Growth of structure seeded by primordial black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, Katherine J.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Ricotti, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the possibilities for primordial black holes (PBHs) to grow via the accretion of dark matter. In agreement with previous works, we find that accretion during the radiation-dominated era does not lead to a significant mass increase. However, during matter-domination, PBHs may grow by up to two orders of magnitude in mass through the acquisition of large dark matter halos. We discuss the possibility of PBHs being an important component in dark matter halos of galaxies as well as thei...

  11. Thermodynamic phase structure of charged anti-de Sitter scalar-tensor black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When electromagnetic field with nonlinear lagrangian acts as a source of gravity the no-scalar-hair theorems can be eluded and black holes with non-trivial scalar field can be found in scalar tensor theories. Black holes with secondary scalar hair exist also when a cosmological constant is added in the theory. The thermodynamics of black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time has attracted considerable interest due to the AdS/CFT conjecture. A natural question that arises is whether the non-trivial scalar field would alter the black-hole thermodynamical phase structure. In the current work we present the phase structure of charged hairy black holes coupled to nonlinear Born-Infeld electrodynamics in canonical ensemble which is naturally related to AdS space-time. In certain regions of the parameter space we find the existence of a first-order phase transition between small and very large black holes. An unexpected result is that for a small subinterval of charge values two phase transitions are observed – one of zeroth and one of first order

  12. The Young Modulus of Black Strings and the Fine Structure of Blackfolds

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Harmark, Troels; Obers, Niels A

    2011-01-01

    We explore corrections in the blackfold approach, which is a worldvolume theory capturing the dynamics of thin black branes. The corrections probe the fine structure of the branes, going beyond the approximation in which they are infinitely thin, and account for the dipole moment of worldvolume stress-energy as well as the internal spin degrees of freedom. We show that the dipole correction is induced elastically by bending a black brane. We argue that the long-wavelength transport coefficient capturing this response is a relativistic generalization of the Young modulus of elastic materials and we compute it analytically. Using this we draw predictions for black rings in dimensions greater than six. Furthermore, we employ our corrected blackfold equations to various multi-spinning black hole configurations in the blackfold limit, finding perfect agreement with known analytic solutions.

  13. Superhydrophobic Surfaces Created by Elastic Instability of PDMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Sabbah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lotus flowers, rose petals, some plant leaves and insects have a naturally super-hydrophobic surface. In fact, the surface of a Lotus leaf is covered by micro and nano structures mixed with wax, which makes its surface superhydrophobic. In microfluidics, superhydrophobicity is an important factor in the rheometers on a chip. It is also sought in other complex fluids applications like the self-cleaning and the antibacterial materials. The wettability of the surface of solid support can be modified by altering its chemical composition. This means functionalizing the interface molecules to different chemical properties, and/or forming a thin film on the surface. We can also influence its texturing by changing its roughness. Despite considerable efforts during the last decade, superhydrophobic surfaces usually involve, among others, microfabrication processes, such as photolithography technique. In this study, we propose an original and simple method to create superhydrophobic surfaces by controlling elastic instability of poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS films. Indeed, we demonstrate that the self-organization of wrinkles on top of non-wettable polymer surfaces leads to surperhydrophobic surfaces with contact angles exceeding 150°. We studied the transition Wenzel-Cassie, which indicated that the passage of morphology drops “impaled” to a type of morphology “fakir” were the strongest topographies.

  14. A soft photo-mask with embedded carbon black and its application in contact photolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new type of soft photo-mask which can be used in contact photolithography for achieving small line-width, large area, and high throughput ultraviolet (UV) patterning. It starts from a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold replicated from a silicon master mold. A carbon black photo-resist (PR) is spin-coated on top of the PDMS mold and then thermally cured. After a contact transfer process, the solidified carbon black PR exists only in the concave region of the PDMS mold, which converts the PDMS mold into a carbon-black/PDMS soft photo-mask. Due to its flexibility, this soft photo-mask can be used in contact photolithography on a slightly curved substrate. Experiments on preparing this new soft photo-mask and its application for fabricating patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) used in the light-emitting-diode (LED) industry are carried out. Successful results are observed. (paper)

  15. An Electromagnetically-Actuated All-PDMS Valveless Micropump for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Amirouche

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the fabrication process of a single-chamber planar valveless micropump driven by an external electromagnetic actuator. This micropump features a pair of micro diffuser and nozzle elements used to rectify the fluid flow, and an elastic magnetic membrane used to regulate the pressure in the enclosed fluid chamber. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS is used as the main construction material of this proposed micropump, including the structural substrate and the planar actuation membrane embedded with a thin micro magnet. Both the Finite Element Method and experimental analysis are used to assess the PDMS-membrane actuation under the applied electromagnetic forces and characterize the pump performance at variable working conditions. The resonant frequency of this micropump is identified experimentally and de-ionized (DI water is loaded to account for the coupling effects of the working fluid. The experimental data was used to demonstrate the reliability of flow rates and how it can be controlled by consistently adjusting the driving frequencies and currents. The proposed micropump is capable of delivering a maximum flow rate of 319.6 μL/min and a maximum hydrostatic backpressure of 950 Pa (9.5 cm H2O. The planar design feature of the pump allows for potential integration of the pump with other PDMS-based microfluidic systems for biomedical applications.

  16. Mesomorphic phase behaviour of low molar mass PEP-PDMS diblock copolymers synthesized by anionic polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase behaviour of low molar mass poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) -poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PEP-PDMS) is investigated in this thesis by the combination of dynamical mechanical spectroscopy (rheology) to measure phase transition temperatures, and small-angle x-ray scattering to identify the morphology of encountered phases. Samples of PEP-PDMS in the range of 0.2-0.7 in volume fraction of PEP are studied. This diblock copolymer system exhibits the three classical phases of lamellar sandwich structure (LAM), hexagonally packed cylinders (HEX), and spheres arranged on a body centered cubic lattice (BCC). Furthermore the gyroid phase (Ia3d symmetry) of two interpenetrating networks was also identified as a stable phase of the PEP-PDMS system. Time resolved measurements of small-angle neutron scattering in tandem with simultaneous in-situ rheological measurements are performed on samples showing transitions between different ordered phases. The identification of especially the BCC and gyroid phases from scattering experiments is treated. By performing mesoscopic crystallographic measurements using a custom built goniometer it was unambiguously shown that the application of shear to an unoriented powder-like sample introduces uniaxial orientation of the gyroid phase. The orientation of the ordered phase is otherwise random, causing a two-dimensional powder. Finally this dissertation presents a discussion of relevant parameters for the description of diblock copolymer phase behaviour together with descriptions of anionic polymerization for the synthesis of copolymers, and various experimental techniques for the characterization of diblocks. (au)

  17. Tectonic Structures offshore Trabzon-Rize Area in the Eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Sermet; Okay, Seda; Çifçi, Günay; Dondurur, Derman; Kim, Dae-Choul; Bae, Sung-Ho

    2015-04-01

    Black Sea has attracted many researchers's attention due to the historical formation and geological structure and these are still under discussion. However general view suggest that Black Sea is a back arc basin model formed behind the Pontid volcanic arc. Even though there are many studies conducted by both Turkish and international researches and petroleum company, there are still unresolved scientific questions. To better understand the regional geology and investigate the geological formations and fault systems existing in the region, approximately 1700 km high resolution multi-channel seismic reflection data were collected in the Eastern Black Sea (around Rize and Trabzon) in 2010. This study was carried out within the scope of cooperation between Dokuz Eylul University Marine Science and Technology and Pukyong National University (PKNU). Collected lines include the continental slope and deep basin. After the data was processed by the data processing program, geological structures like slip structures, turbidity and sediment waves has attracted attention commonly seen in the Black Sea region. Location of the faults that exist in the region, their extension and characteristics were also investigated. Although the basin shows opening feature during the formation, many fold structures caused by compression structure was also observed around the continental slope. East-west trending fold belt observed by interpretation of the seismic lines was associated with Trabzon fault which is thought to exist in the region. In addition to these, mud volcanoes and volcanic dome structures were also observed in the study area.

  18. Insight into the microscopic structure of an AdS black hole from a thermodynamical phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2015-09-11

    Comparing with an ordinary thermodynamic system, we investigate the possible microscopic structure of a charged anti-de Sitter black hole completely from the thermodynamic viewpoint. The number density of the black hole molecules is introduced to measure the microscopic degrees of freedom of the black hole. We found that the number density suffers a sudden change accompanied by a latent heat when the black hole system crosses the small-large black hole coexistence curve, while when the system passes the critical point, it encounters a second-order phase transition with a vanishing latent heat due to the continuous change of the number density. Moreover, the thermodynamic scalar curvature suggests that there is a weak attractive interaction between two black hole molecules. These phenomena might cast new insight into the underlying microscopic structure of a charged anti-de Sitter black hole. PMID:26406818

  19. Quantum structure of space near a black hole horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a midi-superspace quantization scheme for generic single horizon black holes in which only the spatial diffeomorphisms are fixed. The remaining Hamiltonian constraint yields an infinite set of decoupled eigenvalue equations: one at each spatial point. The corresponding operator at each point is the product of the outgoing and ingoing null convergences, and describes the scale invariant quantum mechanics of a particle moving in an attractive 1/X2 potential. The variable X that is analogous to particle position is the square root of the conformal mode of the metric. We quantize the theory via Bohr quantization, which by construction turns the Hamiltonian constraint eigenvalue equation into a finite difference equation. The resulting spectrum gives rise to a discrete spatial topology exterior to the horizon. The spectrum approaches the continuum in the asymptotic region

  20. Quantum Structure of Space Near a Black Hole Horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Gegenberg, J; Small, R D

    2006-01-01

    We describe a midi-superspace quantization scheme for generic single horizon black holes in which only the spatial diffeomorphisms are fixed. The remaining Hamiltonian constraint yields an infinite set of decoupled eigenvalue equations: one at each spatial point. The corresponding operator at each point is the product of the outgoing and ingoing null convergences, and describes the scale invariant quantum mechanics of a particle moving in an attractive $1/X^2$ potential. The variable $X$ that is analoguous to particle position is the square root of the conformal mode of the metric. We quantize the theory via Bohr quantization, which by construction turns the Hamiltonian constraint eigenvalue equation into a finite difference equation. The resulting spectrum gives rise to a discrete spatial topology exterior to the horizon. The spectrum approaches the continuum in the asymptotic region.

  1. Design and fabrication of a planar PDMS transmission grating microspectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmayesh-Fard, Seyed M; Lam, Lawrence; Melnyk, Aaron; DeCorby, Ray G

    2013-05-20

    We describe the monolithic integration of microfluidic channels, optical waveguides, a collimating lens and a curved focusing transmission grating in a single PDMS-based microsystem. All optical and fluidic components of the device were simultaneously formed in a single layer of high refractive index (n~1.43) PDMS by soft lithography. Outer layers of lower-index (n~1.41) PDMS were subsequently added to provide optical and fluidic confinement. Here, we focus on the design and characterization of the microspectrometer part, which employs a novel self-focusing strategy based on cylindrical facets, and exhibits resolution <10 nm in the visible wavelength range. The dispersive behavior of the grating was analyzed both experimentally and using numerical simulations, and the results are in good agreement with simplified analytical predictions. PMID:23736411

  2. Fs-laser processing of medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, P. A.; Stankova, N. E.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Fukata, N.; Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B.; Amoruso, S.; Wang, X.; Kolev, K. N.; Valova, E. I.; Georgieva, J. S.; Armyanov, St. A.

    2016-06-01

    Medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is a biomaterial widely used in medicine and high-tech devices, e.g. MEMS and NEMS. In this work, we report an experimental investigation on femtosecond laser processing of PDMS-elastomer with near infrared (NIR), visible (VIS) and ultraviolet (UV) pulses. High definition trenches are produced by varying processing parameters as laser wavelength, pulse duration, fluence, scanning speed and overlap of the subsequent pulses. The sample surface morphology and chemical composition are investigated by Laser Microscopy, SEM and Raman spectroscopy, addressing the effects of the various processing parameters through comparison with the native materials characteristics. For all the laser pulse wavelengths used, the produced tracks are successfully metalized with Ni via electro-less plating method. We observe a negligible influence of the time interval elapsed between laser treatment and metallization process. Our experimental findings suggest promising perspectives of femtosecond laser pulses in micro- and nano-fabrication of hi-tech PDMS devices.

  3. Fiber optic ultrasound transducers with carbon/PDMS composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, Charles A.; Colchester, Richard J.; Bhachu, Davinder S.; Zhang, Edward Z.; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2014-03-01

    Novel ultrasound transducers were created with a composite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that was dip coated onto the end faces of optical fibers. The CNTs were functionalized with oleylamine to allow for their dissolution in xylene, a solvent of PDMS. Ultrasound pulses were generated by illuminating the composite coating with pulsed laser light. At distances of 2 to 16 mm from the end faces, ultrasound pressures ranged from 0.81 to 0.07 MPa and from 0.27 to 0.03 MPa with 105 and 200 μm core fibers, respectively. Using an optical fiber hydrophone positioned adjacent to the coated 200 µm core optical fiber, ultrasound reflectance measurements were obtained from the outer surface of a sheep heart ventricle. The results of this study suggest that ultrasound transducers that comprise optical fibers with CNT-PDMS composite coatings may be suitable for miniature medical imaging probes.

  4. Disentangling bulk from surface contributions in the electronic structure of black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golias, E.; Krivenkov, M.; Sánchez-Barriga, J.

    2016-02-01

    Most recently, black phosphorus has come into focus as a promising material for future applications in nanoelectronic devices due to its unique electronic and transport properties. Here, we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in conjunction with ab initio calculations within the framework of density-functional theory to disentangle surface from the bulk contributions in the electronic structure of black phosphorus. We find good agreement between our theoretical predictions for the intra- and interlayer energy-momentum dispersions and the experimentally obtained three-dimensional band structure of this material. Our results provide compelling evidence for the existence of surface-resonant states near the top of the valence band, which can play an important role in the performance of electronic devices based on black phosphorus.

  5. Time-like geodesic structure of a spherically symmetric black hole in the brane-world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Sheng; Chen Ju-Hua; Wang Yong-Jiu

    2011-01-01

    Recently Malihe Heydari-Fard obtained a spherically symmetric exterior black hole solution in the brane-world scenario,which can be used to explain the galaxy rotation curves without postulating dark matter.By analysing the particle effective potential,we have investigated the time-like geodesic structure of the spherically symmetric black hole in the brane-world.We mainly take account of how the cosmological constant α and the stellar pressure β affect the time-like geodesic structure of the black hole.We find that the radial particle falls to the singularity from a finite distance or plunges into the singularity,depending on its initial conditions.But the non-radial time-like geodesic structure is more complex than the radial case.We find that the particle moves on the bound orbit or stable (unstable) circle orbit or plunges into the singularity,or reflects to infinity,depending on its energy and initial conditions.By comparing the particle effective potential curves for different values of the stellar pressure β and the cosmological constant α,we find that the stellar pressure parameter β does not affect the time-like geodesic structure of the black hole,but the cosmological constant α has an impact on its time-like geodesic structure.

  6. Time-like geodesic structure of a spherically symmetric black hole in the brane-world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently Malihe Heydari-Fard obtained a spherically symmetric exterior black hole solution in the brane-world scenario, which can be used to explain the galaxy rotation curves without postulating dark matter. By analysing the particle effective potential, we have investigated the time-like geodesic structure of the spherically symmetric black hole in the brane-world. We mainly take account of how the cosmological constant α and the stellar pressure β affect the time-like geodesic structure of the black hole. We find that the radial particle falls to the singularity from a finite distance or plunges into the singularity, depending on its initial conditions. But the non-radial time-like geodesic structure is more complex than the radial case. We find that the particle moves on the bound orbit or stable (unstable) circle orbit or plunges into the singularity, or reflects to infinity, depending on its energy and initial conditions. By comparing the particle effective potential curves for different values of the stellar pressure β and the cosmological constant α, we find that the stellar pressure parameter β does not affect the time-like geodesic structure of the black hole, but the cosmological constant α has an impact on its time-like geodesic structure. (general)

  7. Optofluidic Waveguides in Teflon AF-Coated PDMS Microfluidic Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Godin, Jessica; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    We report a new method for fabricating an optofluidic waveguide that is compatible with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The light path follows the microfluidic channels, an architecture that can maximize detection efficiency and make the most economic use of chip area in many lab-on-chip applications. The PDMS-based microfluidic channels are coated with Teflon amorphous fluoropolymers (Teflon AF) which has a lower refractive index (n = 1.31) than water (n = 1.33) to form a water/Teflon AF optica...

  8. fs- and ns-laser processing of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer: Comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankova, N.E., E-mail: nestankova@yahoo.com [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Shose, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasov, P.A.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Stoyanchov, T.R. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Shose, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Kolev, K.N.; Valova, E.I.; Georgieva, J.S.; Armyanov, St.A. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Amoruso, S.; Wang, X.; Bruzzese, R. [CNR-SPIN, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Grochowska, K.; Śliwiński, G. [Photophysics Department, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St., 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Baert, K.; Hubin, A. [Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Faculty of Engineering, Research group, SURF “Electrochemical and Surface Engineering” (Belgium); Delplancke, M.P.; Dille, J. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Materials Engineering, Characterization, Synthesis and Recycling (Service 4MAT), Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • fs- and ns-laser (266 and 532 nm) processing of PDMS-elastomer, in air, is studied. • High definition tracks (on the PDMS-elastomer surface) for electrodes are produced. • Selective Pt or Ni metallization of the tracks is produced via electroless plating. • Irradiated and metallized tracks are characterized by μ-Raman spectrometry and SEM. • DC resistance of Pt and Ni tracks is always between 0.5 and 15 Ω/mm. - Abstract: Medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is a widely used biomaterial as encapsulation and/or as substrate insulator carrier for long term neural implants because of its remarkable properties. Femtosecond (λ = 263 and 527 nm) and nanosecond (266 and 532 nm) laser processing of PDMS-elastomer surface, in air, is investigated. The influence of different processing parameters, including laser wavelength, pulse duration, fluence, scanning speed and overlapping of the subsequent pulses, on the surface activation and the surface morphology are studied. High definition tracks and electrodes are produced. Remarkable alterations of the chemical composition and structural morphology of the ablated traces are observed in comparison with the native material. Raman spectra illustrate well-defined dependence of the chemical composition on the laser fluence, pulse duration, number of pulses and wavelength. An extra peak about ∼512–518 cm{sup −1}, assigned to crystalline silicon, is observed after ns- or visible fs-laser processing of the surface. In all cases, the intensities of Si−O−Si symmetric stretching at 488 cm{sup −1}, Si−CH{sub 3} symmetric rocking at 685 cm{sup −1}, Si−C symmetric stretching at 709 cm{sup −1}, CH{sub 3} asymmetric rocking + Si−C asymmetric stretching at 787 cm{sup −1}, and CH{sub 3} symmetric rocking at 859 cm{sup −1}, modes strongly decrease. The laser processed areas are also analyzed by SEM and optical microscopy. Selective Pt or Ni metallization of the laser processed

  9. Corrosion cracking of high-strength structural steels at large depths in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of field tests of structural chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels of various strength capacity for their tendency to corrosion cracking in the Black sea water, containing hydrogen sulfide at high depths, are presented. Comparison with the laboratory test data is also carried out and certain peculiarities, revealed thereby, are discussed. It is shown, that hydrogen sulfide if biological origin is more aggressive as compared to the chemically obtained one. The rigidity of the hydrogen sulfide at the deep horizons of the Black sea is unprecedented in comparison with any other region of the World ocean

  10. Horizon structure of rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes and shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamurotov, Farruh; Ghosh, Sushant G.; Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the horizon structure of the rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld solution which goes over to the Einstein-Maxwell's Kerr-Newman solution as the Born-Infeld parameter goes to infinity (β → ∞). We find that for a given β , mass M, and charge Q, there exist a critical spinning parameter aE and rHE, which corresponds to an extremal Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole with degenerate horizons, and aE decreases and rHE increases with increase of the Born-Infeld parameter β , while ahole with outer and inner horizons. Similarly, the effect of β on the infinite redshift surface and in turn on the ergo-region is also included. It is well known that a black hole can cast a shadow as an optical appearance due to its strong gravitational field. We also investigate the shadow cast by the both static and rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole and demonstrate that the null geodesic equations can be integrated, which allows us to investigate the shadow cast by a black hole which is found to be a dark zone covered by a circle. Interestingly, the shadow of an Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole is slightly smaller than for the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, which consists of concentric circles, for different values of the Born-Infeld parameter β , whose radius decreases with increase of the value of the parameter β . Finally, we have studied observable distortion parameter for shadow of the rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole.

  11. Changes in the ecosystem structure of the Black Sea under predicted climatological and anthropogenic variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoglu, Ekin; Salihoglu, Baris; Fach Salihoglu, Bettina; Libralato, Simone; Cannaby, Heather; Oguz, Temel; Solidoro, Cosimo

    2014-05-01

    A dynamic Ecopath with Ecosim higher-trophic-level (HTL) model representation of the Black Sea ecosystem was coupled to the physical (BIMS-CIR) and biogeochemical (BIMS-ECO) models of the Black Sea in order to investigate historical anthropogenic and climatological interactions and feedbacks in the ecosystem. Further, the coupled models were used to assess the likely consequences of these interactions on the ecosystem's structure and functioning under predicted future climate (IPCC A1B) and fishing variability. Therefore, two model scenarios were used; i) a hindcast scenario (1980-1999) to evaluate and understand the impacts of the short-term climate and physical variability and the introduction of invasive species on the Black Sea ecosystem, and ii) a forecast scenario (2080-2099) to investigate the potential implications of climate change and anthropogenic exploitation on living resources of the Black Sea ecosystem by the end of the 21st century. According to the outcomes of the hindcast simulation, fisheries were found to be the main driver in determining the structure and functioning of the Black Sea ecosystem under changing environmental conditions. The coupled physical-biogeochemical forecast simulations predicted a slight but statistically significant basin-wide increase in the Black Sea's primary productivity by the end of the century due to increased stratification induced by basin-wide temperature increase and reduced Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) formation which increased the residence time of riverine nutrients within the euphotic zone. Despite this increased primary productivity, the HTL model forecast simulation predicted a significant decrease in the commercial fish stocks primarily due to fisheries exploitation if current catch rates are maintained into the future. Results further suggested that some economically important small pelagic fish species are likely to disappear from the ecosystem making the recovery of the already-collapsed piscivorous

  12. Novel silicone compatible cross-linkers for controlled functionalization of PDMS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are excellent materials for dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs) due to their high efficiency and fast response. PDMS suffers, however, from low dielectric permittivity and high voltages are therefore required when the material is used for DEAP actuator...

  13. Black-hole horizons in modified spacetime structures arising from canonical quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several properties of canonical quantum gravity modify spacetime structures, sometimes to the degree that no effective line elements exist to describe the geometry. An analysis of solutions, for instance in the context of black holes, then requires new insights. In this paper, standard definitions of horizons in spherical symmetry are first reformulated canonically, and then evaluated for solutions of equations and constraints modified by inverse-triad corrections of loop quantum gravity. When possible, a spacetime analysis is performed which reveals a mass threshold for black holes and small changes to Hawking radiation. For more general conclusions, canonical perturbation theory is developed to second order to include back-reaction from matter. The results shed light on the questions of whether renormalization of Newton's constant or other modifications of horizon conditions should be taken into account in computations of black-hole entropy in loop quantum gravity.

  14. Microscopic quantum structure of black hole and vacuum versus quantum statistical origin of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shun-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The Planckon densely piled model of vacuum is proposed. Based on it, the microscopic quantum structure of Schwarzschild black hole and quantum statistical origin of its gravity are studied. It is shown that thermodynamic temperature equilibrium and mechanical acceleration balance make the space-time of the black hole horizon singular and Casimir effect works inside the horizon. This effect makes the inside vacuum have less zero fluctuation energy than the outside vacuum, and a temperature difference as well as gravity as thermal pressure are created. A dual relation between inside and outside regions of the black hole is found. By dual relation, an attractor behaviour of the horizon surface is unveiled. Outside horizon, there exist thermodynamic non-equilibrium and mechanical non-balance which lead to outward centrifugal energy flow and inward gravitation energy flow, their compensation establishes local equilibrium. The lost vacuum energy in negative gravitation potential regions has been removed to the blac...

  15. Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2013-01-01

    -strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of...

  16. Surface morphology of PS-PDMS diblock copolymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.H.; Tougaard, S.; Larsen, N.B.;

    2001-01-01

    Spin coated thin films (∼400 Å) of poly(styrene)–poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS–PDMS) diblock copolymers have been investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. Surface segregation of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) blocks was studied for five diblock copolymers which...

  17. Modular microfluidic systems using reversibly attached PDMS fluid control modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Sip, Christopher G.; Folch, Albert;

    2013-01-01

    The use of soft lithography-based poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) valve systems is the dominating approach for high-density microscale fluidic control. Integrated systems enable complex flow control and large-scale integration, but lack modularity. In contrast, modular systems are attractive altern...

  18. Investigation of PDMS as coating on CMUTs for Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Laursen, Mads Bjerregaard;

    2014-01-01

    A protective layer is necessary for Capacitive Mi- cromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) to be used for imaging purpose. The layer should both protect the device itself and the patient while maintaining the performance of the device. In this work Sylgard 170 PDMS is tested as coating material...

  19. Wearable polyimide–PDMS electrodes for intrabody communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we introduce a novel wearable electrode for an intra-body area network (I-BAN) by employing the advantages of polyimide (PI) which is a well-known substrate material for flexible electrodes and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) which is a biocompatible and representative soft-lithography adaptable material. Electrodes were patterned onto thin and flexible PI substrates and encapsulated in PDMS to enhance skin compatibility. For this purpose, we developed an electrode fabrication process on thin PI substrates and a PDMS encapsulation technique by bonding two PDMS layers on the front and back surfaces of the PI electrode. The mechanical property and communication performance of electrodes were characterized through spectrum analysis to optimize the role as an I-BAN electrode. Skin-compatibility and cyto-toxicity tests using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were carried out to demonstrate the non-toxicity of the electrode after continuous wearing. Sinusoidal signals of 45 MHz were successfully transmitted with high fidelity between electrodes separated by 30 cm.

  20. Modular microfluidic systems using reversibly attached PDMS fluid control modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of soft lithography-based poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) valve systems is the dominating approach for high-density microscale fluidic control. Integrated systems enable complex flow control and large-scale integration, but lack modularity. In contrast, modular systems are attractive alternatives to integration because they can be tailored for different applications piecewise and without redesigning every element of the system. We present a method for reversibly coupling hard materials to soft lithography defined systems through self-aligning O-ring features thereby enabling easy interfacing of complex-valve-based systems with simpler detachable units. Using this scheme, we demonstrate the seamless interfacing of a PDMS-based fluid control module with hard polymer chips. In our system, 32 self-aligning O-ring features protruding from the PDMS fluid control module form chip-to-control module interconnections which are sealed by tightening four screws. The interconnection method is robust and supports complex fluidic operations in the reversibly attached passive chip. In addition, we developed a double-sided molding method for fabricating PDMS devices with integrated through-holes. The versatile system facilitates a wide range of applications due to the modular approach, where application specific passive chips can be readily attached to the flow control module. (paper)

  1. Effect of van der Waals interactions on the structural and elastic properties of black phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appalakondaiah, S.; Vaitheeswaran, G.; Lebègue, S.;

    2012-01-01

    The structural and elastic properties of orthorhombic black phosphorus have been investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The structural parameters have been calculated using the local density approximation (LDA), the generalized gradient approximation...... (GGA), and with several dispersion corrections to include van der Waals interactions. It is found that the dispersion corrections improve the lattice parameters over LDA and GGA in comparison with experimental results. The calculations reproduce well the experimental trends under pressure and show that...

  2. Horizon structure and shadow of rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamurotov, Farruh

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the horizon structure of the rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld solution which goes over to the Einstein-Maxwell's Kerr-Newman solution as the Born-Infeld parameter goes to innity ( ! 1). We nd that for a given , mass M and charge Q, there exist critical spinning parameter aE and rEH, which corresponds to an extremal Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole with degenerate horizons, and aE decreases and rEH increases with increase in the Born-Infeld parameter . While a shadow as an optical appearance due to its strong gravitational eld. We also investigate the shadow cast by the rotating Einstein- Born-Infeld black hole and demonstrate that the null geodesic equations can be integrated that allows us to investigate the shadow cast by a black hole which is found to be a dark zone covered by a circle. Interestingly, the shadows of Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole is slightly smaller than for the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole which are concentric circles, for different values of the Born-Infeld parameter , whose radius decreases with increase in the value of parameter . The shadows for the rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld solution are also included.

  3. Influence of black carbon addition on phenanthrene dissipation and microbial community structure in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradation processes and changes in microbial community structure were investigated in black carbon (BC) amended soils in a laboratory experiment using two soils (black soil and red soil). We applied different percentages of charcoal as BC (0%, 0.5% and 1% by weight) with 100 mg kg−1 of phenanthrene. Soil samples were collected at different incubation times (0, 7, 15, 30, 60, 120 d). The amendment with BC caused a marked decrease in the dissipation (ascribed to mainly degradation and/or sequestration) of phenanthrene residues from soil. Extracted phenanthrene in black soil with 1% BC were higher, oppositely in red soil, 0.5% BC amendments were higher. There were significant changes in the PLFA pattern in phenanthrene-spiked soils with time but BC had little effect on the microbial community structure of phenanthrene-spiked soils, as indicated by principal component analysis (PCA) of the PLFA signatures. - Highlights: ► Extracted phenanthrene increased substantially as the BC amount increased. ► Extracted phenanthrene in black soil with 1% BC were higher, oppositely in red soil. ► BC caused a marked decrease in the dissipation of phenanthrene from soil. ► PLFA pattern in phenanthrene-spiked soils with time had significant changes. - BC amendments on phenanthrene extraction were different for two soils and time was a more effective factor in microbial community changes.

  4. A batch-fabricated laser-micromachined PDMS actuator with stamped carbon grease electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note, we report on the development of a batch-fabricated laser-micromachined elastomeric cantilever actuator composed of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bilayer (active/inactive) and soft-lithographically patterned conductive carbon grease electrodes. The described unimorph structure has a low actuation voltage and large out-of-plane displacement. For a 4 mm long, 1 mm wide, and 80 µm thick actuator, an out-of-plane displacement of 1.2 mm and a maximum force of 25 µN were measured using 450 V actuation voltage. (technical note)

  5. The effect of compatibilization and rheological properties of polystyrene and poly(dimethylsiloxane) on phase structure of polystyrene/poly(dimethylsiloxane) blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chuai, C. Z.; Li, S; Almdal, Kristoffer;

    2004-01-01

    The compatibilization effect of polystyrene (PS)-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) diblock copolymer (PS-b-PDMS) and the effect of rheological properties of PS and PDMS on phase structure of PS/PDMS blends were investigated using a selective extraction technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM...

  6. Intrinsic Topological Structure of Entropy of Kerr Black Holes%Kerr黑洞熵的内禀拓扑结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜继江; 杨国宏; 田立君

    2005-01-01

    In the light of φ-mapping method and the relationship between entropy and the Euler characteristic, the intrinsic topological structure of entropy of Kerr black holes is studied. From the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem, it is shown that the entropy of Kerr black hole is determined by singularities of the Killing vector field of spacetime. These singularities naturally carry topological numbers, Hopf indices and Brouwer degrees, which can also be viewed as topological quantization of entropy of Kerr black holes. Specific results S =A/4 for non-extreme Kerr black holes and S = 0 for extreme ones are calculated independently by using the above-mentioned methods.

  7. Electronic structure and the properties of phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single atomic layer of black phosphorus, phosphorene, was experimentally realized in 2014. It has a puckered honeycomb lattice structure and a semiconducting electronic structure. In the first part of this paper, we use a simple LCAO model, and qualitatively discuss the electronic structure of phosphorene systems under electric and magnetic fields, especially noting their midgap edge states. The next part is devoted to the review of the progress in research on phosphorene over the past one year since its realization in 2014. Phosphorene has been a typical material to study the semiconductor physics in atomic layers. (author)

  8. Electronic Structure and the Properties of Phosphorene and Few-Layer Black Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Shuhei; Taen, Toshihiro; Osada, Toshihito

    2015-12-01

    A single atomic layer of black phosphorus, phosphorene, was experimentally realized in 2014. It has a puckered honeycomb lattice structure and a semiconducting electronic structure. In the first part of this paper, we use a simple LCAO model, and qualitatively discuss the electronic structure of phosphorene systems under electric and magnetic fields, especially noting their midgap edge states. The next part is devoted to the review of the progress in research on phosphorene over the past one year since its realization in 2014. Phosphorene has been a typical material to study the semiconductor physics in atomic layers.

  9. Preparation and structural studies of black glasses based on ladder-like silsesquioxanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitarz, M.; Jastrzębski, W.; Jeleń, P.; Długoń, E.; Gawęda, M.

    2014-11-01

    Black glasses are very interesting and promising materials from the point of their thermal and mechanical resistance. They can be used as protective layers on different kind of substrates, like steel, titanium, glasses. Controlling amount of carbon introduced to its structure is crucial for the properties of the material. Samples were prepared by sol-gel method using ladder-like silsesquioxanes as precursor and were heat-treated at 800 °C in inert atmosphere. Middle infrared, EDX and MAS NMR studies were carried out on heated samples to determine their structure. All methods confirmed presence of Si-C bonds in the resulting material. Theoretical MIR spectrum, of the constructed black glass model, allowed to make a precise assignment of bands in the experimental spectrum.

  10. Development of PDMS-based Microfluidic Device for Cell-based Assays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chenuk-Wing; YANG Jun; TZANG Chi-Hung; YANG Meng-Su

    2004-01-01

    In a single step photolithography, muhi-level microfluidic device is fabricated by printing novel architectures on a film photomasks. The whole fabrication process is executed by classical PCB technology without the need to access clean room facilities. Different levels of protruding features on PCB master are produced by exposing a photomask with specifically arranged "windows and rims" architectures, followed by chemical wet etching. Poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) is then molded against the positive relief master to generate microfluidic device featured with multi-level sandbag structure and peripheral microchannels. This sandbag structure is an analog to traditional dam or weir for particle entrapment. The microstructure does not collapse when subjected to applied pressure, which is suitable for operation on elastic PDMS substrate.Typical immunocytochemcial staining assays were performed in the microdevice to demonstrate the applicability of the sandbag structure for cellular analysis. This simplified microfabrication process employs low-cost materials and minimal specialized equipment and can reproducibly produce mask lines with about 20 μm in width, which is sufficient for most microfluidic applications.

  11. Crack-free and reliable lithographical patterning methods on PDMS substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cracks commonly appear in metal patterns when fabricated on native poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrate using general micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication processes such as lift-off and metal etching. This paper introduces simple, reliable and reproducible fabrication methods to realize crack-free metal patterns on PDMS using intermediate-parylene-deposited PDMS substrate and parylene-filled PDMS substrate. The fabrication parameters of crack-free metal patterning were optimized resulting in reliable and reproducible fabrication outputs. The adhesion of metals on these surface-modified PDMS substrates was evaluated by ASTM tape tests in wet and dry conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the element composition on the surface of parylene-filled PDMS. The surfaces of native PDMS, parylene-deposited PDMS and parylene-filled PDMS were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XPS for analysis of crack generation during the metal patterning processes. The mechanical properties, such as stress and strain, of native and surface-modified PDMS substrates were measured by standard tension tests. Based on these results, it was concluded that the proposed methods successfully generated reliable crack-free metal patterns based on PDMS substrate using general MEMS technologies, which can be used for various applications such as biomedical devices and flexible electronics. (paper)

  12. Are the program packages for molecular structure calculations really black boxes?

    OpenAIRE

    ANA MRAKOVIC; MILICA DRVENDZIJA; ALEKSANDRA SAMOLOV; MILENA PETKOVIC; MILJENKO PERIC

    2007-01-01

    In this communication it is shown that the widely held opinion that compact program packages for quantum–mechanical calculations of molecular structure can safely be used as black boxes is completely wrong. In order to illustrate this, the results of computations of equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies and dissociation energies for all homonuclear diatomic molecules involving the atoms from the first two rows of the Periodic Table, performed using the Gaussian program package are...

  13. Genetic structure of black rat populations in a rural plague focus in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Gilabert, Aude; Loiseau, A; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Rahelinirina, S.; Rahalison, L.; Chanteau, S.; Brouat, Carine

    2007-01-01

    The genetic structure of reservoir populations is a key characteristic in understanding the persistence of infectious diseases in natural systems. In the Highlands of Madagascar, where plague has persisted since 1920, the black rat, Rattus rattus (L., 1758), is the sole species acting as a reservoir of the disease. Ecological surveys have shown a clear correlation between the locations of the plague-persistence area in Madagascar (above 800 m elevation) and the distribution area of one endemi...

  14. Design and fabrication of microfluidic mixer from carbonyl iron–PDMS composite membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jiaxing

    2010-10-12

    This paper introduces a carbonyl iron-PDMS (CI-PDMS) composite magnetic elastomer in which carbonyl iron (CI) particles are uniformly distributed in a PDMS matrix. The CI particles and the PDMS were mixed at different weight ratios and tested to determine the influence of CI concentration. The magnetic and mechanical properties of the magnetic elastomers were characterized, respectively, by vibrating-sample magnetometer and by tensile testing using a mechanical analyzer. The elastomer was found to exhibit high magnetization and good mechanical flexibility. The morphology and deformation of the CI-PDMS membrane also were observed. A magnetically actuated microfluidic mixer (that is, a micromixer) integrated with CI-PDMS elastomer membranes was successfully designed and fabricated. The high efficiency and quality of the mixing makes possible the impressive potential applications of this unique CI-PDMS material in microfluidic systems. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

  15. Nanostructured PDMS surfaces with patterned wettability

    OpenAIRE

    Hobæk, Thor Christian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a surface with patterned wettability by means of surface structuring, rather than through modifying the surface chemistry, was developed. The device presented in this thesis was inspired by the Namib Desert Bettle, which collects water from the fog by having hydrophilic spots surrounded by hydrophobic wax-coated regions on its back. Besides water collection, controlling the wetting behaviour locally on the surface may find applications within droplet-based microfluidics, or fab...

  16. Femtosecond laser embedded grating micromachining of flexible PDMS plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Ryul; Hong, Jong Wook

    2009-04-01

    We report on the femtosecond laser micromachining of photo-induced embedded diffraction grating in flexible Poly (Dimethly Siloxane) (PDMS) plates using a high-intensity femtosecond (130 fs) Ti: sapphire laser ( λp = 800 nm). The refractive index modifications with diameters ranging from 2 μm to 5 μm were photo-induced after the irradiation with peak intensities of more than 1 × 10 11 W/cm 2. The graded refractive index profile was fabricated to be a symmetric around from the center of the point at which femtosecond laser was focused. The maximum refractive index change (Δ n) was estimated to be 2 × 10 -3. By the X- Y- Z scanning of sample, the embedded diffraction grating in PDMS plate was fabricated successfully using a femtosecond laser.

  17. PDMS-coated fiber volatile organic compounds sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiangping; Yang, Jingyi; Zhao, Chun Liu; Chan, Chi Chiu

    2016-05-01

    The functionality of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based interferometric fiber sensors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection is investigated and experimentally demonstrated. Two interferometric configurations are considered in this work, namely Fabry-Perot (FP) and Sagnac interferometers (SI). Both sensors are functionalized with a thin layer of VOC-sensitive polymer: PDMS, whose degree of swelling varies as a function of VOC concentrations. This swelling effect will result in an optical path length and birefringence modulation for FP and SI sensors, respectively. In this paper, the two common VOCs, ethanol and 2-propanol, were detected by the proposed sensor and the inverse matrix method was used to differentiate the VOC in gas mixture. PMID:27140369

  18. Growth control of sessile microbubbles in PDMS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Andreas; Kähler, Christian J; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Marin, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    In a microfluidic environment, the presence of bubbles is often detrimental to the functionality of the device, leading to clogging or cavitation, but microbubbles can also be an indispensable asset in other applications such as microstreaming. In either case, it is crucial to understand and control the growth or shrinkage of these bodies of air, in particular in common soft-lithography devices based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is highly permeable to gases. In this work, we study the gas transport into and out of a bubble positioned in a microfluidic device, taking into account the direct gas exchange through PDMS as well as the transport of gas through the liquid in the device. Hydrostatic pressure regulation allows for the quantitative control of growth, shrinkage, or the attainment of a stable equilibrium bubble size. We find that the vapor pressure of the liquid plays an important role for the balance of gas transport, accounting for variability in experimental conditions and suggesting addition...

  19. Mesomorphic phase behaviour of low molar mass PEP-PDMS diblock copolymers synthesized by anionic polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigild, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    The phase behaviour of low molar mass poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) -poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PEP-PDMS) is investigated in this thesis by the combination of dynamical mechanical spectroscopy (rheology) to measure phase transition temperatures, and small-angle x-ray scattering to identify the morphology of encountered phases. Samples of PEP-PDMS in the range of 0.2-0.7 in volume fraction of PEP are studied. This diblock copolymer system exhibits the three classical phases of lamellar sandwich structure (LAM), hexagonally packed cylinders (HEX), and spheres arranged on a body centered cubic lattice (BCC). Furthermore the gyroid phase (Ia3d symmetry) of two interpenetrating networks was also identified as a stable phase of the PEP-PDMS system. Time resolved measurements of small-angle neutron scattering in tandem with simultaneous in-situ rheological measurements are performed on samples showing transitions between different ordered phases. The identification of especially the BCC and gyroid phases from scattering experiments is treated. By performing mesoscopic crystallographic measurements using a custom built goniometer it was unambiguously shown that the application of shear to an unoriented powder-like sample introduces uniaxial orientation of the gyroid phase. The orientation of the ordered phase is otherwise random, causing a two-dimensional powder. Finally this dissertation presents a discussion of relevant parameters for the description of diblock copolymer phase behaviour together with descriptions of anionic polymerization for the synthesis of copolymers, and various experimental techniques for the characterization of diblocks. (au). 9 tabs., 40 ills., 81 refs.

  20. Metal trace analysis by PIXE and PDMS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk for the human health due to exposure to aerosols depends on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used as complementary technique to the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to characterize aerosol samples collected in the environment. The PIXE technique allows the identification of the elements present in the sample and to determine their mass concentrations. The mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used to identify the speciation of these elements present in the samples. The aerosol samples were collected using a 6-stage cascade impactor (CI) in two sites of Rio de Janeiro City. One is an island (Fundao Island) in the Guanabara Bay close to an industrial zone and the other, in Gavea, is a residential zone close to a lagoon and to the seashore. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) measured indicated that the airborne particulates were in the fine fraction of the aerosols collected in both locations. In order to identify the contribution of the seawater particles from the Guanabara Bay in the aerosols, seawater samples were also collected at Fundao Island. The samples were analyzed by PIXE and PDMS techniques. The analysis of the results suggests that the aerosols are different in both sampling sites and also exist a contribution from the Guanabara Bay seawater particles to the aerosols collected in the Fundao Island. PIXE allows identification and quantification of the elements heavier than Na (Z=11) while PDMS allows identification of organic and inorganic compounds present in the samples, as these techniques are used as complementary techniques they provide important information about the aerosols characterization

  1. Embedded silver PDMS electrodes for single cell electrical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan; Xu, Zhensong; Cachia, Mark A.; Nguyen, John; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device with wide channels and embedded AgPDMS electrodes for measuring the electrical properties of single cells. The work demonstrates the feasibility of using a large channel design and embedded electrodes for impedance spectroscopy to circumvent issues such as channel clogging and limited device re-usability. AgPDMS electrodes were formed on channel sidewalls for impedance detection and cell electrical properties measurement. Equivalent circuit models were used to interpret multi-frequency impedance data to quantify each cell’s cytoplasm conductivity and specific membrane capacitance. T24 cells were tested to validate the microfluidic system and modeling results. Comparisons were then made by measuring two leukemia cell lines (AML-2 and HL-60) which were found to have different cytoplasm conductivity values (0.29  ±  0.15 S m‑1 versus 0.47  ±  0.20 S m‑1) and specific membrane capacitance values (41  ±  25 mF m‑2 versus 55  ±  26 mF m‑2) when the cells were flown through the wide channel and measured by the AgPDMS electrodes.

  2. Population Abundance and Genetic Structure of Black Bears in Coastal North Carolina and Virginia Using Noninvasive Genetic Techniques.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Master thesis on the population abundance and genetic structure of black bears in coastal North Carolina and Virginia using noninvasive genetic technigues on...

  3. PZT-5A4/PA and PZT-5A4/PDMS piezoelectric composite bimorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disc type reinforced piezoelectric composite bimorphs with series connection were designed and the performance was investigated. The composite bimorphs (PZT/PA and PZT/PDMS (40/60 vol%)) were successfully fabricated by a compression molding and solution casting technique. The charge developed at an applied force of 150 N is 18150 pC (PZT/PA) and 2310 pC (PZT/PDMS), respectively. Electric force microscopy (EFM) is used to study the structural characterization and piezoelectric properties of the materials realized. A clear inverse piezoelectric effect was observed when the bimorphs were subjected to an electric field stepped up through 2, 6 and 10 V, indicating the net polarization direction of the different ferroelectric domains. The as-developed bimorphs have the basic structure of a sensor and actuator, and, since they do not use any bonding agent for bonding, they can provide a valuable alternative to the present bimorphs where bonding processes are required for their realization that can limit their application at high temperature. (paper)

  4. Sub-100 nm gold nanohole-enhanced Raman scattering on flexible PDMS sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Ongko, Andry; Kim, Ho Young; Yim, Sang-Gu; Jeon, Geumhye; Jeong, Hee Jin; Lee, Seungwoo; Kwak, Minseok; Yang, Seung Yun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a highly sensitive vibrational spectroscopy technique enabling detection of multiple analytes at the molecular level in a nondestructive and rapid manner. In this work, we introduce a new approach to fabricate deep subwavelength-scaled (sub-100 nm) metallic nanohole arrays (quasi-3D metallic nanoholes) on flexible and highly efficient SERS substrates. Target structures have been fabricated using a two-step process consisting of (i) direct pattern transfer of spin-coated polymer films onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates by plasma etching with transferred anodic aluminum oxide masks, and (ii) producing SERS-active substrates by functionalization of the etched polymeric films followed by Au deposition. Such an all-dry, top-down lithographic approach enables on-demand patterning of SERS-active metallic nanoholes with high structural fidelity even onto flexible and stretchable substrates, thus making possible multiple sensing modes in a versatile fashion. For example, metallic nanoholes on flexible PDMS substrates are highly amenable to their integration with curved glass sticks, which can be used in optical fiber-integrated SERS systems. Au surfaces immobilized by probe DNA molecules show a selective enhancement of Raman scattering with Cy5-labeled complementary DNA (as compared to flat Au surfaces), demonstrating the potential of using the quasi-3D Au nanohole arrays for bio-sensing applications.

  5. Sub-100 nm gold nanohole-enhanced Raman scattering on flexible PDMS sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Ongko, Andry; Kim, Ho Young; Yim, Sang-Gu; Jeon, Geumhye; Jeong, Hee Jin; Lee, Seungwoo; Kwak, Minseok; Yang, Seung Yun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a highly sensitive vibrational spectroscopy technique enabling detection of multiple analytes at the molecular level in a nondestructive and rapid manner. In this work, we introduce a new approach to fabricate deep subwavelength-scaled (sub-100 nm) metallic nanohole arrays (quasi-3D metallic nanoholes) on flexible and highly efficient SERS substrates. Target structures have been fabricated using a two-step process consisting of (i) direct pattern transfer of spin-coated polymer films onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates by plasma etching with transferred anodic aluminum oxide masks, and (ii) producing SERS-active substrates by functionalization of the etched polymeric films followed by Au deposition. Such an all-dry, top-down lithographic approach enables on-demand patterning of SERS-active metallic nanoholes with high structural fidelity even onto flexible and stretchable substrates, thus making possible multiple sensing modes in a versatile fashion. For example, metallic nanoholes on flexible PDMS substrates are highly amenable to their integration with curved glass sticks, which can be used in optical fiber-integrated SERS systems. Au surfaces immobilized by probe DNA molecules show a selective enhancement of Raman scattering with Cy5-labeled complementary DNA (as compared to flat Au surfaces), demonstrating the potential of using the quasi-3D Au nanohole arrays for bio-sensing applications. PMID:27334794

  6. Geodesic Structure of the Noncommutative Schwarzschild Anti-de Sitter Black Hole I: Timelike Geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Larranaga, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    By considering particles as smeared objects, we investigate the effects of space noncommutativity on the geodesic structure in Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime. By means of a detailed analysis of the corresponding effective potentials for particles, we find the possible motions which are allowed by the energy levels. Radial and non-radial trajectories are treated and the effects of space noncommutativity on the value of the precession of the perihelion are estimated. We show that the geodesic structure of this black hole presents new types of motion not allowed by the Schwarzschild spacetime.

  7. Brans-Dicke Theory with Λ>0: Black Holes and Large Scale Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F; Romano, Antonio Enea; Tomaras, Theodore N

    2015-10-30

    A step-by-step approach is followed to study cosmic structures in the context of Brans-Dicke theory with positive cosmological constant Λ and parameter ω. First, it is shown that regular stationary black-hole solutions not only have constant Brans-Dicke field ϕ, but can exist only for ω=∞, which forces the theory to coincide with the general relativity. Generalizations of the theory in order to evade this black-hole no-hair theorem are presented. It is also shown that in the absence of a stationary cosmological event horizon in the asymptotic region, a stationary black-hole horizon can support a nontrivial Brans-Dicke hair. Even more importantly, it is shown next that the presence of a stationary cosmological event horizon rules out any regular stationary solution, appropriate for the description of a star. Thus, to describe a star one has to assume that there is no such stationary horizon in the faraway asymptotic region. Under this implicit assumption generic spherical cosmic structures are studied perturbatively and it is shown that only for ω>0 or ω≲-5 their predicted maximum sizes are consistent with observations. We also point out how, many of the conclusions of this work differ qualitatively from the Λ=0 spacetimes. PMID:26565454

  8. Temperature and thermodynamic structure of Einstein's equations for a cosmological black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Krishnakanta; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    It is expected that the cosmological black holes are the closest realistic solutions of gravitational theories and they evolve with time. Moreover, the natural way of defining thermodynamic entities for the stationary ones is not applicable in the case of a time dependent spacetime. Here we confine our discussion within the Sultana-Dyer metric, which is a cosmological black hole solution of Einstein's gravity. In the literature, there exist two expressions of horizon temperature—one is time dependent and the other does not depend on time. To single out the correct one we find the temperature by studying the Hawking effect in the tunneling formalism. This leads to time dependent structure. After identifying the correct one, Einstein's equations are written on the horizon and we show that this leads to the first law of thermodynamics. In this process the expressions for horizon entropy and energy, obtained earlier by explicit calculations, are being used. This provides the evidence that Einstein's equations have thermodynamic structure even for a cosmological black hole spacetime. Moreover, this study further clarifies the correctness of the expressions for the thermodynamic quantities, like temperature, entropy, and internal energy.

  9. Numerical Parameter Survey of Nonradiative Black Hole Accretion -- Flow Structure and Variability of the Rotation Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Bijia; Matzner, Christopher D; Green, Stephen R; Liebendörfer, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    We conduct a survey of numerical simulations to probe the structure and appearance of non-radiative black hole accretion flows like the supermassive black hole at the Galactic centre. We find a generic set of solutions, and make specific predictions for currently feasible rotation measure (RM) observations, which are accessible to current instruments including the EVLA, GMRT and ALMA. The slow time variability of the RM is a key quantitative signature of this accretion flow. The time variability of RM can be used to quantitatively measure the nature of the accretion flow, and to differentiate models. Sensitive measurements of RM can be achieved using RM synthesis or using pulsars. Our energy conserving ideal magneto-hydrodynamical simulations, which achieve high dynamical range by means of a deformed-mesh algorithm, stretch from several Bondi radii to about one thousandth of that radius, and continue for tens of Bondi times. Magnetized flows which lack outward convection possess density slopes around -1, almo...

  10. Study of the glow curve structure of the minerals separated from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, S.; Ruiz Gurrola, B.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Tufiño, A.; Furetta, C.; Favalli, A.; Brown, F.

    2011-04-01

    The inorganic mineral fraction extracted from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) has been analysed using a thermoluminescence (TL) method, investigating the glow curve structure, including an evaluation of the kinetic parameters. Different grain sizes, i.e. 10, 74, and 149 μm, were selected from commercial black pepper. The X-ray diffraction of the inorganic fraction shows that quartz is the main mineral present in it. The samples were exposed to 1-25 kGy doses by gamma rays of 60Co in order to analyse the thermally stimulated luminescence response as a function of the delivered dose. The glow curves show a complex structure for different grain sizes of the pepper mineral samples. The fading of the TL signal at room temperature was obtained after irradiation, and it was observed that the maximum peaks of the glow curves shift towards higher values of the temperature when the elapsed time from irradiation increases. It seems that the fading characteristic may be related to a continuous trap distribution responsible for the complex structure of the glow curve. Similar glow curves structure behaviour was found under ultraviolet irradiation of the samples. The activation energy and the frequency factor were determined from the glow curves of different grain sizes using a deconvolution programme because of the evident complexity of the structure.

  11. A PDMS-Based 2-Axis Waterproof Scanner for Photoacoustic Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM is an imaging tool to provide in vivo optically sensitive images in biomedical research. To achieve a small size, fast imaging speed, wide scan range, and high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs in a water environment, we introduce a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-based 2-axis scanner for a flexible and waterproof structure. The design, theoretical background, fabrication process and performance of the scanner are explained in details. The designed and fabricated scanner has dimensions of 15 × 15 × 15 mm along the X, Y and Z axes, respectively. The characteristics of the scanner are tested under DC and AC conditions. By pairing with electromagnetic forces, the maximum scanning angles in air and water are 18° and 13° along the X and Y axes, respectively. The measured resonance frequencies in air and water are 60 and 45 Hz along the X axis and 45 and 30 Hz along the Y axis, respectively. Finally, OR-PAM with high SNRs is demonstrated using the fabricated scanner, and the PA images of micro-patterned samples and microvasculatures of a mouse ear are successfully obtained with high-resolution and wide-field of view. OR-PAM equipped with the 2-axis PDMS based waterproof scanner has lateral and axial resolutions of 3.6 μm and 26 μm, respectively. This compact OR-PAM system could potentially and widely be used in preclinical and clinical applications.

  12. Design and fabrication of PMMA-micromachined fluid lens based on electromagnetic actuation on PMMA–PDMS bonded membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fabrication of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-micromachined fluid lens with an optimally designed built-in electromagnetic actuator was demonstrated in this study. Through a finite element method, the number of winding turns and the distance between magnetic moments were estimated to design an effective and miniaturized electromagnetic actuator. The lens body composed of PMMA structures was simply and rapidly micromachined using computer numerical control micro-milling. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membranes for electromagnetic actuation were bonded to the PMMA structures by using the proposed PMMA–PDMS bonding technique, which uses an SiO2 intermediate layer. A physical repulsive force produced by the electromagnetic actuator applies a controllable fluidic pressure to a fluidic chamber that is sealed with the PDMS membrane, thus allowing dynamic focusing. The focus tunability of the fabricated lens was 67 diopters with a focus hysteresis of less than 1 mm and a response time of 2 ms. The solenoid of the built-in actuator showed negligible thermal crosstalk to the lens. (paper)

  13. Bacterial community structure and diversity in a black soil as affected by long-term fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Dan; YANG Qian; ZHANG Jun-Zheng; WANG Shuang; CHEN Xue-Li; ZHANG Xi-Lin; LI Wei-Qun

    2008-01-01

    Black soil (Mollisol) is one of the main soil types in northeastern China.Biolog and polymerase chain reactiondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) methods were used to examine the influence of various fertilizer combinations on the structure and function of the bacterial community in a black soil collected from Harbin,Heilongjiang Province.Biolog results showed that substrate richness and catabolic diversity of the soil bacterial community were the greatest in the chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer+manure treatments.The metabolic ability of the bacterial community in the manure treatment was similar to the control.DGGE fingerprinting indicated similarity in the distribution of most 16S rDNA bands among all treatments,suggesting that microorganisms with those bands were stable and not influenced by fertilization.However,chemical fertilizer increased the diversity of soil bacterial community.Principal component analysis of Biolog and DGGE data revealed that the structure and function of the bacterial community were similar in the control and manure treatments,suggesting that the application of manure increased the soil microbial population,but had no effect on the bacterial community structure.Catabolic function was similar in the chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer+manure treatments,but the composition structure of the soil microbes differed between them.The use of chemical fertilizers could result in a decline in the catabolic activity of fast-growing or eutrophic bacteria.

  14. Laccase-catalyzed decolorization of the synthetic azo-dye diamond black PV 200 and of some structurally related derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kandelbauer; Erlacher, Angelika; Paulo, Artur Cavaco

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of laccase-catalyzed transformation of the azo-dye Diamond Black PV 200 (CI Mordant Black 9) and various related synthesized derivatives were analyzed for dependence on pH and substrate structure. The reaction mixture of Diamond Black PV 200 was analyzed by HPLC/MS_/MS and it was shown that upon laccase oxidation, reactive chinoid fragments of lower molecular weight were formed. These may further oligomerize as indicated by the appearance of a number of compounds with incre...

  15. A magnetically driven PDMS micropump with ball check-valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tingrui; McDonald, Scott J.; Kai, Eleanor M.; Ziaie, Babak

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we present a low-cost, PDMS-membrane micropump with two one-way ball check-valves for lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic applications. The micropump consists of two functional PDMS layers, one holding the ball check-valves and an actuating chamber, and the other covering the chamber and holding a miniature permanent magnet on top for actuation. An additional PDMS layer is used to cover the top magnet, and thereby encapsulate the entire device. A simple approach was used to assemble a high-performance ball check-valve using a micropipette and heat shrink tubing. The micropump can be driven by an external magnetic force provided by another permanent magnet or an integrated coil. In the first driving scheme, a small dc motor (6 mm in diameter and 15 mm in length) with a neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnet embedded in its shaft was used to actuate the membrane-mounted magnet. This driving method yielded a large pumping rate with very low power consumption. A maximum pumping rate of 774 µL min-1 for deionized water was achieved at the input power of 13 mW, the highest pumping rate reported in the literature for micropumps at such power consumptions. Alternatively, we actuated the micropump with a 10-turn planar coil fabricated on a PC board. This method resulted in a higher pumping rate of 1 mL min-1 for deionized water. Although more integratable and compact, the planar microcoil driving technique has a much higher power consumption.

  16. Local wettability tuning with laser ablation redeposits on PDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelt, Stijn van, E-mail: s.v.pelt@tue.nl; Frijns, Arjan; Mandamparambil, Rajesh; Toonder, Jaap den

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present a method to locally control the wettability behavior of PDMS surfaces by excimer laser ablation. In the ablation process, a micrometer scale roughness is formed in the irradiated regions while a nanometer scale roughness is formed by the redeposits surrounding the irradiated regions. The increase in surface roughness results in a change of the wettability behavior of the PDMS surface. By using a hexagonal pattern and tuning the patterning pitch, two different wetting behaviors were realized. A pitch smaller than 300 μm resulted in a superhydrophobic surface with an advancing contact angle of θ{sub adv} = 165° and a receding contact angle of θ{sub rec} = 160°. A pitch between 300 and 500 μm resulted in a sticky superhydrophobic surface with θ{sub adv} = 120–150° and θ{sub rec} = 80°. The contact angle hysteresis for the latter was larger than for untreated PDMS resulting in very sticky surfaces with high sliding angles. This gives the method great versatility since the two wetting behaviors are very different. By combining both behaviors, local surface features like pinning sites, non-wetting sites, barriers and guides can all be fabricated by a single method. As an application demonstrator of the method, we show that drops can be caught and released depending on size and tilting angle by creating slippery surfaces with sticky barriers. Additionally, the method is ideal for rapid prototyping as it consist of only a single step. It is a direct write method requiring no lithographic mask. Also the process works in ambient atmosphere, so it can be used for temperature or pressure sensitive applications.

  17. Prediction of Partition Coefficients of Organic Compounds between SPME/PDMS and Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Lu, Yu-Ting; Yang, Hsiu-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is commonly used as the coated polymer in the solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique. In this study, the partition coefficients of organic compounds between SPME/PDMS and the aqueous solution were compiled from the literature sources. The correlation analysis for partition coefficients was conducted to interpret the effect of their physicochemical properties and descriptors on the partitioning process. The PDMS-water partition coefficients were significantly ...

  18. Effect of mold treatment by solvent on PDMS molding into nanoholes

    OpenAIRE

    Con, Celal; Cui, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most popular and versatile material for soft lithography due to its flexibility and easy fabrication by molding process. However, for nanoscale patterns, it is challenging to fill uncured PDMS into the holes or trenches on the master mold that is coated with a silane anti-adhesion layer needed for clean demolding. PDMS filling was previously found to be facilitated by diluting it with toluene or hexane, which was attributed to the great reduction of viscosit...

  19. Are the program packages for molecular structure calculations really black boxes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MRAKOVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this communication it is shown that the widely held opinion that compact program packages for quantum–mechanical calculations of molecular structure can safely be used as black boxes is completely wrong. In order to illustrate this, the results of computations of equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies and dissociation energies for all homonuclear diatomic molecules involving the atoms from the first two rows of the Periodic Table, performed using the Gaussian program package are presented. It is demonstrated that the sensible use of the program requires a solid knowledge of quantum chemistry.

  20. Structural differences between industrial carbon blacks indicated by uncorrected x-ray diffraction patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvartsman, A.S.; Rutman, A.M.; Ermolaev, V.A.; Fialkov, A.S.

    1986-08-20

    The authors have compared the ordering in specimens of commercial carbon blacks on various parameters; the values are repeated to the proportions of the atoms scattering coherently in a given direction, the sizes of the CSR, and the homogeneity int he components as regards size, defectiveness, and ordering. One does not use integral intensities in these ratios (one measures the peak heights, not the areas), so defects, which merely broaden the lines without altering the intensity distribution between lines and background, are also incorporated with these parameters. The authors found that the size parameters (interlayer distance d/sub 002/ and dimensions of the CSR L/sub ..cap alpha../ and L/sub c/) are insufficient to reveal structural differences between commercial blacks. One can compare the structures on additional diffraction characteristics that evaluate the redistribution of the scattered intensity between the lines and the diffuse background. There is a correlation between the order estimated in this way and the elemental composition, and in particular the ratio between the oxygen and hydrogen concentrations. The various production conditions lead to differing distributions of the noncarbon atoms, which are related to differences in crystallochemical role. The noncarbon redistribution on modification alters the properties considerably. The structure change on modification may be due to the reagent interacting with the defects (including noncarbon atoms). One of the possible mechanisms is intercalation.

  1. Holographic entanglement entropy and the extended phase structure of STU black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Caceres, Elena; Pedraza, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    We study the extended thermodynamics, obtained by considering the cosmological constant as a thermodynamic variable, of STU black holes in 4-dimensions in the fixed charge ensemble. The associated phase structure is conjectured to be dual to an RG-flow on the space of field theories. We find that for some charge configurations the phase structure resembles that of a Van der Waals gas: the system exhibits a family of first order phase transitions ending in a second order phase transition at a critical temperature. We calculate the holographic entanglement entropy for several charge configurations and show that for the cases where the gravity background exhibits Van der Waals behavior, the entanglement entropy presents a transition at the same critical temperature. To further characterize the phase transition we calculate appropiate critical exponents show that they coincide. Thus, the holographic entanglement entropy successfully captures the information of the extended phase structure. Finally, we discuss the...

  2. Design of embedded acoustic lenses in plate-like structures based on periodic acoustic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongfei; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    We use a recently developed class of metamaterials based on geometric inhomogeneities to design acoustic lenses embedded in thin-walled structural element. The geometric inhomogeneity is based on the concept of Acoustic Black Hole (ABH) that is an exponential taper fully integrated in the supporting structure. The ABH is an element able to bend and, eventually, trap acoustic waves by creating areas with carefully engineered phase velocity gradients. Periodic lattices of ABHs are first studied in terms of their dispersion characteristics and then embedded in thin-plate structures to create lenses for ultrasonic focusing and collimation. Numerical simulations show the ability of the ABH lens to create focusing and collimation effects in an extended operating range that goes from the metamaterial to the phononic regime.

  3. Paraffin-PDMS composite thermo microactuator with large vertical displacement capability

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, P.; Vela, E; Koster, S.; Briand, D.; Shea, H. R.; De Rooij, N. F.

    2006-01-01

    We have micromachined and tested the first paraffin–PDMS composite thermal microactuator having multi shot large vertical displacement capabilities ( 160 um for 1 mm diameter device). A solid to liquid phase change of trapped paraffin into the PDMS is used to create a large volume dilatation of the composite (18%, for a temperature varied from 20 to 80 °C). The elasticity of the PDMS ensures the reversibility of the actuation. The paraffin-PDMS composite also facilitates fabrication and confi...

  4. Rapid selective metal patterning on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabricated by capillarity-assisted laser direct write

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we demonstrate a novel approach for the rapid fabricating micro scale metal (silver) patterning directly on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. Silver nanoparticles were sintered on PDMS to form conductive metal films using laser direct write (LDW) technology. To achieve good metal film quality, a capillarity-assisted laser direct writing (CALDW) of nanoparticle suspensions on a low surface energy material (PDMS) was utilized. Experimental results showed controllable electrical conductivities and good film properties of the sintered silver patterns. This study reveals an advanced method of metal patterning on PDMS, and proposes a new research application of LDW in a nanoparticle colloidal environment

  5. Rapid selective metal patterning on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabricated by capillarity-assisted laser direct write

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2011-08-12

    In this study we demonstrate a novel approach for the rapid fabricating micro scale metal (silver) patterning directly on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. Silver nanoparticles were sintered on PDMS to form conductive metal films using laser direct write (LDW) technology. To achieve good metal film quality, a capillarity-assisted laser direct writing (CALDW) of nanoparticle suspensions on a low surface energy material (PDMS) was utilized. Experimental results showed controllable electrical conductivities and good film properties of the sintered silver patterns. This study reveals an advanced method of metal patterning on PDMS, and proposes a new research application of LDW in a nanoparticle colloidal environment. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. The structure of carbon black-elastomer composites by small-angle neutron scattering and the method of contrast variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been exploring the use of small-angle neutron scattering and the method of contrast variation to give a new look at a very old problem: reinforcement of elastomers by carbon black in durable rubber products. Carbon black has a hierarchy of structures consisting of particles covalently bound into aggregates, which in turn associate by weak interactions into agglomerates. We found that in one carbon black, HSA, the aggregates are rodlike, containing an average of 4-6 particles. The aggregates have an outer graphitic shell and an inner core of lower density carbon. The core is continuous throughout the carbon black aggregate. Contrast variation of swollen HSA-polyisoprene gels shows that the HSA is completely embedded in polyisoprene and that the agglomerates are formed predominantly by end on associations of the rodlike aggregates. The surface structure of the carbon black appears smooth over length scales above about 10 angstrom. Further studies using production carbon blacks suggest that these structural characteristics are generally present in commercial rubber composites

  7. Growth control of sessile microbubbles in PDMS devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Andreas; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kähler, Christian J; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Marin, Alvaro

    2015-12-21

    In a microfluidic environment, the presence of bubbles is often detrimental to the functionality of the device, leading to clogging or cavitation, but microbubbles can also be an indispensable asset in other applications such as microstreaming. In either case, it is crucial to understand and control the growth or shrinkage of these bodies of air, in particular in common soft-lithography devices based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is highly permeable to gases. In this work, we study the gas transport into and out of a bubble positioned in a microfluidic device, taking into account the direct gas exchange through PDMS as well as the transport of gas through the liquid in the device. Hydrostatic pressure regulation allows for the quantitative control of growth, shrinkage, or the attainment of a stable equilibrium bubble size. We find that the vapor pressure of the liquid plays an important role for the balance of gas transport, accounting for variability in experimental conditions and suggesting additional means of bubble size control in applications. PMID:26517506

  8. Modeling angle-resolved photoemission of graphene and black phosphorus nano structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Han; Kwon, Soonnam

    2016-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data on electronic structure are difficult to interpret, because various factors such as atomic structure and experimental setup influence the quantum mechanical effects during the measurement. Therefore, we simulated ARPES of nano-sized molecules to corroborate the interpretation of experimental results. Applying the independent atomic-center approximation, we used density functional theory calculations and custom-made simulation code to compute photoelectron intensity in given experimental setups for every atomic orbital in poly-aromatic hydrocarbons of various size, and in a molecule of black phosphorus. The simulation results were validated by comparing them to experimental ARPES for highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite. This database provides the calculation method and every file used during the work flow. PMID:27164313

  9. Semi-contact-writing of polymer molds for prototyping PDMS chips with low surface roughness, sharp edges and locally varying channel heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzweiler, Ludwig; Stumpf, Fabian; Tanguy, Laurent; Roth, Guenter; Koltay, Peter; Zengerle, Roland; Riegger, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Microfluidic systems fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) enable a broad variety of applications and are widespread in the field of Lab-on-a-Chip. Here we demonstrate semi-contact-writing, a novel method for fabrication of polymer based molds for casting microfluidic PDMS chips in a highly flexible, time and cost-efficient manner. The method is related to direct-writing of an aqueous polymer solution on a planar glass substrate and substitutes conventional, time- and cost-consuming UV-lithography. This technique facilitates on-demand prototyping in a low-cost manner and is therefore ideally suited for rapid chip layout iterations. No cleanroom facilities and less expertise are required. Fabrication time from scratch to ready-to-use PDMS-chip is less than 5 h. This polymer writing method enables structure widths down to 140 μm and controllable structure heights ranging from 5.5 μm for writing single layers up to 98 μm by stacking. As a unique property, freely selectable height variations across a substrate can be achieved by application of local stacking. Furthermore, the molds exhibit low surface roughness (R a   =  24 nm, R RMS  =  28 nm) and high fidelity edge sharpness. We validated the method by fabrication of molds to cast PDMS chips for droplet based flow-through PCR with single-cell sensitivity.

  10. Analysis of internal structure changes in black human hair keratin fibers resulting from bleaching treatments using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate in detail the internal structure changes in virgin black human hair keratin fibers resulting from bleaching treatments, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of black human hair, which had been impossible due to high melanin grande content, was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) content of the sbnd SSsbnd groups existing from the cuticle region to the center of cortex region of the virgin black human hair remarkably decreased, while the gauche-gauche-trans and trans-gauche-trans contents were not changed by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. In particular, it was found that not only the β-sheet and/or random coil content, but also the α-helix content existing throughout the cortex region of virgin black human hair decreased. In addition, the transmission electron microscope observation shows that the proteins in the cell membrane complex, the cuticle and cortex of the virgin black human hair were remarkably eluted by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. From these experiments, the author concluded that the sbnd SSsbnd groups, which have a GGG conformation were decomposed and finally converted to cysteic acid, and the α-helix structure of some of the proteins existing in the keratin was changed to the random coil structure, or eluted from the cortex region, thereby leading to the reduction in the protein density of the virgin human hair after the excessive bleaching treatment.

  11. Speckle lithography for fabricating Gaussian, quasi-random 2D structures and black silicon structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jayachandra Bingi; Vadakke Matham Murukeshan

    2015-01-01

    Laser speckle pattern is a granular structure formed due to random coherent wavelet interference and generally considered as noise in optical systems including photolithography. Contrary to this, in this paper, we use the speckle pattern to generate predictable and controlled Gaussian random structures and quasi-random structures photo-lithographically. The random structures made using this proposed speckle lithography technique are quantified based on speckle statistics, radial distribution ...

  12. Relationships between MODIS black-sky shortwave albedo and airborne lidar based forest canopy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Lauri; Rautiainen, Miina; Arumäe, Tauri; Lang, Mait; Flewelling, James; Tokola, Timo; Stenberg, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Albedo is one of the essential climate variables affecting the Earth's radiation balance. It is however not well understood how changes in forest canopy structure influence the albedo. Canopy structure can be mapped consistently for fairly large areas using airborne lidar sensors. Our objective was to study the relationships between MODIS shortwave black sky albedo product and lidar-based estimates of canopy structure in different biomes ranging from arctic to tropical. Our study is based on six structurally different forest sites located in Finland, Estonia, USA and Laos. Lidar-based mean height of the canopy, canopy cover and their transformations were used as predictor variables to describe the canopy structure. Tree species composition was also included for the three sites where it was available. We noticed that the variables predicting albedo best were different in open and closed canopy forests. In closed canopy forests, the species information was more important than canopy structure variables (R2=0.31-0.32) and using only structural variables resulted in poor R2 (0.13-0.15). If the 500 m MODIS pixel contained a mixture of forests and other land cover types, the albedo was strongly related to the forest area percent. In open canopy forests, structural variables such as canopy cover or height explained albedo well, but species information still improved the models (R2=0.27-0.52). We obtained the highest R2=0.52 using only structural variables in Laos on a partially degraded tropical forest with large variation in canopy cover. The different canopy structure variables were often correlated and the one that provided the best model changed from site to site.

  13. Modification of the phase structure of black D6 branes in a canonical ensemble and its origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J. X.; Ouyang, Jun; Roy, Shibaji

    2014-09-01

    It is well known that charged black Dp branes of type II string theory share a universal phase structure of van der Waals-Maxwell liquid-gas type except D5 and D6 branes. Interestingly, the phase structure of D5 and D6 branes can be changed to the universal form with the inclusion of particular delocalized charged lower-dimensional branes. For D5 branes, one needs to introduce delocalized D1 branes, and for D6 branes, one needs to introduce delocalized D0 branes to obtain the universal structure. In a previous paper [J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2013) 100], Lu with Wei study the phase structure of black D6 branes with the introduction of delocalized D0 branes in a special case when their charges are equal and the dilaton charge vanishes. In this paper, we look at the phase structure of the black D6/D0 system with the generic values of the parameters, which makes the analysis more involved but the structure more rich. We also provide reasons why the respective modifications of the phase structures to the universal form for the black D5 and D6 branes occur when specific delocalized lower-dimensional branes are introduced.

  14. Preparation and characterization of magnetite–PDMS composites by magnetic induction heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic induction heating was used to produce magnetite–Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) composites in the presence of the magnetite nanoparticles. Magnetite nanoparticles under an AC magnetic field generate heat, which used to accelerate polymerization and curing of PDMS. Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared using co-precipitation process in the presence of the basic solution. Magnetite nanoparticle was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), zeta potential, dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetite–PDMS composite morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, while curing and thermal stability were assessed through infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Heating properties and rate of heating of magnetite nanoparticles and magnetite–PDMS composites were studied as a function of time applied and magnetite content (20% and 30%). The improved thermal stability of magnetite–PDMS composite, which produced in a shorter time without using catalyst, compared with the conventional PDMS will offer potential as thermally stable elastomers. - Highlights: • Magnetic induction heating was used to produce magnetite–PDMS composites. • The composites produced in a shorter time without catalyst with improved in the thermal stability. • Magnetite–PDMS composites are promising as thermally stable elastomers

  15. Preparation and characterization of magnetite–PDMS composites by magnetic induction heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Mohamed S.A., E-mail: msa.darwish@gmail.com [Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovation, Technical University of Liberec, Studentská 2, 461 17 Liberec (Czech Republic); Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 1 Ahmed El-Zomor Street, El Zohour Region, Nasr City, Cairo 11727 (Egypt); Stibor, Ivan [Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovation, Technical University of Liberec, Studentská 2, 461 17 Liberec (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-15

    Magnetic induction heating was used to produce magnetite–Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) composites in the presence of the magnetite nanoparticles. Magnetite nanoparticles under an AC magnetic field generate heat, which used to accelerate polymerization and curing of PDMS. Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared using co-precipitation process in the presence of the basic solution. Magnetite nanoparticle was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), zeta potential, dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetite–PDMS composite morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, while curing and thermal stability were assessed through infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Heating properties and rate of heating of magnetite nanoparticles and magnetite–PDMS composites were studied as a function of time applied and magnetite content (20% and 30%). The improved thermal stability of magnetite–PDMS composite, which produced in a shorter time without using catalyst, compared with the conventional PDMS will offer potential as thermally stable elastomers. - Highlights: • Magnetic induction heating was used to produce magnetite–PDMS composites. • The composites produced in a shorter time without catalyst with improved in the thermal stability. • Magnetite–PDMS composites are promising as thermally stable elastomers.

  16. Line Emission from an Accretion Disk around a Black hole Effects of Disk Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Pariev, V I; Pariev, Vladimir I.; Bromley, Benjamin C.

    1998-01-01

    The observed iron K-alpha fluorescence lines in Seyfert-1 galaxies provide strong evidence for an accretion disk near a supermassive black hole as a source of the line emission. These lines serve as powerful probes for examining the structure of inner regions of accretion disks. Previous studies of line emission have considered geometrically thin disks only, where the gas moves along geodesics in the equatorial plane of a black hole. Here we extend this work to consider effects on line profiles from finite disk thickness, radial accretion flow and turbulence. We adopt the Novikov and Thorne (1973) solution, and find that within this framework, turbulent broadening is the dominant new effect. The most prominent change in the skewed, double-horned line profiles is a substantial reduction in the maximum flux at both red and blue peaks. The effect is most pronounced when the inclination angle is large, and when the accretion rate is high. Thus, the effects discussed here may be important for future detailed model...

  17. Line emission from an accretion disk around black hole effects of the disk structure

    CERN Document Server

    Pariev, V I; Bromley, Benjamin C.; Pariev, Vladimir I.

    1998-01-01

    The observed iron K-alpha fluorescence lines in Seyfert galaxies provide strong evidence for an accretion disk near a supermassive black hole as a source of the line emission. Previous studies of line emission have considered only geometrically thin disks, where the gas moves along geodesics in the equatorial plane of a black hole. Here we extend this work to include effects on line profiles from finite disk thickness, radial accretion flow and turbulence. We adopt the Novikov-Thorne solution, and find that within this framework, turbulent broadening is the most significant effect. The most prominent changes in the skewed, double-horned line profiles is a substantial reduction in the maximum flux at both red and blue peaks. We show that at the present level of signal-to-noise in X-ray spectra, proper treatment of the actual structure of the accretion disk can change estimates of the inclination angle of the disk. Thus these effects will be important for future detailed modeling of high quality observational d...

  18. Preliminary study of the mite community structure in different black truffle producing soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Queralt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study: The goals of this paper are to provide preliminary data on the composition of the mite community in truffle-producing soils (both wild and plantations; and to elucidate those species which may interact with the black truffle life cycle.Area of study: The study was carried out in two black truffle productive zones in Navarra (Spain, in four different plantations and five wild production areas.Material and Methods: Fauna was extracted using Berlese Tullgren funnels. Animals were separated into taxonomic groups, and mites were identified. To analyse the composition and community structure of the different habitats, parameters such as abundance, species richness, and Shanon Weiner diversity index (H’ were calculated.Main results: A total of 305 mites were recognized, belonging to 58 species representing the three major taxonomic groups (Oribatida, Prostigmata, Mesostigmata.Research highlights: The results show a possible trend towards wild areas having greater diversity and species richness than plantations. Furthermore, community analysis shows differences in species compositions among different study areas, and oribatid mites always exhibit the highest relative abundance and species richness.Keywords: Acari; Tuber melanosporum; Oribatida; Mesostigmata; Prostigmata; truffle orchards. 

  19. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of the microphase separation of PEG-b-PDMS-b-PEG%PEG-b-PDMS-b-PEG微相分离结构的耗散粒子动力学模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭茗; 李莉; 张玉

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨PEG-b-PDMS-b-PEG三嵌段共聚物中链段含量对其微相分离结构的影响规律,采用耗散粒子动力学模拟方法,建立了不同PEG链段含量的共聚物介观结构模型.通过介观相分离过程及形态的模拟,分析了相形貌与侧链接枝密度的依赖关系.模拟结果表明,随着嵌段共聚物体系中侧链密度的增加,微相分离结构呈现规律性变化,出现了粒状、岛状及双连续相等不同形态的介观结构.同时,对PEG含量为28%的PEG-b-PDMS-b-PEG三嵌段梳型共聚物的原子力形貌观察结果表明,其具有一定的相分离结构.%In order to discuss the effect of chain segment contents on the microphase separation structure of triblock comb copolymer PEG-b-PDMS-b-PE,G, mesoscopic structure models of copolymers with varying PEG segment contents were built using the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method. Through simulation of the meso-phase separation process and morphology, the relationship between the morphology of the meso-phase and graft density was analyzed. It was indicated that regular changes appear in microphase structures with the increase of graft density in copolymers; furthermore, granular, island, and bicontinuous phase structures emerge in the structures. At the same time, the atomic force microscope image result of the triblock comb copolymer PEG-b-PDMS-b-PEG with 28% PEG molar content shows that the copolymer has certain microphase separation structures.

  20. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, K D

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.

  1. Surface tension-induced high aspect-ratio PDMS micropillars with concave and convex lens tips

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars with concave and convex lens tips in a one-step molding process, using a CO2 laser-machined Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through holes. The PDMS micropillars are 4 mm high and have an aspect ratio of 251. The micropillars are formed by capillary force drawing up PDMS into the through hole mold. The concave and convex lens tips of the PDMS cylindrical micropillars are induced by surface tension and are controllable by changing the surface wetting properties of the through holes in the PMMA mold. This technique eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to prepare a 3D mold, and it provides a simple and rapid method to fabricate 3D PDMS micropillars with controllable dimensions and tip shapes. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Comment on "Insight into the Microscopic Structure of an AdS Black Hole from Thermodynamical Phase Transition"

    CERN Document Server

    Zangeneh, M Kord; Sheykhi, A

    2016-01-01

    In their Letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 111302 (2015)], Shao-Wen Wei and Yu-Xiao Liu have introduced the number density of the black hole molecules as a measure for microscopic degrees of freedom of the black hole. Based on this, they have figured out some microscopic properties of the $4$-dimensional charged AdS black hole as an example relying on the thermodynamic phase transition and thermodynamic geometry, specially the behavior of the Ricci scalar of Ruppeiner geometry \\cite{Rup0}. At first glance, the obtained Ricci scalar seems surprising since shows no divergency as one usually expects for black holes \\cite{Rup1}. This motivates us to check whether the obtained Ricci scalar is correct. We observed that Ricci scalar is not correct as we guessed and therefore discussions and insights about microscopic structure of charged AdS black holes relying on this should be revised. In this Letter, we address the correct Ricci scalar of the $4$-dimensional charged AdS black holes and disclose the correct properties...

  3. Effect of ZnO Addition on Structural Properties of ZnO-PANi/ Carbon Black Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project was to investigate the effect of ZnO addition on the structural properties of ZnO-PANi/ carbon black thin films. The sol gel method was employed for the preparation of ZnO sol. The sol was dried for 24 h at 100 degree Celsius and then annealed at 600 degree Celsius for 5 h. XRD characterization of the ZnO powder showed the formation of wurtzite type ZnO crystals. The ZnO powder were mixed into PANi/ carbon black solution which was dissolved into M-Pyrol, N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidinone (NMP) to produce a composite solution of ZnO-PANi/ carbon black. The weight ratio of ZnO were 4 wt %, 6 wt % and 8 wt %. The composite solutions were deposited onto glass substrates using a spin-coating technique to fabricate ZnO-PANi/ carbon black thin films. AFM characterization showed the decreasing of average roughness from 7.98 nm to 2.23 nm with the increment of ZnO addition in PANi/ carbon black films. The thickness of the films also decreased from 59.5 nm to 28.3 nm. FESEM image revealed that ZnO-PANi/ carbon black thin films have changed into agglomerated surface morphology resulting in the increment of porosity of the films. (author)

  4. PIXE and PDMS techniques applied to environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The airborne particles containing metals are the one of main sources of workers and environmental exposure during mineral mining and milling processes. In order to evaluate the risk of the workers and to the environment due to mineral processes, it is necessary to determine, the concentration and the kinetics of the particles. Furthermore, the chemical composition, particle size and the elemental mass concentration in the fine fraction of aerosol are necessary for evaluation of the risk. Mineral sands are processed to obtain rutile (TiO2), ilmenite (TiFeO3), zircon (ZrSiO4 and monazite (RE3(PO4)) concentrates. The aim of this work was to apply PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission) and PDMS (Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry) methods to characterize mineral dust particles generated at this plant. The mass spectrum of positive ions of cerium oxide shows that the cerium is associated to oxygen (CeOn). Compounds of thorium (ThO2) and (ThSiO4), Sr, Ca, Zr were also observed in this spectrum. The positive ions mass spectrum of the concentrate of monazite shows that Th was associated to oxygen (ThOn) and Ce was associated to (POn). Also shows compounds of other rare earth as La, Nd and Y. Ions of ZrSiO3, TiO2 and TiFeO3 present in the mass spectra indicate that the concentrate of monazite contains zircon, rutile and ilmenite. Compounds of Cl, Ca, Mn, V, Cu, Zn and Pb also were identified in the mass spectrum. This study shows that PIXE and PDMS techniques can be used as complementary methods for the aerosol analysis. (author)

  5. Characterization of the nanosized porous structure of black Si solar cells fabricated via a screen printing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yehua; Fei Jianming; Cao Hongbin; Zhou Chunlan; Wang Wenjing; Zhou Su; Zhao Yan; Zhao Lei; Li Hailing; Yan Baojun; Chen Jingwei

    2012-01-01

    A silicon (Si) surface with a nanosized porous structure was formed via simple wet chemical etching catalyzed by gold (Au) nanoparticles on p-type Cz-Si (100).The average reflectivity from 300 to 1200 nm was less than 1.5%.Black Si solar cells were then fabricated using a conventional production process.The results reflected the output characteristics of the cells fabricated using different etching depths and emitter dopant profiles.Heavier dopants and shallower etching depths should be adopted to optimize the black Si solar cell output characteristics.The efficiency at the optimized etching time and dopant profile was 12.17%.However,surface passivation and electrode contact due to the nanosized porous surface structure are still obstacles to obtaining high conversion efficiency for the black Si solar cells.

  6. Structure and magnetism of Mn, Fe, or Co adatoms on monolayer and bilayer black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhu, Shasha; Fan, Fengren; Li, Zhengwei; Wu, Hua

    2016-03-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) is an emergent layered material and is currently explored for its potential applications in nanoelectronics. Here using density functional calculations, we investigate the structure and magnetism of transition metal (TM) adatoms (Mn, Fe, and Co) on the monolayer and bilayer BP. We find that while the TM adatoms prefer to occupy a valley site of the puckered monolayer BP and have a low-spin magnetic state, they could move to an interlayer interstitial site of the bilayer BP and turn into a high-spin state. In particular, Mn adatom at the valley site of monolayer BP has also a metastable high-spin state, and moreover, a low-spin to high-spin magnetic transition can readily be induced by a strain along the armchair direction. Then Mn adsorbed BP monolayer has a strain-tuning spin switch.

  7. Black Hole or MECO? Decided by a Thin Luminous Ring Structure Deep Within Quasar Q0957

    CERN Document Server

    Schild, Rudolph E

    2008-01-01

    Optical, Infrared, X-ray, and radio wavelength studies of quasars are beginning to define the luminous quasar structure from techniques of reverberation and microlensing. An important result is that the inner quasar structure of the first identified gravitational lens, Q0957+561 A,B seems not to show the kind of structure expected for a supermassive black hole, but instead show a clean-swept interior region as due to the action of a magnetic propeller, just as expected for a MECO (Magnetic Eternally Collapsing Object) structure. Given the present state of the observations, the strongest model discriminant seems to be the existence of a thin luminous band around the inner edge of the accretion disc, at a distant radius ~ 70 R_g from the ~ 4 x 10^9 Mo central object. Since the existence of a clean magnetic propeller swept inner region ~70 R_g surrounded by a sharp ~ 1 R_g disc edge are the low-hard state spectral properties associated with a highly redshifted central MECO object, we are led to the conclusion th...

  8. Population genetic structure and demographic history of the black fly vector, Simulium nodosum in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyasan, P; Pramual, P

    2016-09-01

    An understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of vector species is crucial for effective control and management. In this study, mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to examine the genetic structure, diversity and demographic history of a black fly vector, Simulium nodosum Puri (Diptera: Simuliidae), in Thailand. A total of 145 sequences were obtained from 10 sampling locations collected across geographical ranges in the country. Low genetic diversity was found in populations of S. nodosum that could be explained by the recent population history of this species. Demographic history analysis revealed a signature of demographic expansion dating back to only 2600-5200 years ago. Recent population expansion in S. nodosum possibly followed an increase in agriculture that enabled its hosts', humans and domestic animals, densities to increase. Alternatively, the Thai populations could be a derivative of an older expansion event in the more northern populations. Mitochondrial DNA genealogy revealed no genetically divergent lineages, which agrees with the previous cytogenetic study. Genetic structure analyses found that only 27% of the pairwise comparisons were significantly different. The most likely explanation for the pattern of genetic structuring is the effect of genetic drift because of recent colonization. PMID:27245148

  9. Tidal events and salt-marsh structure influence black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) recruitment across an ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer M; Bell, Susan S

    2012-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted at a black mangrove-salt-marsh ecotone in southwest Florida (U.S.A.) to investigate retention of propagules of the black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, by salt-marsh plants as a mechanism of facilitation operating on recruitment success at landward boundaries. Buoyant A. germinans propagules are dispersed by tides, and stranding is required for establishment; therefore, processes that enable stranding should facilitate mangrove recruitment. We expected the physical structure of salt-marsh vegetation to define propagule retention capacity, and we predicted that salt-marsh plants with distinct growth forms would differentially retain propagules. Experimental monoculture plots (1 m2) of salt-marsh plants with different growth forms (Sporobolus virginicus [grass], Sesuvium portulacastrum [succulent forb], and Batis maritima [succulent scrub]) were created, and A. germinans propagules were emplaced into these plots and monitored over time. For comparison, propagules were also placed into natural polyculture plots (1 m2). Polyculture plots contained at least two of the salt-marsh plant taxa selected for monoculture treatments, and S. virginicus was always present within these polyculture plots. Natural polyculture plots retained 59.3% +/- 11.0% (mean +/- SE) of emplaced propagules. Monocultures varied in their propagule retention capacities with plots of S. virginicus retaining on average 65.7% +/- 11.5% of transplanted propagules compared to 7.2% +/- 1.8% by B. maritima and 5.0% +/- 1.9% by S. portulacastrum. Plots containing S. virginicus retained a significantly greater percentage of emplaced propagules relative to the two succulent salt-marsh taxa. Furthermore, propagule entrapment, across all treatments, was strongly correlated with salt-marsh structure (r2 = 0.6253, P = 0.00001), which was estimated using an indirect quantitative metric (lateral obstruction) calculated from digital images of plots. Overall, our findings imply that

  10. The influence of the PDMS technique in the study of the induced modifications of polymers used in nuclear environment; Apport de la technique PDMS a l`etude des modifications induites dans des polymeres utilises en ambiance nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsouli, B. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1995-07-20

    The PDMS technique (Particle Induced Desorption Mass Spectrometry) combined with a TOF detection (Time of Flight) is the main tool used in this study of polymer degradation in nuclear environment. Ar{sup 3+} ions with a 9 MeV energy have been used to induce the secondary ion emission, and the study was devoted to two stresses typical of this type of environment. The first part of the work concerned with the structural modifications induced by gamma irradiation on ion exchange resin, used for nuclear effluents reprocessing, namely the poly(4-vinylpyridine), or P-4PV. For such a material, the negative fragment emission is particularly sensitive to structural modifications. Difficult physical measurements in such an insoluble and infusible material (IR, UV - Vis, EPR, TGA, dielectric measurements) became consistent after the degradation mechanisms were elucidated. These effects, interpreted in terms of scissions and recombinations, enabled us to explicit different modes of energy deposition, and shed light on some discrepancies between SIMS and PDMS. The second part of the study is devoted to the thermal ageing of an elastomer, used in fabrication of valve gaskets submitted to high temperatures. First of all, we studied the constituents of the polymeric material, i. e. copolymer, homo polymers, and also additives. This last component proved useful to analyze, as a superficial lubricant layer can mask the conformational rearrangements which seem to occur after few hours of thermal treatment (PE blocks are prevailing at the surface). Here too, the PDMS information is important to account for static SIMS and ESCA results, as its probed layer thickness lies in-between. (author) 187 refs.

  11. Molecular cloning, structural analysis, and tissue expression of the TNNT3 gene in Guizhou black goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haolin; Zhang, Jinhua; Yu, Bo; Li, Liang; Shang, Yishun

    2015-11-15

    The vertebrate fast skeletal troponin T (TNNT3) protein is an important regulatory and structural component of thin filaments in skeletal muscle, which improves meat quality traits of livestock and poultry. In this study, the troponin T isoforms from adult goat (skeletal muscle mRNA) were identified. We isolated the full-length coding sequence of the goat TNNT3 gene (GenBank: KM042888), analyzed its structure, and investigated its expression in different tissues from different aged goats (10, 30, 90, 180, and 360 days old). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that Guizhou black goat TNNT3 was highly expressed in the biceps femoris muscle, abdominal muscle, and longissimus dorsi muscle (P0.05). Western blotting confirmed that the TNNT3 protein was expressed in the muscle tissues listed above, with the highest level found in the longissimus dorsi muscle, and the lowest level in the masseter muscle. In the 10 to 360day study period the TNNT3 protein expression level was the highest when the goats were 30 days old. A peptide, ASPPPAEVPEVHEEVH that may contribute to improved goat meat tenderness was identified. This study provides an insight into the molecular structure of the vertebrate TNNT3 gene. PMID:26187066

  12. Structure evolution of carbon black under ionic-liquid-assisted microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions between the carbon black (CB) and the ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methyl-imiazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM+][PF6-]), are firstly examined. The CB, mixed with the IL via simple blending, is then subjected to microwave (MW) irradiation to prepare the modified CB. The structure evolutions of the modified CB such as the microcrystalline structure and surface chemistry are revealed by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and pore analysis. After mixing but before MW irradiation, the microcrystalline arrangement of CB turns to be more ordering and microcrystalline size (La) to be a little bigger but with a limited degree. Under MW irradiation, the IL undergoes severe decomposition. The combination of localized high temperature (proposed to be higher than 425 deg. C) and the decomposition of the IL leads to substantial structure changes of the CB. The graphitization of the CB surface, the disordering of the microcrystalline and the decrease in La are disclosed. In addition, compared with the untreated CB, the CB treated with IL-assisted MW irradiation is found to have much higher volume of the smaller mesopore.

  13. Friction and adhesion of gecko-inspired PDMS flaps on rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Chary, Sathya; Das, Saurabh; Tamelier, John; Turner, Kimberly L; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2012-08-01

    Geckos have developed a unique hierarchical structure to maintain climbing ability on surfaces with different roughness, one of the extremely important parameters that affect the friction and adhesion forces between two surfaces. Although much attention has been paid on fabricating various structures that mimic the hierarchical structure of a gecko foot, yet no systematic effort, in experiment or theory, has been made to quantify the effect of surface roughness on the performance of the fabricated structures that mimic the hierarchical structure of geckos. Using a modified surface forces apparatus (SFA), we measured the adhesion and friction forces between microfabricated tilted PDMS flaps and optically smooth SiO(2) and rough SiO(2) surfaces created by plasma etching. Anisotropic adhesion and friction forces were measured when sliding the top glass surface along (+y) and against (-y) the tilted direction of the flaps. Increasing the surface roughness first increased the adhesion and friction forces measured between the flaps and the rough surface due to topological matching of the two surfaces but then led to a rapid decrease in both of these forces. Our results demonstrate that the surface roughness significantly affects the performance of gecko mimetic adhesives and that different surface textures can either increase or decrease the adhesion and friction forces of the fabricated adhesives. PMID:22779923

  14. Black-tailed prairie dogs and the structure of avian communities on the shortgrass plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory A; Lomolino, Mark V

    2004-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) influence avian community structure on the shortgrass prairie. We surveyed 36 prairie dog towns and 36 paired sites without prairie dogs during summer and fall of 1997, 1998, and 1999 in the Oklahoma Panhandle. Our surveys totaled 9,040 individual observations for 73 avian species. Significantly distinct avian communities were present on prairie dog towns when compared to sites within four different macrohabitats of the surrounding landscape: open rangeland, scrub/sandsage (Artemisia filifolia) habitats, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) plots, and fallow crop fields. Relative densities of all bird species combined was higher on prairie dog towns versus paired sites in summer and fall. Mean species richness of birds was significantly higher on prairie dog towns than paired sites during summer, but there were no significant differences in fall. Open rangeland had the highest mean species richness in fall. Assemblages of avian communities differed significantly between prairie dog towns and the four macrohabitat types during summer. Burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia), killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), horned larks (Eremophila alpestris), and meadowlarks (Sturnella spp.) were positively and significantly associated with prairie dog towns during summer, while horned larks and ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) were significantly associated with prairie dog towns during fall. Even in their current remnant state, black-tailed prairie dogs continue to play a significant role in the assembly of ecological communities across the Great Plains. Conservation of prairie dogs goes well beyond a single species, and is an important strategy for the preservation of the prairie ecosystem as a whole. PMID:14685848

  15. On the modification of phase structure of black D6 branes in canonical ensemble and its origin

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, J X; Roy, Shibaji

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that charged black D$p$-branes of type II string theory share a universal phase structure of van der Waals-Maxwell liquid-gas type except D5- and D6-branes. Interestingly, the phase structure of D5- and D6-branes can be changed to the universal form with the inclusion of particular delocalized charged lower dimensional branes. For D5-branes one needs to introduce delocalized D1-branes and for D6-branes one needs to introduce delocalized D0-branes to obtain the universal structure. In a previous paper [JHEP {\\bf 04} (2013) 100] one of us JXL with R. Wei has studied the phase structure of black D6-branes with the introduction of delocalized D0-branes in a special case when their charges are equal and the dilaton charge vanishes. In this paper we look at the phase structure of black D6/D0 system with the generic values of the parameters, which makes the analysis more involved but the structure more rich. We also provide reasons why the respective modifications of the phase structures to the univ...

  16. Variation in diffusion of gases through PDMS due to plasma surface treatment and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Dmitry A; Lillie, Elizabeth M; Garbett, Shawn P; McCawley, Lisa J

    2014-02-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a commonly used polymer in the fabrication of microfluidic devices due to such features as transparency, gas permeability, and ease of patterning with soft lithography. The surface characteristics of PDMS can also be easily changed with oxygen or low pressure air plasma converting it from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic state. As part of such a transformation, surface methyl groups are removed and replaced with hydroxyl groups making the exposed surface to resemble silica, a gas impermeable substance. We have utilized Platinum(II)-tetrakis(pentaflourophenyl)porphyrin immobilized within a thin (~1.5 um thick) polystyrene matrix as an oxygen sensor, Stern-Volmer relationship, and Fick's Law of simple diffusion to measure the effects of PDMS composition, treatment, and storage on oxygen diffusion through PDMS. Results indicate that freshly oxidized PDMS showed a significantly smaller diffusion coefficient, indicating that the SiO2 layer formed on the PDMS surface created an impeding barrier. This barrier disappeared after a 3-day storage in air, but remained significant for up to 3 weeks if PDMS was maintained in contact with water. Additionally, higher density PDMS formulation (5:1 ratio) showed similar diffusion characteristics as normal (10:1 ratio) formulation, but showed 60 % smaller diffusion coefficient after plasma treatment that never recovered to pre-treatment levels even after a 3-week storage in air. Understanding how plasma surface treatments contribute to oxygen diffusion will be useful in exploiting the gas permeability of PDMS to establish defined normoxic and hypoxic oxygen conditions within microfluidic bioreactor systems. PMID:24065585

  17. The influence of the PDMS technique in the study of the induced modifications of polymers used in nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PDMS technique (Particle Induced Desorption Mass Spectrometry) combined with a TOF detection (Time of Flight) is the main tool used in this study of polymer degradation in nuclear environment. Ar3+ ions with a 9 MeV energy have been used to induce the secondary ion emission, and the study was devoted to two stresses typical of this type of environment. The first part of the work concerned with the structural modifications induced by gamma irradiation on ion exchange resin, used for nuclear effluents reprocessing, namely the poly(4-vinylpyridine), or P-4PV. For such a material, the negative fragment emission is particularly sensitive to structural modifications. Difficult physical measurements in such an insoluble and infusible material (IR, UV - Vis, EPR, TGA, dielectric measurements) became consistent after the degradation mechanisms were elucidated. These effects, interpreted in terms of scissions and recombinations, enabled us to explicit different modes of energy deposition, and shed light on some discrepancies between SIMS and PDMS. The second part of the study is devoted to the thermal ageing of an elastomer, used in fabrication of valve gaskets submitted to high temperatures. First of all, we studied the constituents of the polymeric material, i. e. copolymer, homo polymers, and also additives. This last component proved useful to analyze, as a superficial lubricant layer can mask the conformational rearrangements which seem to occur after few hours of thermal treatment (PE blocks are prevailing at the surface). Here too, the PDMS information is important to account for static SIMS and ESCA results, as its probed layer thickness lies in-between. (author)

  18. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS Coating onto Magnetic Nanoparticles Induced by Attractive Electrostatic Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Sötebier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an efficient synthesis pathway of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS coated magnetic nanoparticles from hydrophilic polyacrylate coated ferrofluids (NPPAA. A block copolymer based on polydimethylsiloxane is selected for its propensity to interact with the carboxylate functions on the NPPAA. The interaction is due to negative charges on NPPAA and positive ones on the amphiphilic copolymer. The synthesis is achieved by interfacial interaction, simplifying the purification of the PDMS-coated nanoparticles (NPPDMS from subproducts such as ions and water. NPPDMS are well dispersed in hydrophobic solvents (toluene, diethyl ether and can then be embedded into a curable PDMS polymer.

  19. Phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes probed by non-local observables

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Li, Li-Fang

    2016-01-01

    With the non-local observables such as two point correlation function and holographic entanglement entropy, we probe the phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes. We find for the case $bQ>0.5$, the phase structure is similar to that of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-AdS black hole, namely the black hole undergoes a Hawking-Page phase transition, a first order phase transition, and a second order phase transition. While for the case $bQ<0.5$, we find there is a new branch for the infinitesimally small black hole so that a pseudo phase transition emerges besides the original first order phase transition. For the first order phase transition and the pseudo phase transition, the equal area law is checked, and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the analogous heat capacity is obtained in the neighborhood of the critical points. All the results show that the phase structure of the non-local observables is the same as that of the thermal entropy regardless of the size of...

  20. Comparison of structural health assessment capabilities in epoxy – carbon black and epoxy – carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    F. Inam; B. R. Bhat; N. Luhyna; Vo, T.

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for comparing structural health of different types of brittle epoxy nanocomposites filled with carbon nanostructured fillers is presented. Epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon black (CB) and epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite bars were prepared by calendering and thermal curing. Nanocomposite bars were subjected to Vickers diamond indentation to produce sub-surface damage. Electrical conductivities were analysed by 4-point method to estimate the structural damage caused by...

  1. Population genetic structure of male black grouse (Tetrao tetrix L.) in fragmented vs. continuous landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caizergues, Alain; Rätti, Osmo; Helle, Pekka; Rotelli, Luca; Ellison, Laurence; Rasplus, Jean-Yves

    2003-09-01

    We investigated the association of habitat fragmentation with genetic structure of male black grouse Tetrao tetrix. Using 14 microsatellites, we compared the genetic differentiation of males among nine localities in continuous lowland habitats in Finland to the genetic differentiation among 14 localities in fragmented habitats in the Alps (France, Switzerland and Italy). In both areas, we found significant genetic differentiation. However, the average differentiation, measured as theta, was more than three times higher in the Alps than in Finland. The greater differentiation found in the Alps is probably due to the presence of mountain ridges rising above natural habitats of the species, which form barriers to gene flow, and to a higher influence of genetic drift resulting from lower effective sizes in highly fragmented habitats. The detection of isolation by distance in the Alps suggests that gene flow among populations does occur. The genetic variability measured as gene diversity HE and allelic richness A was lower in the Alps than in Finland. This could result from the higher fragmentation and/or from the fact that populations in the Alps are isolated from the main species range and have a lower effective size than in Finland. This study suggests that habitat fragmentation can affect genetic structure of avian species with relatively high dispersal propensities. PMID:12919469

  2. Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiluweit, M.; Nico, P.S.; Johnson, M.G.; Kleber, M.

    2009-11-15

    Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration ('biochar'). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. BET-N{sub 2} surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous, but quantitatively different physical-chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars the crystalline character of the precursor materials is preserved, (ii) in amorphous chars the heat-altered molecules and incipient aromatic polycondensates are randomly mixed, (iii) composite chars consist of poorly ordered graphene stacks embedded in amorphous phases, and (iv) turbostratic chars are dominated by disordered graphitic crystallites. The molecular variations among the different char categories translate into differences in their ability to persist in the environment and function as environmental sorbents.

  3. Stick-Slip Friction of PDMS Surfaces for Bioinspired Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Longjian; Pham, Jonathan T; Iturri, Jagoba; Del Campo, Aránzazu

    2016-03-15

    Friction plays an important role in the adhesion of many climbing organisms, such as the gecko. During the shearing between two surfaces, periodic stick-slip behavior is often observed and may be critical to the adhesion of gecko setae and gecko-inspired adhesives. Here, we investigate the influence of short oligomers and pendent chains on the stick-slip friction of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a commonly used material for bioinspired adhesives. Three different stick-slip patterns were observed on these surfaces (flat or microstructured) depending on the presence or absence of oligomers and their ability to diffuse out of the material. After washing samples to remove any untethered oligomeric chains, or after oxygen plasma treatment to convert the surface to a thin layer of silica, we decouple the contributions of stiffness, oligomers, and pendant chains to the stick-slip behavior. The stick phase is mainly controlled by the stiffness while the amount of untethered oligomers and pendant chains available at the contact interface defines the slip phase. A large amount of oligomers and pendant chains resulted in a large slip time, dominating the period of stick-slip motion. PMID:26903477

  4. Review on the structural approach of the Black-Scholes model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Shakila; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2015-05-01

    Black-Scholes model developed in 1973 has become one of the important concepts in modern financial theory. This model is regarded as one of the best ways in determining fair prices of the options. Many studies have been done to improve the performance of the Black-Scholes model since this model is built with few limitations. Thus, the objective of this review paper is to discuss on the Black-Scholes model. The aim of this review paper is to present the derivation of Black-Scholes, Merton and KMV-Merton models. Besides, it provides a literature review on the modifications done by the researchers on the Black-Scholes model.

  5. Visualization and measurement of teat structures in Black-and-White cows through ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Fasulkov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the features and size of teat structures in cows using ultrasonography. The experiment was conducted with 12 clinically healthy Black-and-White cows, 3 years of age, with body weight 350–450 kg. Ultrasonography was performed on 48 teats using ultrasound SonoScape A5v (SonoScape, China with multifrequency linear transducer (5–12 MHz. The potential of the imaging technique to visualize teat structures as well as teat canal length and diameter, the diameter in the area of the rosette of Furstenberg, teat wall thickness, teat cistern diameter in its middle part and teat cistern diameter in teat base was evaluated. Scans were conducted before milking, immediately after milking, and 1 and 2 hours after milking. The average teat canal length measured by ultrasound was 8.48±1.41 mm before milking, and until the 2nd post milking hour its size became statistically significantly (p<0.001 lower (7.48±0.93 mm. Teat canal diameter showed a significant difference (p<0.01 only immediately after milking compared to the size before milking. The diameter of the middle part and the base of the teat cistern also tended to decrease considerably after milking (p<0.001 as compared to premilking values. The teat wall thickness immediately after milking and 1 hour after milking were statistically significantly higher (p<0.001 compared to the premilking size. The analysis of results showed that ultrasonography is a rapid non-invasive and accurate method for determination of characteristics and size of teat structures. It could be used for evaluation of changes occurring in bovine teat after milking – shortening of the teat canal, teat wall thickening and reduction of teat cistern diameter.

  6. Evaluation of different PDMS interconnection solutions for silicon, Pyrex and COC microfluidic chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most crucial issues in the domain of microfluidics is the chip to world interface. This paper describes a characterization methodology of a quite common microfluidic interconnection scheme, based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), applied to some of the most popular substrates (silicon, Pyrex and cyclic olefin copolymer) for microfluidic applications. Particular emphasis is given to the evaluation of leakage endurance as a function of the main geometrical parameters of the interconnections and the selected bonding technique. Oxygen plasma activation of the PDMS surface and the application of a thin PDMS interlayer demonstrated the most attractive solutions, due to the straightforward approach and limited cost. Maximum sustainable pressures in excess of 200 kPa have been achieved. Results obtained are critically discussed with the aim to outline PDMS interconnection guidelines for different microfluidic applications

  7. New perspectives for direct PDMS microfabrication using a CD-DVD laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautefeuille, M; Cabriales, L; Pimentel-Domínguez, R; Velázquez, V; Hernández-Cordero, J; Oropeza-Ramos, L; Rivera, M; Carreón-Castro, M P; Grether, M; López-Moreno, E

    2013-12-21

    A simple and inexpensive alternative to high-power lasers for the direct fabrication of microchannels and rapid prototyping of poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is presented. By focusing the infrared laser beam of a commercial, low-power CD-DVD unit on absorbing carbon micro-cluster additives, highly localized PDMS combustion can be used to etch the polymer, which is otherwise transparent at such wavelengths. Thanks to a precise and automated control of laser conditions, laser-induced incandescence is originated at the material surface and produces high-resolution micropatterns that present properties normally induced with lasers of much greater energies in PDMS: formation of in situ nanodomains, local fluorescence and waveguide patterns. An extensive study of the phenomenon and its performance for PDMS microfabrication are presented. PMID:24172647

  8. Transfer of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) while maintaining their alignment and impalefection functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Ryan C; Railsback, Justin G; Anderson, Bryan D; Sarac, Mehmet F; McKnight, Timothy E; Tracy, Joseph B; Melechko, Anatoli V

    2013-02-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are synthesized on Al 3003 alloy substrates by direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Chemically synthesized Ni nanoparticles were used as the catalyst for growth. The Si-containing coating (SiN(x)) typically created when VACNFs are grown on silicon was produced by adding Si microparticles prior to growth. The fiber arrays were transferred to PDMS by spin coating a layer on the grown substrates, curing the PDMS, and etching away the Al in KOH. The fiber arrays contain many fibers over 15 μm (long enough to protrude from the PDMS film and penetrate cell membranes) and SiN(x) coatings as observed by SEM, EDX, and fluorescence microscopy. The free-standing array in PDMS was loaded with pVENUS-C1 plasmid and human brain microcapillary endothelial (HBMEC) cells and was successfully impalefected. PMID:23281833

  9. Prediction of partition coefficients of organic compounds between SPME/PDMS and aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Lu, Yu-Ting; Yang, Hsiu-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is commonly used as the coated polymer in the solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique. In this study, the partition coefficients of organic compounds between SPME/PDMS and the aqueous solution were compiled from the literature sources. The correlation analysis for partition coefficients was conducted to interpret the effect of their physicochemical properties and descriptors on the partitioning process. The PDMS-water partition coefficients were significantly correlated to the polarizability of organic compounds (r = 0.977, p coefficients of 61 organic compounds for the training set. The predictive ability of the empirical model was demonstrated by using it on a test set of 26 chemicals not included in the training set. The empirical model, applying the straightforward calculated molecular descriptors, for estimating the PDMS-water partition coefficient will contribute to the practical applications of the SPME technique. PMID:24534804

  10. The study of PDMS surface treatment and it's applications by using proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, J. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Kwon, K. H.; Park, J. Y. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    PDMS(Polydimethylsiloxane) is mainly used as a material to do lab on a chip for biochemical analysis. PDMS has many applicability at the Bio-Technology(BT) field, because it is flexible, biocompatible and has good oxygen permeability. In this study, we have investigated to physical and chemical changes of PDMS surface by proton beam radiation conditions. The used kind of ion were Ar and N, beam energy was 30keV, 60keV, 80keV, total fluence was 1E10 to 1E16 [ions/cm{sup 2}]. PDMS membrane was produced as 150 {mu}m thick on the 3' silicon wafer. We inquired into physical and chemical changes up to beam radiation conditions through the investigate the change of surface roughness by AFM(Atomic Force Microscope), the change of surface morphology by SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope) and the change of chemical composition by FT-IR(Fourier Transform Infrared Raman spectroscopy) and XPS(X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). From these basic data to we set up the proton beam radiation conditions to secure metal layer and PDMS adhesion. This enables to produce the electrode at the PDMS material lab on a chip. From now on, we'll investigate the cell patterning possibility after carry out of cell culture with mouse fibroblast at PDMS surface what is surface modification by using of proton beam radiation and apply this to produce lab on a chip. Physical property: Surface roughness of PDMS membrane was observed using AFM, after exposure of proton beam on it. The roughness increased as the power level of proton beam increase. This phenomena was caused by the kinetic energy of particle. Chemical property: Long term observation was conducted on the contact angles of the samples made by the proton beam exposure or oxygen plasma treatment; the hydrophilicity was found to be stronger in the samples made by the proton beam exposure. We found the reason of this was the destruction of polymer chains by proton beam. Feasibility of Through-hole: Considering that comparatively high

  11. Desorption of Rb and Cs from PDMS induced by non resonant light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous light-induced desorption of rubidium and cesium atoms has been observed in poly-dimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) coated Pyrex cells at room temperature and at low light intensity. The two alkali atoms show the same dynamics and the same dependence on the de-sorbing light frequency. No competition in the free sites occupancy exists. An interpretation of the experimental results in terms of non-resonant light scattering from the PDMS coating is discussed. (authors)

  12. TeraHz tuning of whispering gallery modes in a PDMS, stand-alone, stretchable microsphere

    OpenAIRE

    Madugani, Ramgopal; YANG, YONG; Jonathan M. Ward; Riordan, John Daniel; Coppola, Sara; Vespini, Veronica; Grilli, Simonetta; Finizio, Andrea; Ferraro, Pietro; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2012-01-01

    We report on tuning the optical whispering gallery modes in a poly dimethyl siloxane-based (PDMS) microsphere resonator by more than a THz. The PDMS microsphere system consists of a solid spherical resonator directly formed with double stems on either side. The stems act like tie-rods for simple mechanical stretching of the microresonator over tens of microns, resulting in tuning of the whispering gallery modes by one free spectral range. Further investigations demonstrate that the whispering...

  13. Hydrophilic Surface Modification of PDMS Microchannel for O/W and W/O/W Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Shazia Bashir; Muhammad Bashir; Xavier Casadevall i Solvas; Julia M. Rees; Zimmerman, William B.

    2015-01-01

    A surface modification method for bonded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels is presented herein. Polymerization of acrylic acid was performed on the surface of a microchannel using an inline atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier microplasma technique. The surface treatment changes the wettability of the microchannel from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This is a challenging task due to the fast hydrophobic recovery of the PDMS surface after modification. This modification allows the form...

  14. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces based on ZnO-PDMS nanocomposite coatings and study of its wetting behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superhydrophobic surfaces based on ZnO-PDMS nanocomposite coatings are demonstrated by a simple, facile, time-saving, wet chemical route. ZnO nanopowders with average particle size of 14 nm were synthesized by a low temperature solution combustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction results confirm that the nanopowders exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure and belong to space group P63mc. Field emission scanning electron micrographs reveal that the nanoparticles are connected to each other to make large network systems consisting of hierarchical structure. The as formed ZnO coating exhibits wetting behaviour with Water Contact Angle (WCA) of ∼108o, however on modification with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), it transforms to superhydrophobic surface with measured contact and sliding angles for water at 155o and less than 5o respectively. The surface properties such as surface free energy (γp), interfacial free energy (γpw), and the adhesive work (Wpw) were evaluated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies on superhydrophobic coatings revealed that the surface defects play a major role on the wetting behaviour. Advantages of the present method include the cheap and fluorine-free raw materials, environmentally benign solvents, and feasibility for applying on large area of different substrates.

  15. Electrical response from nanocomposite PDMS-Ag NPs generated by in situ laser ablation in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyva, Maria; Kumar, Susmit; Brescia, Rosaria; Petroni, Simona; La Tegola, Carola; Bertoni, Giovanni; De Vittorio, Massimo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-01

    Laser ablation technique is employed in order to generate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Ag NPs in situ, starting from a silver target in a solution of PDMS prepolymer and toluene. The produced surfactant-free nanoparticles are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning TEM-high angle annular dark field (STEM-HAADF) imaging modes, showing the majority of them to be of the order of 4 nm in diameter with a small percentage of larger Ag-AgCl multidomain NPs, embedded into a PDMS matrix. Low concentrations of carbon onion-like nanoparticles or larger fibers are also formed in the toluene-PDMS prepolymer solution. In accordance with this, UV-vis spectra shows no peak from silver NPs; their small size and their coverage by the PDMS matrix suppresses the signal of surface plasmon absorption. Inductively coupled plasma measurements reveal that the concentration of silver in the polymer is characteristically low, ˜0.001% by weight. The electrical properties of the PDMS nanocomposite films are modified, with current versus voltage (I-V) measurements showing a low current of up to a few tenths of a pA at 5 V. The surface resistivity of the films is found to be up to ˜1010 Ω/sq. Under pressure (e.g. stress) applied by a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), the I-V measurements demonstrate the current decreasing during the elastic deformation, and increasing during the plastic deformation.

  16. Generation of micro-sized PDMS particles by a flow focusing technique for biomicrofluidics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, B N; Silva, S F; Pinho, D; Vega, E J; Lima, R

    2016-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), due to its remarkable properties, is one of the most widely used polymers in many industrial and medical applications. In this work, a technique based on a flow focusing technique is used to produce PDMS spherical particles with sizes of a few microns. PDMS precursor is injected through a hypodermic needle to form a film/reservoir over the needle's outer surface. This film flows towards the needle tip until a liquid ligament is steadily ejected thanks to the action of a coflowing viscous liquid stream. The outcome is a capillary jet which breaks up into PDMS precursor droplets due to the growth of capillary waves producing a micrometer emulsion. The PDMS liquid droplets in the solution are thermally cured into solid microparticles. The size distribution of the particles is analyzed before and after curing, showing an acceptable degree of monodispersity. The PDMS liquid droplets suffer shrinkage while curing. These microparticles can be used in very varied technological fields, such as biomedicine, biotechnology, pharmacy, and industrial engineering. PMID:27042245

  17. Proton beam lithography in negative tone liquid phase PDMS polymer resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszank, Robert; Rajta, István; Cserháti, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    In this work we investigated the applicability of liquid PDMS polymer as a negative resist material for direct proton beam writing technique. We irradiated the polymer in liquid phase, spin-coated on different substrate materials creating various microstructures. PDMS pre-polymer was cross-linked just by PBW. As the cross-linking process increases, the irradiated area becomes more solid. The rate of the solidification strongly depends on the deposited ion dose. The effects of fluence, beam current, substrate type and developer solvent was investigated. Furthermore, at the irradiated areas the adhesion, the wettability and Young's modulus also changes due to the chemical change of the PDMS polymer. This effect makes the possibility to form microstructures in PDMS with tunable adhesion and wettability properties. In practical viewpoint, the PDMS resist can also have some advantages compared to other resists such as easy stripping, very fast developing (as the un-cross-linked PDMS is soluble in many organic solvents), not sensitive to light, high current or high fluence.

  18. Direct transfer of multilayer graphene grown on a rough metal surface using PDMS adhesion engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Heejun; Kang, Il-Suk; Lee, Youngbok; Cha, Yun Jeong; Yoon, Dong Ki; Ahn, Chi Won; Lee, Wonhee

    2016-09-01

    The direct transfer of graphene using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamping has advantages such as a ‘pick-and-place’ capability and no chemical residue problems. However, it is not easy to apply direct PDMS stamping to graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition on rough, grainy metal surfaces due to poor contact between the PDMS and graphene. In this study, graphene consisting of a mixture of monolayers and multiple layers grown on a rough Ni surface was directly transferred without the use of an adhesive layer. Liquid PDMS was cured on graphene to effect a conformal contact with the graphene. A fast release of graphene from substrate was achieved by carrying out wet-etching-assisted mechanical peeling. We also carried out a thermal post-curing of PDMS to control the level of adhesion between PDMS and graphene and hence facilitate a damage-free release of the graphene. Characterization of the transferred graphene by micro-Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and optical microscopy showed neither cracks nor contamination from the transfer. This technique allows a fast and simple transfer of graphene, even for multilayer graphene grown on a rough surface.

  19. Nanotextured PDMS Substrates for Enhanced Roughness and Aptamer Immobilization for Cancer Cell Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhymin; Mahmood, Arif; Bellah, Md.; Kim, Young-Tae; Iqbal, Samir

    2014-03-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the early stages of cancer is requires very sensitive approach. Nanotextured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were fabricated by micro reactive ion etching (Micro-RIE) to have better control on surface morphology and to improve the affinity of PDMS surfaces to capture cancer cells using surface immobilized aptamers. The aptamers were specific to epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) present in cell membranes, and overexpressed in tumor cells. We also investigated the effect of nano-scale features on cell capturing by implementing various surfaces of different roughnesses. Three different recipes were used to prepare nanotextured PDMS by micro-RIE using oxygen (O2) and carbon tetrafluoride (CF4). The measured average roughness of three nanotextured PDMS surfaces were found to impact average densities of captured cells. In all cases, nanotextured PDMS facilitated cell capturing possibly due to increased effective surface area of roughened substrates at nanoscale. It was also observed that cell capture efficiency was higher for higher surface roughness. The nanotextured PDMS substrates are thus useful for cancer cytology devices.

  20. Proton beam lithography in negative tone liquid phase PDMS polymer resist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we investigated the applicability of liquid PDMS polymer as a negative resist material for direct proton beam writing technique. We irradiated the polymer in liquid phase, spin-coated on different substrate materials creating various microstructures. PDMS pre-polymer was cross-linked just by PBW. As the cross-linking process increases, the irradiated area becomes more solid. The rate of the solidification strongly depends on the deposited ion dose. The effects of fluence, beam current, substrate type and developer solvent was investigated. Furthermore, at the irradiated areas the adhesion, the wettability and Young’s modulus also changes due to the chemical change of the PDMS polymer. This effect makes the possibility to form microstructures in PDMS with tunable adhesion and wettability properties. In practical viewpoint, the PDMS resist can also have some advantages compared to other resists such as easy stripping, very fast developing (as the un-cross-linked PDMS is soluble in many organic solvents), not sensitive to light, high current or high fluence

  1. Impacts of methamidophos, copper, and their combinations on bacterial community structure and function in black soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huiwen; ZHOU Qixing; ZHANG Qianru; ZHANG Chenggang

    2005-01-01

    The potential ecotoxicologial risks of methamidophos, copper, and their combinations on microbial community of black soil ecosystem in the Northeast China were assessed in species richness and structures by using 16S rDNA-PCR-DGGE analysis approach, and functional characteristics at community levels by using BIOLOGGN system analysis method as well as two conventional methods(DHA and SIR). All results of DGGE banding fingerprint patterns(amplified by bacterial specific 16S rDNA V3 high variable region universal primer) indicated that the species richness of bacterial community in tested soil was significantly decreased to different extents by using different concentrations of single methamidophos, copper, especially some of their combinations had worse effects than their corresponding single factors. In addition,the structures of soil bacterial community had been disturbed under all stresses applied in this study because of the enrichment of some species and the disappearance of other species from the bacterial community. The effects of the single factors with lower concentrations on the communiy structure were weaker than those with higher concentrations. Moreover, the bacterial community structures under the combined stresses of methamidophos and copper were significantly different from those of control and their corresponding single factors. The change of DHA and carbon source substrate utilizing fingerprint patterns based on BIOLOGGNsystem were two relatively sensitive directors corresponding to the stress presented in this study. Between methamodophos and copper, there happened the significant joint-toxic actions when they were used in combination on DHA and carbon source substrate utilizing fingerprint patterns of soil bacterial communities. The DHA of soil under the combined stresses was lower than that of the control and that under the single factors, and the BIOLOGGN substrate utilizing patterns of soil treated by combinations were distinctively

  2. Horizon Shells: Classical Structure at the Horizon of a Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Blau, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We address the question of the uniqueness of the Schwarzschild black hole by considering the following question: How many meaningful solutions of the Einstein equations exist that agree with the Schwarzschild solution (with a fixed mass m) everywhere except maybe on a codimension one hypersurface? The perhaps surprising answer is that the solution is unique (and uniquely the Schwarzschild solution everywhere in spacetime) *unless* the hypersurface is the event horizon of the Schwarzschild black hole, in which case there are actually an infinite number of distinct solutions. We explain this result and comment on some of the possible implications for black hole physics.

  3. Black Silicon Solar Thin-film Microcells Integrating Top Nanocone Structures for Broadband and Omnidirectional Light-Trapping

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhida; YAO, YUAN; Brueckner, Eric P.; Li, Lanfang; Jiang, Jing; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Liu, Gang L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently developed classes of monocrystalline silicon solar microcells (u-cell) can be assembled into modules with characteristics (i.e., mechanically flexible forms, compact concentrator designs, and high-voltage outputs) that would be impossible to achieve using conventional, wafer-based approaches. In this paper, we describe a highly dense, uniform and non-periodic nanocone forest structure of black silicon (bSi) created on optically-thin (30 um) u-cells for broadband and omnidirectional l...

  4. A minimally invasive micro sampler for quantitative sampling with an ultrahigh-aspect-ratio microneedle and a PDMS actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Wang, Yan; Yao, Jinyuan; Yang, Cuijun; Ding, Guifu

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a novel micro sampler consisting of an ultrahigh-aspect-ratio microneedle and a PDMS actuator. The microneedle was fabricated by a new method which introduced reshaped photoresist technology to form a flow channel inside. The microneedle includes two parts: shaft and pedestal. In this study, the shaft length is 1500 μm with a 45° taper angle on the tip and pedestal is 1000 μm. Besides, the shaft and pedestal are connected by an arc connection structure with a length of 600 μm. The microneedles have sufficient mechanical strength to insert into skin with a wide safety margin which was proved by mechanics tests. Moreover, a PDMS actuator with a chamber inside was designed and fabricated in this study. The chamber, acting as a reservoir in sampling process as well as providing power, was optimized by finite element analysis (FEA) to decrease dead volume and improve sampling precision. The micro sampler just needs finger press to activate the sampling process as well as used for quantitative micro injection to some extent. And a volume of 31.5 ± 0.8 μl blood was successfully sampled from the ear artery of a rabbit. This micro sampler is suitable for micro sampling for diagnose or therapy in biomedical field. PMID:27372944

  5. 黑莓企业服务平台架设结构%The Frame Structure of BlackBerry Enterprises' Service Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨微微

    2012-01-01

      Black Berry English referred to as BlackBerry, it is the Canadian RIM Company launched a terminal of mobile E-mail system. 1, The first problem is guided into what's BlackBerry business and its business characteristics, let every-body understand it; 2, And then, expressed the internal division component and service independently accomplished of their respective functions of BES server, analyzes BES. Then through the BlackBerry enterprise service system structure diagram to present the frame structure of BlackBerry service.; 3, Expressed BlackBerry's cell phone types and the characteristics of the mobile phone used and more press closed to BlackBerry; 4, Through the BlackBerry's mobile E-mail and office solutions and banking system solutions to further BlackBerry, analyzing its use. 5, Finally, an overview to Blackberry advantages and current social development of domestic situation and future trends.%  黑莓英文简称 BlackBerry,它是加拿大 RIM 公司推出的一种移动电子邮件系统终端.一、首先问题导入什么是 BlackBerry业务与 BlackBerry 业务的特点,让大家对其有所了解.二、之后表述 BES 服务器的内部划分组件和服务独立完成各自的功能,剖析BES.随之通过 BlackBerry 的企业服务系统框架图来呈现 BlackBerry 的服务架设.三、表述 BlackBerry 的手机类型及其手机的特点与使用,更加贴近黑莓手机.四、通过 BlackBerry 移动邮件及办公解决方案与银行业金融系统解决方案来深入黑莓,解析其用途.五、最后总述黑莓的优点与当前社会发展国内现状及未来走向.

  6. An experimental study of vibration based energy harvesting in dynamically tailored structures with embedded acoustic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuxian; Conlon, Stephen C.; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental investigation on the energy harvesting performance of dynamically tailored structures based on the concept of embedded acoustic black holes (ABHs). Embedded ABHs allow tailoring the wave propagation characteristics of the host structure creating structural areas with extreme levels of energy density. Experiments are conducted on a tapered plate-like aluminum structure with multiple embedded ABH features. The dynamic response of the structure is tested via laser vibrometry in order to confirm the vibration localization and the passive wavelength sweep characteristic of ABH embedded tapers. Vibrational energy is extracted from the host structure and converted into electrical energy by using ceramic piezoelectric discs bonded on the ABHs and shunted on an external electric circuit. The energy harvesting performance is investigated both under steady state and transient excitation. The experimental results confirm that the dynamic tailoring produces a drastic increase in the harvested energy independently from the nature of the excitation input.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of a magnetic micro-actuator based on deformable Fe-doped PDMS artificial cilium using 3D printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes the use of a 3D extrusion printer to fabricate artificial magnetic cilium. The cilia are fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with iron particles so that they remain slender and flexible. They can be driven by a magnetic field to closely mimic the behaviour of biological cilia. Doping iron particles to the polymers has already been done; however, to the best of our knowledge, printing such active and soft magnetic structures has not. The existing methods for manufacturing magnetic polymeric structures are complex and difficult to use for the fabrication of micro-sized high-aspect-ratio cilia. The 3D printing technique we propose here is simple and inexpensive compared to previously suggested fabrication methods. In this study, free-standing magnetic PDMS cilia were fabricated in different sizes up to 5 mm in length and 1 mm in width. The stress-strain curves of the PDMS cilia were experimentally obtained to quantify the effect of the concentration of the iron particles on the modulus of elasticity of the cilia. The higher the iron concentration, the higher the modulus of elasticity. We have quantified the characteristics of the cilia made of 40% w/w iron particles in PDMS. A single cilium (5 × 1 × 0.0035 mm) can output up to 27 μN blocking force under a magnetic field of 160 mT. These cilia can be used as a mixer in lap-on-chip applications and as the anchoring and propulsion legs of endoscopic capsule robots operating within the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Analytical expressions estimating the blocking force are established and compared with the experimental results. (paper)

  8. Optimal use of resources structures home ranges and spatial distribution of black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that territories of animals are economical. Home ranges should be similarly efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources and this should structure their distribution on a landscape, although neither has been demonstrated empirically. To test these hypotheses, we used home range models that optimize resource use according to resource-maximizing and area-minimizing strategies to evaluate the home ranges of female black bears, Ursus americanus, living in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We tested general predictions of our models using 104 home ranges of adult female bears studied in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, North Carolina, U.S.A., from 1981 to 2001. We also used our models to estimate home ranges for each real home range under a variety of strategies and constraints and compared similarity of simulated to real home ranges. We found that home ranges of female bears were efficient with respect to the spatial distribution of resources and were best explained by an area-minimizing strategy with moderate resource thresholds and low levels of resource depression. Although resource depression probably influenced the spatial distribution of home ranges on the landscape, levels of resource depression were too low to quantify accurately. Home ranges of lactating females had higher resource thresholds and were more susceptible to resource depression than those of breeding females. We conclude that home ranges of animals, like territories, are economical with respect to resources, and that resource depression may be the mechanism behind ideal free or ideal preemptive distributions on complex, heterogeneous landscapes. ?? 2007 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  9. PDMS-based flexible energy harvester with Parylene electret and copper mesh electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y.; Lee, M. H.; Wu, S.-H.

    2015-10-01

    Currently, most vibrational energy harvesters have rigid and resonant structures to scavenge kinetic energy from periodic motion in specific directions. However, in some situations the motion is random in amplitude, frequency, and direction; or the targeted energy sources apply direct deformation or displacement to the harvesters. In these applications, flexible energy harvesters that are light, flat, and conformable to arbitrary 3D surfaces of the sources are desired to scavenge the energy from device deformation, rather than the motion of a moving mass. Therefore we propose and demonstrate a PDMS-based flexible energy harvester with Parylene-C electret that can be attached to deformable surfaces. Furthermore, copper mesh is embedded in the flexible electrodes for robust electrode metallization as compared with traditional sputtered metal thin films. The fabricated harvesters achieved net output power of 2.2 μW, area power density of 2.2 μW cm-2, and volume power density of 22 μW cm-3 at the maximum test frequency of 20 Hz. Power generation by finger tapping and bending was demonstrated. Such harvesters have the potential for wearable and implantable electronic applications.

  10. PDMS-based flexible energy harvester with Parylene electret and copper mesh electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, most vibrational energy harvesters have rigid and resonant structures to scavenge kinetic energy from periodic motion in specific directions. However, in some situations the motion is random in amplitude, frequency, and direction; or the targeted energy sources apply direct deformation or displacement to the harvesters. In these applications, flexible energy harvesters that are light, flat, and conformable to arbitrary 3D surfaces of the sources are desired to scavenge the energy from device deformation, rather than the motion of a moving mass. Therefore we propose and demonstrate a PDMS-based flexible energy harvester with Parylene-C electret that can be attached to deformable surfaces. Furthermore, copper mesh is embedded in the flexible electrodes for robust electrode metallization as compared with traditional sputtered metal thin films. The fabricated harvesters achieved net output power of 2.2 μW, area power density of 2.2 μW cm−2, and volume power density of 22 μW cm−3 at the maximum test frequency of 20 Hz. Power generation by finger tapping and bending was demonstrated. Such harvesters have the potential for wearable and implantable electronic applications. (paper)

  11. Massive black holes interactions during the assembly of heavy sub-structures in the centre of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Donnari, M; Merafina, M

    2016-01-01

    We performed a series of direct N-body simulations with the aim to follow the dynamical evolution of a galaxy cluster (GC) ($M_{clus}\\simeq 10^{14} M_{\\odot}$) in different environment. The results show the formation of heavy sub-structures in the cluster centre in consequence of multiple merging among the innermost galaxies. Moreover we investigate the dynamics of super-massive black holes (SMBHs) residing in the centre of galaxies that form the most massive sub-structure.

  12. Computer-Assisted Structure Elucidation of Black Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) Fruit Juice Isolates with a New Fused Pentacyclic Flavonoid Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naman, C Benjamin; Li, Jie; Moser, Arvin; Hendrycks, Jeffery M; Benatrehina, P Annécie; Chai, Heebyung; Yuan, Chunhua; Keller, William J; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2015-06-19

    Melanodiol 4″-O-protocatechuate (1) and melanodiol (2) represent novel flavonoid derivatives isolated from a botanical dietary supplement ingredient, dried black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) fruit juice. These noncrystalline compounds possess an unprecedented fused pentacyclic core with two contiguous hemiketals. Due to having significant hydrogen deficiency indices, their structures were determined using computer-assisted structure elucidation software. The in vitro hydroxyl radical-scavenging and quinone reductase-inducing activity of each compound are reported, and a plausible biogenetic scheme is proposed. PMID:26030740

  13. Treatment of PDMS surfaces using pulsed DBD plasmas: comparing the use of different gases and its influence on adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Fellype do; Moshkalev, Stanislav; Machida, Munemasa; Parada, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present some results of the treatment of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces using pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasmas. The results of plasma treatment using different gases and mixtures, argon, argon plus water vapor, helium, helium plus water vapor, nitrogen and nitrogen plus water vapor, were compared testing the adhesion between two PDMS samples for each kind of plasma. We also studied the water contact angle in function of plasma process time of PDMS surfaces wit...

  14. Surface studies on benzophenone doped PDMS microstructures fabricated using KrF excimer laser direct write lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Madhushree Bute; Shinde, Shashikant D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Bodas, Dhananjay [Centre for Nanobioscience, Agharkar Research Institute, Agharkar road, Pune 411004 (India); Patil, K.R. [Center for Materials Characterization, National Chemical Laboratories, Pune 411008 (India); Sathe, V.G. [UGC DAE Inter University Consortium, Indore 452017 (India); Adhi, K.P. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gosavi, S.W., E-mail: swg@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Use of KrF Laser micromachining for Lab-On-Chip applications at lower fluence. • Addition of Benzophenone in PDMS enhances its self development sensitivity. • Benzophenone helps efficient energy transfer for equal density of bond scissioning. • Correlation of chemical composition with laser dose and microstructure. • Microstructures with well defined clean sidewalls. - Abstract: This paper discusses microfabrication process for benzophenone doped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using laser lithography. KrF excimer laser of 248 nm with 20 ns pulse width at repetition rate of 1 Hz was used for microfabrication of undoped and benzophenone doped PDMS. The doped-PDMS shows sensitivity below 365 nm, permitting processing under ambient light. The analysis of etch depth revealed that doped PDMS shows self developable sensitivity at lower fluence of ∼250 mJ/cm{sup 2}. The unexposed and exposed surface was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spectrocopic analysis indicated increase in C-O, C=O, Si-O{sub 3} and Si-O{sub 4} bonding at the expense of Si-C and Si-O{sub 2} bonds of PDMS. In case of laser exposed doped-PDMS, removal of benzophenone from probe depth of spectroscopy was observed. Whereas the surface morphology of exposed and unexposed doped-PDMS was observed to be same, indicating clean development of PDMS micropatterns. The present study indicates that addition of 3.0 wt.% benzophenone in PDMS enhance self development sensitivity of PDMS. The self developable results on doped-PDMS are quite encouraging for its potential use in point of care Lab-On-Chip applications, for fabricating micropatterns using direct write laser lithography technology.

  15. Surface studies on benzophenone doped PDMS microstructures fabricated using KrF excimer laser direct write lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Use of KrF Laser micromachining for Lab-On-Chip applications at lower fluence. • Addition of Benzophenone in PDMS enhances its self development sensitivity. • Benzophenone helps efficient energy transfer for equal density of bond scissioning. • Correlation of chemical composition with laser dose and microstructure. • Microstructures with well defined clean sidewalls. - Abstract: This paper discusses microfabrication process for benzophenone doped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using laser lithography. KrF excimer laser of 248 nm with 20 ns pulse width at repetition rate of 1 Hz was used for microfabrication of undoped and benzophenone doped PDMS. The doped-PDMS shows sensitivity below 365 nm, permitting processing under ambient light. The analysis of etch depth revealed that doped PDMS shows self developable sensitivity at lower fluence of ∼250 mJ/cm2. The unexposed and exposed surface was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spectrocopic analysis indicated increase in C-O, C=O, Si-O3 and Si-O4 bonding at the expense of Si-C and Si-O2 bonds of PDMS. In case of laser exposed doped-PDMS, removal of benzophenone from probe depth of spectroscopy was observed. Whereas the surface morphology of exposed and unexposed doped-PDMS was observed to be same, indicating clean development of PDMS micropatterns. The present study indicates that addition of 3.0 wt.% benzophenone in PDMS enhance self development sensitivity of PDMS. The self developable results on doped-PDMS are quite encouraging for its potential use in point of care Lab-On-Chip applications, for fabricating micropatterns using direct write laser lithography technology

  16. Rapid and low-cost fabrication of polystyrene-based molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we described a rapid and low-cost method to fabricate polystyrene molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser system. It takes only several minutes to fabricate the polystyrene mold with bump pattern on top of it using a CO2 laser system. The bump pattern can be easily transferred to PDMS and fabricate microchannles as deep as 3μm on PDMS. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  17. Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stith T.Gower

    2010-03-03

    A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of warming on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of warming on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil warming plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem warming. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining environmental conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that warming will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of warming on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of warming on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of warming on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground

  18. Inner Structure of Black Holes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: the role of mass inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, P P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the interior dynamics of accreting black holes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity using the homogeneous approximation and taking charge as a surrogate for angular momentum, showing that accretion can have an enormous impact on their inner structure. We find that, unlike in general relativity, there is a minimum accretion rate bellow which the mass inflation instability, which drives the centre-of-mass streaming density to exponentially high values in an extremely short interval of time, does not occur. We further show that, above this threshold, mass inflation takes place inside black holes very much in the same way as in general relativity, but is brought to a halt at a maximum energy density which is, in general, much smaller than the fundamental energy density of the theory. We conjecture that some of these results may be a common feature of modified gravity theories in which significant deviations from general relativity manifest themselves at very high densities.

  19. Black Silicon Solar Thin-film Microcells Integrating Top Nanocone Structures for Broadband and Omnidirectional Light-Trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhida; Brueckner, Eric P; Li, Lanfang; Jiang, Jing; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Liu, Gang L

    2014-01-01

    Recently developed classes of monocrystalline silicon solar microcells (u-cell) can be assembled into modules with characteristics (i.e., mechanically flexible forms, compact concentrator designs, and high-voltage outputs) that would be impossible to achieve using conventional, wafer-based approaches. In this paper, we describe a highly dense, uniform and non-periodic nanocone forest structure of black silicon (bSi) created on optically-thin (30 um) u-cells for broadband and omnidirectional light-trapping with a lithography-free and high-throughput plasma texturizing process. With optimized plasma etching conditions and a silicon nitride passivation layer, black silicon u-cells, when embedded in a polymer waveguiding layer, display dramatic increases of as much as 65.7% in short circuit current, as compared to a bare silicon device. The conversion efficiency increases from 8% to 11.5% with a small drop in open circuit voltage and fill factor.

  20. Gravitational string-membrane hedgehog and internal structure of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Hikaru

    2010-01-01

    We investigate charged Nambu-Goto strings/membrane systems in the Einstein-Maxwell theory in 3+1 dimensions. We first construct a charged string hedgehog solution that has a single horizon and conical singularity. Then we examine a charged membrane system, and give a simple derivation of its self energy. We find that the membrane may form an extremal Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, but its interior is a flat spacetime. Finally by combining the charged strings and the membrane we construct black hole solutions that have no singularities inside the horizons. We study them in detail by varying the magnitude of the two parameters, namely, the charge times the membrane tension and the string tension. We also argue that the strings have, due to the large redshift inside the system, a fair amount of degrees of freedom that may explain the entropy of the corresponding black holes.

  1. "Brans-Dicke" with $\\Lambda>0$: Black holes and large scale structures

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Romano, Antonio E; Tomaras, Theodore N

    2015-01-01

    The no-hair theorem is generalized to stationary axisymmetric black-holes in scalar tensor theories of the Brans-Dicke type with positive cosmological constant, general $\\omega(\\phi)$ and potential $V(\\phi)$. For finite constant $\\omega$ the Brans-Dicke field $\\phi$ is shown to blow-up logarithmically at the horizons. Perturbative solutions of the theory are analyzed relevant to astrophysical applications, where either one or both horizons are "hidden". It is shown that when the stationary cosmological horizon is hidden, the black hole horizon supports non-trivial "$\\phi-$hair". On the other hand, when the black hole horizon is hidden, the presence of the cosmological one leads to an upper bound on $\\omega$.

  2. Line Shapes Emitted from Spiral Structures around Symmetric Orbits of Supermassive Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Smailagić, Marijana

    2016-01-01

    Variability of active galactic nuclei is not well understood. One possible explanation is existence of supermassive binary black holes (SMBBH) in their centres. It is expected that major mergers are common in the Universe. It is expected that each supermassive black hole of every galaxy eventually finish as a SMBBH system in the core of newly formed galaxy. Here we model the emission line profiles of active galactic nuclei (AGN) assuming that the flux and emission line shapes variation are induced by supermassive binary black hole systems (SMBBH). We assume that accreting gas inside of circumbinary (CB) disk is photo ionized by mini accretion disk emission around each SMBBH. We calculate variations of emission line flux, shifts and shapes for different parameters of SMBBH orbits. We consider cases with different masses and inclinations for circular orbits and measure the effect to the shape of emission line profiles and flux variability.

  3. Line Shapes Emitted from Spiral Structures around Symmetric Orbits of Supermassive Binary Black Holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Smailagić; E. Bon

    2015-12-01

    Variability of active galactic nuclei is not well understood. One possible explanation is existence of supermassive binary black holes (SMBBH) in their centres. It is expected that major mergers are common in the Universe. It is expected that each supermassive black hole of every galaxy eventually finish as a SMBBH system in the core of newly formed galaxy. Here we model the emission line profiles of active galactic nuclei (AGN) assuming that the flux and emission line shape variations are induced by supermassive binary black hole systems (SMBBH). We assume that the accreting gas inside the circumbinary (CB) disk is photo ionized by mini accretion disk emission around each SMBBH. We calculate variations of emission line flux, shifts and shapes for different parameters of SMBBH orbits. We consider cases with different masses and inclinations for circular orbits and measure the effect to the shape of emission line profiles and flux variability.

  4. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance......-styled references to, among other things, the culturally and ideologically effervescent interwar-period have made me curious as to what alternative possibilities – for instance ‘emancipation’ – a comparative analysis might disclose concerning the visual rhetoric of black. Thus, in conclusion, it is briefly...

  5. Hybrid microsystem with functionalized silicon substrate and PDMS sample operating microchannel: A reconfigurable microfluidics scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid microsystem with separately functioned temperature controlling substrate and sample operating fluidic microchannel was developed to demonstrate a reconfigurable microfluidics scheme.The temperature controlling substrate integrated a micro heater and a temperature sensor by using traditional silicon-based micromechanical system(MEMS)technique,which guaranteed high performance and robust reliability for repeatable usage.The sample operating fluidic microchannel was prepared by poly-(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)based soft lithography technique,which made it cheap enough for disposable applications.The PDMS microchannel chip was attached to the temperature controlling substrate for reconfigurable thermal applications.A thin PDMS film was used to seal the microchannel and bridge the functionalized substrate and the sample inside the channel,which facilitated heat transferring and prevented sample contaminating the temperature controlling substrate.Demonstrated by a one dimensional thermal resistance model,the thin PDMS film was important for the present reconfiguration applications.Thermal performance of this hybrid microsystem was examined,and the experimental results demonstrated that the chip system could work stably over hours with temperature variation less than 0.1oC.Multiple PDMS microchannel chips were tested on one heating substrate sequentially with a maximum intra-chip temperature difference of 1.0oC.DNA extracted from serum of a chronic hepatitis B virus(HBV)patient was amplified by this hybrid microsystem and the gel electrophoresis result indicated that the present reconfigurable microfluidic scheme worked successfully.

  6. Novel silicone hydrogel based on PDMS and PEGMA for contact lens application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hong; Yeh, Yi-Hsing; Lin, Wen-Ching; Yang, Ming-Chien

    2014-11-01

    A silicone-based hydrogel was synthesized from poly(dimethylsiloxane) dialkanol (PDMS), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA). The hydrophilicity of the resulting block copolymer was adjustable by manipulating the ratio of PDMS and PEGMA. The results showed that higher PEGMA content led to a lower water contact angle, higher water content, lower elastic modulus and higher glucose permeability. At a PEGMA content of 20%, the protein adsorption decreased to 23% and 18% for lysozyme and human serum albumin (HSA), respectively, of those of the control (PDMS-PU). This indicated that the PDMS-PU-PEGMA hydrogels exhibited an ability to resist protein adsorption. The oxygen permeability (Dk) was 92 barrers for the hydrogel with 20% PEGMA. Furthermore, these hydrogels were non-cytotoxic according to an in vitro L929 fibroblast assay. Overall, the results demonstrated that the PDMS-PU-PEGMA hydrogels exhibited not only relatively high oxygen permeability and relative optical transparency, but also hydrophilicity and anti-protein adsorption; therefore, they would be applicable as a contact lens material. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a new approach to controlling the performance of silicone hydrogels. PMID:25465755

  7. Bendable, ultra-black absorber based on a graphite nanocone nanowire composite structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaoran; Evans, Julian; Ding, Fei; Liu, Nan; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Yuan; He, Sailing

    2015-07-27

    A bendable ultra-black material consisting of graphite nanocones and nanowires is fabricated through a simple plasma etching process. The optical properties of the absorber are characterized in the wavelength range of 400-2000 nm with average specular reflectance 0.05 ± 0.03% at normal incidence and the material thickness is only around 5 μm. The reflectance of the absorber remains low at large incident angles and is relatively independent of polarization. Simulations confirm the cooperative effect of the nanowires and nanocones leading to an ultra-black thin carbon material. PMID:26367669

  8. Event Horizon Telescope Observations as Probes for Quantum Structure of Astrophysical Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    The need for a consistent quantum evolution for black holes has led to proposals that their semiclassical description is modified not just near the singularity, but at horizon or larger scales. If such modifications extend beyond the horizon, they influence regions accessible to distant observeration. Natural candidates for these modifications behave like metric fluctuations, with characteristic length and time scales set by the horizon radius. We investigate the possibility of using the Event Horizon Telescope to observe these effects, if they have a strength sufficient to make quantum evolution consistent with unitarity. We find that such quantum fluctuations can introduce a strong time dependence for the shape and size of the shadow that a black hole casts on its surrounding emission. For the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, detecting the rapid time variability of its shadow will require non-imaging timing techniques. However, for the much larger black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy, a vari...

  9. Detecting supermassive binary black holes with VLBI - discovery of a ring-structure in 3C454.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the detection of the first VLBI ring-structure around the core of an AGN - around the core of the quasar 3C454.3. This ring-structure starts being visible in VLBI maps around 1996. It expands with an apparent velocity between 0.11±0.01mas/yr and 0.18±0.01mas/yr and dominates the pc-scale structure for at least 14 years. This is the result of a re-analysis of 41 VLBA data sets at six different radio frequencies observed between 1995.57 and 2011.48. We observe a correlation between radio flaring, flux-density variability, a ring-structure and kinematic properties of the jet. Taken together, it is tempting to see a causal connection and to explain all of this geometrically. The kinematic changes as well as the changes in the flaring characteristics might be caused by a change of the angle to the line of sight towards the observer. This behaviour resembles our findings for 0735+178 - with 3C454.3 being the second AGN to reveal kinematic mode changes. These mode changes could be explained by the presence of a supermassive binary black hole. 3C454.3 had been modelled as a binary black hole before.

  10. Uniform integration of gold nanoparticles in PDMS microfluidics with 3D micromixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    SadAbadi, H.; Packirisamy, M.; Wuthrich, R.

    2015-09-01

    The integration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics for biosensing applications is a challenging task. In this paper we address this issue by integration of pre-synthesized AuNPs (in a microreactor) into a microfluidic system. This method explored the affinity of AuNPs toward the PDMS surface so that the pre-synthesized particles will be adsorbed onto the channel walls. AuNPs were synthesized inside a microreactor before integration. In order to improve the size uniformity of the synthesized AuNPs and also to provide full mixing of reactants, a 3D-micromixer was designed, fabricated and then integrated with the microreactor in a single platform. SEM and UV/Vis spectroscopy were used to characterize the AuNPs on the PDMS surface.

  11. Surface tension-induced PDMS micro-pillars with controllable tips and tilt angles

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-12-21

    This paper reports a novel method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-pillars using a CO2 laser-machined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through-holes. This method eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to fabricate a 3D mold. The micro-pillars were formed by the capillary force that draws PDMS into the through-holes of the PMMA mold. The tilt angles of the micro-pillars depend on the tilt angles of the through-holes in the mold, and the concave and convex micro-lens tip shapes of the PDMS micro-pillars can be modified by changing the surface wettability of the PMMA through-holes.

  12. Microfabrication of Bubbular Cavities in PDMS for Cell Sorting and Microcell Culture Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ut-Binh T.Giang; Michael R.King; Lisa A.DeLouise

    2008-01-01

    We describe a novel technique, low surface energy Gas Expansion Molding (GEM), to fabricate microbubble arrays in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) which are incorporated into parallel plate flow chambers and tested in cell sorting and microcell culture applications. This architecture confers several operational advantages that distinguish this technology approach from currently used methods. Herein we describe the GEM process and the parameters that are used to control microbubble formation and a Vacuum-Assisted Coating (VAC) process developed to selectively and spatially alter the PDMS surface chemistry in the wells and on the microchannel surface. We describe results from microflow image visualization studies conducted to investigate fluid streams above and within microbubble wells and conclude with a discussion of cell culture studies in PDMS.

  13. Fouling release nanostructured coatings based on PDMS-polyurea segmented copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Jason

    2010-05-01

    The bulk and surface characteristics of a series of coatings based on PDMS-polyurea segmented copolymers were correlated to their fouling release performance. Incorporation of polyurea segments to PDMS backbone gives rise to phase separation with the extensively hydrogen bonded hard domains creating an interconnected network that imparts mechanical rigidity. Increasing the compositional complexity of the system by including fluorinated or POSS-functionalized chain extenders or through nanoclay intercalation, confers further thermomechanical improvements. In analogy to the bulk morphology, the surface topography also reflects the compositional complexity of the materials, displaying a wide range of motifs. Investigations on settlement and subsequent removal of Ulva sporelings on those nanostructured surfaces indicate that the work required to remove the microorganisms is significantly lower compared to coatings based on standard PDMS homopolymer. All in all, the series of materials considered in this study demonstrate advanced fouling release properties, while exhibiting superior mechanical properties and, thus, long term durability. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Highly Sensitive Chemiluminescence Detection for PDMS/Glass Micro-chip Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yi HUANG; Jiao Ning WANG; Lin CHEN; Ji Cun REN

    2004-01-01

    This paper described a highly sensitive chemiluminescence detection system for micro-chip electrophoresis (MCE) based on luminol-hydrogen peroxide reaction catalyzed by the metal ions. The micro-chip was composed of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and glass, and was fabricated by micro-machining technology. The surface of channels was dynamically modified by polydimethylacrylamide (PDMA) in order to eliminate unhomogeneous electroosmotic flow (EOF) of the PDMS/glass chip, adsorption of molecules, and improve hydrophobicity on PDMS surface. The detection modes, reagent mix procedures and reaction conditions were optimized and the detection limit of 5 x 10-11 mol/L for cobalt (II) was achieved by MCE with chemiluminescence detection, which was about four orders of magnitude more sensitive than that reported in the reference.

  15. Green silicone elastomer obtained from a counterintuitively stable mixture of glycerol and PDMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, P.; Hvilsted, S.; Skov, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    obtaining elastomeric composites with uniformly distributed glycerol droplets. Various compositions, containing from 0 to 140 parts of glycerol per 100 parts of PDMS by weight, were prepared and investigated in terms of ATR-FTIR, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, mechanical properties as well as optical...... and scanning electron microscopy. The materials were proven additionally to exhibit a strong affinity to water, which was investigated by simple water absorption tests. Incorporating glycerol into PDMS decreased the Young's modulus of the composites yet the ultimate strain of the elastomer was not...

  16. TeraHz tuning of whispering gallery modes in a PDMS, stand-alone, stretchable microsphere

    CERN Document Server

    Madugani, Ramgopal; Ward, Jonathan M; Riordan, John Daniel; Coppola, Sara; Vespini, Veronica; Grilli, Simonetta; Finizio, Andrea; Ferraro, Pietro; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2012-01-01

    We report on tuning the optical whispering gallery modes in a poly dimethyl siloxane-based (PDMS) microsphere resonator by more than a THz. The PDMS microsphere system consists of a solid spherical resonator directly formed with double stems on either side. The stems act like tie-rods for simple mechanical stretching of the microresonator over tens of microns, resulting in tuning of the whispering gallery modes by one free spectral range. Further investigations demonstrate that the whispering gallery mode shift has a higher sensitivity (0.13 nm/{\\mu}N) to an applied force when the resonator is in its maximally stretched state compared to its relaxed state.

  17. Enhancing relative permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multi block copolymers in binary polymer blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are well-known to actuate with relatively large strains due to low modulus, but they possess lowpermittivity. Contrary, polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are not stretchable but possess high permittivity. Combination of the two polymers in a block copolymer depicts a possibil......Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are well-known to actuate with relatively large strains due to low modulus, but they possess lowpermittivity. Contrary, polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are not stretchable but possess high permittivity. Combination of the two polymers in a block copolymer depicts a...

  18. Structural analysis of an HLA-B27 functional variant, B27d detected in American blacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a new functional variant B27d has been established by comparative peptide mapping and radiochemical sequencing. This analysis complete the structural characterization of the six know histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 subtypes. The only detected amino acid change between the main HLA-B27.1 subtype and B27d is that of Try59 to His59. Position 59 has not been previously found to vary among class I HLA or H-2 antigens. Such substitution accounts for the reported isoelectric focusing pattern of this variant. HLA-B27d is the only B27 variant found to differ from other subtypes by a single amino acid replacement. The nature of the change is compatible with its origin by a point mutation from HLB-B27.1. Because B27d was found only American blacks and in no other ethnic groups, it is suggested that this variant originated as a result of a mutation of the B27.1 gene that occurred within the black population. Structural analysis of B27d was done by comparative mapping. Radiochemical sequencing was carried out with 14C-labeled and 3H-labeled amino acids

  19. Structural analysis of an HLA-B27 functional variant, B27d detected in American blacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, S.; Aparicio, P.; Hansen, J.A.; Choo, S.Y.; Lopez de Castro, J.A.

    1987-11-15

    The structure of a new functional variant B27d has been established by comparative peptide mapping and radiochemical sequencing. This analysis complete the structural characterization of the six know histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 subtypes. The only detected amino acid change between the main HLA-B27.1 subtype and B27d is that of Try/sub 59/ to His/sub 59/. Position 59 has not been previously found to vary among class I HLA or H-2 antigens. Such substitution accounts for the reported isoelectric focusing pattern of this variant. HLA-B27d is the only B27 variant found to differ from other subtypes by a single amino acid replacement. The nature of the change is compatible with its origin by a point mutation from HLB-B27.1. Because B27d was found only American blacks and in no other ethnic groups, it is suggested that this variant originated as a result of a mutation of the B27.1 gene that occurred within the black population. Structural analysis of B27d was done by comparative mapping. Radiochemical sequencing was carried out with /sup 14/C-labeled and /sup 3/H-labeled amino acids.

  20. PDMS-SiO2-TiO2-CaO hybrid materials - Cytocompatibility and nanoscale surface features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J Carlos; Wacha, András; Gomes, Pedro S; Fernandes, M Helena R; Fernandes, M Helena Vaz; Salvado, Isabel M Miranda

    2016-07-01

    Two PDMS-SiO2-TiO2-CaO porous hybrid materials were prepared using the same base composition, precursors, and solvents, but following two different sol-gel procedures, based on the authors' previous works where for the first time, in this hybrid system, calcium acetate was used as calcium source. The two different procedures resulted in monolithic materials with different structures, microstructures, and surface wettability. Even though both are highly hydrophobic (contact angles of 127.2° and 150.6°), and present different filling regimes due to different surface topographies, they have demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with human osteoblastic cells, against the accepted idea that high-hydrophobic surfaces are not suitable to cell adhesion and proliferation. At the nanoscale, the existence of hydrophilic silica domains containing calcium, where water molecules are physisorbed, is assumed to support this capability, as discussed. PMID:27127030

  1. Pattern formation on polymer resist by solvent-assisted nanoimprinting with PDMS mold as a solvent transport medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solvent-vapor-assisted imprinting lithography (SVAIL) using a 1 mm thick flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane mold as a solvent transport medium in a vapor environment is demonstrated. By adjusting the solvent vapor pressure, this transport mechanism provides a sufficient amount of solvent to soften the thin polystyrene resist (<100 nm) and avoids the deformation of imprinted nanopatterns due to excess solvent that is problematic with other methods. The results show that SVAIL has potential for large-area patterning because the molding of the softened polymer can be performed without external loading. Localized molding and conformal contact with a curved surface allow multiple imprinting to be performed to obtain more complex, two-dimensional hierarchical structures using simple stripe-patterned stamps

  2. Physical and chemical study of the influence of oxidation on the structure of carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the study of the influence of an oxidising attack on carbon black particles by using chemical, physical and electrochemical methods to highlight the oxidation process. The carbon black particle is a spherical set essentially made of amorphous and crystalline carbon. It appears that the oxidising attack mainly occurs against the amorphous parts which surround the crystallites. If the attack is strong enough, crystallites are freed and the particle collapses. This process has been observed by using electronic microscopy, X rays, the BET nitrogen absorption method, and infra-reds. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and quinone functional groups on the oxidised particle surface. These groups have been dosed by different methods (methylation, calcium acetate dosing, polarography and potassium borohydride reduction)

  3. Horizon Shells: Classical Structure at the Horizon of a Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We address the question of the uniqueness of the Schwarzschild black hole by considering the following question: How many meaningful solutions of the Einstein equations exist that agree with the Schwarzschild solution (with a fixed mass m) everywhere except maybe on a codimension one hypersurface? The perhaps surprising answer is that the solution is unique (and uniquely the Schwarzschild solution everywhere in spacetime) *unless* the hypersurface is the event horizon of the Schwarzschild bla...

  4. Structure of the Cs-137 concentration field in Black Sea waters after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The version of the Monte-Carlo method used by us allows one to reconstruct radionuclide concentration values at regular net nodes and to obtain the missing information with a sufficient reliability for the region where in situ measurements were not conducted in the necessary volume. Reconstruction of the fields of Cs-137 concentration (Bq/m3) in the Black Sea surface waters was presented

  5. Novel cross-linkers for PDMS networks for controlled and well distributed grafting of functionalities by click chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Daugaard, Anders Egede;

    2013-01-01

    -methyl-umbelliferone containing cross-linker. TGA showed that a ferrocene functionality increased the thermal degradation temperature of PDMS. It was furthermore shown that the incorporation of only 0.25 wt% of the push-pull dipole, ethynyl-4-nitrobenzene, increased the dielectric permittivity of PDMS by...

  6. High pressure synthesis and crystal structure of a ternary superconductor Ca2Al3Si4 containing layer structured calcium sub-network isomorphous with black phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Zintl compound CaAl2Si2 is peritectically decomposed to a mixture of Ca2Al3Si4 and aluminum metal at temperatures above 600 °C under a pressure of 5 GPa. The new ternary compound Ca2Al3Sl4 crystalizes with the space group Cmc21 and the lattice parameters a=5.8846(8), b=14.973(1), and c=7.7966(5) Å. The structure is composed of aluminum silicide framework [Al3Si4] and layer structured [Ca2] network interpenetrating with each other. The electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) shows the formation of solid solutions Ca2Al3−xSi4+x (x2] sub-network is isomorphous with black phosphorus. The new ternary compound shows superconductivity with a transition temperature (Tc) of 6.4 K. The band structure calculation suggests that the superconductivity should occur through the conduction bands mainly composed of 3p orbitals of the aluminum silicide framework. - Graphical abstract: A new ternary superconductor Ca2Al3Si4 has been prepared under high pressure and high temperature conditions, which includes layer structured calcium sub-network isomorphous with black phosphorus. Highlights: ► A typical Zintl compound CaAl2Si2 melts congruently at ambient pressure. ► Under high pressure CaAl2Si2 decomposes to Ca2Al3Si4 and Al at ∼600 °C. ► Ca2Al3Si4 contains Ca sub-network isomorphous with black phosphorus. ► Ca2Al3Si4 shows superconductivity with a transition temperature of 6.4 K.

  7. Online single particle measurements of black carbon coatings, structure and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, James; Liu, Dantong; Taylor, Jonathan; Flynn, Michael; Williams, Paul; Morgan, William; Whitehead, James; Alfarra, Rami; McFiggans, Gordon; Coe, Hugh

    2016-04-01

    The impacts of black carbon on meteorology and climate remain a major source of uncertainty, owing in part to the complex relationship between the bulk composition of the particulates and their optical properties. A particular complication stems from how light interacts with particles in response to the microphysical configuration and any 'coatings', i.e. non-black carbon material that is either co-emitted or subsequently obtained through atmospheric processing. This may cause the particle to more efficiently absorb or scatter light and may even change the sign of its radiative forcing potential. While much insight has been gained through measurements of bulk aerosol properties, either while suspended or after collection on a filter or impactor substrate, this does not provide a complete picture and thus may not adequately constrain the system. Here we present an overview of recent work to better constrain the properties of black carbon using online, in situ measurements of single particles, primarily using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). We have developed novel methods of inverting the data produced and combining the different metrics derived so as to give the most effective insights into black carbon sources, processes and properties. We have also used this measurement in conjunction with other instruments (sometimes in series) and used the data to challenge many commonly used models of optical properties such as core-shell Mie, Rayleigh-Debeye-Gans and effective medium. This work has been carried out in a variety of atmospheric environments and with laboratory-produced soots, e.g. from a diesel engine rig. Highlights include the finding that with real-world atmospheric aerosols, bulk optical measurements may be insufficient to derive brown carbon parameters without detailed morphological data. We also show that the enhancement of absorption for both ambient and laboratory generated particles only occurs after the coating mass fraction reaches a certain

  8. Hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating of mesoporous silica and its use as a preconcentrating agent of gas analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Ji; Cho, Youn Kyoung; Kim, Dae Han; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Young Dok

    2014-09-01

    Mesoporous silica with mean pore size of ∼14 nm was coated by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a thermal deposition method. We showed that the inner walls of pores larger than ∼8 nm can be coated by thin layers of PDMS, and the surfaces consisting of PDMS-coated silica were superhydrophobic, with water contact angles close to 170°. We used the PDMS-coated silica as adsorbents of various gas-phase chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. PDMS-coated silica allowed molecular desorption of various CWA simulants even after exposure under highly humid conditions and, therefore, is applicable as an agent for the preconcentration of gas-phase analytes to enhance the sensitivities of various sensors. PMID:25102134

  9. Optical absorption in transparent PDMS materials applied for multimode waveguides fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, D. K.; Neyer, A.; Kuckuk, R.; Heise, H. M.

    2008-03-01

    The optical properties of transparent PDMS polymer materials, which can be integrated into general printed circuit board (PCB) for data communication, are of great interest due to the substantial market expectations for the near future. For the present paper, it was found that the absorption loss in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is mainly caused by the vibrational overtone and combination bands of the CH 3-groups of the polymer in the spectral datacom region of 600-900 nm. Based on observed positions of fundamental, overtone and combination bands of the methyl-group, as recorded within the mid- and near-infrared spectra, anharmonicity constants and normal vibration frequencies were determined. Thus, an empirical equation for estimating the wavelengths with the most significant intrinsic absorption loss due to the corresponding band positions was formulated, which was found to agree well with the experimental data. In addition, PDMS multimode waveguides were fabricated and the respective optical insertion loss was measured at 850 nm, which is commercially used for optical datacom transmission and finally the thermal stability of PDMS multimode waveguides was verified as well.

  10. Novel silicone compatible cross-linkers for controlled functionalization of PDMS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2013-01-01

    azide-functional cross-linker by click chemistry. The dipole cross-linkers are used to prepare PDMS elastomers of various chains lengths providing different network densities. The functionalized cross-linkers are incorporated successfully into the networks and are well distributed as determined by the...

  11. Dipolar cross-linkers for PDMS networks with enhanced dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren; Benslimane, Mohamed Yahia; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2013-01-01

    -(4-((4-nitrophenyl)diazenyl)phenoxy)-prop-1-yn-1-ylium, with a synthesized silicone compatible azide-functional cross-linker by click chemistry. The thermal, mechanical and electromechanical properties were investigated for PDMS films with 0 to 3.6 wt% of dipole-cross-linker. The relative dielectric permittivity was...

  12. LEO resistant PI-B-PDMS block copolymer films for solar array applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuyzen, H. van; Bongers, E.; Fischer, H.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Semprimoschnig, C.

    2013-01-01

    Due to their low atomic oxygen erosion yields PI-b-PDMS block copolymer films have considerable potential for application onto space exposed surfaces of satellites in low earth orbit. On solar arrays these materials might be used as electrical electrical insulation film, flexprint outer layer, elect

  13. Adhesive Stretchable Printed Conductive Thin Film Patterns on PDMS Surface with an Atmospheric Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yi; Liao, Ying-Chih

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a plasma surface modification with printing process was developed to fabricate printed flexible conductor patterns or devices directly on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. An atmospheric plasma treatment was first used to oxidize the PDMS surface and create a hydrophilic silica surface layer, which was confirmed with photoelectron spectra. The plasma operating parameters, such as gas types and plasma powers, were optimized to obtain surface silica layers with the longest lifetime. Conductive paste with epoxy resin was screen-printed on the plasma-treated PDMS surface to fabricate flexible conductive tracks. As a result of the strong binding forces between epoxy resin and the silica surface layer, the printed patterns showed great adhesion on PDMS and were undamaged after several stringent adhesion tests. The printed conductive tracks showed strong mechanical stability and exhibited great electric conductivity under bending, twisting, and stretching conditions. Finally, a printed pressure sensor with good sensitivity and a fast response time was fabricated to demonstrate the capability of this method for the realization of printed electronic devices. PMID:27082455

  14. Stretchable conducting gold films prepared with composite MWNT/PDMS substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M. U.; Lemoine, P.; Dixon, D.; Hamilton, J. W. J.; Maguire, P. D.

    2015-10-01

    Novel stretchable conducting films were prepared by depositing gold layers onto polymer nano-composites substrates formed by in-situ crosslinking of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT). The MWNT content interferes with the PDMS cure reaction giving variations in thermal degradation, solvent swelling, mechanical and electrical properties. Tensile cycling experiments were carried out on the gold-coated PDMS and nano-composite substrates SEM analysis and electrical measurements demonstrated that the crack widening and increased electrical resistance observed during strain cycling were reversible. The inclusion of 8 % MWNT into PDMS brought more micro-cracking in the gold layer yet reduced the electrical resistance of the gold-coated samples by 172X at 5 % strain, 38X at 10 % strain and 19X at 20 %. Hence, this improvement in conduction is attributed to assisted-conduction through the MWNT loaded substrate. This mechanism results in a more stable and reproducible electrical behaviour, making electrical conduction less critically dependent on defects in the gold layer.

  15. P.D.M.S. a cad software for the design of new power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.D.M.S. (''Plant Design Management System'') is a computer based management system designed to assist the engineer, with no previous computer knowledge, to solve the problems associated with plant and piping design. The essential feature of P.D.M.S. is that it provides the user with the ability to create a 3D model of his complete plant, by making use of a graphic terminal connected to a computer. The system gives the engineer the powerful advantage over existing techniques that any part of the plant information, which may be required for a specific function, may be retrieved and presented to him in the form most suited to his requirements (i.e. lists of items or fully annotated drawings). P.D.M.S. incorporates advanced facilities to enable engineers to analyse the information for design accuracy and consistency. The project manager can ensure that no errors in the total design due to integration of disciplines within the project, or due to the amalgamation of the work of many designers, who possibly operate in different design centres. P.D.M.S., implemented on an IBM machine of the computer center of Clamart, is being used by the equipment Direction of EDF for the design of new power plants

  16. PS-b-PDMS Block Copolymer Thin Film: Pattern Formation and Phase Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, I.-Fan; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.; Department of Polymer Science, The University of Akron Team

    2011-03-01

    Recently, block copolymer thin films attract great attention due to their potential applications in surface nano-lithography. In our work, PS- b -PDMS with cylinder morphology is chosen due to extremely large χ value between two blocks. Besides, PS- b -PDMS can be transformed into silicon oxide under UV/O3 exposure and a layer of silicon oxide with the self-assembled block copolymer patterns can be made. By utilizing the PGMEA as solvent, we can easily obtain sphere morphology in cylindrical composition block copolymer by preserved block copolymer solution morphology during film formation. Furthermore, in thermal annealing process, the phase behavior of the PS- b -PDMS thin film is strongly affects by molecular weight, film thickness and annealing temperature. In larger-molecular-weight PS- b -PDMS, we only observed spherical domains rearrangement and without morphology transition between sphere and cylinder due to high energy barrier, whereas, in the case of smaller-molecular-weight polymer, depending on the film thickness and annealing temperature, its thin film morphology transits between sphere and cylinder alternatively, which is similar to what we found in solvent annealing.

  17. Monolithic PDMS Laminates for Dielectric Elastomer Transducers through Open-Air PlasmATreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassouneh, Suzan Sager; Oubæk, Jakob; Daugaard, Anders Egede;

    2016-01-01

    -treatment, and it is performed at different speeds and distances away from the nozzle, to investigate how these two parameters influence the resulting interfacial layer of two fully cured PDMS films. The plasma-treatment is determined not to alter mechanical properties compared to the single film, while peel forces...

  18. Enhancing relative permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymers in binary polymer blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    they do possess high permittivity. Combining two such polymers in a block copolymer allows for further crosslinking and presents the possibility of substantial improvements in the actuation response of the resulting dielectric elastomer – if carefully designed. The objective is to synthesise a PDMS...

  19. Multi-channel peristaltic pump for microfluidic applications featuring monolithic PDMS inlay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Sabourin, David; Dufva, Martin;

    2009-01-01

    flow. Both use a monolithic PDMS pumping inlay featuring three-dimensional geometries favourable to pumping applications and 12 wholly integrated circular channels. Flow rates in the sub-µL min-1 to µL min-1 range were obtained. Channel-to-channel flow rate variability was comparable to a commercial...

  20. Probing the magnetic field structure in Sgr A* on Black Hole Horizon Scales with Polarized Radiative Transfer Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gold, Roman; Johnson, Michael D; Doeleman, Sheperd S

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are believed to drive accretion and relativistic jets in black hole accretion systems, but the magnetic-field structure that controls these phenomena remains uncertain. We perform general relativistic (GR) polarized radiative transfer of time-dependent three-dimensional GR magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations to model thermal synchrotron emission from the Galactic Center source Sagittarius A$^\\ast$ (Sgr A*). We compare our results to new polarimetry measurements by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) and show how polarization in the visibility (Fourier) domain distinguishes and constrains accretion flow models with different magnetic field structures. These include models with small-scale fields in disks driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) as well as models with large-scale ordered fields in magnetically-arrested disks (MAD). We also consider different electron temperature and jet mass-loading prescriptions that control the brightness of the disk, funnel-wall jet, and Blandford-...

  1. Low-temperature solid-state microwave reduction of graphene oxide for transparent electrically conductive coatings on flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qizhen; Hsie, Sinsar Alec; Wong, Ching Ping

    2012-11-12

    Microwaves (MWs) are applied to initialize deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO) in the solid state and at low temperatures (∼165 °C). The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of MW-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) show a significantly reduced concentration of oxygen-containing functional groups, such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl. X-ray photoelectron spectra confirm that microwaves can promote deoxygenation of GO at relatively low temperatures. Raman spectra and TGA measurements indicate that the defect level of GO significantly decreases during the isothermal solid-state MW-reduction process at low temperatures, corresponding to an efficient recovery of the fine graphene lattice structure. Based on both deoxygenation and defect-level reduction, the resurgence of interconnected graphene-like domains contributes to a low sheet resistance (∼7.9×10(4) Ω per square) of the MW-reduced GO on SiO(2) -coated Si substrates with an optical transparency of 92.7 % at ∼547 nm after MW reduction, indicating the ultrahigh efficiency of MW in GO reduction. Moreover, the low-temperature solid-state MW reduction is also applied in preparing flexible transparent conductive coatings on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. UV/Vis measurements indicate that the transparency of the thus-prepared MW-reduced GO coatings on PDMS substrates ranges from 34 to 96 %. Correspondingly, the sheet resistance of the coating ranges from 10(5) to 10(9) Ω per square, indicating that MW reduction of GO is promising for the convenient low-temperature preparation of transparent conductors on flexible polymeric substrates. PMID:22930478

  2. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S1 x S2. We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  3. Pilot evaluation of the Making Employment Needs [MEN] count intervention: addressing behavioral and structural HIV risks in heterosexual black men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Dasgupta, Anindita; Goldson, Irvienne; Lafontant, Dumas; Freeman, Elmer; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-02-01

    Few community-based HIV interventions exist for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. None focus on structural HIV risks such as unemployment and unstable housing. This study involved a pilot evaluation of the MEN (Making Employment Needs) Count HIV intervention, a three session peer counselor-delivered program of HIV risk reduction and gender-equity counseling, and employment and housing case management. A single-arm intervention trial of MEN Count was conducted with Black men recruited from a community men's clinic and social services program. Eligible men were those who reported two or more sex partners in the past six months and current unemployment and/or recent homelessness. Most participants (68%) had a history of incarceration. Participants (N = 50) were surveyed on outcomes at baseline (Time 1), posttest (Time 2; 60-90 days after baseline), and two-month follow-up (Time 3). The majority of participants were retained in the program (86%) and the final follow-up survey (76%). McNemar tests revealed significant reductions in the past 30-day unprotected sex from Time 1 (74%) to Time 2 (47%) and to Time 3 (47%), and in homelessness from Time 1 (58%) to Time 3 (32%). Significant increases in employment from Time 1 (8%) to Time 2 (29%) and Time 3 (32%) were also seen. Participants completed a brief participant satisfaction survey at posttest. Most (n=28, 65%) rated the program as excellent, and an additional 10 (23%) rated it as good. Although there was no significant reduction in multiple sex partners, a trend was observed from Time 1 (56%) to Time 2 (44%) and Time 3 (42%). Findings suggest that the MEN Count model is a feasible and promising HIV prevention program for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. Larger scale implementation and more rigorous evaluation of MEN Count are needed to confirm the study findings. PMID:23767788

  4. Small-angle scattering, contrast variation and the study of complex composite materials: A study of the structure of carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed studies are presented on the structure and aggregation of an experimental high surface area carbon black (HSA) using small-angle neutron scattering and the method of contrast variation. We find that the approximately 27 mn HSA particle form small, linear aggregates of average aggregation number 5 when suspended in cyclohexane. There is considerable density fluctuation in the interior of these particles, with the denser regions being toward the outer part of the spherically-averaged structure. This information would not have been obtained from studies of carbon black without solvent. The results will be applied to similar scattering studies on solvent-swollen bound rubber gels made from HSA-polyisoprene. These result show, however, that the strong internal fluctuations of the carbon black will limit the information that can be obtained on the structure and conformation of the elastomer in the gel. There are additional limitation from compositional heterogeneity of the sample

  5. Structural, mechanical and electrical characterization of epoxy-amine/carbon black nanonocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an insight into the effect of preparation procedure and the filler content on both electrical and mechanical properties of a nanocomposite system. For the preparation of the nanocomposites diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA was used with triethylenetetramine (TETA as a curing agent. As fillers carbon black (CB nanoparticles with size from 25 to 75 nm were used. The characterization was done using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA, Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy (DRS, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD and electrical conductivity measurements. The dependence of the dynamic mechanical and dielectric parameters (E′, E″, tanδ, ε', ε″, σ and Tg is associated with the filler content and is controlled by the employed curing conditions. An increase in electrical conductivity, which is observed at about 1% w/w of carbon black, indicates the creation of conducting paths and is associated with the Maxwell Wagner Sillars (MWS relaxation, probably due to the formation of aggregated microstructures in the bulk composite..

  6. Structural invariance of General Behavior Inventory (GBI) scores in Black and White young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Laura L; Youngstrom, Eric A; Brown, Christopher; Jensen, Dane; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-03-01

    In the United States, Black and White individuals show discrepant rates of diagnosis of bipolar disorder versus schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder, as well as disparate access to and utilization of treatment for these disorders (e.g., Alegria, Chatterji, et al., 2008; Chrishon, Anderson, Arora, & Bailey, 2012). Such diagnostic discrepancies might stem from racially related cognitive biases in clinical judgment or from racial biases in measurements of bipolar disorder. The General Behavior Inventory (GBI) is among the most well-validated and widely used measures of bipolar mood symptoms, but the psychometric properties of the GBI have been examined primarily in predominantly White samples. In this study, we used multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to examine the invariance of GBI scores across racial groups with a nonclinical sample. Fit was acceptable for tests of configural invariance, equal factor loadings, and equal intercepts, but not invariance of residuals. Findings indicate that GBI scores provide functionally invariant measurement of mood symptoms in both Black and White samples. The use of GBI scores may contribute consistent information to clinical assessments and could potentially reduce diagnostic discrepancies and associated differences in access to and utilization of mental health services. PMID:25222430

  7. Breast cancers from black women exhibit higher numbers of immunosuppressive macrophages with proliferative activity and of crown-like structures associated with lower survival compared to non-black Latinas and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Santander, Ana M; Miao, Feng; Sanchez, Lidia G; Jorda, Merce; Glück, Stefan; Ince, Tan A; Nadji, Mehrad; Chen, Zhibin; Penichet, Manuel L; Cleary, Margot P; Torroella-Kouri, Marta

    2016-07-01

    Racial disparities in breast cancer incidence and outcome are a major health care challenge. Patients in the black race group more likely present with an early onset and more aggressive disease. The occurrence of high numbers of macrophages is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in solid malignancies. Macrophages are observed in adipose tissues surrounding dead adipocytes in "crown-like structures" (CLS). Here we investigated whether the numbers of CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and/or CD163+ CLS are associated with patient survival and whether there are significant differences across blacks, non-black Latinas, and Caucasians. Our findings confirm that race is statistically significantly associated with the numbers of TAMs and CLS in breast cancer, and demonstrate that the highest numbers of CD163+ TAM/CLS are found in black breast cancer patients. Our results reveal that the density of CD206 (M2) macrophages is a significant predictor of progression-free survival univariately and is also significant after adjusting for race and for HER2, respectively. We examined whether the high numbers of TAMs detected in tumors from black women were associated with macrophage proliferation, using the Ki-67 nuclear proliferation marker. Our results reveal that TAMs actively divide when in contact with tumor cells. There is a higher ratio of proliferating macrophages in tumors from black patients. These findings suggest that interventions based on targeting TAMs may not only benefit breast cancer patients in general but also serve as an approach to remedy racial disparity resulting in better prognosis patients from minority racial groups. PMID:27283835

  8. Black silicon solar thin-film microcells integrating top nanocone structures for broadband and omnidirectional light-trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhida; Yao, Yuan; Brueckner, Eric P; Li, Lanfang; Jiang, Jing; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-08-01

    Recently developed classes of monocrystalline silicon solar microcells (μ-cell) can be assembled into modules with characteristics (i.e., mechanically flexible forms, compact concentrator designs, and high-voltage outputs) that would be impossible to achieve using conventional, wafer-based approaches. In this paper, we describe a highly dense, uniform and non-periodic nanocone forest structure of black silicon (bSi) created on optically-thin (30 μm) μ-cells for broadband and omnidirectional light-trapping with a lithography-free and high-throughput plasma texturizing process. With optimized plasma etching conditions and a silicon nitride passivation layer, black silicon μ-cells, when embedded in a polymer waveguiding layer, display dramatic increases of as much as 65.7% in short circuit current, as compared to a bare silicon device. The conversion efficiency increases from 8.1% to 11.5% with a small drop in open circuit voltage and fill factor. PMID:25006119

  9. 3-cm Fine Structure Masers: A Unique Signature of Supermassive Black Hole Formation via Direct Collapse in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, Mark; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The direct collapse black hole (DCBH) scenario describes the isothermal collapse of a pristine gas cloud directly into a massive, M_BH=10^4-10^6 M_sun black hole. In this paper we show that large HI column densities of primordial gas at T~10^4 K with low molecular abundance - which represent key aspects of the DCBH scenario - provide optimal conditions for pumping of the 2p-level of atomic hydrogen by trapped Lyman alpha (Lya) photons. This Lya pumping mechanism gives rise to inverted level population of the 2s_1/2-2p_3/2 transition, and therefore to stimulated fine structure emission at 3.04 cm (rest-frame). We show that simplified models of the DCBH scenario amplify the CMB by up to a factor of 10^5, above which the maser saturates. Hyperfine splitting of the 3-cm transition gives rise to a characteristic broad (FWHM ~ tens of MHz in the observers frame) asymmetric line profile. This signal subtends an angular scale of ~ 1-10 mas, which translates to a flux of ~ 0.3-3 microJy, which is detectable with ultra...

  10. Effort Optimism in the Classroom: Attitudes of Black and White Students on Education, Social Structure, and Causes of Life Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew, Ervin

    2011-01-01

    Do black and white students hold similar beliefs about the causes of life opportunities? Disparities in academic performance between blacks and whites have been attributed, in part, to differing attitudes about the relationship between education and life opportunities. Advocates of oppositional culture theory argue that black students consider…

  11. Structural controls on fractured coal reservoirs in the southern Appalachian Black Warrior foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshong, R.H., Jr.; Pashin, J.C.; McIntyre, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Coal is a nearly impermeable rock type for which the production of fluids requires the presence of open fractures. Basin-wide controls on the fractured coal reservoirs of the Black Warrior foreland basin are demonstrated by the variability of maximum production rates from coalbed methane wells. Reservoir behavior depends on distance from the thrust front. Far from the thrust front, normal faults are barriers to fluid migration and compartmentalize the reservoirs. Close to the thrust front, rates are enhanced along some normal faults, and a new trend is developed. The two trends have the geometry of conjugate strike-slip faults with the same ??1 direction as the Appalachian fold-thrust belt and are inferred to be the result of late pure-shear deformation of the foreland. Face cleat causes significant permeability anisotropy in some shallow coal seams but does not produce a map-scale production trend. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Shared communities, structural contexts, and HIV risk: prioritizing the HIV risk and prevention needs of Black heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Raj, Anita

    2012-05-01

    Black heterosexual men (BHM) are seldom mentioned in HIV prevention research, policy, and interventions, despite evidence that heterosexual contact is becoming the leading exposure category for BHM. The disparate effect of HIV/AIDS on BHM; the debunked "down low" myth; the contexts of BHM's lives in terms of disproportionate poverty, unemployment, and incarceration; and a growing empirical base linking these factors to increased HIV risk, underscore the need to prioritize HIV risk and prevention initiatives for BHM. We highlighted the structural contexts of HIV risk for BHM, and four community-based approaches to address HIV risk and prevention for BHM: (1) men's health programs; (2) workforce and postincarceration release programs; (3) linkages to women's prevention programs; and (4) faith-based initiatives. PMID:22401513

  13. X-band EMI shielding mechanisms and shielding effectiveness of high structure carbon black/polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) and EMI shielding mechanisms of high structure carbon black (HS-CB)/polypropylene (PP) composites in the X-band frequency range were studied. Composite plates with three different thicknesses and five different electrical conductivities were studied. The reflection loss and absorption loss of the composites were quantified based on the electromagnetic radiation power balance. The results showed that for HS-CB/PP composites, absorption loss contribution to the overall attenuation is more than the contribution of the reflection loss. The ability of the theoretical model to predict the EMI shielding by reflection and absorption was found to be a function of the shielding plate thickness and conductivity.

  14. Hinge-like structure induced unusual properties of black phosphorus and new strategies to improve the thermoelectric performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangzhao; Yan, Qing-Bo; Qin, Zhenzhen; Yue, Sheng-Ying; Cui, Hui-Juan; Zheng, Qing-Rong; Su, Gang

    2014-01-01

    We systematically investigated the geometric, electronic and thermoelectric (TE) properties of bulk black phosphorus (BP) under strain. The hinge-like structure of BP brings unusual mechanical responses such as anisotropic Young's modulus and negative Poisson's ratio. A sensitive electronic structure of BP makes it transform among metal, direct and indirect semiconductors under strain. The maximal figure of merit ZT of BP is found to be 0.72 at 800 K that could be enhanced to 0.87 by exerting an appropriate strain, revealing BP could be a potential medium-high temperature TE material. Such strain-induced enhancements of TE performance are often observed to occur at the boundary of the direct-indirect band gap transition, which can be attributed to the increase of degeneracy of energy valleys at the transition point. By comparing the structure of BP with SnSe, a family of potential TE materials with hinge-like structure are suggested. This study not only exposes various novel properties of BP under strain, but also proposes effective strategies to seek for better TE materials. PMID:25374306

  15. Infrared study on the electronic structure of SmS in the black phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report that the electronic structure of SmS at ambient pressure has been studied by the optical conductivity [σ(ω)] measurement and by the band structure calculation. The σ(ω) spectrum has a direct gap structure at 0.4 eV (=4600 K) but no clear gap structure expected by other experiments appears at 86 meV (=1000 K). The temperature dependence of the Drude weight, however, indicates the evidence of an indirect gap with the gap size of 1000 K. These results were well explained by a LSDA+U band structure calculation

  16. Deformation Analysis of a Pneumatically-Activated Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS Membrane and Potential Micro-Pump Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Han Chiou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a double-side diaphragm peristaltic pump for efficient medium transport without the unwanted backflow and the lagging effect of a diaphragm. A theoretical model was derived to predict the important parameter of the micropump, i.e., the motion of the valves at large deformations, for a variety of air pressures. Accordingly, we proposed an easy and robust design to fabricate a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-based micropump. The theoretical model agrees with a numerical model and experimental data for the deformations of the PDMS membrane. Furthermore, variations of the generated flow rate, including pneumatic frequencies, actuated air pressures, and operation modes were evaluated experimentally for the proposed micropumps. In future, the theoretical equation could provide the optimal parameters for the scientists working on the fabrication of the diaphragm peristaltic pump for applications of cell-culture.

  17. PDMS/glass microfluidic cell culture system for cytotoxicity tests and cells passage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziolkowska, K.; Jedrych, E.; Kwapiszewski, R.; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Skolimowski, Maciej; Chudy, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid (PDMS/glass) microfluidic cell culture system (MCCS) integrated with the concentration gradient generator (CGG) is presented. PDMS gas permeability enabled cells' respiration in the fabricated microdevices and excellent glass hydrophilicity allowed successful cells' seeding....... The human lung carcinoma cells (A549) were cultured in the microdevice for several days. The growth and proliferation of cells was monitored using an inverted fluorescence microscope. After the cells' confluence was achieved in the microchambers, the novel method of cells' passaging in the designed...... microdevice was developed and successfully tested. The MCCS microdevice is fully reusable, i.e. it can be used several times for various cell culture and cytotoxic experiments. The suitability of designed MCCS for cell-based cytotoxicity assay application was verified using 1,4-dioxane as a model toxic agent...

  18. The Fabrication of PDMS mould for Microelectrode Array Biochip using NIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Khi Khim; Samsuri, Fahmi; Lee, Tze Pin; Mohamed, Khairudin

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, low-cost micro and nano fabrication process have gain intention from the manufacturing industry. Biochip is a platform of miniaturized microarrays arranged on a solid substrate that allows various biological tests to achieve immediate results. The development of biochip has established a new platform in biomedical industry. However, to fulfill the demands and availability in the market with affordable cost requires high volume manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of the biochips. In this article we will discuss the fabrication of PDMS mould for replicating microelectrode array of biochip. The fabrication of the microelectrodes utilizes the Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technique. Finally, the fabrication of PDMS mould has been demonstrated successfully for using Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technique and achieved 13% of size difference in overall.

  19. A Janus-paper PDMS platform for air–liquid interface cell culture applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercially available Janus paper with one hydrophobic (polyethylene-coated) face and a hygroscopic/hydrophilic one is irreversibly bonded to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate incorporating microfluidic channels via corona discharge surface treatment. The bond strength between the polymer-coated side and PDMS is characterized as a function of corona treatment time and annealing temperature/time. A maximum strength of 392 kPa is obtained with a 2 min corona treatment followed by 60 min of annealing at 120 °C. The water contact angle of the corona-treated polymer side decreases with increased discharge duration from 98° to 22°. The hygroscopic/hydrophilic side is seeded with human lung fibroblast cells encapsulated in a methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogel to show the potential of this technology for nutrient and chemical delivery in an air–liquid interface cell culture. (paper)

  20. Hydrophilic Surface Modification of PDMS Microchannel for O/W and W/O/W Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Bashir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A surface modification method for bonded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannels is presented herein. Polymerization of acrylic acid was performed on the surface of a microchannel using an inline atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier microplasma technique. The surface treatment changes the wettability of the microchannel from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This is a challenging task due to the fast hydrophobic recovery of the PDMS surface after modification. This modification allows the formation of highly monodisperse oil-in-water (O/W droplets. The generation of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W double emulsions was successfully achieved by connecting in series a hydrophobic microchip with a modified hydrophilic microchip. An original channel blocking technique to pattern the surface wettability of a specific section of a microchip using a viscous liquid comprising a mixture of honey and glycerol, is also presented for generating W/O/W emulsions on a single chip.

  1. Polymer (PDMS-Fe3O4) magneto-dielectric substrate for a MIMO antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqadami, Abdulrahman Shueai Mohsen; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Soh, Ping Jack; Kamarudin, Muhammad Ramlee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a 2 × 4 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna array fabricated on a nanocomposite magneto-dielectric polymer substrate. The 10-nm iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite is used as substrate to enhance the performance of a MIMO antenna array. The measured results showed up to 40.8 % enhancement in terms of bandwidth, 9.95 dB gain, and 57 % of radiation efficiency. Furthermore, it is found that the proposed magneto-dielectric (PDMS-Fe3O4) composite substrate provides excellent MIMO parameters such as correlation coefficient, diversity gain, and mutual coupling. The prototype of the proposed antenna is transparent, flexible, lightweight, and resistant against dust and corrosion. Measured results indicate that the proposed antenna is suitable for WLAN and ultra-wideband biomedical applications within frequency range of 5.33-7.70 GHz.

  2. New constraints on the structure and dynamics of black hole jets

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, William J

    2015-01-01

    Accreting black holes produce powerful relativistic plasma jets which emit radiation across all observable wavelengths but the details of the initial acceleration and confinement of the jet are uncertain. We apply an innovative new model that allows us to determine key properties of the acceleration zone via multi-frequency observations. The central component of the model is a relativistic steady-state fluid flow, and the emission from physically distinct regions can be seen to contribute to different energy bands in the overall spectrum. By fitting with unprecedented accuracy to 42 simultaneous multiwavelength blazar spectra we are able to constrain the location of the brightest synchrotron emitting region, and show that there must be a linear relation between the jet power and the radius of the brightest region of the jet. We also find a correlation between the length of the accelerating region and the maximum bulk Lorentz factor of the jet and find evidence for a bimodal distribution of accretion rates in ...

  3. Black Queen evolution: the role of leakiness in structuring microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Black Queen (BQ) functions are biological processes that yield neither purely private nor purely public products. This partitioning of benefits, also called 'leakiness', can produce negative frequency dependence of fitness in microbial communities, allowing coexistence between function-performing helpers and function-requiring beneficiaries. The ubiquity of leakiness favors a 'race to the bottom' as members of a community lose the ability to perform functions whose products are available from the environment. Rather than being social altruists, helpers are merely those populations that lost this race and got stuck in their role as function performers. Here I discuss many such BQ functions and the microbial communities that evolve around them. I also compile evidence from laboratory evolution experiments as well as phylogenetic reconstructions that show that organisms gain greater fitness increases from gene/function loss events than is commonly expected. Finally, I consider possible consequences of long-term BQ-stabilized coexistence, including sympatric speciation and the evolution of true mutualisms. PMID:26078099

  4. Clumpy accretion onto black holes. I. Clumpy-ADAF structure and radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J -M; Li, Y -R

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of clumps embedded in and confined by the advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAF), in which collisions among the clumps are neglected. We start from the collisionless Boltzmann equation and assume that interaction between the clumps and the ADAF is responsible for transporting angular momentum of clumps outward. The inner edge of the clumpy-ADAF is set to be the tidal radius of the clumps. We consider strong and weak coupling cases, in which the averaged properties of clumps follow the ADAF dynamics and mainly determined by the black hole potential, respectively. We get the analytical solution of the dynamics of clumps for the two cases. The velocity dispersion of clumps is one magnitude higher than the ADAF for the strong coupling case. For the weak coupling case, we find that the mean radial velocity of clumps is linearly proportional to the coefficient of the drag force. We show that the tidally disrupted clumps would lead to accumulation of the debris to form ...

  5. Magnetosphere of a Kerr black hole immersed in magnetized plasma and its perturbative mode structure

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Lehner, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This work studies jet-like electromagnetic configurations surrounding a slowly-spinning black-hole immersed in a uniformly magnetized force-free plasma. In the first part of this work, we present a family of stationary solutions that are jet-capable. While these solutions all satisfy the force-free equations and the appropriate boundary conditions, our numerical experiments show a unique relaxed state starting from different initial data, and so one member of the family is likely preferred over the others. In the second part of this work, we analyze the perturbations of this family of jet-like solutions, and show that the perturbative modes exhibit a similar split into the trapped and traveling categories previously found for perturbed Blandford-Znajek solutions. In the eikonal limit, the trapped modes can be identified with the fast magnetosonic waves in the force-free plasma and the traveling waves are essentially the Alfven waves. Moreover, within the scope of our analysis, we have not seen signs of unstab...

  6. Magnetosphere of a Kerr black hole immersed in magnetized plasma and its perturbative mode structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Lehner, Luis

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies jetlike electromagnetic configurations surrounding a slowly spinning black-hole immersed in a uniformly magnetized force-free plasma. In the first part of this paper, we present a family of stationary solutions that are jet capable. While these solutions all satisfy the force-free equations and the appropriate boundary conditions, our numerical experiments show a unique relaxed state starting from different initial data, and so one member of the family is likely preferred over the others. In the second part of this paper, we analyze the perturbations of this family of jetlike solutions, and show that the perturbative modes exhibit a similar split into the trapped and traveling categories previously found for perturbed Blandford-Znajek solutions. In the eikonal limit, the trapped modes can be identified with the fast magnetosonic waves in the force-free plasma and the traveling waves are essentially the Alfvén waves. Moreover, within the scope of our analysis, we have not seen signs of unstable modes at the light-crossing time scale of the system, within which the numerical relaxation process occurs. This observation disfavors mode instability as the selection mechanism for picking out a preferred solution. Consequently, our analytical study is unable to definitively select a particular solution out of the family to serve as the aforementioned preferred final state. This remains an interesting open problem.

  7. Deformation Analysis of a Pneumatically-Activated Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Membrane and Potential Micro-Pump Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Han Chiou; Tai-Yen Yeh; Jr-Lung Lin

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a double-side diaphragm peristaltic pump for efficient medium transport without the unwanted backflow and the lagging effect of a diaphragm. A theoretical model was derived to predict the important parameter of the micropump, i.e., the motion of the valves at large deformations, for a variety of air pressures. Accordingly, we proposed an easy and robust design to fabricate a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based micropump. The theoretical model agrees with a numerical model an...

  8. Structure of the genetic diversity in Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) populations across European river systems: consequences for conservation and restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Cottrell, J.E.; Lefevre, F.; Schoot, van der J.; Arens, P.F.P.; Vosman, B.; Tabbener, H.E.; Grassi, F.; Fossati, T.; Castiglione, S.; Krystufek, V.; Fluch, S.; Burg, K.; Vornam, B.; Pohl, A.; Gebhardt, K.; Alba, N.; Agúndez, D.; Maestro, C.; Notivol, E.; Volosyanchuck, R.; Pospiskova, M.; Bordacs, S.; Bovenschen, J.; Dam, van B.C.; Koelewijn, H.P.; Halfmaerten, D.; Ivens, B.; Slycken, Van J.; Vanden Broeck, A.; Storme, V.; Boerjan, W.

    2008-01-01

    Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is a keystone species for riparian ecosystems in Europe. We analysed the structure of genetic diversity of 17 populations from 11 river valleys that are part of seven catchment systems (Danube, Ebro, Elbe, Po, Rhine, Rhone, and Usk) in Europe, in relation to geography

  9. Special structure of mitochondrial DNA control region and phylogenetic relationship among individuals of the black rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiumei; Song, Na; Gao, Tianxiang

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with the structure of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of the black rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii. Two termination-associated sequences (TASs), two complementary termination-associated sequences (cTASs), and conserved sequence block (CSB), such as CSB-F, CSB-E, CSB-D, CSB1, CSB2, and CSB3, were detected in S. schlegelii. The results indicated that the structures of these blocks are similar to most marine fishes, but it is special that there are two TASs and two cTASs in the CR of S. schlegelii. One conserved region was found from 450 bp to the end of the CR, which is also a special feature of S. schlegelii. All sequences of CSB1, CSB2, and CSB3 blocks are the consensus among different individuals, which is quite different from most vertebrates. In addition, the complete mtDNA CR sequences and the first 449 bp of the CR are used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of S. schlegelii. The phylogenetic trees show a lack of genetic structure among individuals. This study also indicated a signal that the genetic diversity might be similar between the wild and cultured individuals, which may be helpful to the fisheries management. PMID:23072475

  10. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  11. Quantitative Determination of Nicotine in a PDMS Microfluidic Channel Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid and highly sensitive determination of nicotine in a PDMS microfluidic channel was investigated using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A three-dimensional PDMS microfluidic channel was fabricated for this purpose. This channel shows a high mixing efficiency because the transverse and vertical dispersions of the fluid occur simultaneously through the upper and lower zig zag-type blocks. A higher efficiency of mixing could also be obtained by splitting each of the confluent streams into two sub-streams that then joined and recombined. The SERS signal was measured after nicotine molecules were effectively adsorbed onto silver nanoparticles by passing through the three-dimensional channel. A quantitative analysis of nicotine was performed based on the measured peak area at 1030 cm-1. The detection limit was estimated to be below 0.1 ppm. In this work, the SERS detection, in combination with a PDMS microfluidic channel, has been applied to the quantitative analysis of nicotine in aqueous solution. Compared to the other conventional analytical methods, the detection sensitivity was enhanced up to several orders of magnitude

  12. Functionalized PDMS with versatile and scalable surface roughness gradients for cell culture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2015-07-21

    This manuscript describes a simple and versatile approach to engineering surface roughness gradients via combination of microfluidics and photo-polymerization. Through UV-mediated polymerization, N-isopropylacrylamide with concentration gradients are successfully grafted onto PDMS surface, leading to diverse roughness degrees on the obtained PDMS substrate. Furthermore, the extent of surface roughness can be controllably regulated via tuning the flow rate ratio between the monomer solution and deionized water. Average roughness ranging from 8.050 nm to 151.68 nm has well been achieved in this work. Such PDMS samples are also demonstrated to be capable of working as supporting substrates for controlling cell adhesion or detachment. Due to the different degrees of surface roughness on a single substrate, our method provides an effective approach for designing advanced surafecs for cell culture. Finally, the thermosensitive property of N-isopropylacrylamide makes our sample furnish as another means for controlling the cell detachment from the substrates with correspondence to the surrounding temperature.

  13. CNT/PDMS-based canal-typed ear electrodes for inconspicuous EEG recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong Hoon; Lee, Seung Min; Byeon, Hang Jin; Hong, Joung Sook; Park, Kwang Suk; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Current electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring systems typically require cumbersome electrodes that must be pasted on a scalp, making a private recording of an EEG in a public place difficult. We have developed a small, user friendly, biocompatible electrode with a good appearance for inconspicuous EEG monitoring. Approach. We fabricated carbon nanotube polydimethylsiloxane (CNT/PDMS)-based canal-type ear electrodes (CEE) for EEG recording. These electrodes have an additional function, triggering sound stimulation like earphones and recording EEG simultaneously for auditory brain-computer interface (BCI). The electrode performance was evaluated by a standard EEG measurement paradigm, including the detection of alpha rhythms and measurements of N100 auditory evoked potential (AEP), steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and auditory steady-state response (ASSR). Furthermore, the bio- and skin-compatibility of CNT/PDMS were tested. Main results. All feasibility studies were successfully recorded with the fabricated electrodes, and the biocompatibility of CNT/PDMS was also proved. Significance. These electrodes could be used to monitor EEG clinically, in ubiquitous health care and in brain-computer interfaces.

  14. PDMS/Kapton interface plasma treatment effects on the polymeric package for a wearable thermoelectric generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francioso, Luca; De Pascali, Chiara; Bartali, Ruben; Morganti, Elisa; Lorenzelli, Leandro; Siciliano, Pietro; Laidani, Nadhira

    2013-07-24

    The present work highlights the progress in the field of polymeric package reliability engineering for a flexible thermoelectric generator realized by thin-film technology on a Kapton substrate. The effects of different plasma treatments on the mechanical performance at the interface of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)/Kapton assembly were investigated. To increase the package mechanical stability of the realized wearable power source, the Kapton surface wettability after plasma exposure was investigated by static contact-angle measurements using deionized water and PDMS as test liquids. In fact, the well-known weak adhesion between PDMS and Kapton can lead to a delamination of the package with an unrecoverable damage of the generator. The plasma effect on the adhesion performances was evaluated by the scratch-test method. The best result was obtained by performing a nitrogen plasma treatment at a radio-frequency power of 20 W and a gas flow of 20 sccm, with a measured critical load of 1.45 N, which is 2.6 times greater than the value measured on an untreated Kapton substrate and 1.9 times greater than the one measured using a commercial primer. PMID:23829424

  15. Facile fabrication of functional PDMS surfaces with tunable wettablity and high adhesive force via femtosecond laser textured templating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlei Hu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond laser processing is emerged as a promising tool to functionalize surfaces of various materials, including metals, semiconductors, and polymers. However, the productivity of this technique is limited by the low efficiency of laser raster scanning. Here we report a facile approach for efficiently producing large-area functional polymer surfaces, by which metal is firstly textured by a femtosecond laser, and the as-prepared hierarchical structures are subsequently transferred onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS surfaces. Aluminum pieces covered by laser induced micro/nano-structures act as template masters and their performance of displaying diverse colors are investigated. Polymer replicas are endowed with tunable wetting properties, which are mainly attributed to the multi-scale surface structures. Furthermore, the surfaces are found to have extremely high adhesive force for water drops because of the high water penetration depth and the resultant high contact angle hysteresis. This characteristic facilitates many potential applications like loss-free tiny water droplets transportation. The reusability of metal master and easiness of soft lithography make it to be a very simple, fast and cost-efficient way for mass production of functional polymeric surfaces.

  16. Proximity association in polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis): network structure and seasonality%Proximity association in polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis):network structure and seasonality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Hua GUAN; Bei HUANG; Wen-He NING; Qing-Yong NI; Xue-Long JIANG

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the structure and seasonality of the proximity network in a group of polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor) using social network analysis.The spatial proximity changed seasonally and was affected by temperature and rainfall.Preferred proximity association was not distributed randomly among individuals.Kinship was one explanation for the social structure,as offspring preferred to maintain close proximity with their mothers.The proximity of infants to mothers decreased with age,and independent offspring had lower proximity to mothers than dependent ones.We found that the adult male had different proximity relationships with two different adult females.The frequency of proximity between the male and the infant-carrying female was significantly higher than that between the male and the female who had immigrated carrying one offspring of uncertain paternity into the group.Infanticide avoidance and/or predation protection for dependent infants might explain the proximity relationship differences.Temperature influenced group proximity association,with individual proximity increasing in the cold months and decreasing in the hot months.Group proximity decreased in months with higher anthropogenic disturbance.

  17. 3-cm Fine Structure Masers: A Unique Signature of Supermassive Black Hole Formation via Direct Collapse in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Mark; Sethi, Shiv; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    The direct collapse black hole (DCBH) scenario describes the isothermal collapse of a pristine gas cloud directly into a massive, {M}{BH} = 104-106{M}⊙ black hole. In this paper we show that large H i column densities of primordial gas at T˜ {10}4 K with low molecular abundance—which represent key aspects of the DCBH scenario—provide optimal conditions for the pumping of the 2p-level of atomic hydrogen by trapped Lyα photons. This Lyα pumping mechanism gives rise to an inverted level population of the 2{s}1/2-2{p}3/2 transition, and therefore also gives rise to stimulated fine structure emission at λ =3.04 {cm} (rest-frame). We show that simplified models of the DCBH scenario amplify the CMB by up to a factor of ˜ {10}5, above which the maser saturates. Hyperfine splitting of the 3 cm transition gives rise to a characteristic broad (FWHM ˜ tens of MHz in the observers frame) asymmetric line profile. This signal subtends an angular scale of ˜1-10 mas, which translates to a flux of ˜0.3-3 μJy, which is detectable with ultra-deep surveys being planned with SKA1-MID. While challenging, as the signal is visible for a fraction of the collapse time of the cloud, the matching required physical conditions imply that a detection of the redshifted 3-cm emission line could provide direct evidence for the DCBH scenario.

  18. Numerical parameter survey of non-radiative black hole accretion: flow structure and variability of the rotation measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bijia; Pen, Ue-Li; Matzner, Christopher D.; Green, Stephen R.; Liebendörfer, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    We conduct a survey of numerical simulations to probe the structure and appearance of non-radiative black hole accretion flows like the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Centre. We find a generic set of solutions, and make specific predictions for currently feasible rotation measure (RM) observations, which are accessible to current instruments including the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The slow time variability of the RM is a key quantitative signature of this accretion flow. The time variability of RM can be used to quantitatively measure the nature of the accretion flow, and to differentiate models. Sensitive measurements of RM can be achieved using RM synthesis or using pulsars. Our energy conserving ideal magnetohydrodynamical simulations, which achieve high dynamical range by means of a deformed-mesh algorithm, stretch from several Bondi radii to about one-thousandth of that radius, and continue for tens of Bondi times. Magnetized flows which lack outward convection possess density slopes around -1, almost independent of physical parameters, and are more consistent with observational constraints than are strongly convective flows. We observe no tendency for the flows to become rotationally supported in their centres, or to develop steady outflow. We support these conclusions with formulae which encapsulate our findings in terms of physical and numerical parameters. We discuss the relation of these solutions to other approaches. The main potential uncertainties are the validity of ideal magnetohydrodynamic and the absence of a fully relativistic inner boundary condition. The RM variability predictions are testable with current and future telescopes.

  19. Clumpy Accretion onto Black Holes. I. Clumpy-advection-dominated Accretion Flow Structure and Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Min; Cheng, Cheng; Li, Yan-Rong

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of clumps embedded in and confined by the advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs), in which collisions among the clumps are neglected. We start from the collisionless Boltzmann equation and assume that interaction between the clumps and the ADAF is responsible for transporting the angular momentum of clumps outward. The inner edge of the clumpy-ADAF is set to be the tidal radius of the clumps. We consider strong- and weak-coupling cases, in which the averaged properties of clumps follow the ADAF dynamics and are mainly determined by the black hole potential, respectively. We propose the analytical solution of the dynamics of clumps for the two cases. The velocity dispersion of clumps is one magnitude higher than the ADAF for the strong-coupling case. For the weak-coupling case, we find that the mean radial velocity of clumps is linearly proportional to the coefficient of the drag force. We show that the tidally disrupted clumps would lead to an accumulation of the debris to form a debris disk in the Shakura-Sunyaev regime. The entire hot ADAF will be efficiently cooled down by photons from the debris disk, giving rise to a collapse of the ADAF, and quench the clumpy accretion. Subsequently, evaporation of the collapsed ADAF drives resuscitate of a new clumpy-ADAF, resulting in an oscillation of the global clumpy-ADAF. Applications of the present model are briefly discussed to X-ray binaries, low ionization nuclear emission regions, and BL Lac objects.

  20. Influence of drought conditions on brown trout biomass and size structure in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of drought conditions on the biomass of brown trout Salmo trutta in Spearfish Creek, upper Rapid Creek, and lower Rapid Creek in the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Stream discharge, mean summer water temperature, the biomass of juvenile and adult brown trout, and brown trout size structure were compared between two time periods: early (2000–2002) and late drought (2005–2007). Mean summer water temperatures were similar between the early- and late-drought periods in Spearfish Creek (12.4°C versus 11.5°C), lower Rapid Creek (19.2°C versus 19.3°C), and upper Rapid Creek (9.8°C in both periods). In contrast, mean annual discharge differed significantly between the two time periods in Spearfish Creek (1.95 versus 1.50 m3/s), lower Rapid Creek (2.01 versus 0.94 m3/s), and upper Rapid Creek (1.41 versus 0.84 m3/s). The mean biomass of adult brown trout in all three stream sections was significantly higher in the early-drought than in the late-drought period (238 versus 69 kg/ha in Spearfish Creek, 272 versus 91 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and 159 versus 32 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek). The biomass of juvenile brown trout was similar (43 versus 23 kg/ha) in Spearfish Creek in the two periods, declined from 136 to 45 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and increased from 14 to 73 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek. Size structure did not differ between the early- and late-drought periods in lower Rapid and Spearfish creeks, but it did in upper Rapid Creek. In addition to drought conditions, factors such as angler harvest, fish movements, and the nuisance algal species Didymosphenia geminata are discussed as possible contributors to the observed changes in brown trout biomass and size structure in Black Hills streams.

  1. CONNECTING STAR FORMATION QUENCHING WITH GALAXY STRUCTURE AND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES THROUGH GRAVITATIONAL HEATING OF COOLING FLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observations suggested that star formation quenching in galaxies is related to galaxy structure. Here we propose a new mechanism to explain the physical origin of this correlation. We assume that while quenching is maintained in quiescent galaxies by a feedback mechanism, cooling flows in the hot halo gas can still develop intermittently. We study cooling flows in a large suite of around 90 hydrodynamic simulations of an isolated galaxy group, and find that the flow development depends significantly on the gravitational potential well in the central galaxy. If the galaxy's gravity is not strong enough, cooling flows result in a central cooling catastrophe, supplying cold gas and feeding star formation to galactic bulges. When the bulge grows prominent enough, compressional heating starts to offset radiative cooling and maintains cooling flows in a long-term hot mode without producing a cooling catastrophe. Our model thus describes a self-limited growth channel for galaxy bulges and naturally explains the connection between quenching and bulge prominence. In particular, we explicitly demonstrate that M∗/Reff1.5 is a good structural predictor of quenching. We further find that the gravity from the central supermassive black hole also affects the bimodal fate of cooling flows, and we predict a more general quenching predictor to be Mbh1.6M∗/Reff1.5, which may be tested in future observational studies

  2. Effects of carbon blacks with various structures on vulcanization and reinforcement of filled ethylene-propylene-diene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of carbon blacks on vulcanization and mechanical properties of filled ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM are investigated, by comparing with five types of rubber-grade carbon blacks. Curing kinetics is studied by rheometer and the results indicate that the curing characteristics are influenced by combination of surface area of carbon black and sulphur content on the filler surface, because the former one enhances the physical cross-linking and the latter one introduces the additional chemical cross-linking. Both the degree of cross-linking and cure rate increase with increasing surface area and sulphur content, whereas the optimum cure time and scorch time decrease. The reinforcing nature of the carbon black is assessed from mechanical measurements. It is suggested that the surface area of carbon blacks strongly affects the physical properties of EPDM/carbon black composites. Conductive carbon black (N472 can be used as desirable reinforcing filler due to the higher degree of cross-linking of EPDM with N472 than other EPDM/carbon black composites. The morphology and distribution of particles are studied by using scanning electron microscope. The sound reinforcing ability of N472 is also supported by scanning electron microscope due to the notable dispersibility of N472 within EPDM matrix. N472 ensures the EPDM/N472 composite the most conductive sample among the five composites.

  3. A Novel DC Microplasma Sensor Constructed in a Cavity PDMS Chamber with Needle Electrodes for Fast Detection of Methanol-containing Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dai-Bing; Duan, Yi-Xiang; He, Yi; Gao, Bo

    2014-12-01

    A novel microplasma device, for the first time, was constructed in a cavity Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) chamber with two normal syringe needles serve as both the gas channels and the electrodes. This device employs argon plasma with direct current for molecular fragmentation and excitation. The microplasma is generated at atmospheric pressure in the PDMS chamber of 0.5 mL (5 × 10 × 10 mm3) volume with a sealable plug. Since the microplasma is maintained in a chamber by separation of the discharge zone and the substrate, stability for a long time of the microplasma is realized which could be observed by argon background emission fluctuation and SEM characterization. This property is beneficial for spectrometric detection of many volatile organics in this chamber. Besides, this kind of microplasma sensor has advantages such as flexibility in replacement of electrodes, convenience in clearance of the discharge chamber, small instrument volume, simple structure, and ease of operation. In addition, methanol-containing spirit samples were chosen to estimate the detecting performance of this microplasma for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis by molecular emission spectrometry. Significant differences are observed upon the introduction of the spirit and the methanol-containing spirit samples. A detection limit of 0.3% is obtained on this microplasma device.

  4. Evaluation and characterization of ceramic membranes based on Pdms/SiC containing phosphotungstic acid as electrolytes for PEM-FC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the development of membranes with potential use in Proton Exchange Fuel Cells (PEM-FC), consisting of hybrid materials based on poly(dimethylsiloxane), crosslinked with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), and reinforced with silicon carbide and phosphotungstic acid. The membrane series PDMS/TEOS/SiC/PWA were prepared by the reaction of PDMS and TEOS, 70/30% proportions in mass, catalyzed by dibutyltin dilaurate. SiC was incorporated in a 25% proportion, and PWA in varied proportions (5, 10, 15 and 20%), by weight. The membranes were characterized by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. SiC and PWA addition to the membrane increased both structure organization and material crystallinity. The insertion of PWA provided an increase in the conductivity. However, maximum conductivity was obtained with concentration levels above 10%. The insertion of SiC associated with the PWA did not influence the conductivity for concentrations between 10 and 20%. (author)

  5. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  6. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretic to increase urine flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other products, black tea is used for weight loss. In foods, ...

  7. Phase structures of the black D$p$-D$(p + 4)$-brane system in various ensembles II: electrical and thermodynamic stability

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Zhiguang

    2015-01-01

    By incorporating the electrical stability condition into the discussion, we continue the study on the thermodynamic phase structures of the D$p$-D$(p + 4)$ black brane in GG, GC, CG, CC ensembles defined in our previous paper arXiv:1502.00261. We find that including the electrical stability conditions in addition to the thermal stability conditions does not modify the phase structure of the GG ensemble but puts more constraints on the parameter space where black branes can stably exist in GC, CG, CC ensembles. In particular, the van der Waals-like phase structure which was supposed to be present in these ensembles when only thermal stability condition is considered would no longer be visible, since the phase of the small black brane is unstable under electrical fluctuations. However, the symmetry of the phase structure by interchanging the two kinds of brane charges and potentials is still preserved, which is argued to be the result of T-duality.

  8. Anti-icing properties of superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Fajun; Li, Wen; Ou, Junfei; Li, Changquan; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2016-01-01

    We present the excellent anti-icing performance for a superhydrophobic coating surface based on ZnO/polydimethylsiloxane (ZnO/PDMS) composite. The superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS coating surface was prepared by a facile solution mixing, drop coating, room-temperature curing and surface abrading procedure. The superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS composite coating possesses a water contact angle of 159.5° and a water sliding angle of 8.3° at room temperature (5 °C). The anti-icing properties of the superhydrophobic coating were investigated by continuously dropping cold-water droplets (about 0 °C) onto the pre-cooled surface using a home-made apparatus. The sample was placed at different tilting angle (0° and 10°) and pre-cooled to various temperatures (-5, -10 and -15 °C) prior to measure. The pure Al surface was also studied for comparison. It was found that icing accretion on the surface could be reduced apparently because the water droplets merged together and slid away from the superhydrophobic surface at all of the measuring temperatures when the surface is horizontally placed. In addition, water droplet slid away completely from the superhydrophobic surface at -5 and -10 °C when the surface is tilted at 10°, which demonstrates its excellent anti-icing properties at these temperatures. When the temperature decreased to -15 °C, though ice accretion on the tilted superhydrophobic coating surface could not be avoided absolutely, the amount of ice formed on the surface is very small, which indicated that the coating surface with superhydrophobicity could significantly reduce ice accumulation on the surface at very low temperature (-15 °C). Importantly, the sample is also stable against repeated icing/deicing cycles. More meaningfully, once the superhydrophobic surface is damaged, it can be repaired easily and rapidly.

  9. A 2-axis Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based electromagnetic MEMS scanning mirror for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehui; Lee, Changho; Kim, Jin Young; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Jeehyun; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging tool for visualizing cross-sectional images of biological tissues on a microscale. Various microelectromechanical system (MEMS) techniques have been applied to OCT for endoscopic catheters and handheld probes. Despite having several advantages such as compact sizes and high speeds for real-time imaging, the complexities of the fabrication processes and relatively high costs were bottlenecks for fast clinical translation and commercialization of the earlier MEMS scanners. To overcome these issues, we developed a 2-axis polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based electromagnetic MEMS scanning mirror based on flexible, cost-effective, and handleable PDMS. The size of this MEMS scanner was 15 × 15 × 15 mm3. To realize the characteristics of the scanner, we obtained the DC/AC responses and scanning patterns. The measured maximum scanning angles were 16.6° and 11.6° along the X and Y axes, respectively. The resonance frequencies were 82 and 57 Hz along the X and Y axes, respectively. The scanning patterns (raster and Lissajous scan patterns) are also demonstrated by controlling the frequency and amplitude. Finally, we showed the in vivo 2D-OCT images of human fingers by using a spectral domain OCT system with a PDMSbased MEMS scanning mirror. We then reconstructed the 3D images of human fingers. The obtained field of view was 8 × 8 mm2. The PDMS-based MEMS scanning mirror has the potential to combine other optical modalities and be widely used in preclinical and clinical translation research.

  10. Demonstration of a PDMS based hybrid grating and Fresnel lens (G-Fresnel) device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan; Shi, Kebin; Edwards, Perry; Liu, Zhiwen

    2010-11-01

    A hybrid device that we term G-Fresnel (i.e., grating and Fresnel) is demonstrated. It fuses the functions of a grating and a Fresnel lens into a single device. We have fabricated the G-Fresnel device by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based soft lithography. Three-dimensional surface profilometry has been performed to examine the device quality. We have also conducted optical characterizations to confirm its dual focusing and dispersing properties. The G-Fresnel can be useful for the development of miniature optical spectrometers as well as emerging optofluidic applications. PMID:21164696

  11. Hydrophobic recovery in ultrathin PDMS-coated long and short silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, D.; Marry, C.; Ma, J.; Sinha, S.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to modify the contact angle (CA) of water on silicon has applications ranging from thermal management of electronics to miniaturized biomedical devices. Here, we report ∼30 ± 1° variation in superhydrophobic CA on silicon nanowires (NWs) coated with few nm of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), using a simple and stable plasma treatment. The variation in CA arises from choosing NWs of different lengths. We characterize the surfaces using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and other techniques. Together with CA available from similar treatment on bulk silicon, it is possible to non-lithographically create regions of diverse CA, from ∼5 to 149 ± 1°.

  12. Sub-10 nm Silicon Nanopillar Fabrication Using Fast and Brushless Thermal Assembly of PS-b-PDMS Diblock Copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Jérôme; Arias-Zapata, Javier; Marconot, Olivier; Arnaud, Sandrine; Böhme, Sophie; Girardot, Cécile; Buttard, Denis; Zelsmann, Marc

    2016-04-20

    A new approach to obtaining spherical nanodomains using polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) is proposed. To reduce drastically the process time, we blended a copolymer with cylindrical morphology with a PS homopolymer. Adding PS homopolymer into a low-molar-mass cylindrical morphology PS-b-PDMS system drives it toward a spherical morphology. Besides, by controlling the as-spun state, spherical PDMS nanodomains could be kept and thermally arranged. This PS-homopolymer addition allows not only an efficient, purely thermal arrangement process of spheres but also the ability to work directly on nontreated silicon substrates. Indeed, as shown by STEM measurements, no PS brush surface treatment was necessary in our study to avoid a PDMS wetting layer at the interface with the Si substrate. Our approach was compared to a sphere-forming diblock copolymer, which needs a longer thermal annealing. Furthermore, GISAXS measurements provided complete information on PDMS sphere features. Excellent long-range order spherical microdomains were therefore produced on flat surfaces and inside graphoepitaxy trenches with a period of 21 nm, as were in-plane spheres with a diameter of 8 nm with a 15 min thermal annealing. Finally, direct plasma-etching transfer into the silicon substrate was demonstrated, and 20 nm high silicon nanopillars were obtained, which are very promising results for various nanopatterning applications. PMID:27020847

  13. Femtosecond laser surface structuring and oxidation of chromium thin coatings: Black chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsedi, L., E-mail: Kotsedi@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Mthunzi, P. [National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 0001 Pretoria (South Africa); Muller, T.F.G. [University of the Western Cape, Physics Department, Bellville, 7535 Cape Town (South Africa); Eaton, S.M. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Julies, B. [University of the Western Cape, Physics Department, Bellville, 7535 Cape Town (South Africa); Manikandan, E. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Ramponi, R. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Oxidation of the chromium thin film to chromium oxide by femtosecond laser with a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. • Solar absorber from chromium oxide that low percentage reflectance. • Femtosecond laser oxidation, with a de-focused laser. • Chromium oxide formation by femtosecond laser in normal ambient. - Abstract: In view of their potential applications as selective solar absorbers, chromium coatings on float glass substrates were nano/micro structured by femtosecond laser in air. Raman and X-rays diffraction investigations confirmed the formation of an ultra-porous α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer at the surface; higher is the input laser power, enhanced is the crystallinity of the α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. The α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer with the Cr underneath it in addition to the photo-induced porosity acted as a classical ceramic–metal nano-composite making the reflectance to decrease significantly within the spectral range of 190–1100 nm. The average reflectance decreased from 70 to 2%.

  14. Femtosecond laser surface structuring and oxidation of chromium thin coatings: Black chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Oxidation of the chromium thin film to chromium oxide by femtosecond laser with a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. • Solar absorber from chromium oxide that low percentage reflectance. • Femtosecond laser oxidation, with a de-focused laser. • Chromium oxide formation by femtosecond laser in normal ambient. - Abstract: In view of their potential applications as selective solar absorbers, chromium coatings on float glass substrates were nano/micro structured by femtosecond laser in air. Raman and X-rays diffraction investigations confirmed the formation of an ultra-porous α-Cr2O3 layer at the surface; higher is the input laser power, enhanced is the crystallinity of the α-Cr2O3 layer. The α-Cr2O3 layer with the Cr underneath it in addition to the photo-induced porosity acted as a classical ceramic–metal nano-composite making the reflectance to decrease significantly within the spectral range of 190–1100 nm. The average reflectance decreased from 70 to 2%

  15. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  16. Race, Social Context, and Consumption: How Race Structures the Consumption Preferences and Practices of Middle and Working-Class Blacks

    OpenAIRE

    Pittman, Cassi

    2012-01-01

    The contemporary experience of race in America demands that blacks become astute observers of their surroundings, required to read subtle social, interactional and environmental cues to determine how to appropriately engage others in order to gain respect and social acceptance. Consumption objects, whether physical or material goods or services and experiences, are symbolic tools that blacks mobilize in order to define and assert themselves wherever they may be. Market research reveals that d...

  17. The technicolor "big picture" of black hole evolution: Multiwavelength views of AGN, galaxies, and large-scale structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hickox, Ryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Large multiwavelength extragalactic surveys have revolutionized our understanding of the cosmic evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). I will discuss recent results on the host galaxies and clustering of AGN selected using a range of techniques from the radio to the hard X-ray wavebands, including data from the NuSTAR and WISE space observatories. I will show that relatively small dark matter halos hosting star-forming galaxies are connected with rapid but highly variable black hole g...

  18. Large-area, high-aspect-ratio SU-8 molds for the fabrication of PDMS microfluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively low-cost fabrication method using soft lithography and molding for large-area, high-aspect-ratio microfluidic devices, which have traditionally been difficult to fabricate, has been developed and is presented in this work. The fabrication process includes novel but simple modifications of conventional microfabrication steps and can be performed in any standard microfabrication facility. Specifically, the fabrication and testing of a microfluidic device for continuous flow deposition of bio-molecules in an array format are presented. The array layout requires high-aspect-ratio elastomeric channels that are 350 µm tall, extend more than 10 cm across the substrate and are separated by as little as 20 µm. The mold from which these channels were fabricated consisted of high-quality, 335 µm tall SU-8 structures with a high-negative aspect ratio of 17 on a 150 mm silicon wafer and was produced using spin coating and UV-lithography. Several unique processing steps are introduced into the lithographic patterning to eliminate many of the problems experienced when fabricating tall, high-aspect-ratio SU-8 structures. In particular, techniques are used to ensure uniform molds, both in height and quality, that are fully developed even in the deep negative-aspect-ratio areas, have no leftover films at the top of the structures caused by overexposure and no bowing or angled sidewalls from diffraction of the applied UV light. Successful microfluidic device creation was demonstrated using these molds by casting, curing and bonding a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. A unique microfluidic device, requiring these stringent geometries, for continuous flow printing of a linear array of 16 protein and antibody spots has been demonstrated and validated by using surface plasmon resonance imaging of printed arrays

  19. Structural Properties and Antifungal Activity against Candida albicans Biofilm of Different Composite Layers Based on Ag/Zn Doped Hydroxyapatite-Polydimethylsiloxanes

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Groza; Carmen Steluta Ciobanu; Cristina Liana Popa; Simona Liliana Iconaru; Patrick Chapon; Catalin Luculescu; Mihai Ganciu; Daniela Predoi

    2016-01-01

    Modern medicine is still struggling to find new and more effective methods for fighting off viruses, bacteria and fungi. Among the most dangerous and at times life-threatening fungi is Candida albicans. Our work is focused on surface and structural characterization of hydroxyapatite, silver doped hydroxyapatite and zinc doped hydroxyapatite deposited on a titanium substrate previously coated with polydimethylsiloxane (HAp-PDMS, Ag:HAp-PDMS, Zn:HAp-PDMS) by different techniques: Scanning Elect...

  20. Propiedades interfaciales del surfactante pdms-peganhídrido maléico-ácido fumárico (pdms-peg-am-af) en solución acuosa

    OpenAIRE

    Johana Rodríguez; Edgardo Meza Fuentes; Maria Cecilia Azevedo Espiridiao

    2011-01-01

    En este estudio se determinaron las propiedadesinterfaciales en solución acuosadel surfactante del tipo PDMS-éster quecontiene polidimetilsiloxano (PDMS),polietilenglicol (PEG), anhídrido maléicoy ácido fumárico. Para el estudio delas propiedades interfaciales se emplearonlas técnicas tensiometría y espectroscopiaen la región del UV-Vis. En soluciónacuosa este surfactante mostró uncomportamiento complejo, que es dependientede la concentración. En este surfactantese observó un cambio brusco en...

  1. Micro pumping methods based on AC electrokinetics and Electrorheologically actuated PDMS valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Gaurav; Squires, Todd; Meinhart, Carl

    2006-11-01

    We have developed 2 different micropumping methods for transporting ionic fluids through microchannels. The first method is based on Induced Charge Electroosmosis (ICEO) and AC flow field-effect. We used an AC electric field to produce a symmetric ICEO flow on a planar electrode, called `gate'. In order to break the symmetry of ICEO, we applied an additional AC voltage to the gate electrode. Such modulation of the gate potential is called field effect and produces a unidirectional pumping over the gate surface. We used micro PIV to measure pumping velocities for a range of ionic concentration, AC frequency and gate voltage. We have also conducted numerical simulations to understand the deteriorating effect of lateral conduction of surface charge on the pumping velocities. The second method is based on vibration of a flexible PDMS diaphragm actuated by an electrorheological (ER) fluid. ER fluid is a colloidal suspension exhibiting a reversible liquid-to-solid transition under an electric field. This liquid-to-solid transition can yield very high shear stress and can be used to open and close a PDMS valve. Three such valves were fabricated and actuated in a peristaltic fashion in order to achieve positive displacement pumping of fluids.

  2. Optimization of the replica molding process of PDMS using pennate diatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomimetic fabrication of nanostructured materials has recently attracted the attention of researchers as a cost-effective and easily applicable method of nanotexturing. Different techniques and materials have been used in order to replicate natural patterns, among which polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS Sylgard 184®) was recently used to replicate the micro- and nanoscale patterns from centric diatoms. In this paper, we test the reproducibility and precision of this approach using various morphologically different diatom species trying to optimize the molding parameters. The optimization process is focused on immobilization of diatoms on the glass support, which serves as a master for templating, as well as on the parameters of PDMS fabrication such as the ratio of the curing agent and elastomer, use of vacuum, curing time and temperature. The results indicate that higher ratios of curing agent and elastomer, longer curing time and lower temperature are the most favorable conditions to obtain negative diatom replicas of good quality with features of 50 nm. Although this method can give very precise results producing high-resolution molds with all micro- and nanostructures replicated, we revealed some limitations regarding the size and morphology of the species used. These results indicate that large round and flat diatom species seem to be more suitable for the cast molding. (paper)

  3. Concurrent recordings of bladder afferents from multiple nerves using a microfabricated PDMS microchannel electrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Chew, Daniel J; Minev, Ivan R; Fawcett, James W; Lacour, Stéphanie P

    2012-07-21

    In this paper we present a compliant neural interface designed to record bladder afferent activity. We developed the implant's microfabrication process using multiple layers of silicone rubber and thin metal so that a gold microelectrode array is embedded within four parallel polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels (5 mm long, 100 μm wide, 100 μm deep). Electrode impedance at 1 kHz was optimized using a reactive ion etching (RIE) step, which increased the porosity of the electrode surface. The electrodes did not deteriorate after a 3 month immersion in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Due to the unique microscopic topography of the metal film on PDMS, the electrodes are extremely compliant and can withstand handling during implantation (twisting and bending) without electrical failure. The device was transplanted acutely to anaesthetized rats, and strands of the dorsal branch of roots L6 and S1 were surgically teased and inserted in three microchannels under saline immersion to allow for simultaneous in vivo recordings in an acute setting. We utilized a tripole electrode configuration to maintain background noise low and improve the signal to noise ratio. The device could distinguish two types of afferent nerve activity related to increasing bladder filling and contraction. To our knowledge, this is the first report of multichannel recordings of bladder afferent activity. PMID:22569953

  4. Roll-printed organic thin-film transistor using patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jeongdai; Yu, Jong-Su; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Kwang-Young

    2010-05-01

    The roll-printed gate, source, and drain electrodes of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated by gravure printing or gravure-offset printing using patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp with various channel lengths and low-resistance silver (Ag) pastes on flexible 150 x 150 mm2 plastic substrates. Bottom-contact roll-printed OTFTs used polyvinylphenol (PVP) as polymeric dielectric and bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) as organic semiconductor; they were formed by spin coating or ink-jetting. Depending on the choice of roll-printing method, the printed OTFTs obtained had a field-effect mobility of between 0.08 and 0.1 cm2/Vs, an on/off current ratio of between 10(4) and 10(5), and a subthreshold slope of between 1.96 and 2.32 V/decade. The roll-printing using patterned PDMS stamp and soluble processes made it possible to fabricate a printed OTFT with a channel length of between 12 to 74 microm on a plastic substrate; this was not previously possible using traditional printing techniques. The proposed fabrication process was 20 steps shorted than conventional fabrication techniques. PMID:20359007

  5. Treatment of PDMS surfaces using pulsed DBD plasmas: comparing the use of different gases and its influence on adhesion

    CERN Document Server

    Nascimento, Fellype do; Machida, Munemasa; Parada, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present some results of the treatment of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces using pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasmas. The results of plasma treatment using different gases to produce the plasmas (argon, argon plus water, helium, helium plus water, nitrogen and nitrogen plus water) were compared testing the adhesion between two PDMS samples for each kind of plasma. We also studied the water contact angle in function of plasma process time of PDMS surfaces with each kind of plasma. The plasmas were characterized by optical emission spectroscopy to identify the emitting species and determine plasma temperatures through comparison with emission spectra simulations. Measurements of power delivered to the plasmas were also performed. Plasmas of all gases are good enough for surface treatment with long exposure time. But when only a few discharges are applied the best choice is the helium plasma.

  6. Fabrication of microlens arrays on a glass substrate by roll-to-roll process with PDMS mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Nying; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a roll-to-roll method to fabricate microlens arrays on a glass substrate by using a cost-effective PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) mold. We fabricated microlens arrays mold, which was made by photoresist(AZ4620), on the silicon substrate by thermal reflow process, and transferred the pattern to PDMS film. Roll-to-roll system is a standard printing process whose roller is made of acrylic cylinder surrounded with the PDMS mold. UV resin was chosen to be the material to make microlens in rolling process with UV light curing. We investigated the quality of microlens arrays by changing the parameters, such as embossing pressure and rolling speed, to ensure good quality of microlens arrays.

  7. Novel Conductive Carbon Black and Polydimethlysiloxane ECG Electrode: A Comparison with Commercial Electrodes in Fresh, Chlorinated, and Salt Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Yeonsik; Bales, Justin R; Reyes, Bersain A; Molignano, Jennifer; Clement, Amanda L; Pins, George D; Florian, John P; Chon, Ki H

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the performance of two novel conductive carbon black (CB) and polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) bio-potential electrodes, with and without an integrated flexible copper mesh, against commercially available electrodes (Polar(®) textile, Silver-coated textile, and carbon rubber). The electrodes were tested in three types of water (fresh/unfiltered, chlorinated, and salt water). Our testing revealed that our CB/PDMS electrode with integrated copper mesh provided a high-fidelity ECG signal morphologies without any amplitude degradation in all of the types of water tested (N = 10). The non-meshed CB/PDMS electrodes were also subjected to a long-term durability test by the US Navy SCUBA divers during which the electrodes maintained ECG signal quality for a 6 h period of continuous use. The results of a material degradation analysis revealed the CB/PDMS composite material does not exhibit significant changes in physical integrity after prolonged exposure to the test conditions. The newly developed meshed CB/PDMS electrodes have the potential to be used in a wide variety of both dry and wet environments including the challenge of obtaining ECG signals in salt water environments. PMID:26769718

  8. Point mass Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Firouzjaee, Javad T

    2016-01-01

    Real black holes in the universe are located in the expanding accelerating background which are called the cosmological black holes. Hence, it is necessary to model these black holes in the cosmological background where the dark energy is the dominant energy. In this paper, we argue that most of the dynamical cosmological black holes can be modeled by point mass cosmological black holes. Considering the de Sitter background for the accelerating universe, we present the point mass cosmological background in the cosmological de Sitter space time. Our work also includes the point mass black holes which have charge and angular momentum. We study the mass, horizons, redshift structure and geodesics properties for these black holes.

  9. PERVAPORATION OF ETHANOL/WATER MIXTURES WITH HIGH FLUX BY ZEOLITE-FILLED PDMS/PVDF COMPOSITE MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继定

    2009-01-01

    Thin-film zeolite-filled silicone/PVDF composite membranes were fabricated by incorporating zeolite particles into PDMS(poly(dimethylsiloxane)) membranes.The morphology of zeolite particles and zeolite filled silicone composite membranes were characterized by SEM.The zeolite-filled PDMS/PVDF composite membranes were applied for the pervaporation of ethanol/water mixtures and showed higher flux compared with that reported in literatures.The effect of zeolite loading and Si/Al ratio of zeolite particles on...

  10. Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) Affects Gene Expression in PC12 Cells Differentiating into Neuronal-Like Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin

    2013-01-01

    accumulated research. In contrast, the experience base is limited for materials used in microfludics chip fabrication. Methods: The effect of different materials (PS, PMMA and perforated PMMA with a piece of PDMS underneath) on the growth and differentiation of PC12 (adrenal phaeochromocytoma) cells into...... contrast, 41 genes showed different expression for PC12 cells differentiating on PMMA as compared to on PS. In contrast, 677 genes showed different expression on PMMA with PDMS underneath as compared with PC12 cells on PS. The differentially expressed genes are involved in neuronal cell development and...

  11. Non-Abelian magnetic black strings versus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present d+1 -dimensional pure magnetic Yang-Mills (YM) black strings (or 1-branes) induced by the d -dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dilaton black holes. The Born-Infeld version of the YM field makes our starting point which goes to the standard YM field through a limiting procedure. The lifting from black holes to black strings (with less number of fields) is done by adding an extra, compact coordinate. This amounts to the change of horizon topology from S^{d-2} to a product structure. Our black string in 5 dimensions is a rather special one, with uniform Hawking temperature and non-asymptotically flat structure. As the YM charge becomes large the string gets thinner to tend into a breaking point and transform into a 4-dimensional black hole.

  12. Structural Properties and Antifungal Activity against Candida albicans Biofilm of Different Composite Layers Based on Ag/Zn Doped Hydroxyapatite-Polydimethylsiloxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Groza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern medicine is still struggling to find new and more effective methods for fighting off viruses, bacteria and fungi. Among the most dangerous and at times life-threatening fungi is Candida albicans. Our work is focused on surface and structural characterization of hydroxyapatite, silver doped hydroxyapatite and zinc doped hydroxyapatite deposited on a titanium substrate previously coated with polydimethylsiloxane (HAp-PDMS, Ag:HAp-PDMS, Zn:HAp-PDMS by different techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The morphological studies revealed that the use of the PDMS polymer as an interlayer improves the quality of the coatings. The structural characterizations of the thin films revealed the basic constituents of both apatitic and PDMS structure. In addition, the GD depth profiles indicated the formation of a composite material as well as the successful embedding of the HAp, Zn:HAp and Ag:HAp into the polymer. On the other hand, in vitro evaluation of the antifungal properties of Ag:HAp-PDMS and Zn:HAp-PDMS demonstrated the fungicidal effects of Ag:HAp-PDMS and the potential antifungal effect of Zn:HAp-PDMS composite layers against C. albicans biofilm. The results acquired in this research complete previous research on the potential use of new complex materials produced by nanotechnology in biomedicine.

  13. Thermodynamical Structure of AdS Black Holes in Massive Gravity with Stringy Gauge-Gravity Corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Hendi, S H; Panahiyan, S

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by gauge/gravity group in the low energy effective theory of the heterotic string theory, the minimal coupling of Gauss-Bonnet-massive gravity with Born-Infeld electrodynamics is considered. At first the metric function is calculated and then the geometrical properties of the solutions are investigated. It is found that there is an essential singularity at the origin and the intrinsic curvature is regular elsewhere. In addition, the effects of massive parameters on the horizons of black holes are studied and the conserved and thermodynamic quantities are calculated. Also, it is shown that the solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Furthermore using heat capacity of these black holes, thermal stability and phase transitions are investigated. The variation of different parameters and related modifications on the (number of) phase transition are examined. Next, the critical behavior of the Gauss-Bonnet-Born-Infeld-massive black holes in context of extended phase space is studied. It is show...

  14. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  15. Microfibrillated cellulose sheets coating oxygen-permeable PDMS membranes induce rat hepatocytes 3D aggregation into stably-attached 3D hemispheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenou, Fanny; Couderc, Sandrine; Kim, Beomjoon; Fujii, Teruo; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the use of natural, chemically-unmodified, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) as a matrix for hepatocyte culture. We developed an original cell-culture design composed of a thin 3D-microstructured fibrous substrate consisting of a MFC sheet coating a highly O(2)-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The MFC-coated PDMS membranes were obtained according to a simple process where cellulose fibres were deposited from an aqueous suspension on the PDMS surfaces and the films were dried under mild conditions. To enable oxygen diffusion through the membranes, they were assembled on bottomless frames ('O(2)+' condition). Rat hepatocytes primary-cultured on such MFC-PDMS membranes quickly organized themselves into large hemispherical 3D aggregates which were tightly anchored to the MFC sheets. In contrast, hepatocytes cultured on smooth PDMS membranes in the O(2)+ system (O(2)+, PDMS) organized into unstable 2D monolayers which easily detached from the surfaces. Hepatocyte 3D cultures obtained on MFC-PDMS membranes exhibited higher liver-specific functions over a 2-week culture period, as assessed by both the higher albumin secretion and urea synthesis rate. The MFC-PDMS membranes appear suitable for obtaining stably-attached and functional hepatocyte 3D cultures and appear interesting for drug/chemical screenings in a microplate format, but also for microfluidic applications. PMID:20626957

  16. Does Parenting Explain the Effects of Structural Conditions on Children's Antisocial Behavior? A Comparison of Blacks and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jane D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Data on black children and white children over age six and their mothers (from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) indicate no racial differences in total effects of poverty and single parenthood on parenting practices (affection and spanking). Parenting practices were reciprocally related to child's antisocial behavior for whites, but did not…

  17. Are black holes totally black?

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A

    2014-01-01

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  18. Real time PCR on disposable PDMS chip with a miniaturized thermal cycler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Q; Xu, B; Fu, R; Li, D

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost miniature PCR device consisting of a disposable reactor chip and a miniature thermal cycler. The simple fabrication of the PCR chip by PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) does not need micro-machining or photolithography processes. The thermal cycler was built with a thin film heater for heating and a fan for rapid cooling. This device can perform PCR tests in a single well chip or a multiple-well chip. It can run PCR reactions of different volumes to meet specific application requirements. The smallest reaction volume tested in this work is 0.9 microL. In addition, this device fits any standard fluorescence microscope for real time detection, which makes real time PCR affordable for most research labs and clinics with a fluorescence microscope. Real-time PCR of E. coli stx1 has been demonstrated with the device described. PMID:16404505

  19. Design and dynamic characterization of "single-stroke" peristaltic PDMS micropumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hoyin; Folch, Albert

    2011-01-21

    In this paper, we present a monolithic PDMS micropump that generates peristaltic flow using a single control channel that actuates a group of different-sized microvalves. An elastomeric microvalve design with a raised seat, which improves bonding reliability, is incorporated into the micropump. Pump performance is evaluated based on several design parameters--size, number, and connection of successive microvalves along with control channel pressure at various operating frequencies. Flow rates ranging 0-5.87 µL min(-1) were observed. The micropump design demonstrated here represents a substantial reduction in the number of/real estate taken up by the control lines that are required to run a peristaltic pump, hence it should become a widespread tool for parallel fluid processing in high-throughput microfluidics. PMID:20957288

  20. Rapid, Brushless Self-assembly of a PS-b-PDMS Block Copolymer for Nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasappa, Sozaraj; Schulte, Lars; Borah, Dipu;

    2014-01-01

    antidot patterns after short solvo-thermal annealing. Unlike previous reports on this system, low temperature and short annealing time provide self-assembly in homogeneous thin films covering large substrate areas. This on-chip mask was then used for pattern transfer to the underlying silicon substrate......Block copolymers (BCP) are highly promising self-assembling precursors for scalable nanolithography. Very regular BCP nanopatterns can be used as on-chip etch masks. The first step in the processing of BCP thin films is usually the chemical modification of the substrate surface, typically by...... grafting of a brush layer that renders the surface energy neutral relative to the constituent blocks. We provide here a first study on rapid, low temperature self-assembly of PS-b-PDMS (polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane) on silicon substrates without a brush layer. We show that it forms line and...

  1. Novel method to prepare multiwalled carbon nanotube/poly(dimethyl siloxane) (MWCNT/PDMS) non-conducting composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kaustav; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    In this study a new method of carbon nanotube (CNT) incorporation was employed for the preparation of ultraviolet (UV) curable CNT filled poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) composites. The composites were designed to contain loadings of CNT above the percolation threshold without becoming conductive...

  2. Uniform droplet splitting and detection using Lab-on-Chip flow cytometry on a microfluidic PDMS device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Hoyland, James; Rasmussen, Steen; Hanczyc, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A PDMS chip is fabricated using soft lithography and applied to investigate the formation and division of nitrobenzene (NB) droplets in a two-phase system stabilized by oleic acid. Using an integrated on-chip flow cytometer setup, effected with optical fibers, droplet size distributions are...

  3. Pulsed transfer etching of PS-PDMS block copolymers self-assembled in 193 nm lithography stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardot, Cécile; Böhme, Sophie; Archambault, Sophie; Salaün, Mathieu; Latu-Romain, Eddy; Cunge, Gilles; Joubert, Olivier; Zelsmann, Marc

    2014-09-24

    This work presents the graphoepitaxy of high-χ block copolymers (BCP) in standard industry-like lithography stacks and their transfer into the silicon substrate The process includes conventional 193 nm photolithography, directed self-assembly of polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) and pulsed plasma etching to transfer the obtained features into the substrate. PS-b-PDMS has a high Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (high-χ) and is capable of achieving sub-10 nm feature sizes. The photolithography stack is fabricated on 300 mm diameter silicon wafers and is composed of three layers: spin-on-carbon (SoC), silicon-containing anti-reflective coating (SiARC) and 193 nm photolithography resist. Sixty-nanometer-deep trenches are first patterned by plasma etching in the SiARC/SoC stack using the resist mask. The PS-b-PDMS is then spread on the substrate surface. Directed self-assembly (DSA) of the BCP is induced by a solvent vapor annealing process and PDMS cylinders parallel to the substrate surface are obtained. The surface chemistry based on SoC permits an efficient etching process into the underlying silicon substrate. The etching process is performed under dedicated pulsed plasma etching conditions. Fifteen nanometer half-pitch dense line/space features are obtained with a height up to 90 nm. PMID:25111901

  4. Preparing mono-dispersed liquid core PDMS microcapsules from thiol–ene–epoxy-tailored flow-focusing microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Skolimowski, Maciej; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    of compositions in relation to high hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity. An obtained microfluidic device was subsequently used in order to produce PDMS microcapsules of very narrow size distribution and which contained various common liquids, such as water and ethanol, as well as an ionic liquid 2...

  5. The effect of carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide incorporated in PDMS on biofilm community composition and subsequent mussel plantigrade settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Long; Li, Yi-Feng; Guo, Xing-Pan; Liang, Xiao; Xu, Yue-Feng; Ding, De-Wen; Bao, Wei-Yang; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) incorporated in PDMS on biofilm formation and plantigrade settlement of Mytilus coruscus. TiO2 increased bacterial density, and CNTs also increased bacterial density but reduced diatom density in biofilms after 28 days. Further analysis was conducted between bacterial communities on glass, PDMS, CNTs (0.5 wt%) and TiO2 (7.5 wt%). ANOSIM analysis revealed significant differences (R > 0.9) between seven, 14, 21 and 28 day-old bacterial communities. MiSeq sequencing showed that CNTs and TiO2 impacted the composition of 28 day-old bacterial communities by increasing the abundance of Proteobacteria and decreasing the abundance of Bacteroidetes. The maximum decreased settlement rate in 28 day-old biofilms on CNTs and TiO2 was > 50% in comparison to those on glass and PDMS. Thus, CNTs and TiO2 incorporated in PDMS altered the biomass and community composition of biofilms, and subsequently decreased mussel settlement. PMID:27348759

  6. Creating Sub-50 Nm Nanofluidic Junctions in PDMS Microfluidic Chip via Self-Assembly Process of Colloidal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xi; Syed, Abeer; Mao, Pan; Han, Jongyoon; Song, Yong-Ak

    2016-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the prevailing building material to make microfluidic devices due to its ease of molding and bonding as well as its transparency. Due to the softness of the PDMS material, however, it is challenging to use PDMS for building nanochannels. The channels tend to collapse easily during plasma bonding. In this paper, we present an evaporation-driven self-assembly method of silica colloidal nanoparticles to create nanofluidic junctions with sub-50 nm pores between two microchannels. The pore size as well as the surface charge of the nanofluidic junction is tunable simply by changing the colloidal silica bead size and surface functionalization outside of the assembled microfluidic device in a vial before the self-assembly process. Using the self-assembly of nanoparticles with a bead size of 300 nm, 500 nm, and 900 nm, it was possible to fabricate a porous membrane with a pore size of ~45 nm, ~75 nm and ~135 nm, respectively. Under electrical potential, this nanoporous membrane initiated ion concentration polarization (ICP) acting as a cation-selective membrane to concentrate DNA by ~1,700 times within 15 min. This non-lithographic nanofabrication process opens up a new opportunity to build a tunable nanofluidic junction for the study of nanoscale transport processes of ions and molecules inside a PDMS microfluidic chip. PMID:27023724

  7. A PDMS-Based Cylindrical Hybrid Lens for Enhanced Fluorescence Detection in Microfluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shyh Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic systems based on fluorescence detection have been developed and applied for many biological and chemical applications. Because of the tiny amount of sample in the system; the induced fluorescence can be weak. Therefore, most microfluidic systems deploy multiple optical components or sophisticated equipment to enhance the efficiency of fluorescence detection. However, these strategies encounter common issues of complex manufacturing processes and high costs. In this study; a miniature, cylindrical and hybrid lens made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS to improve the fluorescence detection in microfluidic systems is proposed. The hybrid lens integrates a laser focusing lens and a fluorescence collecting lens to achieve dual functions and simplify optical setup. Moreover, PDMS has advantages of low-cost and straightforward fabrication compared with conventional optical components. The performance of the proposed lens is first examined with two fluorescent dyes and the results show that the lens provides satisfactory enhancement for fluorescence detection of Rhodamine 6G and Nile Red. The overall increments in collected fluorescence signal and detection sensitivity are more than 220% of those without lens, and the detection limits of Rhodamine 6G and Nile red are lowered to 0.01 μg/mL and 0.05 μg/mL, respectively. The hybrid lens is further applied to the detection of Nile red-labeled Chlorella vulgaris cells and it increases both signal intensity and detection sensitivity by more than 520%. The proposed hybrid lens also dramatically reduces the variation in detected signal caused by the deviation in incident angle of excitation light.

  8. A new water absorbable mechanical Epidermal skin equivalent: the combination of hydrophobic PDMS and hydrophilic PVA hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Hurtado, M; Zeng, X; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, P; Ten Elshof, J E; van der Heide, E

    2015-06-01

    Research on human skin interactions with healthcare and lifestyle products is a topic continuously attracting scientific studies over the past years. It is possible to evaluate skin mechanical properties based on human or animal experimentation, yet in addition to possible ethical issues, these samples are hard to obtain, expensive and give rise to highly variable results. Therefore, the design of a skin equivalent is essential. This paper describes the design and characterization of a new Epidermal Skin Equivalent (ESE). The material resembles the properties of epidermis and is a first approach to mimic the mechanical properties of the human skin structure, variable with the length scale. The ESE is based on a mixture of Polydimethyl Siloxane (PDMS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) hydrogel cross-linked with Glutaraldehyde (GA). It was chemically characterized by XPS and FTIR measurements and its cross section was observed by macroscopy and cryoSEM. Confocal Microscope analysis on the surface of the ESE showed an arithmetic roughness (Ra) between 14-16 μm and contact angle (CA) values between 50-60°, both of which are close to the values of in vivo human skins reported in the literature. The Equilibrium Water Content (ECW) was around 33.8% and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) confirmed the composition of the ESE samples. Moreover, the mechanical performance was determined by indentation tests and Dynamo Thermo Mechanical Analysis (DTMA) shear measurements. The indentation results were in good agreement with that of the target epidermis reported in the literature with an elastic modulus between 0.1-1.5 MPa and it showed dependency on the water content. According to the DTMA measurements, the ESE exhibits a viscoelastic behavior, with a shear modulus between 1-2.5MPa variable with temperature, frequency and the hydration of the samples. PMID:25840121

  9. Control of the wrinkle structure on surface-reformed poly(dimethylsiloxane) via ion-beam bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong-Gyu; Jeong, Hae-Chang; Jung, Yoon Ho; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the surface reformation of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomers by means of ion beam bombardment for fabricating wrinkle structures. Oxidation on the PDMS surface formed a silica-like outer layer that interacted with the inner PDMS layer, leading to the formation of wrinkle structures that minimized the combined bending energy of the outer layer and stretching energy of the inner layer. In addition, we controlled the amplitude and period of the wrinkle structures by adjusting the PDMS annealing temperature. As the PDMS annealing temperature was increased, the amplitude and period of the wrinkles formed by IB irradiation changed from 604.35 to 69.01 nm and from 3.07 to 0.80 μm, respectively.

  10. Contactless microfluidic pumping using microchannel-integrated carbon black composite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaotong; Gagnon, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The ability to pump and manipulate fluid at the micron-scale is a basic requirement for microfluidic platforms. Many current manipulation methods, however, require expensive and bulky external supporting equipment, which are not typically compatible for portable applications. We have developed a contactless metal electro-osmotic micropump capable of pumping conductive buffers. The pump operates using two pairs of gallium metal electrodes, which are activated using an external voltage source and separated from a main flow channel by a thin micron-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The thin contactless membrane allows for field penetration and electro-osmotic flow within the microchannel, but eliminates electrode damage and sample contamination commonly associated with traditional DC electro-osmotic pumps that utilize electrodes in direct contact with the working fluid. Our previous work has demonstrated the effectiveness of this method in pumping deionized water. However, due to the high resistivity of PDMS, this method proved difficult to apply towards manipulating conductive buffers. To overcome this limitation, we fabricated conductive carbon black (CB) powder directly into the contactless PDMS membranes. The increased electrical conductivity of the contactless PDMS membrane significantly increased micropump performance. Using a microfluidic T-channel device and an electro-osmotic flow model, we determined the influence that CB has on pump pressure for CB weight percents varying between 0 and 20. The results demonstrate that the CB increases pump pressure by two orders of magnitude and enables effective operations with conductive buffers. PMID:26543514

  11. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Appels, Michael; Kubiznak, David

    2016-01-01

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of a charged accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon -- even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability and phase structure of these black holes.

  12. How surface fire in Siberian Scots pine forests affects soil organic carbon in the forest floor: Stocks, molecular structure, and conversion to black carbon (charcoal)

    OpenAIRE

    Czimczik, Claudia I; Preston, Caroline M; Schmidt, Michael W I; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2003-01-01

    [1] In boreal forests, fire is a frequent disturbance and converts soil organic carbon (OC) to more degradation-resistant aromatic carbon, i.e., black carbon (BC) which might act as a long-term atmospheric-carbon sink. Little is known on the effects of fires on boreal soil OC stocks and molecular composition. We studied how a surface fire affected the composition of the forest floor of Siberian Scots pine forests by comparing the bulk elemental composition, molecular structure (13C-MAS NMR), ...

  13. Quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references

  14. Small black holes on cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find the metric of small black holes on cylinders, i.e. neutral and static black holes with a small mass in d-dimensional Minkowski space times a circle. The metric is found using an ansatz for black holes on cylinders proposed in J. High Energy Phys. 05, 032 (2002). We use the new metric to compute corrections to the thermodynamics which is seen to deviate from that of the (d+1)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. Moreover, we compute the leading correction to the relative binding energy which is found to be non-zero. We discuss the consequences of these results for the general understanding of black holes and we connect the results to the phase structure of black holes and strings on cylinders

  15. Black holes and the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  16. A small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure of graphitized carbon black aggregates in Triton X-100/water solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garamus, V.M.; Pedersen, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    concentration to a lower value. The CB aggregates have a fractal structure and the apparent fractal dimension is lower near the match point (75% heavy water). The scattering data are modelled using fractal-like aggregates (CB+surfactant), and voids in the CB particles and micelles. The data are fitted......The structure of graphitized carbon black (CB) aggregates dispersed in water solutions with a non-ionic surfactant are studied by small-angle neutron scattering using contrast variation by heavy/light water mixing. The addition of CB to Triton X-100/water mixtures shifts the critical micelle...... particles is 8% and is constant with varying CB and surfactant concentration. The volume fraction of the voids does not exceed 1% of the CB; The micelle structure is found to be the same as in surfactant/water solutions. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  17. Implementing black hole as efficient power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Treating the black hole molecules as working substance and considering its phase structure, we study the black hole heat engine by a charged anti-de Sitter black hole. In the reduced temperature-entropy chart, it is found that the work, heat, and efficiency of the engine are independent of the black hole charge. Applying the Rankine cycle with or without a back pressure mechanism to the black hole heat engine, the efficiency is numerically solved. The result shows that the black hole engine w...

  18. Black market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way for states and subnational groups to acquire material, knowledge and equipment necessary to build a nuclear weapon or device are illegal transactions. These were singular in the past and did not cause the development of a nuclear black market. But all necessary components of a functioning black market exist. Therefore the further spread and extension of the use of nuclear power would enhance the threat of a nuclear black market, if the trade and use of specific nuclear material is not abandoned worldwide. (orig.)

  19. Resource Letter BH-1: Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Lists resources on black holes, including: (1) articles of historical interest; (2) books and journal articles on elementary expositions; (3) elementary and advanced textbooks; and (4) research articles on analytic structure of black holes, black hole dynamics, and astrophysical processes. (SK)

  20. Black Hole Monodromy and Conformal Field Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Castro; J.M. Lapan; A. Maloney; M.J. Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    The analytic structure of solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in a black hole background, as represented by monodromy data, is intimately related to black hole thermodynamics. It encodes the "hidden conformal symmetry" of a nonextremal black hole, and it explains why features of the inner event h

  1. Instantaneous room temperature bonding of a wide range of non-silicon substrates with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer mediated by a mercaptosilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenming; Wu, Jing; Kim, Jae-Heon; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2015-07-01

    This paper introduces an instantaneous and robust strategy for bonding a variety of non-silicon substrates such as thermoplastics, metals, an alloy, and ceramics to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) irreversibly, mediated by one-step chemical modification using a mercaptosilane at room temperature followed by corona treatment to realize heterogeneous assembly also at room temperature. The mercapto functional group is one of the strongest nucleophiles, and it can instantaneously react with electrophiles of substrates, resulting in an alkoxysilane-terminated substrate at room temperature. In this way, prior oxidation of the substrate is dispensed with, and the alkoxysilane-terminated substrate can be readily oxidized and irreversibly bonded with oxidized PDMS at room temperature. A commercially available Tesla coil was used for surface oxidation, replacing a bulky and expensive plasma generator. Surface characterization was conducted by water contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. A total of fifteen non-silicon substrates including polycarbonate (PC), two types of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC), poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene (PS), polyimide (PI), two types of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene (PP), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), brass, alumina (Al2O3), and zirconia (ZrO2) were bonded successfully with PDMS using this method, and the bond strengths of PDMS-PMMA, PDMS-PC, PDMS-PVC, PDMS-PET, PDMS-Al, and PDMS-Cu assemblies were measured to be approximately 335.9, 511.4, 467.3, 476.4, 282.2, and 236.7 kPa, respectively. The overall processes including surface modification followed by surface oxidation using corona treatment for bonding were realized within 12 to 17 min for most of the substrates tested except for ceramics which required 1 h for the bonding. In addition, large area (10 × 10 cm(2)) bonding was also successfully realized, ensuring the high reliability and stability of the introduced

  2. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  3. Design and Fabrication of Stack Micro-Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Using Silicon and PDMS%采用硅和PDMS的堆栈式微型直接甲醇燃料电池的设计和制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾毅波; 陈观生; 赵祖光; 刘畅; 刘俊; 王婷婷; 郭航

    2013-01-01

    In order to avoid cracks of the silicon flow field plate caused by high package pressure, silicon and PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) are used as anodic and cathode flow field plate respectively in the stack μ-DMFC ( Micro-direct methanol fuel cell). The anodic flow field plate based on silicon is fabricated with MEMS( Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems)technology,and cathode flow field plate is fabricated using PDMS and its metallic performance is evidently improved by means of integral shaping of copper foil and cathode flow field plate, organic cleaning and activation on PDMS surface. The output of stack μ-DMFC is tested and analyzed, in which 3 different flow channel structures on the anodic plate are introduced. Tested results verify that adhesive capability and strengthen between post-activated PDMS and Cr/Au are greatly improved, and when micro blocks and through holes are introduced alternately in the flow channel of anodic flow field plate the stack μ-DMFC can obtain the maximum output, with voltage of 0. 5 V,current density of 81. 25 mA/cm2 and output power density of 7. 73 mW/cm2. This study shows that using silicon and PDMS as flow field plate respectively not only simplifies the structure of stack μ-DMFC but also cushions clamping force and effectively protects anodic flow field plate,and furthermore to increase the output of stack μ-DMFC by optimizing structure of flow channels on the anodic flow field plate.%在堆栈式微型直接甲醇燃料电池μ-DMFC(Micro-Direct Methanol Fuel Cell)中,为了避免硅基流场板因为封装压力过大而破裂,采用了硅和PDMS(Polydimethylsiloxane,聚二甲基硅氧烷)材料分别制作阳极和阴极流场板.首先,采用微机电系统MEMS(Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems)技术制作硅基阳极流场板.其次,通过铜箔与阴极流场板一体成型、有机清洗和PDMS表面活化等改进措施显著提升了PDMS阴极流场板金属化的能力.最后,比较和分析阳极流场板上3

  4. Supermassive Black Holes and Their Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Colberg, Joerg M.; Di Matteo, Tiziana

    2008-01-01

    We make use of the first high--resolution hydrodynamic simulations of structure formation which self-consistently follows the build up of supermassive black holes introduced in Di Matteo et al. (2007) to investigate the relation between black holes (BH), host halo and large--scale environment. There are well--defined relations between halo and black hole masses and between the activities of galactic nuclei and halo masses at low redshifts. A large fraction of black holes forms anti--hierarchi...

  5. Virtual Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  6. Quasistars: Accreting black holes inside massive envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Begelman, Mitchell C; Armitage, Philip J

    2007-01-01

    We study the structure and evolution of "quasistars," accreting black holes embedded within massive hydrostatic gaseous envelopes. These configurations may model the early growth of supermassive black hole seeds. The accretion rate onto the black hole adjusts so that the luminosity carried by the convective envelope equals the Eddington limit for the total mass. This greatly exceeds the Eddington limit for the black hole mass alone, leading to rapid growth of the black hole. We use analytic models and numerical stellar structure calculations to study the structure and evolution of quasistars. We derive analytically the scaling of the photospheric temperature with the black hole mass and envelope mass, and show that it decreases with time as the black hole mass increases. Once the photospheric temperature becomes lower than 10000 K, the photospheric opacity drops precipitously and the photospheric temperature hits a limiting value, analogous to the Hayashi track for red giants and protostars, below which no hy...

  7. Structure and properties of polyurethane elastomers modified with hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane containing carbonyl%含羰基端羟基硅氧烷改性聚氨酯弹性体的结构及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许双喜; 冯兴卓; 王鹏; 曹彦海; 黄自华

    2012-01-01

    A series of modified polyurethane elastomers ( SPUs) with hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane containing carbonyl (PDMS-C) were synthesized with polytetram-ethylene ether glycol (PTMG) and PDMS-C as mixing soft segments by prepolymer method. The structures of SPUs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the effects of PTMG/PDMS-C ( mole ratio ) on mechanical properties and high/low temperature resistance of SPUs were investigated. The results showed that PDMS-C was grafted on to polyurethane chain segment successfully. The tensile strength of SPU decreased with increasing PDMS-C content, but the retention rate of tensile strength was evidently larger than that of the polyurethane elastomers modified with common hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane. The high/low temperature resistance of SPUs was improved to a certain degree with the increase of PDMS-C content.%以聚四氢呋喃醚二醇(PTMG)和含羰基的端羟基硅氧烷(PDMS -C)为混合软段,采用预聚体法合成了一系列PDMS -C改性聚氨酯弹性体(SPUs),用傅里叶变换红外光谱对其结构进行了表征,并考察了PTMG与PDMS -C的摩尔比对SPUs力学性能和耐高低温性能的影响.结果表明,PDMS -C成功接枝到聚氨酯链段中.随着PDMS -C含量的增大,SPUs的拉伸强度降低,但与普通端羟基硅氧烷改性聚氨酯相比,其拉伸强度保持率大幅提高;随着PDMS -C含量的增大,SPUs的耐高低温性能均得到改善.

  8. Study of the vapor-assisted method for bonding PDMS and glass: effect of the vapor source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different chemicals were tested in order to check their effectiveness as the vapor source for the vapor-assisted method to bond PDMS and glass, bringing clarification to the mechanism of the bonding. While no increase in the adhesion strength of PDMS–glass samples was observed when silanes without chloro functional groups were used, increase in the bonding strength of PDMS–glass was obtained with all alkyl chlorosilanes tested in this study, including tri-, di- and monochlorosilanes, as well as with hydrochloric acid solution. These results experimentally demonstrate that the hydrogen chloride gas obtained from the hydrolysis and polymerization of silanes or simply from the evaporation of hydrochloric acid solution assist with the formation of PDMS–glass bonding, making the vapor-assisted method a very simple and reliable method to bond PDMS and glass with multiple applications in both small-scale laboratory research and large-scale manufacturing processes

  9. Virtual black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1996-03-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foamlike structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the nontrivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S2×S2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S2×S2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix S/ that does not factorize into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the θ angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The picture of virtual black holes given here also suggests that macroscopic black holes will evaporate down to the Planck size and then disappear in the sea of virtual black holes.

  10. Investigation of contact electrification based broadband energy harvesting mechanism using elastic PDMS microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triboelectric energy harvesting has recently garnered a lot of interest because of its easy fabrication and high power output. Contact electrification depends on the chemical properties of contacting materials. Another important factor in contact electrification mechanism is surfaces’ elastic and topographical characteristics. One of the biggest limitations of resonant mechanism based devices is their narrow operating bandwidth. This paper presents a broadband mechanism which utilizes stiffness induced in the cantilever motion due to contact between two triboelectric surfaces. We have conducted experiments using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropad patterns to study the effect of micropad array configuration on the performance of triboelectric energy harvesting devices. The maximum power output measured from the device was observed to be 0.69 μW at an acceleration of 1 g. Due to the non-linearity introduced by contact separation mechanism, the bandwidth of the triboelectric energy harvester was observed to be increased by 63% at an acceleration level of 1 g. A hybrid energy harvesting mechanism has also been demonstrated by compounding the triboelectric energy harvester with a piezoelectric bimorph. (paper)

  11. Transparent, superhydrophobic, and wear-resistant surfaces using deep reactive ion etching on PDMS substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Daniel; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Surfaces that simultaneously exhibit superhydrophobicity, low contact angle hysteresis, and high transmission of visible light are of interest for many applications, such as optical devices, solar panels, and self-cleaning windows. Superhydrophobicity could also find use in medical devices where antifouling characteristics are desirable. These applications also typically require mechanical wear resistance. The fabrication of such surfaces is challenging due to the competing goals of superhydrophobicity and transmittance in terms of the required degree of surface roughness. In this study, deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) was used to create rough surfaces on PDMS substrates using a O2/CF4 plasma. Surfaces then underwent an additional treatment with either octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8) plasma or vapor deposition of perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (PFOTCS) following surface activation with O2 plasma. The effects of surface roughness and the additional surface modifications were examined with respect to the contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, and optical transmittance. To examine wear resistance, a sliding wear experiment was performed using an atomic force microscope (AFM). PMID:27454031

  12. Nanofabrication of Block Copolymers of PDMS/Polyamide having Trichlorogermyl Pendant Using LbL Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block copolymers (AB)x type of aminopropyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (NH2- PDMS) and polyamides trichlorogermyl pendant group were prepared by a solution phase one pot polycondensation method. The prepared block copolymers were assembled with polyethylene-alt- (maleic) anhydride (PEMA) as multilayered thin film assembly through covalently linked Layer by Layer (LbL) technique using dipping method. The prepared thin films had thickness in the range of 15 to 20 nm as measured on an ellipsometers. In the systems where quartz was used as substrate, film growth after each deposition was monitored through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, which substantiated the multilayer film build-up. Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) images showed homogeneous and robust film, which were strong enough to endure the force of 400 nN. As the block copolymers are thermally stable and have the capacity to absorb water, so their prepared robust ultra-thin films can show potential of thermally resistant nano thin films, protective hydrophilic coatings in addition to separation membranes. (author)

  13. A Method to Obtain Gas-PDMS Membrane Interaction Parameters for UNIQUAC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Dongjie; DING Zhongwei; LIU Liying; MA Runyu

    2013-01-01

    The recovery or capture of one or more components from gas mixture by membrane separation has become a research focus in recent years.This study investigates the gas-membrane solution equilibrium,for which Henry's law is not applicable if the gas phase is a mixture.This problem can be solved by using UNIQUAC model to calculate the activity coefficient of gas dissolved in the membrane.A method was proposed in this study to obtain the gas-membrane interaction parameter for UNIQUAC model.By the experiments of gas permeation through polydimethylsiloxane PDMS membrane,the solubility coefficients of some gases (N2,CO2,CH4) were measured.Through non-linear fitting UNIQUAC model to the experimental results from this study and in literature (H2,O2,C3H8),the gas-membrane interaction parameters for these gases were obtained.Based on these parameters,the activity coefficients of the dissolved gas were calculated by UNIQUAC model,and their values agree well with the experimental data.These results confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method,which makes it possible to better predict gas-membrane solution equilibrium.

  14. Effect of electron beam irradiation on dynamic mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of LLDPE and PDMS rubber blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of electron beam irradiation on the blends of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and poly dimethyl siloxane rubber (PDMS) prepared over a wide range of compositions starting from 70:30 to 30:70 (LLDPE: PDMS) by varying the radiation doses from 50 to 300 kGy has been studied. The dynamic modulii and dielectric strength of the blends increase on irradiation at 100 kGy as compared to that for the unirradiated blends. Degree of crystallinity and melting behaviour remain unchanged upon irradiation upto a dose of 100 kGy, beyond which it decreases. Thermal stability increases with increase in the proportion of PDMS rubber in the blend as well as on irradiation at 100 kGy. The phase morphology of the blends examined under the SEM exhibit two phase morphology before electron beam irradiation, whereas single phase morphology is observed after electron beam irradiation due to intra- as well as inter-molecular crosslinking leading to a miscible system. - Highlights: ► Immiscible blends of LLDPE and PDMS rubber becomes miscible after electron beam irradiation (EBR). ► The gel content and cross link density of the blends increase on EBR, upto a dose of 100 kGy. ► Dielectric strength of the blends increase with increase in LLDPE proportion in the blends after EBR. ► Dielectric constant of the blends increase with proportion of silicone rubber in the blend after EBR. ► Thermal stability of the blends increase on exposure to EBR.

  15. Functionalization of PDMS modified and plasma activated two-component polyurethane coatings by surface attachment of enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes a new strategy for coupling the enzyme horseradish peroxidase to a two-component polyurethane (2C-PUR) coating. A stable polymer conjugate was achieved by combining the enzyme and the 2C-PUR coating which was modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), located at the surface. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet system was used to convert alkyl groups from the PDMS into polar silanol functionalities. This conversion was proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the stability of the activated 2C-PUR surface containing silanol groups was determined by measuring the contact angle as a function of time. Compared to the non-modified 2C-PUR systems the one with PDMS displayed a higher stability over a time period over 28 h. In a silanization process the coating was treated with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and the enzyme was subsequently immobilized to the coating via the cross linker glutaraldehyde to receive new biomimetic catalytic/enzymatic functions. The chemical immobilization (chemisorption) of the enzyme to the surface showed statistically significant higher biological activity as compared to references samples without using a cross linker (physisorption). The presented technique offers the opportunity to design new and smart multifunctional surface coatings which employ biomimetic capabilities.

  16. HYDRODYNAMICAL SIMULATIONS TO DETERMINE THE FEEDING RATE OF BLACK HOLES BY THE TIDAL DISRUPTION OF STARS: THE IMPORTANCE OF THE IMPACT PARAMETER AND STELLAR STRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disruption of stars by supermassive black holes has been linked to more than a dozen flares in the cores of galaxies out to redshift z ∼ 0.4. Modeling these flares properly requires a prediction of the rate of mass return to the black hole after a disruption. Through hydrodynamical simulation, we show that aside from the full disruption of a solar mass star at the exact limit where the star is destroyed, the common assumptions used to estimate M-dot (t), the rate of mass return to the black hole, are largely invalid. While the analytical approximation to tidal disruption predicts that the least-centrally concentrated stars and the deepest encounters should have more quickly-peaked flares, we find that the most-centrally concentrated stars have the quickest-peaking flares, and the trend between the time of peak and the impact parameter for deeply penetrating encounters reverses beyond the critical distance at which the star is completely destroyed. We also show that the most-centrally concentrated stars produced a characteristic drop in M-dot (t) shortly after peak when a star is only partially disrupted, with the power law index n being as extreme as –4 in the months immediately following the peak of a flare. Additionally, we find that n asymptotes to ≅ – 2.2 for both low- and high-mass stars for approximately half of all stellar disruptions. Both of these results are significantly steeper than the typically assumed n = –5/3. As these precipitous decay rates are only seen for events in which a stellar core survives the disruption, they can be used to determine if an observed tidal disruption flare produced a surviving remnant. We provide fitting formulae for four fundamental quantities of tidal disruption as functions of the star's distance to the black hole at pericenter and its stellar structure: the total mass lost, the time of peak, the accretion rate at peak, and the power-law index shortly after peak. These results should be taken into

  17. HYDRODYNAMICAL SIMULATIONS TO DETERMINE THE FEEDING RATE OF BLACK HOLES BY THE TIDAL DISRUPTION OF STARS: THE IMPORTANCE OF THE IMPACT PARAMETER AND STELLAR STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    The disruption of stars by supermassive black holes has been linked to more than a dozen flares in the cores of galaxies out to redshift z {approx} 0.4. Modeling these flares properly requires a prediction of the rate of mass return to the black hole after a disruption. Through hydrodynamical simulation, we show that aside from the full disruption of a solar mass star at the exact limit where the star is destroyed, the common assumptions used to estimate M-dot (t), the rate of mass return to the black hole, are largely invalid. While the analytical approximation to tidal disruption predicts that the least-centrally concentrated stars and the deepest encounters should have more quickly-peaked flares, we find that the most-centrally concentrated stars have the quickest-peaking flares, and the trend between the time of peak and the impact parameter for deeply penetrating encounters reverses beyond the critical distance at which the star is completely destroyed. We also show that the most-centrally concentrated stars produced a characteristic drop in M-dot (t) shortly after peak when a star is only partially disrupted, with the power law index n being as extreme as -4 in the months immediately following the peak of a flare. Additionally, we find that n asymptotes to {approx_equal} - 2.2 for both low- and high-mass stars for approximately half of all stellar disruptions. Both of these results are significantly steeper than the typically assumed n = -5/3. As these precipitous decay rates are only seen for events in which a stellar core survives the disruption, they can be used to determine if an observed tidal disruption flare produced a surviving remnant. We provide fitting formulae for four fundamental quantities of tidal disruption as functions of the star's distance to the black hole at pericenter and its stellar structure: the total mass lost, the time of peak, the accretion rate at peak, and the power-law index shortly after peak. These results should be taken

  18. Implementing black hole as efficient power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Shao-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Treating the black hole molecules as working substance and considering its phase structure, we study the black hole heat engine by a charged anti-de Sitter black hole. In the reduced temperature-entropy chart, it is found that the work, heat, and efficiency of the engine are independent of the black hole charge. Applying the Rankine cycle with or without a back pressure mechanism to the black hole heat engine, the efficiency is numerically solved. The result shows that the black hole engine working along the Rankine cycle with a back pressure mechanism has a higher efficiency. This provides a novel and efficient mechanism to produce the useful mechanical work with black hole, and such heat engine may act as a possible energy source for the high energy astrophysical phenomena near the black hole.

  19. A preliminary factor analytic investigation into the firstorder factor structure of the Fifteen Factor Plus (15FQ+ on a sample of Black South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seretse Moyo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The Fifteen Factor Questionnaire Plus (15FQ+ is a prominent personality questionnaire that organisations frequently use in personnel selection in South Africa.Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to undertake a factor analytic investigation of the first-order factor structure of the 15FQ+.Motivation for the study: The construct validity of the 15FQ+, as a measure of personality, is necessary even though it is insufficient to justify its use in personnel selection.Research design, approach and method: The researchers evaluated the fit of the measurement model, which the structure and scoring key of the 15FQ+ implies, in a quantitative study that used an ex post facto correlation design through structural equation modelling. They conducted a secondary data analysis. They selected a sample of 241 Black South African managers from a large 15FQ+ database.Main findings: The researchers found good measurement model fit. The measurement model parameter estimates were worrying. The magnitude of the estimated model parameters suggests that the items generally do not reflect the latent personality dimensions the designers intended them to with a great degree of precision. The items are reasonably noisy measures of the latent variables they represent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should use the 15FQ+ carefully on Black South African managers until further local research evidence becomes available.Contribution/value-add: The study is a catalyst to trigger the necessary additional research we need to establish convincingly the psychometric credentials of the 15FQ+ as a valuable assessment tool in South Africa.

  20. Chemical modification of PDMS surface without impacting the viscoelasticity: Model systems for a better understanding of elastomer/elastomer adhesion and friction

    OpenAIRE

    DIRANY, Mohammed; DIES, Laëtitia; Restagno, Frédéric; Léger, Liliane; Poulard, Christophe; MIQUELARD-GARNIER, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    The influence of both viscoelastic and interfacial parameters on the surface properties of elastomers is difficult to study. Here, we describe a simple route to achieve surface modification of PDMS without impacting the viscoelastic properties of the bulk. PEG modified PDMS surfaces were synthesized by two step surface modification based on hydrosilylation. The covalent grafting of PEG on the surface has been evidenced by AFM and ATR-FTIR, and its effect on the hydrophilicity characterized by...

  1. Black Holes and Galaxy Metamorphosis

    CERN Document Server

    Holley-Bockelmann, K

    2001-01-01

    Supermassive black holes can be seen as an agent of galaxy transformation. In particular, a supermassive black hole can cause a triaxial galaxy to evolve toward axisymmetry by inducing chaos in centrophilic orbit families. This is one way in which a single supermassive black hole can induce large-scale changes in the structure of its host galaxy -- changes on scales far larger than the Schwarzschild radius ($O(10^{-5}) \\rm{pc}$) and the radius of influence of the black hole ($O(1)-O(100) \\rm{pc}$). We will discuss the transformative power of supermassive black holes in light of recent high resolution N-body realizations of cuspy triaxial galaxies.

  2. Particles that slide over the water surface: Synthesis and characterization of iron oxides particles coated with PDMS, with hydrophobic and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Neto, Francisco N.de [Sciences and Technology Unit of the University – UnUCET, State University of Goiás, 75132-903 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Araújo, Olacir Alves, E-mail: olacir.araujo@ueg.br [Sciences and Technology Unit of the University – UnUCET, State University of Goiás, 75132-903 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Guilherme, Luciana R.; Garg, Vijayendra K. [Sciences and Technology Unit of the University – UnUCET, State University of Goiás, 75132-903 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Oliveira, Aderbal C.; Souza, Paulo E.N. de [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Franco Júnior, Adolfo [Institute of Physics, Federal University of Goiás, 74001-970 Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been of great scientific interest because of their possible industrial and biomedical applications. The magnetic iron oxide was synthesized by the co precipitation of alkaline hydrolysis of ions Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} in aqueous system. The coated particles were obtained by heating (50 and 250 °C) mixed magnetic iron oxide and polydimethylsiloxane oil for 30 min obtaining magnetic dust particles with hydrophobic behavior. These were used to learn the dragging effects and removal of nonpolar organic compound in aqueous systems. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), chemical analysis by potenciometric titration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), contact angle measurement and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The diffractogram of X-ray presented peaks that were assigned to presence of spinel structure maghemite and magnetite with medium sized crystallites of 10.95 nm for the polymeric coated magnetic iron oxide, confirmed by TEM, with superparamagnetic character, also confirmed by VSM. The infrared spectrum showed absorption band at 570 cm{sup −1} characteristic of the Fe-O bonding in inverted spinel structure and the absorption bands in 1263, 1105, 1025 and 800 cm{sup −1} indicating the presence of PDMS on the magnetic iron oxide particles. Thermogravimetric analysis has been used to estimate the sample thermal stability of polymeric material (9.7 ± 4) % on the inorganic matrices. Contact angle measurement of the coated samples at 250 °C presented a better nonpolar character in comparison to the coated samples at 50 °C. The samples at room temperature (25 °C) presented the phases of magnetite and maghemite which were also confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was possible to obtain iron oxides particles coated with PDMS, with hydrophobic and magnetic properties, which slide over the

  3. Particles that slide over the water surface: Synthesis and characterization of iron oxides particles coated with PDMS, with hydrophobic and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been of great scientific interest because of their possible industrial and biomedical applications. The magnetic iron oxide was synthesized by the co precipitation of alkaline hydrolysis of ions Fe2+ and Fe3+ in aqueous system. The coated particles were obtained by heating (50 and 250 °C) mixed magnetic iron oxide and polydimethylsiloxane oil for 30 min obtaining magnetic dust particles with hydrophobic behavior. These were used to learn the dragging effects and removal of nonpolar organic compound in aqueous systems. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), chemical analysis by potenciometric titration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), contact angle measurement and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The diffractogram of X-ray presented peaks that were assigned to presence of spinel structure maghemite and magnetite with medium sized crystallites of 10.95 nm for the polymeric coated magnetic iron oxide, confirmed by TEM, with superparamagnetic character, also confirmed by VSM. The infrared spectrum showed absorption band at 570 cm−1 characteristic of the Fe-O bonding in inverted spinel structure and the absorption bands in 1263, 1105, 1025 and 800 cm−1 indicating the presence of PDMS on the magnetic iron oxide particles. Thermogravimetric analysis has been used to estimate the sample thermal stability of polymeric material (9.7 ± 4) % on the inorganic matrices. Contact angle measurement of the coated samples at 250 °C presented a better nonpolar character in comparison to the coated samples at 50 °C. The samples at room temperature (25 °C) presented the phases of magnetite and maghemite which were also confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was possible to obtain iron oxides particles coated with PDMS, with hydrophobic and magnetic properties, which slide over the water surface when

  4. The Neglect of Governance in Forest Sector Vulnerability Assessments: Structural-Functionalism and “Black Box” Problems in Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Wellstead

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop extensive forest-based climate change vulnerability assessments have informed proposed management and policy options intended to promote improved on-the-ground policy outcomes. These assessments are derived from a rich vulnerability literature and are helpful in modeling complex ecosystem interactions, yet their policy relevance and impact has been limited. We argue this is due to structural-functional logic underpinning these assessments in which governance is treated as a procedural “black box” and policy-making as an undifferentiated and unproblematic output of a political system responding to input changes and/or system prerequisites. Like an earlier generation of systems or cybernetic thinking about political processes, the focus in these assessments on macro system-level variables and relationships fails to account for the multi-level or polycentric nature of governance and the possibility of policy processes resulting in the nonperformance of critical tasks.

  5. Community Composition and Structure of Soil Macro-Arthropods Under Agricultural Land Uses in the Black Soil Region of Jilin Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dong-hui; ZHANG Bai; CHEN Peng

    2006-01-01

    Soil macro-arthropods in the black soil region in Jilin Province of China were investigated with the emphasis laid on the species richness and abundance in relation to the types of land-use, i.e., farm yard, farm land and Three-North Forest Shelter Belt. Soil macro-arthropods were hand-sorted in the field. A total of 2 357 soil macro-arthropod individuals was captured and fell into 70 families. The results suggested that type of land use affected the species richness and abundance of soil macro-arthropods. Agricultural practices had a strong impact on the soil macro-arthropods community, the conventional cultivations changed the vertical structure of macro-arthropods in the soil profile, and improved the richness and abundance of macro-arthropods in the lower soil layers especially in July. The results also showed that different groups of soil macro-arthropods had various responses to land use changes.

  6. Addressing a "Black Box" of Bottom-Up Synthesis: Revealing the Structures of Growing Colloidal-Nanocrystal Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Oded; Gadot, Eyal; Wang, Yifeng; Weinstock, Ira A; Meshi, Louisa

    2015-11-16

    In bottom-up synthesis, products from reactions of structural building units rapidly pass from soluble molecular complexes to nanoscale intermediates, whose solution-state structures defy elucidation by any routine method. To address this, electron diffraction is used to reveal the structures of cryogenically "trapped" colloidal nanocrystals. PMID:26536393

  7. Black holes and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome ‘remnants’. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a ‘fuzzball’ structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: ► The information paradox is a serious problem. ► To solve it we need to find ‘hair’ on black holes. ► In string theory we find ‘hair’ by the fuzzball construction. ► Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.

  8. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  9. Low-temperature plasma etching of high aspect-ratio densely packed 15 to sub-10 nm silicon features derived from PS-PDMS block copolymer patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zuwei; Gu, Xiaodan; Hwu, Justin; Sassolini, Simone; Olynick, Deirdre L

    2014-07-18

    The combination of block copolymer (BCP) lithography and plasma etching offers a gateway to densely packed sub-10 nm features for advanced nanotechnology. Despite the advances in BCP lithography, plasma pattern transfer remains a major challenge. We use controlled and low substrate temperatures during plasma etching of a chromium hard mask and then the underlying substrate as a route to high aspect ratio sub-10 nm silicon features derived from BCP lithography. Siloxane masks were fabricated using poly(styrene-b-siloxane) (PS-PDMS) BCP to create either line-type masks or, with the addition of low molecular weight PS-OH homopolymer, dot-type masks. Temperature control was essential for preventing mask migration and controlling the etched feature's shape. Vertical silicon wire features (15 nm with feature-to-feature spacing of 26 nm) were etched with aspect ratios up to 17 : 1; higher aspect ratios were limited by the collapse of nanoscale silicon structures. Sub-10 nm fin structures were etched with aspect ratios greater than 10 : 1. Transmission electron microscopy images of the wires reveal a crystalline silicon core with an amorphous surface layer, just slightly thicker than a native oxide. PMID:24971641

  10. Low-temperature plasma etching of high aspect-ratio densely packed 15 to sub-10 nm silicon features derived from PS-PDMS block copolymer patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of block copolymer (BCP) lithography and plasma etching offers a gateway to densely packed sub-10 nm features for advanced nanotechnology. Despite the advances in BCP lithography, plasma pattern transfer remains a major challenge. We use controlled and low substrate temperatures during plasma etching of a chromium hard mask and then the underlying substrate as a route to high aspect ratio sub-10 nm silicon features derived from BCP lithography. Siloxane masks were fabricated using poly(styrene-b-siloxane) (PS-PDMS) BCP to create either line-type masks or, with the addition of low molecular weight PS-OH homopolymer, dot-type masks. Temperature control was essential for preventing mask migration and controlling the etched feature’s shape. Vertical silicon wire features (15 nm with feature-to-feature spacing of 26 nm) were etched with aspect ratios up to 17 : 1; higher aspect ratios were limited by the collapse of nanoscale silicon structures. Sub-10 nm fin structures were etched with aspect ratios greater than 10 : 1. Transmission electron microscopy images of the wires reveal a crystalline silicon core with an amorphous surface layer, just slightly thicker than a native oxide. (paper)

  11. Thermal degradation in a trimodal PDMS network by 1H Multiple Quantum NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliani, J R; Gjersing, E L; Chinn, S C; Jones, T V; Wilson, T S; Alviso, C T; Herberg, J L; Pearson, M A; Maxwell, R S

    2007-06-06

    Thermal degradation of a filled, crosslinked siloxane material synthesized from PDMS chains of three different average molecular weights and with two different crosslinking species has been studied by {sup 1}H Multiple Quantum (MQ) NMR methods. Multiple domains of polymer chains were detected by MQ NMR exhibiting Residual Dipolar Coupling (<{Omega}{sub d}>) values of 200 Hz and 600 Hz, corresponding to chains with high average molecular weight between crosslinks and chains with low average molecular weight between crosslinks or near the multifunctional crosslinking sites. Characterization of the <{Omega}{sub d}> values and changes in <{Omega}{sub d}> distributions present in the material were studied as a function of time at 250 C and indicates significant time dependent degradation. For the domains with low <{Omega}{sub d}>, a broadening in the distribution was observed with aging time. For the domain with high <{Omega}{sub d}>, increases in both the mean <{Omega}{sub d}> and the width in <{Omega}{sub d}> were observed with increasing aging time. Isothermal Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) reveals a 3% decrease in weight over 20 hours of aging at 250 C. Degraded samples also were analyzed by traditional solid state {sup 1}H NMR techniques and offgassing products were identified by Solid Phase MicroExtraction followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME GC-MS). The results, which will be discussed here, suggest that thermal degradation proceeds by complex competition between oxidative chain scissioning and post-curing crosslinking that both contribute to embrittlement.

  12. PIXE, 252Cf-PDMS and radiochemistry applied for soil and vegetable analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to identify the elements present in vegetables and soils using PIXE (particle induced X-rays emission) and 252Cf-PDMS (252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry) techniques in order to estimate the possible influence of soil and agricultural techniques in the metal absorption by the vegetables. In this work, metal concentrations were evaluated in soil and vegetable samples from several regions, where different agricultural techniques were employed. Si, Zr, Ce, Th, Sc and Pb identified in the soil samples were not biologically available. Ga, Ge, As and Br identified in the tubercles indicate that spray pesticide used on the vegetable leaves was absorbed by them. 232Th and 238U present in the soil were not absorbed by the vegetables. The airborne particles from anthropogenic sources (as CFn, VCn) were absorbed by the vegetables. Compounds from mineral sources present in soil as V+, VCO3, HPO4, Cr+, CrOH+, Mn+, FeH+, Fe(OH)n and in the bioorganic compounds as N+, Ca(China)n+ and CnH+ were identified in vegetables. The metal absorption by the vegetables is not dependent of the metal concentration in soil. Different tubercles cultivated in the same soil show similar metal absorption. The exogenous contributions such as the elements present in water irrigation, pesticides, fertilizers and airborne particles deposited on leaves can be absorbed by vegetables. The absorption by the roots depends on the chemical compound of the elements. The use of pesticide sprays and air pollution can cause more contamination in the vegetables than in soil. The use of this methodology allows the identification of possible sources of metals in soils and in vegetables and the metal speciation

  13. Fabrication of the replica templated from butterfly wing scales with complex light trapping structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Li, Bo; Mu, Zhengzhi; Yang, Meng; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2015-11-01

    The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) positive replica templated twice from the excellent light trapping surface of butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana wing scales was fabricated by a simple and promising route. The exact SiO2 negative replica was fabricated by using a synthesis method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. Afterwards, a vacuum-aided process was introduced to make PDMS gel fill into the SiO2 negative replica, and the PDMS gel was solidified in an oven. Then, the SiO2 negative replica was used as secondary template and the structures in its surface was transcribed onto the surface of PDMS. At last, the PDMS positive replica was obtained. After comparing the PDMS positive replica and the original bio-template in terms of morphology, dimensions and reflectance spectra and so on, it is evident that the excellent light trapping structures of butterfly wing scales were inherited by the PDMS positive replica faithfully. This bio-inspired route could facilitate the preparation of complex light trapping nanostructure surfaces without any assistance from other power-wasting and expensive nanofabrication technologies.

  14. Acceleration of Black Hole Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2012-05-01

    An alternative cosmological model called black hole universe has been recently proposed by the author. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole to the present state by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with an infinite number of layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we live, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of space-time, and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. In this study. we will analyze the acceleration of black hole universe that accretes its ambient matter in an increasing rate. We will also compare the result obtained from the black hole universe model with the measurement of type Ia supernova and the result from the big bang cosmology.

  15. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here. PMID:25768747

  16. THE CENTRAL ENGINE STRUCTURE OF 3C120: EVIDENCE FOR A RETROGRADE BLACK HOLE OR A REFILLING ACCRETION DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broad-line radio galaxy 3C120 is a powerful source of both X-ray and radio emission including superluminal jet outflows. We report on our reanalysis of 160 ks of Suzaku data taken in 2006, previously examined by Kataoka et al. Spectral fits to the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer and Hard X-ray Detector/positive intrinsic negative data over a range of 0.7-45 keV reveal a well-defined iron K line complex with a narrow Kα core and relativistically broadened features consistent with emission from the inner regions of the accretion disk. Furthermore, the inner region of the disk appears to be truncated, with an inner radius of rin = 11.7+3.5–5.2 rg . If we assume that fluorescent iron line features terminate at the inner-most stable circular orbit (ISCO), then we measure a black hole spin of a-hat 0.8) can be ruled out at the 99% confidence level. Alternatively, the disk may be truncated well outside of the ISCO of a rapid prograde hole. The most compelling scenario is the possibility that the inner regions of the disk were destroyed/ejected by catastrophic instabilities just prior to the time these observations were made.

  17. Investigations on the Structure Tectonics, Geophysics, Geochemistry, and Hydrocarbon Potential of the Black Mesa Basin, Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Colin; Carroll, Herbert; Erickson, Richard; George, Steve; Guo, Genliang; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma, Bijon; Szpakiewicz, Michael; Volk, Len

    1999-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has instituted a basin-analysis study program to encourage drilling in underexplored and unexplored areas and increase discovery rates for hydrocarbons by independent oil companies within the continental United States. The work is being performed at the DOE's National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, by the Exploration and Drilling Group within BDM-Oklahoma (BDM), the manager of the facility for DOE. Several low-activity areas in the Mid-Continent, west, and southwest were considered for the initial study area (Reeves and Carroll 1994a). The Black Mesa region in northwestern Arizona is shown on the U.S. Geological Survey 1995 oil and gas map of the United States as an undrilled area, adapted from Takahashi and Gautier 1995. This basin was selected by DOE s the site for the initial NIPER-BDM survey to develop prospects within the Lower-48 states (Reeves and Carroll 1994b).

  18. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassic black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Levanony, Dana; 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084008

    2009-01-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. The field equations admit two types of singularities, and their local asymptotic structure is investigated. One of these singularities is found to develop, as a spacelike singularity, inside the black hole. We then study the internal structure of the evaporating black hole from the horizon to the singularity.

  19. Constraints on Black Hole Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, S. B.

    1993-01-01

    One possible fate of information lost to black holes is its preservation in black hole remnants. It is argued that a type of effective field theory describes such remnants (generically referred to as informons). The general structure of such a theory is investigated and the infinite pair production problem is revisited. A toy model for remnants clarifies some of the basic issues; in particular, infinite remnant production is not suppressed simply by the large internal volumes as proposed in c...

  20. Black hole magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.

  1. Contact photolithography using a carbon-black embedded soft photomask and ultraviolet light emitting diodes with application on patterned sapphire substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Heng; Wu, Chun-Ying; Lee, Yung-Chun

    2016-04-18

    This paper presents a contact photolithography method for large-area ultraviolet (UV) patterning using a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) photomask and a planar light source consisting of arrayed light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With simple design and construction, the UV light source can achieve uniformly distributed UV light intensity over an area of 4" in diameter but its divergent angle is 15°. To overcome this large divergent angle, a PDMS soft mold embedded with carbon-black inserts as the UV light blocking materials is applied. It is demonstrated that, when increasing the aspect ratio of the carbon-black inserts, one can achieve excellent UV patterning results. Both experimental data and simulation results are presented. This contact photolithography system has been successfully used for manufacturing patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) in LED industry. The advantages and potential applications of the proposed method will be addresses. PMID:27137297

  2. Effect of wettability and surface roughness on the adhesion properties of collagen on PDMS films treated by capacitively coupled oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez-Moreno, J.A. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Ávila-Ortega, A. [Facultad de Ingeniería Química—UADY, Periférico Norte Kilómetro 33.5, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo Inn, C.P. , 97203 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN–Unidad Mérida, Km. 6 Antigua carretera a Progreso Apdo. Postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Avilés, F. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V., E-mail: jvcr@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Plasma treatment was used as an adhesive tool for PDMS/collagen composite preparation. • Response surface methodology was used for statistical optimization. • A microscopic roughness can also lead to a mechanical interlocking between materials. • Hydroxyl groups on the PDMS surface contribute to the enhanced chemical interactions. • PDMS/collagen composite obtained by plasma treatment exhibited higher peel strength. - Abstract: Direct chemical bonding of biomolecules to the surface of chemically inert polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is not easily achieved. Therefore, pre-activation of such materials, followed by attachment of the biomolecule is necessary. This paper describes a procedure to functionalize a PDMS surface by oxygen-based plasma followed by the adhesion of collagen type I for the preparation of adhesive-free bilayer composite intended as skin substitute. Plasma treatments between 40 and 120 W for 5 to 15 min were used and the extent of surface modification was followed by contact angle, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and adhesion test. It was found that as the plasma power and time were increased, PDMS contact angle decreased while surface roughness increased as revealed by SEM and AFM. The formation of oxygen-containing functional groups at the surface was detected by FTIR. T-peel tests, performed on PDMS treated at 80 W/13 min and covered with collagen showed maximum peel strength of 0.1 N/mm which was 3 times higher than that measured for the untreated bilayer composite. The observed enhancement in the adhesion strength was attributed to the increased mechanical interlocking driven by the increased roughness and the formation of hydrophilic functional groups.

  3. Assessment of PDMS-water partition coefficients: implications for passive environmental sampling of hydrophobic organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Erica L.; Eganhouse, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has shown potential as an in situ passive-sampling technique in aquatic environments. The reliability of this method depends upon accurate determination of the partition coefficient between the fiber coating and water (Kf). For some hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), Kf values spanning 4 orders of magnitude have been reported for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and water. However, 24% of the published data examined in this review did not pass the criterion for negligible depletion, resulting in questionable Kf values. The range in reported Kf is reduced to just over 2 orders of magnitude for some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when these questionable values are removed. Other factors that could account for the range in reported Kf, such as fiber-coating thickness and fiber manufacturer, were evaluated and found to be insignificant. In addition to accurate measurement of Kf, an understanding of the impact of environmental variables, such as temperature and ionic strength, on partitioning is essential for application of laboratory-measured Kf values to field samples. To date, few studies have measured Kf for HOCs at conditions other than at 20 degrees or 25 degrees C in distilled water. The available data indicate measurable variations in Kf at different temperatures and different ionic strengths. Therefore, if the appropriate environmental variables are not taken into account, significant error will be introduced into calculated aqueous concentrations using this passive sampling technique. A multiparameter linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) was developed to estimate log Kf in distilled water at 25 degrees C based on published physicochemical parameters. This method provided a good correlation (R2 = 0.94) between measured and predicted log Kf values for several compound classes. Thus, an LSER approach may offer a reliable means of predicting log Kf for HOCs whose experimental log Kf values are presently unavailable. Future

  4. Effect of linkage disequilibrium on inferences of population structure and introgression of iberian and black honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez-Galarza, Julio; Henriques, Dora; Kryger, Per; De La Rúa, Pilar; Johnston, J. Spencer; Rufino, José; Pinto, M. Alice

    2012-01-01

    Identification of population structure, a primary goal in population genetics, is easily performed because there is a number of methods available, implemented by user-friendly software packages. However, the user must be cautious when inferring population structure because spurious results may be obtained when there is strong linkage disequilibrium. With recent development of high-density SNPs we have now more power to interrogate the honey bee genome. However, the greater the number of loci ...

  5. High quality sub-10 nm graphene nanoribbons by on-chip PS-b-PDMS block copolymer lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasappa, Sozaraj; Caridad, Jose; Schulte, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Block copolymer self-assembly holds great promise as a rapid, cheap and scalable approach to nanolithography. We present a straightforward method for fabrication of sub-10 nm line patterns from a lamellar polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (SD) block copolymer with total average molecular weight of...... block and the graphene under PS. Raman analysis supports the formation of graphene nanoribbons with an average distance between defects corresponding to the oxidized PDMS pitch, with no sign of defects generated in the ribbon channel. This suggests a high degree of protection of the nanoribbons by the...

  6. The renaissance of black phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Wang, Han; Huang, Shengxi; Xia, Fengnian; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-04-14

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from condensed matter physicists, chemists, semiconductor device engineers, and material scientists. Similar to graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), black P has a layered structure but with a unique puckered single-layer geometry. Because the direct electronic band gap of thin film black P can be varied from 0.3 eV to around 2 eV, depending on its film thickness, and because of its high carrier mobility and anisotropic in-plane properties, black P is promising for novel applications in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics different from graphene and TMDs. Black P as a nanomaterial has already attracted much attention from researchers within the past year. Here, we offer our opinions on this emerging material with the goal of motivating and inspiring fellow researchers in the 2D materials community and the broad readership of PNAS to discuss and contribute to this exciting new field. We also give our perspectives on future 2D and thin film black P research directions, aiming to assist researchers coming from a variety of disciplines who are desirous of working in this exciting research field. PMID:25820173

  7. Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2015-07-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.

  8. Black Holes From the Dark Ages: Exploring the Reionization Era and Early Structure Formation With Quasars and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Djorgovski, S G

    2004-01-01

    The cosmic reionization era, which includes formation of the first stars, galaxies, and AGN, is now one of the most active frontiers of cosmological research. We review briefly our current understanding of the early structure formation, and use the ideas about a joint formation of massive black holes (which power the early QSOs) and their host galaxies to employ high-redshift QSOs as probes of the early galaxy formation and primordial large-scale structure. There is a growing evidence for a strong biasing in the formation of the first luminous sources, which would lead to a clumpy reionization. Absorption spectroscopy of QSOs at z > 6 indicates the end of the reionization era at z ~ 6; yet measurements from the WMAP satellite suggest and early reionization at z ~ 10 - 20. The first generation of massive stars, perhaps aided by the early mini-quasars, may have reionized the universe at such high redshifts, but their feedback may have disrupted the subsequent star and galaxy formation, leading to an extended an...

  9. Stand structure and yield of the mixed white poplar and black locust plantations on sandy ridges between the Danube and Tisza rivers in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the stand structure and yield of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) forests mixed with white (Populus alba L.) in various proportions, partly applying a new methodological approach. The main stand structure and yield factors were determined separately for each species, measured stem by stem, using the volume functions prepared for each species. The ratio of the volumes of the species (A and B) in mixed and in pure stands (based on volume tables) was determined. A close relationship has been found between the ratio by relative total volume and the proportion (by the number of stems) of the species. The relative surplus in the volume of the mixed stands varied between 1.24-1.55 at the age of 16 compared to the control, i.e. the yield of pure stands of the species concerned. The trial has also proven that if two species have a fast initial growth rate and a similar rotation age, they can be planted in mixed stands resulting in mutual advantages.

  10. Transfer of thin Au films to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with reliable bonding using (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) as a molecular adhesive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the transfer of thin gold films deposited on rigid silicon substrates to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with reliable and strong bonding. Modification of the Au surfaces with (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) as a molecular adhesive was carried out to promote adhesion between Au and PDMS. The degree of bonding with respect to the concentration of MPTMS, treatment time and methods of deposition was investigated by a simple adhesion test using two different adhesive tapes. The effect of hydrolysis of MPTMS is discussed based on the bonding mechanism of MPTMS to the PDMS prepolymer. Also, the adsorption of MPTMS on Au deposited by different methods is discussed. The results indicate that liquid deposition of MPTMS provides the strongest adhesion between Au and PDMS among the different deposition methods and the different linker molecules. Based on these studies, the Au patterns with linewidth of less 2 µm were successfully transferred to PDMS with reliable and strong bonding in a full 3 inch wafer scale, using a dry peel-off process. (paper)

  11. Increased adhesion of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to acrylic adhesive tape for medical use by surface treatment with an atmospheric pressure rotating plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre-Reche, José Antonio; Pulpytel, Jérôme; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh; Martín-Martínez, José Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The surface properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were modified by treatment with an atmospheric pressure rotating plasma jet (APPJ) and the surface modifications were studied to assess its hydrophilicity and adhesion to acrylic adhesive tape intended for medical applications. Furthermore, the extent of hydrophobic recovery under different storage conditions was studied. The surface treatment of PDMS with the APPJ under optimal conditions noticeably increased the oxygen content and most of the surface silicon species were fully oxidized. A brittle silica-like layer on the outermost surface was created showing changes in topography due to the formation of grooves and cracks. A huge improvement in T-peel and the shear adhesive strength of the APPJ-treated PDMS surface/acrylic tape joints was obtained. On the other hand, the hydrophilicity of the PDMS surface increased noticeably after the APPJ treatment, but 24 h after treatment almost 80% hydrophobicity was recovered and the adhesive strength was markedly reduced with time after the APPJ treatment. However, the application of an acrylic adhesive layer on the just-APPJ-treated PDMS surface retained the adhesive strength, limiting the extent of hydrophobic recovery.

  12. The US Decentred: From Black Social Death to Cultural Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saer Maty Ba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of Frank B. Wilderson III, Red, Black and White: Cinema and the Structure of US Antagonisms (Duke, 2010 and Patricia de Santan Pinho, Mama Africa: Reinventing Blackness in Bahia (Duke, 2010.

  13. Dynamics of galaxy cores and supermassive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Merritt, David

    2006-01-01

    Recent work on the dynamical evolution of galactic nuclei containing supermassive black holes is reviewed. Topics include galaxy structural properties; collisionless and collisional equilibria; loss-cone dynamics; and dynamics of binary and multiple supermassive black holes.

  14. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  15. Formation of Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Evidence shows that massive black holes reside in most local galaxies. Studies have also established a number of relations between the MBH mass and properties of the host galaxy such as bulge mass and velocity dispersion. These results suggest that central MBHs, while much less massive than the host (~ 0.1%), are linked to the evolution of galactic structure. In hierarchical cosmologies, a single big galaxy today can be traced back to the stage when it was split up in hundreds of smaller components. Did MBH seeds form with the same efficiency in small proto-galaxies, or did their formation had to await the buildup of substantial galaxies with deeper potential wells? I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I will discuss black hole formation processes for `seed' black holes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and possible observational tests of these scenarios.

  16. Imagine the Universe! The Anatomy of Black Holes. Probing the Structure & Evolution of the Cosmos. An Information and Activity Booklet. Grades 9-12, 1998-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Laura A.; Granger, Kara C.; Mahon, Jane D.

    The information provided in this booklet is meant to give the necessary background information so that the science of black holes can be taught confidently to secondary students. The featured activities can be used to engage and excite students about the topic of black holes in different disciplines and in a number of ways. Activities include: (1)…

  17. Templateless prototyping of polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic structures using a pulsed CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a novel process (through cutting and pattern transfer processes) for rapidly prototyping polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic structures without a replication template using a CO2 laser. The process typically takes less than 30 min to make a PDMS microfluidic chip from idea to device. In addition to time saving, the process also drastically cuts down equipment and operating costs by eliminating the use of masks, templates, wafer fabrication equipment and consumables needed in the template-making process. We further demonstrate the capability of the process in the rapid prototyping of a variety of microstructures from a 2 µm thin layer up to a 3.6 mm high structure on a single PDMS layer with accurate thickness control as well as smooth top and bottom surfaces. Various process characteristics and challenges for the PDMS laser prototyping process are addressed in this note. (note)

  18. Black Holes and Fourfolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Vercnocke, Bert

    2012-01-01

    We establish the relation between the structure governing supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric four- and five-dimensional black holes and multicenter solutions and Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of M-theory and type IIB string theory. We find that the known BPS and almost-BPS multicenter black hole solutions can be interpreted as GKP compactifications with (2,1) and (0,3) imaginary self-dual flux. We also show that the most general GKP compactification leads to new classes of BPS and non-BPS multicenter solutions. We explore how these solutions fit into N=2 truncations, and elucidate how supersymmetry becomes camouflaged. As a necessary tool in our exploration we show how the fields in the largest N=2 truncation fit inside the six-torus compactification of eleven-dimensional supergravity.

  19. Edge phonons in black phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, H B; Villegas, C E P; Bahamon, D A; Muraca, D; Castro Neto, A H; de Souza, E A T; Rocha, A R; Pimenta, M A; de Matos, C J S

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  20. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dague, E; Jauvert, E; Laplatine, L; Thibault, C [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Viallet, B; Ressier, L, E-mail: edague@laas.fr, E-mail: laurence.ressier@insa-toulouse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, LPCNO, INSA-CNRS-UPS, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2011-09-30

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  1. ZnO–PDMS Nanohybrids: A Novel Optical Sensing Platform for Ethanol Vapor Detection at Room Temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Klini, Argyro

    2015-01-08

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. A new optical gas sensor platform based on highly luminescent ZnO-polymer nanohybrids is demonstrated. The nanohybrids consist of ZnO nanoparticles, typically 125 (±25) nm in size, dispersed in an inert cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. Upon exposure to ethanol-enriched air at room temperature, the nanocomposites exhibit a clear increase in their photoluminescence (PL) emission, which shows a nearly Langmuir dependence on the alcohol vapor pressure. The response time is on the order of 50 s, particularly at low ethanol concentrations. The limit of ethanol vapor detection (LOD) is as low as 0.4 Torr, while the sensor remains unaffected by the presence of water vapor, demonstrating the potential of the ZnO-PDMS system as an optical gas sensing device. The interaction of the ZnO nanoparticles with molecular oxygen plays an essential role on the overall performance of the sensor, as shown in comparative experiments performed in the presence and absence of atmospheric air. Notably, O2 was found to be quite effective in accelerating the sensor recovery process compared to N2 or vacuum.

  2. Micropattern array with gradient size (µPAGS) plastic surfaces fabricated by PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) mold-based hot embossing technique for investigation of cell–surface interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, it was found that the variations of physical environment significantly affect cell behaviors including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Through a plastic surface with controlled mechanical properties such as stiffness, one can change the orientation and migration of cells in a particular direction, thereby determining cell behaviors. In this study, we demonstrate a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold-based hot embossing technique for rapid, simple and low-cost replication of polystyrene (PS) surfaces having micropatterns. The PDMS mold was fabricated by UV-photolithography followed by PDMS casting; the elastomeric properties of PDMS enabled us to obtain conformal contact of the PDMS mold to a PS surface and to create high transcription quality of micropatterns on the PS surface. Two different types of circular micropillar and microwell arrays were successfully replicated on the PS surfaces based on the suggested technique. The micropatterns were designed to have various diameters (2–150 µm), spacings (2–160 µm) and heights (1.4, 2.4, 8.2 and 14.9 µm), so as to generate the gradient of physical properties on the surface. Experimental parametric studies indicated that (1) the embossing temperature became a critical processing parameter as the aspect ratio of micropattern increased and (2) the PDMS mold-based hot embossing could successfully replicate micropatterns, even having an aspect ratio of 2.7 for micropattern diameter of 6 µm, with an optimal processing condition (embossing pressure and temperature of 0.4 MPa and 130 °C, respectively) in this study. We carried out cell experiments with adipose-derived stem cells on the replicated PS surface with the height of 1.4 µm to investigate cellular behaviors in response to the micropattern array with gradient size. Cellular experiment results showed that the micropillar-arrayed surface improved cell proliferation as compared with the microwell-arrayed surface. We could also estimate

  3. Methodical evaluation and improvement of matrix compatible PDMS-overcoated coating for direct immersion solid phase microextraction gas chromatography (DI-SPME-GC)-based applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Silva, Érica A; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Shirey, Robert; Sidisky, Len; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2016-05-12

    The main quest for the implementation of direct SPME to complex matrices has been the development of matrix compatible coatings that provide sufficient sensitivity towards the target analytes. In this context, we present here a thorough evaluation of PDMS-overcoated fibers suitable for simultaneous extraction of different polarities analytes, while maintaining adequate matrix compatibility. For this, eleven analytes were selected, from various application classes (pesticides, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals) and with a wide range of log P values (ranging from 1.43 to 6). The model matrix chosen was commercial Concord grape juice, which is rich in pigments such as anthocyanins, and contains approximately 20% of sugar (w/w). Two types of PDMS, as well as other intrinsic factors associated with the PDMS-overcoated fiber fabrication are studied. The evaluation showed that the PDMS-overcoated fibers considerably slowed down the coating fouling process during direct immersion in complex matrices of high sugar content. Longevity differences could be seen between the two types of PDMS tested, with a proprietary Sylgard(®) giving superior performance because of lesser amount of reactive groups and enhanced hydrophobicity. Conversely, the thickness of the outer layer did not seem to have a significant effect on the fiber lifetime. We also demonstrate that the uniformity of the overcoated PDMS layer is paramount to the achievement of reliable data and extended fiber lifetime. Employing the optimum overcoated fiber, limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.2-1.3 ng/g could be achieved. Additional improvement is attainable by introducing washing of the coatings after desorption, so that any carbon build-up (fouling) left on the coating surface after thermal desorption can be removed. PMID:27114223

  4. The Black Hole Universe Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-06-01

    The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin

  5. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  6. Compositional and Structural Difference of Fulvic Acid from Black Soil Applied with Different Organic Materials:Assessment After Three Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-ming; WU Jing-gui

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of different effects of various organic materials on soil humic substance is important for both environmental safety and sustainable agriculture. A pot experiment was conducted at Jilin Agricultural University, Jilin Province in northeast China to discover the inlfuence of herb residue, animal excrement, woody residue, animal remnant on fulvic acid (FA) composition and structure using differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric (DTA-TG), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis. DTA-TG showed the range of peak temperature in the ifrst exothermic reaction increased following the trend: CK>herb residue>animal excrement>woody residue=animal remnant, and the most weight loss was observed in animal excrement. Moreover, the second exothermic reaction of CK-and animal excrement-FA was presented as double peaks, the order of weight loss in that area was animal remnant>CK>woody residue>animal excrement>herb residue. According to FTIR, herb residue displayed higher adsorption intensity at 2 950, 1 420, 1 240 and 1 030 cm-1, animal excrement was in reverse. At the same time, herb residue-and animal excrement-FA had an absorption peak at 1 720 cm-1, while other organic materials didn’t have this peak. As elemental analysis showed, FA isolated from various treatments was signiifcantly distinct. It was clearly shown from our results that FA composition and structure in amended soils may be affected in different ways and at various extents on dependence of the nature and origin of amendment.

  7. Phases of Kaluza-Klein Black Holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmark, Troels; Obers, N. A.

    2005-01-01

    We review the latest progress in understanding the phase structure of static and neutral Kaluza-Klein black holes, i.e. static and neutral solutions of pure gravity with an event horizon that asymptote to a d-dimensional Minkowski-space times a circle. We start by reviewing the (mu,n) phase diagram...... and the split-up of the phase structure into solutions with an internal SO(d-1) symmetry and solutions with Kaluza-Klein bubbles. We then discuss the uniform black string, non-uniform black string and localized black hole phases, and how those three phases are connected, involving issues such as classical...... instability and horizon-topology changing transitions. Finally, we review the bubble-black hole sequences, their place in the phase structure and interesting aspects such as the continuously infinite non-uniqueness of solutions for a given mass and relative tension....

  8. Connecting Star Formation Quenching with Galaxy Structure and Supermassive Black Holes through Gravitational Heating of Cooling Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations suggested that star formation quenching in galaxies is related to galaxy structure. Here we propose a new mechanism to explain the physical origin of this correlation. We assume that while quiescent galaxies are maintained quenched by a feedback mechanism, cooling flows in the hot halo gas can still develop intermittently. We study cooling flows in a large suite of around 90 hydrodynamic simulations of an isolated galaxy group, and find that the flow development depends significantly on the gravitational potential well in the central galaxy. If the galaxy's gravity is not strong enough, cooling flows result in a central cooling catastrophe, supplying cold gas and feeding star formation to galactic bulges. When the bulge grows prominent enough, compressional heating starts to offset radiative cooling and maintains cooling flows in a long-term hot mode without producing cooling catastrophe. Our model thus describes a self-limited growth channel for galaxy bulges, and naturally explains the c...

  9. Black holes reconsidered

    CERN Document Server

    Helfer, Adam D

    2011-01-01

    I review elements of the foundations of black-hole theory with attention to problematic issues, and describe some techniques which either seem to help with the difficulties or at least investigate their scope. The definition of black holes via event horizons has been problematic because it depends on knowing the global structure of space-time; often attempts to avoid this (e.g. apparent horizons) require knowledge of the interior geometry. I suggest studying instead the holonomy relating the exterior neighborhood of the incipient horizon to the regime of distant observers; at least in the spherically symmetric case, this holonomy will develop certain universal features, in principle observable from signals emitted from infalling objects. I discuss the theory of quantum fields in curved space-time, and the difficulties with Hawking's prediction of black-hole radiation. I then show that the usual, very natural, theory of quantum fields in curved space-time runs into difficulties when applied to measurement prob...

  10. Tuning the Network Structure in Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites Using Carbon Black: Toward Improvements of Conductivity and Piezoresistive Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Kai; Pötschke, Petra; Wiegand, Niclas; Krause, Beate; Voit, Brigitte

    2016-06-01

    Piezoresistive poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanocomposites are very intriguing for strain sensor applications in structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. In general, high piezoresistive sensitivity combined with broad measurable strain ranges are greatly favored in those sensors. Here, a facile strategy, i.e. constructing strain susceptible conductive networks using hybrid filler systems consisting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, 0.5-1 wt %) and carbon black (CB, 0.5-4 wt %), was introduced to tune both electrical conductivity and piezoresistive sensitivity of melt mixed PVDF nanocomposites. At the same filler content CNTs, due to their larger aspect ratio, contribute more to electrical conductivity improvements of nanocomposites than CB, while contacts between CB particles are more sensitive to tensile strain. With retained ductility of PVDF, tunable electrical conductivity and ΔR/R0-strain sensitivity can be achieved by combining the advantages of CNTs and CB by adjusting the conductive network structure. Conductivity improvement is more remarkable if the mass ratio of CNTs to CB (mCNTs/mCB), varied between 1:1 and 1:4, is higher in hybrid filler compositions. Lower mCNTs/mCB ratios result in higher ΔR/R0 values in PVDF nanocomposites whether they have the same content of total filler or similar/the same initial electrical resistivity. At 10% tensile strain, the highest ΔR/R0 of 0.65 was obtained for the nanocomposite filled with 0.5 wt % CNTs and 0.5 wt % CB, while that for the counterpart containing 1 wt % CNTs is 0.35 at the same strain. The concept of using hybrid fillers provides a low-cost and effective way to fabricate piezoresistive polymer nanocomposites toward SHM applications. PMID:27171017

  11. Relative Deprivation, Rising Expectations, and Black Militancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Ronald P.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the role of relative deprivation (RD) and rising expectations (RE) as mediating variables between social structure and black militancy through secondary analyses of survey data of blacks living in Cleveland and Miami in the late 1960s. Alternative explanations and implications derived from the present data and the theories for the…

  12. Capitalism and Black Economic Development: A Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Louis C.

    1978-01-01

    Explanations for the inferior socioeconomic status of Blacks are examined and strategies for improving the status of Blacks are discussed. It is concluded that changes in the distribution of wealth will require changes in the structure of the economic system itself. (Author/MC)

  13. Black Studies: A Key to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Whittington B.; Nichols, Ted

    1977-01-01

    Concludes that black studies programs should develop an octopus-like academic structure which reaches out in several directions, simultaneously: initiating and illuminating, discerning and fostering, observing and directing, collecting and disseminating; all with one goal in view, exploring the black experience within a universal perspective.…

  14. Kerr-Newman Black Hole In Quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhaoyi

    2016-01-01

    We study the Kerr-Newman solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equation in quintessence field around a black hole by Newman-Janis algorithm. From the horizon structure and stationary limit surfaces, we find that Kerr-Newman black hole exists an ergosphere with $r^{+} < r < r^{L}$, which is related to the parameters $\\omega$ and $\\alpha$. We obtain the general expression between $\\alpha$ and $\\omega$ if the cosmological horizon exists, in which for $\\omega=-1/2$, $\\alpha\\leq\\sqrt{2}/5$, and for $\\omega=-2/3$, $\\alpha\\leq 1/6$. For $\\omega=-2/3$, the result is same with rotational black hole in quintessence. The singularity of the black holes is the same with that of Kerr black hole. We also discuss the rotation velocity of the black holes on the equatorial plane for $\\omega =-2/3$ and $-1/2$.

  15. The thermal radiation from dynamic black holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using the related formula of dynamic black holes, the instantaneous radiation energy density of the general spherically symmetric charged dynamic black hole and the arbitrarily accelerating charged dynamic black hole is calculated. It is found that the instantaneous radiation energy density of black hole is always proportional to the quartic of the temperature of event horizon in the same direction. The proportional coefficient of generalized Stefan-Boltzmann is no longer a constant, and it becomes a dynamic coefficient that is related to the event horizon changing rate, space-time structure near event horizon and the radiation absorption coefficient of the black hole. It is shown that there should be an internal relation between the gravitational field around black hole and its thermal radiation.

  16. Black Feminism: An Integrated Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Katie L

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a systematic literature review exploring the uses and potential benefits of Black Feminism in nursing research. Black Feminism may benefit knowledge development for nursing in a variety of ways, such as illuminating the multifaceted factors of Black women's identities in helping scholars move away from generalization of experiences, to improve understanding of health disparities, and making such changes by broadening the social consciousness of the nurse researchers, who are predominantly White. Discrimination in health disparities may be deconstructed if the focus is placed on asking different research questions and offering different interventions with the social structures that contributes to such actions. When Black Feminism guides the research method (including research questions and analysis), the accuracy of representing the experiences of Black women is increased. In this research, Black Feminism highlights experience, coping mechanisms, spiritual values, a tradition of strength, and a holistic view of identity. PMID:26930767

  17. Black Holes and Exotic Spinors

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff da Silva, J. M.(Departamento de Física e Química, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Guaratinguetá, SP, Brazil); C. H. Coronado Villalobos; Roldao da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime ex...

  18. Poverty among Young Children in Black Immigrant, US-Born Black, and Non-Black Immigrant Families: The Role of Familial Contexts. Discussion Paper Series. DP 2010-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and US-born Blacks, and among Black and non-Black children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than US-born Black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among…

  19. Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Altitudes of the top of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation are presented for the wells and test holes presented in this report.

  20. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies in the...