WorldWideScience

Sample records for black nucleus model

  1. The nucleus: a black box being opened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, R; Humbel, B; de Jong, L

    1991-12-01

    Until recently our knowledge about the structural and functional organization of the cell nucleus was very limited. Recent technical developments in the field of ultrastructural analysis, combined with ongoing research on the properties of the nuclear matrix, give new insight into how the nucleus is structured. Two types of observations shape our ideas about nuclear organization. First, most nuclear functions (replication, transcription, RNA processing, and RNA transport) are highly localized within the nucleus, rather than diffusely distributed. Moreover, they are associated with the nuclear matrix. Second, chromatin is organized in discrete loops, bordered by nuclear matrix attachment sequences (MARs). Each loop may contain one or several genes. The arrangement of chromatin in loops has profound consequences for the regulation of gene expression.

  2. The Double Nucleus and Central Black Hole of M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    1999-09-01

    New spectroscopy of M31 supports Tremaine's model in which both nuclei are parts of a single eccentric disk of stars orbiting the black hole (BH). The kinematics and Hubble Space Telescope photometry are used to measure the offset of the BH from the center of mass. This confirms that the BH mass is ~3×107 Msolar by a technique that is nearly independent of stellar-dynamical models. We present spectroscopy of the nucleus of M31 obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and Subarcsecond Imaging Spectrograph. Spectra at the Ca infrared triplet lines (seeing σ*=0.27") are used to measure the stellar kinematics, and spectra at the Mg I b lines (σ*=0.31") are used to measure metallicities. We also measure nonparametric line-of-sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs). All spectra confirm the steep rotation and velocity dispersion gradients that imply that M31 contains a 3.3×107 Msolar central dark object. At σ*=0.27", the maximum bulge-subtracted rotation velocity of the nucleus is 233+/-4 km s-1 on the P2 side, and the maximum velocity dispersion is 287+/-9 km s-1. The dispersion peak is displaced by 0.20"+/-0.03" from the velocity center in the direction opposite to P1, confirming a result by Bacon and coworkers. The higher surface brightness nucleus, P1, is colder than the bulge, with σ~=100 km s-1 at r~=1''. Cold light from P1 contributes at the velocity center; this explains part of the σ(r) asymmetry. The nucleus is cold at r>~1'' on both sides of the center. Our results are used to test Tremaine's model in which the double nucleus is a single eccentric disk of stars orbiting the BH. (1) The model predicts that the velocity center of the nucleus is displaced by 0.2" from P2 toward P1. Our observations show a displacement of 0.08"+/-0.01" before bulge subtraction and 0.10"+/-0.01" after bulge subtraction. (2) The model predicts a minimum σ~=135 km s-1 at P1. We observe σ=123+/-2 km s-1. Observations (1) and (2) may be reconciled with the model if its

  3. The supermassive black hole and double nucleus of the core elliptical NGC 5419

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzalay, Ximena; Thomas, Jens; Saglia, Roberto P.; Wegner, Gary A.; Bender, Ralf; Erwin, Peter; Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Rusli, Stephanie P.

    2016-11-01

    We obtained adaptive-optics assisted SINFONI observations of the central regions of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5419 with a spatial resolution of 0.2 arcsec (≈55 pc). NGC 5419 has a large depleted stellar core with a radius of 1.58 arcsec (430 pc). HST and SINFONI images show a point source located at the galaxy's photocentre, which is likely associated with the low-luminosity AGN previously detected in NGC 5419. Both the HST and SINFONI images also show a second nucleus, off-centred by 0.25 arcsec (≈70 pc). Outside of the central double nucleus, we measure an almost constant velocity dispersion of σ ˜ 350 km s-1. In the region where the double nucleus is located, the dispersion rises steeply to a peak value of ˜420 km s-1. In addition to the SINFONI data, we also obtained stellar kinematics at larger radii from the South African Large Telescope. While NGC 5419 shows low rotation (v regions (inside ˜4 rb) clearly rotate in the opposite direction to the galaxy's outer parts. We use orbit-based dynamical models to measure the black hole mass of NGC 5419 from the kinematical data outside of the double nuclear structure. The models imply M_BH=7.2^{+2.7}_{-1.9} × 10^9 M⊙. The enhanced velocity dispersion in the region of the double nucleus suggests that NGC 5419 possibly hosts two supermassive black holes at its centre, separated by only ≈70 pc. Yet our measured MBH is consistent with the black hole mass expected from the size of the galaxy's depleted stellar core. This suggests, that systematic uncertainties in MBH related to the secondary nucleus are small.

  4. Modelling quantum black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R

    2016-01-01

    Novel bound states are obtained for manifolds with singular potentials. These singular potentials require proper boundary conditions across boundaries. The number of bound states match nicely with what we would expect for black holes. Also they serve to model membrane mechanism for the black hole horizons in simpler contexts. The singular potentials can also mimic expanding boundaries elegantly, there by obtaining appropriately tuned radiation rates.

  5. Contemporary models of the atomic nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Nemirovskii, P E

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary Models of the Atomic Nucleus discusses nuclear structure and properties, expounding contemporary theoretical concepts of the low-energy nuclear processes underlying in nuclear models. This book focuses on subjects such as the optical nuclear model, unified or collective model, and deuteron stripping reaction. Other topics discussed include the basic nuclear properties; shell model; theoretical analysis of the shell model; and radiative transitions and alpha-decay. The deuteron theory and the liquid drop nuclear model with its application to fission theory are also mentioned, but o

  6. Modeling black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this book is two-fold: the first part gives a fully detailed and pedagogical presentation of the Hawking effect and its physical implications, and the second discusses the backreaction problem, especially in connection with exactly solvable semiclassical models that describe analytically the black hole evaporation process. The book aims to establish a link between the general relativistic viewpoint on black hole evaporation and the new CFT-type approaches to the subject. The detailed discussion on backreaction effects is also extremely valuable.

  7. Black hole in the West Nucleus of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Downes, D

    2007-01-01

    We present new observations with the IRAM Interferometer, in its longest-baseline configuration, of the CO(2-1) line and the 1.3mm dust radiation from the Arp 220 nuclear region. The dust source in the West nucleus has a size of 0.19 x 0.13 arcsec and a 1.3mm brightness temperature of 90K. This implies that the dust ring in the West nucleus has a high opacity, with tau = 1 at 1.1mm. Not only is the dust ring itself optically thick in the submm and far-IR, but it is surrounded by the previously-known, rapidly rotating molecular disk of size 0.5 arcsec that is also optically thick in the mid-IR. The molecular ring is cooler than the hot dust disk because the CO(2-1) line is seen in absorption against the dust disk. The dust ring is massive (1E9 solar masses), compact (radius 35pc), and hot (true dust temperature 170K). It resembles rather strikingly the dust ring detected around the quasar APM 08279+52, and is most unlike the warm, extended dust sources in starburst galaxies. Because there is a strong temperatu...

  8. HST STIS spectroscopy of the triple nucleus of M31: two nested disks in Keplerian rotation around a Supermassive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, R; Bower, G; Green, R; Thomas, J; Danks, A C; Gull, T R; Hutchings, J B; Joseph, C L; Kaiser, M E; Lauer, T R; Nelson, C H; Richstone, D O; Weistrop, D; Woodgate, B; Bender, Ralf; Kormendy, John; Bower, Gary; Green, Richard; Thomas, Jens; Danks, Anthony C.; Gull, Theodore; Lauer, Tod R.; Nelson, Charles H.; Richstone, Douglas; Weistrop, Donna; Woodgate, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    We present HST spectroscopy of the nucleus of M31 obtained with STIS. Spectra taken around the CaT lines at 8500 see only the red giants in the double bright- ness peaks P1 and P2. In contrast, spectra taken at 3600-5100 A are sensitive to the tiny blue nucleus embedded in P2, the lower surface brightness red nucleus. P2 has a K-type spectrum, but the embedded blue nucleus has an A-type spectrum with strong Balmer absorption lines. Given the small likelihood for stellar collisions, a 200 Myr old starburst appears to be the most plausible origin of the blue nucleus. In stellar population, size, and velocity dispersion, the blue nucleus is so different from P1 and P2 that we call it P3. The line-of-sight velocity distributions of the red stars in P1+P2 strengthen the support for Tremaine s eccentric disk model. The kinematics of P3 is consistent with a circular stellar disk in Keplerian rotation around a super-massive black hole with M_bh = 1.4 x 10^8 M_sun. The P3 and the P1+P2 disks rotate in the same sense a...

  9. The Black Hole Universe Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-06-01

    The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin

  10. A ~50,000 solar mass black hole in the nucleus of RGG 118

    CERN Document Server

    Baldassare, Vivienne; Gallo, Elena; Greene, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Scaling relations between black hole (BH) masses and their host galaxy properties have been studied extensively over the last two decades, and point towards co-evolution of central massive BHs and their hosts. However, these relations remain poorly constrained for BH masses below $\\sim10^{6}$ M_sun. Here we present optical and X-ray observations of the dwarf galaxy RGG 118 taken with the Magellan Echellette Spectrograph on the 6.5m Clay Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. Based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy, RGG 118 was identified as possessing narrow emission line ratios indicative of photoionization partly due to an active galactic nucleus. Our higher resolution spectroscopy clearly reveals broad H$\\alpha$ emission in the spectrum of RGG 118. Using virial BH mass estimate techniques, we calculate a BH mass of $\\sim50,000$ \\msun. We detect a nuclear X-ray point source in RGG 118, suggesting a total accretion powered luminosity of $L=4\\times10^{40}~{\\rm erg~s^{-1}}$, and an Eddington fraction ...

  11. Statistical Model of the Early Stage of nucleus-nucleus collisions with exact strangeness conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Poberezhnyuk, R V; Gorenstein, M I

    2015-01-01

    The Statistical Model of the Early Stage, SMES, describes a transition between confined and deconfined phases of strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The model was formulated in the late 1990s for central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS energies. It predicted several signals of the transition (onset of deconfinement) which were later observed by the NA49 experiment. The grand canonical ensemble was used to calculate entropy and strangeness production. This approximation is valid for reactions with mean multiplicities of particles carrying conserved charges being significantly larger than one. Recent results of NA61/SHINE on hadron production in inelastic p+p interactions suggest that the deconfinement may also take place in these reactions. However, in this case mean multiplicity of particles with non-zero strange charge is smaller than one. Thus for the modeling of p+p interactions the exact strangeness conservation has to be implemented in the SMES. This extension of the SMES ...

  12. A Heuristic Model for the Active Galactic Nucleus Based on the Planck Vacuum Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The standard explanation for an active galactic nucleus (AGN is a "central engine" consisting of a hot accretion disk surrounding a supermassive black hole. Energy is generated by the gravitational infall of material which is heated to high temperatures in this dissipative accretion disk. What follows is an alternative model for the AGN based on the Planck vacuum (PV theory, where both the energy of the AGN and its variable luminosity are explained in terms of a variable photon flux emanating from the PV.

  13. Nuclear mean field and double-folding model of the nucleus-nucleus optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Khoa, Dao T; Loan, Doan Thi; Loc, Bui Minh

    2016-01-01

    Realistic density dependent CDM3Yn versions of the M3Y interaction have been used in an extended Hartree-Fock (HF) calculation of nuclear matter (NM), with the nucleon single-particle potential determined from the total NM energy based on the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem that gives rise naturally to a rearrangement term (RT). Using the RT of the single-nucleon potential obtained exactly at different NM densities, the density- and energy dependence of the CDM3Yn interactions was modified to account properly for both the RT and observed energy dependence of the nucleon optical potential. Based on a local density approximation, the double-folding model of the nucleus-nucleus optical potential has been extended to take into account consistently the rearrangement effect and energy dependence of the nuclear mean-field potential, using the modified CDM3Yn interactions. The extended double-folding model was applied to study the elastic $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C and $^{16}$O+$^{12}$C scattering at the refractive energies, wher...

  14. Three-dimensional Keplerian orbit-superposition models of the nucleus of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Calum K; 10.1093/mnras/stt104

    2013-01-01

    We present three-dimensional eccentric disc models of the nucleus of M31, modelling the disc as a linear combination of thick rings of massless stars orbiting in the potential of a central black hole. Our models are nonparametric generalisations of the parametric models of Peiris & Tremaine. The models reproduce well the observed WFPC2 photometry, the detailed line-of-sight velocity distributions from STIS observations along P1 and P2, together with the qualitative features of the OASIS kinematic maps. We confirm Peiris & Tremaine's finding that nuclear discs aligned with the larger disc of M31 are strongly ruled out. Our optimal model is inclined at 57 degrees with respect to the line of sight of M31 and has a position angle of 55 degrees. It has a central black hole of mass 10^8 solar masses, and, when viewed in three dimensions, shows a clear enhancement in the density of stars around the black hole. The distribution of orbit eccentricities in our models is similar to Peiris & Tremaine's model,...

  15. Black hole collapse and democratic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Aron; Magán, Javier M.

    2016-11-01

    We study the evolution of black hole entropy and temperature in collapse scenarios in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime, finding three generic lessons. First, entropy evolution is extensive. Second, at large times, entropy and temperature ring with twice the frequency of the lowest quasinormal mode. Third, the entropy oscillations saturate black hole area theorems in general relativity. The first two features are characteristic of entanglement dynamics in "democratic" models. Solely based on general relativity and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula, our results point to democratic models as microscopic theories of black holes. The third feature can be taken as a prediction for microscopic models of black hole physics.

  16. Modelling of compound nucleus formation in fusion of heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Torres, A

    2004-01-01

    A new model that includes the time-dependent dynamics of the single-particle (s.p.) motion in conjunction with the macroscopic evolution of the system is proposed for describing the compound nucleus (CN) formation in fusion of heavy nuclei. The diabaticity initially keeps the entrance system around its contact configuration, but the gradual transition from the diabatic to the adiabatic potential energy surface (PES) leads to fusion or quasifission. Direct measurements of the probability for CN formation are crucial to discriminate between the current models.

  17. Sub-Arcsecond 2D Photometry and Spectrography of the Nucleus of M31 The Supermassive Black Hole Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, R; Monnet, G; Nieto, J L

    1993-01-01

    Sub-arcsecond imagery (HRCAM, 0".35 - 0".57 FWHM) and two-dimensional spectrography (TIGER, 0".9 FWHM) of the central nucleus of M31 have been obtained at CFHT. The photometric data clearly show the double-peaked nucleus, in excellent agreement with a recent HST image by Lauer et al. 1993. We built deconvolved surface brightness models, using the multi-Gaussian expansion method. We then perform a detailed morphological analysis of the three central photometric components (bulge, nucleus and bright secondary peak) and derive various spatial luminosity models (oblate and triaxial). Stellar velocity and velocity dispersion fields were derived from the TIGER data: the former displays an extremely rapid rotation around the true center of the galaxy, while the latter exhibits a peaked structure offset in the opposite direction of the brightest light peak. Neglecting these offsets,both extended versions of the virial theorem and detailed hydrodynamical models confirm the classical strong central mass concentration, ...

  18. Black hole mining in the RST model

    CERN Document Server

    Basavaraju, Rohitvarma

    2016-01-01

    We consider the possibility of mining black holes in the 1+1-dimensional dilaton gravity model of Russo, Susskind and Thorlacius. The model correctly incorporates Hawking radiation and back-reaction in a semiclassical expansion in 1/N, where N is the number of matter species. It is shown that the lifetime of a perturbed black hole is independent of the addition of any extra apparatus when realized by an arbitrary positive energy matter source. We conclude that mining does not occur in the RST model and comment on the implications of this for the black hole information paradox.

  19. The supermassive black hole and double nucleus of the core elliptical NGC5419

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzalay, X; Saglia, R P; Wegner, G A; Bender, R; Erwin, P; Fabricius, M H; Rusli, S

    2016-01-01

    We obtained adaptive-optics assisted SINFONI observations of the central regions of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC5419 with a spatial resolution of 0.2 arcsec ($\\approx 55$ pc). NGC5419 has a large depleted stellar core with a radius of 1.58 arcsec (430 pc). HST and SINFONI images show a point source located at the galaxy's photocentre, which is likely associated with the low-luminosity AGN previously detected in NGC5419. Both the HST and SINFONI images also show a second nucleus, off-centred by 0.25 arcsec ($\\approx 70$ pc). Outside of the central double nucleus, we measure an almost constant velocity dispersion of $\\sigma \\sim 350$ km/s. In the region where the double nucleus is located, the dispersion rises steeply to a peak value of $\\sim 420$ km/s. In addition to the SINFONI data, we also obtained stellar kinematics at larger radii from the South African Large Telescope. While NGC5419 shows low rotation ($v < 50$ km/s), the central regions (inside $\\sim 4 \\, r_b$) clearly rotate in the opposite direc...

  20. Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the merger of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases in which the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.

  1. Cosmic Train Wreck by Massive Black Holes: Discovery of a kpc-Scale Triple Active Galactic Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin; Strauss, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical galaxy mergers will lead to the formation of binary and, in particular, triple SMBHs, given that most massive galaxies harbor central SMBHs. A triple of SMBHs becomes visible as a triple Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) when the BHs accrete large amounts of gas at the same time. Here we report the discovery of a kpc-scale triple AGN, SDSSJ1027+1749 at z = 0.066, from our systematic search for hierarchical mergers of AGNs. The galaxy contains three emission-line nuclei, two of which are offset by ~ 450 and 110 km/s in velocity and by 2.4 and 3.0 kpc in projected separation from the central nucleus. All three nuclei are classified as obscured AGNs based on optical diagnostic emission line ratios, with black hole mass estimates M_BH >~ 10^8 M_sun from stellar velocity dispersions measured in the associated stellar components. Based on dynamical friction timescale estimates, the three stellar components in SDSSJ1027+1749 will merge in ~ 40 Myr, and their associated SMBHs may evolve into a gravitationall...

  2. Computational modeling of pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitella, Laura M.; Mohsenian, Kevin; Pahwa, Mrinal; Gloeckner, Cory; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) near the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been posited to improve medication-intractable gait and balance problems in patients with Parkinson's disease. However, clinical studies evaluating this DBS target have not demonstrated consistent therapeutic effects, with several studies reporting the emergence of paresthesia and oculomotor side effects. The spatial and pathway-specific extent to which brainstem regions are modulated during PPN-DBS is not well understood. Approach. Here, we describe two computational models that estimate the direct effects of DBS in the PPN region for human and translational non-human primate (NHP) studies. The three-dimensional models were constructed from segmented histological images from each species, multi-compartment neuron models and inhomogeneous finite element models of the voltage distribution in the brainstem during DBS. Main Results. The computational models predicted that: (1) the majority of PPN neurons are activated with -3 V monopolar cathodic stimulation; (2) surgical targeting errors of as little as 1 mm in both species decrement activation selectivity; (3) specifically, monopolar stimulation in caudal, medial, or anterior PPN activates a significant proportion of the superior cerebellar peduncle (up to 60% in the human model and 90% in the NHP model at -3 V) (4) monopolar stimulation in rostral, lateral or anterior PPN activates a large percentage of medial lemniscus fibers (up to 33% in the human model and 40% in the NHP model at -3 V) and (5) the current clinical cylindrical electrode design is suboptimal for isolating the modulatory effects to PPN neurons. Significance. We show that a DBS lead design with radially-segmented electrodes may yield improved functional outcome for PPN-DBS.

  3. The river model of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Lisle, Jason P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an under-appreciated way to conceptualize stationary black holes, which we call the river model. The river model is mathematically sound, yet simple enough that the basic picture can be understood by non-experts. %that can by understood by non-experts. In the river model, space itself flows like a river through a flat background, while objects move through the river according to the rules of special relativity. In a spherical black hole, the river of space falls into the b...

  4. Pilot biomechanical design of biomaterials for artificial nucleus prosthesis using 3D finite-element modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qijin Huang; Guoquan Liu; Yong Li; Jin Gao; Zhengqiu Gu; Yuanzheng Ma; Haibin Xue

    2004-01-01

    Pilot biomechanical design of biomaterials for artificial nucleus prosthesis was carried out based on the 3D finite-element method. Two 3D models of lumbar intervertebral disc respectively with a real human nucleus and with the nucleus removed were developed and validated using published experimental and clinical data. Then the models with a stainless steel nucleus prosthesis implanted and with polymer nucleus prostheses of various properties implanted were used for the 3D finite-element biomechanical analysis. All the above simulation and analysis were carried out for the L4/L5 disc under a human worst-daily compression load of 2000 N. The results show that the polymer materials with Young's modulus of elasticity E = 0.1-100 MPa and Poisson's ratio v=0.35-0.5 are suitable to produce artificial nucleus prosthesis in view of biomechanical consideration.

  5. Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jingyi Zhang

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a canonical ensemble model for the black hole quantum tunnelling radiation is introduced. In this model the probability distribution function corresponding to the emission shell is calculated to second order. The formula of pressure and internal energy of the thermal system is modified, and the fundamental equation of thermodynamics is also discussed.

  6. Black Hole Lightning from the Peculiar Gamma-Ray Loud Active Galactic Nucleus IC 310

    CERN Document Server

    Glawion, Dorit Eisenacher; Mannheim, Karl; Colin, Pierre; Kadler, Matthias; Schulz, Robert; Ros, Eduardo; Bach, Uwe; Krauß, Felicia; Wilms, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    The nearby active galaxy IC 310, located in the outskirts of the Perseus cluster of galaxies is a bright and variable multi-wavelength emitter from the radio regime up to very high gamma-ray energies above 100 GeV. Originally, the nucleus of IC 310 has been classified as a radio galaxy. However, studies of the multi-wavelength emission showed several properties similarly to those found from blazars as well as radio galaxies. In late 2012, we have organized the first contemporaneous multi-wavelength campaign including radio, optical, X-ray and gamma-ray instruments. During this campaign an exceptionally bright flare of IC 310 was detected with the MAGIC telescopes in November 2012 reaching an averaged flux level in the night of up to one Crab above 1 TeV with a hard spectrum over two decades in energy. The intra-night light curve showed a series of strong outbursts with flux-doubling time scales as fast as a few minutes. The fast variability constrains the size of the gamma-ray emission regime to be smaller th...

  7. Gravitational lens models for cosmological black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A. F.; Capozziello, S.; Stornaiolo, C.

    2017-03-01

    If really such objects like cosmological black holes exist they may be studied with a standard technique like strong and weak gravitational lensing. Cosmological voids can be explained as the result the collapse of large perturbations into black hole with masses of the order of 1014 M ⊙ and the expansion of the universe. The resulting image of the universe is that it is more homogeneous than expected from present observations. In this paper we discuss some lensing properties related to the cosmological black holes (CBHs), namely we consider differences in gravitational lensing for point like mass and extended mass distributions. We consider the singular isothermal sphere model as a toy (illustrative) model for an extended distribution of dark matter and a slightly more complicated isothermal sphere with a core.

  8. The effects of baryon physics, black holes and active galactic nucleus feedback on the mass distribution in clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martizzi, Davide; Teyssier, Romain; Moore, Ben; Wentz, Tina

    2012-06-01

    The spatial distribution of matter in clusters of galaxies is mainly determined by the dominant dark matter component; however, physical processes involving baryonic matter are able to modify it significantly. We analyse a set of 500 pc resolution cosmological simulations of a cluster of galaxies with mass comparable to Virgo, performed with the AMR code RAMSES. We compare the mass density profiles of the dark, stellar and gaseous matter components of the cluster that result from different assumptions for the subgrid baryonic physics and galaxy formation processes. First, the prediction of a gravity-only N-body simulation is compared to that of a hydrodynamical simulation with standard galaxy formation recipes, and then all results are compared to a hydrodynamical simulation which includes thermal active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback from supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We find the usual effects of overcooling and adiabatic contraction in the run with standard galaxy formation physics, but very different results are found when implementing SMBHs and AGN feedback. Star formation is strongly quenched, producing lower stellar densities throughout the cluster, and much less cold gas is available for star formation at low redshifts. At redshift z= 0 we find a flat density core of radius 10 kpc in both the dark and stellar matter density profiles. We speculate on the possible formation mechanisms able to produce such cores and we conclude that they can be produced through the coupling of different processes: (I) dynamical friction from the decay of black hole orbits during galaxy mergers; (II) AGN-driven gas outflows producing fluctuations of the gravitational potential causing the removal of collisionless matter from the central region of the cluster; (III) adiabatic expansion in response to the slow expulsion of gas from the central region of the cluster during the quiescent mode of AGN activity.

  9. Chapter 8. Black Holes in Braneworld Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, N.; Tanaka, T.

    In this review, we summarize current understandings of blackhole solutions in various braneworld models, including the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali model, the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models, Karch-Randall (KR) model and the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model. After illustrating basic properties of each braneworld model, we introduce the bulk/brane correspondence in the RS and KR braneworld models, adding supporting evidence for it. We then summarize the studies on braneworld black hole solutions, which consist of constructing exact or approximate solutions and investigating the phase diagram of solutions. In the study of phase diagram, we will also expound the implications of the bulk/brane correspondence to the braneworld black holes.

  10. A New Cosmological Model: Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new cosmological model called black hole universe is proposed. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient mate- rials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we are living, the outside called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer is infinite in radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. The relationships among all layers or universes can be connected by the universe family tree. Mathematically, the entire space can be represented as a set of all universes. A black hole universe is a subset of the en- tire space or a subspace. The child universes are null sets or empty spaces. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics - the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-walker metric of spacetime - and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. The entire life of a universe begins from the birth as a hot star-like or supermassive black hole, passes through the growth and cools down, and expands to the death with infinite large and zero mass density and absolute temperature. The black hole universe model is consistent with the Mach principle, the observations of the universe, and the Einstein general theory of relativity. Its various aspects can be understood with the well-developed physics without any difficulty. The dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate its expansion. The inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe

  11. The river model of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, A J S; Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Lisle, Jason P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new way to conceptualize stationary black holes, which we call the river model. The river model is mathematically sound, yet simple enough that the basic picture can be understood by non-experts. In the river model, space itself flows like a river through a flat background, while objects move through the river according to the rules of special relativity. In a spherical black hole, the river of space falls into the black hole at the Newtonian escape velocity, hitting the speed of light at the horizon. Inside the horizon, the river flows inward faster than light, carrying everything with it. We show that the river model works also for rotating (Kerr-Newman) black holes, though with a surprising twist. As in the spherical case, the river of space can be regarded as moving through a flat background. However, the river does not spiral inward, as one might have anticipated, but rather falls inward with no azimuthal swirl at all. Instead, the river has at each point not only a velocity but als...

  12. A holographic model for black hole complementarity

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, David A

    2016-01-01

    In the version of black hole complementarity advocated by the authors, interior infalling degrees of freedom evolve according to the usual semiclassical effective field theory, generating the black hole interior via propagation along geodesics. Meanwhile the exterior degrees of freedom evolve according to an exact description of holographic origin. The infalling degrees of freedom have a complementary description in terms of outgoing Hawking radiation and must eventually decohere with respect to the exterior Hamiltonian, leading to apparent violations of quantum mechanics for an infaller. Trace distance is used to quantify the difference between these complementary time evolutions, and to define the decoherence time and the scrambling time. In a particular model for the holographic theory which exhibits fast scrambling, we show these timescales coincide. Moreover we propose a dictionary between the holographic theory and the bulk description where mean field evolution corresponds to the evolution with respect...

  13. Neutralino-Nucleus Elastic Cross Section in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with Explicit CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, S Y; Jang, J H; Song, H S; Park, Seong Chan

    2001-01-01

    We study the elastic scattering of the lightest neutralino with a nucleus in the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with explicit flavor preserving CP violation, including the one-loop CP-violating neutral Higgs-boson mixing effects induced dominantly by the CP phases in the top and bottom (s)quark sectors. We construct the most general form of the effective Lagrangian for the neutralino-nucleus scattering in the limit of vanishing momentum transfers and then we perform a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the complex CP phases on the mass spectra of the lightest neutralino, neutral Higgs bosons and top squarks, and on the the spin-dependent and spin-independent neutralino-nucleus scattering cross section for three neucleus targets F, Si and Ge. The CP phases can reduce or enhance the neutralino-nucleus cross sections significantly, depending on the values of the real parameters in the MSSM.

  14. Self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes by a dual jet-heating active galactic nucleus feedback mechanism: methods, tests and implications for cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Yohan; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain

    2012-03-01

    We develop a subgrid model for the growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) and their associated active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. This model transposes previous attempts to describe BH accretion and AGN feedback with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique to the adaptive mesh refinement framework. It also furthers their development by implementing a new jet-like outflow treatment of the AGN feedback which we combine with the heating mode traditionally used in the SPH approach. Thus, our approach allows one to test the robustness of the conclusions derived from simulating the impact of self-regulated AGN feedback on galaxy formation vis-à-vis the numerical method. Assuming that BHs are created in the early stages of galaxy formation, they grow by mergers and accretion of gas at a Eddington-limited Bondi accretion rate. However this growth is regulated by AGN feedback which we model using two different modes: a quasar-heating mode when accretion rates on to the BHs are comparable to the Eddington rate, and a radio-jet mode at lower accretion rates which not only deposits energy, but also deposits mass and momentum on the grid. In other words, our feedback model deposits energy as a succession of thermal bursts and jet outflows depending on the properties of the gas surrounding the BHs. We assess the plausibility of such a model by comparing our results to observational measurements of the co-evolution of BHs and their host galaxy properties, and check their robustness with respect to numerical resolution. We show that AGN feedback must be a crucial physical ingredient for the formation of massive galaxies as it appears to be able to efficiently prevent the accumulation of and/or expel cold gas out of haloes/galaxies and significantly suppress star formation. Our model predicts that the relationship between BHs and their host galaxy mass evolves as a function of redshift, because of the vigorous accretion

  15. A holographic model for black hole complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2016-12-01

    We explore a version of black hole complementarity, where an approximate semiclassical effective field theory for interior infalling degrees of freedom emerges holo-graphically from an exact evolution of exterior degrees of freedom. The infalling degrees of freedom have a complementary description in terms of outgoing Hawking radiation and must eventually decohere with respect to the exterior Hamiltonian, leading to a breakdown of the semiclassical description for an infaller. Trace distance is used to quantify the difference between the complementary time evolutions, and to define a decoherence time. We propose a dictionary where the evolution with respect to the bulk effective Hamiltonian corresponds to mean field evolution in the holographic theory. In a particular model for the holographic theory, which exhibits fast scrambling, the decoherence time coincides with the scrambling time. The results support the hypothesis that decoherence of the infalling holographic state and disruptive bulk effects near the curvature singularity are comple-mentary descriptions of the same physics, which is an important step toward resolving the black hole information paradox.

  16. Hairy black holes in the general Skyrme model

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, C; Shnir, Ya; Wereszczynski, A

    2016-01-01

    We study the existence of hairy black holes in the generalized Einstein-Skyrme model. It is proven that in the BPS model limit there are no hairy black hole solutions, although the model admits gravitating (and flat space) solitons. Furthermore, we find strong evidence that a necessary condition for the existence of black holes with Skyrmionic hair is the inclusion of the Skyrme term $\\mathcal{L}_4$. As an example, we show that there are no hairy black holes in the $\\mathcal{L}_2+\\mathcal{L}_6+\\mathcal{L}_0$ model and present a new kind of black hole solutions with compact Skyrmion hair in the $\\mathcal{L}_4+\\mathcal{L}_6+\\mathcal{L}_0$ model.

  17. Microscopic Cluster Models: application to the structure of the {sup 16}B nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, M [IPHC Bat27, IN2P3-CNRS/Universite de Strasbourg BP28, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Descouvemont, P, E-mail: marianne.dufour@iphc.cnrs.fr [Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, C.P. 229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-09-16

    General aspects of microscopic cluster models based on the combination of the Generator-Coordinate-Method and of the R-matrix method are presented. The adequacy of such methods to describe the physics of exotic light nuclei is illustrated with the unbound {sup 16}B nucleus.

  18. Black hole thermalization rate from brane anti-brane model

    CERN Document Server

    Lifschytz, G

    2004-01-01

    We develop the quasi-particle picture for Schwarzchild and far from extremal black holes. We show that the thermalization equations of the black hole is recovered from the model of branes and anti-branes. This can also be viewed as a field theory explanation of the relationship between area and entropy for these black holes. As a by product the annihilation rate of branes and anti-branes is computed.

  19. Black hole thermalization rate from brane anti-brane model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifschytz, Gilad E-mail: giladl@research.haifa.ac.il

    2004-08-01

    We develop the quasi-particle picture for Schwarzchild and far from extremal black holes. We show that the thermalization equations of the black hole is recovered from the model of branes and anti-branes. This can also be viewed as a field theory explanation of the relationship between area and entropy for these black holes. As a by product the annihilation rate of branes and anti-branes is computed. (author)

  20. BTZ black hole entropy: a spin foam model description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Islas, J Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, A Postal 20-726, 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: jmgislas@leibniz.iimas.unam.mx

    2008-12-21

    We present a microscopical explanation of the entropy of the BTZ black hole using discrete spin foam models of quantum gravity. The entropy of a black hole is given in geometrical terms which led us to think that its statistical description must be given in terms of a quantum geometry. In this paper we present it in terms of spin foam geometrical observables at the horizon of the black hole.

  1. Neutrino nucleus reactions within the GiBUU model

    CERN Document Server

    Lalakulich, O; Mosel, U

    2011-01-01

    The GiBUU model, which implements all reaction channels relevant at medium neutrino energy, is used to investigate the neutrino and antineutrino scattering on iron. Results for integrated cross sections are compared with NOMAD and MINOS data. It is shown, that final state interaction can noticeably change the spectra of the outgoing hadrons. Predictions for the Miner$\

  2. MODELING THE MOLECULAR COMPOSITION IN AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Nanase [Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Thompson, Todd A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Herbst, Eric [Departments of Chemistry, Astronomy, and Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We use a high-temperature chemical network to derive the molecular abundances in axisymmetric accretion disk models around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) within 100 pc using simple radial and vertical density and temperature distributions motivated by more detailed physical models. We explore the effects of X-ray irradiation and cosmic-ray ionization on the spatial distribution of the molecular abundances of CO, CN, CS, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HC{sub 3}N, C{sub 2}H, and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} using a variety of plausible disk structures. These simple models have molecular regions with an X-ray-dominated region layer, a midplane without the strong influence of X-rays, and a high-temperature region in the inner portion with moderate X-ray flux where families of polyynes (C{sub n}H{sub 2}) and cyanopolyynes can be enhanced. For the high midplane density disks we explore, we find that cosmic rays produced by supernovae do not significantly affect the regions unless the star formation efficiency significantly exceeds that of the Milky Way. We highlight molecular abundance observations and ratios that may distinguish among theoretical models of the density distribution in AGN disks. Finally, we assess the importance of the shock crossing time and the accretion time relative to the formation time for various chemical species. Vertical column densities are tabulated for a number of molecular species at both the characteristic shock crossing time and steady state. Although we do not attempt to fit any particular system or set of observations, we discuss our models and results in the context of the nearby AGN NGC 1068.

  3. Afferent Stream Integration in a Model of the Nucleus Accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    capable of rapid synchronization [21]. They investigated low-threshold spiking interneurons in neocortex, which are interconnected by both GABAergic...M. A. & Toth, K. "A branching dendritic model of a rodent CA3 pyramidal neurone." J Physiol (Lond), vol. 481, pp.79-95, 1994. [12] Gabel LA... CA3 pyramidal neurons." J Neurosci. vol.16, pp.5567-82, 1996. [14] Bargas, J, Howe, A, Eberwine, J., Cao, Y., and Surmeier, DJ. "Cellular and

  4. Chaos in matrix models and black hole evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Evan; Hanada, Masanori; Maltz, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    Is the evaporation of a black hole described by a unitary theory? In order to shed light on this question—especially aspects of this question such as a black hole's negative specific heat—we consider the real-time dynamics of a solitonic object in matrix quantum mechanics, which can be interpreted as a black hole (black zero-brane) via holography. We point out that the chaotic nature of the system combined with the flat directions of its potential naturally leads to the emission of D0-branes from the black brane, which is suppressed in the large N limit. Simple arguments show that the black zero-brane, like the Schwarzschild black hole, has negative specific heat, in the sense that the temperature goes up when it evaporates by emitting D0-branes. While the largest Lyapunov exponent grows during the evaporation, the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy decreases. These are consequences of the generic properties of matrix models and gauge theory. Based on these results, we give a possible geometric interpretation of the eigenvalue distribution of matrices in terms of gravity. Applying the same argument in the M-theory parameter region, we provide a scenario to derive the Hawking radiation of massless particles from the Schwarzschild black hole. Finally, we suggest that by adding a fraction of the quantum effects to the classical theory, we can obtain a matrix model whose classical time evolution mimics the entire life of the black brane, from its formation to the evaporation.

  5. Black hole Skyrmion in a generalized Skyrme model

    CERN Document Server

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Sawado, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We study a Skyrme-like model with the Skyrme term and a sixth-order derivative term as higher-order terms, coupled to gravity and we construct Schwarzschild black hole Skyrme hair. We find, surprisingly, that the sixth-order derivative term alone cannot stabilize the black hole hair solutions; the Skyrme term with a large enough coefficient is a necessity.

  6. A full annual cycle modeling framework for American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Orin J.; McGowan, Conor; Devers, Patrick K.; Brook, Rodney W.; Huang, Min; Jones, Malcom; McAuley, Daniel G.; Zimmerman, Guthrie

    2016-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) are a harvested, international migratory waterfowl species in eastern North America. Despite an extended period of restrictive harvest regulations, the black duck population is still below the population goal identified in the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP). It has been hypothesized that density-dependent factors restrict population growth in the black duck population and that habitat management (increases, improvements, etc.) may be a key component of growing black duck populations and reaching the prescribed NAWMP population goal. Using banding data from 1951 to 2011 and breeding population survey data from 1990 to 2014, we developed a full annual cycle population model for the American black duck. This model uses the seven management units as set by the Black Duck Joint Venture, allows movement into and out of each unit during each season, and models survival and fecundity for each region separately. We compare model population trajectories with observed population data and abundance estimates from the breeding season counts to show the accuracy of this full annual cycle model. With this model, we then show how to simulate the effects of habitat management on the continental black duck population.

  7. Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Horizon of Schwarzschild–de Sitter Black Holes Quantum Tunnelling Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W. X. Zhong

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we use the canonical ensemble model to discuss the radiation of a Schwarzschild–de Sitter black hole on the black hole horizon. Using this model, we calculate the probability distribution from function of the emission shell. And the statistical meaning which compare with the distribution function is used to investigate the black hole tunnelling radiation spectrum.We also discuss the mechanism of information flowing from the black hole.

  8. Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, D.; Schulz, M.; McNaughton, C.; Spackman, J.R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Krol, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate black carbon (BC) model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentr

  9. The dynamical model and quantization of the Schwarzschild black hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The mass of the Schwarzschild black hole, an observable quantity, is defined as a dynamical variable, while the corresponding conjugate is considered as a general- ized momentum. Then a two-dimensional phase space is composed of the two variables. In the two-dimensional phase space, a harmonic oscillator model of the Schwarzschild black hole is obtained by a canonical transformation. By this model, the mass spectrum of the Schwarzschild black hole is firstly obtained. Further the horizon area operator, quantum area spectrum and entropy are obtained in the Fock representation. Lastly, the wave function of the horizon area is derived also.

  10. Habitat suitability index model for black bear (Ursus americanus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This descriptive model applies only to black bear in the coastal forests and adjacent vegetative communities, which extend from Afognak Island and the shores of...

  11. Near-horizon states of black holes and Calogero models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Basu-Mallick; Pijush K Ghosh; Kumar S Gupta

    2004-03-01

    We find self-adjoint extensions of the rational Calogero model in the presence of the harmonic interaction. The corresponding eigenfunctions may describe the near-horizon quantum states of certain types of black holes.

  12. Calculation of Energy Levels of Nucleus 127I in the Particle-Triaxial-Rotor Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hui-Chao; LIU Yu-Xin; ZHANG Yu-Hu

    2004-01-01

    @@ Theoretical calculations have been performed for nucleus 127 I in the framework of the particle-triaxial-rotor model.The calculated results indicate that both the 5+2 and 7+2 bands are oblate deformed bands. Their configurations are associated with the πd5/2 [402] 52 and πg7/2[404] 72 orbitals and the strong mixing between them. Meanwhile a possible explanation of the strong mixing is given.

  13. Tensor Network Models of Unitary Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Leutheusser, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a general class of toy models to study the quantum information-theoretic properties of black hole radiation. The models are governed by a set of isometries that specify how microstates of the black hole at a given energy evolve to entangled states of a tensor product black-hole/radiation Hilbert space. The final state of the black hole radiation is conveniently summarized by a tensor network built from these isometries. We introduce a set of quantities generalizing the Renyi entropies that provide a complete set of bipartite/multipartite entanglement measures, and give a general formula for the average of these over initial black hole states in terms of the isometries defining the model. For models where the dimension of the final tensor product radiation Hilbert space is the same as that of the space of initial black hole microstates, the entanglement structure is universal, independent of the choice of isometries. In the more general case, we find that models which best capture the "information...

  14. Release model for black liquor droplet; Mustalipeaepisaran vapautumismalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The release of sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulphur from black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification is studied by modelling work. A model for drying, pyrolysis and swelling of black liquor has been developed earlier. A submodel for the release of sulphur, which takes place at temperatures below 500 deg C has been incorporated to this model. A previous model for the combustion and gasification of char particles has been further developed to account for the effect of sodium, potassium and chlorine. A model for the release of these components as function of time has been developed. (orig.)

  15. Compound nucleus formation probability PCN defined within the dynamical cluster-decay model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Sahila; Kaur, Arshdeep; Gupta, Raj K.

    2015-01-01

    With in the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM), the compound nucleus fusion/ formation probability PCN is defined for the first time, and its variation with CN excitation energy E* and fissility parameter χ is studied. In DCM, the (total) fusion cross section σfusion is sum of the compound nucleus (CN) and noncompound nucleus (nCN) decay processes, each calculated as the dynamical fragmentation process. The CN cross section σCN is constituted of the evaporation residues (ER) and fusion-fission (ff), including the intermediate mass fragments (IMFs), each calculated for all contributing decay fragments (A1, A2) in terms of their formation and barrier penetration probabilities P0 and P. The nCN cross section σnCN is determined as the quasi-fission (qf) process where P0=1 and P is calculated for the entrance channel nuclei. The calculations are presented for six different target-projectile combinations of CN mass A~100 to superheavy, at various different center-of-mass energies with effects of deformations and orientations of nuclei included in it. Interesting results are that the PCN=1 for complete fusion, but PCN <1 or ≪1 due to the nCN conribution, depending strongly on both E* and χ.

  16. Compound nucleus formation probability PCN defined within the dynamical cluster-decay model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Sahila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With in the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM, the compound nucleus fusion/ formation probability PCN is defined for the first time, and its variation with CN excitation energy E* and fissility parameter χ is studied. In DCM, the (total fusion cross section σfusion is sum of the compound nucleus (CN and noncompound nucleus (nCN decay processes, each calculated as the dynamical fragmentation process. The CN cross section σCN is constituted of the evaporation residues (ER and fusion-fission (ff, including the intermediate mass fragments (IMFs, each calculated for all contributing decay fragments (A1, A2 in terms of their formation and barrier penetration probabilities P0 and P. The nCN cross section σnCN is determined as the quasi-fission (qf process where P0=1 and P is calculated for the entrance channel nuclei. The calculations are presented for six different target-projectile combinations of CN mass A~100 to superheavy, at various different center-of-mass energies with effects of deformations and orientations of nuclei included in it. Interesting results are that the PCN=1 for complete fusion, but PCN <1 or ≪1 due to the nCN conribution, depending strongly on both E* and χ.

  17. Chaos in Matrix Models and Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Berkowitz, Evan; Maltz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Is the evaporation of a black hole described by a unitary theory? In order to shed light on this question ---especially aspects of this question such as a black hole's negative specific heat---we consider the real-time dynamics of a solitonic object in matrix quantum mechanics, which can be interpreted as a black hole (black zero-brane) via holography. We point out that the chaotic nature of the system combined with the flat directions of its potential naturally leads to the emission of D0-branes from the black brane, which is suppressed in the large $N$ limit. Simple arguments show that the black zero-brane, like the Schwarzschild black hole, has negative specific heat, in the sense that the temperature goes up when it evaporates by emitting D0-branes. While the largest Lyapunov exponent grows during the evaporation, the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy decreases. These are consequences of the generic properties of matrix models and gauge theory. Based on these results, we give a possible geometric interpretation of...

  18. Bohr's semiclassical model of the black hole thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panković V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple procedure for evaluating the main attributes of a Schwarzschild's black hole: Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, Hawking temperature and Bekenstein's quantization of the surface area. We make use of the condition that the circumference of a great circle on the black hole horizon contains finite and whole number of the corresponding reduced Compton's wavelength. It is essentially analogous to Bohr's quantization postulate in Bohr's atomic model interpreted by de Broglie's relation. It implies the standard meaning of the black hole entropy corresponding to surface of the quantum variation of the great circles on the black hole horizon surface area. We present black hole radiation in the form conceptually analogous to Bohr's postulate on the photon emission by discrete quantum jump of the electron within the Old quantum theory. This enables us, in accordance with Heisenberg's uncertainty relation and Bohr's correspondence principle, to make a rough estimate of the time interval for black hole evaporation, which turns out very close to time interval predicted by the standard Hawking's theory. Our calculations confirm Bekenstein's semiclassical result for the energy quantization, in variance with Frasca's (2005 calculations. Finally we speculate about the possible source-energy distribution within the black hole horizon.

  19. Qubit Transport Model for Unitary Black Hole Evaporation without Firewalls

    CERN Document Server

    Osuga, Kento

    2016-01-01

    We give an explicit toy qubit transport model for transferring information from the gravitational field of a black hole to the Hawking radiation by a continuous unitary transformation of the outgoing radiation and the black hole gravitational field. The model has no firewalls or other drama at the event horizon and fits the set of six physical constraints that Giddings has proposed for models of black hole evaporation. It does utilize nonlocal qubits for the gravitational field but assumes that the radiation interacts locally with these nonlocal qubits, so in some sense the nonlocality is confined to the gravitational sector. Although the qubit model is too crude to be quantitively correct for the detailed spectrum of Hawking radiation, it fits qualitatively with what is expected.

  20. Modeling the nucleus and jets of comet 81P/Wild 2 based on the Stardust encounter data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Zdenek; Brownlee, Donald E; Economou, Thanasis E; Tuzzolino, Anthony J; Green, Simon F

    2004-06-18

    We interpret the nucleus properties and jet activity from the Stardust spacecraft imaging and the onboard dust monitoring system data. Triangulation of 20 jets shows that 2 emanate from the nucleus dark side and 16 emanate from sources that are on slopes where the Sun's elevation is greater than predicted from the fitted triaxial ellipsoid. Seven sources, including five in the Mayo depression, coincide with relatively bright surface spots. Fitting the imaged jets, the spikelike temporal distribution of dust impacts indicates that the spacecraft crossed thin, densely populated sheets of particulate ejecta extending from small sources on the rotating nucleus, consistent with an emission cone model.

  1. X-ray observational signature of a black hole accretion disc in an active galactic nucleus RXJ1633+4718

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Weimin; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Tinggui

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a luminous ultra-soft X-ray excess in a radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert1 galaxy, RXJ1633+4718, from archival ROSAT observations. The thermal temperature of this emission, when fitted with a blackbody, is as low as 32.5(+8.0,-6.0)eV. This is in remarkable contrast to the canonical temperatures of ~0.1-0.2keV found hitherto for the soft X-ray excess in active galactic nuclei (AGN), and is interestingly close to the maximum temperature predicted for a postulated accretion disc in this object. If this emission is indeed blackbody in nature, the derived luminosity [3.5(+3.3,-1.5)x10^(44)ergs/s] infers a compact emitting area with a size [~5x10^(12)cm or 0.33AU in radius] that is comparable to several times the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole at the mass estimated for this AGN (3x10^6Msun). In fact, this ultra-steep X-ray emission can be well fitted as the (Compton scattered) Wien tail of the multi-temperature blackbody emission from an optically thick accretion disc, whose parameters...

  2. Hidden Degeneracy in the Brick Wall Model of Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Sen-Gupta, K; Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha

    2003-01-01

    Quantum field theory in the near-horizon region of a black hole predicts the existence of an infinite number of degenerate modes. Such a degeneracy is regulated in the brick wall model by the introduction of a short distance cutoff. In this Letter we show that states of the brick wall model with non zero energy admit a further degeneracy for any given finite value of the cutoff. The black hole entropy is calculated within the brick wall model taking this degeneracy into account. Modes with complex frequencies however do not exhibit such a degeneracy.

  3. Using measurements for evaluation of black carbon modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gilardoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing use of air quality and climate model assessments to underpin economic, public health, and environmental policy decisions makes effective model evaluation critical. This paper discusses the properties of black carbon and light attenuation and absorption observations that are the key to a reliable evaluation of black carbon model and compares parametric and nonparametric statistical tools for the quantification of the agreement between models and observations. Black carbon concentrations are simulated with TM5/M7 global model from July 2002 to June 2003 at four remote sites (Alert, Jungfraujoch, Mace Head, and Trinidad Head and two regional background sites (Bondville and Ispra. Equivalent black carbon (EBC concentrations are calculated using light attenuation measurements from January 2000 to December 2005. Seasonal trends in the measurements are determined by fitting sinusoidal functions and the representativeness of the period simulated by the model is verified based on the scatter of the experimental values relative to the fit curves. When the resolution of the model grid is larger than 1°×1°, it is recommended to verify that the measurement site is representative of the grid cell. For this purpose, equivalent black carbon measurements at Alert, Bondville and Trinidad Head are compared to light absorption and elemental carbon measurements performed at different sites inside the same model grid cells. Comparison of these equivalent black carbon and elemental carbon measurements indicates that uncertainties in black carbon optical properties can compromise the comparison between model and observations. During model evaluation it is important to examine the extent to which a model is able to simulate the variability in the observations over different integration periods as this will help to identify the most appropriate timescales. The agreement between model and observation is accurately described by the overlap of

  4. Using measurements for evaluation of black carbon modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gilardoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing use of air quality and climate model assessments to underpin economic, public health, and environmental policy decisions makes effective model evaluation critical. This paper discusses the properties of black carbon and light attenuation and absorption observations that are the key to a reliable evaluation of black carbon model and compares parametric and nonparametric statistical tools for the quantification of the agreement between models and observations. Black carbon concentrations are simulated with TM5/M7 global model from July 2002 to June 2003 at four remote sites (Alert, Jungfraujoch, Mace Head, and Trinidad Head and two regional background sites (Bondville and Ispra. Equivalent black carbon (EBC concentrations are calculated using light attenuation measurements from January 2000 to December 2005. Seasonal trends in the measurements are determined by fitting sinusoidal functions and the representativeness of the period simulated by the model is verified based on the scatter of the experimental values relative to the fit curves. When the resolution of the model grid is larger than 1° × 1°, it is recommended to verify that the measurement site is representative of the grid cell. For this purpose, equivalent black carbon measurements at Alert, Bondville and Trinidad Head are compared to light absorption and elemental carbon measurements performed at different sites inside the same model grid cells. Comparison of these equivalent black carbon and elemental carbon measurements indicates that uncertainties in black carbon optical properties can compromise the comparison between model and observations. During model evaluation it is important to examine the extent to which a model is able to simulate the variability in the observations over different integration periods as this will help to identify the most appropriate timescales. The agreement between model and observation is accurately described by the overlap of

  5. Symmetries and solvable models for evaporating 2D black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, J; Navarro-Salas, J; Talavera, C F

    1997-01-01

    We study the evaporation process of a 2D black hole in thermal equilibrium when the ingoing radiation is switched off suddenly. We also introduce global symmetries of generic 2D dilaton gravity models which generalize the extra symmetry of the CGHS model.

  6. Toward a spin foam model description of black hole entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Islas, J Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, A Postal 20-726, 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: jmgislas@leibniz.iimas.unam.mx

    2008-12-07

    We propose a way to describe the origin of black hole entropy in the spin foam models of quantum gravity. This stimulates a new way to study the relation of spin foam models and loop quantum gravity. (comments, replies and notes)

  7. Effective-one-body modeling of precessing black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taracchini, Andrea; Babak, Stanislav; Buonanno, Alessandra

    2016-03-01

    Merging black hole binaries with generic spins that undergo precessional motion emit complicated gravitational-wave signals. We discuss how such waveforms can be accurately modeled within an effective-one-body approach by (i) exploiting the simplicity of the signals in a frame that corotates with the orbital plane of the binary and (ii) relying on an accurate model of nonprecessing black hole binaries. The model is validated by extensive comparisons to 70 numerical relativity simulations of precessing black hole binaries and can generate inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms for mass ratios up to 100 and any spin configuration. This work is an essential tool for studying and characterizing candidate gravitational-wave events in science runs of advanced LIGO.

  8. Modeling gravitational radiation from coalescing binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, J; Loustó, C O; Takahashi, R

    2002-01-01

    With the goal of bringing theory, particularly numerical relativity, to bear on an astrophysical problem of critical interest to gravitational wave observers we introduce a model for coalescence radiation from binary black hole systems. We build our model using the "Lazarus approach", a technique that bridges far and close limit approaches with full numerical relativity to solve Einstein equations applied in the truly nonlinear dynamical regime. We specifically study the post-orbital radiation from a system of equal-mass non-spinning black holes, deriving waveforms which indicate strongly circularly polarized radiation of roughly 3% of the system's total energy and 12% of its total angular momentum in just a few cycles. Supporting this result we first establish the reliability of the late-time part of our model, including the numerical relativity and close-limit components, with a thorough study of waveforms from a sequence of black hole configurations varying from previously treated head-on collisions to rep...

  9. Blood quantum and perceptions of black-white biracial targets: the black ancestry prototype model of affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Good, Jessica J; Chavez, George

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the causal role of amount of Black ancestry in targets' perceived fit with Black prototypes and perceivers' categorization of biracial targets. Greater Black ancestry increased the likelihood that perceivers categorized biracial targets as Black and perceived targets as fitting Black prototypes (e.g., experiencing racial discrimination, possessing stereotypic traits). These results persisted, controlling for perceptions of phenotype that stem from ancestry information. Perceivers' beliefs about how society would categorize the biracial targets predicted perceptions of discrimination, whereas perceivers' beliefs about the targets' self-categorization predicted trait perceptions. The results of this study support the Black ancestry prototype model of affirmative action, which reveals the downstream consequences of Black ancestry for the distribution of minority resources (e.g., affirmative action) to biracial targets.

  10. A model of dust fragmentation in near-nucleus jet-like features on Comet P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Ichishiro; Huebner, W. F.; Boice, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    A model for dusty gas flows and dust fragmentation in cometary atmospheres is developed and applied to interpret the dust intensity profiles near the nucleus of Comet P/Halley. It is found that fragmentation is not the only physical mechanism for explaining the dust intensity profiles from the 1/z dependence in the region about 1 to 40 km from the nucleus. A combination of the geometric effect and dust fragmentation is a likely explanation for the profiles.

  11. A computer code for calculations in the algebraic collective model of the atomic nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Welsh, T A

    2016-01-01

    A Maple code is presented for algebraic collective model (ACM) calculations. The ACM is an algebraic version of the Bohr model of the atomic nucleus, in which all required matrix elements are derived by exploiting the model's SU(1,1) x SO(5) dynamical group. This, in particular, obviates the use of coefficients of fractional parentage. This paper reviews the mathematical formulation of the ACM, and serves as a manual for the code. The code makes use of expressions for matrix elements derived elsewhere and newly derived matrix elements of the operators [pi x q x pi]_0 and [pi x pi]_{LM}, where q_M are the model's quadrupole moments, and pi_N are corresponding conjugate momenta (-2>=M,N<=2). The code also provides ready access to SO(3)-reduced SO(5) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients through data files provided with the code.

  12. On black hole solutions in model with anisotropic fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Dehnen, H; Melnikov, V N

    2003-01-01

    A family of spherically symmetric solutions in the model with 1-component anisotropic fluid is considered. The metric of the solution depends on a parameter q > 0 relating radial pressure and the density and contains n -1 parameters corresponding to Ricci-flat ``internal space'' metrics. For q = 1 and certain equations of state the metric coincides with the metric of black brane solutions in the model with antisymmetric form. A family of black hole solutions corresponding to natural numbers q = 1,2, ... is singled out. Certain examples of solutions (e.g. containing for q =1 Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m, M2 and M5 black brane metrics) are considered. The post-Newtonian parameters beta and gamma corresponding to the 4-dimensional section of the metric are calculated.

  13. Retrograde versus Prograde Models of Accreting Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garofalo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that magnetic fields, accretion disks, and rotating black holes are instrumental in the generation of the most powerful sources of energy in the known universe. Nonetheless, because magnetized accretion onto rotating black holes involves both the complications of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics that currently cannot fully be treated numerically, and uncertainties about the origin of magnetic fields that at present are part of the input, the space of possible solutions remains less constrained. Consequently, the literature still bears witness to the proliferation of rather different black hole engine models. But the accumulated wealth of observational data is now sufficient to meaningfully distinguish between them. It is in this light that this critical paper compares the recent retrograde framework with standard “spin paradigm” prograde models.

  14. Habitat suitability index models: Black-shouldered kite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faanes, C.A.; Howard, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The black-shouldered kite inhabits a disjunct range extending from California, Texas, and south intermittently to Chile and Argentina (American Ornithologists' Union 1983). Prior to the 1960's, this species occurred in low numbers across much of its range. Populations of black-shouldered kite have changed considerably within the limited area of its US range. Although considered common and widespread in California in the late 1800's, the species was largely extirpated from much of the state by the early 1900's. Since 1960, the population status and range of this raptor in North America have improved markedly. Today the black-shouldered kite in California is a common species of open and cultivated bottomland. The black-shouldered kite habitat suitability index (HSI) model is intended for use with the habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (1980) for impact assessment and habitat management. The model was developed from a review and synthesis of existing information, and includes unpublished information that reflects the opinions of persons familiar with black-shouldered kite ecology. It is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimally suitable habitat). Assumptions used to develop the HSI model and guidelines for model application, including techniques for measuring model variables, are described. Model documentation is provided. This model is a hypothesis of species-habitat relations, not a statement of proven cause and effect. The model has not been field tested. 33 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Examining subgrid models of supermassive black holes in cosmological simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, P M

    2010-01-01

    While supermassive black holes (SMBHs) play an important role in galaxy and cluster evolution, at present they can only be included in large-scale cosmological simulation via subgrid techniques. However, these subgrid models have not been studied in a systematic fashion. Using a newly-developed fast, parallel spherical overdensity halo finder built into the simulation code FLASH, we perform a suite of dark matter-only cosmological simulations to study the effects of subgrid model choice on relations between SMBH mass and dark matter halo mass and velocity dispersion. We examine three aspects of SMBH subgrid models: the choice of initial black hole seed mass, the test for merging two black holes, and the frequency of applying the subgrid model. We also examine the role that merging can play in determining the relations, ignoring the complicating effects of SMBH-driven accretion and feedback. We find that the choice of subgrid model can dramatically affect the black hole merger rate, the cosmic SMBH mass densit...

  16. Development of the Hamiltonian molecular dynamics (HMD) model: A first-principles, relativistic description of nucleus-nucleus interactions at medium energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapp, Edward Neal

    Simulation of energetic, colliding nuclear systems at energies between 100 AMeV and 5 AGeV has utility in fields as diverse as the design and construction of fundamental particle physics experiments, patient treatment by radiation exposure, and in the protection of astronaut crews from the risks of exposure to natural radiation sources during spaceflight. Descriptions of these colliding systems which are derived from theoretical principles are necessary in order to provide confidence in describing systems outside the scope of existing data, which is sparse. The system size and velocity dictate descriptions which include both special relativistic and quantum effects, and the currently incomplete state of understanding with respect to the basic processes at work within nuclear matter dictate that any description will exist at some level of approximation. Models commonly found in the literature employ approximations to theory which lead to simulation results which demonstrate departure from fundamental physical principles, most notably conservation of system energy. The HMD (Hamiltonian Molecular Dynamics) mode is developed as a phase-space description of colliding nuclear system on the level of hadrons, inclusive of the necessary quantum and relativistic elements. Evaluation of model simulations shows that the HMD model shows the necessary conservations throughout system simulation. HMD model predictions are compared to both the RQMD (Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics) and JQMD (Jaeri-Quantum Molecular Dynamics) codes, both commonly employed for the purpose of simulating nucleus-nucleus collisions. Comparison is also provided between all three codes and measurement. The HMD model is shown to perform well in light of both measurement and model calculation, while providing for a physically self-consistent description of the system throughout.

  17. Neuronal Entropy-Rate Feature of Entopeduncular Nucleus in Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbin, Olivier; Jin, Xingxing; Von Wrangel, Christof; Schwabe, Kerstin; Nambu, Atsushi; Naritoku, Dean K; Krauss, Joachim K; Alam, Mesbah

    2016-03-01

    The function of the nigro-striatal pathway on neuronal entropy in the basal ganglia (BG) output nucleus, i.e. the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) was investigated in the unilaterally 6-hyroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In both control subjects and subjects with 6-OHDA lesion of dopamine (DA) the nigro-striatal pathway, a histological hallmark for parkinsonism, neuronal entropy in EPN was maximal in neurons with firing rates ranging between 15 and 25 Hz. In 6-OHDA lesioned rats, neuronal entropy in the EPN was specifically higher in neurons with firing rates above 25 Hz. Our data establishes that the nigro-striatal pathway controls neuronal entropy in motor circuitry and that the parkinsonian condition is associated with abnormal relationship between firing rate and neuronal entropy in BG output nuclei. The neuronal firing rates and entropy relationship provide putative relevant electrophysiological information to investigate the sensory-motor processing in normal condition and conditions such as movement disorders.

  18. A toy model of black hole complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Souvik; Bryan, Jan-Willem; Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2016-05-01

    We consider the algebra of simple operators defined in a time band in a CFT with a holographic dual. When the band is smaller than the light crossing time of AdS, an entire causal diamond in the center of AdS is separated from the band by a horizon. We show that this algebra obeys a version of the Reeh-Schlieder theorem: the action of the algebra on the CFT vacuum can approximate any low energy state in the CFT arbitrarily well, but no operator within the algebra can exactly annihilate the vacuum. We show how to relate local excitations in the complement of the central diamond to simple operators in the band. Local excitations within the diamond are invisible to the algebra of simple operators in the band by causality, but can be related to complicated operators called "precursors". We use the Reeh-Schlieder theorem to write down a simple and explicit formula for these precursors on the boundary. We comment on the implications of our results for black hole complementarity and the emergence of bulk locality from the boundary.

  19. A toy model of black hole complementarity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Souvik; Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2016-01-01

    We consider the algebra of simple operators defined in a time band in a CFT with a holographic dual. When the band is smaller than the light crossing time of AdS, an entire causal diamond in the center of AdS is separated from the band by a horizon. We show that this algebra obeys a version of the Reeh-Schlieder theorem: the action of the algebra on the CFT vacuum can approximate any low energy state in the CFT arbitrarily well, but no operator within the algebra can exactly annihilate the vacuum. We show how to relate local excitations in the complement of the central diamond to simple operators in the band. Local excitations within the diamond are invisible to the algebra of simple operators in the band by causality, but can be related to complicated operators called "precursors". We use the Reeh-Schlieder theorem to write down a simple and explicit formula for these precursors on the boundary. We comment on the implications of our results for black hole complementarity and the emergence of bulk locality fr...

  20. The modified Black-Scholes model via constant elasticity of variance for stock options valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeki, S. O.; Owoloko, E. A.; Ugbebor, O. O.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the classical Black-Scholes option pricing model is visited. We present a modified version of the Black-Scholes model via the application of the constant elasticity of variance model (CEVM); in this case, the volatility of the stock price is shown to be a non-constant function unlike the assumption of the classical Black-Scholes model.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy: theoretical models for preimplantation genetic testing of a single nucleus using the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.N. Scriven; P.M.M. Bossuyt

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and use theoretical models to investigate the accuracy of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in testing a single nucleus from a preimplantation embryo without the complicating effect of mosaicism. Mathematical models were constructed for thre

  2. The BlackGEM array in search of black hole mergers: integrated performance modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ronald; Klein Wolt, Marc; Bloemen, Steven; Groot, Paul; Bettonvil, Felix; Balster, Harry; Dolron, Peter; van Elteren, Arjen; Engels, Arno; de Haan, Menno; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramon; Nelemans, Gijs; Paalberends, Willem Jelle; Pal, Sari; Raskin, Gert; Rutten, Harrie; Scheers, Bart; Schuil, Menno; Sybilski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    The Radboud University Nijmegen in collaboration with the NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation group at ASTRON is currently leading the development and realization of the BlackGEM observing facility. The BlackGEM science team aims to be the first to catch the optical counterpart of a gravitational wave event. The BlackGEM project will put an array of three medium-sized optical telescopes at the La Silla site of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. It is uniquely equipped to achieve a combination of wide-field and high sensitivity through its array-like approach. Each BlackGEM unit telescope is a modified Dall-Kirkham-type telescope consisting of a 65cm primary mirror, a 21cm spherical secondary mirror and a triplet corrector lens. The spatial resolution on the sky will be 0.56 asec/pixel and the total field-of-view per telescope is 2.7 square degrees. The main requirement is to achieve a 5-sigma sensitivity of 23rd magnitude within a 5-minute exposure under 15 m/s wind gust conditions. This demands a very stable optical system with tight control of all the error contributions. This has been realized with a spreadsheet based integrated instrument model. The model contains all relevant telescope instrument parameters and environmental conditions. The spreadsheet is partly used for performance calculations and partly used to combine and integrate the output from several other sources. The spreadsheet model calculates the overall performance based on an Exposure Time Calculator using the Noise Equivalent Area metric (NEA). The NEA is further budgeted over 7 main High Level Requirements. The spreadsheet model is coupled to 1) a ZEMAX telescope optical model 2) a telescope FEM analysis to predict the optomechanical response under various gravity, temperature and wind load conditions, 3) a Matlab Simulink thermal model to predict the transient temperature behaviour of the most important telescope elements and 4) a Matlab Simulink control model to predict the

  3. Alpha and light nucleus emission within a generalized liquid drop model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, G.; Bonilla, C.; Moustabchir, R.

    2002-11-01

    The potential energy governing the spontaneous α, C, O, F, Ne, Mg and Si emissions has been determined within a generalized liquid drop model including the proximity effects between the emitted light nucleus and the daughter one and taking into account empirically the experimental Q value. The decay path has been described by a quasi-molecular shape sequence leading rapidly to two spherical touching nuclei before crossing the barrier. The partial half-lives deduced from the WKB barrier penetration probabability are in very good agreement with experimental data and accurate analytical expressions are proposed. The partial half-lives of the Be, Li, He and H sub-barrier emissions have been calculated by adding an excitation energy to the Q value and new formulae are given.

  4. Models for solid-state transport: messenger RNA movement from nucleus to cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S

    1994-09-01

    This paper explores the idea that mRNAs are transported between their transcription and processing sites in the nucleus, and their translation and degradation sites in the cytoplasm, by a 'solid-state' process. The underlying assumption is that negligible quantities of mRNA and of mRNA precursors are in solution in vivo. Therefore, mRNA transport cannot be considered as movement in the aqueous phase of the cell. The main lines of experimental evidence supporting this 'solid-state' concept are summarized and related controversies are outlined. Three possible models for a solid-state transport mechanism are discussed: a direct transfer model, with receptors organized analogously to the components of a multienzyme complex; a motor-driven model, analogous to synaptic vesicle transport in axons; and an assembly-driven model which assumes net movement along a fibril resulting from differential activities at the poles. Qualitative evaluation indicates that each of these models has characteristic advantages and disadvantages. The possibility that other nucleocytoplasmic transport processes might operate by solid-state mechanisms is briefly discussed.

  5. A computer code for calculations in the algebraic collective model of the atomic nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, T. A.; Rowe, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    A Maple code is presented for algebraic collective model (ACM) calculations. The ACM is an algebraic version of the Bohr model of the atomic nucleus, in which all required matrix elements are derived by exploiting the model's SU(1 , 1) × SO(5) dynamical group. This paper reviews the mathematical formulation of the ACM, and serves as a manual for the code. The code enables a wide range of model Hamiltonians to be analysed. This range includes essentially all Hamiltonians that are rational functions of the model's quadrupole moments qˆM and are at most quadratic in the corresponding conjugate momenta πˆN (- 2 ≤ M , N ≤ 2). The code makes use of expressions for matrix elements derived elsewhere and newly derived matrix elements of the operators [ π ˆ ⊗ q ˆ ⊗ π ˆ ] 0 and [ π ˆ ⊗ π ˆ ] LM. The code is made efficient by use of an analytical expression for the needed SO(5)-reduced matrix elements, and use of SO(5) ⊃ SO(3) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients obtained from precomputed data files provided with the code.

  6. The smallest matrix black hole model in the classical limit

    CERN Document Server

    Berenstein, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the smallest non-trivial matrix model that can be considered to be a (toy) model of a black hole. The model consists of a pair of $2\\times 2$ traceless hermitian matrices with a commutator squared potential and an $SU(2)$ gauge symmetry, plus an $SO(2)$ rotation symmetry. We show that using the symmetries of the system, all but two of the variables can be separated. The two variables that remain display chaos and a transition from chaos to integrability when a parameter related to an $SO(2)$ angular momentum is tuned to a critical value. We compute the Lyapunov exponents near this transition and study the critical exponent of the Lyapunov exponents near the critical point. We compare this transition to extremal rotating black holes.

  7. Photoionization Modeling of the Low Luminosity Seyfert 1 Nucleus in NGC 3516

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the low luminosity Seyfert 1 nucleus in NGC 3516 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope show that the visible spectrum is dominated by the Balmer emission lines of Hydrogen (H) and a continuum luminosity that rises into the UV. The anomalous H${\\alpha}$/H${\\beta}$ emission line ratio, the Balmer emission line luminosity and the distinctive shape observed for the H${\\alpha}$ emission line profile serve as important constraints in any photoionization model aimed at explaining the visible emission line spectrum of NGC 3516. Photoionization modeling using Cloudy demonstrates that the central UV-X-ray source is able to completely ionize the H gas in between the Balmer and dust reverberation radii if the electron density is ${\\le}$ 3 ${\\times}$ 10${^7}$ cm${^{-3}}$ throughout. Thus, according to this model the region responsible for producing the visible H lines is a dust free shell of ionized H gas. Interestingly, the model predicts a rapid rise in the electron temperature as the ce...

  8. Active galactic nucleus torus models and the puzzling infrared spectrum of IRAS F10214+4724

    CERN Document Server

    Efstathiou, A; Verma, A; Siebenmorgen, R

    2013-01-01

    We present a revised model for the infrared emission of the hyperluminous infrared galaxy IRAS F10214+4724 which takes into account recent photometric data from Spitzer and Herschel that sample the peak of its spectral energy distribution. We first present and discuss a grid of smooth active galactic nucleus (AGN) torus models computed with the method of Efstathiou & Rowan-Robinson and demonstrate that the combination of these models and the starburst models of Efstathiou and coworkers, while able to give an excellent fit to the average spectrum of Seyfert 2s and spectra of individual type 2 quasars measured by Spitzer, fails to match the spectral energy distribution of IRAS F10214+4724. This is mainly due to the fact that the nuSnu distribution of the galaxy falls very steeply with increasing frequency (a characteristic that is usually indicative of heavy absorption by dust) but shows a silicate feature in emission. Such emission features are not expected in sources with optical/near-infrared type 2 AGN ...

  9. Production cross sections of the superheavy nucleus 117 based on the dinuclear system model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei-Juan; ZHANG Yong-Qi; WANG Hua-Lei; SONG Li-Tao; LI Lu-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the dinuclear system model,the capture of two colliding nuclei,and the formation and de-excitation process of a compound nucleus are described by using an empirical coupled channel model,solving the master equation numerically and the statistical evaporation model,respectively.In the process of heavy-ion capture and fusion to synthesize superheavy nuclei,the barrier distribution func-tion is introduced and averaging collision orientations are considered.Based on this model,the production cross sections of the cold fusion system 76-82Se+209Bi and the hot fusion systems 55Mn+238U,51V-+244Pu,59 Co+232 Th,48 Ca+247-249 Bk and 45 Sc+246-248 Cm are calculated.The isotopic dependence of the largest production cross sections is analyzed briefly,and the optimal projectile-target combination and excitation energy of the ln-4n evaporation channels are proposed.It is shown that the hot fusion systems 48Ca+247 249Bk in the3n evaporation channels and 45Sc+248Cm in the 2n-4n channels are optimal for synthesizing the superheavy element 117.

  10. The New Numerical Galaxy Catalog (ν2GC): An updated semi-analytic model of galaxy and active galactic nucleus formation with large cosmological N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiya, Ryu; Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagashima, Masahiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Okoshi, Katsuya; Oogi, Taira; Shirakata, Hikari

    2016-04-01

    We present a new cosmological galaxy formation model, ν2GC, as an updated version of our previous model νGC. We adopt the so-called "semi-analytic" approach, in which the formation history of dark matter halos is computed by N-body simulations, while the baryon physics such as gas cooling, star formation, and supernova feedback are simply modeled by phenomenological equations. Major updates of the model are as follows: (1) the merger trees of dark matter halos are constructed in state-of-the-art N-body simulations, (2) we introduce the formation and evolution process of supermassive black holes and the suppression of gas cooling due to active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, (3) we include heating of the intergalactic gas by the cosmic UV background, and (4) we tune some free parameters related to the astrophysical processes using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Our N-body simulations of dark matter halos have unprecedented box size and mass resolution (the largest simulation contains 550 billion particles in a 1.12 Gpc h-1 box), enabling the study of much smaller and rarer objects. The model was tuned to fit the luminosity functions of local galaxies and mass function of neutral hydrogen. Local observations, such as the Tully-Fisher relation, the size-magnitude relation of spiral galaxies, and the scaling relation between the bulge mass and black hole mass were well reproduced by the model. Moreover, the model also reproduced well the cosmic star formation history and redshift evolution of rest-frame K-band luminosity functions. The numerical catalog of the simulated galaxies and AGNs is publicly available on the web.

  11. An analytic model with critical behavior in black hole formation

    CERN Document Server

    Koike, T; Koike, Tatsuhiko; Mishima, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    A simple analytic model is presented which exhibits a critical behavior in black hole formation, namely, collapse of a thin shell coupled with outgoing null fluid. It is seen that the critical behavior is caused by the gravitational nonlinearity near the event horizon. We calculate the value of the critical exponent analytically and find that it is very dependent on the coupling constants of the system.

  12. Black Hole Entropy Calculation in a Modified Thin Film Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jingyi Zhang

    2011-03-01

    The thin film model is modified to calculate the black hole entropy. The difference from the original method is that the Parikh–Wilczek tunnelling framework is introduced and the self-gravitation of the emission particles is taken into account. In terms of our improvement, if the entropy is still proportional to the area, then the emission energy of the particles will satisfy = /360.

  13. Active galactic nucleus torus models and the puzzling infrared spectrum of IRAS F10214+4724

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, A.; Christopher, N.; Verma, A.; Siebenmorgen, R.

    2013-12-01

    We present a revised model for the infrared emission of the hyperluminous infrared galaxy IRAS F10214+4724 which takes into account recent photometric data from Spitzer and Herschel that sample the peak of its spectral energy distribution. We first present and discuss a grid of smooth active galactic nucleus (AGN) torus models computed with the method of Efstathiou & Rowan-Robinson and demonstrate that the combination of these models and the starburst models of Efstathiou and coworkers, while able to give an excellent fit to the average spectrum of Seyfert 2s and spectra of individual type 2 quasars measured by Spitzer, fails to match the spectral energy distribution of IRAS F10214+4724. This is mainly due to the fact that the νSν distribution of the galaxy falls very steeply with increasing frequency (a characteristic that is usually indicative of heavy absorption by dust) but shows a silicate feature in emission. Such emission features are not expected in sources with optical/near-infrared type 2 AGN spectral signatures. The Herschel data show that there is more power emitted in the rest-frame 20-50 μm wavelength range compared with the model presented by Efstathiou which assumes three components of emission: an edge-on torus, clouds (at a temperature of 610 and 200 K) that are associated with the narrow-line region (NLR) and a highly obscured starburst that dominates in the submillimetre. We present a revised version of that model that assumes an additional component of emission which we associate with NLR clouds at a temperature of 100 K. The 100 K dust component could also be explained by a highly obscured hot starburst. The model suggests that the NLR of IRAS F10214+4724 has an unusually high covering factor (≥17 per cent) or more likely the magnification of the emission from the NLR clouds is significantly higher than that of the emission from the torus.

  14. Modeling movement and fidelity of American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, N.L.; Conroy, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial relationships among stocks of breeding waterfowl can be an important component of harvest management. Prediction and optimal harvest management under adaptive harvest management (AHM) requires information on the spatial relationships among breeding populations (fidelity and inter-year exchange), as well as rates of movements from breeding to harvest regions. We used band-recovery data to develop a model to estimate probabilities of movement for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) among 3 Canadian breeding strata and 6 harvest regions (3 in Canada, and 3 in the United States) over the period 1965-1998. Model selection criteria suggested that models containing area-, year-, and age-specific recovery rates with area- and sex-specific movement rates were the best for modeling movement. Movement by males to southern harvest areas was variable depending on the originating area. Males from the western breeding area predominantly moved to the Mississippi Flyway or southern Atlantic Flyway (??ij = 0.353, SE = 0.0187 and ??ij = 0.473, SE = 0.037, respectively), whereas males that originated in the eastern and central breeding strata moved to the northern Atlantic flyway (??ij = 0.842, SE = 0.010 and ??ij = 0.578, SE = 0.0222, respectively). We used combined recoveries and recaptures in Program MARK to estimate fidelity to the 3 Canadian breeding strata. Information criteria identified a model containing sex- and age-specific fidelity for black ducks. Estimates of fidelity were 0.9695 (SE = 0.0249) and 0.9554 (SE = 0.0434) for adult males and females, respectively. Estimates of fidelity for juveniles were slightly lower at 0.9210 (SE = 0.0931) and 0.8870 (SE = 0.0475) for males and females, respectively. These models have application to the development of spatially stratified black duck harvest management models for use in AHM.

  15. Photoionization Modeling of the Low-luminosity Seyfert 1 Nucleus in NGC 3516

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Nick

    2016-05-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the low-luminosity Seyfert 1 nucleus in NGC 3516 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope show that the visible spectrum is dominated by Balmer emission lines of hydrogen (H) and a continuum luminosity that rises into the UV. The anomalous {{H}}α /Hβ emission line ratio, the Balmer emission line luminosity, and the distinctive shape observed for the {{H}}α emission line profile serve as important constraints for any photoionization model aimed at explaining the visible emission line spectrum of NGC 3516. Photoionization modeling using Cloudy demonstrates that the central UV-X-ray source is able to completely ionize the H gas in between the Balmer and dust reverberation radii if the electron density is ≤slant 3 × {10}7 cm{}-3 throughout. Thus, according to this model the region responsible for producing the visible H lines is a dust-free shell of ionized H gas. Interestingly, the model predicts a rapid rise in the electron temperature as the central UV-X-ray source is approached, mirrored by an equally precipitous decrease in the Balmer line emissivity that coincides with the Balmer reverberation radius, providing a natural explanation for the finite width observed for H Balmer lines. Collectively, the merit of the model is that it explains the relative intensities of the three brightest Balmer lines and the shape of the {{H}}α emission line profile. However, questions remain concerning the unusually weak forbidden lines that cannot be addressed using Cloudy due to limitations with the code.

  16. Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes: A Quasistationary Model

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuk Tung

    2010-01-01

    Tidal torques acting on a gaseous accretion disk around a binary black hole can create a gap in the disk near the orbital radius. At late times, when the binary inspiral timescale due to gravitational wave emission becomes shorter than the viscous timescale in the disk, the binary decouples from the disk and eventually merges. Prior to decoupling the balance between tidal and viscous torques drives the disk to a quasistationary equilibrium state, perturbed slightly by small amplitude, spiral density waves emanating from the edges of the gap. We consider a black hole binary with a companion of smaller mass and construct a simple Newtonian model for a geometrically thin, Keplerian disk in the orbital plane of the binary. We solve the disk evolution equations in steady state to determine the quasistationary, (orbit-averaged) surface density profile prior to decoupling. We use our solution, which is analytic up to simple quadratures, to compute the electromagnetic flux and approximate radiation spectrum during th...

  17. Towards Construction of a Unified Model for the Neutrino-Nucleus Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, S X; Hayato, Y; Hirai, M; Horiuchi, W; Kumano, S; Murata, T; Saito, K; Sakura, M; Sato, T; Suzuki, Y

    2016-01-01

    A precise description of neutrino-nucleus reactions will play a key role in addressing fundamental questions such as the leptonic CP violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy through analyzing data from next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments. The neutrino energy relevant to the neutrino-nucleus reactions spans a broad range and, accordingly, the dominant reaction mechanism varies across the energy region from quasi-elastic scattering through nucleon resonance excitations to deep inelastic scattering. This corresponds to transitions of the effective degree of freedom for theoretical description from nucleons through meson-baryon to quarks. The main purpose of this review is to report our recent efforts towards a unified description of the neutrino-nucleus reactions over the wide energy range; recent overall progress in the field is also sketched. Starting with an overview of the current status of neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments, we formulate the cross section to be commonly used for the react...

  18. Quantum toy model for black-hole back-reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, Clovis

    2007-01-01

    We propose a simple quantum field theoretical toy model for black hole evaporation and study the back-reaction of Hawking radiation onto the classical background. It turns out that the horizon is also ``pushed back'' in this situation (i.e., the interior region shrinks) but this back-reaction is not caused by energy conservation but by momentum balance. The effective heat capacity and the induced entropy variation can have both signs -- depending on the parameters of the model. PACS: 04.62.+v, 04.70.Dy.

  19. The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model study of the N=Z nucleus 52Fe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model(ReCAPS) is used in the study of the structure and electromagnetic transitions of the low-lying states in the N=Z nucleus 52Fe.The model calculations show a reasonably good agreement with the data.The backbending at 12+ is reproduced and the energy level structure suggests that neutron-proton interactions play important roles.

  20. The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model study of the N=Z nucleus 52Fe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YanSong; LONG GuiLu

    2009-01-01

    The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model (RECAPS) is used in the study of the structure and electromagnetic transitions of the low-lying states in the N=Z nucleus 52Fe.The model calculations show a reasonably good agreement with the data.The backbending at 12+ is reproduced and the energy level structure suggests that neutron-proton interactions play important roles.

  1. Probing the active galactic nucleus unified model torus properties in Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audibert, Anelise; Riffel, Rogério; Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, Miriani G.; Ruschel-Dutra, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We studied the physical parameters of a sample comprising of all Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph public spectra of Seyfert galaxies in the mid-infrared (5.2-38 μm range) under the active galactic nucleus (AGN) unified model. We compare the observed spectra with ˜106 CLUMPY model spectral energy distributions, which consider a torus composed of dusty clouds. We find a slight difference in the distribution of line-of-sight inclination angle, i, requiring larger angles for Seyfert 2 (Sy 2) and a broader distribution for Seyfert 1 (Sy 1). We found small differences in the torus angular width, σ, indicating that Sy 1 may host a slightly narrower torus than Sy 2. The torus thickness, together with the bolometric luminosities derived, suggests a very compact torus up to ˜6 pc from the central AGN. The number of clouds along the equatorial plane, N, as well the index of the radial profile, q, is nearly the same for both types. These results imply that the torus cloud distribution is nearly the same for type 1 and type 2 objects. The torus mass is almost the same for both types of activity, with values in the range of Mtor ˜ 104-107 M⊙. The main difference appears to be related to the clouds' intrinsic properties: type 2 sources present higher optical depths τV. The results presented here reinforce the suggestion that the classification of a galaxy may also depend on the intrinsic properties of the torus clouds rather than simply on their inclination. This is in contradiction with the simple geometric idea of the unification model.

  2. A Zeroth Law Compatible Model to Kerr Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor G. Czinner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the thermodynamic and stability problem of Kerr black holes arising from the nonextensive/nonadditive nature of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula. Nonadditive thermodynamics is often criticized by asserting that the zeroth law cannot be compatible with nonadditive composition rules, so in this work we follow the so-called formal logarithm method to derive an additive entropy function for Kerr black holes also satisfying the zeroth law’s requirement. Starting from the most general, equilibrium compatible, nonadditive entropy composition rule of Abe, we consider the simplest non-parametric approach that is generated by the explicit nonadditive form of the Bekenstein–Hawking formula. This analysis extends our previous results on the Schwarzschild case, and shows that the zeroth law-compatible temperature function in the model is independent of the mass–energy parameter of the black hole. By applying the Poincaré turning point method, we also study the thermodynamic stability problem in the system.

  3. Toward Construction of the Unified Lepton-Nucleus Interaction Model from a Few Hundred MeV to GeV Region

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, S X; Hirai, M; Kamano, H; Kumano, S; Sakuda, M; Saito, K; Sato, T

    2013-01-01

    Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments will need a quantitative understanding of neutrino-nucleus interaction far better than ever. Kinematics covered by the relevant neutrino-nucleus interaction spans wide region, from the quasi-elastic, through the resonance region, to the deeply inelastic scattering region. The neutrino-nucleus interaction in each region has quite different characteristics. Obviously, it is essential to combine different expertise to construct a unified model that covers all the kinematical region of the neutrino-nucleus interaction. Recently, several experimentalists and theorists got together to form a collaboration to tackle this problem. In this contribution, we report the collaboration's recent activity and a goal in near future.

  4. The Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being among Black Americans: A Structural Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh V.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of data from 668 black adult respondents to the 1980 National Survey of Black Americans suggests that subjective well-being among black Americans is multidimensional. A three-factor model of subjective well-being encompassing strain (depressive symptoms), life satisfaction, and self-esteem was empirically supported and consistently…

  5. Receptor systems mediating c-fos expression within trigeminal nucleus caudalis in animal models of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsikostas, D D; Sanchez del Rio, M

    2001-03-01

    In intracranial structures unmyelinated C- and Adelta-fibers of the trigeminal nerve transmit pain stimuli from meninges to the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C). Peripheral nerve endings surround meningeal vessels (the so-called trigeminovascular system) and contain vasoactive neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and neurokinin A). Activation of the trigeminovascular system promotes a meningeal sterile inflammatory response through the release of neuropeptides by peripheral endings. Orthodromic conduction along trigeminovascular fibers transmits information centrally with induction of immediate early c-fos gene within post-synaptic Sp5C neurons, as a marker of neuronal activity within central nociceptive pathways. In laboratory animals the system is activated by either electrical stimulation of the TG, chemical stimulation of the meninges, electrical or mechanical stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus or by induction of cortical spreading depression. All these techniques induce c-fos within Sp5C and are used as a rodent/feline model of vascular headache in humans. Up-to-date there is evidence that at least ten receptors (5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(lF), 5-HT(2B), NK-1, GABA(A), NMDA, AMPA, class III metabotropic glutamate receptors, and opioids mu receptors) modulate c-fos expression within Sp5C. These receptors represent potential targets for anti-migraine drugs as shown by triptans (5-HT(1B/1D/1F)) and ergot alkaloids (5-HT(1A1B/1D/1F)). This review discusses the importance of c-fos expression within Sp5C as a marker of cephalic nociception, the different cephalic pain models that induce c-fos within Sp5C, the receptors involved and their potential role as targets for anti-migraine drugs.

  6. Constituent Model of Extremal non-BPS Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gimon, Eric; Larsen, Finn; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    We interpret extremal non-BPS black holes in four dimensions as threshold bound states of four 1/2-BPS constituents. We verify the no-force condition for each of the primitive constituents in the probe approximation. Our computations are for a seed solution with $\\bar{D0}-D4$ charges and equal $B$-fields, but symmetries extend the result to any U-dual frame. We make the constituent model for the $D0-D6$ system explicit, and also discuss a duality frame where the constituents are $D3$ branes a...

  7. The Nuclear $\\sigma$ Term in the Skyrme Model Pion-Nucleus Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gammal, A

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear sigma term is calculated including the nuclear matrix element of the derivative of the NN interaction with respect to the quark mass, $m_q\\frac{\\partial V_{NN}}{\\partial m_q}$. The NN potential is evaluated in the skyrmion-skyrmion picture within the quantized product ansatz. The contribution of the NN potential to the nuclear sigma term provides repulsion to the pion-nucleus interaction. The strength of the s-wave pion-nucleus optical potential is estimated including such contribution. The results are consistent with the analysis of the experimental data.

  8. Synchronization of PER1 protein in Parabrachial nucleus in a natural model of food anticipatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Claudia; Morgado, Elvira; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Martínez, Armando J.; Meza, Enrique; Caba, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit pups represent a natural model of food anticipatory activity (FAA). FAA is the behavioral output of a putative food entrainable oscillator (FEO). It had been suggested that the FEO is comprised of a distributed system of clocks that work in concert in response to gastrointestinal input by food. Scheduled food intake synchronizes several nuclei in the brain, and the hypothalamus has received particular attention. On the contrary, brainstem nuclei, despite being among the brain structures to first receive food cues, have been scarcely studied. Here we analyzed by immunohistochemistry possible oscillation of FOS and PER1 proteins through a complete 24 h cycle in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of seven to eight day old rabbit pups scheduled to nurse during the night (02:00) or day (10:00) and also in fasted subjects to explore the possible persistence of oscillations. We found a clear induction of FOS that peaks 1.5 h after nursing in all nuclei studied. PER1 was only synchronized in the PBN, reaching highest values 12 h after nursing. Only PER1 oscillations persisted in fasted subjects. We conclude that the DVC nuclei are probably more related to the transmission of food cues to other brain regions but that the PBN participates in the integration of information essential for FAA. Our results support previous findings suggesting that the DVC nuclei, but not PBN, are not essential for FAA. We suggest that PBN is a key component of the proposed distributed system of clocks involved in FAA. PMID:22471601

  9. A model of reverse spike frequency adaptation and repetitive firing of subthalamic nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Charles J; Weyrick, Angela; Terman, David; Hallworth, Nicholas E; Bevan, Mark D

    2004-05-01

    Subthalamic nucleus neurons exhibit reverse spike-frequency adaptation. This occurs only at firing rates of 20-50 spikes/s and higher. Over this same frequency range, there is an increase in the steady-state frequency-intensity (F-I) curve's slope (the secondary range). Specific blockade of high-voltage activated calcium currents reduced the F-I curve slope and reverse adaptation. Blockade of calcium-dependent potassium current enhanced secondary range firing. A simple model that exhibited these properties used spike-triggered conductances similar to those in subthalamic neurons. It showed: 1) Nonaccumulating spike afterhyperpolarizations produce positively accelerating F-I curves and spike-frequency adaptation that is complete after the second spike. 2) Combinations of accumulating aftercurrents result in a linear F-I curve, whose slope depends on the relative contributions of inward and outward currents. Spike-frequency adaptation can be gradual. 3) With both accumulating and nonaccumulating aftercurrents, primary and secondary ranges will be present in the F-I curve. The slope of the primary range is determined by the nonaccumulating conductance; the accumulating conductances govern the secondary range. The transition is determined by the relative strengths of accumulating and nonaccumulating currents. 4) Spike-threshold accommodation contributes to the secondary range, reducing its slope at high firing rates. Threshold accommodation can stabilize firing when inward aftercurrents exceed outward ones. 5) Steady-state reverse adaptation results when accumulated inward aftercurrents exceed outward ones. This requires spike-threshold accommodation. Transient speedup arises when inward currents are smaller than outward ones at steady state, but accumulate more rapidly. 6) The same mechanisms alter firing in response to irregular patterns of synaptic conductances, as cell excitability fluctuates with changes in firing rate.

  10. Synchronization of PER1 protein in parabrachial nucleus in a natural model of food anticipatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Claudia; Morgado, Elvira; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Martínez, Armando J; Meza, Enrique; Caba, Mario

    2012-05-01

    Rabbit pups represent a natural model of food anticipatory activity (FAA). FAA is the behavioral output of a putative food entrainable oscillator (FEO). It had been suggested that the FEO is comprised of a distributed system of clocks that work in concert in response to gastrointestinal input by food. Scheduled food intake synchronizes several nuclei in the brain, and the hypothalamus has received particular attention. On the contrary, brainstem nuclei, despite being among the brain structures to first receive food cues, have been scarcely studied. Here we analysed by immunohistochemistry possible oscillation of FOS and PER1 proteins through a complete 24-h cycle in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of 7-8-day-old rabbit pups scheduled to nurse during the night (02:00 h) or day (10:00 h), and also in fasted subjects to explore the possible persistence of oscillations. We found a clear induction of FOS that peaks 1.5 h after nursing in all nuclei studied. PER1 was only synchronized in the PBN, reaching highest values 12 h after nursing. Only PER1 oscillations persisted, with a shift, in fasted subjects. We conclude that the DVC nuclei are probably more related to the transmission of food cues to other brain regions, but that the PBN participates in the integration of information essential for FAA. Our results support previous findings suggesting that the DVC nuclei, but not PBN, are not essential for FAA. We suggest that PBN is a key component of the proposed distributed system of clocks involved in FAA.

  11. Muscarinic receptor-mediated calcium changes in a rat model of facial nerve nucleus injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dawei Sun; Huamin Liu; Fugao Zhu; Yanqing Wang; Junfeng Wen; Rui Zhou; Yanjun Wang; Banghua Liu

    2010-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor modulates intracellular free calcium ion levels in the facial nerve nucleus via different channels.In the present study,muscarinic receptor-mediated free calcium ions levels were detected by confocal laser microscopy in the facial nerve nucleus following facial nerve injury in rats.There was no significant difference in muscarinic receptor expression at the affected facial nerve nucleus compared with expression prior to injury,but muscarinic receptor-mediated free calcium ion levels increased in the affected side following facial nerve injury(P < 0.01).At day 30after facial nerve injury,50 μmol/L muscarinic-mediated free calcium ion levels were significantly inhibited at the affected facial nerve nucleus in calcium-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid,and the change range was 82% of artificial cerebrospinal fluid(P < 0.05).These results suggest that increased free calcium ion concentrations are achieved by intracellular calcium ion release,and that the transmembrane flow of calcium ions is also involved in this process.

  12. Nonspinning black hole-neutron star mergers: a model for the amplitude of gravitational waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Pannarale, Francesco; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Black hole-neutron star binary mergers display a much richer phenomenology than black hole-black hole mergers, even in the relatively simple case - considered in this paper - in which both the black hole and the neutron star are nonspinning. When the neutron star is tidally disrupted, the gravitational wave emission is radically different from the black hole-black hole case and it can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. We present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain that encompasses the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, "mild", and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to general relativistic numerical simulations using piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. It should prove useful to extract information on the nuclear equation of state from future gravitational-wave observations, and also to obtain more accurate estimates of black hole-neutron ...

  13. Analysis of Data on Xanthan Fermentation in Stationary Phase Using Black Box and Metabolic Network Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红武; 赵学明; 唐寅杰

    1999-01-01

    The xanthan fermentation data in the stationary phase was analyzed using the black box and the metabolic network models. The data consistency ls checked through the elemental balance in the black box model. In the metabolic network model, the metabolic flux distribution in the cell is calculated using the metabolic flux analysis method, then the maintenance coefficients is calculated.

  14. Black Hole Demography: From scaling relations to models

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed paper I review our current knowledge of the local Black Hole (BH) scaling relations, and their impact on the determination of the local BH mass function. I particularly emphasize the remaining systematic uncertainties impinging upon a secure determination of the BH mass function and how progress can be made. I then review and discuss the evidence for a different time evolution for separate BH-galaxy scaling relations, and how these independent empirical evidences can be reconciled with the overall evolution of the structural properties of the host galaxies. I conclude discussing BH demography in the context of semi-empirical continuity accretion models, as well as more complex evolutionary models, emphasizing the general constraints we can set on them.

  15. Wetting and Non-Wetting Models of Black Carbon Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, B. F.; Laura, S.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of recent modeling studies on the activation of black carbon (BC) aerosol to form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). We use a model of BC activation based on a general modification of the Koehler equation for insoluble activation in which we introduce a term based on the activity of water adsorbed on the particle surface. We parameterize the model using the free energy of adsorption, a parameter directly comparable to laboratory measurements of water adsorption on carbon. Although the model of the water- surface interaction is general, the form of the activation equation that results depends upon a further model of the distribution of water on the particle. One possible model involves the symmetric growth of a water shell around the isoluble particle core (wetting). This model predicts upper and lower bounding curves for the activation supersaturation given by the range of water interaction energies from hydrophobic to hydrophilic which are in agreement with a large body of recent activation data. The resulting activation diameters are from 3 to 10 times smaller than activation of soluble particles of identical dry diameter. Another possible model involves an exluded liquid droplet growing in contact with the particle (non-wetting). The geometry of this model much more resembles classic assumptions of heterogeneous nucleation theory. This model can yield extremely high activation supersaturation as a function of diameter, as has been observed in some experiments, and enables calculations in agreement with some of these results. We discuss these two geometrical models of water growth, the different behaviors predicted by the resulting activation equation, and the means to determine which model of growth is appropriate for a given BC particle characterized by either water interaction energy or morphology. These simple models enable an efficient and physically reasonable means to calculate the activation of BC aerosol to form CCN based upon a

  16. Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate black carbon (BC model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentrations, aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD retrievals from AERONET and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and BC column estimations based on AERONET. In regions other than Asia, most models are biased high compared to surface concentration measurements. However compared with (column AAOD or BC burden retreivals, the models are generally biased low. The average ratio of model to retrieved AAOD is less than 0.7 in South American and 0.6 in African biomass burning regions; both of these regions lack surface concentration measurements. In Asia the average model to observed ratio is 0.7 for AAOD and 0.5 for BC surface concentrations. Compared with aircraft measurements over the Americas at latitudes between 0 and 50N, the average model is a factor of 8 larger than observed, and most models exceed the measured BC standard deviation in the mid to upper troposphere. At higher latitudes the average model to aircraft BC ratio is 0.4 and models underestimate the observed BC loading in the lower and middle troposphere associated with springtime Arctic haze. Low model bias for AAOD but overestimation of surface and upper atmospheric BC concentrations at lower latitudes suggests that most models are underestimating BC absorption and should improve estimates for refractive index, particle size, and optical effects of BC coating. Retrieval uncertainties and/or differences with model diagnostic treatment may also contribute to the model-measurement disparity. Largest AeroCom model diversity occurred in northern Eurasia and the remote Arctic, regions influenced by anthropogenic sources. Changing emissions, aging, removal, or optical properties within a single model

  17. Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Koch

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate black carbon (BC model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentrations, aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD from AERONET and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI retrievals and BC column estimations based on AERONET. In regions other than Asia, most models are biased high compared to surface concentration measurements. However compared with (column AAOD or BC burden retreivals, the models are generally biased low. The average ratio of model to retrieved AAOD is less than 0.7 in South American and 0.6 in African biomass burning regions; both of these regions lack surface concentration measurements. In Asia the average model to observed ratio is 0.6 for AAOD and 0.5 for BC surface concentrations. Compared with aircraft measurements over the Americas at latitudes between 0 and 50 N, the average model is a factor of 10 larger than observed, and most models exceed the measured BC standard deviation in the mid to upper troposphere. At higher latitudes the average model to aircraft BC is 0.6 and underestimates the observed BC loading in the lower and middle troposphere associated with springtime Arctic haze. Low model bias for AAOD but overestimation of surface and upper atmospheric BC concentrations at lower latitudes suggests that most models are underestimating BC absorption and should improve estimates for refractive index, particle size, and optical effects of BC coating. Retrieval uncertainties and/or differences with model diagnostic treatment may also contribute to the model-measurement disparity. Largest AeroCom model diversity occurred in northern Eurasia and the remote Arctic, regions influenced by anthropogenic sources. Changing emissions, aging, removal, or optical properties within a single model generated a

  18. Evaluation of Black Carbon Estimations in Global Aerosol Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, D.; Schulz, M.; Kinne, Stefan; McNaughton, C. S.; Spackman, J. R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Bond, Tami C.; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, M.; Clarke, A. D.; De Luca, N.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Dubovik, O.; Easter, Richard C.; Fahey, D. W.; Feichter, J.; Fillmore, D.; Freitag, S.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Horowitz, L.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Klimont, Z.; Kondo, Yutaka; Krol, M.; Liu, Xiaohong; Miller, R.; Montanaro, V.; Moteki, N.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Perlwitz, Ja; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Sahu, L.; Sakamoto, H.; Schuster, G.; Schwarz, J. P.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Takemura, T.; Textor, C.; van Aardenne, John; Zhao, Y.

    2009-11-27

    We evaluate black carbon (BC) model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentrations, aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) from AERONET and OMI retrievals and BC column estimations based on AERONET. In regions other than Asia, most models are biased high compared to surface concentration measurements. However compared with (column) AAOD or BC burden retreivals, the models are generally biased low. The average ratio of model to retrieved AAOD is less than 0.7 in South American and 0.6 in African biomass burning regions; both of these regions lack surface concentration measurements. In Asia the average model to observed ratio is 0.6 for AAOD and 0.5 for BC surface concentrations. Compared with aircraft measurements over the Americas at latitudes between 0 and 50N, the average model is a factor of 10 larger than observed, and most models exceed the measured BC standard deviation in the mid to upper troposphere. At higher latitudes the average model to aircraft BC is 0.6 and underestimate the observed BC loading in the lower and middle troposphere associated with springtime Arctic haze. Low model bias for AAOD but overestimation of surface and upper atmospheric BC concentrations at lower latitudes suggests that most models are underestimating BC absorption and should improve estimates for refractive index, particle size, and optical effects of BC coating. Retrieval uncertainties and/or differences with model diagnostic treatment may also contribute to the model-measurement disparity. Largest AeroCom model diversity occurred in northern Eurasia and the remote Arctic, regions influenced by anthropogenic sources. Changing emissions, aging, removal, or optical properties within a single model generated a smaller change in model predictions than the

  19. Accuracy of Binary Black Hole Waveform Models for Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Fong, Heather; Barkett, Kevin; Bhagwat, Swetha; Afshari, Nousha; Chu, Tony; Brown, Duncan; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Pfeiffer, Harald; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Simulating Extreme Spacetimes (SXS) Team

    2016-03-01

    Coalescing binaries of compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars, are the primary targets for gravitational-wave (GW) detection with Advanced LIGO. Accurate modeling of the emitted GWs is required to extract information about the binary source. The most accurate solution to the general relativistic two-body problem is available in numerical relativity (NR), which is however limited in application due to computational cost. Current searches use semi-analytic models that are based in post-Newtonian (PN) theory and calibrated to NR. In this talk, I will present comparisons between contemporary models and high-accuracy numerical simulations performed using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC), focusing at the questions: (i) How well do models capture binary's late-inspiral where they lack a-priori accurate information from PN or NR, and (ii) How accurately do they model binaries with parameters outside their range of calibration. These results guide the choice of templates for future GW searches, and motivate future modeling efforts.

  20. A systematics of optical model compound nucleus formation cross sections for neutrons, proton, deuteron, {sup 3}He and alpha particle incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Toru [AITEL Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Simple formulae to reproduce the optical model compound nucleus formation cross sections for neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, {sup 3}He and alpha particles are presented for target nuclei of light to medium weight mass region. (author)

  1. Inferring ice formation processes from global-scale black carbon profiles observed in the remote atmosphere and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S.-M.; Schwarz, J. P.; Liu, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Ginoux, P.; Horowitz, L. W.; Levy, H., II; Ming, Y.; Spackman, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol absorbs solar radiation and can act as cloud condensation nucleus and ice formation nucleus. The current generation of climate models have difficulty in accurately predicting global-scale BC concentrations. Previously, an ensemble of such models was compared to measurements, revealing model biases in the tropical troposphere and in the polar troposphere. Here global aerosol distributions are simulated using different parameterizations of wet removal, and model results are compared to BC profiles observed in the remote atmosphere to explore the possible sources of these biases. The model-data comparison suggests a slow removal of BC aerosol during transport to the Arctic in winter and spring, because ice crystal growth causes evaporation of liquid cloud via the Bergeron process and, hence, release of BC aerosol back to ambient air. By contrast, more efficient model wet removal is needed in the cold upper troposphere over the tropical Pacific. Parcel model simulations with detailed droplet and ice nucleation and growth processes suggest that ice formation in this region may be suppressed due to a lack of ice nuclei (mainly insoluble dust particles) in the remote atmosphere, allowing liquid and mixed-phase clouds to persist under freezing temperatures, and forming liquid precipitation capable of removing aerosol incorporated in cloud water. Falling ice crystals can scavenge droplets in lower clouds, which also results in efficient removal of cloud condensation nuclei. The combination of models with global-scale BC measurements in this study has provided new, latitude-dependent information on ice formation processes in the atmosphere, and highlights the importance of a consistent treatment of aerosol and moist physics in climate models.

  2. Nicotine alpha 4 beta 2 receptor-mediated free calcium in an animal model of facial nucleus injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dawei Sun; Wenhai Sun; Yanqing Wang; Fugao Zhu; Rui Zhou; Yanjun Wang; Banghua Liu; Xiuming Wan; Huamin Liu

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the cholinergic system,via nicotinic receptors,regulates intracellular free calcium levels in the facial nucleus under normal physiological conditions.However,the regulation of nicotinic receptors on free calcium levels following facial nerve injury remains unclear.In the present study,an animal model of facial nerve injury was established,and changes in nicotinic receptor expression following facial nerve injury in rats were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.Nicotinic receptor-mediated changes of free calcium levels following facial nucleus injury were determined by laser confocal microscopy.Results showed no significant difference in nicotinic receptor expression between the normal group and the affected facial nerve nucleus.The nicotinic receptor α4β2 subtype increased free calcium levels following facial nerve injury by promoting calcium transmembrane influx,and L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-mediated influx of calcium ions played an important role in promoting calcium transmembrane influx.The nicotinic receptor-mediated increase of free calcium levels following facial nerve injury provides an important mechanism for the repair of facial nerve injury.

  3. Transition between order and chaos in a composite disk galaxy model with a massive nucleus and a dark matter halo

    CERN Document Server

    Caranicolas, Nicolaos D

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the transition from regular to chaotic motion in a composite galaxy model with a disk-halo, a massive dense nucleus and a dark halo component. We obtain relationships connecting the critical value of the mass of the nucleus or the critical value of the angular momentum, with the mass of the dark halo, where the transition from regular motion to chaos occurs. We also present 3D diagrams connecting the mass of nucleus the energy and the percentage of stars that can show chaotic motion. The fraction of the chaotic orbits observed in the phase plane, as a function of the mass of the dark halo is also computed. We use a semi-numerical method, that is a combination of theoretical and numerical procedure. The theoretical results obtained using the version 8.0 of the Mathematica package, while all the numerical calculations were made using a Bulirsch-Stoer FORTRAN routine in double precision. The results can be obtained in semi-numerical or numerical form and give good description for the connection of...

  4. Implementation of Black Sea numerical model based on NEMO and 3DVAR data assimilation scheme for operational forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Peneva, Elisaveta; Storto, Andrea; Rostislav, Kandilarov; Lecci, Rita; Yang, Chunxue; Coppini, Giovanni; Masina, Simona; Pinardi, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    This study describes a new model implementation for the Black Sea, which uses data assimilation, towards operational forecasting, based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean, Madec et al., 2012). The Black Sea domain is resolved with 1/27°×1/36° horizontal resolution (~3 km) and 31 z-levels with partial steps based on the GEBCO bathymetry data (Grayek et al., 2010). The model is forced by momentum, water and heat fluxes interactively computed by bulk formulae using high resolution atmospheric forcing provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecast (ECMWF). The initial condition is calculated from long-term climatological temperature and salinity 3D fields. Precipitation field over the basin has been computed from the climatological GPCP rainfall monthly data (Adler et al., 2003; Huffman et al., 2009), while the evaporation is derived from the latent heat flux. The climatological monthly mean runoff of the major rivers in the Black Sea is computed using the hydrological dataset provided by SESAME project (Ludvig et al., 2009). The exchange with Mediterranean Sea through the Bosporus Straits is represented by a surface boundary condition taking into account the barotropic transport calculated to balance the fresh water fluxes on monthly bases (Stanev and Beckers, 1999, Peneva et al., 2001). A multi-annual run 2011-2015 has been completed in order to describe the main characteristics of the Black Sea circulation dynamics and thermohaline structure and the numerical results have been validated using in-situ (ARGO) and satellite (SST, SLA) data. The Black Sea model represents also the core of the new Black Sea Forecasting System, implemented at CMCC operationally since January 2016, which produces at daily frequency 10-day forecasts, 3-days analyses and 1-day simulation. Once a week, the system is run 15-day in the past in analysis mode to compute the new optimal initial condition for the forecast cycle. The assimilation is performed by a

  5. Lattice model for amyloid peptides: OPEP force field parametrization and applications to the nucleus size of Alzheimer's peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh Thuy; Nguyen, Phuong H.; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Coarse-grained protein lattice models approximate atomistic details and keep the essential interactions. They are, therefore, suitable for capturing generic features of protein folding and amyloid formation at low computational cost. As our aim is to study the critical nucleus sizes of two experimentally well-characterized peptide fragments Aβ16-22 and Aβ37-42 of the full length Aβ1-42 Alzheimer's peptide, it is important that simulations with the lattice model reproduce all-atom simulations. In this study, we present a comprehensive force field parameterization based on the OPEP (Optimized Potential for Efficient protein structure Prediction) force field for an on-lattice protein model, which incorporates explicitly the formation of hydrogen bonds and directions of side-chains. Our bottom-up approach starts with the determination of the best lattice force parameters for the Aβ16-22 dimer by fitting its equilibrium parallel and anti-parallel β-sheet populations to all-atom simulation results. Surprisingly, the calibrated force field is transferable to the trimer of Aβ16-22 and the dimer and trimer of Aβ37-42. Encouraged by this finding, we characterized the free energy landscapes of the two decamers. The dominant structure of the Aβ16-22 decamer matches the microcrystal structure. Pushing the simulations for aggregates between 4-mer and 12-mer suggests a nucleus size for fibril formation of 10 chains. In contrast, the Aβ37-42 decamer is largely disordered with mixed by parallel and antiparallel chains, suggesting that the nucleus size is >10 peptides. Our refined force field coupled to this on-lattice model should provide useful insights into the critical nucleation number associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. VBSM: VCC-Based Black Box Service Model with Enhanced Data Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Min Kang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, intelligent transport systems have been applied to vehicle cloud environments. Such technology is especially useful for the systematic management of road traffic. Moreover, automobiles are increasingly equipped with a black box for accident prevention and preservation of evidence. Vehicle black boxes have become mandatory because black box images and voice data have served as forensic evidence in courts. However, the data from black boxes can be forged or modified by man-in-the-middle (MITM attacks and message hijacking. In this paper, we propose a vehicle cloud computing-based black box service model that can provide integrity for black box data through digital signatures in vehicle cloud computing (VCC environments. Our proposed model protects against MITM attacks and message hijacking using only a hash value and digital signature. Moreover, a mirroring technique (RAID 1 provides backup and recovery to protect the data from a traffic accident.

  7. Modeling motion of a small black hole through a star or a planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turova, Victoria; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    In some scenarios of Big Bang the fluctuations of density in early universe result in the formation of various sized primordial black holes. The black holes of mass range 10^10 -10^22 kg are suitable candidates for a dark matter (or at least for a part of it). Such black holes could from time to time pass via Solar system or Sun or even Earth. What would a trajectory of a small black hole passing through Sun or through Earth look like? Would a black hole slow down and stuck consuming matter and causing cataclysmic collapse of Earth or Sun, or would it just pass? What other effects would take place? We model computationally a motion of a small black hole moving with various initial velocities (10- 1000 km/sec) through a planet-like and a star-like body of various density distributions. The results of this modeling are presented.

  8. Effect of climate variables on cocoa black pod incidence in Sabah using ARIMAX model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling Sheng Chang, Albert; Ramba, Haya; Mohd. Jaaffar, Ahmad Kamil; Kim Phin, Chong; Chong Mun, Ho

    2016-06-01

    Cocoa black pod disease is one of the major diseases affecting the cocoa production in Malaysia and also around the world. Studies have shown that the climate variables have influenced the cocoa black pod disease incidence and it is important to quantify the black pod disease variation due to the effect of climate variables. Application of time series analysis especially auto-regressive moving average (ARIMA) model has been widely used in economics study and can be used to quantify the effect of climate variables on black pod incidence to forecast the right time to control the incidence. However, ARIMA model does not capture some turning points in cocoa black pod incidence. In order to improve forecasting performance, other explanatory variables such as climate variables should be included into ARIMA model as ARIMAX model. Therefore, this paper is to study the effect of climate variables on the cocoa black pod disease incidence using ARIMAX model. The findings of the study showed ARIMAX model using MA(1) and relative humidity at lag 7 days, RHt - 7 gave better R square value compared to ARIMA model using MA(1) which could be used to forecast the black pod incidence to assist the farmers determine timely application of fungicide spraying and culture practices to control the black pod incidence.

  9. The Doubling of Stellar Black Hole Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kazandjian, Mher V

    2012-01-01

    It is strongly believed that Andromeda's double nucleus signals a disk of stars revolving around its central super-massive black hole on eccentric Keplerian orbits with nearly aligned apsides. A self-consistent stellar dynamical origin for such apparently long-lived alignment has so far been lacking, with indications that cluster self-gravity is capable of sustaining such lopsided configurations if and when stimulated by external perturbations. Here, we present results of N-body simulations which show unstable counter-rotating stellar clusters around super-massive black holes saturating into uniformly precessing lopsided nuclei. The double nucleus in our featured experiment decomposes naturally into a thick eccentric disk of apo-apse aligned stars which is embedded in a lighter triaxial cluster. The eccentric disk reproduces key features of Keplerian disk models of Andromeda's double nucleus; the triaxial cluster has a distinctive kinematic signature which is evident in HST observations of Andromeda's double ...

  10. Siberian Arctic black carbon sources constrained by model and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiger, Patrik; Andersson, August; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Charkin, Alexander; Shakhova, Natalia; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) in haze and deposited on snow and ice can have strong effects on the radiative balance of the Arctic. There is a geographic bias in Arctic BC studies toward the Atlantic sector, with lack of observational constraints for the extensive Russian Siberian Arctic, spanning nearly half of the circum-Arctic. Here, 2 y of observations at Tiksi (East Siberian Arctic) establish a strong seasonality in both BC concentrations (8 ngṡm‑3 to 302 ngṡm‑3) and dual-isotope–constrained sources (19 to 73% contribution from biomass burning). Comparisons between observations and a dispersion model, coupled to an anthropogenic emissions inventory and a fire emissions inventory, give mixed results. In the European Arctic, this model has proven to simulate BC concentrations and source contributions well. However, the model is less successful in reproducing BC concentrations and sources for the Russian Arctic. Using a Bayesian approach, we show that, in contrast to earlier studies, contributions from gas flaring (6%), power plants (9%), and open fires (12%) are relatively small, with the major sources instead being domestic (35%) and transport (38%). The observation-based evaluation of reported emissions identifies errors in spatial allocation of BC sources in the inventory and highlights the importance of improving emission distribution and source attribution, to develop reliable mitigation strategies for efficient reduction of BC impact on the Russian Arctic, one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth.

  11. Modelling variability in black hole binaries: linking simulations to observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Black hole accretion flows show rapid X-ray variability. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) of this is typically fit by a phenomenological model of multiple Lorentzians for both the broad band noise and Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs). Our previous paper (Ingram & Done 2011) developed the first physical model for the PSD and fit this to observational data. This was based on the same truncated disc/hot inner flow geometry which can explain the correlated properties of the energy spectra. This assumes that the broad band noise is from propagating fluctuations in mass accretion rate within the hot flow, while the QPO is produced by global Lense-Thirring precession of the same hot flow. Here we develop this model, making some significant improvements. Firstly we specify that the viscous frequency (equivalently, surface density) in the hot flow has the same form as that measured from numerical simulations of precessing, tilted accretion flows. Secondly, we refine the statistical techniques which we use to fit...

  12. A model of calcium-mediated coupling between membrane activity and clock gene expression in neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Casado, J M

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms in electrical activity in the membrane of cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are crucial for the function of the circadian timing system, which is characterized by the expression of the so-called clock genes. Intracellular Ca$^{2+}$ ions seem to connect, at least in part, the electrical activity of SCN neurons with the expression of clock genes. In this paper, we introduce a simple mathematical model describing the linking of membrane activity to the transcription of one gene by means of a feedback mechanism based on the dynamics of intracellular calcium ions.

  13. Modeling Manhood: Reimagining Black Male Identities in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jarvis R.; Nasir, Na'ilah; ross, kihana; de Royston, Maxine McKinney

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the process by which stereotypical mainstream representations of black males (as hard, as anti-school, and as disconnected from the domestic sphere) were reimagined in all-black, all-male manhood development classes for 9th graders in urban public high schools. Findings show that instructors debunked stereotypes and created new…

  14. Constraints on the α + nucleus optical-model potential via α-induced reaction studies on 108Cd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, P.; Heim, F.; Mayer, J.; Münker, C.; Netterdon, L.; Wombacher, F.; Zilges, A.

    2016-10-01

    A big part in understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei is a proper description of the effective interaction between an α-particle and a target nucleus. Information about the so-called α +nucleus optical-model potential is achieved by precise cross-section measurements at sub-Coulomb energies aiming to constrain the theoretical models for the nuclear physics input-parameters. The cross sections of the 108Cd(α , γ) and 108Cd(α , n) reaction have been measured for the first time close to the astrophysically relevant energy region via the in-beam method at the high-efficiency γ-ray spectrometer HORUS and via the activation technique at the Cologne Clover Counting Setup at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Cologne, Germany. Comparisons between experimental results and theoretical predictions calculated in the scope of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model confirm the need for a exponentially decreasing imaginary part of the potential. Moreover, it is shown that the results presented here together with already published data indicate that a systematic investigation of the real part of the potential could help to further improve the understanding of reactions involving α-particles.

  15. Constraints on the α+nucleus optical-model potential via α-induced reaction studies on 108Cd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scholz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A big part in understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei is a proper description of the effective interaction between an α-particle and a target nucleus. Information about the so-called α+nucleus optical-model potential is achieved by precise cross-section measurements at sub-Coulomb energies aiming to constrain the theoretical models for the nuclear physics input-parameters. The cross sections of the 108Cd(α,γ and 108Cd(α,n reaction have been measured for the first time close to the astrophysically relevant energy region via the in-beam method at the high-efficiency γ-ray spectrometer HORUS and via the activation technique at the Cologne Clover Counting Setup at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Cologne, Germany. Comparisons between experimental results and theoretical predictions calculated in the scope of the Hauser–Feshbach statistical model confirm the need for a exponentially decreasing imaginary part of the potential. Moreover, it is shown that the results presented here together with already published data indicate that a systematic investigation of the real part of the potential could help to further improve the understanding of reactions involving α-particles.

  16. APPLYING BLACK-BOX TESTING TO MODEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE MODEL DRIVEN ARCHITECTURE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Telinski Wiedermann Agner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing model transformations has played a leading role with the dissemination of MDA in software development processes. Software testing based on black-box testing, together with the “category partitioning” method, can be efficiently used in order to conduct the verification of model transformations. This study employs software testing techniques to an ATL model transformation in the MDA context and points out their benefits. The black-box testing method was adapted to the MT-PROAPES model transformation based on profiles and platform models. The platform models define the range of input models of the MT-PROAPES and are used for the creation of the test cases. The test cases were selected so as to meet certain requirements and increase the ability to detect errors in the model transformation. This approach makes the test process more agile and does not require any abstraction of behavioral properties of the transformations. The field of transformation testing and verification still faces significant challenges and requires a lot of research. Although having some limitations, black-box testing conforms to various situations, besides allowing its integration with other test strategies.

  17. Evaluation and Simulation of Black-box Arc Models for High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, Niklas

    2004-01-01

    The task for this Master thesis was to evaluate different black-box arc models for circuit-breakers with the purpose of finding criteria for the breaking ability. A black-box model is a model that requires no knowledge from the user of the underlying physical processes. Black-box arc models have been used in circuit-breaker development for many years. Arc voltages from tests made in the High Power Laboratory in Ludvika were used for validation, along with the resistance calculated at current ...

  18. A review of the microscopic modeling of the 5-dim. black hole of IIB string theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spenta R Wadia

    2001-01-01

    We review the theory of the microscopic modeling of the 5-dim. black hole of type IIB string theory in terms of the 1-5 brane system. A detailed discussion of the low energy effective Lagrangian of the brane system is presented and the black hole micro-states are identified. These considerations are valid in the strong coupling regime of supergravity due to the non-renormalization of the low energy dynamics in this model. Using Maldacena duality and standard statistical mechanics methods one can account for black hole thermodynamics and calculate the absorption cross section and the Hawking radiation rates. Hence, at least in the case of this model black hole, since we can account for black hole properties within a unitary theory, there is no information paradox.

  19. Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignati, E.; Karl, M.; Krol, M.C.; Wilson, J.; Stier, P.; Cavalli, F.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the global black carbon (BC) cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of its properties. This work investigates two source of uncertainties in modelling black carbon: those due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in th

  20. Modeling Lolium perenne L. roots in the presence of empirical black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant root models are designed for understanding structural or functional aspects of root systems. When a process is not thoroughly understood, a black box object is used. However, when a process exists but empirical data do not indicate its existence, you have a black hole. The object of this re...

  1. Brick Wall Model and the Spectrum of a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; ZHAO Zheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ The quantum entropy of a scalar field near a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated by employing the brick-wall model in the grand canonical ensemble. A positive chemical potential is introduced if the cutoff is set to be of order of the Planck length. We also discuss the relation between the chemical potential and the mass quantum of the black hole.

  2. Testing Cognitive and Emotion-Focused Models of Worry in Black and White Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Bakhti, Rinad; Stevens, Kimberly T; Curewitz, Alana

    2015-01-01

    Several models have been proposed to conceptualize worry. Broadly, the models can be classified as cognitive (including the Avoidance Model, the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model, and the Metacognitive Model) and emotion-focused (including Emotion Dysregulation and Acceptance-Based models). Although these models have received strong empirical investigation in primarily non-Hispanic White samples, no known study has examined the applicability to racial and ethnic minority groups. The current study compared the proportion of variance explained by cognitive and emotion-focused models of worry in White and Black samples. Results indicated that cognitive and emotion-focused models significantly predicted worry in both Black and White samples. However, the overall amount of variance in worry explained by the models was less for Black samples. Specifically, controlling for gender, the cognitive models explained 53% of the variance in worry in the White sample compared with 19% in the Black sample. Similarly, the emotion-focused models explained 34% of the variance in worry in the White sample but only 13% in the Black sample. These findings suggest that well-established conceptual frameworks for worry failed to explain the bulk of the variance in worry in Black samples, leaving much unknown. Additional research is needed to identify key variables that may further explain worry in ethnic minority samples.

  3. Source size determination in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagle, J.L.; Kumar, B.S.; Bennett, M.J.; Diebold, G.E.; Pope, J.K. (Yale University, A. W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States)); Sorge, H.; Sullivan, J.P. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1994-08-29

    We describe a technique whereby the freeze-out interaction volumes of nucleus-nucleus collisions are extracted from a cascade (plus coalescence) model, after comparison to measured abundances of light nuclei. We conclude that the interaction volume undergoes significant expansion before light nuclei are produced.

  4. Induction of neuropeptide Y gene expression in the dorsal medial hypothalamic nucleus in two models of the agouti obesity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterson, R A; Huszar, D; Lynch, C A; Simerly, R B; Cone, R D

    1997-05-01

    Dominant mutations at the agouti locus induce several phenotypic changes in the mouse including yellow pigmentation (phaeomelanization) of the coat and adult-onset obesity. Nonpigmentary phenotypic changes associated with the agouti locus are due to ectopic expression of the agouti-signaling protein (ASP), and the pheomelanizing effects on coat color are due to ASP antagonism of alpha-MSH binding to the melanocyte MC1 receptor. Recently it has been demonstrated that pharmacological antagonism of hypothalamic melanocortin receptors or genetic deletion of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R) recapitulates aspects of the agouti obesity syndrome, thus establishing that chronic disruption of central melanocortinergic signaling is the cause of agouti-induced obesity. To learn more about potential downstream effectors involved in these melanocortinergic obesity syndromes, we have examined expression of the orexigenic peptides galanin and neuropeptide Y (NPY), as well as the anorexigenic POMC in lethal yellow (A(y)), MC4-R knockout (MC4-RKO), and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. No significant changes in galanin or POMC gene expression were seen in any of the obese models. In situ hybridizations using an antisense NPY probe demonstrated that in obese A(y) mice, arcuate nucleus NPY mRNA levels were equivalent to that of their C57BL/6J littermates. However, NPY was expressed at high levels in a new site, the dorsal medial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH). Expression of NPY in the DMH was also seen in obese MC4-RKO homozygous (-/-) mice, but not in lean heterozygous (+/-) or wild type (+/+) control mice. This identifies the DMH as a brain region that is functionally altered by the disruption of melanocortinergic signaling and suggests that this nucleus, possibly via elevated NPY expression, may have an etiological role in the melanocortinergic obesity syndrome.

  5. Raining on black holes and massive galaxies: the top-down multiphase condensation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, M.; Temi, P.; Brighenti, F.

    2017-04-01

    The plasma haloes filling massive galaxies, groups and clusters are shaped by active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating and subsonic turbulence (σv ∼ 150 km s-1), as probed by Hitomi. Novel 3D high-resolution simulations show the soft X-ray, keV hot plasma cools rapidly via radiative emission at the high-density interface of the turbulent eddies, stimulating a top-down condensation cascade of warm 104 K filaments. The kpc-scale ionized (optical/ultraviolet) filaments form a skin enveloping the neutral filaments (optical/infrared/21 cm). The peaks of the warm filaments further condense into cold molecular clouds (black hole accretion rate (BHAR) can be modelled via quasi-spherical viscous accretion, dot{M}_bullet ∝ ν _c, with clump collisional viscosity νc ≡ λc σv and λc ∼ 100 pc. Beyond the core, pressure torques shape the angular momentum transport. In CCA, the BHAR is recurrently boosted up to 2 dex compared with the disc evolution, which arises as turbulence becomes subdominant. With negligible rotation too, compressional heating inhibits the molecular phase. The CCA BHAR distribution is lognormal with pink noise, f-1 power spectrum characteristic of fractal phenomena. Such chaotic fluctuations can explain the rapid luminosity variability of AGN and high-mass X-ray binaries. An improved criterium to trace non-linear condensation is proposed: σv/vcool ≲ 1. The three-phase CCA reproduces key observations of cospatial multiphase gas in massive galaxies, including Chandra X-ray images, SOAR Hα filaments and kinematics, Herschel [C+] emission and ALMA molecular associations. CCA plays important role in AGN feedback and unification, the evolution of BHs, galaxies and clusters.

  6. BLACK-SCHOLES MODEL USED TO EVALUATE STOCKS OPTIONS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turcan Radu Olimpiu Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial differential equation, parabolic Black-Scholes type, is used in evaluating equity options, that paying constant and continue dividends or in evaluate options in which interest rate, volatility and dividend are dependent on time.

  7. Effects of septal nucleus lesion on dopamine D2 receptor expression in the prefrontal lobe, striatum, and brainstem in a rat model of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Shuande Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that the septal nucleus is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Based on autopsies of schizophrenia patients, studies have shown a reduced number of septal nucleus neurons and gila. In addition, experimental rat models of schizophrenia have shown increased dopamine receptor D2 binding sites in the basal ganglia, septal nuclei, and substantia nigra. Previous studies have demonstrated that the septal nucleus modulates dopamine metabolic disorder and dopamine D2 receptor balance.OBJECTIVE: Dopamine D2 receptor expression in a rat model of schizophrenia, combined with antipsychotic drugs, was analyzed in the prefrontal lobe, striatum, and brainstem. In situ hybridization was used to observe the effects of stereotactic septal nucleus lesions on dopamine D2 receptor expression in the brains of methylamphetamine-treated rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment was performed in the Laboratory of General Institute of Psychosurgery, Third Hospital of Chinese PLA from November 2005 to June 2006. MATERIALS: A total of 120 healthy, adult Sprague Dawley rats, weighing approximately 200 g, were included. Methylamphetamine (Sigma, USA) and an in situ hybridization detection kit for dopamine D2 receptor (Boster, China) were also used for this study. METHODS: All rats were randomly allocated to the following 4 groups, with 30 rats in each group: normal control, simple administration, septal nucleus lesion, and sham-operated groups. In the normal control group, rats were not administered or lesioned. In the remaining 3 groups, rats were intraperitoneally administered 10 mg/kg methylamphetamine, once per day, for 15 successive days to establish a schizophrenia model. Following successful model establishment, rats from the septal nucleus lesion group were subjected to stereotactic septal nucleus lesions. The cranial bone was exposed in rats from the sham-operated group, and the septal nucleus was not

  8. An active contour-based atlas registration model applied to automatic subthalamic nucleus targeting on MRI: method and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duay, Valérie; Bresson, Xavier; Castro, Javier Sanchez; Pollo, Claudio; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new non parametric atlas registration framework, derived from the optical flow model and the active contour theory, applied to automatic subthalamic nucleus (STN) targeting in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. In a previous work, we demonstrated that the STN position can be predicted based on the position of surrounding visible structures, namely the lateral and third ventricles. A STN targeting process can thus be obtained by registering these structures of interest between a brain atlas and the patient image. Here we aim to improve the results of the state of the art targeting methods and at the same time to reduce the computational time. Our simultaneous segmentation and registration model shows mean STN localization errors statistically similar to the most performing registration algorithms tested so far and to the targeting expert's variability. Moreover, the computational time of our registration method is much lower, which is a worthwhile improvement from a clinical point of view.

  9. Sources of uncertainties in modelling Black Carbon at the global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cavalli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the global black carbon cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of the properties of black carbon. This work investigates uncertainties related to modelling black carbon: due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in the global Transport-Chemistry model TM5 and due to the uncertainties in the definition and quantification of observed black carbon, which propagate through to both the emission inventories, and the measurements used for the model evaluation.

    The schemes for the atmospheric processing of black carbon that have been tested with the model are (i a simple approach considering black carbon as bulk aerosol and a simple treatment in the removal and (ii a more complete description of microphysical aging within an aerosol dynamics model, where removal is coupled to the microphysical properties of the aerosol. In the first approach a fixed 70% of black carbon is scavenged in clouds and removed when rain is present. The second leads to a global average of 40% black carbon that is scavenged in clouds and subsequently removed by rain, thus resulting in a longer lifetime. This difference is reflected in comparisons between both sets of modelled results and the measurements. Close to the sources, both anthropogenic and vegetation fire source regions, the model results do not differ significantly, showing that the emissions are the prevailing mechanism determining the concentrations and the choice of the aerosol scheme does not influence the levels. In more remote areas such as oceanic and polar regions the differences can be orders of magnitude, due to the differences between the two schemes. The more complete description reproduces the seasonal trend of the black carbon observations in those areas, although not always the magnitude of the signal, while the more simplified approach underestimates black carbon concentrations by orders of magnitude.

  10. Unitarity of black hole evaporation in final-state projection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Seth; Preskill, John

    2014-08-01

    Almheiri et al. have emphasized that otherwise reasonable beliefs about black hole evaporation are incompatible with the monogamy of quantum entanglement, a general property of quantum mechanics. We investigate the final-state projection model of black hole evaporation proposed by Horowitz and Maldacena, pointing out that this model admits cloning of quantum states and polygamous entanglement, allowing unitarity of the evaporation process to be reconciled with smoothness of the black hole event horizon. Though the model seems to require carefully tuned dynamics to ensure exact unitarity of the black hole S-matrix, for a generic final-state boundary condition the deviations from unitarity are exponentially small in the black hole entropy; furthermore observers inside black holes need not detect any deviations from standard quantum mechanics. Though measurements performed inside old black holes could potentially produce causality-violating phenomena, the computational complexity of decoding the Hawking radiation may render the causality violation unobservable. Final-state projection models illustrate how inviolable principles of standard quantum mechanics might be circumvented in a theory of quantum gravity.

  11. Formation of a galaxy with a central black hole in the Lemaitre-Tolman model

    CERN Document Server

    Krasinski, A; Krasinski, Andrzej; Hellaby, Charles

    2004-01-01

    We construct two models of the formation a galaxy with a central black hole, starting from a small initial fluctuation at recombination. This is an application of previously developed methods to find a Lemaitre-Tolman model that evolves from a given initial density or velocity profile to a given final density profile. We show that the black hole itself could be either a collapsed object, or a non-vacuum generalisation of a full Schwarzschild-Kruskal-Szekeres wormhole. Particular attention is paid to the black hole's apparent and event horizons.

  12. Hawking Radiation of a Kaluza-Klein Black Hole Described by Landauer Transport Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰小刚; 韦联福

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the Hawking radiation of a Kaluza-Klein black hole by using one-dimensional(1D),non-equilibrium,Landauer transport model.The derived Hawking radiation temperature is in consistence with that obtained by using the usual anomaly method.With the Landauer transport model,we calculate the entropy flow out of the Kaluza-Klein black hole and the relevant entropy production rate.How these quantities depending on the physical parameters of the black hole is also discussed.

  13. Smarr formula for BTZ black holes in general three-dimensional gravity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Gong, Li; Zhang, Baocheng

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have presented the interpretation of thermodynamic enthalpy for the mass of BTZ black holes and the corresponding Smarr formula. All these are made in the background of three-dimensional (3D) general relativity. In this paper, we extend such interpretation into general 3D gravity models. It is found that the direct extension is unfeasible and some extra conditions are required to preserve both the Smarr formula and the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Thus, BTZ black hole thermodynamics enforces some constraints for general 3D gravity models, and these constraints are consistent with all previous discussions.

  14. A modeling study of notch noise responses of type III units in the gerbil dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaohan; Voigt, Herbert F

    2006-12-01

    A computational model of the neural circuitry of the gerbil dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), based on the MacGregor's neuromime model, was used to simulate type III unit (P-cell) responses to notch noise stimuli. The DCN patch model is based on a previous computational model of the cat DCN [Hancock, K. E., and H. F. Voigt. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 27:73-87, 1999]. According to the experimental study of Parsons et al. [Ann. Biomed. Eng. 29:887-896, 2001], the responses of gerbil DCN type III units to notch noise stimuli are similar to those of cat DCN type IV units, which are thought to be spectral notch detectors. This suggests that type III units in the gerbil DCN may serve as spectral notch detectors. In this modeling study, a simplified notch noise response plot--spike discharge rate vs. notch cutoff frequency plot--was used to compare model responses to the experimental results. Parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis of three connection parameters within the DCN patch have been studied and shows the model is robust, providing reasonable fits to the experimental data from 14 of 15 type III units examined.

  15. Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the global black carbon (BC) cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of its properties. This work investigates two source of uncertainties in modelling black carbon: those due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in the global Transport-Chemistry model TM5 and those due to the uncertainties in the definition and quantification of the observations, which propagate through to both the emission inventories, and the...

  16. Gene expression microarray analysis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus in a rat model of migraine with aura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruozhuo Liu; Shengyuan Yu; Fengpeng Li; Enchao Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression can trigger migraine with aura and activate the trigeminal vascular system. To examine gene expression profiles in the spinal trigeminal nucleus in rats following cortical spreading depression-induced migraine with aura, a rat model was established by injection of 1 M potassium chloride, which induced cortical spreading depression. DNA microarray analysis revealed that, compared with the control group, the cortical spreading depression group showed seven upregulated genes-myosin heavy chain 1/2, myosin light chain 1, myosin light chain (phosphorylatable, fast skeletal muscle), actin alpha 1, homeobox B8, carbonic anhydrase 3 and an unknown gene. Two genes were downregulated-RGD1563441 and an unknown gene. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and bioinformatics analysis indicated that these genes are involved in motility, cell migration, CO2 /nitric oxide homeostasis and signal transduction.

  17. Investigation of Exotic Structure of the Largely Deformed Nucleus 23Al in the Relativistic-Mean-Field Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-Gen; ZHOU Xing-Fei; WANG Kun; MA Guo-Liang; TIAN Wen-Dong; ZUO Jia-Xu; MA Chun-Wang; CHEN Jin-Hui; YAN Ting-Zhi; SHEN Wen-Qing; CAI Xiang-Zhou; WANG Ting-Tai; MA Yu-Gang; REN Zhong-Zhou; FANG De-Qing; ZHONG Chen; WEI Yi-Bin; GUO Wei

    2004-01-01

    @@ A candidate for proton halo nucleus 23Al is investigated based on the constrained calculations in the framework of the deformed relativistic mean field (RMF) model with the NL075 parameter set. It is shown by the constrained calculations that the ground state of 23Al has a large deformation that corresponds to the prolate shape. With that large deformation, the non-constrained RMF calculation predicts that there appears an inversion between the 2s1/2 [211] and 1d5/2 [202] shells. The valence proton of 23Al is weakly bound and occupies 2s1/2 [211] and 1d5/2 [202] with the weights of 56% and 29%, respectively. The calculated RMS radius for matter is in agreement with the experimental one. It is also predicted that the difference between the proton RMS radius and the neutron one is very large. This suggests that there exists a proton halo in 23Al.

  18. Landauer Transport Model for Hawking Radiation from a Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Nation, P D; Nori, Franco

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the Hawking radiation energy and entropy flow rates from a black hole viewed as a one-dimensional (1D) Landauer transport process. The conformal symmetry in the near-horizon region leads directly to radiation rates that are identical to those of a single 1D quantum channel connected to a thermal reservoir at the Hawking temperature. The particle statistics independence of the 1D energy and entropy currents is applied to a black hole radiating into vacuum as well as one near thermal equilibrium with its environment. The Hawking radiation entropy production ratio is also examined.

  19. Compound nucleus formation probability PCN determined within the dynamical cluster-decay model for various "hot" fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Arshdeep; Chopra, Sahila; Gupta, Raj K.

    2014-08-01

    The compound nucleus (CN) fusion/formation probability PCN is defined and its detailed variations with the CN excitation energy E*, center-of-mass energy Ec .m., fissility parameter χ, CN mass number ACN, and Coulomb interaction parameter Z1Z2 are studied for the first time within the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM). The model is a nonstatistical description of the decay of a CN to all possible processes. The (total) fusion cross section σfusion is the sum of the CN and noncompound nucleus (nCN) decay cross sections, each calculated as the dynamical fragmentation process. The CN cross section σCN is constituted of evaporation residues and fusion-fission, including intermediate-mass fragments, each calculated for all contributing decay fragments (A1, A2) in terms of their formation and barrier penetration probabilities P0 and P. The nCN cross section σnCN is determined as the quasi-fission (qf) process, where P0=1 and P is calculated for the entrance-channel nuclei. The DCM, with effects of deformations and orientations of nuclei included in it, is used to study the PCN for about a dozen "hot" fusion reactions forming a CN of mass number A ˜100 to superheavy nuclei and for various different nuclear interaction potentials. Interesting results are that PCN=1 for complete fusion, but PCNPCN≪1 due to the nCN contribution, depending strongly on different parameters of the entrance-channel reaction but found to be independent of the nuclear interaction potentials used.

  20. Production of black holes and their angular momentum distribution in models with split fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, D C; Stojkovic, D; Dai, De-Chang; Starkman, Glenn D.; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2006-01-01

    In models with TeV-scale gravity it is expected that mini black holes will be produced in near-future accelerators. On the other hand, TeV-scale gravity is plagued with many problems like fast proton decay, unacceptably large neutron-antineutron oscillations, flavor changing neutral currents, large mixing between leptons, etc. Most of these problems can be solved if different fermions are localized at different points in the extra dimensions. We study the cross-section for the production of black holes and their angular momentum distribution in these models with "split" fermions. We find that, for a fixed value of the fundamental mass scale, the total production cross section is reduced compared with models where all the fermions are localized at the same point in the extra dimensions. Fermion splitting also implies that the bulk component of the black hole angular momentum must be taken into account in studies of the black hole decay via Hawking radiation.

  1. Application of black-box models to HVAC systems for fault detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitsman, H.C.; Bakker, V.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the application of black-box models for fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) in heating, ventilat-ing, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In this study, mul-tiple-input/single-output (MISO) ARX models and artificial neural network (ANN) models are used. The ARX models are exami

  2. An Administrative Model for Serving Exceptional Black Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katie Harper

    Two poor inner city predominantly Black school districts (East St. Louis and Lovejoy, Illinois) entered into a joint agreement to enhance delivery of special education services to their children. Initial mistrust began to give way when a common philosophy was reached. Approaches developed included diagnostic and prescriptive teaching and…

  3. Multidimensional extremal dilatonic black holes in string-like model with cosmological term

    CERN Document Server

    Ivashchuk, V D

    1996-01-01

    A string-like model with the "cosmological constant" \\Lambda is considered. The Maki-Shiraishi multi-black-hole solution \\cite{MS1} is generalized to space-times with a Ricci-flat internal space. For \\Lambda = 0 the obtained solution in the one-black-hole case is shown to coincide with the extreme limit of the charged dilatonic black hole solution \\cite{BI,BM}. The Hawking temperature T_H for the solution \\cite{BI,BM} is presented and its extreme limit is considered. For the string value of dilatonic coupling the temperature T_H does not depend upon the internal space dimension.

  4. An Improved Thin Film Brick-Wall Model of Black Hole Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-Biao; ZHAO Zheng

    2001-01-01

    We improve the brick-wall model to take only the contribution of a thin film near the event horizon into account. This improvement not only gives us a satisfactory result, but also avoids some drawbacks in the original brick wall method such as the little mass approximation, neglecting logarithm term, and taking the term L3 as the contribution of the vacuum surrounding a black hole. It is found that there is an intrinsic relation between the event horizon and the entropy. The event horizon is the characteristic of a black hole, so the entropy calculating of a black hole is also naturally related to its horizon.

  5. Suprathermal electrons near the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at 3 AU: Model comparisons with Rosetta data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanian, H.; Cravens, T. E.; Rahmati, A.; Goldstein, R.; Burch, J.; Eriksson, A. I.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Henri, P.; Mandt, K.; Clark, G.; Rubin, M.; Broiles, T.; Reedy, N. L.

    2016-06-01

    Observations of the coma near the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) made by the IES (Ion and Electron Sensor) instrument onboard the Rosetta Orbiter during late 2014 showed that electron fluxes greatly exceeded solar wind electron fluxes. The IES is part of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium. This paper reports on electron energy spectra measured by IES near the nucleus as well as approximate densities and average energies for the suprathermal electrons when the comet was at a heliocentric distance of about 3 AU. Comparisons are made with electron densities measured by other instruments. The high electron densities observed (e.g., ne ≈ 10-100 cm-3) must be associated with the cometary ion density enhancement created mainly by the photoionization of cometary gas by solar radiation; there are other processes that also contribute. Quasineutrality requires that the electron and ion densities be the same, and under certain conditions an ambipolar electric field is required to achieve quasi-neutrality. We present the results of a test particle model of cometary ion pickup by the solar wind and a two-stream electron transport code and use these results to interpret the IES data. We also estimate the effects on the electron spectrum of a compression of the electron fluid parcel. The electrons detected by IES can have energies as high as about 100-200 eV near the comet on some occasions, in which case the hot electrons can significantly enhance ionization rates of neutrals via impact ionization.

  6. Magnetically charged regular black hole in a model of nonlinear electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Meng-Sen

    2015-01-01

    We obtain a magnetically charged regular black hole in general relativity. The source to the Einstein field equations is nonlinear electrodynamic field in a physically reasonable model of nonlinear electrodynamics (NED). "Physically" here means the NED model is constructed on the basis of three conditions: the Maxwell asymptotic in the weak electromagnetic field limit; the presence of vacuum birefringence phenomenon; and satisfying the weak energy condition (WEC). In addition, we analyze the thermodynamic properties of the regular black hole in two ways. According to the usual black hole thermodynamics, we calculate the heat capacity at constant charge, from which we know the smaller black hole is more stable. We also employ the horizon thermodynamics to discuss the thermodynamic quantities, especially the heat capacity at constant pressure.

  7. A Unified Model of Magnetic Extraction of Spin Energy from a Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪定雄; 肖看; 雷卫华

    2002-01-01

    A unified model of magnetic extraction of spin energy from a black hole is discussed based on the theory of black hole magnetosphere. The magnetic extracting power is expressed by a unified formula, which is applicable to both the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process and the magnetic coupling (MC) process. The strength and characteristics of the BZ power and the MC power are compared in detail. In addition, the impedance matching condition for the BZ power is extended to the more general case.

  8. Fission cross section calculations for 209Bi target nucleus based on fission reaction models in high energy regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of projects of new generation nuclear power plants requires the solving of material science and technological issues in developing of reactor materials. Melts of heavy metals (Pb, Bi and Pb-Bi due to their nuclear and thermophysical properties, are the candidate coolants for fast reactors and accelerator-driven systems (ADS. In this study, α, γ, p, n and 3He induced fission cross section calculations for 209Bi target nucleus at high-energy regions for (α,f, (γ,f, (p,f, (n,f and (3He,f reactions have been investigated using different fission reaction models. Mamdouh Table, Sierk, Rotating Liquid Drop and Fission Path models of theoretical fission barriers of TALYS 1.6 code have been used for the fission cross section calculations. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data taken from the EXFOR database. TALYS 1.6 Sierk model calculations exhibit generally good agreement with the experimental measurements for all reactions used in this study.

  9. 3D classical ensemble modeling of non-sequential double ionization: the dependence of double-ionization yield on the nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haan, Stanley; Shomsky, Katherine; Danks, Nathan

    2011-05-01

    In 3D classical modeling of non-sequential double ionization, we find that plots of double ionization yield vs laser intensity show strong dependence on an adjustable nuclear softening parameter. We explore why, and uncover chaotic behavior and strong sensitivity to interaction with nucleus in recollision excitation with subsequent photoionization. This work supported by Calvin College ISRI and by NSF grant No. 0969984.

  10. Modelling the productivity of Anatolian black pine plantations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Teoman Güner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the relationships between height growth (site index of Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasina (Lamb. Holmboe and site factors of the plantation areas in Turkey. Data were collected from 118 sample plots by taking into consideration the variations of aspect, altitude, slope position, slope degree and site class. A representative tree for the productivity and soil samples were taken at each sample plot. Some chemical and physical properties of soil samples were determined in the laboratory. The relationships between site index values of the trees and site factors including parent material, soil, climate and topography were examined by using correlation, stepwise regression and regression tree analysis. Significant linear relations were found between site index of black pine and site factors being altitude, slope degree, slope position, annual rainfall, precipitation amount in the most drought month, solum depth and bedrock including granite, mica schist and dacite. Explanation variance percentage on the site index of black pine was found 54.4% by using regression tree analysis whereas explained variance become 34.7% by stepwise regression analysis.

  11. M33 A Galaxy with No Supermassive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Gebhardt, K; Kormendy, J; Pinkney, J C; Bower, G A; Green, R; Gull, T R; Hutchings, J B; Joseph, C L; Kaiser, M E; Nelson, C H; Richstone, D O; Weistrop, D; Gebhardt, Karl; Lauer, Tod R.; Kormendy, John; Pinkney, Jason; Bower, Gary A.; Green, Richard; Gull, Theodore; Joseph, Chuck; Nelson, Charles H.; Richstone, Douglas; Weistrop, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Galaxies that contain bulges appear to contain central black holes whose masses correlate with the velocity dispersion of the bulge. We show that no corresponding relationship applies in the pure disk galaxy M33. Three-integral dynamical models fit Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 photometry and STIS spectroscopy best if the central black hole mass is zero. The upper limit is 1500 M_sun. This is significantly below the mass expected from the velocity dispersion of the nucleus and far below any mass predicted from the disk kinematics. Our results suggest that supermassive black holes are associated only with galaxy bulges and not with their disks or dark halos.

  12. Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vignati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the global black carbon (BC cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of its properties. This work investigates two source of uncertainties in modelling black carbon: those due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in the global Transport-Chemistry model TM5 and those due to the uncertainties in the definition and quantification of the observations, which propagate through to both the emission inventories, and the measurements used for the model evaluation.

    The schemes for the atmospheric processing of black carbon that have been tested with the model are (i a simple approach considering BC as bulk aerosol and a simple treatment of the removal with fixed 70% of in-cloud black carbon concentrations scavenged by clouds and removed when rain is present and (ii a more complete description of microphysical ageing within an aerosol dynamics model, where removal is coupled to the microphysical properties of the aerosol, which results in a global average of 40% in-cloud black carbon that is scavenged in clouds and subsequently removed by rain, thus resulting in a longer atmospheric lifetime. This difference is reflected in comparisons between both sets of modelled results and the measurements. Close to the sources, both anthropogenic and vegetation fire source regions, the model results do not differ significantly, indicating that the emissions are the prevailing mechanism determining the concentrations and the choice of the aerosol scheme does not influence the levels. In more remote areas such as oceanic and polar regions the differences can be orders of magnitude, due to the differences between the two schemes. The more complete description reproduces the seasonal trend of the black carbon observations in those areas, although not always the magnitude of the signal, while the more simplified approach underestimates black carbon concentrations by orders of

  13. Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignati, E.; Karl, M.; Krol, M.; Wilson, J.; Stier, P.; Cavalli, F.

    2010-03-01

    Our understanding of the global black carbon (BC) cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of its properties. This work investigates two source of uncertainties in modelling black carbon: those due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in the global Transport-Chemistry model TM5 and those due to the uncertainties in the definition and quantification of the observations, which propagate through to both the emission inventories, and the measurements used for the model evaluation. The schemes for the atmospheric processing of black carbon that have been tested with the model are (i) a simple approach considering BC as bulk aerosol and a simple treatment of the removal with fixed 70% of in-cloud black carbon concentrations scavenged by clouds and removed when rain is present and (ii) a more complete description of microphysical ageing within an aerosol dynamics model, where removal is coupled to the microphysical properties of the aerosol, which results in a global average of 40% in-cloud black carbon that is scavenged in clouds and subsequently removed by rain, thus resulting in a longer atmospheric lifetime. This difference is reflected in comparisons between both sets of modelled results and the measurements. Close to the sources, both anthropogenic and vegetation fire source regions, the model results do not differ significantly, indicating that the emissions are the prevailing mechanism determining the concentrations and the choice of the aerosol scheme does not influence the levels. In more remote areas such as oceanic and polar regions the differences can be orders of magnitude, due to the differences between the two schemes. The more complete description reproduces the seasonal trend of the black carbon observations in those areas, although not always the magnitude of the signal, while the more simplified approach underestimates black carbon concentrations by orders of magnitude. The sensitivity to wet

  14. Disappearing "T1 black holes" in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirko, Istvan; Johnson, Aaron; Gamez, Jeff; Macura, Slobodan I; Rodriguez, Moses

    2004-05-01

    Brain MRI in multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently shows areas of hypointensity in the white matter on T1 weighted sequences ("T1 black holes"). These areas are thought to be consistent with irreversible axonal loss. In this study T1 black holes were characterized in Theiler's Murine Encephalitis Virus infection, an established model of demyelinating diseases in mice. The spectrum of TMEV is broad in different strains. C57BL/6J mice develop a self-limited brain disease, which resolves within 4-6 weeks. We followed six mice with serial MRI and MRS on days 0, 3,7,21 and 45. The studies were performed in a 7 Tesla magnet. Periventricular and parahippocampal T1 black holes seen as early as 3 days, with decreasing NAA/Cre ratio on MRS. The extent of pathology was most severe on days 3 and 7. T1 black holes are thought to be consistent with areas of irreversible axonal loss. This is challenged by our observations of resolution of T1 black holes by day 45. This was concomitant with the normalization of MRS findings in the areas of interest. We conclude that T1 black holes may represent a transient phenomenon in this model of MS. The recovery of these areas studied suggests an active repair mechanism.

  15. Cerebellar Fastigial Nucleus Electrical Stimulation Alleviates Depressive-Like Behaviors in Post-Stroke Depression Rat Model and Potential Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the molecular mechanism of post-stroke depression (PSD, and observe the therapeutic effects of cerebellar fastigial nucleus electrical stimulation (FNS on the behaviors and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in a PSD rat model. Methods: Healthy SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (sham, stroke, post-stroke depress and FNS group. Sham group (n = 6 underwent sham operation. The other three groups (n = 6*3 underwent MCAO. Rats were examined twice a week in open filed test. Moreover, neuroprotective effect on cerebellar Purkinje cells and expression of cytokines in hippocampal tissue were examined. Results: The PSD group showed a significant weight loss, decreased consumption of sucrose water, reduced rearing and locomotor activities. The FNS significantly alleviates the body weight loss and sucrose preference, locomotor and rearing activities. The bilateral rCBF was also restored after FNS treatment. Moreover, FNS improved the neuroprotection via suppressing apoptosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells. And the inflammatory cytokines mRNA level in hippocampus was significantly decreased. Conclusion: FNS treatment alleviates depressive-like behaviors and rCBF in PSD rats model, which could be attributed to its ability to protect cerebellar Purkinje cells and decrease the mRNA level of inflammatory cytokines.

  16. Fractional Black-Scholes Model and Technical Analysis of Stock Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the stock market, some popular technical analysis indicators (e.g., Bollinger bands, RSI, ROC, etc. are widely used to forecast the direction of prices. The validity is shown by observed relative frequency of certain statistics, using the daily (hourly, weekly, etc. stock prices as samples. However, those samples are not independent. In earlier research, the stationary property and the law of large numbers related to those observations under Black-Scholes stock price model and stochastic volatility model have been discussed. Since the fitness of both Black-Scholes model and short-range dependent process has been questioned, we extend the above results to fractional Black-Scholes model with Hurst parameter H>1/2, under which the stock returns follow a kind of long-range dependent process. We also obtain the rate of convergence.

  17. Neutrino nucleus cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of our calculation which has been performed to study the nuclear effects in the quasielastic, inelastic and deep inelastic scattering of neutrinos(antineutrinos) from nuclear targets. These calculations are done in the local density approximation. We take into account the effect of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion, Coulomb effect, renormalization of weak transition strengths in the nuclear medium in the case of the quasielastic reaction. The inelastic reaction leading to production of pions is calculated in a $\\Delta $- dominance model taking into account the renormalization of $\\Delta$ properties in the nuclear medium and the final state interaction effects of the outgoing pions with the residual nucleus. We discuss the nuclear effects in the $F_{3}^{A}(x)$ structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino(antineutrino) reaction using a relativistic framework to describe the nucleon spectral function in the nucleus.

  18. A note on Black-Scholes pricing model for theoretical values of stock options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeki, S. O.; Ugbebor, O. O.; Owoloko, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we consider some conditions that transform the classical Black-Scholes Model for stock options valuation from its partial differential equation (PDE) form to an equivalent ordinary differential equation (ODE) form. In addition, we propose a relatively new semi-analytical method for the solution of the transformed Black-Scholes model. The obtained solutions via this method can be used to find the theoretical values of the stock options in relation to their fair prices. In considering the reliability and efficiency of the models, we test some cases and the results are in good agreement with the exact solution.

  19. Neutrino nucleus reactions at high energies within the GiBUU model

    CERN Document Server

    Lalakulich, O; Leitner, T; Mosel, U

    2011-01-01

    The GiBUU model, which implements all reaction channels relevant at medium neutrino energy, is used to investigate the neutrino and antineutrino scattering on iron. Results for integrated cross sections are compared with NOMAD and MINOS data. It is shown, that final state interaction can noticeably change the spectra of the outgoing hadrons. Predictions for the Miner$\

  20. Double folding model analysis of elastic scattering of halo nucleus 11Be from 64Zn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Hemalatha

    2014-05-01

    Calculations of elastic scattering cross-sections for 9,10,11Be+64Zn at near-Coulomb barrier energy have been performed using a potential obtained from the double folding model and are compared with the experiment. In the framework of the double folding model, the nuclear matter densities of 9,10,11Be projectiles and a 64Zn target are folded with the complex energydependent effective M3Y interaction. The angular distributions of the differential cross-section for 9,10Be scattering from 64Zn at $E_{c.m.} ≈$24.5 MeV agree remarkably well with the data, while in case of 11Be, calculations show a Coulomb–nuclear interference peak which is not observed in the data.

  1. On the Development of an Operational SWAN Model for the Black Sea (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, A.; Van Vledder, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the results of some studies performed on the development of an efficient and operational SWAN model for the Black Sea. This model will be used to study the wind-wave climate and wave energy potential in the region and will provide boundary conditions for coastal engineering and

  2. A Moderated Mediation Model: Racial Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Racial Identity among Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…

  3. Modeling AGN outbursts from supermassive black hole binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When galaxies merge to assemble more massive galaxies, their nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs should form bound binaries. As these interact with their stellar and gaseous environments, they will become increasingly compact, culminating in inspiral and coalescence through the emission of gravitational radiation. Because galaxy mergers and interactions are also thought to fuel star formation and nuclear black hole activity, it is plausible that such binaries would lie in gas-rich environments and power active galactic nuclei (AGN. The primary difference is that these binaries have gravitational potentials that vary – through their orbital motion as well as their orbital evolution – on humanly tractable timescales, and are thus excellent candidates to give rise to coherent AGN variability in the form of outbursts and recurrent transients. Although such electromagnetic signatures would be ideally observed concomitantly with the binary’s gravitational-wave signatures, they are also likely to be discovered serendipitously in wide-field, high-cadence surveys; some may even be confused for stellar tidal disruption events. I discuss several types of possible “smoking gun” AGN signatures caused by the peculiar geometry predicted for accretion disks around SMBH binaries.

  4. Modeling the nitrogen cycling and plankton productivity in the Black Sea using a three-dimensional interdisciplinary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Nezlin, N.; Kostianoy, A.

    2004-01-01

    A six-compartment ecosystem model defined by a simple nitrogen cycle is coupled with a general circulation model in the Black Sea so as to examine the seasonal variability of the ecohydrodynamics. Model results show that the annual cycle of the biological productivity of the whole basin is character

  5. Modeling the 3D functional architecture of the nucleus in animal and plant kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Valérie; Andrey, Philippe; Devinoy, Eve; Kress, Clémence; Kieu, Kiên; Beaujean, Nathalie; Maurin, Yves; Debey, Pascale

    2009-11-01

    Compartmentalization is one of the fundamental principles which underly nuclear function. Numerous studies describe complex and sometimes conflicting relationships between nuclear gene positioning and transcription regulation. Therefore the question is whether topological landmarks and/or organization principles exist to describe the nuclear architecture and, if existing, whether these principles are identical in the animal and plant kingdoms. In the frame of an agroBI-INRA program on nuclear architecture, we set up a multidisciplinary approach combining biological studies, spatial statistics and 3D modeling to investigate spatial organization of a nuclear compartment in both plant and animal cells in their physiological contexts. In this article, we review the questions addressed in this program and the methodology of our work.

  6. Folding model analysis of the nucleus–nucleus scattering based on Jacobi coordinates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F PAKDEL; A A RAJABI; L NICKHAH

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the results of scattering of $^{16}O+^{209}Bi interaction near the Coulomb barrier. The interaction potential between two nuclei is calculated using the double folding model with the effective nucleon–nucleon (NN) interaction. The calculations of the exchange part of the interaction were assumed to be of finite range and the density dependence of the $NN$ interaction is accounted for. Also the results are compared with thezero-range approximation. All these calculations are done using the wave functions of the two colliding nuclei in place of their density distributions. The wave functions are obtained by the $D$-dimensional wave equationusing the hyper spherical calculations on the basis of Jacobi coordinates. The numerical results for the interaction potential and the differential scattering are in good agreement with the previous works.

  7. Intermediate mass black holes in AGN disks II. Model predictions & observational constraints

    CERN Document Server

    McKernan, B; Kocsis, B; Lyra, W; Winter, L M

    2014-01-01

    If intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) grow efficiently in gas disks around supermassive black holes, their host active galactic nucleus (AGN) disks should exhibit myriad observational signatures. Gap-opening IMBHs in AGN disks can exhibit spectral features and variability analagous to gapped protoplanetary disks. A gap-opening IMBH in the innermost disk imprints ripples and oscillations on the broad Fe K$\\alpha$ line which may be detectable with future X-ray missions. A non-gap-opening IMBH will accrete and produce a soft X-ray excess relative to continuum emission. An IMBH on a retrograde orbit in an AGN disk will not open a gap and will generate soft X-rays from a bow-shock 'headwind'. Accreting IMBH in a large cavity can generate ULX-like X-ray luminosities and LINER-like optical line ratios from local ionized gas. We propose that many LINERs house a weakly accreting MBH binary in a large central disk cavity and will be luminous sources of gravitational waves (GW). IMBHs in galactic nuclei may also be d...

  8. Single-prolonged stress induces apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus in the rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Dongjuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that develops after exposure to a life-threatening traumatic experience. Meta-analyses of the brainstem showed that midsagittal area of the pons was significantly reduced in patients with PTSD, suggesting a potential apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus after single-prolonged stress (SPS. The aim of this study is to investigate whether SPS induces apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus in PTSD rats, which may be a possible mechanism of reduced volume of pons and density of gray matter. Methods In this study, rats were randomly divided into 1d, 7d and 14d groups after SPS along with the control group. The apoptosis rate was determined using annexin V-FITC/PI double-labeled flow cytometry (FCM. Levels of Cytochrome c (Cyt-C was examined by Western blotting. Expression of Cyt-C on mitochondria in the dorsal raphe nucleus neuron was determined by enzymohistochemistry under transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The change of thiamine monophosphatase (TMP levels was assessed by enzymohistochemistry under light microscope and TEM. Morphological changes of the ultrastructure of the dorsal raphe nucleus neuron were determined by TEM. Results Apoptotic morphological alterations were observed in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron for all SPS-stimulate groups of rats. The apoptosis rates were significantly increased in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron of SPS rats, along with increased release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm, increased expression of Cyt-C and TMP levels in the cytoplasm, which reached to the peak of increase 7 days of SPS. Conclusions The results indicate that SPS induced Cyt-C released from mitochondria into cytosol and apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron of rats. Increased TMP in cytoplasm facilitated the clearance of apoptotic cells. We propose that this presents one of the mechanisms that lead to reduced volume of pons and gray matter associated

  9. Evolution of Black-Box Models Based on Volterra Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Silveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical review of the many behavioral models actually used to model radio frequency power amplifiers and a new classification of these behavioral models. It also discusses the evolution of these models, from a single polynomial to multirate Volterra models, presenting equations and estimation methods. New trends in RF power amplifier behavioral modeling are suggested.

  10. Notes on non-singular models of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, Valeri P

    2016-01-01

    We discuss static spherically symmetric metrics which represent non-singular black holes in four- and higher-dimensional spacetime. We impose a set of restrictions, such as a regularity of the metric at the center $r=0$ and Schwarzschild asymptotic behavior at large $r$. We assume that the metric besides mass $M$ contains an additional parameter $\\ell$, which determines the scale where modification of the solution of the Einstein equations becomes significant. We require that the modified metric obeys the limiting curvature condition, that is its curvature is uniformly restricted by the value $\\sim \\ell^{-2}$. We also make a "more technical" assumption that the metric coefficients are rational functions of $r$. In particular, the invariant $(\

  11. Dose calculations at high altitudes and in deep space with GEANT4 using BIC and JQMD models for nucleus-nucleus reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihver, L; Mancusi, D [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, (Sweden); Matthiae, D [German Aerospace Center, Cologne (Germany); Koi, T [SLAC, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: sihver@chalmers.se

    2008-10-15

    Radiation exposure of aircrew is more and more recognized as an occupational hazard. The ionizing environment at standard commercial aircraft flight altitudes consists mainly of secondary particles, of which the neutrons give a major contribution to the dose equivalent. Accurate estimations of neutron spectra in the atmosphere are therefore essential for correct calculations of aircrew doses. Energetic solar particle events (SPE) could also lead to significantly increased dose rates, especially at routes close to the North Pole, e.g. for flights between Europe and USA. It is also well known that the radiation environment encountered by personnel aboard low Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft or aboard a spacecraft traveling outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere is much harsher compared with that within the atmosphere since the personnel are exposed to radiation from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and SPE. The relative contribution to the dose from GCR when traveling outside the Earth's magnetosphere, e.g. to the Moon or Mars, is even greater, and reliable and accurate particle and heavy ion transport codes are essential to calculate the radiation risks for both aircrew and personnel on spacecraft. We have therefore performed calculations of neutron distributions in the atmosphere, total dose equivalents, and quality factors at different depths in a water sphere in an imaginary spacecraft during solar minimum in a geosynchronous orbit. The calculations were performed with the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) code using both the binary cascade (BIC) model, which is part of the standard GEANT4 package, and the JQMD model, which is used in the particle and heavy ion transport code PHITS GEANT4.

  12. Modelling gravitational waves from precessing black-hole binaries: Progress, challenges and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Hannam, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The inspiral and merger of two orbiting black holes is among the most promising sources for the first (hopefully imminent) direct detection of gravitational waves (GWs), and measurements of these signals could provide a wealth of information about astrophysics, fundamental physics and cosmology. Detection and measurement require a theoretical description of the GW signals from all possible black-hole-binary configurations, which can include complicated precession effects due to the black-hole spins. Modelling the GW signal from generic precessing binaries is therefore one of the most urgent theoretical challenges facing GW astronomy. This article briefly reviews the phenomenology of generic-binary dynamics and waveforms, and recent advances in modelling them.

  13. An Inflammatory Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Culture Model to Test Molecular Regenerative Therapies: Validation with Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Krupkova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Organ cultures are practical tools to investigate regenerative strategies for the intervertebral disc. However, most existing organ culture systems induce severe tissue degradation with only limited representation of the in vivo processes. The objective of this study was to develop a space- and cost-efficient tissue culture model, which represents degenerative processes of the nucleus pulposus (NP. Intact bovine NPs were cultured in a previously developed system using Dyneema jackets. Degenerative changes in the NP tissue were induced either by the direct injection of chondroitinase ABC (1–20 U/mL or by the diffusion of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α (both 100 ng/mL from the culture media. Extracellular matrix composition (collagens, proteoglycans, water, and DNA and the expression of inflammatory and catabolic genes were analyzed. The anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic compound epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG, 10 µM was employed to assess the relevance of the degenerative NP model. Although a single injection of chondroitinase ABC reduced the proteoglycan content in the NPs, it did not activate cellular responses. On the other hand, IL-1β and TNF-α significantly increased the mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators IL-6, IL-8, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP3, and MMP13. The cytokine-induced gene expression in the NPs was ameliorated with EGCG. This study provides a proof of concept that inflammatory NP cultures, with appropriate containment, can be useful for the discovery and evaluation of molecular therapeutic strategies against early degenerative disc disease.

  14. Models of Kilonova/macronova emission from black hole-neutron star mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Shibata, Masaru; Tanaka, Masaomi

    2016-01-01

    Black hole-neutron star mergers are among the promising gravitational-wave sources for ground-based detectors, and gravitational waves from black hole-neutron mergers are expected to be detected in the next few years. Simultaneous detection of electromagnetic counterparts with gravitational-wave detection provides rich information about the merger events. Among the possible electromagnetic counterparts from the black hole-neutron merger, the emission powered by the decay of radioactive r-process nuclei, so called kilonova/macronova, is one of the best targets for follow-up observation. We derive fitting formulas for the mass and the velocity of ejecta from a generic black hole-neutron merger based on recently performed numerical relativity simulations. We combined these fitting formulas with a new semi-analytic model for a black hole-neutron kilonova/macronova lightcurve which reproduces the results of radiation-transfer simulations. Specifically, the semi-analytic model reproduces the result of each band mag...

  15. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  16. Autologous nucleus pulposus transplantation to lumbar 5 dorsal root ganglion after epineurium discission in rats: a modified model of non-compressive lumbar herniated intervertebral disc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-jun; SONG Wu; LUO Wen-ying; WEI Ming; SUN Lai-bao; ZOU Xue-nong; LIAO Wei-ming

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs has proinflammatory characteristics that play a key role in neuropathic pain in lumbar herniated intervertebral disc. One of the most commonly used animal models (the traditional model) of non-compressive lumbar hemiated intervertebral disc is created by L4-L5 hemilaminectomy and the application of autologous nucleus pulposus to cover the left L4 and L5 nerve roots in rats. However, such procedures have the disadvantages of excessive trauma and low success rate. We proposed a modified model of non-compressive lumbar herniated intervertebral disc in which only the left L5 dorsal root ganglion is exposed and transplanted with autologous nucleus pulposus following incision of epineurium. We aimed to compare the modified model with the traditional one with regard to trauma and success rate.Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into three groups: sham operation group (n=6). traditional group (n=12), and modified group (n=12). The amount of blood loss and operative time for each group were analyzed. The paw withdrawal threshold of the left hind limb to mechanical stimuli and paw withdrawal latency to heat stimuli were examined from the day before surgery to day 35 after surgery.Results Compared with the traditional group, the modified group had shorter operative time, smaller amount of blood loss, and higher success rate (91.7% versus 58.3%, P <0.05). There was no decrease in paw withdrawal latency in any group. The sham operation group had no decrease in postoperative paw withdrawal threshold, whereas the modified and traditional groups had significant reduction in paw withdrawal threshold after surgery (mechanical hyperalgesia).Conclusions Transplantation of nucleus pulposus onto the L5 dorsal root ganglion following incision of epineurium in rats established an improved animal model of non-compressive lumbar herniated intervertebral disc with less trauma and more stable pain ethology.

  17. Fast and accurate prediction of numerical relativity waveforms from binary black hole mergers using surrogate models

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Jonathan; Galley, Chad R; Szilagyi, Bela; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. In this paper, we construct an accurate and fast-to-evaluate surrogate model for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from non-spinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios from $1$ to $10$ and durations corresponding to about $15$ orbits before merger. Our surrogate, which is built using reduced order modeling techniques, is distinct from traditional modeling efforts. We find that the full multi-mode surrogate model agrees with waveforms generated by NR to within the numerical error of the NR code. In particular, we show that our modeling strategy produces surrogates which can correctly predict NR waveforms that were {\\em not} used for the surrogate's training. For all practical purposes, then, the surrogate waveform model is equivalent to the high-accuracy, large-scale simulation waveform but can be evaluated in a millisecond to a second dependin...

  18. Black carbon fractal morphology and short-wave radiative impact: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kahnert

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the morphological properties of freshly emitted black carbon aerosols on optical properties and on radiative forcing. To this end, we model the optical properties of fractal black carbon aggregates by use of numerically exact solutions to Maxwell's equations within a spectral range from the UVC to the mid-IR. The results are coupled to radiative transfer computations, in which we consider six realistic case studies representing different atmospheric pollution conditions and surface albedos. The spectrally integrated radiative impacts of black carbon are compared for two different fractal morphologies, which brace the range of recently reported experimental observations of black carbon fractal structures. We also gauge our results by performing corresponding calculations based on the homogeneous sphere approximation, which is commonly employed in climate models. We find that at top of atmosphere the aggregate models yield radiative impacts that can be as much as 2 times higher than those based on the homogeneous sphere approximation. An aggregate model with a low fractal dimension can predict a radiative impact that is higher than that obtained with a high fractal dimension by a factor ranging between 1.1–1.6. Although the lower end of this scale seems like a rather small effect, a closer analysis reveals that the single scattering optical properties of more compact and more lacy aggregates differ considerably. In radiative flux computations there can be a partial cancellation due to the opposing effects of different error sources. However, this cancellation effect can strongly depend on atmospheric conditions and is therefore quite unpredictable. We conclude that the fractal morphology of black carbon aerosols and their fractal parameters can have a profound impact on their radiative forcing effect, and that the use of the homogeneous sphere model introduces unacceptably high biases in radiative impact studies. We

  19. Photo nuclear energy loss term for muon-nucleus interactions based on xi scaling model of QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, R.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive air showers (EMC) experiments discovered a significant deviation of the ratio of structure functions of iron and deuteron from unity. It was established that the quark parton distribution in nuclei are different from the corresponding distribution in the nucleus. It was examined whether these results have an effect on the calculation of photo nucleus energy loss term for muon-nucleus nuclear interaction. Though the EMC and SLAC data were restricted to rather large q sq region it is expected that the derivation would persist even in the low q sq domain. For the ratio of iron and deuteron structure function a rather naive least square fit of the form R(x) = a + bx was taken and it is assumed that the formula is valid for the whole q sq region the absence of any knowledge of R(x) for small q sq.

  20. Estimation parameters and black box model of a brushless DC motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Becerra-Vargas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of a process or a plant is vital for the design of its control system, since it allows predicting its dynamic and behavior under different circumstances, inputs, disturbances and noise. The main objective of this work is to identify which model is best for a permanent magnet brushless DC specific motor. For this, the mathematical model of a DC motor brushless PW16D, manufactured by Golden Motor, is presented and compared with its black box model; both are derived from experimental data. These data, the average applied voltage and the angular velocity, are acquired by a data acquisition card and imported to the computer. The constants of the mathematical model are estimated by a curve fitting algorithm based on non-linear least squares and pattern search using computational tool. To estimate the mathematical model constants by non-linear least square and search pattern, a goodness of fit of 84.88% and 80.48% respectively was obtained. The goodness of fit obtained by the black box model was 87.72%. The mathematical model presented slightly lower goodness of fit, but allowed to analyze the behavior of variables of interest such as the power consumption and the torque applied to the motor. Because of this, it is concluded that the mathematical model obtained by experimental data of the brushless motor PW16D, is better than its black box model.

  1. A Research Brief: A Novel Characteristic of Role Model Choice by Black Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B. J.; Davis, R.; Harris, A.; Brown, K.; Wood, P.; Jones, D. R.; Spencer, S.; Nelson, L.; Brown, J.; Waddell, T.; Jones, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present research brief is to report a novel characteristic of role model choice that may be unreported in the literature for black males and to assess this finding in relation to perceived attractiveness of self and a member of the opposite sex. The study found that the proportion of males choosing themselves as their own role…

  2. Comment on self-consistent model of black hole formation and evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Pei-Ming [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Sciences,National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China)

    2015-08-18

    In an earlier work, Kawai et al. proposed a model of black-hole formation and evaporation, in which the geometry of a collapsing shell of null dust is studied, including consistently the back reaction of its Hawking radiation. In this note, we illuminate the implications of their work, focusing on the resolution of the information loss paradox and the problem of the firewall.

  3. Off The Beaten Path: Modeling the Dynamics of Supermassive Black Holes in Cosmological Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremmel, Michael J.; Governato, Fabio; Volonteri, Marta; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological simulations are an essential tool to understand the co-evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. However, the limited resolution of these simulations presents unique challenges to successfully modeling black hole dynamics. We present a novel, physically motivated method for improving the dynamics of black holes in cosmological simulations, by accounting for the unresolved dynamical friction that SMBHs feel from stars and dark matter. We show how this approach, which naturally scales with resolution, is a major step forward compared to more commonly used 'advection' models that often assume SMBHs sink very rapidly toward the center of their host galaxies. Here, we demonstrate that our method is able to prevent numerical heating of SMBHs while allowing for realistic dynamics.Our implementation will allow us to more realistically model SMBH dynamics, accretion, and mergers in cosmological simulations, giving us the ability to better understand how SMBHs grow with their host galaxies. This also provides an opportunity for more detailed studies of SMBHs in dwarf galaxies, which can give crucial insight into constraining black hole seed formation models.

  4. Comment on Self-Consistent Model of Black Hole Formation and Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In an earlier work, Kawai et al proposed a model of black-hole formation and evaporation, in which the geometry of a collapsing shell of null dust is studied, including consistently the back reaction of its Hawking radiation. In this note, we illuminate the implications of their work, focusing on the resolution of the information loss paradox and the problem of the firewall.

  5. A refined sub-grid model for black hole accretion and AGN feedback in large cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, Lisa K; Hirschmann, Michaela; Prieto, M Almudena; Remus, Rhea-Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In large scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations simplified sub-grid models for gas accretion onto black holes and AGN feedback are commonly used. Such models typically depend on various free parameters, which are not well constrained. We present a new advanced model containing a more detailed description of AGN feedback, where those parameters reflect the results of recent observations. The model takes the dependency of these parameters on the black hole properties into account and describes a continuous transition between the feedback processes acting in the so-called radio-mode and quasar-mode. In addition, we implement a more detailed description of the accretion of gas onto black holes by distinguishing between hot and cold gas accretion. Our new implementations prevent black holes from gaining too much mass, particularly at low redshifts so that our simulations are now very successful in reproducing the observed present-day black hole mass function. Our new model also suppresses star formation in ma...

  6. Modelling non-paradoxical loss of information in black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Modak, Sujoy K

    2016-01-01

    We give general overview of a novel approach, recently developed by us, to address the issue black hole information paradox. This alternative viewpoint is based on theories involving modifications of standard quantum theory, known as "spontaneous dynamical state reduction" or "wave-function collapse models" which were historically developed to overcome the notorious foundational problems of quantum mechanics known as the "measurement problem". We show that these proposals, when appropriately adapted and refined for this context, provide a self-consistent picture where loss of information in the evaporation of black holes is no longer paradoxical.

  7. Able but unintelligent: including positively stereotyped black subgroups in the stereotype content model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Amy S; Czopp, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that warmth and competence are the key components underlying judgments about social groups. Because competence can encompass different components (e.g., intelligence, talent) different group members may be perceived to be competent for different reasons. Therefore, we believe it may be important to specify the type of competence being assessed when examining perceptions of groups that are positively stereotyped (i.e., Black athletes and musical Blacks). Consistent with the SCM, these subgroups were perceived as high in competence-talent but not in competence-intelligence and low in warmth. Both the intelligence and talent frame of competence fit in the SCM's social structural hypothesis.

  8. One-Shot Decoupling and Page Curves from a Dynamical Model for Black Hole Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brádler, Kamil; Adami, Christoph

    2016-03-11

    One-shot decoupling is a powerful primitive in quantum information theory and was hypothesized to play a role in the black hole information paradox. We study black hole dynamics modeled by a trilinear Hamiltonian whose semiclassical limit gives rise to Hawking radiation. An explicit numerical calculation of the discretized path integral of the S matrix shows that decoupling is exact in the continuous limit, implying that quantum information is perfectly transferred from the black hole to radiation. A striking consequence of decoupling is the emergence of an output radiation entropy profile that follows Page's prediction. We argue that information transfer and the emergence of Page curves is a robust feature of any multilinear interaction Hamiltonian with a bounded spectrum.

  9. Tidal Interaction between a Fluid Star and a Kerr Black Hole Relativistic Roche-Riemann Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, P; Wiggins, Paul; Lai, Dong

    1999-01-01

    We present a semi-analytic study of the equilibrium models of close binary systems containing a fluid star (mass $m$ and radius $R_0$) and a Kerr black hole (mass $M$) in circular orbit. We consider the limit $M\\gg m$ where spacetime is described by the Kerr metric. The tidally deformed star is approximated by an ellipsoid, and satisfies the polytropic equation of state. The models also include fluid motion in the stellar interior, allowing binary models with nonsynchronized stellar spin (as expected for coalescing neutron star--black hole binaries) to be constructed. Tidal disruption occurs at orbital radius $r_{\\rm tide}\\sim R_0(M/m)^{1/3}$, but the dimensionless ratio of the black hole as well as on the equation of state and the internal rotation of the star. We find that the general relativistic tidal field disrupts the star at a larger $\\hat r_{\\rm tide}$ than the Newtonian tide; the difference is particularly prominent if the disruption occurs in the vicinity of the black hole's horizon. In general, $\\h...

  10. A magnetic model for low/hard state of black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yong-Chun; Huang, Chang-Yin; Cao, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    A magnetic model for low/hard state (LHS) of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs),H1743-322 and GX 339-4, is proposed based on the transportation of magnetic field from a companion into an accretion disk around a black hole (BH). This model consists of a truncated thin disk with an inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). The spectral profiles of the sources are fitted in agreement with the data observed at four different dates corresponding to the rising phase of the LHS. In addition, the association of the LHS with quasi-steady jet is modelled based on transportation of magnetic field, where the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) and Blandford-Payne (BP) processes are invoked to drive the jets from BH and inner ADAF. It turns out that the steep radio/X-ray correlations observed in H1743-322 and GX 339-4 can be interpreted based on our model.

  11. [Construction and application of black-box model for glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianwei; Lu, Hongzhong; Xia, Jianye; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2015-07-01

    Carbon-limited continuous culture was used to study the relationship between the growth of Aspergillus niger and the production of glucoamylase. The result showed that when the specific growth rate was lower than 0.068 h(-1), the production of glucoamylase was growth-associated, when the specific growth rate was higher than 0.068 h(-1), the production of glucoamylase was not growth-associated. Based on the result of continuous culture, the Monod dynamics model of glucose consumption of A. niger was constructed, Combining Herbert-Pirt equation of glucose and oxygen consumption with Luedeking-Piret equation of enzyme production, the black-box model of Aspergillus niger for enzyme production was established. The exponential fed-batch culture was designed to control the specific growth rate at 0.05 h(-1) by using this model and the highest yield for glucoamylase production by A. niger reached 0.127 g glucoamylase/g glucose. The black-box model constructed in this study successfully described the glucoamylase production by A. niger and the result of the model fitted the measured value well. The black-box model could guide the design and optimization of glucoamylase production by A. niger.

  12. Height-diameter model for black locust, Anatolian black pine and Taurus cedar tree species in Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    ÇATAL, Yılmaz

    2012-01-01

    The height of a tree is important for assessing tree volume and site index. Diameter of breast height-tree height releation equations are often used to predict the mean tree height for trees in case only diameter at breast height is measured. This study aim describes between the tree heights with diameter of breast height relationships for artificially grown black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) and Taurus cedar (C...

  13. CCN activation of pure and coated carbon black particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, U; Reischl, G P; Hitzenberger, R

    2006-02-15

    The CCN (cloud condensation nucleus) activation of pure and coated carbon black particles was investigated using the University of Vienna cloud condensation nuclei counter (Giebl, H.; Berner, A.; Reischl, G.; Puxbaum, H.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Hitzenberger, R. J. Aerosol Sci. 2002, 33, 1623-1634). The particles were produced by nebulizing an aqueous suspension of carbon black in a Collison atomizer. The activation of pure carbon black particles was found to require higher supersaturations than predicted by calculations representing the particles as insoluble, wettable spheres with mobility equivalent diameter. To test whether this effect is an artifact due to heating of the light-absorbing carbon black particles in the laser beam, experiments at different laser powers were conducted. No systematic dependence of the activation of pure carbon black particles on laser power was observed. The observations could be modeled using spherical particles and an effective contact angle of 4-6 degrees of water at their surface. The addition of a small amount of NaCl to the carbon black particles (by adding 5% by mass NaCl to the carbon black suspension) greatly enhanced their CCN efficiency. The measured CCN efficiencies were consistent with Kohler theory for particles consisting of insoluble and hygroscopic material. However, coating the carbon black particles with hexadecanol (a typical film-forming compound with one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic end) efficiently suppressed the CCN activation of the carbon black particles.

  14. Adaptation of warrant price with Black Scholes model and historical volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Khairu Azlan Abd; Idris, Mohd Fazril Izhar Mohd; Saian, Rizauddin; Daud, Wan Suhana Wan

    2015-05-01

    This project discusses about pricing warrant in Malaysia. The Black Scholes model with non-dividend approach and linear interpolation technique was applied in pricing the call warrant. Three call warrants that are listed in Bursa Malaysia were selected randomly from UiTM's datastream. The finding claims that the volatility for each call warrants are different to each other. We have used the historical volatility which will describes the price movement by which an underlying share is expected to fluctuate within a period. The Black Scholes model price that was obtained by the model will be compared with the actual market price. Mispricing the call warrants will contribute to under or over valuation price. Other variables like interest rate, time to maturity date, exercise price and underlying stock price are involves in pricing call warrants as well as measuring the moneyness of call warrants.

  15. Charged pion anisotropy in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitou, J.; L' Hote, D.; Cavata, C.; Babinet, R.; Demoulins, M.; Fanet, H.; Gosset, J.; Lemaire, M.C.; Le Merdy, A.; Lucas, B.; Terrien, Y.; Valette, O. (CEN Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Alard, J.P.; Augerat, J.; Bastid, N.; Charmensat, P.; Dupieux, P.; Fraysse, L.; Marroncle, J.; Montarou, G.; Parizet, M.J.; Rahmani, A. (LPC Clermont-Ferrand, 63 - Aubiere (France)); Brochard, F.; Gorodetzky, P.; Racca, C. (CRN, 67 - Strasbourg (France))

    1992-01-27

    The momentum distributions with respect to the reaction plane for charged pions emitted in Ne-nucleus and Ar-nucleus collisions have been measured with the 4{pi} detector Diogene at the Saturne synchrotron. The reaction plane is estimated from the baryon momenta, using a standard technique for flow analysis. The pions exhibit a non-zero flow. For asymmetric systems, there is a preferential emission in the direction of the lighter (projectile) nucleus. Such a behaviour contradicts the predictions of INC calculations and is underestimated by QMD calculations which include mean field effects. It can be interpreted with a simple geometrical model in terms of absorption by the spectator nuclear matter. (orig.).

  16. Facial nucleus up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA following electroacupuncture treatment in a rabbit model of facial nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Gao; Bangyu Ju; Guohua Jiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of acupuncture treatment on peripheral facial nerve injury is generally accepted. However, the mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To validate the effect of acupoint electro-stimulation on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the facial nucleus of rabbits with facial nerve injury, with the hypothesis that acupuncture treatment efficacy is related to BDNE DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Peripheral facial nerve injury, in situ hybridization, and randomized, controlled, animal trial. The experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Anatomy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine from March to September 2005. MATERIALS: A total of 120 healthy, adult, Japanese rabbits, with an equal number of males and females were selected. Models of peripheral facial nerve injury were established using the facial nerve pressing method. METHODS: The rabbits were randomly divided into five groups (n = 24): sham operation, an incision to the left facial skin, followed by suture; model, no treatment following facial nerve model establishment; western medicine, 10 mg vitamin B1, 50 μg vitamin B12, and dexamethasone (2 mg/d, reduced to half every 7 days) intramuscular injection starting with the first day following lesion, once per day; traditional acupuncture, acupuncture at Yifeng, Quanliao, Dicang, Jiache, Sibai, and Yangbai acupoints using a acupuncture needle with needle twirling every 10 minutes, followed by needle retention for 30 minutes, for successive 5 days; electroacupuncture, similar to the traditional acupuncture group, the Yifeng (negative electrode), Jiache (positive electrode), Dicang (negative electrode), and Sibai (positive electrode) points were connected to an universal pulse electro-therapeutic apparatus for 30 minutes per day, with disperse-dense waves for successive 5 days, and resting for 2 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Left hemisphere brain stem tissues were harvested on post-operative days 7, 14

  17. Black carbon fractal morphology and short-wave radiative impact: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kahnert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the morphological properties of freshly emitted black carbon aerosols on optical properties and on radiative forcing. To this end, we model the optical properties of fractal black carbon aggregates by use of numerically exact solutions to Maxwell's equations within a spectral range from the UVC to the mid-IR. The results are coupled to radiative transfer computations, in which we consider six realistic case studies representing different atmospheric pollution conditions and surface albedos. The spectrally integrated radiative impacts of black carbon are compared for two different fractal morphologies, which brace the range of recently reported experimental observations of black carbon fractal structures. We also gauge our results by performing corresponding calculations based on the homogeneous sphere approximation, which is commonly employed in climate models. We find that at top of atmosphere the aggregate models yield radiative impacts that can be as much as 2 times higher than those based on the homogeneous sphere approximation. An aggregate model with a low fractal dimension can predict a radiative impact that is higher than that obtained with a high fractal dimension by a factor ranging between 1.1–1.6. Although the lower end of this scale seems like a rather small effect, a closer analysis reveals that the single scattering optical properties of more compact and more lacy aggregates differ considerably. In radiative flux computations there can be a partial cancellation due to the opposing effects of differences in the optical cross sections and asymmetry parameters. However, this cancellation effect can strongly depend on atmospheric conditions and is therefore quite unpredictable. We conclude that the fractal morphology of black carbon aerosols and their fractal parameters can have a profound impact on their radiative forcing effect, and that the use of the homogeneous sphere model introduces unacceptably

  18. Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes and AGN: a synthesis model for accretion and feedback .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merloni, A.

    The growth of supermassive black holes (SMBH) through accretion is accompanied by the release of enormous amounts of energy which can either be radiated away, as happens in quasars, advected into the black hole, or disposed of in kinetic form through powerful jets, as is observed, for example, in radio galaxies. Here, I will present new constraints on the evolution of the SMBH mass function and Eddington ratio distribution, obtained from a study of AGN luminosity functions aimed at accounting for both radiative and kinetic energy output of AGN in a systematic way. First, I discuss how a refined Soltan argument leads to joint constraints on the mass-weighted average spin of SMBH and of the total mass density of high redshift (z˜ 5) and ``wandering'' black holes. Then, I will show how to describe the ``downsizing'' trend observed in the AGN population in terms of cosmological evolution of physical quantities (black hole mass, accretion rate, radiative and kinetic energy output). Finally, the redshift evolution of the AGN kinetic feedback will be briefly discussed and compared with the radiative output of the evolving SMBH population, thus providing a robust physical framework for phenomenological models of AGN feedback within structure formation.

  19. Multi-asset Black-Scholes model as a variable second class constrained dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M.; Contreras, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study the multi-asset Black-Scholes model from a structural point of view. For this, we interpret the multi-asset Black-Scholes equation as a multidimensional Schrödinger one particle equation. The analysis of the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian mechanics associated with this quantum model implies that, in this system, the canonical momentums cannot always be written in terms of the velocities. This feature is a typical characteristic of the constrained system that appears in the high-energy physics. To study this model in the proper form, one must apply Dirac's method for constrained systems. The results of the Dirac's analysis indicate that in the correlation parameters space of the multi-assets model, there exists a surface (called the Kummer surface ΣK, where the determinant of the correlation matrix is null) on which the constraint number can vary. We study in detail the cases with N = 2 and N = 3 assets. For these cases, we calculate the propagator of the multi-asset Black-Scholes equation and show that inside the Kummer ΣK surface the propagator is well defined, but outside ΣK the propagator diverges and the option price is not well defined. On ΣK the propagator is obtained as a constrained path integral and their form depends on which region of the Kummer surface the correlation parameters lie. Thus, the multi-asset Black-Scholes model is an example of a variable constrained dynamical system, and it is a new and beautiful property that had not been previously observed.

  20. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  1. Relativistic Accretion Disk Models of High State Black Hole X-ray Binary Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, S W; Hubeny, I; Turner, N J; Davis, Shane W.; Blaes, Omer M.; Hubeny, Ivan; Turner, Neal J.

    2004-01-01

    We present calculations of non-LTE, relativistic accretion disk models applicable to the high/soft state of black hole X-ray binaries. We include the effects of thermal Comptonization and bound-free and free-free opacities of all abundant ion species. We present spectra calculated for a variety of accretion rates, black hole spin parameters, disk inclinations, and stress prescriptions. We also consider nonzero inner torques on the disk, and explore different vertical dissipation profiles, including some which are motivated by recent radiation MHD simulations of magnetorotational turbulence. Bound-free metal opacity generally produces significantly less spectral hardening than previous models which only considered Compton scattering and free-free opacity. It also tends to keep the effective photosphere near the surface, resulting in spectra which are remarkably independent of the stress prescription and vertical dissipation profile, provided little dissipation occurs above the effective photosphere. We provide...

  2. The NINJA-2 project: Detecting and characterizing gravitational waveforms modelled using numerical binary black hole simulations

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; 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Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endrőczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kremin, A; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C -H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Roux, A Le; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Litvine, V; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Luijten, E; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Milde, S; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Kumar, D Nanda; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Sperandio, L; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Stops, D; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Brügmann, B; Buchman, L T; Campanelli, M; Chu, T; Etienne, Z B; Hannam, M; Healy, J; Hinder, I; Kidder, L E; Laguna, P; Liu, Y T; London, L; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; MacDonald, I; Marronetti, P; Mösta, P; Müller, D; Mundim, B C; Nakano, H; Paschalidis, V; Pekowsky, L; Pollney, D; Pfeiffer, H P; Ponce, M; Pürrer, M; Reifenberger, G; Reisswig, C; Santamaría, L; Scheel, M A; Shapiro, S L; Shoemaker, D; Sopuerta, C F; Sperhake, U; Szilágyi, B; Taylor, N W; Tichy, W; Tsatsin, P; Zlochower, Y

    2014-01-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave astrophysics communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the ability to detect gravitational waves emitted from merging binary black holes and recover their parameters with next-generation gravitational-wave observatories. We report here on the results of the second NINJA project, NINJA-2, which employs 60 complete binary black hole hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modelling the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modelling the early inspiral. In a "blind injection challenge" similar to that conducted in recent LIGO and Virgo science runs, we added 7 hybrid waveforms to two months of data recolored to predictions of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo sensitivity curves during their first observing runs. The resulting data was analyzed by gravitational-wave detection algorithms and 6 of the waveforms were recovered w...

  3. Model for Quasinormal Mode Excitation by a Particle Plunging into a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Zachary; Zimmerman, Aaron; Yang, Huan; Chen, Yanbei

    2016-03-01

    It is known that the late time gravitational waveform produced by a particle plunging into a Kerr black hole is well described by a sum of quasinormal modes. However it is not yet understood how the early part of the waveform gives way to the quasinormal mode description, which diverges at early times, nor how the inhomogenous part of the waveform contributes. Motivated by, we offer a model for quasinormal mode excitation by a particle plunging into a Schwarzschild black hole. To develop our model we study approximations to the Regge-Wheeler equation that allow for a closed-form expression for the frequency-domain Green's function, which we use to isolate the component of the waveform that should be identified with quasinormal ringing. Our description of quasinormal ringing does not diverge at early times and reveals that quasinormal ringing should be understood in analogy with a damped harmonic oscillator experiencing a transient driving source.

  4. Modelling and simulation of a moving interface problem: freeze drying of black tea extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ebubekir Sıddık; Yucel, Ozgun; Sadikoglu, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The moving interface separates the material that is subjected to the freeze drying process as dried and frozen. Therefore, the accurate modeling the moving interface reduces the process time and energy consumption by improving the heat and mass transfer predictions during the process. To describe the dynamic behavior of the drying stages of the freeze-drying, a case study of brewed black tea extract in storage trays including moving interface was modeled that the heat and mass transfer equations were solved using orthogonal collocation method based on Jacobian polynomial approximation. Transport parameters and physical properties describing the freeze drying of black tea extract were evaluated by fitting the experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  5. Development of Secular Instability in Different Disc Models of Black Hole Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Nag, Sankhasubhra; Maity, Ishita; Das, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    Analytical treatment of black hole accretion generally presumes the stability of the stationary configuration. Various authors in the past several decades demonstrated the validity of such an assumption for inviscid hydrodynamic flow. Inviscid assumption is a reasonable approximation for low angular^M momentum advection dominated flow in connection to certain^M supermassive black holes at the^M centres of the galaxies (including our own) fed from a number of stellar donors.^M Introduction of a weak viscosity, however, may sometimes provide a more detail understanding of the observed spectrum. Recently it has been demonstrated that introduction of small amount of viscosity in the form of quasi-viscous flow makes a stationary accretion disc -- where the geometric configuration of matter is described by axisymmetric flow in hydrostatic equilibrium -- unstable. We perform similar analysis for other disc models (for all three possible geometric configurations of matter) for quasi-viscous models under the post-Newt...

  6. A relativistic toy model for Unruh black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, P.

    2014-08-01

    We consider the wave propagation in terms of acoustic geometry in a quantum relativistic system. This reduces, in the hydrodynamic limit, to the equations which govern the motion of a relativistic Fermi-degenerate gas in one space dimension. The derivation of an acoustic metric for one-dimensional (1D) systems is in general plagued with the impossibility of defining a conformal factor. Here we show that, although the system is intrinsically one-dimensional, the Unruh procedure continues to work because of the particular structure symmetry of the model. By analyzing the dispersion relation, attention is also paid to the quantum effects on the wave propagation.

  7. Microcanonical black hole statistics and the finite infinite range Heisenberg model

    CERN Document Server

    Aste, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Gelfand pattern of the reduction of the N-fold tensor product of the fundamental representation of the special unitary group SU(2) by itself is studied in the framework of a finite Heisenberg model with infinite range, where N spins couple to each other with the same strength. A speculative comment relates the present findings to the microstatistics of black holes for illustrative purposes.

  8. Black carbon ageing in the Canadian Centre for Climate modelling and analysis atmospheric general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Croft

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC particles in the atmosphere have important impacts on climate. The amount of BC in the atmosphere must be carefully quantified to allow evaluation of the climate effects of this type of aerosol. In this study, we present the treatment of BC aerosol in the developmental version of the 4th generation Canadian Centre for Climate modelling and analysis (CCCma atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM. The focus of this work is on the conversion of insoluble BC to soluble/mixed BC by physical and chemical ageing. Physical processes include the condensation of sulphuric and nitric acid onto the BC aerosol, and coagulation with more soluble aerosols such as sulphates and nitrates. Chemical processes that may age the BC aerosol include the oxidation of organic coatings by ozone. Four separate parameterizations of the ageing process are compared to a control simulation that assumes no ageing occurs. These simulations use 1 an exponential decay with a fixed 24h half-life, 2 a condensation and coagulation scheme, 3 an oxidative scheme, and 4 a linear combination of the latter two ageing treatments. Global BC burdens are 2.15, 0.15, 0.11, 0.21, and 0.11TgC for the control run, and four ageing schemes, respectively. The BC lifetimes are 98.1, 6.6, 5.0, 9.5, and 4.9 days, respectively. The sensitivity of modelled BC burdens, and concentrations to the factor of two uncertainty in the emissions inventory is shown to be greater than the sensitivity to the parameterization used to represent the BC ageing, except for the oxidation based parameterization. A computationally efficient parameterization that represents the processes of condensation, coagulation, and oxidation is shown to simulate BC ageing well in the CCCma AGCM. As opposed to the globally fixed ageing time scale, this treatment of BC ageing is responsive to varying atmospheric composition.

  9. MODELING BLACK-WHITE PRETERM BIRTH DISPARITY: ECOLOGIC AND MULTILEVEL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences. This work considers two main que...

  10. Finite difference schemes for a nonlinear black-scholes model with transaction cost and volatility risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mashayekhi, Sima; Hugger, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Several nonlinear Black-Scholes models have been proposed to take transaction cost, large investor performance and illiquid markets into account. One of the most comprehensive models introduced by Barles and Soner in [4] considers transaction cost in the hedging strategy and risk from an illiquid...... market. In this paper, we compare several finite difference methods for the solution of this model with respect to precision and order of convergence within a computationally feasible domain allowing at most 200 space steps and 10000 time steps. We conclude that standard explicit Euler comes out...

  11. Primordial black hole production during preheating in a chaotic inflationary model

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Lomas, E

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we review the production of primordial black holes (PBHs) during preheating after a chaotic inflationary model. All relevant equations of motion are solved numerically in a modified version of HLattice, and we then calculate the mass variance to determine structure formation during preheating. It is found that production of PBHs can be a generic result of the model, even though the results seem to be sensitive to the values of the smoothing scale. We consider a constraint for overproduction of PBHs that could uncover some stress between inflation-preheating models and observations.

  12. Calabi-Yau Black Holes and (0,4) Sigma Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasian, Ruben; Moore, Gregory; Tsimpis, Dimitrios

    When an M-theory fivebrane wraps a holomorphic surface ? in a Calabi-Yau 3-fold X the low energy dynamics is that of a black string in 5 dimensional ? =1 supergravity. The infrared dynamics on the string worldsheet is an ? = (0,4) 2D conformal field theory. Assuming the 2D CFT can be described as a nonlinear sigma model, we describe the target space geometry of this model in terms of the data of X and ?. Variations of weight two Hodge structures enter the construction of the model in an interesting way.

  13. Factorial Based Response Surface Modeling with Confidence Intervals for Optimizing Thermal Optical Transmission Analysis of Atmospheric Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    We demonstrate how thermal-optical transmission analysis (TOT) for refractory light-absorbing carbon in atmospheric particulate matter was optimized with empirical response surface modeling. TOT employs pyrolysis to distinguish the mass of black carbon (BC) from organic carbon (...

  14. Black Swans and Many Worlds: Contemporary models in music, the arts and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black Swans and Many Worlds are new models to help explain musical structures, and by extension, events in the social environment and in internal human experience. Many Worlds takes its departure point from quantum physics, and especially the work of Hugh Everett III, who used the defining point of a measurement in the sub-atomic world as initiating alternative courses of action. Everett extrapolated this idea to the macro-world: a defining point may initiate multiple outcomes, each with its own character and events, as parallel worlds. One application of this model is to consider musical works within a genre as Many Worlds. Black Swans derive from Nassim Taleb, who proposes that social, political, and in fact all aspects of today’s world are not understandable by logical processes or incremental change but are often rocked by extreme, unpredictable shocks. If Many Worlds provide new ways of thinking about potentiality, probability and innovation, Black Swans arrest us in our tracks by eruptions that threaten to derail contemporary life, and with it, music, the arts and ideas.

  15. Bayesian model selection for testing the no-hair theorem with black hole ringdowns

    CERN Document Server

    Gossan, S; Sathyaprakash, B S

    2011-01-01

    General relativity predicts that a black hole that results from the merger of two compact stars (either black holes or neutron stars) is initially highly deformed but soon settles down to a quiescent state by emitting a superposition of quasi-normal modes (QNMs). The QNMs are damped sinusoids with characteristic frequencies and decay times that depend only on the mass and spin of the black hole and no other parameter - a statement of the no-hair theorem. In this paper we have examined the extent to which QNMs could be used to test the no-hair theorem with future ground- and space-based gravitational-wave detectors. We model departures from general relativity (GR) by introducing extra parameters which change the mode frequencies or decay times from their general relativistic values. With the aid of numerical simulations and Bayesian model selection, we assess the extent to which the presence of such a parameter could be inferred, and its value estimated. We find that it is harder to decipher the departure of d...

  16. Local conformal symmetry in black holes, standard model, and quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooft, Gerard ’T.

    The black hole information problem and the firewall problem can be addressed by assuming an extra local symmetry: conformal invariance. It must be an exact symmetry, spontaneously broken by the vacuum, in a way similar to the Brout-Englert-Higgs (BEH) mechanism. We note how this symmetry formally removes the horizon and the singularity inside black holes. For the Standard Model this symmetry is severely restrictive, demanding all coupling constants, masses and even the cosmological constant to be computable, in principle. Finally, this symmetry suggests that the Weyl action (the square of the Weyl curvature) should be added to the Einstein-Hilbert action. The ensuing indefinite metric states are briefly studied, and we conclude with some remarks concerning the interpretation of quantum mechanics.

  17. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S

    2003-01-01

    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  18. Minimal Length Effects on Entanglement Entropy of Spherically Symmetric Black Holes in Brick Wall Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng; Ying, Shuxuan

    2015-01-01

    We compute the black hole horizon entanglement entropy for a massless scalar field in the brick wall model by incorporating the minimal length. Taking the minimal length effects on the occupation number $n(\\omega,l)$ and the Hawking temperature into consideration, we obtain the leading UV divergent term and the subleading logarithmic term in the entropy. The leading divergent term scales with the horizon area. The subleading logarithmic term is the same as that in the usual brick wall model without the minimal length.

  19. Parameter estimation of Black-Sholes-Merton model by random observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladeva, Dimitrinka I.

    2015-11-01

    Stochastic processes are frequently used to model various scientific problems in fields ranging from finance and biology to engineering and physical science. In this paper we consider the Black-Sholes-Merton model with constant coefficients and find the unbiased and consistent estimators for the unknown parameters when the observations are point process t0, t1, …, tn independent of the Wiener process. Here we prove good properties of the estimations without any condition of the type max 1 ≤i ≤n (ti-ti -1)→0 when n → ∞, as in other sampling schemes.

  20. Lie Symmetry Analysis of the Black-Scholes-Merton Model for European Options with Stochastic Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronikos Paliathanasis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We perform a classification of the Lie point symmetries for the Black-Scholes-Merton Model for European options with stochastic volatility, σ, in which the last is defined by a stochastic differential equation with an Orstein-Uhlenbeck term. In this model, the value of the option is given by a linear (1 + 2 evolution partial differential equation in which the price of the option depends upon two independent variables, the value of the underlying asset, S, and a new variable, y. We find that for arbitrary functional form of the volatility, σ ( y , the (1 + 2 evolution equation always admits two Lie point symmetries in addition to the automatic linear symmetry and the infinite number of solution symmetries. However, when σ ( y = σ 0 and as the price of the option depends upon the second Brownian motion in which the volatility is defined, the (1 + 2 evolution is not reduced to the Black-Scholes-Merton Equation, the model admits five Lie point symmetries in addition to the linear symmetry and the infinite number of solution symmetries. We apply the zeroth-order invariants of the Lie symmetries and we reduce the (1 + 2 evolution equation to a linear second-order ordinary differential equation. Finally, we study two models of special interest, the Heston model and the Stein-Stein model.

  1. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharshi Bhaswant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Both black (B and green (G cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom.

  2. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaswant, Maharshi; Poudyal, Hemant; Mathai, Michael L; Ward, Leigh C; Mouatt, Peter; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-09-11

    Both black (B) and green (G) cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C) or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H) for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom) rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom) rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom.

  3. Agmatine promotes expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brainstem facial nucleus in the rat facial nerve injury model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fang; Wenlong Luo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that agmatine can reduce inhibition of neuronal regeneration by increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of morphine-dependent rats. The hypothesis that agmatine exerts similar effects on facial nerve injury deserves further analysis.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of peritoneal agmatine injection on BDNF levels in the rat brainstem after facial nerve injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A controlled animal experiment was performed at the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences (Chongqing, China), between October and December in 2007.MATERIALS: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control, a lesion, and an agmatine treatment group, with eight rats in each group. Bilateral facial nerve anastomosis was induced in the lesion and agmatine treatment groups, while the control group remained untreated. A rat BDNF Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to measure BDNF levels in the brainstem facial nucleus.METHODS: Starting on the day of lesion, the agmatine group received a peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg agmatine, once per day, for a week, whereas rats in the lesion group received saline injections.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BDNF levels in the brainstem containing facial nucleus were measured by ELISA.RESULTS: Twenty-four rats were included in the final analysis without any loss. Two weeks after lesion, BDNF levels were significantly higher in the lesion group than in the control group (P<0.01). A significant increase was noted in the agmatine group compared to the lesion group (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Agmatine can substantially increase BDNF levels in the rat brainstem after facial nerve injury.

  4. Two-oscillator Kantowski-Sachs model of the Schwarzschild black hole interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Goran S.; Nesic, Ljubisa; Radovancevic, Darko

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the interior of the Schwarzschild black hole, which is presented as a vacuum, homogeneous and anisotropic Kantowski-Sachs minisuperspace cosmological model, is considered. Lagrangian of the model is reduced by a suitable coordinate transformation to Lagrangian of two decoupled oscillators with the same frequencies and with zero energy in total (an oscillator-ghost-oscillator system). The model is presented in a classical, a p-adic and a noncommutative case. Then, within the standard quantum approach Wheeler-DeWitt equation and its general solutions, i.e. a wave function of the model is written, and then an adelic wave function is constructed. Finally, thermodynamics of the model is studied by using the Feynman-Hibbs procedure.

  5. Two-oscillator Kantowski-Sachs model of the Schwarzschild black hole interior

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Goran S; Radovancevic, Darko

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the interior of the Schwarzschild black hole, which is presented as a vacuum homogeneous and anisotropic Kantowski-Sachs minisuperspace cosmological model, is considered. Lagrangian of the model is reduced by a suitable coordinate transformation to Lagrangian of two decoupled oscillators with the same frequencies and with zero energy in total (an oscillator-ghost-oscillator system). The model will be presented in a classical, a p-adic and a noncommutative case. Then, within the standard quantum approach Wheeler-DeWitt equation and its general solutions, i.e. a wave function of the model, will be written, and then an adelic wave function will be constructed. Finally, thermodynamics of the model will be studied by using the Feynman-Hibbs procedure.

  6. Two aspects of black hole entropy in Lanczos-Lovelock models of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Sanved; Kothawala, Dawood; Padmanabhan, T.

    2012-03-01

    We consider two specific approaches to evaluate the black hole entropy which are known to produce correct results in the case of Einstein’s theory and generalize them to Lanczos-Lovelock models. In the first approach (which could be called extrinsic), we use a procedure motivated by earlier work by Pretorius, Vollick, and Israel, and by Oppenheim, and evaluate the entropy of a configuration of densely packed gravitating shells on the verge of forming a black hole in Lanczos-Lovelock theories of gravity. We find that this matter entropy is not equal to (it is less than) Wald entropy, except in the case of Einstein theory, where they are equal. The matter entropy is proportional to the Wald entropy if we consider a specific mth-order Lanczos-Lovelock model, with the proportionality constant depending on the spacetime dimensions D and the order m of the Lanczos-Lovelock theory as (D-2m)/(D-2). Since the proportionality constant depends on m, the proportionality between matter entropy and Wald entropy breaks down when we consider a sum of Lanczos-Lovelock actions involving different m. In the second approach (which could be called intrinsic), we generalize a procedure, previously introduced by Padmanabhan in the context of general relativity, to study off-shell entropy of a class of metrics with horizon using a path integral method. We consider the Euclidean action of Lanczos-Lovelock models for a class of metrics off shell and interpret it as a partition function. We show that in the case of spherically symmetric metrics, one can interpret the Euclidean action as the free energy and read off both the entropy and energy of a black hole spacetime. Surprisingly enough, this leads to exactly the Wald entropy and the energy of the spacetime in Lanczos-Lovelock models obtained by other methods. We comment on possible implications of the result.

  7. Modeling Wood Fibre Length in Black Spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. BSP Based on Ecological Land Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Townshend

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective planning to optimize the forest value chain requires accurate and detailed information about the resource; however, estimates of the distribution of fibre properties on the landscape are largely unavailable prior to harvest. Our objective was to fit a model of the tree-level average fibre length related to ecosite classification and other forest inventory variables depicted at the landscape scale. A series of black spruce increment cores were collected at breast height from trees in nine different ecosite groups within the boreal forest of northeastern Ontario, and processed using standard techniques for maceration and fibre length measurement. Regression tree analysis and random forests were used to fit hierarchical classification models and find the most important predictor variables for the response variable area-weighted mean stem-level fibre length. Ecosite group was the best predictor in the regression tree. Longer mean fibre-length was associated with more productive ecosites that supported faster growth. The explanatory power of the model of fitted data was good; however, random forests simulations indicated poor generalizability. These results suggest the potential to develop localized models linking wood fibre length in black spruce to landscape-level attributes, and improve the sustainability of forest management by identifying ideal locations to harvest wood that has desirable fibre characteristics.

  8. Reproduction and evaluation of a rat model of inhalation lung injury caused by black gunpowder smog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-fan LIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce and evaluate a rat model of inhalation lung injury caused by black gunpowder smog. Methods The smog composition was analyzed and a rat model of inhalation lung injury was reproduced. Forty two healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC group and 1h, 2h, 6h, 24h, 48h and 96h after inhalation group (n=6. The arterial blood gas, wet to dry weight ratio (W/D of lung, leukocyte count, and protein concentration in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF were determined. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in lung tissue were observed. Results The composition of black gunpowder smog was composed mainly of CO2 and CO, and their concentrations remained stable within 12 minutes. Smog inhalation caused a significant hypoxemia, the concentration of blood COHb reached a peak value 1h, and the W/D of lung reached peak value 2h after inhalation (P<0.05. The amount of leukocytes and content of protein in BALF increased significantly within 24h after inhalation (P<0.05. Histopathological observation showed diffuse hemorrhage, edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue as manifestations of acute lung injury, and the injury did not recover at 96h after inhalation. Conclusion The rat model of inhalation lung injury can be reproduced using black gunpowder smog, and it has the advantages of its readiness for reproduction, reliability and stability, and it could be used for the experiment of inhalation injury in a battlefield environment.

  9. Neuroanatomical and cellular substrates of hypergrooming induced by microinjection of oxytocin in central nucleus of amygdala, an experimental model of compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroni, S S; Nakano, F N; Gati, C D C; Oliveira, J A C; Antunes-Rodrigues, J; Garcia-Cairasco, N

    2007-12-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neurosecretory nonapeptide synthesized in hypothalamic cells that project to the neurohypophysis as well as to widely distributed sites in the central nervous system. Central OT microinjections induce a variety of cognitive, sexual, reproductive, grooming and affiliative behaviors in animals. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) includes a range of cognitive and behavioral symptoms that bear some relationship with OT. Here, we study the neuroanatomical and cellular substrates of the hypergrooming induced by administration of OT in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA). In this context, this hypergrooming is considered as a model of compulsive behavior. Our data suggest a link between the CeA and the hypothalamic grooming area (HGA). The HGA includes parts of the paraventricular nucleus and the dorsal hypothalamic area. Our data on colocalization of OT (immunohistochemistry for peptide), OT receptor (binding assay) and its retrogradely labeled cells after Fluoro-Gold injection in the CeA suggest that CeA and connections are important substrates of the circuit underlying this OT-dependent compulsive behavioral pattern.

  10. Data Assimilation and Sensitivity of the Black Sea Model to Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    An adjoint based technique is applied to a Shallow Water Model in order to estimate influence of the model's parameters on the solution. Among parameters the bottom topography, initial conditions, boundary conditions on rigid boundaries, viscosity coefficients and the amplitude of the wind stress tension are considered. Their influence is analyzed from different points of view. Two configurations have been analyzed: an academic case of the model in a square box and a more realistic case simulating Black Sea currents. It is shown in both experiments that the boundary conditions near a rigid boundary influence the most the solution. This fact points out the necessity to identify optimal boundary approximation during a model development.

  11. Black holes as random particles: entanglement dynamics in infinite range and matrix models

    CERN Document Server

    Magan, Javier M

    2016-01-01

    We first propose and study a quantum toy model of black hole dynamics. The model is unitary, displays quantum thermalization, and the Hamiltonian couples every oscillator with every other, a feature intended to emulate the color sector physics of large-$\\mathcal{N}$ matrix models. Considering out of equilibrium initial states, we analytically compute the time evolution of every correlator of the theory and of the entanglement entropies, allowing a proper discussion of global thermalization/scrambling of information through the entire system. Microscopic non-locality causes factorization of reduced density matrices, and entanglement just depends on the time evolution of occupation densities. In the second part of the article, we show how the gained intuition extends to large-$\\mathcal{N}$ matrix models, where we provide a gauge invariant entanglement entropy for `generalized free fields', again depending solely on the quasinormal frequencies. The results challenge the fast scrambling conjecture and point to a ...

  12. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.

  13. Analysis of the triaxial, strongly deformed bands in odd-odd nucleus 164Lu with the tops-on-top model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara-Tanabe, Kazuko; Tanabe, Kosai; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2014-06-01

    The top-on-top model with angular-momentum-dependent moments of inertia is extended to the tops-on-top model for an odd-odd nucleus, where one proton and one neutron in each single-j orbital are coupled to the triaxial rotor. For a pure rotor case, an explicit algebraic formula for the triaxial, strongly deformed (TSD) band levels is given, and its stability problem is discussed. Both positive and negative parity TSD bands are well reproduced by taking account of attenuation factors in the Coriolis interaction and the proton-neutron interaction in the recoil term. Difference in quantum numbers between the yrast and yrare TSD bands is confirmed by direct estimation of spin alignments. The electromagnetic transition rates of B(M1) are much reduced because of the different sign of g-factors in comparison with the odd-A case, while B(E2) are in the same order.

  14. Two dimensional black-hole as a topological coset model of c=1 string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhi, S

    1993-01-01

    We show that a special superconformal coset (with $\\hat c =3$) is equivalent to $c=1$ matter coupled to two dimensional gravity. This identification allows a direct computation of the correlation functions of the $c=1$ non-critical string to all genus, and at nonzero cosmological constant, directly from the continuum approach. The results agree with those of the matrix model. Moreover we connect our coset with a twisted version of a Euclidean two dimensional black hole, in which the ghost and matter systems are mixed.

  15. Modelling the coastal processes at the mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen; Zanopol, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    The mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea represent the main southern entrance in the seventh Pan European transportation corridor that links the Black and the Northern seas and is the most important inland navigable waterway in Europe. For this reason the coastal area close to the Danube Delta is subjected to high navigation traffic, which is crucially affected by the strong processes mainly induced by the interactions between the waves and the currents generated by the Danube River outflow. From this perspective, the objective of the present work is to develop a computational framework based on numerical models able to evaluate properly the effects of these interactions and to provide reliable predictions concerning the wave and current conditions corresponding to various environmental patterns. Following this target, a wave modelling system, SWAN based, was implemented in the entire basin of the Black Sea and focused on the coastal sector at the entrance of the Danube Delta. As a next step of the modelling process, SWAN simulations were performed at two different computational levels, considering in parallel the situations without and with the current fields for the main environmental conditions characteristic to the target area. The first level covers the entire coastal area at the mouths of the Danube River and has a resolution in the geographical space of 500m. The second is a computational domain with the resolution of 50m that is focused on the Sulina channel, which is the main navigation gate at the mouths of the Danube River. The results show that the presence of the currents induces relevant enhancements in terms of significant wave heights. Additionally, the Benjamin Feir index (BFI) was also evaluated. This is a spectral shape parameter that is related to the kurtosis of the distribution and indicates the risk of the freak wave occurrence. The enhanced values for BFI in the case when the current fields are considered in the modelling process

  16. Matrix models, 4D black holes and topological strings on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Ulf H.; Olsson, Martin E.; Vonk, Marcel

    2004-11-01

    We study the relation between c = 1 matrix models at self-dual radii and topological strings on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds. Particularly the special case of the deformed matrix model is investigated in detail. Using recent results on the equivalence of the partition function of topological strings and that of four dimensional BPS black holes, we are able to calculate the entropy of the black holes, using matrix models. In particular, we show how to deal with the divergences that arise as a result of the non-compactness of the Calabi-Yau. The main result is that the entropy of the black hole at zero temperature coincides with the canonical free energy of the matrix model, up to a proportionality constant given by the self-dual temperature of the matrix model.

  17. Recent results on the spatiotemporal modelling and comparative analysis of Black Death and bubonic plague epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.; Yu, H.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This work demonstrates the importance of spatiotemporal stochastic modelling in constructing maps of major epidemics from fragmentary information, assessing population impacts, searching for possible etiologies, and performing comparative analysis of epidemics. Methods: Based on the theory previously published by the authors and incorporating new knowledge bases, informative maps of the composite space-time distributions were generated for important characteristics of two major epidemics: Black Death (14th century Western Europe) and bubonic plague (19th-20th century Indian subcontinent). Results: The comparative spatiotemporal analysis of the epidemics led to a number of interesting findings: (1) the two epidemics exhibited certain differences in their spatiotemporal characteristics (correlation structures, trends, occurrence patterns and propagation speeds) that need to be explained by means of an interdisciplinary effort; (2) geographical epidemic indicators confirmed in a rigorous quantitative manner the partial findings of isolated reports and time series that Black Death mortality was two orders of magnitude higher than that of bubonic plague; (3) modern bubonic plague is a rural disease hitting harder the small villages in the countryside whereas Black Death was a devastating epidemic that indiscriminately attacked large urban centres and the countryside, and while the epidemic in India lasted uninterruptedly for five decades, in Western Europe it lasted three and a half years; (4) the epidemics had reverse areal extension features in response to annual seasonal variations. Temperature increase at the end of winter led to an expansion of infected geographical area for Black Death and a reduction for bubonic plague, reaching a climax at the end of spring when the infected area in Western Europe was always larger than in India. Conversely, without exception, the infected area during winter was larger for the Indian bubonic plague; (5) during the

  18. A fuzzy compromise programming approach for the Black-Litterman portfolio selection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gharakhani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine advanced optimization approach for portfolio problem introduced by Black and Litterman to consider the shortcomings of Markowitz standard Mean-Variance optimization. Black and Litterman propose a new approach to estimate asset return. They present a way to incorporate the investor’s views into asset pricing process. Since the investor’s view about future asset return is always subjective and imprecise, we can represent it by using fuzzy numbers and the resulting model is multi-objective linear programming. Therefore, the proposed model is analyzed through fuzzy compromise programming approach using appropriate membership function. For this purpose, we introduce the fuzzy ideal solution concept based on investor preference and indifference relationships using canonical representation of proposed fuzzy numbers by means of their correspondingα-cuts. A real world numerical example is presented in which MSCI (Morgan Stanley Capital International Index is chosen as the target index. The results are reported for a portfolio consisting of the six national indices. The performance of the proposed models is compared using several financial criteria.

  19. Modelling of Black and Organic Carbon Variability in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurganskiy, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mahura, Alexander; Kaas, Eigil; Baklanov, Alexander; Hansen Sass, Bent

    2016-04-01

    Black and organic carbon as short-lived climate forcers have influence on air quality and climate in Northern Europe and Arctic. Atmospheric dispersion, deposition and transport of these climate forcers from remote sources is especially difficult to model in Arctic regions due to complexity of meteorological and chemical processes and uncertainties of emissions. In our study, the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols model Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) was employed for evaluating spatio-temporal variability of black and organic carbon aerosols in atmospheric composition in the Northern Hemisphere regions. The model setup included horizontal resolution of 0.72 deg, time step of 450 sec, 6 h meteorological surface data assimilation, 1 month spin-up; and model was run for the full year of 2010. Emissions included anthropogenic (ECLIPSE), shipping (AU_RCP&FMI), wildfires (IS4FIRES), and interactive sea salt, dust and DMS. Meteorological (from IFS at 0.75 deg) and chemical (from MACC Reanalysis at 1.125 deg) boundary conditions were obtained from ECMWF. Annual and month-to-month variability of mean concentration, accumulated dry/wet and total deposition fluxes is analyzed for the model domain and selected European and Arctic observation sites. Modelled and observed BC daily mean concentrations during January and July showed fair-good correlation (0.31-0.64) for stations in Germany, UK and Italy; however, for Arctic stations (Tiksi, Russia and Zeppelin, Norway) the correlations were negative in January, but higher correlations and positive (0.2-0.7) in July. For OC, it varied 0.45-0.67 in January and 0.19-0.57 in July. On seasonal scale, during both summer and winter seasons the BC and OC correlations are positive and higher for European stations compared with Arctic. On annual scale, both BC and OC correlations are positive and vary between 0.4-0.6 for European stations, and these are smoothed to negligible values for Arctic

  20. Electric stimulation of the tuberomamillary nucleus affects epileptic activity and sleep-wake cycle in a genetic absence epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blik, Vitaliya

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising approach for epilepsy treatment, but the optimal targets and parameters of stimulation are yet to be investigated. Tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) is involved in EEG desynchronization-one of the proposed mechanisms for DBS action. We studied whether TMN stimulation could interfere with epileptic spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in WAG/Rij rats with inherited absence epilepsy and whether such stimulation would affect sleep-wake cycle. EEG and video registration were used to determine SWD occurrence and stages of sleep and wake during three-hours recording sessions. Stimulation (100Hz) was applied in two modes: closed-loop (with previously determined interruption threshold intensity) or open-loop mode (with 50% or 70% threshold intensity). Closed-loop stimulation successfully interrupted SWDs but elevated their number by 148 ± 54% compared to baseline. It was accompanied by increase in number of episodes but not total duration of both active and passive wakefulness. Open-loop stimulation with amplitude 50% threshold did not change measured parameters, though 70% threshold stimulation reduced SWDs number by 40 ± 9%, significantly raised the amount of active wakefulness and decreased the amount of both slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep. These results suggest that the TMN is unfavorable as a target for DBS as its stimulation may cause alterations in sleep-wake cycle. A careful choosing of parameters and control of sleep-wake activity is necessary when applying DBS in epilepsy.

  1. Coupling Fluid and Solute Dynamics Within the Ocular Surface Tear Film: A Modelling Study of Black Line Osmolarity

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.

    2012-07-06

    We present a mathematical model describing the spatial distribution of tear film osmolarity across the ocular surface of a human eye during one blink cycle, incorporating detailed fluid and solute dynamics. Based on the lubrication approximation, our model comprises three coupled equations tracking the depth of the aqueous layer of the tear film, the concentration of the polar lipid, and the concentration of physiological salts contained in the aqueous layer. Diffusive boundary layers in the salt concentration occur at the thinnest regions of the tear film, the black lines. Thus, despite large Peclet numbers, diffusion ameliorates osmolarity around the black lines, but nonetheless is insufficient to eliminate the build-up of solute in these regions. More generally, a heterogeneous distribution of solute concentration is predicted across the ocular surface, indicating that measurements of lower meniscus osmolarity are not globally representative, especially in the presence of dry eye. Vertical saccadic eyelid motion can reduce osmolarity at the lower black line, raising the prospect that select eyeball motions more generally can assist in alleviating tear film hyperosmolarity. Finally, our results indicate that measured evaporative rates will induce excessive hyperosmolarity at the black lines, even for the healthy eye. This suggests that further evaporative retardation at the black lines, for instance due to the cellular glycocalyx at the ocular surface or increasing concentrations of mucus, will be important for controlling hyperosmolarity as the black line thins. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  2. Emergent horizon, Hawking radiation and chaos in the collapsed polymer model of a black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed that the interior of a macroscopic Schwarzschild black hole (BH) consists of highly excited, long, closed, interacting strings and, as such, can be modeled as a collapsed polymer. It was previously shown that the scaling relations of the collapsed-polymer model agree with those of the BH. The current paper further substantiates this proposal with an investigation into some of its dynamical consequences. In particular, we show that the model predicts, without relying on gravitational effects, an emergent horizon. We further show that the horizon fluctuates quantum mechanically as it should and that the strength of the fluctuations is inversely proportional to the BH entropy. It is then demonstrated that the emission of Hawking radiation is realized microscopically by the quantum-induced escape of small pieces of string, with the rate of escape and the energy per emitted piece both parametrically matching the Hawking temperature. We also show, using standard methods from statistical mechanics a...

  3. Two Aspects of Black hole entropy in Lanczos-Lovelock models of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T

    2011-01-01

    We consider two specific approaches to evaluate the black hole entropy which are known to produce correct results in the case of Einstein's theory and generalize them to Lanczos-Lovelock models. In the first approach (which could be called extrinsic) we use a procedure motivated by earlier work by Pretorius, Vollick and Israel, and by Oppenheim, and evaluate the entropy of a configuration of densely packed gravitating shells on the verge of forming a black hole in Lanczos-Lovelock theories of gravity. We find that this matter entropy is not equal to (it is less than) Wald entropy, except in the case of Einstein theory, where they are equal. The matter entropy is proportional to the Wald entropy if we consider a specific m-th order Lanczos-Lovelock model, with the proportionality constant depending on the spacetime dimensions D and the order m of the Lanczos-Lovelock theory as (D-2m)/(D-2). Since the proportionality constant depends on m, the proportionality between matter entropy and Wald entropy breaks down ...

  4. The Assembly and Merging History of Supermassive Black Holes in Hierarchical Models of Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, M; Madau, A F P; Volonteri, Marta; Haardt, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    We assess models for the assembly of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the center of galaxies that trace their hierarchical build-up far up in the dark halo `merger tree'. We assume that the first `seed' black holes (BHs) formed in (mini)halos collapsing at z=20 from high-sigma density fluctuations. As these pregalactic holes become incorporated through a series of mergers into larger and larger halos, they sink to the center owing to dynamical friction, accrete a fraction of the gas in the merger remnant to become supermassive, form a binary system, and eventually coalesce. The merger history of dark matter halos and associated BHs is followed by cosmological Monte Carlo realizations of the merger hierarchy. A simple model, where quasar activity is driven by major mergers and SMBHs accrete at the Eddington rate a mass that scales with the fifth power of the velocity dispersion, is shown to reproduce the optical LF of quasars in the redshift range 1

  5. Quiescence Correlates Strongly with Directly Measured Black Hole Mass in Central Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Bryan A.; Bell, Eric F.; Henriques, Bruno M. B.; White, Simon D. M.; Cattaneo, Andrea; Woo, Joanna

    2016-10-01

    Roughly half of all stars reside in galaxies without significant ongoing star formation. However, galaxy formation models indicate that it is energetically challenging to suppress the cooling of gas and the formation of stars in galaxies that lie at the centers of their dark matter halos. In this Letter, we show that the dependence of quiescence on black hole and stellar mass is a powerful discriminant between differing models for the mechanisms that suppress star formation. Using observations of 91 star-forming and quiescent central galaxies with directly measured black hole masses, we find that quiescent galaxies host more massive black holes than star-forming galaxies with similar stellar masses. This observational result is in qualitative agreement with models that assume that effective, more-or-less continuous active galactic nucleus feedback suppresses star formation, strongly suggesting the importance of the black hole in producing quiescence in central galaxies.

  6. Electroacupuncture activates corticotrophin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalammus to alleviate edema in a rat model of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Brian M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies show that electroacupuncture (EA has beneficial effects in patients with inflammatory diseases. This study investigated the mechanisms of EA anti-inflammation, using a rat model of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA-induced hind paw inflammation and hyperalgesia. Design Four experiments were conducted on male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6–7/per group. Inflammation was induced by injecting CFA into the plantar surface of one hind paw. Experiment 1 examined whether EA increases plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels. Experiments 2 and 3 studied the effects of the ACTH and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH receptor antagonists, ACTH(11–24 and astressin, on the EA anti-edema. Experiment 4 determined whether EA activates CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalammus. EA treatment, 10 Hz at 3 mA and 0.1 ms pulse width, was given twice for 20 min each, once immediately post and again 2 hr post-CFA. Plasma ACTH levels, paw thickness, and paw withdrawal latency to a noxious thermal stimulus were measured 2 h and 5 h after the CFA. Results EA significantly increased ACTH levels 5 h (2 folds after CFA compared to sham EA control, but EA alone in naive rats and CFA alone did not induce significant increases in ACTH. ACTH(11–24 and astressin blocked EA anti-edema but not EA anti-hyperalgesia. EA induced phosphorylation of NR1, an essential subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor, in CRH-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus. Conclusion The data demonstrate that EA activates CRH neurons to significantly increase plasma ACTH levels and suppress edema through CRH and ACTH receptors in a rat model of inflammation.

  7. Inner Structure of Boiling Nucleus and Interfacial Energy Between Nucleus and Bulk Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Dong; TIAN Yong; PENG Xiao-Feng; WANG Bu-Xuan

    2004-01-01

    @@ A model of two-region structure of a nucleus is proposed to describe nucleus evolution. The interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus is dependent on the density gradient in the transition region and varies with the structure change of the transition region. With the interfacial tension calculated using this model, the predicted nucleation rate is very close to the experimental measurement. Furthermore, this model and associated analysis provide solid theoretical evidence to clarify the definition of nucleation rate and understand the nucleation phenomenon with insight into the physical nature.

  8. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  9. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  10. CHANGES IN BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY BLACK SOILS AT GLEYISATION (MODEL EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandashova K. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory modeling of gleyisation and its effect on the biological properties of soils with stagnant regime in ordinary black soils. Gleyisation is a complex biochemical process that occurs under oxygen reduction conditions. Anaerobic microorganisms, the presence of organic substances, and the constant or prolonged waterlogging of individual horizons or the entire soil profile promote gleyisation. Model experiments revealed that gleyisation increase the total number of bacteria and suppresses number of actinomycetes, micromycetes and growth of fungal mycelium. Gleyisation decreases the activity of oxidoreductases and increases the hydrolases activity. In addition, the second content of humus slightly increases and active acidity (pH changes to neutral. Accumulation of large amounts of iron oxide (II in soil is revealed

  11. Numerical modeling of roll structures in mesoscale vortexes over the Black Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Iarova, D A

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a case study of horizontal atmospheric rolls that formed over the Black Sea on 16 August 2007. The rolls were discovered in WRF modeling results for a mesoscale cyclone that originated over the sea on 15 August 2007. The roll formation mechanisms, such as Rayleigh-Benard convective instability, dynamic instability, advection and stretching of vertical velocity field inhomogeneities, are considered. It is shown that indeed convective instability played an important role in the roll formation but dynamic instability did not occur. In order to distinguish other possible mechanisms of the roll formation numerical experiments were performed. In these experiments sea surface temperature in the initial conditions was decreased in order to prevent convective instability. Even though convective instability was suppressed roll-like structures still appeared in the modeling results, although their height and circulation velocity were smaller than in the control run. It was found that these structures were ...

  12. The Emotional Gatekeeper: A Computational Model of Attentional Selection and Suppression through the Pathway from the Amygdala to the Inhibitory Thalamic Reticular Nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan J John

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a complex environment that contains both opportunities and threats, it is important for an organism to flexibly direct attention based on current events and prior plans. The amygdala, the hub of the brain's emotional system, is involved in forming and signaling affective associations between stimuli and their consequences. The inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN is a hub of the attentional system that gates thalamo-cortical signaling. In the primate brain, a recently discovered pathway from the amygdala sends robust projections to TRN. Here we used computational modeling to demonstrate how the amygdala-TRN pathway, embedded in a wider neural circuit, can mediate selective attention guided by emotions. Our Emotional Gatekeeper model demonstrates how this circuit enables focused top-down, and flexible bottom-up, allocation of attention. The model suggests that the amygdala-TRN projection can serve as a unique mechanism for emotion-guided selection of signals sent to cortex for further processing. This inhibitory selection mechanism can mediate a powerful affective 'framing' effect that may lead to biased decision-making in highly charged emotional situations. The model also supports the idea that the amygdala can serve as a relevance detection system. Further, the model demonstrates how abnormal top-down drive and dysregulated local inhibition in the amygdala and in the cortex can contribute to the attentional symptoms that accompany several neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. The Emotional Gatekeeper: A Computational Model of Attentional Selection and Suppression through the Pathway from the Amygdala to the Inhibitory Thalamic Reticular Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Yohan J; Zikopoulos, Basilis; Bullock, Daniel; Barbas, Helen

    2016-02-01

    In a complex environment that contains both opportunities and threats, it is important for an organism to flexibly direct attention based on current events and prior plans. The amygdala, the hub of the brain's emotional system, is involved in forming and signaling affective associations between stimuli and their consequences. The inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a hub of the attentional system that gates thalamo-cortical signaling. In the primate brain, a recently discovered pathway from the amygdala sends robust projections to TRN. Here we used computational modeling to demonstrate how the amygdala-TRN pathway, embedded in a wider neural circuit, can mediate selective attention guided by emotions. Our Emotional Gatekeeper model demonstrates how this circuit enables focused top-down, and flexible bottom-up, allocation of attention. The model suggests that the amygdala-TRN projection can serve as a unique mechanism for emotion-guided selection of signals sent to cortex for further processing. This inhibitory selection mechanism can mediate a powerful affective 'framing' effect that may lead to biased decision-making in highly charged emotional situations. The model also supports the idea that the amygdala can serve as a relevance detection system. Further, the model demonstrates how abnormal top-down drive and dysregulated local inhibition in the amygdala and in the cortex can contribute to the attentional symptoms that accompany several neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  15. Kinetic convex hulls, Delaunay triangulations and connectivity structures in the black-box model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark de Berg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the kinetic-data-structures framework has become thestandard in computational geometry for dealing with moving objects. A fundamental assumption underlying the framework is that the motions of the objects are known in advance. This assumption severely limits the applicability of KDSs. We study KDSs in the black-box model, which is a hybrid of the KDS model and the traditional time-slicing approach. In this more practical model we receive the position of each object at regular time steps and we have an upper bound on dmax, the maximum displacement of any point in one time step.We study the maintenance of the convex hull and the Delaunay triangulation of a planar point set P in the black-box model, under the following assumption on dmax: there is some constant k such that for any point p in P the disk of radius dmax contains at most k points. We analyze our algorithms in terms of Δk, the so-called k-spread of P. We show how to update the convex hull at each time step in O(min(n, kΔklog nlog n amortized time. For the Delaunay triangulation our main contribution is an analysis of the standard edge-flipping approach; we show that the number of flips is O(k2Δk2 at each time step.

  16. Deformed Type 0A Matrix Model and Super-Liouville Theory for Fermionic Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, C; Park, J; Suyama, T; Yamamoto, M; Ahn, Changrim; Kim, Chanju; Park, Jaemo; Suyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2006-01-01

    We consider a ${\\hat c}=1$ model in the fermionic black hole background. For this purpose we consider a model which contains both the N=1 and the N=2 super-Liouville interactions. We propose that this model is dual to a recently proposed type 0A matrix quantum mechanics model with vortex deformations. We support our conjecture by showing that non-perturbative corrections to the free energy computed by both the matrix model and the super-Liouville theories agree exactly by treating the N=2 interaction as a small perturbation. We also show that a two-point function on sphere calculated from the deformed type 0A matrix model is consistent with that of the N=2 super-Liouville theory when the N=1 interaction becomes small. This duality between the matrix model and super-Liouville theories leads to a conjecture for arbitrary $n$-point correlation functions of the N=1 super-Liouville theory on the sphere.

  17. Black hole solutions to the $F_4$-model and their orbits (I)

    CERN Document Server

    Chemissany, W; Ruggeri, D; Trigiante, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we continue the program of the classification of nilpotent orbits using the approach developed in arXiv:1107.5986, within the study of black hole solutions in D=4 supergravities. Our goal in this work is to classify static, single center black hole solutions to a specific N=2 four dimensional "magic" model, with special K\\"ahler scalar manifold ${\\rm Sp}(6,\\mathbb{R})/{\\rm U}(3)$, as orbits of geodesics on the pseudo-quaternionic manifold ${\\rm F}_{4(4)}/[{\\rm SL}(2,\\mathbb{R})\\times {\\rm Sp}(6,\\mathbb{R})]$ with respect to the action of the isometry group ${\\rm F}_{4(4)}$. Our analysis amounts to the classification of the orbits of the geodesic "velocity" vector with respect to the isotropy group $H^*={\\rm SL}(2,\\mathbb{R})\\times {\\rm Sp}(6,\\mathbb{R})$, which include a thorough classification of the \\emph{nilpotent orbits} associated with extremal solutions and reveals a richer structure than the one predicted by the $\\beta-\\gamma$ labels alone, based on the Kostant Sekiguchi approach. We prov...

  18. Numerical modeling of the central Black Sea ecosystem functioning during the eutrophication phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, M.; Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.

    2008-03-01

    A one-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the central Black Sea at the end of the 1980s when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and dynamics of the system. The physical model is the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and the biogeochemical model describes the foodweb from bacteria to gelatinous carnivores through 24 state variables including three groups of phytoplankton: diatoms, small phototrophic flagellates and dinoflagellates, two zooplankton groups: micro- and mesozooplankton, two groups of gelatinous zooplankton: the omnivorous and carnivorous forms, an explicit representation of the bacterial loop: bacteria, labile and semi-labile dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter. The model simulates oxygen, nitrogen, silicate and carbon cycling. In addition, an innovation of this model is that it explicitly represents processes in the anoxic layer. Biogeochemical processes in anaerobic conditions have been represented using an approach similar to that used in the modeling of diagenetic processes in the sediments lumping together all the reduced substances in one state variable [Soetaert, K., Herman, P., 1996. A model of early diagenetic processes from the shelf to abyssal depths. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60 (6) 1019-1040]. In this way, processes in the upper oxygenated layer are fully coupled with anaerobic processes in the deep waters, allowing to perform longterm simulations. The mathematical modeling of phytoplankton and zooplankton dynamics, detritus and the microbial loop is based on the model developed by Van den Meersche et al. [Van den Meersche, K., Middelburg, J., Soetaert, K., van Rijswijk P.H.B., Heip, C., 2004. Carbon-nitrogen coupling and algal-bacterial interactions during an experimental bloom: Modeling a 13c tracer experiment. Limnology and Oceanography 49 (3), 862-878] and tested in the modeling of mesocosm

  19. GENIE implementation of IFIC Valencia model for QE-like 2p2h neutrino-nucleus cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Schwehr, J; Gran, R

    2016-01-01

    The model by Nieves, Ruiz-Simo, and Vicente-Vacas and their group (IFIC, Valencia, Spain) for 2p2h reactions that produce QE-like (no pion) final states has been implemented in GENIE. Since the model currently does not predict the kinematics of the outgoing hadrons, a simple two-nucleon system is grafted onto the model's prediction of isospin, energy transfer, and momentum transfer. These two nucleons are then given to the GENIE FSI models. This whitepaper is a guide to the kind of information available from this model and some limitations. There are several figures that illustrate the output of the model, and detailed discussion of the physics context for this model. Finally, any other authors' model (or variations of this one) that can be expressed as hadronic tensors for total and pn initial state will be easy to incorporate into this framework.

  20. Maternal choline supplementation in a mouse model of Down syndrome: Effects on attention and nucleus basalis/substantia innominata neuron morphology in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian E; Kelley, Christy M; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Strawderman, Myla S; Alldred, Melissa J; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2017-01-06

    The Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibits cognitive impairment and degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). Our prior studies demonstrated that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves attention and spatial cognition in Ts65Dn offspring, normalizes hippocampal neurogenesis, and lessens BFCN degeneration in the medial septal nucleus (MSN). Here we determined whether (i) BFCN degeneration contributes to attentional dysfunction, and (ii) whether the attentional benefits of perinatal MCS are due to changes in BFCN morphology. Ts65Dn dams were fed either a choline-supplemented or standard diet during pregnancy and lactation. Ts65Dn and disomic (2N) control offspring were tested as adults (12-17months of age) on a series of operant attention tasks, followed by morphometric assessment of BFCNs. Ts65Dn mice demonstrated impaired learning and attention relative to 2N mice, and MCS significantly improved these functions in both genotypes. We also found, for the first time, that the number of BFCNs in the nucleus basalis of Meynert/substantia innominata (NBM/SI) was significantly increased in Ts65Dn mice relative to controls. In contrast, the number of BFCNs in the MSN was significantly decreased. Another novel finding was that the volume of BFCNs in both basal forebrain regions was significantly larger in Ts65Dn mice. MCS did not normalize any of these morphological abnormalities in the NBM/SI or MSN. Finally, correlational analysis revealed that attentional performance was inversely associated with BFCN volume, and positively associated with BFCN density. These results support the lifelong attentional benefits of MCS for Ts65Dn and 2N offspring and have profound implications for translation to human DS and pathology attenuation in AD.

  1. Mergers of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in Gas-rich Environments: Models of Event Rates and Electromagnetic Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takamitsu

    2011-12-01

    Supermassive black holes permeate the observable Universe, residing in the nuclei of all or nearly all nearby massive galaxies and powering luminous quasars as far as ten billion light years away. These monstrous objects must grow through a combination of gas accretion and mergers of less massive black holes. The direct detection of the mergers by future gravitational-wave detectors will be a momentous scientific achievement, providing tests of general relativity and revealing the cosmic evolution of supermassive black holes. An additional --- and arguably equally rewarding --- challenge is the concomitant observation of merging supermassive black holes with both gravitational and electromagneticwaves. Such synergistic, "multi-messenger" studies can probe the expansion history of the Universe and shed light on the details of accretion astrophysics. This thesis examines the mergers of supermassive black hole binaries and the observable signatures of these events. First, we consider the formation scenarios for the earliest supermassive black holes. This investigation is motivated by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey observation of a quasar that appears to be powered by a supermassive black hole with a mass of billions of solar masses, already in place one billion years after the Big Bang. Second, we develop semianalytic, time-dependent-models for the thermal emission from circumbinary gas disks around merging black holes. Our calculations corroborate the qualitative conclusion of a previous study that for black hole mergers detectable by a space-based gravitational-wave observatory, a gas disk near the merger remnant may exhibit a dramatic brightening of soft X-rays on timescales of several years. Our results suggest that this "afterglow" may become detectable more quickly after the merger than previously estimated. Third, we investigate whether these afterglow episodes could be observed serendipitously by forthcoming wide-field, high-cadence electromagnetic surveys

  2. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblay, Grant R; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen L; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds - a departure from the "hot mode" accretion model - although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z=0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities can precipitate from this hot gas, producing a rain of c...

  3. A Multi-Model Comparison of Black Carbon Budgets in the Arctic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, R.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Sand, M.; Langner, J.; Wang, H.; Huang, L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we quantify modeled aerosol processes related to black carbon (BC) concentrations in the Arctic region in several general circulation models used by the Expert Group on Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP). All models simulated well the observed seasonal cycle of BC concentrations in the high Canadian Arctic region, however, most models (except CanAM) underestimate the total concentrations. Transport of BC from lower latitudes is the major source for the Arctic region where emissions are small. The models produce similar seasonal cycle of BC transport towards the Arctic with maximum transport in July. However, substantial differences were found among the models in simulating BC burdens and vertical distributions with some models producing very week seasonal cycle while others producing stronger seasonality. The annual mean BC residence times in models also differs markedly with CanAM having the shortest residence times followed by SMHI-MATCH, CESM and NorESM. There are substantial differences among the models in simulating the relative role of wet and dry deposition rates which is one of the major factors causing variations in the seasonality of BC burdens in the models. Similarly, significant differences in wet deposition efficiencies among the models exist and are the leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. To further explore these processes, we performed several sensitivity tests in CanAM and CESM. Overall, the results indicate that scavenging of BC in convective clouds as compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging substantially increases the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle.

  4. The "quiescent" black hole in M87

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C S; Fabian, A C; Hwang, U; Canizares, C R

    1996-01-01

    It is believed that most giant elliptical galaxies possess nuclear black holes with masses in excess of $10^8\\Msun$. Bondi accretion from the interstellar medium might then be expected to produce quasar-like luminosities from the nuclei of even quiescent elliptical galaxies. It is a puzzle that such luminosities are not observed. Motivated by this problem, Fabian & Rees have recently suggested that the final stages of accretion in these objects occurs in an advection-dominated mode with a correspondingly small radiative efficiency. Despite possessing a long-known active nucleus and dynamical evidence for a black hole, the low radiative and kinetic luminosities of the core of M87 provide the best illustration of this problem. We examine an advection-dominated model for the nucleus of M87 and show that accretion at the Bondi rate is compatible with the best known estimates for the core flux from radio through to X-ray wavelengths. The success of this model prompts us to propose that FR-I radio galaxies and ...

  5. Variability in and agreement between modeled and personal continuously measured black carbon levels using novel smartphone and sensor technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Rivas, Ioar; de Castro, Montserrat; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Seto, Edmund; Jerrett, Michael; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    Novel technologies, such as smartphones and small personal continuous air pollution sensors, can now facilitate better personal estimates of air pollution in relation to location. Such information can provide us with a better understanding about whether and how personal exposures relate to residential air pollution estimates, which are normally used in epidemiological studies. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the variability in personal air pollution levels during the day and (2) the relationship between modeled home and school estimates and continuously measured personal air pollution exposure levels in different microenvironments (e.g., home, school, and commute). We focused on black carbon as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. We recruited 54 school children (aged 7-11) from 29 different schools around Barcelona as part of the BREATHE study, an epidemiological study of the relation between air pollution and brain development. For 2 typical week days during 2012-2013, the children were given a smartphone with CalFit software to obtain information on their location and physical activity level and a small sensor, the micro-aethalometer model AE51, to measure their black carbon levels simultaneously and continuously. We estimated their home and school exposure to PM2.5 filter absorbance, which is well-correlated with black carbon, using a temporally adjusted PM2.5 absorbance land use regression (LUR) model. We found considerable variation in the black carbon levels during the day, with the highest levels measured during commuting periods (geometric mean = 2.8 μg/m(3)) and the lowest levels at home (geometric mean = 1.3 μg/m(3)). Hourly temporally adjusted LUR model estimates for the home and school showed moderate to good correlation with measured personal black carbon levels at home and school (r = 0.59 and 0.68, respectively) and lower correlation with commuting trips (r = 0.32 and 0.21, respectively). The correlation between modeled home

  6. Modeling the impact of climate change on wild Piper nigrum (Black Pepper) in Western Ghats, India using ecological niche models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sandeep; Gode, Ameya; Ramanujam, Srirama; Ravikanth, G; Aravind, N A

    2016-11-01

    The center of diversity of Piper nigrum L. (Black Pepper), one of the highly valued spice crops is reported to be from India. Black pepper is naturally distributed in India in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot and is the only known existing source of its wild germplasm in the world. We used ecological niche models to predict the potential distribution of wild P. nigrum in the present and two future climate change scenarios viz (A1B) and (A2A) for the year 2080. Three topographic and nine uncorrelated bioclim variables were used to develop the niche models. The environmental variables influencing the distribution of wild P. nigrum across different climate change scenarios were identified. We also assessed the direction and magnitude of the niche centroid shift and the change in niche breadth to estimate the impact of projected climate change on the distribution of P. nigrum. The study shows a niche centroid shift in the future climate scenarios. Both the projected future climate scenarios predicted a reduction in the habitat of P. nigrum in Southern Western Ghats, which harbors many wild accessions of P. nigrum. Our results highlight the impact of future climate change on P. nigrum and provide useful information for designing sound germplasm conservation strategies for P. nigrum.

  7. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail: gunth@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu, E-mail: pgomez@gemini.edu, E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu, E-mail: guille@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  8. Seasonality of global and Arctic black carbon processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Rashed; Salzen, Knut; Flanner, Mark; Sand, Maria; Langner, Joakim; Wang, Hailong; Huang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This study quantifies black carbon (BC) processes in three global climate models and one chemistry transport model, with focus on the seasonality of BC transport, emissions, wet and dry deposition in the Arctic. In the models, transport of BC to the Arctic from lower latitudes is the major BC source for this region. Arctic emissions are very small. All models simulated a similar annual cycle of BC transport from lower latitudes to the Arctic, with maximum transport occurring in July. Substantial differences were found in simulated BC burdens and vertical distributions, with Canadian Atmospheric Global Climate Model (CanAM) (Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM) producing the strongest (weakest) seasonal cycle. CanAM also has the shortest annual mean residence time for BC in the Arctic followed by Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute Multiscale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry model, Community Earth System Model, and NorESM. Overall, considerable differences in wet deposition efficiencies in the models exist and are a leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. Results from model sensitivity experiments indicate that convective scavenging outside the Arctic reduces the mean altitude of BC residing in the Arctic, making it more susceptible to scavenging by stratiform (layer) clouds in the Arctic. Consequently, scavenging of BC in convective clouds outside the Arctic acts to substantially increase the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition in the Arctic, which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging. In contrast, the simulated seasonality of BC concentrations in the upper troposphere is only weakly influenced by wet deposition in stratiform clouds, whereas lower tropospheric concentrations are highly sensitive.

  9. A two-fluid model for black-hole accretion flows: particle acceleration and disc structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason P.; Becker, Peter A.

    2017-02-01

    Hot, tenuous advection-dominated accretion flows around black holes are ideal sites for the Fermi acceleration of relativistic particles at standing shock waves in the accretion disc. Previous work has demonstrated that the shock-acceleration process can be efficient enough to power the observed, strong outflows in radio-loud active galaxies such as M87. However, the dynamical effect (back-reaction) on the flow, exerted by the pressure of the relativistic particles, has not been previously considered, and this effect can have a significant influence on the disc structure. We reexamine the problem by developing a new, two-fluid model for the structure of the accretion disc that includes the dynamical effect of the relativistic particle pressure, combined with the pressure of the background (thermal) gas. The new model is analogous to the two-fluid model of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova-driven shock waves. As part of the model, we also develop a new set of shock jump conditions, which are solved along with the hydrodynamic conservation equations to determine the structure of the accretion disc. The solutions include the formation of a mildly relativistic outflow (jet) at the shock radius, driven by the relativistic particles accelerated in the disc. One of our main conclusions is that in the context of the new two-fluid accretion model, global smooth (shock-free) solutions do not exist, and the disc must always contain a standing shock wave, at least in the inviscid case considered here.

  10. Inverse Optimization: A New Perspective on the Black-Litterman Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Gupta, Vishal; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch

    2012-12-11

    The Black-Litterman (BL) model is a widely used asset allocation model in the financial industry. In this paper, we provide a new perspective. The key insight is to replace the statistical framework in the original approach with ideas from inverse optimization. This insight allows us to significantly expand the scope and applicability of the BL model. We provide a richer formulation that, unlike the original model, is flexible enough to incorporate investor information on volatility and market dynamics. Equally importantly, our approach allows us to move beyond the traditional mean-variance paradigm of the original model and construct "BL"-type estimators for more general notions of risk such as coherent risk measures. Computationally, we introduce and study two new "BL"-type estimators and their corresponding portfolios: a Mean Variance Inverse Optimization (MV-IO) portfolio and a Robust Mean Variance Inverse Optimization (RMV-IO) portfolio. These two approaches are motivated by ideas from arbitrage pricing theory and volatility uncertainty. Using numerical simulation and historical backtesting, we show that both methods often demonstrate a better risk-reward tradeoff than their BL counterparts and are more robust to incorrect investor views.

  11. Frequency domain reduced order models for gravitational waves from aligned-spin black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Pürrer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Black-hole binary coalescences are one of the most promising sources for the first detection of gravitational waves. Fast and accurate theoretical models of the gravitational radiation emitted from these coalescences are highly important for the detection and extraction of physical parameters. Spinning effective-one-body (EOB) models for binaries with aligned spins have been shown to be highly faithful, but are slow to generate and thus have not yet been used for parameter estimation studies. I provide a frequency-domain singular value decomposition (SVD)-based surrogate reduced order model that is thousands to hundred thousands times faster for typical system masses and has a faithfulness mismatch of better than $\\sim 0.1\\%$ with the original SEOBNRv1 model for advanced LIGO detectors. This model enables parameter estimation studies up to signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 20 and even up to SNR 50 for masses below $50 M_\\odot$. This article discusses various choices for approximations and interpolation over th...

  12. Black holes as random particles: entanglement dynamics in infinite range and matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magán, Javier M.

    2016-08-01

    We first propose and study a quantum toy model of black hole dynamics. The model is unitary, displays quantum thermalization, and the Hamiltonian couples every oscillator with every other, a feature intended to emulate the color sector physics of large- {N} matrix models. Considering out of equilibrium initial states, we analytically compute the time evolution of every correlator of the theory and of the entanglement entropies, allowing a proper discussion of global thermalization/scrambling of information through the entire system. Microscopic non-locality causes factorization of reduced density matrices, and entanglement just depends on the time evolution of occupation densities. In the second part of the article, we show how the gained intuition extends to large- {N} matrix models, where we provide a gauge invariant entanglement entropy for `generalized free fields', again depending solely on the quasinormal frequencies. The results challenge the fast scrambling conjecture and point to a natural scenario for the emergence of the so-called brick wall or stretched horizon. Finally, peculiarities of these models in regards to the thermodynamic limit and the information paradox are highlighted.

  13. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase by black tea theaflavins: Comparative enzymology and in silico modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisan, Shannon L; Grove, Kimberly A; Yennawar, Neela H; Lambert, Joshua D

    2017-02-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of black tea (Camellia sinensis) theaflavins on obesity-related targets. Pancreatic lipase (PL) plays a central role in fat metabolism and is a validated target for weight loss. We compared the inhibitory efficacy of individual theaflavins and explored the underlying mechanism. Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFdiG), theaflavin-3'-gallate, theaflavin-3-gallate, and theaflavin inhibited PL with IC50 of 1.9, 4.2, 3.0, and >10μmol/L. The presence and location of the galloyl ester moiety were essential for inhibitory potency. TFdiG exhibited mixed inhibition with respect to substrate concentration. In silico modeling showed that theaflavins bind to Asn263 and Asp206, which form a pocket adjacent to the active site, and galloyl-containing theaflavins are then predicted to perturb the protonation of His264. These data provide a putative mechanism to explain the anti-obesity effects of tea.

  14. Numerical modelling of the internal mixing by coagulation of black carbon particles in aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, S.; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    When exhaust gases from an aircraft engine mix with ambient air the humidity may reach water saturation and water droplets will form on the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is still not resolved if the CCN, on which the cloud droplets form, are mainly particles present in the ambient air or particles emitted by the aircraft. It the exhaust from a jet engine the particles are believed to consist mainly of black carbon (BC) and sulfate. The aim is to study, with the help of a numerical model, how a two-component aerosol (i.e. BC and sulfate) in an exhaust trail may be transformed in terms of hygroscopicity by coagulation mixing and how this may depend on the sulfur content in the fuel. (R.P.) 15 refs.

  15. Model system-based mechanistic studies of black tea thearubigin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Ghada H; Koek, Jan H; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2015-08-01

    Thearubigins are the most abundant pigments found in black tea, comprising polyphenolic oxidation products, whose composition and chemical nature have remained unresolved until recently. In the course of studying the mechanism of thearubigin formation from green tea flavan-3-ols, a model system, based on electrochemical oxidation of one of the main tea flavan-3-ol substrates, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), was employed. Reaction intermediates and products were subsequently analysed using mass spectrometry techniques, allowing for the identification of key intermediates and products. The results provided, for the first time, spectroscopic evidence for the structures of primary oxidation products, and led to the conclusion that oxidation is mainly taking place on the B-ring and the galloyl group, where the oxidized components undergo oxidative coupling for the formation of theaflavins, theasinensins and polyhydroxylated flavan-3-ols, all precursors for thearubigin formation. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to support key findings.

  16. Parametric uncertainties in global model simulations of black carbon column mass concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Hana; Lee, Lindsay; Reddington, Carly; Carslaw, Ken; Mann, Graham

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have deduced that the annual mean direct radiative forcing from black carbon (BC) aerosol may regionally be up to 5 W m-2 larger than expected due to underestimation of global atmospheric BC absorption in models. We have identified the magnitude and important sources of parametric uncertainty in simulations of BC column mass concentration from a global aerosol microphysics model (GLOMAP-Mode). A variance-based uncertainty analysis of 28 parameters has been performed, based on statistical emulators trained on model output from GLOMAP-Mode. This is the largest number of uncertain model parameters to be considered in a BC uncertainty analysis to date and covers primary aerosol emissions, microphysical processes and structural parameters related to the aerosol size distribution. We will present several recommendations for further research to improve the fidelity of simulated BC. In brief, we find that the standard deviation around the simulated mean annual BC column mass concentration varies globally between 2.5 x 10-9 g cm-2 in remote marine regions and 1.25 x 10-6 g cm-2 near emission sources due to parameter uncertainty Between 60 and 90% of the variance over source regions is due to uncertainty associated with primary BC emission fluxes, including biomass burning, fossil fuel and biofuel emissions. While the contributions to BC column uncertainty from microphysical processes, for example those related to dry and wet deposition, are increased over remote regions, we find that emissions still make an important contribution in these areas. It is likely, however, that the importance of structural model error, i.e. differences between models, is greater than parametric uncertainty. We have extended our analysis to emulate vertical BC profiles at several locations in the mid-Pacific Ocean and identify the parameters contributing to uncertainty in the vertical distribution of black carbon at these locations. We will present preliminary comparisons of

  17. Black carbon concentration and deposition estimations in Finland by the regional aerosol–climate model REMO-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Hienola

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The prediction skill of the regional aerosol–climate model REMO-HAM was assessed against the black carbon (BC concentration measurements from five locations in Finland, with focus on Hyytiälä station for the year 2005. We examined to what extent the model is able to reproduce the measurements using several statistical tools: median comparison, overlap coefficient (OVL; the common area under two probability distributions curves and Z score (a measure of standard deviation, shape and spread of the distributions. The results of the statistics showed that the model is biased low. The local and regional emissions of BC have a significant contribution, and the model tendency to flatten the observed BC is most likely dominated by the lack of domestic burning of biofuel in the emission inventories. A further examination of the precipitation data from both measurements and model showed that there is no correlation between REMO's excessive precipitation and BC underestimation. This suggests that the excessive wet removal is not the main cause of the low black carbon concentration output. In addition, a comparison of wind directions in relation with high black carbon concentrations shows that REMO-HAM is able to predict the BC source directions relatively well. Cumulative black carbon deposition fluxes over Finland were estimated, including the deposition on snow.

  18. A new method of option pricing based on Black-Scholes model%基于Black-Scholes模型的期权定价新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈玉波; 张待见; 宋立新

    2011-01-01

    考虑到实际金融市场的不完备性以及收益率分布的厚尾性,基于经典Black-Scholes模型并运用函数的下凸性,期权定价公式H(a)=E[(X-a)2]被推广为Hk(a)=E[(X-a)2k].通过DJSH(道琼斯上海)指数收益率的GARCH模型,并使用随机模拟的方法对这两个公式进行定价比较.结果表明这种方法有效提高了定价,从而降低了风险.%Actual financial markets are incompleted and distributions of yield rate are fat-tailed,so based on the classical Black-Scholes model and using downward convex property of function,option pricing formula H(a)=E[(X-a)2] is generalized to Hk(a)=E[(X-a)2k].With the GARCH model of DJSH rate and by using the method of stochastic simulation,effects of the two pricing formulas are compared.The results show that the new formula of option pricing effectively increases the price and reduces the risk.

  19. Nucleus Driven Electronic Pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, H; Xue, S -S

    2014-01-01

    We derive and solve by the spectral method the equations for a neutral system of ultra-relativistic electrons that are compressed to the radius of the nucleus and subject to a driving force. This driving force can be thought of as originating from a nuclear breathing mode, a possibility we discuss in detail.

  20. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  1. Appendix E: Research papers. Manual versus digital LANDSAT analysis for modeling river flooding. [Black River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator); Hafker, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The comparative value of manual versus digital image analysis for determining flood boundaries is being examined in a study of the use of LANDSAT data for modeling flooding of the Black River, in northern New York. The work is an extension of an earlier study in which Black River flooding was assessed through visually interpreted, multi-date LANDSAT band 7 images. Based on the results to date, it appears that neither color-additive viewing nor digital analysis of LANDSAT data provide improvement in accuracy over visual analysis of band 7 images, for delineating the boundaries of flood-affected areas.

  2. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase in the central nucleus of the amygdala induces anhedonic behavior and recurrent seizures in a rat model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbaum, Shaun E; Wang, Helen; Zaveri, Hitten P; Tang, Amber B; Lee, Tih-Shih W; Eid, Tore; Dhaher, Roni

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of depression and suicide is increased in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE); however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Anhedonia, a core symptom of depression that is predictive of suicide, is common in patients with MTLE. Glutamine synthetase, an astrocytic enzyme that metabolizes glutamate and ammonia to glutamine, is reduced in the amygdala in patients with epilepsy and depression and in suicide victims. Here, we sought to develop a novel model of anhedonia in MTLE by testing the hypothesis that deficiency in glutamine synthetase in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) leads to epilepsy and comorbid anhedonia. Nineteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with an osmotic pump infusing either the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine [MSO (n=12)] or phosphate buffered saline [PBS (n=7)] into the right CeA. Seizure activity was monitored by video-intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings for 21days after the onset of MSO infusion. Sucrose preference, a measure of anhedonia, was assessed after 21days. Methionine sulfoximine-infused rats exhibited recurrent seizures during the monitoring period and showed decreased sucrose preference over days when compared with PBS-infused rats (pglutamine synthetase activity in the CeA is a possible common cause of anhedonia and seizures in TLE. We propose that the MSO CeA model can be used for mechanistic studies that will lead to the development and testing of novel drugs to prevent seizures, depression, and suicide in patients with TLE.

  3. The Neuronal Transition Probability (NTP) Model for the Dynamic Progression of Non-REM Sleep EEG: The Role of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Merica, H

    2011-01-01

    Little attention has gone into linking to its neuronal substrates the dynamic structure of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, defined as the pattern of time-course power in all frequency bands across an entire episode. Using the spectral power time-courses in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), we showed in the typical first episode, several moves towards-and-away from deep sleep, each having an identical pattern linking the major frequency bands beta, sigma and delta. The neuronal transition probability model (NTP) - in fitting the data well - successfully explained the pattern as resulting from stochastic transitions of the firing-rates of the thalamically-projecting brainstem-activating neurons, alternating between two steady dynamic-states (towards-and-away from deep sleep) each initiated by a so-far unidentified flip-flop. The aims here are to identify this flip-flop and to demonstrate that the model fits well all NREM episodes, not just the first. Using published data on suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN...

  4. Improved Dynamical Constraints on the Mass of the Central Black Hole in NGC 404

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dieu D.; Seth, Anil C.; den Brok, Mark; Neumayer, Nadine; Cappellari, Michele; Barth, Aaron J.; Caldwell, Nelson; Williams, Benjamin F.; Binder, Breanna

    2017-02-01

    We explore the nucleus of the nearby 109 {M}ȯ early-type galaxy, NGC 404, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/STIS spectroscopy and WFC3 imaging. We first present evidence for nuclear variability in UV, optical, and infrared filters over a time period of 15 years. This variability adds to the already substantial evidence for an accreting black hole at the center of NGC 404. We then redetermine the dynamical black hole mass in NGC 404 including modeling of the nuclear stellar populations. We combine HST/STIS spectroscopy with WFC3 images to create a local color–M/L relation derived from stellar population modeling of the STIS data. We then use this to create a mass model for the nuclear region. We use Jeans modeling to fit this mass model to adaptive optics stellar kinematic observations from Gemini/NIFS. From our stellar dynamical modeling, we find a 3σ upper limit on the black hole mass of 1.5× {10}5 {M}ȯ . Given the accretion evidence for a black hole, this upper limit makes NGC 404 the lowest mass central black hole with dynamical mass constraints. We find that the kinematics of H2 emission line gas show evidence for non-gravitational motions preventing the use of gas dynamical modeling to constrain the black hole mass. Our stellar population modeling also reveals that the central, counter-rotating region of the nuclear cluster is dominated by ∼1 Gyr old populations.

  5. 具有变系数和红利的多维Black-Scholes模型%Multi-dimensional Black-Scholes Model with Non-constant Coefficients and Dividends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛红; 聂赞坎

    2000-01-01

    本文提出具有变系数和红利的多维Black-Scholes模型,利用倒向随机微分方程和鞅方法, 得到欧式未定权益的一般定价公式及套期保值策略.在具体金融市场,给出欧式期权的定价公式和套期保值策略,以及美式看涨期权价格的界.%For discussing the arbitrage-free pricing of European contingent claim, this paper proposes multi-dimensional Black-Scho les model with non-constant coefficients and the underlying stocks pay dividends . By means of backward stochastic different equation and martingale methods, we obtain general pricing formula and hedging strategy of European contingent claim . In the particular financial market, the pricing formula and hedging strategy o f European option and bounds of the price on American call option are also consi dered.

  6. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    ’s a lifestyle I enjoy.” For Monáe, the tuxedo is both working clothes and a superhero uniform. Together with futuristic references to Fritz Lang’s dystopian Metropolis, her trademark starched shirt and tuxedo also recall Weimar and pre-war Berlin. While outwardly dissimilar, Sioux’s and Monáe’s shared black...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses....

  7. A New Dynamical Model for the Black Hole Binary LMC X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Orosz, Jerome A; McClintock, Jeffrey E; Torres, Manuel A P; Bochkov, Ivan; Gou, Lijun; Narayan, Ramesh; Blaschak, Michael; Levine, Alan M; Remillard, Ronald A; Bailyn, Charles D; Dwyer, Morgan M; Buxton, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    We present a dynamical model of the high mass X-ray binary LMC X-1 based on high-resolution optical spectroscopy and extensive optical and near-infrared photometry. From our new optical data we find an orbital period of P=3.90917 +/- 0.00005 days. We present a refined analysis of the All Sky Monitor data from RXTE and find a period of P=3.9093 +/- 0.0008 days, which is consistent with the optical period. A simple model of Thomson scattering in the stellar wind accounts for the modulation seen in the X-ray light curves. The V-K color of the star (1.17 +/- 0.05) implies A_V=2.28 +/- 0.06, which is much larger than previously assumed. For the secondary star we measure a radius of R_2=17.0 +/- 0.8 solar radii and a projected rotational velocity of V_{rot}*sin(i)= 129.9 +/- 2.22 km/sec. Using these measured properties to constrain the dynamical model, we find an orbital eccentricity of e=0.0256 +/- 0.0066, an inclination of i=37.00 +/- 1.87 deg, a secondary star mass of M_2=30.62 +/- 3.22 solar masses, and a black...

  8. New Limits on an Intermediate Mass Black Hole in Omega Centauri: II. Dynamical Models

    CERN Document Server

    van der Marel, Roeland P

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed dynamical analysis of the projected density and kinematical data available for the globular cluster Omega Cen. We solve the spherical anisotropic Jeans equation to predict the projected profiles of the RMS velocity in each of the three orthogonal coordinate directions (line of sight, proper motion radial, and proper motion tangential). We fit the models to new HST star count and proper motion data near the cluster center presented in Paper I, combined with existing ground-based measurements. We also derive and model the Gauss-Hermite moments of the observed proper motion distributions. The projected density profile is consistent with being flat near the center, with an upper limit gamma=0.07 on the central logarithmic slope. The RMS proper motion profile is also consistent with being flat near the center, and there are no unusually fast-moving stars. The models provide a good fit and yield a 1-sigma upper limit MBH < 1.2E4 solar masses on the mass of a possible intermediate-mass black...

  9. Modelling the black death. A historical case study and implications for the epidemiology of bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Monecke, Hannelore; Monecke, Jochen

    2009-12-01

    We analysed a plague outbreak in the mining town of Freiberg in Saxony which started in May 1613 and ended in February 1614. This epidemic was selected for study because of the high quality of contemporary sources. It was possible to identify 1400 individual victims meaning that more than 10% of the population of the city perished. The outbreak was modelled by 9 differential equations describing flea, rat, and human populations. This resulted in a close fit to the historical records of this outbreak. An interesting implication of the model is that the introduction of even a small number of immune rats into an otherwise unchanged setting results in an abortive outbreak with very few human victims. Hence, the percentage of immune rats directly influences the magnitude of a human epidemic by diverting search activities of the fleas. Thus, we conclude that the spread of Rattus norvegicus, which might acquire partial herd immunity by exposure to soil- or water-borne Yersinia species due to its preference for wet habitats, contributed to the disappearance of Black Death epidemics from Europe in the 18th century. In order to prove whether or not the parameter values obtained by fitting a given outbreak are also applicable to other cases, we modelled the plague outbreak in Bombay 1905/06 using the same parameter values except for the number of humans as well as of immune and susceptible rats.

  10. On Singularities and Black Holes in Combination-Driven Models of Technological Innovation Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard; Amor, Daniel R; Valverde, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that innovations occur mainly by combination: the more inventions accumulate, the higher the probability that new inventions are obtained from previous designs. Additionally, it has been conjectured that the combinatorial nature of innovations naturally leads to a singularity: at some finite time, the number of innovations should diverge. Although these ideas are certainly appealing, no general models have been yet developed to test the conditions under which combinatorial technology should become explosive. Here we present a generalised model of technological evolution that takes into account two major properties: the number of previous technologies needed to create a novel one and how rapidly technology ages. Two different models of combinatorial growth are considered, involving different forms of ageing. When long-range memory is used and thus old inventions are available for novel innovations, singularities can emerge under some conditions with two phases separated by a critical boundary. If the ageing has a characteristic time scale, it is shown that no singularities will be observed. Instead, a "black hole" of old innovations appears and expands in time, making the rate of invention creation slow down into a linear regime.

  11. Validating the effective-one-body model of spinning, precessing binary black holes against numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babak, Stanislav; Taracchini, Andrea; Buonanno, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    In Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. X 6, 041014 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041014], the properties of the first gravitational wave detected by LIGO, GW150914, were measured by employing an effective-one-body (EOB) model of precessing binary black holes whose underlying dynamics and waveforms were calibrated to numerical-relativity (NR) simulations. Here, we perform the first extensive comparison of such an EOBNR model to 70 precessing NR waveforms that span mass ratios from 1 to 5, dimensionless spin magnitudes up to 0.5, generic spin orientations, and length of about 20 orbits. We work in the observer's inertial frame and include all ℓ=2 modes in the gravitational-wave polarizations. We introduce new prescriptions for the EOB ringdown signal concerning its spectrum and time of onset. For total masses between 10 M⊙ and 200 M⊙ , we find that precessing EOBNR waveforms have unfaithfulness within about 3% to NR waveforms when considering the Advanced-LIGO design noise curve. This result is obtained without recalibration of the inspiral-plunge signal of the underlying nonprecessing EOBNR model. The unfaithfulness is computed with maximization over time and phase of arrival, sky location, and polarization of the EOBNR waveform, and it is averaged over sky location and polarization of the NR signal. We also present comparisons between NR and EOBNR waveforms in a frame that tracks the orbital precession.

  12. Modeling water column partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls to natural organic matter and black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Richard W; Di Toro, Dominic M; Farley, Kevin J; Phillips, Kathy L; Tomey, Cynthia

    2013-06-18

    High volume in situ surface water samples were collected from a tidal tributary of the Delaware Estuary using an Infiltrex sampling system equipped with a 1 μm particle filter and a XAD-2 resin column. Particulate and dissolved phase polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry to obtain detection levels in the femtograms per liter range. The data were fit to a four-phase equilibrium partitioning model including freely dissolved PCB, PCB bound to particulate organic carbon (POC), PCB bound to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and PCB bound to black carbon (BC). Isotherms were assumed to be linear for POC and DOC and nonlinear for BC. The partition coefficient between BC and dissolved PCB was assumed to depend on the dihedral angle between the phenyl rings. Following parameter optimization, the correlation coefficient between the log of the modeled and measured apparent distribution coefficient Kp,app was 0.94, and the RMSE was 0.189 log units. Including BC in the model reduces the dissolved PCB phase concentration in the water column for all congeners, especially for the non-ortho and mono-ortho substituted congeners.

  13. On Singularities and Black Holes in Combination-Driven Models of Technological Innovation Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Solé

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that innovations occur mainly by combination: the more inventions accumulate, the higher the probability that new inventions are obtained from previous designs. Additionally, it has been conjectured that the combinatorial nature of innovations naturally leads to a singularity: at some finite time, the number of innovations should diverge. Although these ideas are certainly appealing, no general models have been yet developed to test the conditions under which combinatorial technology should become explosive. Here we present a generalised model of technological evolution that takes into account two major properties: the number of previous technologies needed to create a novel one and how rapidly technology ages. Two different models of combinatorial growth are considered, involving different forms of ageing. When long-range memory is used and thus old inventions are available for novel innovations, singularities can emerge under some conditions with two phases separated by a critical boundary. If the ageing has a characteristic time scale, it is shown that no singularities will be observed. Instead, a "black hole" of old innovations appears and expands in time, making the rate of invention creation slow down into a linear regime.

  14. A model based on environmental factors for diameter distribution in black wattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquetta, Carlos Roberto; Behling, Alexandre; Dalla Corte, Ana Paula; Péllico Netto, Sylvio; Rodrigues, Aurelio Lourenço; Simon, Augusto Arlindo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the dynamics of a diameter distribution in stands of black wattle throughout its growth cycle using the Weibull probability density function. Moreover, the parameters of this distribution were related to environmental variables from meteorological data and surface soil horizon with the aim of finding a model for diameter distribution which their coefficients were related to the environmental variables. We found that the diameter distribution of the stand changes only slightly over time and that the estimators of the Weibull function are correlated with various environmental variables, with accumulated rainfall foremost among them. Thus, a model was obtained in which the estimators of the Weibull function are dependent on rainfall. Such a function can have important applications, such as in simulating growth potential in regions where historical growth data is lacking, as well as the behavior of the stand under different environmental conditions. The model can also be used to project growth in diameter, based on the rainfall affecting the forest over a certain time period.

  15. Simulation of black carbon in snow and its climate impact in the Canadian Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, M.; von Salzen, K.; Cole, J. N. S.

    2015-09-01

    A new physically based parameterisation of black carbon (BC) in snow was developed and implemented in the Canadian Atmospheric Global Climate Model (CanAM4.2). Simulated BC snow mixing ratios and BC snow radiative forcings are in good agreement with measurements and results from other models. Simulations with the improved model yield considerable trends in regional BC concentrations in snow and BC snow radiative forcings during the time period from 1950-1959 to 2000-2009. Increases in radiative forcings for Asia and decreases for Europe and North America are found to be associated with changes in BC emissions. Additional sensitivity simulations were performed in order to study the impact of BC emission changes between 1950-1959 and 2000-2009 on surface albedo, snow cover fraction, and surface air temperature. Results from these simulations indicate that impacts of BC emission changes on snow albedos between these 2 decades are small and not significant. Overall, changes in BC concentrations in snow have much smaller impacts on the cryosphere than the net warming surface air temperatures during the second half of the 20th century.

  16. Simulation of black carbon in snow and its climate impact in the Canadian Global Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Namazi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new physically-based parameterization of black carbon (BC in snow was developed and implemented in the Canadian Atmospheric Global Climate Model (CanAM4.2. Simulated BC snow mixing ratios and BC snow radiative forcings are in good agreement with measurements and results from other models. Simulations with the improved model yield considerable trends in regional BC concentrations in snow and BC snow radiative forcings during the time period from 1950–1959 to 2000–2009. Increases in radiative forcings for Asia and decreases for Europe and North America are found to be associated with changes in BC emissions. Additional sensitivity simulations were performed in order to study the impact of BC emission changes between 1950–1959 and 2000–2009 on surface albedo, snow cover fraction, and surface air temperature. Results from these simulations indicate that impacts of BC emission changes on snow albedos between these two decades are small and not significant. Overall, changes in BC concentrations in snow have much smaller impacts on the cryosphere than the net warming surface air temperatures during the second half of the 20th century.

  17. A Model Based on Environmental Factors for Diameter Distribution in Black Wattle in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquetta, Carlos Roberto; Behling, Alexandre; Dalla Corte, Ana Paula; Péllico Netto, Sylvio; Rodrigues, Aurelio Lourenço; Simon, Augusto Arlindo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the dynamics of a diameter distribution in stands of black wattle throughout its growth cycle using the Weibull probability density function. Moreover, the parameters of this distribution were related to environmental variables from meteorological data and surface soil horizon with the aim of finding a model for diameter distribution which their coefficients were related to the environmental variables. We found that the diameter distribution of the stand changes only slightly over time and that the estimators of the Weibull function are correlated with various environmental variables, with accumulated rainfall foremost among them. Thus, a model was obtained in which the estimators of the Weibull function are dependent on rainfall. Such a function can have important applications, such as in simulating growth potential in regions where historical growth data is lacking, as well as the behavior of the stand under different environmental conditions. The model can also be used to project growth in diameter, based on the rainfall affecting the forest over a certain time period. PMID:24932909

  18. Multivariate model of female black bear habitat use for a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Dunn, James E.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1993-01-01

    Simple univariate statistical techniques may not adequately assess the multidimensional nature of habitats used by wildlife. Thus, we developed a multivariate method to model habitat-use potential using a set of female black bear (Ursus americanus) radio locations and habitat data consisting of forest cover type, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to roads, distance to streams, and forest cover type diversity score in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas. The model is based on the Mahalanobis distance statistic coupled with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. That statistic is a measure of dissimilarity and represents a standardized squared distance between a set of sample variates and an ideal based on the mean of variates associated with animal observations. Calculations were made with the GIS to produce a map containing Mahalanobis distance values within each cell on a 60- × 60-m grid. The model identified areas of high habitat use potential that could not otherwise be identified by independent perusal of any single map layer. This technique avoids many pitfalls that commonly affect typical multivariate analyses of habitat use and is a useful tool for habitat manipulation or mitigation to favor terrestrial vertebrates that use habitats on a landscape scale.

  19. Synchronized Beta-Band Oscillations in a Model of the Globus Pallidus-Subthalamic Nucleus Network under External Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sungwoo; Zauber, S. Elizabeth; Worth, Robert M.; Rubchinsky, Leonid L.

    2016-01-01

    Hypokinetic symptoms of Parkinson's disease are usually associated with excessively strong oscillations and synchrony in the beta frequency band. The origin of this synchronized oscillatory dynamics is being debated. Cortical circuits may be a critical source of excessive beta in Parkinson's disease. However, subthalamo-pallidal circuits were also suggested to be a substantial component in generation and/or maintenance of Parkinsonian beta activity. Here we study how the subthalamo-pallidal circuits interact with input signals in the beta frequency band, representing cortical input. We use conductance-based models of the subthalamo-pallidal network and two types of input signals: artificially-generated inputs and input signals obtained from recordings in Parkinsonian patients. The resulting model network dynamics is compared with the dynamics of the experimental recordings from patient's basal ganglia. Our results indicate that the subthalamo-pallidal model network exhibits multiple resonances in response to inputs in the beta band. For a relatively broad range of network parameters, there is always a certain input strength, which will induce patterns of synchrony similar to the experimentally observed ones. This ability of the subthalamo-pallidal network to exhibit realistic patterns of synchronous oscillatory activity under broad conditions may indicate that these basal ganglia circuits are directly involved in the expression of Parkinsonian synchronized beta oscillations. Thus, Parkinsonian synchronized beta oscillations may be promoted by the simultaneous action of both cortical (or some other) and subthalamo-pallidal network mechanisms. Hence, these mechanisms are not necessarily mutually exclusive. PMID:28066222

  20. Statistical model analysis of hadron yields in proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions at SIS 18 energies

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, G; Balanda, A; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Berger-Chen, J C; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Destefanis, M; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Epple, E; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzon, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gilardi, C; Göbel, K; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kornakov, G; Kotte, R; Krasa, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kuc, H; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Ladygin, V; Lalik, R; Lange, J S; Lang, S; Lapidus, K; Lebedev, A; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Moriniere, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Münzer, R; Naumann, L; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Rehnisch, L; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Scheib, T; Schmah, A; Schuldes, H; Schwab, E; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Vasiliev, T; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wisniowski, M; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y

    2015-01-01

    The HADES data from p+Nb collisions at center of mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 3.2 GeV are analyzed by employing a statistical model. Accounting for the identified hadrons $\\pi^0$, $\\eta$, $\\Lambda$, $K^{0}_{s}$, $\\omega$ allows a surprisingly good description of their abundances with parameters $T_{chem}=(99\\pm11)$ MeV and $\\mu_{b}=(619\\pm34)$ MeV, which fits well in the chemical freeze-out systematics found in heavy-ion collisions. In supplement we reanalyze our previous HADES data from Ar+KCl collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 2.6 GeV with an updated version of the statistical model. We address equilibration in heavy-ion collisions by testing two aspects: the description of yields and the regularity of freeze-out parameters from a statistical model fit. Special emphasis is put on feed-down contributions from higher-lying resonance states which have been proposed to explain the experimentally observed $\\Xi^-$ excess present in both data samples.

  1. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  2. Assessment of Poisson, probit and linear models for genetic analysis of presence and number of black spots in Corriedale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñagaricano, F; Urioste, J I; Naya, H; de los Campos, G; Gianola, D

    2011-04-01

    Black skin spots are associated with pigmented fibres in wool, an important quality fault. Our objective was to assess alternative models for genetic analysis of presence (BINBS) and number (NUMBS) of black spots in Corriedale sheep. During 2002-08, 5624 records from 2839 animals in two flocks, aged 1 through 6 years, were taken at shearing. Four models were considered: linear and probit for BINBS and linear and Poisson for NUMBS. All models included flock-year and age as fixed effects and animal and permanent environmental as random effects. Models were fitted to the whole data set and were also compared based on their predictive ability in cross-validation. Estimates of heritability ranged from 0.154 to 0.230 for BINBS and 0.269 to 0.474 for NUMBS. For BINBS, the probit model fitted slightly better to the data than the linear model. Predictions of random effects from these models were highly correlated, and both models exhibited similar predictive ability. For NUMBS, the Poisson model, with a residual term to account for overdispersion, performed better than the linear model in goodness of fit and predictive ability. Predictions of random effects from the Poisson model were more strongly correlated with those from BINBS models than those from the linear model. Overall, the use of probit or linear models for BINBS and of a Poisson model with a residual for NUMBS seems a reasonable choice for genetic selection purposes in Corriedale sheep.

  3. The value of "black-box" neural network modeling in subsurface flow prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleologos, E.; Skitzi, I.; Katsifarakis, K.

    2012-04-01

    In several hydrologic cases the complexity of the processes involved tied in with the uncertainty in the subsurface geologic environment, geometries, and boundary conditions cannot be addressed by constitutive relationships, either in a deterministic or a stochastic framework. "Black-box" models are used routinely in surface hydrologic predictions, but in subsurface hydrology there is still a tendency to rely on physical descriptions, even in problems where the geometry, the medium, the processes, the boundary conditions are largely unknown. Subsurface flow in karstic environments exemplifies all the above complexities and uncertainties rendering the use of physical models impractical. The current study uses neural networks to exemplify that "black-box" models can provide useful predictions even in the absence of physical process descriptions. Daily discharges of two springs lying in a karstic environment were simulated for a period of two and a half years with the use of a multi-layer perceptron back-propagation neural network. Missing discharge values were supplemented by assuming linear relationships during base flow conditions, thus extending the length of the data record during the network's training phase and improving its performance. The time lag between precipitation and spring discharge differed significantly for the two springs indicating that in karstic environments hydraulic behavior is dominated, even within a few hundred meters, by local conditions. Optimum training results were attained with a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm resulting in a network architecture consisting of two input layer neurons, four hidden layer neurons, and one output layer neuron, the spring's discharge. The neural network's predictions captured the behavior for both springs and followed very closely the discontinuities in the discharge time series. Under/over-estimation of observed discharges for the two springs remained below 3%, with the exception of a few local maxima where

  4. Automated morphological analysis of bone marrow cells in microscopic images for diagnosis of leukemia: nucleus-plasma separation and cell classification using a hierarchical tree model of hematopoesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krappe, Sebastian; Wittenberg, Thomas; Haferlach, Torsten; Münzenmayer, Christian

    2016-03-01

    The morphological differentiation of bone marrow is fundamental for the diagnosis of leukemia. Currently, the counting and classification of the different types of bone marrow cells is done manually under the use of bright field microscopy. This is a time-consuming, subjective, tedious and error-prone process. Furthermore, repeated examinations of a slide may yield intra- and inter-observer variances. For that reason a computer assisted diagnosis system for bone marrow differentiation is pursued. In this work we focus (a) on a new method for the separation of nucleus and plasma parts and (b) on a knowledge-based hierarchical tree classifier for the differentiation of bone marrow cells in 16 different classes. Classification trees are easily interpretable and understandable and provide a classification together with an explanation. Using classification trees, expert knowledge (i.e. knowledge about similar classes and cell lines in the tree model of hematopoiesis) is integrated in the structure of the tree. The proposed segmentation method is evaluated with more than 10,000 manually segmented cells. For the evaluation of the proposed hierarchical classifier more than 140,000 automatically segmented bone marrow cells are used. Future automated solutions for the morphological analysis of bone marrow smears could potentially apply such an approach for the pre-classification of bone marrow cells and thereby shortening the examination time.

  5. Rotational Properties of the Odd-$Z$ Transfermium Nucleus $^{255}$Lr by a Particle-number-conserving Method in the Cranked Shell Model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Experimentally observed ground state band based on the $1/2^{-}[521]$ Nilsson state and the first exited band based on the $7/2^{-}[514]$ Nilsson state in the odd-$Z$ nucleus $^{255}$Lr are studied by the cranked shell model (CSM) with the paring correlations treated by the particle-number-conserving (PNC) method. This is the first time the detailed theoretical investigations being performed on these rotational bands. Both the experimental kinematic and dynamic moment of inertia ($\\mathcal{J}^{(1)}$ and $\\mathcal{J}^{(2)}$) versus rotational frequency are reproduced quite well by the PNC-CSM calculations. By comparing the theoretical kinematic moment of inertia $\\mathcal{J}^{(1)}$ with the experimental ones extracted from different spin assignments, the spin $17/2^{-}\\rightarrow13/2^{-}$ is assigned to the lowest-lying $196.6(5)$ keV transition of the $1/2^{-}[521]$ band, and $15/2^{-}\\rightarrow11/2^{-}$ to the $189(1)$ keV transition of the $7/2^{-}[514]$ band, respectively. The proton $N=7$ major shell is ...

  6. A semi-analytic model for the co-evolution of galaxies, black holes and active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Rachel S.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Cox, Thomas J.; Robertson, Brant E.; Hernquist, Lars

    2008-12-01

    We present a new semi-analytic model that self-consistently traces the growth of supermassive black holes (BH) and their host galaxies within the context of the Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological framework. In our model, the energy emitted by accreting black holes regulates the growth of the black holes themselves, drives galactic scale winds that can remove cold gas from galaxies, and produces powerful jets that heat the hot gas atmospheres surrounding groups and clusters. We present a comprehensive comparison of our model predictions with observational measurements of key physical properties of low-redshift galaxies, such as cold gas fractions, stellar metallicities and ages, and specific star formation rates. We find that our new models successfully reproduce the exponential cut-off in the stellar mass function and the stellar and cold gas mass densities at z ~ 0, and predict that star formation should be largely, but not entirely, quenched in massive galaxies at the present day. We also find that our model of self-regulated BH growth naturally reproduces the observed relation between BH mass and bulge mass. We explore the global formation history of galaxies and black holes in our models, presenting predictions for the cosmic histories of star formation, stellar mass assembly, cold gas and metals. We find that models assuming the `concordance' ΛCDM cosmology overproduce star formation and stellar mass at high redshift (z >~ 2). A model with less small-scale power predicts less star formation at high redshift, and excellent agreement with the observed stellar mass assembly history, but may have difficulty accounting for the cold gas in quasar absorption systems at high redshift (z ~ 3-4).

  7. Validating the effective-one-body model of spinning, precessing binary black holes against numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Babak, Stanislav; Buonanno, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    In Ref. [1], the properties of the first gravitational wave detected by LIGO, GW150914, were measured by employing an effective-one-body (EOB) model of precessing binary black holes whose underlying dynamics and waveforms were calibrated to numerical-relativity (NR) simulations. Here, we perform the first extensive comparison of such EOBNR model to 70 precessing NR waveforms that span mass ratios from 1 to 5, dimensionless spin magnitudes up to 0.5, generic spin orientations, and length of about 20 orbits. We work in the observer's inertial frame and include all $\\ell=2$ modes in the gravitational-wave polarizations. We introduce new prescriptions for the EOB ringdown signal concerning its spectrum and time of onset. For total masses between 10Msun and 200Msun, we find that precessing EOBNR waveforms have unfaithfulness within about 3% to NR waveforms when considering the Advanced-LIGO design noise curve. This result is obtained without recalibration of the inspiral-plunge of the underlying nonprecessing EOBN...

  8. The impact of climate variability on the production of Black Sea anchovy: a modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraslan, Ceren; Fach, Bettina A.; Oguz, Temel I.; Salihoglu, Baris

    2010-05-01

    The influence of climate variability on anchovy eggs and larvae production and the interaction with gelatineous zooplankton in the Black Sea is studied with a one-dimensional, lower trophic level and anchovy bioenergetics model including parameterizations for a gelatineous predator. Stochastic climate variability in the form of fifty-year interannual temperature and nutrient entrainment rate variability is used to simulate how climate-mediated effects cascade across trophic levels and how the anchovy population production responds to such disturbances. Model results reveal a high correlation of egg production and recruitment success in response to changes in temperature and nutrient entrainment rates and complex and highly nonlinear interactions between anchovy and gelatineous populations. Moreover, it is indicated in the results that temperature variation has strong long-term effects on anchovy population production and its signal propagates through successive adult year classes. Although, temperature has a direct effect on anchovy egg and larvae production via influencing mortality rates, it indirectly influences anchovy production by modulating the mixed layer depth, which affects phytoplankton blooms and zooplankton availability, the major food source of anchovy.

  9. Heavy flavor in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus: quenching, flow and correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Nardi, M; De Pace, A; Monteno, M; Prino, F

    2015-01-01

    We present recent results for heavy-flavor observables in nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC energies, obtained with the POWLANG transport setup. The initial creation of c-cbar and b-bbar pairs is simulated with a perturbative QCD approach (POWHEG+PYTHIA); their propagation in the medium (created in the nucleus-nucleus or in proton-nucleus collision) is studied with the relativistic Langevin equation, here solved using weak-coupling transport coefficients. Successively, the heavy quarks hadronize in the medium. We compute the nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow parameter of the final D mesons both in nucleus-nucleus and in (for the first time, in the POWLANG setup) proton-nucleus collisions and compare our results to experimental data.

  10. Analytic expressions for the black-sky and white-sky albedos of the cosine lobe model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    The cosine lobe model is a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) that is commonly used in computer graphics to model specular reflections. The model is both simple and physically plausible, but physical quantities such as albedo have not been related to the parameterization of the model. In this paper, analytic expressions for calculating the black-sky and white-sky albedos from the cosine lobe BRDF model with integer exponents will be derived, to the author's knowledge for the first time. These expressions for albedo can be used to place constraints on physics-based simulations of radiative transfer such as high-fidelity ray-tracing simulations.

  11. A thalamic input to the nucleus accumbens mediates opiate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingjie; Wienecke, Carl F R; Nachtrab, Gregory; Chen, Xiaoke

    2016-02-11

    Chronic opiate use induces opiate dependence, which is characterized by extremely unpleasant physical and emotional feelings after drug use is terminated. Both the rewarding effects of a drug and the desire to avoid withdrawal symptoms motivate continued drug use, and the nucleus accumbens is important for orchestrating both processes. While multiple inputs to the nucleus accumbens regulate reward, little is known about the nucleus accumbens circuitry underlying withdrawal. Here we identify the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus as a prominent input to the nucleus accumbens mediating the expression of opiate-withdrawal-induced physical signs and aversive memory. Activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens pathway is necessary and sufficient to mediate behavioural aversion. Selectively silencing this pathway abolishes aversive symptoms in two different mouse models of opiate withdrawal. Chronic morphine exposure selectively potentiates excitatory transmission between the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus and D2-receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons via synaptic insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Notably, in vivo optogenetic depotentiation restores normal transmission at these synapses and robustly suppresses morphine withdrawal symptoms. This links morphine-evoked pathway- and cell-type-specific plasticity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens circuit to opiate dependence, and suggests that reprogramming this circuit holds promise for treating opiate addiction.

  12. RESOLVING THE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND HOST EMISSION IN THE MID-INFRARED USING A MODEL-INDEPENDENT SPECTRAL DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, E-39005, Santander (Spain); Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Spoon, Henrik W. W. [Cornell University, CRSR, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Almeida, Cristina Ramos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Santos, Tanio Díaz [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Hönig, Sebastian F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO18 1BJ (United Kingdom); González-Martín, Omaira [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica (CRyA-UNAM), 3-72 (Xangari), 8701, Morelia (Mexico); Esquej, Pilar, E-mail: ahernan@ifca.unican.es [Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-04-20

    We present results on the spectral decomposition of 118 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra from local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using a large set of Spitzer/IRS spectra as templates. The templates are themselves IRS spectra from extreme cases where a single physical component (stellar, interstellar, or AGN) completely dominates the integrated mid-infrared emission. We show that a linear combination of one template for each physical component reproduces the observed IRS spectra of AGN hosts with unprecedented fidelity for a template fitting method with no need to model extinction separately. We use full probability distribution functions to estimate expectation values and uncertainties for observables, and find that the decomposition results are robust against degeneracies. Furthermore, we compare the AGN spectra derived from the spectral decomposition with sub-arcsecond resolution nuclear photometry and spectroscopy from ground-based observations. We find that the AGN component derived from the decomposition closely matches the nuclear spectrum with a 1σ dispersion of 0.12 dex in luminosity and typical uncertainties of ∼0.19 in the spectral index and ∼0.1 in the silicate strength. We conclude that the emission from the host galaxy can be reliably removed from the IRS spectra of AGNs. This allows for unbiased studies of the AGN emission in intermediate- and high-redshift galaxies—currently inaccesible to ground-based observations—with archival Spitzer/IRS data and in the future with the Mid-InfraRed Instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope. The decomposition code and templates are available at http://denebola.org/ahc/deblendIRS.

  13. Modelling the cloud condensation nucleus activity of organic acids on the basis of surface tension and osmolality measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varga

    2007-09-01

    experiments. In most cases good agreement was found. For modelling purposes Sc vs. ddry plots are given and the dependence of water activity and surface tension on concentration are also formulated.

  14. A Semi-Analytic Model for the Co-evolution of Galaxies, Black Holes, and Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Somerville, Rachel S; Cox, Thomas J; Robertson, Brant E; Hernquist, Lars

    2008-01-01

    We present a new semi-analytic model that self-consistently traces the growth of supermassive black holes (BH) and their host galaxies within the context of the LCDM cosmological framework. In our model, the energy emitted by accreting black holes regulates the growth of the black holes themselves, drives galactic scale winds that can remove cold gas from galaxies, and produces powerful jets that heat the hot gas atmospheres surrounding groups and clusters. We present a comprehensive comparison of our model predictions with observational measurements of key physical properties of low-redshift galaxies, such as cold gas fractions, stellar metallicities and ages, and specific star formation rates. We find that our new models successfully reproduce the exponential cutoff in the stellar mass function and the stellar and cold gas mass densities at z~0, and predict that star formation should be largely, but not entirely, quenched in massive galaxies at the present day. We also find that our model of self-regulated ...

  15. Asymptotic Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  16. Asymptotic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  17. Age-dependent alterations in the cortical entrainment of subthalamic nucleus neurons in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Joshua W; Abercrombie, Elizabeth D

    2015-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that results in motor, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. Dysfunction in neuronal processing between the cortex and the basal ganglia is fundamental to the onset and progression of the HD phenotype. The corticosubthalamic hyperdirect pathway plays a crucial role in motor selection and blockade of neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) results in hyperkinetic movement abnormalities, similar to the motor symptoms associated with HD. The aim of the present study was to examine whether changes in the fidelity of information transmission between the cortex and the STN emerge as a function of phenotypic severity in the YAC128 mouse model of HD. We obtained in vivo extracellular recordings in the STN and concomitant electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings during discrete brain states that reflected global cortical network synchronization or desynchronization. At early ages in YAC128 mice, both the cortex and the STN exhibited patterns of hyperexcitability. As symptom severity progressed, cortical entrainment of STN activity was disrupted and there was an increase in the proportion of non-oscillating, tonically firing STN neurons that were less phase-locked to cortical activity. Concomitant to the dissipation of STN entrainment, there was a reduction in the evoked response of STN neurons to focal cortical stimulation. The spontaneous discharge of STN neurons in YAC128 mice also decreased with age and symptom severity. These results indicate dysfunction in the flow of information within the corticosubthalamic circuit and demonstrate progressive age-related disconnection of the hyperdirect pathway in a transgenic mouse model of HD.

  18. Nonequilibrium distribution functions of nucleons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Anchishkin, D; Cleymans, J; 10.5488/CMP.16.13201

    2013-01-01

    The collision smearing of the nucleon momenta about their initial values during relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated. To a certain degree, our model belongs to the transport type, and we investigate the evolution of the nucleon system created at a nucleus-nucleus collision. However, we parameterize this development by the number of collisions of every particle during evolution rather than by the time variable. It is assumed that the group of nucleons which leave the system after the same number of collisions can be joined in a particular statistical ensemble. The nucleon nonequilibrium distribution functions, which depend on a certain number of collisions of a nucleon before freeze-out, are derived.

  19. Modeling the buoyancy-driven Black Sea Water outflow into the North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kokkos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate the Black Sea Water (BSW outflux and spreading over the North Aegean Sea, and its impact on circulation and stratification–mixing dynamics. Model results were validated against satellite-derived sea surface temperature and in-situ temperature and salinity profiles. Further, the model results were post-processed in terms of the potential energy anomaly, ϕ, analyzing the factors contributing to its change. It occurs that BSW contributes significantly on the Thracian Sea water column stratification, but its signal reduces in the rest of the North Aegean Sea. The BSW buoyancy flux contributed to the change of ϕ in the Thracian Sea by 1.23 × 10−3 W m−3 in the winter and 7.9 × 10−4 W m−3 in the summer, significantly higher than the corresponding solar heat flux contribution (1.41 × 10−5 W m−3 and 7.4 × 10−5 W m−3, respectively. Quantification of the ϕ-advective term crossing the north-western BSW branch (to the north of Lemnos Island, depicted a strong non-linear relation to the relative vorticity of Samothraki Anticyclone. Similar analysis for the south-western branch illustrated a relationship between the ϕ-advective term sign and the relative vorticity in the Sporades system. The ϕ-mixing term increases its significance under strong winds (>15 m s−1, tending to destroy surface meso-scale eddies.

  20. Modeling Study of the Contribution of Wildfires to Ambient Black Carbon Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S. H.; Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Lamb, B. K.; Larkin, N. K.; Strand, T.; O'Neill, S.

    2013-12-01

    Wildland fires are a major source of particulate emissions, including black carbon (BC). In combination with other emissions, these BC and particulate emissions can directly lead to air quality degradation, both locally and more regionally. BC and other particulate matter (PM) can also affect climate in various ways, including by scattering and absorbing radiation, modifying cloud formation and properties, and changing snow albedo. BC emissions reduction is a potential strategy for mitigating global warming because it is emitted in large quantities and has a relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere in comparison to long-live greenhouse gases. Due to the highly variable nature of wildland fires, both in terms of fire occurrences on the landscape and the high spatial and temporal variability of fuels, consumption, and emissions, the impact of wildfire emissions varies significantly over the period of the wildfire season as well as inter-annually. In the U.S., while anthropogenic emissions are projected to decrease, as the climate warms wildfire activity is predicted to increase along with the contribution of fire emissions. Thus, a robust analysis of the effects of BC from fire emissions on air quality and climate necessitates a comprehensive, multi-scale study of all fire-related pollutants and other emission sources spanning multiple years of fire data and weather conditions. In this study we apply the WRF-BlueSky-SMOKE-CMAQ regional air-quality modeling system for multi-year (1997-2005) summertime simulations to evaluate the contribution of fire emissions to atmospheric BC and total PM2.5 concentrations. Historical fire records from the Bureau of Land Management are used by the BlueSky framework to calculate fire emissions. Plume rise is calculated by the SMOKE emission processor, taking into account meteorology from the WRF model. These emissions are combined with anthropogenic emissions from the NEI 2002 and biogenic emissions from the MEGAN model. CMAQ is

  1. A magnetic reconnection model for quasi-periodic oscillations in black hole systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Yin Huang; Ding-Xiong Wang; Jiu-Zhou Wang; Zhi-Yun Wang

    2013-01-01

    The quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in black hole (BH) systems with different scales are interpreted based on the magnetic reconnection of large-scale magnetic fields generated by toroidal electric currents flowing in the inner region of the accretion disk,where the current density is assumed to be proportional to the mass density of the accreting plasma.The magnetic connection (MC) is taken into account in resolving dynamic equations describing the accretion disk,in which the MC between the inner and outer disk regions,between the plunging region and the disk,and between the BH horizon and the disk are involved.It turns out that a single QPO frequency associated with several BH systems with different scales can be fitted by invoking the magnetic reconnection due to the MC between the inner and outer regions of the disk,including the BH binaries XTE J1859+226,XTE J1650-500 and GRS 1915+105 and the massive BHs in NGC 5408 X-1 and RE J1034+396.In addition,the X-ray spectra corresponding to the QPOs for these sources are fitted based on the typical disk-corona model.

  2. Looking into the inner black hole accretion disc with relativistic models of iron line

    CERN Document Server

    Svoboda, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    We discuss black hole spin measurements employing the relativistic iron line profiles in the X-ray domain. We investigate the iron line band for two representative sources -- MCG -6-30-15 (active galaxy) and GX 339-4 (X-ray binary). We compare two models of the broad iron line, LAOR and KYRLINE. We realise that the spin is currently determined entirely from the position of the marginally stable orbit while the effect of the spin on the overall line shape would be resolvable with higher resolution X-ray missions. We show that the precision of the spin measurements depends on an unknown angular distribution of the disc emission. We study how sensitive the spin determination is to the assumptions about the intrinsic angular distribution of the emitted photons. We find that the uncertainty of the directional emission distribution translates to 20% uncertainty in the determination of the radius of marginally stable orbit. We perform radiation transfer computations of an X-ray irradiated disc atmosphere (NOAR code)...

  3. Gravitational Waves from Supermassive Black Hole Coalescence in a Hierarchical Galaxy Formation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Enoki, M; Nagashima, M; Sugiyama, N; Enoki, Motohiro; Inoue, Kaiki T.; Nagashima, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the expected gravitational wave emission from coalescing supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries resulting from mergers of their host galaxies. When galaxies merge, the SMBHs in the host galaxies sink to the center of the new merged galaxy and form a binary system. We employ a semi-analytic model of galaxy and quasar formation based on the hierarchical clustering scenario to estimate the amplitude of the expected stochastic gravitational wave background owing to inspiraling SMBH binaries and bursts owing to the SMBH binary coalescence events. We find that the characteristic strain amplitude of the background radiation is $h_c(f) \\sim 10^{-16} (f/1 \\mu {\\rm Hz})^{-2/3}$ for $f \\lesssim 1 \\mu {\\rm Hz}$ just below the detection limit from measurements of the pulsar timing provided that SMBHs coalesce simultaneously when host galaxies merge. The main contribution to the total strain amplitude of the background radiation comes from SMBH coalescence events at $0

  4. Black hole production and graviton emission in models with large extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, B.

    2007-11-21

    This thesis studies the possible production of microscopical black holes and the emission of graviational radiation under the assumption of large extra dimensions. We derive observables for the Large Hadron Collider and for ultra high energetic cosmic rays. (orig.)

  5. Evidence for Low Black Hole Spin and Physically Motivated Accretion Models from Millimeter VLBI Observations of Sagittarius A*

    CERN Document Server

    Broderick, Avery E; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Loeb, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Millimeter very-long baseline interferometry (mm-VLBI) provides the novel capacity to probe the emission region of a handful of supermassive black holes on sub-horizon scales. For Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, this provides access to the region in the immediate vicinity of the horizon. Broderick et al. (2009) have already shown that by leveraging spectral and polarization information as well as accretion theory, it is possible to extract accretion-model parameters (including black hole spin) from mm-VLBI experiments containing only a handful of telescopes. Here we repeat this analysis with the most recent mm-VLBI data, considering a class of aligned, radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. We find that the combined data set rules out symmetric models for Sgr A*'s flux distribution at the 3.9-sigma level, strongly favoring length-to-width ratios of roughly 2.4:1. More importantly, we find that physically motivated accretion flow models provid...

  6. Black hole spin inferred from 3:2 epicyclic resonance model of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sramkova, E; Kotrlova, A; Bakala, P; Abramowicz, M; Stuchlik, Z; Goluchova, K; Kluzniak, W

    2015-01-01

    Estimations of black hole spin in the three Galactic microquasars GRS 1915+105, GRO J1655-40, and XTE J1550-564 have been carried out based on spectral and timing X-ray measurements and various theoretical concepts. Among others, a non-linear resonance between axisymmetric epicyclic oscillation modes of an accretion disc around a Kerr black hole has been considered as a model for the observed high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs). Estimates of spin predicted by this model have been derived based on the geodesic approximation of the accreted fluid motion. Here we assume accretion flow described by the model of a pressure-supported torus and carry out related corrections to the mass-spin estimates. We find that for dimensionless black hole spin a0.9, in which case the resonant eigenfrequencies rapidly decrease as the torus thickness increases. We conclude that the assumed non-geodesic effects shift the lower limit of the spin, implied for the three microquasars by the epicyclic model and independ...

  7. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

  8. Estimation of Mass of the Black Hole Candidate MAXI J1659-152 using TCAF and POS Models

    CERN Document Server

    Molla, Aslam Ali; Chakrabarti, Sandip K; Mondal, Santanu; Jana, Arghajit

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic transient black hole candidate (BHC) MAXI~J1659-152 exhibited temporal and spectral evolution during its very first X-ray outburst (2010) after its discovery on 25th Sept. 2010. Our recent studies of a few transient BHCs including MAXI~J1659-152 using Chakrabarti-Titarchuk two-component advective flow (TCAF) solution as an additive table local model in XSPEC revealed details of accretion flow dynamics around the black hole (BH). The TCAF model fitted normalization (N) comes out to be almost constant throughout the entire outburst consisting of several spectral states. We introduce two independent methods to determine the mass ($M_{BH}$) of the BHC, namely, {\\it $i)$ keeping TCAF fitted normalization parameter in a narrow range}, and {\\it $ii)$ studying evolution of the Quasi-Periodic Oscillation frequency ($\

  9. A disk-corona model for low/hard state of black hole X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jiu-Zhou; Huang, Chang-Yin

    2013-01-01

    A disk-corona model for fitting low/hard (LH) state of associated steady jet of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) is proposed based on the large-scale magnetic field configuration of the coexistence of the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) and Blandford-Payne (BP) processes,where the magnetic field configuration for the BP process is determined by the requirement of energy conversion from Poynting energy flux into kinetic energy flux in the jet. It is found that corona current is crucial to guarantee the consistency of the jet launching from accretion disk. The relative importance of the BZ to BP processes in powering jets from black hole accretion disk is discussed, and the LH state of several BHXBs is fitted based on our model.In addition, we suggest that magnetic field configuration could be regarded as the second parameter for governing the state transition of BHXBs.

  10. Carrying the physics of black-hole binary evolution into gravitational-wave models for pulsar-timing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephen; Sampson, Laura; Simon, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    There has recently been significant interest in how the galactic environments of supermassive black-hole binaries influences the stochastic gravitational-wave background signal from a population of these systems, and in how the resulting detection prospects for pulsar-timing arrays are effected. Tackling these problems requires us to have robust and computationally-efficient models for the strain spectrum as a function of different environment influences or the binary orbital eccentricity. In this talk we describe a new method of constructing these models from a small number of synthesized black-hole binary populations which have varying input physics. We use these populations to train an interpolant via Gaussian-process regression, allowing us to carry real physics into our subsequent pulsar-timing array inferences, and to also correctly propagate forward uncertainties from our interpolation.

  11. Nucleus-nucleus potential with shell-correction contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, V Yu

    2015-01-01

    The full relaxed-density potential between spherical nuclei is considered as a sum of the macroscopic and shell-correction contributions. The macroscopic part of the potential is related to a nucleus-nucleus potential obtained in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach with the Skyrme and Coulomb forces and the relaxed-density ansatz for evaluation of proton and neutron densities of interacting nuclei. A simple prescription for the shell-correction part of the total potential is discussed. The parameters of the shell-correction and macroscopic parts of the relaxed-density potential are found by fitting the empirical barrier heights of the 89 nucleus-nucleus systems as well as macroscopic potentials evaluated for 1485 nucleus-nucleus systems at 12 distances around touching points.

  12. Seasonality of global and Arctic black carbon processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme models: Global and Arctic Black Carbon Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Rashed [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria British Columbia Canada; Department of Meteorology, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad Pakistan; von Salzen, Knut [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria British Columbia Canada; Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment and Climate Change Canada, University of Victoria, Victoria British Columbia Canada; Flanner, Mark [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Michigan USA; Sand, Maria [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo, Oslo Norway; Langner, Joakim [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping Sweden; Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Huang, Lin [Climate Chemistry Measurements and Research, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto Ontario Canada

    2016-06-22

    This study quantifies black carbon (BC) processes in three global climate models and one chemistry transport model, with focus on the seasonality of BC transport, emissions, wet and dry deposition in the Arctic. In the models, transport of BC to the Arctic from lower latitudes is the major BC source for this region while Arctic emissions are very small. All models simulated a similar annual cycle of BC transport from lower latitudes to the Arctic, with maximum transport occurring in July. Substantial differences were found in simulated BC burdens and vertical distributions, with CanAM (NorESM) producing the strongest (weakest) seasonal cycle. CanAM also has the shortest annual mean residence time for BC in the Arctic followed by SMHI-MATCH, CESM and NorESM. The relative contribution of wet and dry deposition rates in removing BC varies seasonally and is one of the major factors causing seasonal variations in BC burdens in the Arctic. Overall, considerable differences in wet deposition efficiencies in the models exist and are a leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. Results from model sensitivity experiments indicate that scavenging of BC in convective clouds acts to substantially increase the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition in the Arctic, which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging. In contrast, the simulated seasonality of BC concentrations in the upper troposphere is only weakly influenced by wet deposition in stratiform (layer) clouds whereas lower tropospheric concentrations are highly sensitive.

  13. Antineutron-nucleus annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, E

    2001-01-01

    The n-nucleus annihilation process has been studied by the OBELIX experiment at the CERN Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) in the (50-400) MeV/c projectile momentum range on C, Al, Cu, Ag, Sn, and Pb nuclear targets. A systematic survey of the annihilation cross- section, sigma /sub alpha /(A, p/sub n/), has been performed, obtaining information on its dependence on the target mass number and on the incoming n momentum. For the first time the mass number dependence of the (inclusive) final state composition of the process has been analyzed. Production of the rho vector meson has also been examined. (13 refs).

  14. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, H.; /Tufts U.; Garvey, G.; /Los Alamos; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  15. Dominant efficiency of nonregular patterns of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease and obsessive-compulsive disorder in a data-driven computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamintziou, Sofia D.; Deligiannis, Nick G.; Piallat, Brigitte; Polosan, Mircea; Chabardès, Stephan; David, Olivier; Stathis, Pantelis G.; Tagaris, George A.; Boviatsis, Efstathios J.; Sakas, Damianos E.; Polychronaki, Georgia E.; Tsirogiannis, George L.; Nikita, Konstantina S.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Almost 30 years after the start of the modern era of deep brain stimulation (DBS), the subthalamic nucleus (STN) still constitutes a standard stimulation target for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the use of STN-DBS is also now supported by level I clinical evidence for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Disruption of neural synchronization in the STN has been suggested as one of the possible mechanisms of action of standard and alternative patterns of STN-DBS at a local level. Meanwhile, recent experimental and computational modeling evidence has signified the efficiency of alternative patterns of stimulation; however, no indications exist for treatment-refractory OCD. Here, we comparatively simulate the desynchronizing effect of standard (regular at 130 Hz) versus temporally alternative (in terms of frequency, temporal variability and the existence of bursts or pauses) patterns of STN-DBS for PD and OCD, by means of a stochastic dynamical model and two microelectrode recording (MER) datasets. Approach. The stochastic model is fitted to subthalamic MERs acquired during eight surgical interventions for PD and eight surgical interventions for OCD. For each dynamical system simulated, we comparatively assess the invariant density (steady-state phase distribution) as a measure inversely related to the desynchronizing effect yielded by the applied patterns of stimulation. Main results. We demonstrate that high (130 Hz)—and low (80 Hz)—frequency irregular patterns of stimulation, and low-frequency periodic stimulation interrupted by bursts of pulses, yield in both pathologic conditions a significantly stronger desynchronizing effect compared with standard STN-DBS, and distinct alternative patterns of stimulation. In PD, values of the invariant density measure are proven to be optimal at the dorsolateral oscillatory region of the STN including sites with the optimal therapeutic window. Significance. In addition to providing

  16. Determination of the compound nucleus survival probability Psurv for various "hot" fusion reactions based on the dynamical cluster-decay model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Sahila; Kaur, Arshdeep; Gupta, Raj K.

    2015-03-01

    After a successful attempt to define and determine recently the compound nucleus (CN) fusion/ formation probability PCN within the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM), we introduce and estimate here for the first time the survival probability Psurv of CN against fission, again within the DCM. Calculated as the dynamical fragmentation process, Psurv is defined as the ratio of the evaporation residue (ER) cross section σER and the sum of σER and fusion-fission (ff) cross section σff, the CN formation cross section σCN, where each contributing fragmentation cross section is determined in terms of its formation and barrier penetration probabilities P0 and P . In DCM, the deformations up to hexadecapole and "compact" orientations for both in-plane (coplanar) and out-of-plane (noncoplanar) configurations are allowed. Some 16 "hot" fusion reactions, forming a CN of mass number ACN˜100 to superheavy nuclei, are analyzed for various different nuclear interaction potentials, and the variation of Psurv on CN excitation energy E*, fissility parameter χ , CN mass ACN, and Coulomb parameter Z1Z2 is investigated. Interesting results are that three groups, namely, weakly fissioning, radioactive, and strongly fissioning superheavy nuclei, are identified with Psurv, respectively, ˜1 ,˜10-6 , and ˜10-10 . For the weakly fissioning group (100 PCN belongs to the strongly fissioning superheavy group, Psurv belongs to weakly fissioning nuclei; for Pt* isotopes, the inverse of all the compound systems studied, both PCN and Psurv decrease with the increase of E*; for 213 ,215 ,217Fr* nuclei, though fissility χ is nearly the same, Psurv for 213 ,217Fr* is of the same order as for weakly fissioning nuclei, but that for 215Fr* is of the order of radioactive nuclei. Apparently, further calculations are called for.

  17. Rotational properties of the odd- Z transfermium nucleus 255Lr by a particle-number-conserving method in the cranked shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Chun; He, Xiao-Tao

    2016-07-01

    Experimentally observed ground state band based on the 1/2-[521] Nilsson state and the first exited band based on the 7/2-[514] Nilsson state of the odd- Z nucleus 255Lr are studied by the cranked shell model (CSM) with the paring correlations treated by the particle-number-conserving (PNC) method. This is the first time the detailed theoretical investigations are performed on these rotational bands. Both experimental kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia ( J (1) and J (2)) versus rotational frequency are reproduced quite well by the PNC-CSM calculations. By comparing the theoretical kinematic moment of inertia J (1) with the experimental ones extracted from different spin assignments, the spin 17/2- → 13/2- is assigned to the lowest-lying 196.6(5) keV transition of the 1/2-[521] band, and 15/2- → 11/2- to the 189(1) keV transition of the 7/2-[514] band, respectively. The proton N = 7 major shell is included in the calculations. The intruder of the high- j low-Ω 1 j 15/2 (1/2-[770]) orbital at the high spin leads to band-crossings at ħω ≈ 0.20 ( ħω ≈ 0.25) MeV for the 7/2-[514] α = -1/2 ( α = +1/2) band, and at ħω ≈ 0.175 MeV for the 1/2-[521] α = -1/2 band, respectively. Further investigations show that the band-crossing frequencies are quadrupole deformation dependent.

  18. Long-lasting alterations in membrane properties, K+ currents and glutamatergic synaptic currents of nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons in a rat model of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor eSpigelman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure causes marked changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state that are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Although the NAcc plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced neuroadaptive changes in NAcc function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE treatment, a rat model of alcohol withdrawal and dependence, on intrinsic electrical membrane properties and glutamatergic synaptic transmission of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the NAcc core during protracted withdrawal. We show that CIE treatment followed by prolonged withdrawal increased the inward rectification of MSNs observed at hyperpolarized potentials. In addition, MSNs from CIE-treated animals displayed a lower input resistance, faster action potentials (APs and larger fast afterhyperpolarizations (fAHPs than MSNs from vehicle-treated animals, all suggestive of increases in K+-channel conductances. Significant increases in the Cs+-sensitive inwardly-rectifying K+-current accounted for the increased input resistance, while increases in the A-type K+-current accounted for the faster APs and increased fAHPs in MSNs from CIE rats. We also show that the amplitude and the conductance of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR-mediated mEPSCs were enhanced in CIE-treated animals due to an increase in a small fraction of functional postsynaptic GluA2-lacking AMPARs. These long-lasting modifications of excitability and excitatory synaptic receptor function of MSNs in the NAcc core could play a critical role in the neuroadaptive changes underlying alcohol withdrawal and dependence.

  19. Modeling the impact of black carbon on snowpack properties at an high altitude site in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Ménégoz, Martin; Gallée, Hubert; Lim, Saehee; Zanatta, Marco; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Cozic, Julie; Laj, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Stocchi, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Verza, Gianpietro; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Light absorbing aerosols in the snow can modify the snow albedo. As a result, the seasonal snowpack can melt earlier compared to the unaffected snow leading to a warming effect on the atmosphere. Several global model studies have indicated that the long-range transport of light absorbing aerosols into the Himalayas and the subsequent deposition to the snow have contributed to a temperature rise in these regions. Due to its strong light absorbing properties, black carbon (BC) may play an important role in this process. To evaluate the possible impact of BC on snow albedo we determined BC concentrations in a range of fresh and older snow samples collected between 2009 and 2012 in the vicinity of the Pyramid station, Nepal at an altitude of more than 5000 m. BC concentrations in the snow were obtained after nebulizing the melted samples using a single particle soot photometer. The observed seasonal cycle in BC concentrations in the snow corresponds to observed seasonal cycles in atmospheric BC detected at the Pyramid station. Older snow showed somewhat higher concentrations compared to fresh snow samples indicating the influence of dry deposition of BC. In order to study in detail the impact of black carbon on snow properties, we upgraded the existing one-dimensional physical snowpack model CROCUS to account for the influence of black carbon on the absorption of radiation by the snow. A radiative transfer scheme was implemented into the snowpack model taking into account the solar zenith angle, the snow water equivalent and grain size, the soil albedo, and the concentration of black carbon in the snow. The upgraded model was applied to a high altitude site in the Himalayas using observed BC concentrations and meteorological data recorded at Pyramid station. First results of the simulations will be presented.

  20. Religious Engagement in a Risky Family Model Predicting Health in Older Black and White Seventh-day Adventists

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Kelly R; Lee, Jerry W.; Haviland, Mark G.; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-01-01

    In a structural equation model, associations among latent variables – Child Poverty, Risky Family exposure, Religious Engagement, Negative Social Interactions, Negative Emotionality, and Perceived Physical Health – were evaluated in 6,753 Black and White adults aged 35–106 years (M = 60.5, SD = 13.0). All participants were members of the Seventh-day Adventist church surveyed in the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (BRHS). Child Poverty was positively associated with both Risky Family...

  1. A look inside 'black box' hydrograph separation models: A study at the hydrohill catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, C.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Gu, W.

    2001-01-01

    Runoff sources and dominant flowpaths are still poorly understood in most catchments; consequently, most hydrograph separations are essentially 'black box' models where only external information is used. The well-instrumented 490 m2 Hydrohill artificial grassland catchment located near Nanjing (China) was used to examine internal catchment processes. Since groundwater levels never reach the soil surface at this site, two physically distinct flowpaths can unambiguously be defined: surface and subsurface runoff. This study combines hydrometric, isotopic and geochemical approaches to investigating the relations between the chloride, silica, and oxygen isotopic compositions of subsurface waters and rainfall. During a 120 mm storm over a 24 h period in 1989, 55% of event water input infiltrated and added to soil water storage; the remainder ran off as infiltration-excess overland flow. Only about 3-5% of the pre-event water was displaced out of the catchment by in-storm rainfall. About 80% of the total flow was quickflow, and 10% of the total flow was pre-event water, mostly derived from saturated flow from deeper soils. Rain water with high ??18O values from the beginning of the storm appeared to be preferentially stored in shallow soils. Groundwater at the end of the storm shows a wide range of isotopic and chemical compositions, primarily reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of the new and mixed pore waters. High chloride and silica concentrations in quickflow runoff derived from event water indicate that these species are not suitable conservative tracers of either water sources or flowpaths in this catchment. Determining the proportion of event water alone does not constrain the possible hydrologic mechanisms sufficiently to distinguish subsurface and surface flowpaths uniquely, even in this highly controlled artificial catchment. We reconcile these findings with a perceptual model of stormflow sources and flowpaths that explicitly accounts for water, isotopic

  2. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  3. Nucleus properties of P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, Karen J.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Mueller, Beatrice E. A.; Dicksion, Matthew W.; Li, Heide R.

    1993-01-01

    Time series photometric measurements are presented of Comet P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 at a heliocentric distance of 5.886 AU when the comet possessed an extensive coma. The light curve shows a modulation caused by the rotation of the nucleus. The rotation period is considerably shorter than the 5 day period found by Whipple (1980), and we find substantial evidence that the nucleus may be in a complex spin state characterized by two periods 14.0 and 32.3 hr. Models of the rate at which the rotational light curve range decreases as a function of the amount of coma in the aperture have determined that the projected maximum to minimum axis ratio of the comet is 2.6 and that the product of the albedo times the rotationally averaged nucleus radius size is 9.54 +/- 0.3 sq km. Assuming a minimum geometric albedo of pR = 0.04, the maximum projected average nucleus radius is 15.44 +/-0.2 km, which is only 44 percent of the size estimated by Roemer (1966). However, using the albedo determined by Cruikshank & Brown (1983) of p = 0.13, the nucleus radius is only RN = 8.6 +/-0.l km. Because of the unknown nucleus orientation, these will be upper limits to the nucleus size. It appears that the nucleus of P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 is not the large nucleus that it has been believed to be for nearly 40 yr.

  4. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Line Profiles in Searches for Binary Supermassive Black Holes: Comparison of Models with Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Eracleous, Michael; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) we develop a semi-analytic model to describe the spectral emission line signatures of these systems. We are particularly interested in modeling the profiles of the broad emission lines, which have been used as a tool to search for SBHBs. The goal of this work is to test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this context, we model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk that forms a common envelope about a gravitationally bound binary. Our first generation model shows that emission line profiles tend to have different statistical properties depending on the semi-major axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the alignment of the triple-disk system, and can in principle be used to constrain the statistical distribution of these parameters. We present the results of a second generation model, which improves upon the treatment of radiative transfer by taking into account the effect of line-driven winds on the properties of the model emission line profiles. This improvement allows a preliminary comparison of the model profiles with the observed SBHB candidates and AGN population in general.

  5. Numerical modelling of the CHEMREC black liquor gasification process. Conceptual design study of the burner in a pilot gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Magnus

    2001-02-01

    The work presented in this report is done in order to develop a simplified CFD model for Chemrec's pressurised black liquor gasification process. This process is presently under development and will have a number of advantages compared to conventional processes for black liquor recovery. The main goal with this work has been to get qualitative information on influence of burner design for the gas flow in the gasification reactor. Gasification of black liquor is a very complex process. The liquor is composed of a number of different substances and the composition may vary considerably between liquors originating from different mills and even for black liquor from a single process. When a black liquor droplet is gasified it loses its organic material to produce combustible gases by three stages of conversion: Drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. In the end of the conversion only an inorganic smelt remains (ideally). The aim is to get this smelt to form a protective layer, against corrosion and heat, on the reactor walls. Due to the complexity of gasification of black liquor some simplifications had to be made in order to develop a CFD model for the preliminary design of the gasification reactor. Instead of modelling droplets in detail, generating gas by gasification, sources were placed in a prescribed volume where gasification (mainly drying and pyrolysis) of the black liquor droplets was assumed to occur. Source terms for the energy and momentum equations, consistent with the mass source distribution, were derived from the corresponding control volume equations by assuming a symmetric outflow of gas from the droplets and a uniform degree of conversion of reactive components in the droplets. A particle transport model was also used in order to study trajectories from droplets entering the reactor. The resulting model has been implemented in a commercial finite volume code (AEA-CFX) through customised Fortran subroutines. The advantages with this simple

  6. Semiclassical analysis of black holes in loop quantum gravity: Modeling Hawking radiation with volume fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, P.; Liu, H.; Noui, K.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce the notion of fluid approximation of a quantum spherical black hole in the context of loop quantum gravity. In this limit, the microstates of the black hole are intertwiners between "large" representations si that typically scale as si˜√{aH } where aH denotes the area of the horizon in Planck units. The punctures with large colors are, for the black hole horizon, similar to what the fluid parcels are for a classical fluid. We dub them puncels. Hence, in the fluid limit, the horizon is composed by puncels that are themselves interpreted as composed (in the sense of the tensor product) by a large number of more fundamental intertwiners. We study the spectrum of the Euclidean volume acting on puncels and we compute its quantum fluctuations. Then, we propose an interpretation of black hole radiation based on the properties of the quantum fluctuations of the Euclidean volume operator. We estimate a typical temperature of the black hole and we show that it scales as the Hawking temperature.

  7. Primordial Black Hole Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, D; Turok, N G; Baumann, Daniel; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2007-01-01

    We reconsider the possibility that the observed baryon asymmetry was generated by the evaporation of primordial black holes that dominated the early universe. We present a simple derivation showing that the baryon asymmetry is insensitive to the initial black hole density and the cosmological model but is sensitive to the temperature-dependence of the CP and baryon-violating (or lepton-violating) interactions. We also consider the possibility that black holes stop evaporating and form Planck-mass remnants that act as dark matter. We show that primordial black holes cannot simultaneously account for both the observed baryon asymmetry and the (remnant) dark matter density unless the magnitude of CP violation is much greater than expected from most particle physics models. Finally, we apply these results to ekpyrotic/cyclic models, in which primordial black holes may form when branes collide. We find that obtaining the observed baryon asymmetry is compatible with the other known constraints on parameters.

  8. Modeling black carbon and its potential radiative effects over the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Ming Ji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A regional climate model (RegCM4.3.4 coupled with an aerosol–snow/ice feedback module was used to simulate the deposition of anthropogenic light-absorbing impurities in snow/ice and the potential radiative feedback of black carbon (BC on temperature and snow cover over the Tibetan Plateau (TP in 1990–2009. Two experiments driven by ERA-interim reanalysis were performed, i.e., with and without aerosol–snow/ice feedback. Results indicated that the total deposition BC and organic matter (OM in snow/ice in the monsoon season (May–September were much more than non-monsoon season (the remainder of the year. The great BC and OM deposition were simulated along the margin of the TP in the non-monsoon season, and the higher deposition values also occurred in the western TP than the other regions during the monsoon period. BC-in-snow/ice decreased surface albedo and caused positive surface radiative forcing (SRF (3.0–4.5 W m-2 over the western TP in the monsoon season. The maximum SRF (5–6 W m-2 simulated in the Himalayas and southeastern TP in the non-monsoon season. The surface temperature increased by 0.1–1.5 °C and snow water equivalent decreased by 5–25 mm over the TP, which showed similar spatial distributions with the variations of SRF in each season. This study provided a useful tool to investigate the mechanisms involved in the effect of aerosols on climate change and the water cycle in the cryospheric environment of the TP.

  9. A validation study of lawless expectancy model on low-level rural black workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Edwards

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research is to validate the expectancy theory model propogated by Lawler(1971; 1973 on low level rural Black shop assistants in the Republic of Transkei. The criterion measure, performance, is measured by a performance appraisal instrument developed by the NIPR and the expectancy theory components by means of a translated version of the instrument which appears in the Michigan Organizational Assessment Package Part II. For a sample of 183 shop assistants from 10 organizations, the instrument yielded reliability coefficients ranging from 0,72 to 0,84. Evidence of validity was obtained by means of correlational analysis. A multiple correlation coefficient of R² = 0,29 was obtained. Further evidence of validity was found by means of maximum likelihood path analytic procedures. Opsomming Die geldigheid van Lawler se verwagtingsteorie vir landelike Swart winkelassistente in die Republiekvan Transkei word in die studie ondersoek. Die komponente van die verwagtingsteorie is gemeet deur 'n vertaalde weergawe van die Michigan Organizational Assessment Package (Part II, terwyl die kriterium, werksprestasie, beoordeel is deur middel van 'n prestasiebeoordelingsvraelys ontwikkel deur die NIPN. Met 'n steekproef van 183 winkelassistente uit 10 organisasies het die motiveringsvraelys betroubaarheidskoeffisiente gelewer van tussen 0,72 en 0,84. Met uitsondering van die E→ P komponent was al die korrelasies met die kriterium beduidend op die l%-peil en het gevarieer tussen 0,24 en 0,26 met 'n gekwadreerde meervoudige korrelasiekoeffisient van 0,29. Genoeg positiewe bewyse is in die studie verkry om met redelike sekerheid te aanvaar dat die verwagtingsteorie van toepassing gemaak kan word op lae-vlak landelike Swart workers.

  10. A Pricing Method on Black-Scholes Option Model%Black-Scholes期权模型的一种定价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金浩; 刘新平; 李顺

    2006-01-01

    从微分方程的角度来诠释了Black-Scholes期权定价公式的由来.利用随机微分方程Feynman-Kac定理,推导出Black-Scholes期权定价公式.结果表明:Black-Scholes微分方程及其边界条件恰好满足于随机微分方程Feynman-Kac定理中的Cauchy问题,从而存在唯一解.

  11. Resource selection models are useful in predicting fine-scale distributions of black-footed ferrets in prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Jachowski, David S.; Biggins, Dean E.; Livieri, Travis M.; Matchett, Marc R.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife-habitat relationships are often conceptualized as resource selection functions (RSFs)—models increasingly used to estimate species distributions and prioritize habitat conservation. We evaluated the predictive capabilities of 2 black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) RSFs developed on a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the Conata Basin, South Dakota. We used the RSFs to project the relative probability of occurrence of ferrets throughout an adjacent 227-ha colony. We evaluated performance of the RSFs using ferret space use data collected via postbreeding spotlight surveys June–October 2005–2006. In home ranges and core areas, ferrets selected the predicted "very high" and "high" occurrence categories of both RSFs. Count metrics also suggested selection of these categories; for each model in each year, approximately 81% of ferret locations occurred in areas of very high or high predicted occurrence. These results suggest usefulness of the RSFs in estimating the distribution of ferrets throughout a black-tailed prairie dog colony. The RSFs provide a fine-scale habitat assessment for ferrets that can be used to prioritize releases of ferrets and habitat restoration for prairie dogs and ferrets. A method to quickly inventory the distribution of prairie dog burrow openings would greatly facilitate application of the RSFs.

  12. A regional ocean circulation model for the mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic Basin: implications for black shale formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. M. Topper

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High concentrations of organic matter accumulated in marine sediments during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs in the Cretaceous. Model studies examining these events invariably make use of global ocean circulation models. In this study, a regional model for the North Atlantic Basin during OAE2 at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary has been developed. A first order check of the results has been performed by comparison with the results of a recent global Cenomanian CCSM3 run, from which boundary and initial conditions were obtained. The regional model is able to maintain tracer patterns and to produce velocity patterns similar to the global model. The sensitivity of the basin tracer and circulation patterns to changes in the geometry of the connections with the global ocean is examined with three experiments with different bathymetries near the sponges. Different geometries turn out to have little effect on tracer distribution, but do affect circulation and upwelling patterns. The regional model is also used to test the hypothesis that ocean circulation may have been behind the deposition of black shales during OAEs. Three scenarios are tested which are thought to represent pre-OAE, OAE and post-OAE situations. Model results confirm that Pacific intermediate inflow together with coastal upwelling could have enhanced primary production during OAE2. A low sea level in the pre-OAE scenario could have inhibited large scale black shale formation, as could have the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Seaway in the post-OAE scenario.

  13. Behavioral Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus, Entorhinal Cortex and Fornix in a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Zhang; Wen-Han Hu; De-Long Wu; Kai Zhang; Jian-Guo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Recent clinical and preclinical studies have suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) can be used as a tool to enhance cognitive functions.The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of DBS at three separate targets in the Papez circuit,including the anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT),the entorhinal cortex (EC),and the fornix (FX),on cognitive behaviors in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model.Methods:Forty-eight rats were subjected to an intrahippocampal injection ofamyloid peptides 1-42 to induce an AD model.Rats were divided into six groups:DBS and sham DBS groups of ANT,EC,and FX.Spatial learning and memory were assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM).Recognition memory was investigated by the novel object recognition memory test (NORM).Locomotor and anxiety-related behaviors were detected by the open field test (OF).By using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA),behavior differences between the six groups were analyzed.Results:In the MWM,the ANT,EC,and FX DBS groups performed differently in terms of the time spent in the platform zone (F(2.23) =6.04,P < 0.01),the frequency of platform crossing (F(2,23) =11.53,P < 0.001),and the percent time spent within the platform quadrant (F(2,23) =6.29,P < 0.01).In the NORM,the EC and FX DBS groups spent more time with the novel object,although the ANT DBS group did not (F(2,23) =10.03,P < 0.001).In the OF,all of the groups showed a similar total distance moved (F(1.42) =1.14,P =0.29)and relative time spent in the center (F(2,42) =0.56,P =0.58).Conclusions:Our results demonstrated that DBS of the EC and FX facilitated hippocampus-dependent spatial memory more prominently thanANT DBS.In addition,hippocampus-independent recognition memory was enhanced by EC and FX DBS.None of the targets showed side-effects of anxiety or locomotor behaviors.

  14. Recoiling Black Holes in Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Bonning, E W; Salviander, S

    2007-01-01

    Recent simulations of merging black holes with spin give recoil velocities from gravitational radiation up to several thousand km/s. A recoiling supermassive black hole can retain the inner part of its accretion disk, providing fuel for a continuing QSO phase lasting millions of years as the hole moves away from the galactic nucleus. One possible observational manifestation of a recoiling accretion disk is in QSO emission lines shifted in velocity from the host galaxy. We have examined QSOs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with broad emission lines substantially shifted relative to the narrow lines. We find no convincing evidence for recoiling black holes carrying accretion disks. We place an upper limit on the incidence of recoiling black holes in QSOs of 4% for kicks greater than 500 km/s and 0.35% for kicks greater than 1000 km/s line-of-sight velocity.

  15. Extraction of anthocyanins and polyphenols from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) by modeling and assessing their reversibility and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Alessandra Cristina; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali

    2016-01-15

    This study was aimed the extraction of total flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolics, as well as the antioxidant activity of black rice (Oryza sativa) and to study the stability in relation to pH, light and copigmentation. Variations in temperature (10-50°C), time (20-80min), and solid-solvent ratio (1:15-1:45) were studied using a Box-Behnken design. The regression models were significant (Panthocyanins, 520.17mg 100g(-1) of phenolics and 46.50% inhibition of the DPPH radical. A decrease in the color intensity was observed when pH values were changed while anthocyanins were reversible in the process of protonation/deprotonation. The addition of glucose, phytic and gallic acids in the optimized extract exposed to light displayed an intermolecular copigmentation. The main anthocyanin identified in black rice was cyanidin-3-glucoside.

  16. Are black holes a serious threat to scalar field dark matter models?

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco, Juan; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Classical scalar fields have been proposed as possible candidates for the dark matter component of the universe. Given the fact that super-massive black holes seem to exist at the center of most galaxies, in order to be a viable candidate for the dark matter halo a scalar field configuration should be stable in the presence of a central black hole, or at least be able to survive for cosmological time-scales. In the present work we consider a scalar field as a test field on a Schwarzschild background, and study under which conditions one can obtain long-lived configurations. We present a detailed study of the Klein-Gordon equation in the Schwarzschild spacetime, both from an analytical and numerical point of view, and show that indeed there exist quasi-stationary solutions that can remain surrounding a black hole for large time-scales.

  17. The NINJA-2 project: detecting and characterizing gravitational waveforms modelled using numerical binary black hole simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th S.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Bergmann, G.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Buchman, S.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burman, R.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corpuz, A.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Donath, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dossa, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hooper, S.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.; Ji, Y.

    2014-06-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave (GW) astrophysics communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the ability to detect GWs emitted from merging binary black holes (BBH) and recover their parameters with next-generation GW observatories. We report here on the results of the second NINJA project, NINJA-2, which employs 60 complete BBH hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modelling the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modelling the early inspiral. In a ‘blind injection challenge’ similar to that conducted in recent Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo science runs, we added seven hybrid waveforms to two months of data recoloured to predictions of Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) and Advanced Virgo (AdV) sensitivity curves during their first observing runs. The resulting data was analysed by GW detection algorithms and 6 of the waveforms were recovered with false alarm rates smaller than 1 in a thousand years. Parameter-estimation algorithms were run on each of these waveforms to explore the ability to constrain the masses, component angular momenta and sky position of these waveforms. We find that the strong degeneracy between the mass ratio and the BHs’ angular momenta will make it difficult to precisely estimate these parameters with aLIGO and AdV. We also perform a large-scale Monte Carlo study to assess the ability to recover each of the 60 hybrid waveforms with early aLIGO and AdV sensitivity curves. Our results predict that early aLIGO and AdV will have a volume-weighted average sensitive distance of 300 Mpc (1 Gpc) for 10M⊙ + 10M⊙ (50M⊙ + 50M⊙) BBH coalescences. We demonstrate that neglecting the component angular momenta in the waveform models used in matched-filtering will result in a reduction in sensitivity for systems with large component angular momenta. This

  18. Multi-resonance orbital model of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations: possible high-precision determination of black hole and neutron star spin

    CERN Document Server

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Torok, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Using known frequencies of the twin-peak high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HF QPOs) and known mass of the central black hole, the black-hole dimensionless spin can be determined by assuming a concrete version of the resonance model. However, a wide range of observationally limited values of the black hole mass implies low precision of the spin estimates. We discuss the possibility of higher precision of the black hole spin measurements in the framework of a multi-resonance model inspired by observations of more than two HF QPOs in the black hole systems, which are expected to occur at two (or more) different radii of the accretion disc. For the black hole systems we focus on the special case of duplex frequencies, when the top, bottom, or mixed frequency is common at two different radii where the resonances occur giving triple frequency sets. The sets of triple frequency ratios and the related spin are given. The strong resonance model for "magic" values of the black hole spin means that two (or more...

  19. Mapping the Global Potential Geographical Distribution of Black Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia L. Using Herbarium Data and a Maximum Entropy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is a tree species of high economic and ecological value, but is also considered to be highly invasive. Understanding the global potential distribution and ecological characteristics of this species is a prerequisite for its practical exploitation as a resource. Here, a maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt was used to simulate the potential distribution of this species around the world, and the dominant climatic factors affecting its distribution were selected by using a jackknife test and the regularized gain change during each iteration of the training algorithm. The results show that the MaxEnt model performs better than random, with an average test AUC value of 0.9165 (±0.0088. The coldness index, annual mean temperature and warmth index were the most important climatic factors affecting the species distribution, explaining 65.79% of the variability in the geographical distribution. Species response curves showed unimodal relationships with the annual mean temperature and warmth index, whereas there was a linear relationship with the coldness index. The dominant climatic conditions in the core of the black locust distribution are a coldness index of −9.8 °C–0 °C, an annual mean temperature of 5.8 °C–14.5 °C, a warmth index of 66 °C–168 °C and an annual precipitation of 508–1867 mm. The potential distribution of black locust is located mainly in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, China, Japan, South Korea, South Africa, Chile and Argentina. The predictive map of black locust, climatic thresholds and species response curves can provide globally applicable guidelines and valuable information for policymakers and planners involved in the introduction, planting and invasion control of this species around the world.

  20. Analysis of the Exchange Rate and Pricing Foreign Currency Options on the Croatian Market: the NGARCH Model as an Alternative to the Black-Scholes Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Posedel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest of professional investors in financial derivatives on the Croatian market is steadily increasing and trading is expected to start after the establishment of the legal framework. The quantification of the fair price of such financial instruments is therefore becoming increasingly important. Once the derivatives market is formed, the use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model is also expected. However, contrary to the assumptions of the Black-Scholes model, research in the field of option markets worldwide suggests that the volatility of the time-series returns is not constant over time. The present study analyzes the implications of volatility that changes over time for option pricing. The nonlinear-in-mean asymmetric GARCH model that reflects asymmetry in the distribution of returns and the correlation between returns and variance is recommended. For the purpose of illustration, we use the NGARCH model for the pricing of foreign currency options. Possible prices for such options having different strikes and maturities are then determined using Monte Carlo simulations. The improvement provided by the NGARCH model is that the option price is a function of the risk premium embedded in the underlying asset. This contrasts with the standard preference-free option pricing result that is obtained in the Black-Scholes model.

  1. Galaxy Formation with Self-Consistently Modeled Stars and Massive Black Holes. I: Feedback-Regulated Star Formation and Black Hole Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Wise, John H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-04

    There is mounting evidence for the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs) in a hierarchical structure formation paradigm. To tackle the nonlinear processes of galaxy-MBH interaction, we describe a self-consistent numerical framework which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs. The high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo is modified to model the formation and feedback of molecular clouds at their characteristic scale of 15.2 pc and the accretion of gas onto an MBH. Two major channels of MBH feedback, radiative feedback (X-ray photons followed through full three-dimensional adaptive ray tracing) and mechanical feedback (bipolar jets resolved in high-resolution AMR), are employed. We investigate the coevolution of a 9.2 x 10{sup 11} M {circle_dot} galactic halo and its 10{sup 5} {circle_dot} M embedded MBH at redshift 3 in a cosmological CDM simulation. The MBH feedback heats the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) up to 10{sup 6} K through photoionization and Compton heating and locally suppresses star formation in the galactic inner core. The feedback considerably changes the stellar distribution there. This new channel of feedback from a slowly growing MBH is particularly interesting because it is only locally dominant and does not require the heating of gas globally on the disk. The MBH also self-regulates its growth by keeping the surrounding ISM hot for an extended period of time.

  2. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  3. Velocity Profiles of Galaxies with Claimed Black-Holes - Part Three - Observations and Models for M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, R. P.

    1994-09-01

    We report on high-S/N subarcsec resolution spectra of M87, obtained with the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope in the spectral regions around the blue G-band and the IR Ca II triplet. From the spectra we determine the line strengths, the mean and dispersion of the best-fitting Gaussian velocity profiles (i.e. the line-of-sight velocity distributions) and the Gauss-Hermite moments h_3_,...h_6_ that measure deviations from a Gaussian. We find that the main results derived from the two spectral regions agree, in contradiction to recent measurements by Jarvis & Melnick. The observed line strengths have a central minimum in both spectral regions and are consistent with the central luminosity `spike' of M87 being completely non-thermal. The coefficients h_3_,...h_6_ are close to zero at all radii. The velocity dispersion rises from ~270 km s^-1^ at ~15 arcsec to ~305 km s^-1^ at ~5 arcsec, and then to ~400 km s^-1^ at 0.5 arcsec. We model the observed velocity dispersions by solving the Jeans equation for hydrostatic equilibrium. Radial anisotropy (β ~ 0.5) is required in the outer parts to fit the observed velocity dispersion gradient. Near the centre, the data can still be fitted equally well with radially anisotropic models without a central black hole as they can be with less anisotropic models with a central black hole of mass M_BH_ Jeans models without a central black hole need not necessarily correspond to a positive and stable distribution function. We study the central velocity profile of isotropic dynamical models with a central black hole. The wings of the velocity profile are more extended than those of a Gaussian. This is due to the stars that orbit close to the hole at high velocities. The wings contribute significantly to the normalization and the dispersion of the velocity profile. A Gaussian fit to the velocity profile is insensitive to the wings, and thus underestimates both the line strength γ and the velocity dispersion σ. In the analysis of real

  4. Azimuthal correlations of hadrons and fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Two-particle (two-fragment) azimuthal correlation functions are studied by using a simple formula which describes uniformly azimuthal distributions of final-state charged particles and nuclear fragments.This formula is obtained in the framework of a multi-source thermal model (or multi-source ideal gas model).The calculated results are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data of charged hadrons and nuclear fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions at intermediate and high energies.

  5. Transverse energy distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglin, C.; Baldisseri, A.; Bussiere, A.; Guillaud, J.P.; Kossakowski, R.; Liaud, P.; Staley, F. (Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules, 74 - Annecy-le-Vieux (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules); Baldit, A.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Devaux, A.; Fargeix, J.; Felgeyrolles, X.; Force, P.; Fredj, L.; Landaud, G.; Vazeille, F. (Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)); Sonderegger, P. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Abreu, M.C.; Bordalo, P.; Ferreira, R.; Gago, J.M.; Lourenco, C.; Peralta, L.; Pimenta, M.; Ramos, S.; Silva, S.; Varela, J. (LIP, Lisbon (Portugal)); Gerschel, C.; Jouan, D.; Papillon, S.; Tarrago, X. (Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules, 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)); Bus; NA38 Collaboration

    1990-11-22

    The transverse energy E{sub T} distributions of nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the framework of a simple geometrical model. The distributions for inclusive production of J/{psi} and muon pairs in the mass continuum are analyzed. The shape of the E{sub T} distribution of the continuum agrees with the model. The previously observed decrease of the ratio (J/{psi})/continuum with increasing E{sub T} is due to the behavior of the J/{psi}. (orig.).

  6. Algebraically special space-time in relativity, black holes, and pulsar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, R. J.; Sheffield, C.

    1973-01-01

    The entire field of astronomy is in very rapid flux, and at the center of interest are problems relating to the very dense, rotating, neutron stars observed as pulsars. the hypothesized collapsed remains of stars known as black holes, and quasars. Degenerate metric form, or Kerr-Schild metric form, was used to study several problems related to intense gravitational fields.

  7. Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes and AGN: a synthesis model for accretion and feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Merloni, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The growth of supermassive black holes (SMBH) through accretion is accompanied by the release of enormous amounts of energy which can either be radiated away, as happens in quasars, advected into the black hole, or disposed of in kinetic form through powerful jets, as is observed, for example, in radio galaxies. Here, I will present new constraints on the evolution of the SMBH mass function and Eddington ratio distribution, obtained from a study of AGN luminosity functions aimed at accounting for both radiative and kinetic energy output of AGN in a systematic way. First, I discuss how a refined Soltan argument leads to joint constraints on the mass-weighted average spin of SMBH and of the total mass density of high redshift (z~5) and "wandering" black holes. Then, I will show how to describe the downsizing trend observed in the AGN population in terms of cosmological evolution of physical quantities (black hole mass, accretion rate, radiative and kinetic energy output). Finally, the redshift evolution of the ...

  8. BEYOND THE STANDARD MODEL OF THE DISC–LINE SPECTRAL PROFILES FROM BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjaceslav Sochora

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The strong gravitational field of a black hole has distinct effects on the observed profile of a spectral line from an accretion disc near a black hole. The observed profile of the spectral line is broadened and skewed by a fast orbital motion and redshifted by a gravitational field. These effects can help us to constrain the parameters of a system with a black hole, both in active galactic nuclei and in a stellar-mass black hole. Here we explore the fact that an accretion disc emission can be mathematically imagined as a superposition of radiating accretion rings that extend from the inner edge to the outer rim of the disc, with some radially varying emissivity. In our work, we show that a characteristic double-horn profile of several radially confined (relatively narrow accretion rings or belts could be recognized by the planned instruments onboard future satellites (such as the proposed ESA Large Observatory for X-ray Timing.

  9. Time-symmetric initial data of large brane-localized black hole in RS-II model

    CERN Document Server

    Tanahashi, Norihiro

    2008-01-01

    In the aim of shedding a new light on the classical black hole evaporation conjecture stating that a static brane-localized black hole (BH) larger than the bulk curvature scale does not exist in Randall-Sundrum II (RS-II) model, we investigate time-symmetric initial data with a brane-localized apparent horizon (AH) and analyzed its properties. We find that a three-parameter family of such initial data can be constructed by simply placing a brane on a constant time surface of Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter space. By this method, we unambiguously confirm that initial data with an arbitrarily large AH area do exist. We compare the ADM mass and the horizon area of our initial data with that of the black string (BS) solution, and find that any initial data constructed by this method do not have a smaller mass than the BS solution when the horizon area is larger than the size determined by the bulk curvature scale. We further investigate what kind of configuration realizes the minimum mass for the same AH area. The c...

  10. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  11. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 3 (Appendices II, sections 2--3 and III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 3 contains the following appendix sections: Formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides in recovery boilers; Sintering and densification of recovery boiler deposits laboratory data and a rate model; and Experimental data on rates of particulate formation during char bed burning.

  12. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  13. DISCOVERY OF AN H{alpha} EMITTING DISK AROUND THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE OF M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Ricci, T. V., E-mail: robertobm@astro.iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2013-01-10

    Due to its proximity, the mass of the supermassive black hole in the nucleus of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the most massive black hole in the Local Group of galaxies, has been measured by several methods involving the kinematics of a stellar disk which surrounds it. We report here the discovery of an eccentric H{alpha} emitting disk around the black hole at the center of M31 and show how modeling this disk can provide an independent determination of the mass of the black hole. Our model implies a mass of 5.0{sup +0.8}{sub -1.0} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} for the central black hole, consistent with the average of determinations by methods involving stellar dynamics, and compatible (at 1{sigma} level) with measurements obtained from the most detailed models of the stellar disk around the central black hole. This value is also consistent with the M-{sigma} relation. In order to make a comparison, we applied our simulation on the stellar kinematics in the nucleus of M31 and concluded that the parameters obtained for the stellar disk are not formally compatible with the parameters obtained for the H{alpha} emitting disk. This result suggests that the stellar and the H{alpha} emitting disks are intrinsically different from each other. A plausible explanation is that the H{alpha} emission is associated with a gaseous disk. This hypothesis is supported by the detection of traces of weaker nebular lines in the nuclear region of M31. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the H{alpha} emission is, at least partially, generated by stars.

  14. Frequency-domain gravitational waves from nonprecessing black-hole binaries. II. A phenomenological model for the advanced detector era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sebastian; Husa, Sascha; Hannam, Mark; Ohme, Frank; Pürrer, Michael; Forteza, Xisco Jiménez; Bohé, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    We present a new frequency-domain phenomenological model of the gravitational-wave signal from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of nonprecessing (aligned-spin) black-hole binaries. The model is calibrated to 19 hybrid effective-one-body-numerical-relativity waveforms up to mass ratios of 1 ∶18 and black-hole spins of |a /m |˜0.85 (0.98 for equal-mass systems). The inspiral part of the model consists of an extension of frequency-domain post-Newtonian expressions, using higher-order terms fit to the hybrids. The merger ringdown is based on a phenomenological ansatz that has been significantly improved over previous models. The model exhibits mismatches of typically less than 1% against all 19 calibration hybrids and an additional 29 verification hybrids, which provide strong evidence that, over the calibration region, the model is sufficiently accurate for all relevant gravitational-wave astronomy applications with the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors. Beyond the calibration region the model produces physically reasonable results, although we recommend caution in assuming that any merger-ringdown waveform model is accurate outside its calibration region. As an example, we note that an alternative nonprecessing model, SEOBNRv2 (calibrated up to spins of only 0.5 for unequal-mass systems), exhibits mismatch errors of up to 10% for high spins outside its calibration region. We conclude that waveform models would benefit most from a larger number of numerical-relativity simulations of high-aligned-spin unequal-mass binaries.

  15. [Rapid and Dynamic Determination Models of Amino Acids and Catechins Concentrations during the Processing Procedures of Keemun Black Tea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jing-ming; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Zheng-zhu; Wei, Ling-dong; Li, Lu-qing; Fang, Jun-ting; Huang, Cai-wang

    2015-12-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. For the contribution to the taste and healthy functions of tea, amino acids and catechins are important components. Among different kinds of black teas in the world, Keemun black tea has the famous and specific fragrance, "Keemun aroma". During the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the contents of amino acids and catechins changed greatly, and the differences of these concentrations during processing varied significantly. However, a rapid and dynamic determination method during the processing procedure was not existed up to now. In order to find out a rapid determination method for the contents of amino acids and catechins during the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the materials of fresh leaves, withered leaves, twisted leaves, fermented leaves, and crude tea (after drying) were selected to acquire their corresponding near infrared spectroscopy and obtain their contents of amino acids and catechins by chemical analysis method. The original spectra data were preprocessed by the Standard Normal Variate Transformation (SNVT) method. And the model of Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with the contents of amino acids and catechins combined with Synergy Interval Partial Least squares (Si-PLS) was established in this study. The correlation coefficients and the cross validation root mean square error are treated as the efficient indexes for evaluating models. The results showed that the optimal prediction model of amino acids by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 4 subintervals and 9 principal component factors. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the calibration set were 0. 955 8 and 1. 768, respectively; the correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the prediction set were 0. 949 5 and 2. 16, respectively. And the optimal prediction model of catechins by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 3 subintervals and 10 principal

  16. Model dependence of the multi-transonic behavior, stability properties and corresponding acoustic geometry for accretion onto a spinning black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sonali; Nag, Sankhasubhra; Roychowdhury, Suparna; Das, Tapas K

    2015-01-01

    Multi-transonic accretion for a spinning black hole has been compared among different disc geometries within post Newtonian pseudo potential framework. The variation of stationary shock characteristics with black hole spin has been studied in details for all the disc models and compared for adiabatic as well as for isothermal scenario. The variations of surface gravity with spin for all these cases have also been investigated.

  17. Self-consistent Black Hole Accretion Spectral Models and the Forgotten Role of Coronal Comptonization of Reflection Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, James F.; García, Javier A.; Eikmann, Wiebke; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Brenneman, Laura W.; Dauser, Thomas; Fabian, Andrew C.

    2017-02-01

    Continuum and reflection spectral models have each been widely employed in measuring the spins of accreting black holes. However, the two approaches have not been implemented together in a photon-conserving, self-consistent framework. We develop such a framework using the black hole X-ray binary GX 339–4 as a touchstone source, and we demonstrate three important ramifications. (1) Compton scattering of reflection emission in the corona is routinely ignored, but is an essential consideration given that reflection is linked to the regimes with strongest Comptonization. Properly accounting for this causes the inferred reflection fraction to increase substantially, especially for the hard state. Another important impact of the Comptonization of reflection emission by the corona is the downscattered tail. Downscattering has the potential to mimic the relativistically broadened red wing of the Fe line associated with a spinning black hole. (2) Recent evidence for a reflection component with a harder spectral index than the power-law continuum is naturally explained as Compton-scattered reflection emission. (3) Photon conservation provides an important constraint on the hard state’s accretion rate. For bright hard states, we show that disk truncation to large scales R\\gg {R}{ISCO} is unlikely as this would require accretion rates far in excess of the observed \\dot{M} of the brightest soft states. Our principal conclusion is that when modeling relativistically broadened reflection, spectral models should allow for coronal Compton scattering of the reflection features, and when possible, take advantage of the additional constraining power from linking to the thermal disk component.

  18. Non-equilibrium Landauer transport model for Hawking radiation from a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, P. D.; Blencowe, M. P.; Nori, Franco

    2012-03-01

    We propose that the Hawking radiation energy and entropy flow rates from a black hole can be viewed as a one-dimensional (1D), non-equilibrium Landauer transport process. Support for this viewpoint comes from previous calculations invoking conformal symmetry in the near-horizon region, which give radiation rates that are identical to those of a single 1D quantum channel connected to a thermal reservoir at the Hawking temperature. The Landauer approach shows in a direct way the particle statistics independence of the energy and entropy fluxes of a black hole radiating into vacuum, as well as one near thermal equilibrium with its environment. As an application of the Landauer approach, we show that Hawking radiation gives a net entropy production that is 50% larger than that obtained assuming standard 3D emission into vacuum.

  19. Lepton number, black hole entropy and 10 to the 32 copies of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Lepton number violating processes are a typical problem in theories with a low quantum gravity scale. In this paper we examine lepton number violation (LNV) in theories with a saturated black hole bound on a large number of species. Such theories have been advocated recently as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem and an explanation of the smallness of neutrino masses. Naively one would expect black holes to introduce TeV scale LNV operators, thus generating unacceptably large rates of LNV processes. We show, however, that this does not happen in this scenario due to a complicated compensation mechanism between contributions of different Majorana neutrino states to these processes. As a result rates of LNV processes are extremely small and far beyond experimental reach, at least for the left-handed neutrino states.

  20. NEW METHOD TO OPTION PRICING FOR THE GENERAL BLACK-SCHOLES MODEL-AN ACTUARIAL APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫海峰; 刘三阳

    2003-01-01

    Using physical probability measure of price process and the principle of fairpremium, the results of Mogers Bladt and Hina Hviid Rydberg are generalized. In twocases of paying intermediate divisends and no intermediate dividends, the Black-Scholesmodel is generalized to the case where the risk-less asset (bond or bank account) earns atime-dependent interest rate and risk asset (stock) has time-dependent the continuouslycompounding expected rate of return, volatility. In these cases the accurate pricing formulaand put- call parity of European option are obtained. The general approach of option pricingis given for the general Black-Scholes of the risk asset (stock) has the continuouslycompounding expected rate of return, volatility. The accurate pricing formula and put- callparity of European option on a stock whose price process is driven by general Ornstein-Uhlenback (O-U) process are given by actuarial approach.

  1. The generalized LTB solutions with nonzero pressure in modeling the cosmological black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kopteva, E; Stuchlik, Z

    2016-01-01

    In this work we have obtained the set of new exact solutions of Einstein equations that generalize the known LTB solution for the particular case of nonzero pressure under zero spatial curvature. These solutions are pretending to describe the black hole immersed in nonstatic cosmological background and give a possibility to investigate the hot problems concerning the effects of the cosmological expansion in gravitationally bounded systems and other related problems. It was shown that each of the solutions obtained contains either the Reissner-Nordstrom or the Schwarzschild black hole in the central region of the space. It is demonstrated that the approach of the mass function use in solving the Einstein equations allows clear physical interpretation of the resulting solutions that is of much benefit to any their concrete application.

  2. Neurons of human nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazdanović Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nucleus accumbens is a part of the ventral striatum also known as a drug active brain region, especially related with drug addiction. The aim of the study was to investigate the Golgi morphology of the nucleus accumbens neurons. Methods. The study was performed on the frontal and sagittal sections of 15 human brains by the Golgi Kopsch method. We classified neurons in the human nucleus accumbens according to their morphology and size into four types: type I - fusiform neurons; type II - fusiform neurons with lateral dendrite, arising from a part of the cell body; type III - pyramidal-like neuron; type IV - multipolar neuron. The medium spiny neurons, which are mostly noted regarding to the drug addictive conditions of the brain, correspond to the type IV - multipolar neurons. Results. Two regions of human nucleus accumbens could be clearly recognized on Nissl and Golgi preparations each containing different predominant neuronal types. Central part of nucleus accumbens, core region, has a low density of impregnated neurons with predominant type III, pyramidal-like neurons, with spines on secondary branches and rare type IV, multipolar neurons. Contrary to the core, peripheral region, shell of nucleus, has a high density of impregnated neurons predominantly contained of type I and type IV - multipolar neurons, which all are rich in spines on secondary and tertiary dendritic branches. Conclusion. Our results indicate great morphological variability of human nucleus accumbens neurons. This requires further investigations and clarifying clinical significance of this important brain region.

  3. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  4. An Electromagnetic Model for Jet Power from an Advection Dominated Accretion Flow around a Rotating Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Xiao-Long; WANG Ding-Xiong

    2005-01-01

    @@ We discuss jet production from an advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF) around a rotating black hole (BH) in an electromagnetic regime. An analytical expression for the jet power is derived by using an equivalent circuit in the BH magnetosphere. It turns out that a large fraction of jet powers is contributed from the inner region of the ADAF, and the jet power depends sensitively on the degree to which the flow is advection-dominated. In addition, we use our model to fit the strong jet powers of several BL Lac objects, which cannot be explained by virtue of the BZ process.

  5. The black agonist-receptor model of high potency sweeteners, and its implication to sweetness taste and sweetener design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Attila; Híd, János

    2011-10-01

    The dose responses of the most commonly used high potency sweeteners (HPSs) have been measured by a more precise sensory procedure. The data were analyzed by Black's pharmacological model that takes into account not only agonist binding affinity but transduction efficiency as well. HPSs are clearly segregated into 2 groups depending on whether they bind to T1R2 or T1R3 of the receptor heterodimer. Surprisingly, the more potent sweeteners have lower transduction efficiencies. The implications of these on consumer product development and HPS design are discussed.

  6. Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Stornaiolo, C

    2002-01-01

    In this letter we propose the existence of low density black holes and discuss its compatibility with the cosmological observations. The origin of these black holes can be traced back to the collapse of long wavelength cosmological perturbations during the matter dominated era, when the densities are low enough to neglect any internal and thermal pressure. By introducing a threshold density $\\hat{\\rho}$ above which pressure and non-gravitational interactions become effective, we find the highest wavelength for the perturbations that can reach an equilibrium state instead of collapsing to a black hole. The low density black holes introduced here, if they exist, can be observed through weak and strong gravitational lensing effects. Finally we observe that we obtained here a cosmological model which is capable to explain in a qualitative way the void formation together with the value $\\Omega=1$. But we remark that it needs to be improved by considering non spherical symmetric black holes.

  7. Electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions relating to space radiation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the papers within this report deal with electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions which are of concern in the space radiation program. In particular, the removal of one and two nucleons via both electromagnetic and strong interaction processes has been extensively investigated. The theory of relativistic Coulomb fission has also been developed. Several papers on quark models also appear. Finally, note that the theoretical methods developed in this work have been directly applied to the task of radiation protection of astronauts. This has been done by parameterizing the theoretical formalism in such a fashion that it can be used in cosmic ray transport codes.

  8. Managing Understory Vegetation for Maintaining Productivity in Black Spruce Forests: A Synthesis within a Multi-Scale Research Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Joanisse

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of boreal ecosystems involves the establishment of vigorous tree regeneration after harvest. However, two groups of understory plants influence regeneration success in eastern boreal Canada. Ericaceous shrubs are recognized to rapidly dominate susceptible boreal sites after harvest. Such dominance reduces recruitment and causes stagnant conifer growth, lasting decades on some sites. Additionally, peat accumulation due to Sphagnum growth after harvest forces the roots of regenerating conifers out of the relatively nutrient rich and warm mineral soil into the relatively nutrient poor and cool organic layer, with drastic effects on growth. Shifts from once productive black spruce forests to ericaceous heaths or paludified forests affect forest productivity and biodiversity. Under natural disturbance dynamics, fires severe enough to substantially reduce the organic layer thickness and affect ground cover species are required to establish a productive regeneration layer on such sites. We succinctly review how understory vegetation influences black spruce ecosystem dynamics in eastern boreal Canada, and present a multi-scale research model to understand, limit the loss and restore productive and diverse ecosystems in this region. Our model integrates knowledge of plant-level mechanisms in the development of silvicultural tools to sustain productivity. Fundamental knowledge is integrated at stand, landscape, regional and provincial levels to understand the distribution and dynamics of ericaceous shrubs and paludification processes and to support tactical and strategic forest management. The model can be adapted and applied to other natural resource management problems, in other biomes.

  9. Single pion production in neutrino nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, E; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We study one pion production in both charged and neutral current neutrino nucleus scattering for neutrino energies below 2 GeV. We use a theoretical model for one pion production at the nucleon level that we correct for medium effects. The results are incorporated into a cascade program that apart from production also includes the pion final state interaction inside the nucleus. Besides, in some specific channels coherent pion production is also possible and we evaluate its contribution as well. Our results for total and differential cross sections are compared with recent data from the MiniBooNE Collaboration. The model provides an overall acceptable description of data, better for NC than for CC channels, although theory is systematically below data. Differential cross sections, folded with the full neutrino flux, show that most of the missing pions lie on the forward direction and at high energies.

  10. Black Hole Critical Phenomena Without Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liebling, S L

    2000-01-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  11. Modeling the response of top-down control exerted by gelatinous carnivores on the Black Sea pelagic food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Temel; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2001-03-01

    Recent changes in structure and functioning of the interior Black Sea ecosystem are studied by a series of simulations using a one-dimensional, vertically resolved, coupled physical-biochemical model. The simulations are intended to provide a better understanding of how the pelagic food web structure responds to increasing grazing pressure by gelatinous carnivores (medusae Aurelia aurita and ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi) during the past 2 decades. The model is first shown to represent typical eutrophic ecosystem conditions of the late 1970s and early 1980s. This simulation reproduces reasonably well the observed planktonic food web structure at a particular location of the Black Sea for which a year-long data set is available from 1978. Additional simulations are performed to explore the role of the Mnemiopsis-dominated ecosystem in the late 1980s. They are also validated by extended observations from specific years. The results indicate that the population outbreaks of the gelatinous species, either Aurelia or Mnemiopsis, reduce mesozooplankton grazing and lead to increased phytoplankton blooms as observed throughout the 1980s and 1990s in the Black Sea. The peaks of phytoplankton, mesozooplankton, Noctiluca, and gelatinous predator biomass distributions march sequentially as a result of prey-predator interactions. The late winter diatom bloom and a subsequent increase in mesozooplankton stocks are robust features common to all simulations. The autotrophs and heterotrophs, however, have different responses during the rest of the year, depending on the nature of grazing pressure exerted by the gelatinous predators. In the presence of Mnemiopsis, phytoplankton have additional distinct and pronounced bloom episodes during the spring and summer seasons. These events appear with a 2 month time shift in the ecosystem prior to introduction of Mnemiopsis.

  12. Electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus that express both ChAT and VGAT in a double-transgenic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasuhiko; Zhang, Yue; Yanagawa, Yuchio

    2015-04-01

    Although it has been proposed that neurons that contain both acetylcholine (ACh) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are present in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN), these neurons have not been characterized because of the difficulty in identifying them. In the present study, PHN neurons that express both choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) were identified using double-transgenic rats, in which the cholinergic and inhibitory neurons express the fluorescent proteins tdTomato and Venus, respectively. To characterize the neurons that express both tdTomato and Venus (D+ neurons), the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) profiles and firing patterns of these neurons were investigated via whole-cell recordings of brainstem slice preparations. Regarding the three AHP profiles and four firing patterns that the D+ neurons exhibited, an AHP with an afterdepolarization and a firing pattern that exhibited a delay in the generation of the first spike were the preferential properties of these neurons. In the three morphological types classified, the multipolar type that exhibited radiating dendrites was predominant among the D+ neurons. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the VGAT-immunopositive axonal boutons that expressed tdTomato were primarily located in the dorsal cap of inferior olive (IO) and the PHN. Although the PHN receives cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, D+ neurons were absent from these brain areas. Together, these results suggest that PHN neurons that co-express ACh and GABA exhibit specific electrophysiological and morphological properties, and innervate the dorsal cap of the IO and the PHN.

  13. Formation of Supermassive Black Holes in Galactic Bulges: A Rotating Collapse Model Consistent with the M(sub BH-sigma) Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fred C.; Graff, David S.; Mbonye, Manasse; Richstone, Douglas O.

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the observed correlation between black hole masses M(sub BH) and the velocity dispersion sigma of host galaxies, we develop a theoretical model of black hole formation in galactic bulges (this paper generalizes an earlier ApJ Letter). The model assumes an initial state specified by a uniform rotation rate OMEGA and a density distribution of the form rho = a(sup 2)(sub eff)per2piGR(sup 2)(so that a(sub eff)is an effective transport speed). The black hole mass is determined when the centrifugal radius of the collapse flow exceeds the capture radius of the central black hole (for Schwarzschild geometry). This model reproduces the observed correlation between the estimated black hole masses and the velocity dispersions of galactic bulges, i.e., M(sub BH) approximately equal to 10(sup 8) solar mass(sigma per 200 kilometers per second)(sup 4) where sigma = the square root of 2a(sub eff). To obtain this normalization, the rotation rate OMEGA approximately equal to 2 x 10(exp -15) rad per second. The model also defines a bulge mass scale M(sub B). If we identify the scale M(sub B) with the bulge mass, the model determines the ratio mu(sub B) of black hole mass to the host mass: mu(sub B) approximately equal to 0.0024(sigma per 200 kilometer per second), again in reasonable agreement with observed values. In this scenario, supermassive black holes form quickly (in approximately 10(exp 5) yr) and are born rapidly rotating (with a per M approximately 0.9). This paper also shown how these results depend on the assumed initial conditions; the most important quantity is the initial distribution of specific angular momentum in the precollapse state.

  14. An empirical evaluation of landscape energetic models: Mallard and American black duck space use during the non-breeding period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Naylor, Luke W.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.; Coluccy, John M.; Soulliere, G.

    2015-01-01

    Bird conservation Joint Ventures are collaborative partnerships between public agencies and private organizations that facilitate habitat management to support waterfowl and other bird populations. A subset of Joint Ventures has developed energetic carrying capacity models (ECCs) to translate regional waterfowl population goals into habitat objectives during the non-breeding period. Energetic carrying capacity models consider food biomass, metabolism, and available habitat to estimate waterfowl carrying capacity within an area. To evaluate Joint Venture ECCs in the context of waterfowl space use, we monitored 33 female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 55 female American black ducks (A. rubripes) using global positioning system satellite telemetry in the central and eastern United States. To quantify space use, we measured first-passage time (FPT: time required for an individual to transit across a circle of a given radius) at biologically relevant spatial scales for mallards (3.46 km) and American black ducks (2.30 km) during the non-breeding period, which included autumn migration, winter, and spring migration. We developed a series of models to predict FPT using Joint Venture ECCs and compared them to a biological null model that quantified habitat composition and a statistical null model, which included intercept and random terms. Energetic carrying capacity models predicted mallard space use more efficiently during autumn and spring migrations, but the statistical null was the top model for winter. For American black ducks, ECCs did not improve predictions of space use; the biological null was top ranked for winter and the statistical null was top ranked for spring migration. Thus, ECCs provided limited insight into predicting waterfowl space use during the non-breeding season. Refined estimates of spatial and temporal variation in food abundance, habitat conditions, and anthropogenic disturbance will likely improve ECCs and benefit conservation planners

  15. Heavy flavors in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardi Marzia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-step setup for heavy-flavor studies in high-energy nucleus-nucleus (AA and proton-nucleus (pA collisions is presented. The propagation of the heavy quarks in the medium is described in a framework provided by the relativistic Langevin equation, here solved using weak-coupling transport coefficients. Successively, the heavy quarks hadronize in the medium. We compute the nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow parameter of the final Dmesons both in AA and in pA collisions and compare our results to experimental data.

  16. Heavy flavors in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Marzia

    2016-11-01

    A multi-step setup for heavy-flavor studies in high-energy nucleus-nucleus (AA) and proton-nucleus (pA) collisions is presented. The propagation of the heavy quarks in the medium is described in a framework provided by the relativistic Langevin equation, here solved using weak-coupling transport coefficients. Successively, the heavy quarks hadronize in the medium. We compute the nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow parameter of the final Dmesons both in AA and in pA collisions and compare our results to experimental data.

  17. Transverse momentum spectra in high-energy nucleus-nucleus, proton-nucleus and proton-proton collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The transverse momentum distributions of final-state particles produced in nucleus-nucleus (AA),proton-nucleus (pA),and proton-proton (pp) collisions at high energies are investigated using a multisource ideal gas model.Our calculated results show that the contribution of hard emission can be neglected in the study of transverse momentum spectra of charged pions and kaons produced in Cu-Cu collisions at (√SNN)=22.5 GeV.And if we consider the contribution of hard emission,the transverse momentum spectra of p and (P) produced in Cu-Cu collisions at (√SNN)=22.5 GeV,KsO produced in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV,J/ψ particles produced in p-Pb collisions at 400 GeV and π+,K+,p produced in proton-proton collisions at (√S)=200 GeV,can be described by the model,especially in the tail part of spectra.

  18. Nonthermal Fluctuations and Mechanics of the Active Cell Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, K; Byrd, H; MacKintosh, F C; Kilfoil, M L

    2013-01-01

    We present direct measurements of fluctuations in the nucleus of yeast cells. While prior work has shown these fluctuations to be active and non-thermal in character, their origin and time dependence are not understood. We show that nuclear fluctuations can be quantitatively understood by uncorrelated, active force fluctuations driving a nuclear medium that is dominated by an uncondensed DNA solution, for which we perform rheological measurements on an in vitro model system under similar conditions to what is expected in the nucleus. We conclude that the eukaryotic nucleus of living cells is a nonequilibrium soft material whose fluctuations are actively driven, and are far from thermal in their time dependence.

  19. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-09

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  20. A Toy Model for Magnetic Field Configurations in Black Hole Accretion Discs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Zhao-Jiang; WANG Ding-Xiong; LEI Wei-Hua

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the feature of the magnetic field configuration arising from double counter oriented electric current-rings in the accretion disc around a Kerr black hole (BH). We discuss the relevant physical quantities corresponding to this configuration: (1) the power and torque transferred by the large-scale magnetic field, (2) the angular momentum and energy fluxes transferred from the BH to the inner disc, (3) the radiation flux from the disc. In addition, we discuss the possibility that the closed magnetic field anchored at the disc probably evolves to the open magnetic field, which is helpful to produce the jet from the disc.

  1. An off-centered active galactic nucleus in NGC 3115

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, R B; Ricci, T V

    2014-01-01

    NGC 3115 is an S0 galaxy that has always been considered to have a pure absorption-line spectrum. Some recent studies have detected a compact radio-emitting nucleus in this object, coinciding with the photometric center and with a candidate for the X-ray nucleus. This is evidence of the existence of a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the galaxy, although no emission line has ever been observed. We report the detection of an emission-line spectrum of a type 1 AGN in NGC 3115, with an H$\\alpha$ luminosity of $L_{H\\alpha} = (4.2 \\pm 0.4) \\times 10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Our analysis revealed that this AGN is located at a projected distance of $\\sim 0.29" \\pm 0.05"$ (corresponding to $\\sim 14.3 \\pm 2.5$ pc) from the stellar bulge center, which is coincident with the kinematic center of this object's stellar velocity map. The black hole corresponding to the observed off-centered AGN may form a binary system with a black hole located at the stellar bulge center. However, it is also possible that the dis...

  2. Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfide budgets in the Black Sea : a biogeochemical model of the whole water column coupling the oxic and anoxic parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfide budgets are derived for the Black Sea water column from a coupled physical–biogeochemical model. The model is applied in the deep part of the sea and simulates processes over the whole water column including the anoxic layer that extends from similar, equals115 m

  3. Coherency in Neutrino-Nucleus Elastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kerman, S; Deniz, M; Wong, H T; Chen, J -W; Li, H B; Lin, S T; Liu, C -P; Yue, Q

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering provides a unique laboratory to study the quantum mechanical coherency effects in electroweak interactions, towards which several experimental programs are being actively pursued. We report results of our quantitative studies on the transitions towards decoherency. A parameter ($\\alpha$) is identified to describe the degree of coherency, and its variations with incoming neutrino energy, detector threshold and target nucleus are studied. The ranges of $\\alpha$ which can be probed with realistic neutrino experiments are derived, indicating complementarity between projects with different sources and targets. Uncertainties in nuclear physics and in $\\alpha$ would constrain sensitivities in probing physics beyond the standard model. The maximum neutrino energies corresponding to $\\alpha$>0.95 are derived.

  4. Correlations in neutrino-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Van Cuyck, Tom; Jachowicz, Natalie; González-Jiménez, Raul; Martini, Marco; Ryckebusch, Jan; Van Dessel, Nils

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of charged-current quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and of the influence of correlations on one- and two-nucleon knockout processes. The quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections, including the influence of long-range correlations, are evaluated within a continuum random phase approximation approach. The short-range correlation formalism is implemented in the impulse approximation by shifting the complexity induced by the correlations from the wave functions to the operators. The model is validated by confronting $(e,e^\\prime)$ cross-section predictions with electron scattering data in the kinematic region where the quasielastic channel is expected to dominate. Further, the $^{12}$C$(\

  5. Rutherford, Radioactivity, and the Atomic Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Modern atomic and nuclear physics took its start in the early part of the twentieth century, to a large extent based upon experimental investigations of radioactive phenomena. Foremost among the pioneers of the new kind of physics was Ernest Rutherford, who made fundamental contributions to the structure of matter for more than three decades and, in addition, founded important research schools in Manchester and Cambridge. This paper reviews the most important aspects of Rutherford's scientific work in the period from about 1900 to 1920, and it also refers to some of his last experiments of the 1930s. The emphasis is on his theory of radioactive disintegration (1902), the discovery of the atomic nucleus (1911), and the first artificially produced element transformation (1919). Following the transmutation experiments, Rutherford developed elaborate models of the atomic nucleus, but these turned out to be unsuccessful. Other subjects could be included, but the three mentioned are undoubtedly those of the greates...

  6. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  7. Basic Soil Productivity of Spring Maize in Black Soil Under Long-Term Fertilization Based on DSSAT Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHA Yan; WU Xue-ping; HE Xin-hua; ZHANG Hui-min; GONG Fu-fei; CAI Dian-xiong; ZHU Ping; GAO Hong-jun

    2014-01-01

    Increasing basic farmland soil productivity has signiifcance in reducing fertilizer application and maintaining high yield of crops. In this study, we deifned that the basic soil productivity (BSP) is the production capacity of a farmland soil with its own physical and chemical properties for a speciifc crop season under local environment and ifeld management. Based on 22-yr (1990-2011) long-term experimental data on black soil (Typic hapludoll) in Gongzhuling, Jilin Province, Northeast China, the decision support system for an agro-technology transfer (DSSAT)-CERES-Maize model was applied to simulate the yield by BSP of spring maize (Zea mays L.) to examine the effects of long-term fertilization on changes of BSP and explore the mechanisms of BSP increasing. Five treatments were examined:(1) no-fertilization control (control);(2) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK); (3) NPK plus farmyard manure (NPKM); (4) 1.5 time of NPKM (1.5NPKM) and (5) NPK plus straw (NPKS). Results showed that after 22-yr fertilization, the yield by BSP of spring maize signiifcantly increased 78.0, 101.2, and 69.4% under the NPKM, 1.5NPKM and NPKS, respectively, compared to the initial value (in 1992), but not signiifcant under NPK (26.9%increase) and the control (8.9%decrease). The contribution percentage of BSP showed a signiifcant rising trend (PNPKM>NPK≈NPKS, indicating that organic manure combined with chemical fertilizers (1.5NPKM and NPKM) could more effectively increase BSP compared with the inorganic fertilizer application alone (NPK) in the black soil. This study showed that soil organic matter (SOM) was the key factor among various fertility factors that could affect BSP in the black soil, and total N, total P and/or available P also played important role in BSP increasing. Compared with the chemical fertilization, a balanced chemical plus manure or straw fertilization (NPKM or NPKS) not only increased the concentrations of soil nutrient, but also improved the

  8. PENENTUAN WAKTU KADALUARSA DAN MODEL SORPSI ISOTERMIS BIJI DAN BUBUK LADA HITAM (Piper ningrum L. [Shelf Life Prediction and Isotherm Sorption Model of Dried Grain and Powdered Black Pepper (Piper ningrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Diah2

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper is one of the most popular spice traded around the globe, either in dried grain form or in bulky powder. However, for retailing purpose both are usually packaged in plastic film. This research was conducted to predict the shelf life of packaged black pepper (both dried grain and powder by applying isotherm sorption and Labuza models. Initial moisture content of dried grain was 12.17 % d.b and for the powder was 10.27 % d.b. The shelf life of black pepper calculated for the dried grain was longer than the powder. When stored at 90 % RH, the dried grain black pepper packaged in HDPE demonstrated the longest shelf life which was equal to 2187 days and for the powder equal to 2037 days. The volatile oil loss for dried grain black pepper after 30 days of preservation was 1.36 % and for the powder was 40.82%.

  9. Braneworld black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    In these lectures, I give an introduction to and overview of braneworlds and black holes in the context of warped compactifications. I first describe the general paradigm of braneworlds, and introduce the Randall-Sundrum model. I discuss braneworld gravity, both using perturbation theory, and also non perturbative results. I then discuss black holes on the brane, the obstructions to finding exact solutions, and ways of tackling these difficulties. I describe some known solutions, and conclude with some open questions and controversies.

  10. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

  11. Electrically charged matter in permanent rotation around magnetized black hole: A toy model for self-gravitating fluid tori

    CERN Document Server

    Trova, A; Slany, P; Kovar, J

    2016-01-01

    We present an analytical approach for the equilibrium of a self-gravitating charged fluid embedded in a spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields produced by a central mass. Our scheme is proposed, as a toy-model, in the context of gaseous/dusty tori surrounding supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. While the central black hole dominates the gravitational field and it remains electrically neutral, the surrounding material has a non-negligible self-gravitational effect on the torus structure. By charging mechanisms it also acquires non-zero electric charge density, so the two influences need to be taken into account to achieve a self-consistent picture. With our approach we discuss the impact of self-gravity, represented by the term dt (ratio of the torus total mass to the mass of the central body), on the conditions for existence of the equilibrium and the morphology and typology of the tori. By comparison with a previous work without self-gravity, we show that the conditions can be different...

  12. Electrically Charged Matter in Permanent Rotation around Magnetized Black Holes: A Toy Model for Self-gravitating Fluid Tori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, A.; Karas, V.; Slaný, P.; Kovář, J.

    2016-09-01

    We present an analytical approach for the equilibrium of a self-gravitating charged fluid embedded in a spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields produced by a central mass. Our scheme is proposed, as a toy model, in the context of gaseous/dusty tori surrounding supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. While the central black hole dominates the gravitational field and remains electrically neutral, the surrounding material has a non-negligible self-gravitational effect on the torus structure. By charging mechanisms it also acquires non-zero electric charge density, so the two influences need to be taken into account to achieve a self-consistent picture. Using our approach we discuss the impact of self-gravity, represented by the term {d}{{t}} (ratio of the torus total mass to the mass of the central body), on the conditions for existence of the equilibrium and the morphology and typology of the tori. By comparison with a previous work without self-gravity, we show that the conditions can be different. Although the main aim of the present paper is to discuss a framework for the classification of electrically charged, magnetized, self-gravitating tori, we also mention potential astrophysical applications to vertically stratified fluid configurations.

  13. N -body modelling of globular clusters: masses, mass-to-light ratios and intermediate-mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, H.

    2017-01-01

    We have determined the masses and mass-to-light ratios of 50 Galactic globular clusters by comparing their velocity dispersion and surface brightness profiles against a large grid of 900 N-body simulations of star clusters of varying initial concentration, size and central black hole mass fraction. Our models follow the evolution of the clusters under the combined effects of stellar evolution and two-body relaxation allowing us to take the effects of mass segregation and energy equipartition between stars self-consistently into account. For a subset of 16 well-observed clusters, we also derive their kinematic distances. We find an average mass-to-light ratio of Galactic globular clusters of =1.98 ± 0.03, which agrees very well with the expected M/L ratio if the initial mass function (IMF) of the clusters was a standard Kroupa or Chabrier mass function. We do not find evidence for a decrease in the average mass-to-light ratio with metallicity. The surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of most globular clusters are incompatible with the presence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with more than a few thousand M⊙ in them. The only clear exception is ω Cen, where the velocity dispersion profile provides strong evidence for the presence of a ˜40 000 M⊙ IMBH in the centre of the cluster.

  14. N-body modeling of globular clusters: Masses, mass-to-light ratios and intermediate-mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, H.

    2016-10-01

    We have determined the masses and mass-to-light ratios of 50 Galactic globular clusters by comparing their velocity dispersion and surface brightness profiles against a large grid of 900 N-body simulations of star clusters of varying initial concentration, size and central black hole mass fraction. Our models follow the evolution of the clusters under the combined effects of stellar evolution and two-body relaxation allowing us to take the effects of mass segregation and energy equipartition between stars self-consistently into account. For a subset of 16 well observed clusters we also derive their kinematic distances. We find an average mass-to-light ratio of Galactic globular clusters of =1.98 ± 0.03, which agrees very well with the expected M/L ratio if the initial mass function (IMF) of the clusters was a standard Kroupa or Chabrier mass function. We do not find evidence for a decrease of the average mass-to-light ratio with metallicity. The surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of most globular clusters are incompatible with the presence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with more than a few thousand M⊙ in them. The only clear exception is ω Cen, where the velocity dispersion profile provides strong evidence for the presence of a ˜40,000 M⊙ IMBH in the centre of the cluster.

  15. Improved Dynamical Constraints on the Mass of the central Black Hole in NGC 404

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Dieu D; Brok, Mark den; Neumayer, Nadine; Cappellari, Michele; Barth, Aaron J; Caldwell, Nelson; Williams, Benjamin F; Binder, Breanna

    2016-01-01

    We explore the nucleus of the nearby 10$^9$\\Msun~early-type galaxy (ETGs), NGC~404, using \\emph{Hubble Space Telescope} (\\hst)/STIS spectroscopy and WFC3 imaging. We first present evidence for nuclear variability in UV, optical, and infrared filters over a time period of 15~years. This variability adds to the already substantial evidence for an accreting black hole at the center of NGC~404. We then redetermine the dynamical black hole mass in NGC~404 including modeling of the nuclear stellar populations. We combine \\hst/STIS spectroscopy with WFC3 images to create a local color--\\ml~relation derived from stellar population modeling of the STIS data. We then use this to create a mass model for the nuclear region. We use Jeans modeling to fit this mass model to adaptive optics (AO) stellar kinematic observations from Gemini/NIFS. From our stellar dynamical modeling, we find a 3$\\sigma$ upper limit on the black hole mass of $1.5\\times10^5$\\Msun. Given the accretion evidence for a black hole, this upper limit mak...

  16. Feeding and feedback in the active nucleus of Mrk 1157 probed with Gemini NIFS

    CERN Document Server

    Riffel, Rogemar A

    2011-01-01

    We have mapped the stellar and gaseous kinematics, as well as the emission-line flux distributions and ratios, from the inner 450pc radius of Mrk1157, using 2D near-IR spectra obtained with the Gemini NIFS at a spatial resolution of 35pc. The stellar velocity field shows a rotation pattern, with a discrete S-shaped zero velocity curve. The presence of a bar is also supported by the residual map between the observed rotation field and a model of circular orbits in a Plummer potential. The stellar velocity dispersion map presents a partial ring of low-sigma values (50-60km/s) at 250pc from the nucleus surrounded by higher sigma values from the galaxy bulge, originated in kinematically colder regions with recent star formation. The velocity dispersion of the bulge (100km/s) implies in a black hole mass of 8.3x10^6M_Sun. Emission-line flux distributions are most extended along PA=27/153deg, reaching at least 450pc from the nucleus and following the orientation observed in previous optical emission-line [OIII] ima...

  17. Line Emission from Cooling Accretion Flows in the Nucleus of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, S; Melia, F; Liu, Siming; Fromerth, Michael J.; Melia, Fulvio

    2002-01-01

    The recent Chandra X-ray observations of the nucleus of M31, combined with earlier VLA radio and HST UV spectral measurements, provide the strictest constraints on the nature of accretion onto the supermassive black hole (called M31* hereafter) in this region. One of the two newly-detected sources within roughly an arcsec of M31* may be its X-ray counterpart. If not, the X-ray flux from the nucleus must be even lower than inferred previously. Some uncertainty remains regarding the origin of the UV excess from the compact component known as P2. In our earlier analysis, we developed a unified picture for the broadband spectrum of this source. Contrary to the `standard' picture in which the infalling plasma attains temperatures in excess of 10^{10} K near the event horizon, the best fit model for M31*, under the assumption that the UV radiation is in fact produced by this source, appears to correspond to a cool branch solution, arising from strong line cooling inside the capture radius. Starting its infall with ...

  18. Quark confinement due to creation of micro AdS black holes in quarkonium model

    CERN Document Server

    Taki, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    We use the solution of the Dirac equation for quarkonium atom in the 4D Anti de sitter (AdS$_{4}$) space to investigate the effect of the large negative cosmological constant on the phenomenon of quark confinement. We do the required calculations in the AdS$_{4}$ space to indicate that large cosmological constant can describe the quark confinement. In fact using the coulomb potential in Dirac equation while we employ the AdS metric will additionally lead us to a linear potential in the quark-antiquark interaction which can be considered to explain the quark confinement. This confining term is arising essentially from the geometrical features of the space. On the other hand the origin of the large cosmological constant can be justified by assuming the appearance of micro black holes in the recent hadronic collision process which is now current, for instance, at the LHC project.

  19. Geometric Model of Black Hole Quantum N-portrait, Extradimensions and Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia M. Frassino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently a short scale modified black hole metric, known as holographic metric, has been proposed in order to capture the self-complete character of gravity. In this paper we show that such a metric can reproduce some geometric features expected from the quantum N-portrait beyond the semi-classical limit. We show that for a generic N this corresponds to having an effective energy momentum tensor in Einstein equations or, equivalently, non-local terms in the gravity action. We also consider the higher dimensional extension of the metric and the case of an AdS cosmological term. We provide a detailed thermodynamic analysis of both cases, with particular reference to the repercussions on the Hawking-Page phase transition.

  20. Modeling angle-resolved photoemission of graphene and black phosphorus nano structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Han; Kwon, Soonnam

    2016-05-10

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data on electronic structure are difficult to interpret, because various factors such as atomic structure and experimental setup influence the quantum mechanical effects during the measurement. Therefore, we simulated ARPES of nano-sized molecules to corroborate the interpretation of experimental results. Applying the independent atomic-center approximation, we used density functional theory calculations and custom-made simulation code to compute photoelectron intensity in given experimental setups for every atomic orbital in poly-aromatic hydrocarbons of various size, and in a molecule of black phosphorus. The simulation results were validated by comparing them to experimental ARPES for highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite. This database provides the calculation method and every file used during the work flow.

  1. Integrable spin chain for the SL(2,R)/U(1) black hole sigma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlef, Yacine; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert

    2012-02-24

    We introduce a spin chain based on finite-dimensional spin-1/2 SU(2) representations but with a non-Hermitian "Hamiltonian" and show, using mostly analytical techniques, that it is described at low energies by the SL(2,R)/U(1) Euclidian black hole conformal field theory. This identification goes beyond the appearance of a noncompact spectrum; we are also able to determine the density of states, and show that it agrees with the formulas in [J. Maldacena, H. Ooguri, and J. Son, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 42, 2961 (2001)] and [A. Hanany, N. Prezas, and J. Troost, J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2002) 014], hence providing a direct "physical measurement" of the associated reflection amplitude.

  2. The Magnetospheric Eternally Collapsing Object (MECO) Model of Galactic Black Hole Candidates and Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, S L; Robertson, Stanley L.; Leiter, Darryl J.

    2006-01-01

    The spectral, timing, and jet formation properties of neutron stars in low mass x-ray binary systems are influenced by the presence of central magnetic moments. Similar features shown by the galactic black hole candidates (GBHC) strongly suggest that their compact cores might be intrinsically magnetic as well. We show that the existence of intrinsically magnetic GBHC is consistent with a new class of solutions of the Einstein field equations of General Relativity. These solutions are based on a strict adherence to the Strong Principle of Equivalence (SPOE) requirement that the world lines of physical matter must remain timelike in all regions of spacetime. The new solutions emerge when the structure and radiation transfer properties of the energy momentum tensor on the right hand side of the Einstein field equations are appropriately chosen to dynamically enforce this SPOE requirement of timelike world line completeness. In this context, we find that the Einstein field equations allow the existence of highly ...

  3. Investigating the Climate Impacts of Black Carbon in GFDL's AM2.1 Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, G.; Ming, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Black carbon aerosols (BC) have been shown to significantly impact the climate system through their radiative effects. Many of the physical processes that drive BC climate impacts, however, are not yet well characterized across general circulation models. This has made it increasingly difficult to reach a consensus within the modeling community on how best to calculate BC radiative forcing in a way that is both representative and comparable between models. Calculation methodologies that include atmospheric perturbations, while more representative, are also more sensitive to model-specific representation of physical processes than those that do not. This study investigates the physical processes behind atmospheric perturbations due to BC using a modified version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AM2.1). The preindustrial control case is perturbed by inserting a globally uniform BC burden into the atmosphere at a series of layers, and the TOA flux change is analyzed. We use a theoretical framework to establish the robustness of the atmospheric response produced by the model in order to determine the comparability of forcing calculations derived using atmospheric perturbations in AM2.1. Responses vary based on the cloud environment and the level of BC emplacement. Results, however, exhibit robust correlation with theory with positive implications for the inclusion of the atmospheric response in the calculation of BC radiative forcing.

  4. A 5 × 10{sup 9}M{sub ⊙} BLACK HOLE IN NGC 1277 FROM ADAPTIVE OPTICS SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Jonelle L. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Yıldırım, Akın [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gebhardt, Karl [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Richstone, Douglas O.; Gültekin, Kayhan [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Husemann, Bernd, E-mail: walsh@physics.tamu.edu [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-20

    The nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 1277 is thought to host one of the largest black holes known, however the black hole mass measurement is based on low spatial resolution spectroscopy. In this paper, we present Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrometer observations assisted by adaptive optics. We map out the galaxy's stellar kinematics within ∼440 pc of the nucleus with an angular resolution that allows us to probe well within the region where the potential from the black hole dominates. We find that the stellar velocity dispersion rises dramatically, reaching ∼550 km s{sup −1} at the center. Through orbit-based, stellar-dynamical models we obtain a black hole mass of (4.9 ± 1.6) × 10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙} (1σ uncertainties). Although the black hole mass measurement is smaller by a factor of ∼3 compared to previous claims based on large-scale kinematics, NGC 1277 does indeed contain one of the most massive black holes detected to date, and the black hole mass is an order of magnitude larger than expectations from the empirical relation between black hole mass and galaxy luminosity. Given the galaxy's similarities to the higher redshift (z ∼ 2) massive quiescent galaxies, NGC 1277 could be a relic, passively evolving since that period. A population of local analogs to the higher redshift quiescent galaxies that also contain over-massive black holes may suggest that black hole growth precedes that of the host galaxy.

  5. Tidal disruption of asteroids by supermassive black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomboc A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The compact radio source Sgr A* at the centre of our Galaxy harbours a super-massive black hole, and is therefore the nearest laboratory for testing the super-massive black hole astrophysics and environment. Since it is not an active galactic nucleus, it also offers the possibility of observing the capture of low-mass objects, such as comets or asteroids, that may orbit the central black hole. In this paper we discuss conditions for tidal disruption of low-mass objects and predictions of the appearance and light curve of such events, as well as their relevance for the X-ray and infra-red flares detected in Sgr A*. The modelled light curves of such tidal disruption events bear marks of the strong gravitational field: tidal squeezing and elongation of the object, gravitational lensing, aberration of light, and Doppler effects. Finally, we show that this model is able to reproduce and fit X-ray flares.

  6. Global Radiation-Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Black Hole Accretion Flow and Outflow: Unified Model of Three States

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsuga, Ken; Mori, Masao; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Black-hole accretion systems are known to possess several distinct modes (or spectral states), such as low/hard state, high/soft state, and so on. Since the dynamics of the corresponding flows is distinct, theoretical models were separately discussed for each state. We here propose a unified model based on our new, global, two-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. By controlling a density normalization we could for the first time reproduce three distinct modes of accretion flow and outflow with one numerical code. When the density is large (model A), a geometrically thick, very luminous disk forms, in which photon trapping takes place. When the density is moderate (model B), the accreting gas can effectively cool by emitting radiation, thus generating a thin disk, i.e., the soft-state disk. When the density is too low for radiative cooling to be important (model C), a disk becomes hot, thick, and faint; i.e., the hard-state disk. The magnetic energy is amplified within the disk up to about tw...

  7. Modelling the high mass accretion rate spectra of GX 339-4: Black hole spin from reflection?

    CERN Document Server

    Kolehmainen, Mari; Trigo, Maria Diaz

    2011-01-01

    We extract all the XMM-Newton EPIC pn burst mode spectra of GX 339-4, together with simultaneous/contemporaneous RXTE data. These include three disc dominated and two soft intermediate spectra, and the combination of broad bandpass/moderate spectral resolution gives some of the best data on these bright soft states in black hole binaries. The disc dominated spectra span a factor three in luminosity, and all show that the disc emission is broader than the simplest multicolour disc model. This is consistent with the expected relativistic smearing and changing colour temperature correction produced by atomic features in the newest disc models. However, these models do not match the data at the 5 per cent level as the predicted atomic features are not present in the data, perhaps indicating that irradiation is important even when the high energy tail is weak. Whatever the reason, this means that the data have smaller errors than the best physical disc models, forcing use of more phenomenological models for the di...

  8. SIMPLEST DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF STOCK PRICE, ITS SOLUTION AND RELATION TO ASSUMPTION OF BLACK-SCHOLES MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云天铨; 雷光龙

    2003-01-01

    Two kinds of mathematical expressions of stock price, one of which based on certain description is the solution of the simplest differential equation (S.D.E.) obtained by method similar to that used in solid mechanics, the other based on uncertain description (i. e., the statistic theory) is the assumption of Black-Scholes's model (A.B-S.M.) in which the density function of stock price obeys logarithmic normal distribution, can be shown to be completely the same under certain equivalence relation of coefficients. The range of the solution of S.D.E. has been shown to be suited only for normal cases (no profit, or lost profit news, etc.) of stock market, so the same range is suited for A. B-S. M. as well.

  9. Quasielastic K-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, A D; Oset, E

    1997-01-01

    Quasielastic K^+ - nucleus scattering data at q=290, 390 and 480 MeV/c are analyzed in a finite nucleus continuum random phase approximation framework, using a density-dependent particle-hole interaction. The reaction mechanism is consistently treated according to Glauber theory, keeping up to two-step inelastic processes. A good description of the data is achieved, also providing a useful constraint on the strength of the effective particle-hole interaction in the scalar-isoscalar channel at intermediate momentum transfers. We find no evidence for the increase in the effective number of nucleons participating in the reaction which has been reported in the literature.

  10. Black Holes with Skyrme Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Shiiki, N; Shiiki, Noriko; Sawado, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    This paper is intended to give a review of the recent developments on black holes with Skyrme hair. The Einstein-Skyrme system is known to possess black hole solutions with Skyrme hair. The spherically symmetric black hole skyrmion with B=1 was the first discovered counter example of the no-hair conjecture for black holes. Recently we found the B=2 axially symmetric black hole skyrmion. In this system, the black hole at the center of the skyrmion absorbs the baryon number partially, leaving fractional charge outside the horizon. Therefore the baryon number is no longer conserved. We examine the B=1, 2 black hole solutions in detail in this paper. The model has a natural extension to the gauged version which can describe monopole black hole skyrmions. Callan and Witten discussed the monopole catalysis of proton decay within the Skyrme model. We apply the idea to the Einstein-Maxwell-Skyrme system and obtain monopole black hole skyrmions. Remarkably there exist multi-black hole skyrmion solutions in which the g...

  11. Stochastic Modelling in Financeand Monte Carlo Simulations with R. Part E:The Black-Scholes world%金融领域的随机建模与基于软件R的Monte Carlo模拟(5):Black-Scholes的世界

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛学荣; 李晓月

    2015-01-01

    主要研究了 Black-Scholes 模型.与Black-Scholes期权定价公式相比,将再次强调和证实利用 R 软件 Monte Carlo 模拟的强大作用.%The key aim of this serial papers is to study various stochastic models in finance with emphasis on the Monte Carlo simulations with R for these models.In this paper,we studied the Black-Scholes model,which was origi-nally established by Black and Scholes and later developed by Merton.Our emphasis is still on the Monte Carlo sim-ulations with R.Compared with the Black-Scholes formulas on the option values,we show once again the power of the Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  13. Active galactic nucleus feedback in clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Blanton, Elizabeth L; Sarazin, Craig L; Randall, Scott W; McNamara, Brian R; ),

    2010-01-01

    Observations made during the last ten years with the Chandra X-ray Observatory have shed much light on the cooling gas in the centers of clusters of galaxies and the role of active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating. Cooling of the hot intracluster medium in cluster centers can feed the supermassive black holes found in the nuclei of the dominant cluster galaxies leading to AGN outbursts which can reheat the gas, suppressing cooling and large amounts of star formation. AGN heating can come in the form of shocks, buoyantly rising bubbles that have been inflated by radio lobes, and the dissipation of sound waves.

  14. Modeled Influence of East Asian Black Carbon on Inter-Decadal Shifts in East China Summer Rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rashed MAHMOOD; LI Shuang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Two inter-decadal shifts in East China sum- mer rainfall during the last three decades of the 20th century have been identified. One shift occurred in the late 1970s and featured more rainfall in the Yangtze River valley and prolonged drought in North China. The other shift occurred in the early 1990s and featured increased rainfall in South China. The role of black carbon (BC) aerosol in the first shift event is controversial, and it has not been documented for the second event. In this study, the authors used Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL's) atmospheric general circulation model known as Atmosphere and Land Model (AM2.1), which has been shown to capture East Asian climate variability well, to investigate these issues by conducting sensitive experiments with or without historical BC in East Asia. The results suggest that the model reproduces the first shift well, including intensified rainfall in the Yangtze River and weakened monsoonal circulation. However, the model captures only a fraction of the observed variations for the second shift event. Thus, the role of BC in modu- lating the two shift events is different, and its impact is relatively less important for the early 1990s event.

  15. Developing Fully Coupled Dynamical Reactor Core Isolation System Models in RELAP-7 for Extended Station Black-Out Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang; David Andrs; Richard Martineau

    2014-04-01

    The reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system in a boiling water reactor (BWR) provides makeup water to the reactor vessel for core cooling when the main steam lines are isolated and the normal supply of water to the reactor vessel is lost. It was one of the very few safety systems still available during the Fukushima Daiichi accidents after the tsunamis hit the plants and the system successfully delayed the core meltdown for a few days for unit 2 & 3. Therefore, detailed models for RCIC system components are indispensable to understand extended station black-out accidents (SBO) for BWRs. As part of the effort to develop the new generation reactor system safety analysis code RELAP-7, major components to simulate the RCIC system have been developed. This paper describes the models for those components such as turbine, pump, and wet well. Selected individual component test simulations and a simplified SBO simulation up to but before core damage is presented. The successful implementation of the simplified RCIC and wet well models paves the way to further improve the models for safety analysis by including more detailed physical processes in the near future.

  16. Scientific models red atoms, white lies and black boxes in a yellow book

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlee, Philip

    2016-01-01

    A zebrafish, the hull of a miniature ship, a mathematical equation and a food chain - what do these things have in common? They are examples of models used by scientists to isolate and study particular aspects of the world around us. This book begins by introducing the concept of a scientific model from an intuitive perspective, drawing parallels to mental models and artistic representations. It then recounts the history of modelling from the 16th century up until the present day. The iterative process of model building is described and discussed in the context of complex models with high predictive accuracy versus simpler models that provide more of a conceptual understanding. To illustrate the diversity of opinions within the scientific community, we also present the results of an interview study, in which ten scientists from different disciplines describe their views on modelling and how models feature in their work. Lastly, it includes a number of worked examples that span different modelling approaches a...

  17. Hydrological response to Black Carbon deposition in seasonally snow covered catchments in Norway using two different atmospheric transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, F.; Burkhart, J. F.; Pietikäinen, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Black Carbon (BC) has been shown to significantly impact snow melt through lowering the albedo of snow and increasing the absorption rate of short wave radiation. Yet few studies have investigated the effect of the enhanced melt on hydrological variability. BC sources for Norway are rather remote and deposition rates low. However, once deposited on snow even low concentrations of BC can have a detectable effect on the snow melt. Variations in snow melt have a direct impact on the snow cover duration and the timing and magnitude of peak outflow. In this study, we use two different atmospheric transport models (the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model FELXPART and the regional aerosol-climate model REMO-HAM) and GAINS emissions to simulate deposition rates over Norway and Statkraft's Hydrologic Forecasting Toolbox (ShyFT) to simulate the impact of BC deposition on the seasonal snow melt. The Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model coupled to the snow routine of the hydrological model is used to determine the albedo of the snow as a function of the BC concentration in two snow layers. To investigate the impact range of BC on the seasonal snow melt, we simulate the catchment hydrology of catchments in south-east, south-west and northern Norway under the impact of deposition rates from both transport models, respectively. Comparing the deposition rates from the two transport models, we observe large differences in the seasonal cycle which in turn results in a significantly different response in the snow melt. Furthermore, we investigate the overall impact of BC deposition on the snow melt and duration on a catchment scale for both transport models.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PROCESS OF BLACK CURRANT BERRIES DRYING IN VACUUMDEVICE WITH THE MICROWAVE POWER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The mathematical model allowed to reproduce and study at qualitative level the change of berries form and the structure of the berries layer in the course of drying. The separate berry in the course of drying loses gradually its elasticity, decreases in volume, the peel gathers in folds, there appear internal emptiness. In the course of drying the berries layer decreases in thickness, contacting berries stick strongly with each other due to the coordinated folds of peel appearing, the layer is condensed due to penetration of the berries which have lost elasticity into emptiness between them. The model with high specification describes black currant drying process and therefore has a large number of the parameters available to change. Among them three most important technological parameters, influencing productivity and the drying quality are chosen: the power of microwave radiation P, thickness of the berries layer h, environmental pressure p. From output indicators of the model the most important are three functions from time: dependence of average humidity of the layer on time Wcp (t, dependence of the speed of change of average humidity on time dWcp (t/dt, dependence of the layer average temperature on time Tср (t. On the standard models classification the offered model is algorithmic, but not analytical. It means that output characteristics of model are calculated with the entrance ones, not by analytical transformations (it is impossible principally for the modeled process, but by means of spatial and temporary sampling and the corresponding calculation algorithm. Detailed research of the microwave drying process by means of the model allows to allocate the following stages: fast heating, the fast dehydration, the slowed-down dehydration, consolidation of a layer of a product, final drying, heating after dehydration.

  19. Evaluation of black carbon emission inventories using a Lagrangian dispersion model – a case study over Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Gadhavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated three emission inventories of black carbon (BC using Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations and BC observations from a rural site in Southern India (Gadanki; 13.48° N, 79.18° E from 2008 to 2012. We found that 93 to 95% of the BC load at the observation site originated from emissions in India and the rest from the neighbouring countries and shipping. A substantial fraction (33 to 43% of the BC was transported from Northern India. Wet deposition is found to play a minor role in reducing BC mass at the site because of its proximity to BC sources during rainy season and relatively short rainy season over western and northern parts of India. Seasonally, the highest BC concentration (approx. 3.3 μg m−3 is observed during winter, followed by spring (approx. 2.8 μg m−3. While the model reproduced well the seasonal cycle, the modelled BC concentrations are significantly lower than observed values, especially in spring. The model bias is correlated to fire radiative power – a proxy of open biomass burning activity. Using potential emission sensitivity maps derived using the model, we suggest that underestimation of BC mass in the model during spring is due to the underestimation of BC fluxes over Southern India (possibly from open-biomass-burning/forest-fires. The overall performance of the model simulations using three different emission inventories (SAFAR-India, ECLIPSE and RETRO is similar, with ECLIPSE and SAFAR-India performing marginally better as both have about 30% higher emissions for India than RETRO. The ratio of observed to modelled annual mean BC concentration was estimated as 1.5 for SAFAR, 1.7 for ECLIPSE and 2.4 for RETRO.

  20. Educational Borrowing as Negotiation: Re-Examining the Influence of the American Black Industrial Education Model on British Colonial Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shoko

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which American educational ideas made an impact on policy-making and practice of education in British African colonies between the two World Wars. The analysis re-examines the apparent "borrowing" of American black industrial education models for application in Africa. It is argued that, while the view…

  1. Educational Borrowing as Negotiation: Re-Examining the Influence of the American Black Industrial Education Model on British Colonial Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shoko

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which American educational ideas made an impact on policy-making and practice of education in British African colonies between the two World Wars. The analysis re-examines the apparent "borrowing" of American black industrial education models for application in Africa. It is argued that, while the view that…

  2. A climatic potentiality model for black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) in Teruel (Spain); Un modelo de potencialidad climatica para la trufa negra (Tuber melanosporum) en Teruel (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Ponce, R.; Agueda, B.; Agreda, T.; Modrego, M. P.; Aldea, J.; Martinez-Pena

    2010-07-01

    Black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) is an edible ectomycorrhizal mushroom whose cultivation is an economicallyviable alternative in rural areas affected by depopulation. In the province of Teruel (Spain), truffle plantations occupy nowadays more than 4,500 ha, but no land use planning guidelines have been available. Species distribution models are tools that allow managers, farmers and foresters to plan ahead and make decisions with a scientific basis. The territory climatically suitable for T. melanosporum in Teruel has been predicted using a method based on the ecology field theory, previously tested in the development of distribution models for forest species. A dataset of 924 locations where black truffle has been collected in the Catalano-Aragonesa ecoregion and eight climatic parameters deeply influencing the presence and fructification of the black truffle have been considered and their corresponding habitats have been built. The distribution model, corrected under lithological criteria, has identified more than 8,000 km2 as suitable for black truffle fructification in Teruel, almost 55% of the province, belonging 3,000 of them to the optimal class. This land is mainly distributed over the regions of Gudar-Javalambre, Comunidad de Teruel and Maestrazgo. A further correction based on land-use criteria has identified more than 4,000 km{sup 2} as suitable for truffle plantations, being 1,150 of them optimal. The model here presented will help to a proper planning for truffle cultivation in the province of Teruel. (Author) 67 refs.

  3. Gas Accretion onto a Supermassive Black Hole: a step to model AGN feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Nagamine, Kentaro; Proga, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We study the gas accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH) using the 3D SPH code GADGET-3 on scales of 0.1-200 pc. First we test our code with spherically symmetric, adiabatic Bondi accretion problem. We find that our simulation can reproduce the expected Bondi accretion flow very well for a limited amount of time until the effect of outer boundary starts to be visible. We also find artificial heating of gas near the inner accretion boundary due to the artificial viscosity of SPH. Second, we implement radiative cooling and heating due to X-rays, and examine the impact of thermal feedback by the central X-ray source. The accretion flow roughly follows the Bondi solution for low central X-ray luminosities, however, the flow starts to exhibit non-spherical fragmentation due to thermal instability for a certain range of central L_X, and a strong overall outflow develops for greater L_X. The cold gas develops filamentary structures that fall into the central SMBH, whereas the hot gas tries to escape through ...

  4. Post-Newtonian dynamical modeling of supermassive black holes in galactic-scale simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rantala, Antti; Johansson, Peter H; Naab, Thorsten; Lahén, Natalia; Sawala, Till

    2016-01-01

    We present KETJU, a new extension of GADGET-3 based on algorithmic chain regularization. The key feature of the code is the inclusion of regularized regions around every supermassive black hole (SMBH). This allows for simultaneously following global galactic-scale dynamical and astrophysical processes, while solving the dynamics of SMBHs, SMBH binaries and surrounding stellar systems at sub-parsec scales. The KETJU code includes Post-Newtonian terms in the equations of motions of the SMBHs which enables a new SMBH merger criterion based on the gravitational wave coalescence timescale pushing the merger separation of SMBHs down to $\\sim 0.005 \\ \\rm pc$. We test the performance of our code by comparison to NBODY7 and rVINE. We set up dynamically stable multi-component merger progenitor galaxies to study the SMBH binary evolution during galaxy mergers. In our simulation sample the SMBH binaries do not suffer from the final-parsec problem, which we attribute to the triaxiality of the merger remnants. For bulge-on...

  5. Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes: A Simple GR-Hybrid Evolution Model

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Stuart L

    2013-01-01

    We consider a geometrically thin, Keplerian disk in the orbital plane of a binary black hole (BHBH) consisting of a spinning primary and low-mass secondary (mass ratio q < 1). To account for the principle effects of general relativity (GR), we propose a modification of the standard Newtonian evolution equation for the (orbit-averaged) time-varying disk surface density. In our modified equation the viscous torque in the disk is treated in full GR, while the tidal torque is handled in the Newtonian limit. Our GR-hybrid treatment is reasonable because the tidal torque is concentrated near the orbital radius of the secondary and is most important prior to binary-disk decoupling, when the orbital separation is large and resides in the weak-field regime. The tidal torque on the disk diminishes during late merger and vanishes altogether following merger. By contrast, the viscous torque drives the flow into the strong-field region and onto the primary during all epochs. Following binary coalescence, the viscous to...

  6. 非线性Black-Scholes期权定价模型的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈迎姿; 王晚生

    2016-01-01

    Black-Scholes option pricing equation is one of the biggest achievements in modern financial theory. With the rapid development of the options market, the study of the option pricing theory is changed from linear to nonlinear. We use Newton iterative method for the numerical solution to nonlinear equations derived from the option pricing equation by implicit Euler method and finite difference method. The numerical results confirm the unconditional stability and convergence of the method.%Black-Scholes期权定价方程是现代金融理论最大的成就之一,随着期权市场的快速发展,对期权定价理论的研究由线性转变为非线性。本文利用牛顿迭代法直接解由隐式Euler方法及有限差分法离散所得的非线性代数方程组。通过MATLAB编写相应的程序,并对不同网格下求得的数值解进行对比,结果表明该方法是无条件稳定的和收敛的。

  7. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steven L Liebling

    2000-10-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  8. CASTOR Centauro and Strange Object Research in nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelis, Aris L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Chileev, K; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Golubeva, M B; Guber, F F; Karavitcheva, T L; Kharlov, Yu V; Kurepin, A B; Mavromanolakis, G; Panagiotou, A D; Sadovsky, S A; Tiflov, V V; Wlodarczyk, Z

    2002-01-01

    We describe the CASTOR detector designed to probe the very forward, baryon-rich rapidity region in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. We present a phenomenological model describing the formation of a QGP fireball in a high baryochemical potential environment, and its subsequent decay into baryons and strangelets. The model explains Centauros and the long-penetrating component and makes predictions for the LHC. Simulations of Centauro-type events were done. To study the response of the apparatus to new effects different exotic species (DCC, Centauros, strangelets etc.) were passed through the deep calorimeter. The energy deposition pattern in the calorimeter appears to be a new clear signature of the QGP.

  9. Matching post-Newtonian and numerical relativity waveforms: systematic errors and a new phenomenological model for non-precessing black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Santamaria, L; Ajith, P; Bruegmann, B; Dorband, N; Hannam, M; Husa, S; Moesta, P; Pollney, D; Reisswig, C; Seiler, J; Krishnan, B

    2010-01-01

    We present a new phenomenological gravitational waveform model for he inspiral and coalescence of non-precessing spinning black hole binaries. Our approach is based on a frequency domain matching of post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms with numerical relativity based binary black hole coalescence waveforms. We quantify the various possible sources of systematic errors that arise in matching post-Newtonian and numerical relativity waveforms, and we use a matching criteria based on minimizing these errors; we find that the dominant source of errors are those in the post-Newtonian waveforms near the merger. An analytical formula for the dominant mode of the gravitational radiation of non-precessing black hole binaries is presented that captures the phenomenology of the hybrid waveforms. Its implementation in the current searches for gravitational waves should allow cross-checks of other inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform families and improve the reach of gravitational wave searches.

  10. Black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. outbursting black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We then turn to the role of advection in accretion flow onto black holes illustrating its action and importance with a toy model describing both ADAFs and slim discs. We conclude with a presentation of the general-relativistic formalism describing accretion discs in the Kerr space-time.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF BLACK CURRANT BERRIES DRYING PROCESS IN VACUUM DEVICE WITH THE MICROWAVE POWER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The mathematical model of black currant berries drying process in vacuum device with the microwave power supply, differing in high space and temporary specification is developed, the structure of separate berries and a layer of berries is considered, heat- and physical parameters depend on coordinate and time as well as in the accounting of berries form change and a berries layer structure in the dehydration process. We used the particles dynamics method for modeling of mechanical behavior of berries which is increasingly being used now in different branches of science and technology. To give the model the high space specification the modeled berries layer consists of 20–50 separate berries, each berry depending on diameter being broken into approximately 100 separate elements. Berries elements are divided into 3 types depending on the physical properties (peel, pulp, seeds. Therefore, in general, from the point of space detail, a layer of berries consists of 2000- 5000 elements. Modeling is carried out in two-dimensional Cartesian space X–Z. The condition of each element of circle is set by four variables: Cartesian coordinates of its center and two components of speed. Mechanical interaction of elements among themselves is accepted to be viscous and elastic that allows to consider the main mechanical properties of berries – the elasticity module, internal friction index. Within the developed model it is considered that between the neighbor elements there can be pushing away forces (at the introduction of elements into each other, or attractions (at a distance of the linked elements from each other. The description of the processes of warm and moisture exchange between the elements as well as between the elements and environment is based upon the standard equations of drying. In model it is considered that the microwave power brought is redistributed in the heated volume in proportion to elements moisture.

  12. Ultramassive Black Hole Coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Fazeel; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gr...

  13. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  14. A Model of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Black Currant Juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Andrésen, René;

    2011-01-01

    A numerical model to describe a direct contact membrane distillation proces has been developed. Said model is based on the Dusty Gas model and shell mass and energy balances over a tubular membrane module.  "The solution is applicable to laminar, incompressible and continuous flow in shell-side s...

  15. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

    2014-11-27

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

  16. Modelled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, A.; Kondo, Y.; Li, S.-M.; Moteki, N.; Koike, M.; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, J. P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Penner, J. E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Zhang, K.

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) absorbs solar radiation, and exacerbates global warming through exerting positive radiative forcing (RF). However, the contribution of BC to ongoing changes in global climate is under debate. Anthropogenic BC emissions, and the resulting distribution of BC concentration, are highly uncertain. In particular, long-range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood. Here we discuss whether recent assessments may have overestimated present-day BC radiative forcing in remote regions. We compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns to simulations by 13 aerosol models participating in the AeroCom Phase II intercomparison. An atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in remote ocean regions, in line with other recent studies. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in AeroCom Phase II median direct BC forcing, from fossil fuel and biofuel burning, over the industrial era. The sensitivity of modelled forcing to BC vertical profile and lifetime highlights an urgent need for further flight campaigns, close to sources and in remote regions, to provide improved quantification of BC effects for use in climate policy.

  17. Modeled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Samset

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric black carbon (BC absorbs solar radiation, and exacerbates global warming through exerting positive radiative forcing (RF. However, the contribution of BC to ongoing changes in global climate is under debate. Anthropogenic BC emissions, and the resulting distribution of BC concentration, are highly uncertain. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood. Here we discuss whether recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing in remote regions. We compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns to simulations by 13 aerosol models participating in the AeroCom Phase II intercomparision. An atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in remote ocean regions, in line with other recent studies. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in AeroCom Phase II median direct BC forcing, from fossil fuel and biofuel burning, over the industrial era. The sensitivity of modeled forcing to BC vertical profile and lifetime highlights an urgent need for further flight campaigns, close to sources and in remote regions, to provide improved quantification of BC effects for use in climate policy.

  18. Confirming the thermal Comptonization model for black hole X-ray emission in the low-hard state

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, M; Braga, J; Maiolino, T; Pottschmidt, K; Wilms, J

    2014-01-01

    Hard X-ray spectra of black hole binaries in the low/hard state are well modeled by thermal Comptonization of soft seed photons by a corona-type region with $kT$\\thinspace$\\sim 50${\\thinspace}keV and optical depth around 1. Previous spectral studies of 1E{\\thinspace}1740.7$-$2942, including both the soft and the hard X-ray bands, were always limited by gaps in the spectra or by a combination of observations with imaging and non-imaging instruments. In this study, we have used three rare nearly-simultaneous observations of 1E{\\thinspace}1740.7$-$1942 by both XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL satellites to combine spectra from four different imaging instruments with no data gaps, and we successfully applied the Comptonization scenario to explain the broadband X-ray spectra of this source in the low/hard state. For two of the three observations, our analysis also shows that, models including Compton reflection can adequately fit the data, in agreement with previous reports. We show that the observations can also be modele...

  19. Modeling the Optical-X-ray Accretion Lag in LMC X-3: Insights Into Black-Hole Accretion Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Steiner, James F; Orosz, Jerome A; Buxton, Michelle M; Bailyn, Charles D; Remillard, Ronald A; Kara, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray persistence and characteristically soft spectrum of the black hole X-ray binary LMC X-3 make this source a touchstone for penetrating studies of accretion physics. We analyze a rich, 10-year collection of optical/infrared (OIR) time-series data in conjunction with all available contemporaneous X-ray data collected by the ASM and PCA detectors aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. A cross-correlation analysis reveals an X-ray lag of ~2 weeks. Motivated by this result, we develop a model that reproduces the complex OIR light curves of LMC X-3. The model is comprised of three components of emission: stellar light; accretion luminosity from the outer disk inferred from the time-lagged X-ray emission; and light from the X-ray-heated star and outer disk. Using the model, we filter a strong noise component out of the ellipsoidal light curves and derive an improved orbital period for the system. Concerning accretion physics, we find that the local viscous timescale in the disk increases with the local mas...

  20. Modeled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, A.; Kondo, Y.; Li, S.-M.; Moteki, N.; Koike, M.; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, J. P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Penner, J. E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Zhang, K.

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) absorbs solar radiation, and exacerbates global warming through exerting positive radiative forcing (RF). However, the contribution of BC to ongoing changes in global climate is under debate. Anthropogenic BC emissions, and the resulting distribution of BC concentration, are highly uncertain. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood. Here we discuss whether recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing in remote regions. We compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns to simulations by 13 aerosol models participating in the AeroCom Phase II intercomparision. An atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in remote ocean regions, in line with other recent studies. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in AeroCom Phase II median direct BC forcing, from fossil fuel and biofuel burning, over the industrial era. The sensitivity of modeled forcing to BC vertical profile and lifetime highlights an urgent need for further flight campaigns, close to sources and in remote regions, to provide improved quantification of BC effects for use in climate policy.

  1. A jet emission model to probe the dynamics of accretion and ejection coupling in black hole X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malzac, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Compact jets are probably the most common form of jets in X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei. They seem to be present in all sources in the so-called hard X-ray spectral state. They are characterised by a nearly flat Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) extending from the radio to the infrared bands. This emission is usually interpreted as partially self absorbed synchrotron emission from relativistic leptons accelerated in the jet. The observed flat spectral shape requires energy dissipation and acceleration of particules over a wide range of distances along the jet. This distributed energy dissipation is likely to be powered by internal shocks caused by fluctuations of the outflow velocity. I will discuss such an internal shock model in the context of black hole binaries. I will show that internal shocks can produce the observed SEDs and also predict a strong, wavelength dependent, variability that resembles the observed one. The assumed velocity fluctuations of the jet must originate in the accretion flow. The model thus predicts a strong connection between the observable properties of the jet in the radio to IR bands, and the variability of the accretion flow as observed in X-rays. If the model is correct, this offers a unique possibility to probe the dynamics of the coupled accretion and ejection processes leading to the formation of compact jets.

  2. The timing of the Black Sea flood event: Insights from modeling of glacial isostatic adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Samuel L.; Lau, Harriet C. P.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Latychev, Konstantin

    2016-10-01

    We present a suite of gravitationally self-consistent predictions of sea-level change since Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the vicinity of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits that combine signals associated with glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and the flooding of the Black Sea. Our predictions are tuned to fit a relative sea level (RSL) record at the island of Samothrace in the north Aegean Sea and they include realistic 3-D variations in viscoelastic structure, including lateral variations in mantle viscosity and the elastic thickness of the lithosphere, as well as weak plate boundary zones. We demonstrate that 3-D Earth structure and the magnitude of the flood event (which depends on the pre-flood level of the lake) both have significant impact on the predicted RSL change at the location of the Bosphorus sill, and therefore on the inferred timing of the marine incursion. We summarize our results in a plot showing the predicted RSL change at the Bosphorus sill as a function of the timing of the flood event for different flood magnitudes up to 100 m. These results suggest, for example, that a flood event at 9 ka implies that the elevation of the sill was lowered through erosion by ∼14-21 m during, and after, the flood. In contrast, a flood event at 7 ka suggests erosion of ∼24-31 m at the sill since the flood. More generally, our results will be useful for future research aimed at constraining the details of this controversial, and widely debated geological event.

  3. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus preferentially alters the translational profile of striatopallidal neurons in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman eKamali Sarvestani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS is an effective surgical treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD, the precise neuronal mechanisms of which both at molecular and network levels remain a topic of debate. Here we employ two transgenic mouse lines, combining translating ribosomal affinity purification (TRAP with bacterial artificial chromosome expression (Bac, to selectively identify changes in translational gene expression in either Drd1a-expressing striatonigral or Drd2-expressing striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs of the striatum following STN-DBS. 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned mice received either 5 days stimulation via a DBS electrode implanted in the ipsilateral STN or 5 days sham treatment (no stimulation. Striatal polyribosomal RNA was selectively purified from either Drd2 or Drd1a MSNs using the TRAP method and gene expression profiling performed. We identified 8 significantly altered genes in Drd2 MSNs (Vps33b, Ppp1r3c, Mapk4, Sorcs2, Neto1, Abca1, Penk1 and Gapdh and 2 overlapping genes in Drd1a MSNs (Penk1 and Ppp1r3c implicated in the molecular mechanisms of STN-DBS. A detailed functional analysis, using a further 728 probes implicated in STN-DBS, suggested an increased ability to receive excitation (mediated by increased dendritic spines, increased calcium influx and enhanced excitatory post synaptic potentials accompanied by processes that would hamper the initiation of action potentials, transport of neurotransmitters from soma to axon terminals and vesicular release in Drd2-expressing MSNs. Finally, changes in expression of several genes involved in apoptosis as well as cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism were also identified. This increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms induced by STN-DBS may reveal novel targets for future non-surgical therapies for PD.

  4. Automated pipeline to analyze non-contact infrared images of the paraventricular nucleus specific leptin receptor knock-out mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Martinez, Myriam; Ghamari-Langroudi, Masoud; Gifford, Aliya; Cone, Roger; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    Evidence of leptin resistance is indicated by elevated leptin levels together with other hallmarks of obesity such as a defect in energy homeostasis.1 As obesity is an increasing epidemic in the US, the investigation of mechanisms by which leptin resistance has a pathophysiological impact on energy is an intensive field of research.2 However, the manner in which leptin resistance contributes to the dysregulation of energy, specifically thermoregulation,3 is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the leptin receptor expressed in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons plays a role in thermoregulation at different temperatures. Non-contact infrared (NCIR) thermometry was employed to measure surface body temperature (SBT) of nonanesthetized mice with a specific deletion of the leptin receptor in the PVN after exposure to room (25 °C) and cold (4 °C) temperature. Dorsal side infrared images of wild type (LepRwtwt/sim1-Cre), heterozygous (LepRfloxwt/sim1-Cre) and knock-out (LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre) mice were collected. Images were input to an automated post-processing pipeline developed in MATLAB to calculate average and maximum SBTs. Linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between sex, cold exposure and leptin genotype with SBT measurements. Findings indicate that average SBT has a negative relationship to the LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre genotype, the female sex and cold exposure. However, max SBT is affected by the LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre genotype and the female sex. In conclusion this data suggests that leptin within the PVN may have a neuroendocrine role in thermoregulation and that NCIR thermometry combined with an automated imaging-processing pipeline is a promising approach to determine SBT in non-anesthetized mice.

  5. Geometry of black hole spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Lars; Blue, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    These notes, based on lectures given at the summer school on Asymptotic Analysis in General Relativity, collect material on the Einstein equations, the geometry of black hole spacetimes, and the analysis of fields on black hole backgrounds. The Kerr model of a rotating black hole in vacuum is expected to be unique and stable. The problem of proving these fundamental facts provides the background for the material presented in these notes. Among the many topics which are relevant for the uniqueness and stability problems are the theory of fields on black hole spacetimes, in particular for gravitational perturbations of the Kerr black hole, and more generally, the study of nonlinear field equations in the presence of trapping. The study of these questions requires tools from several different fields, including Lorentzian geometry, hyperbolic differential equations and spin geometry, which are all relevant to the black hole stability problem.

  6. Azimuthal correlation and collective behavior in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mali, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A., E-mail: amitabha-62@rediffmail.com; Sarkar, S. [University of North Bengal, Department of Physics (India); Singh, G. [SUNY at Fredonia, Department of Computer and Information Science (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Various flow effects of nuclear and hadronic origin are investigated in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Nuclear emulsion data collected from {sup 84}Kr + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 1.52 GeV per nucleon and from {sup 28}Si + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 14.5 GeV per nucleon are used in the investigation. The transverse momentum distribution and the flow angle analysis show that collective behavior, like a bounce-off effect of the projectile spectators and a sidesplash effect of the target spectators, are present in our event samples. From an azimuthal angle analysis of the data we also see a direct flow of the projectile fragments and of the produced charged particles. On the other hand, for both data samples the target fragments exhibit a reverse flow, while the projectile fragments exhibit an elliptic flow. Relevant flow parameters are measured.

  7. Transverse Energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tincknell, M.

    1988-11-15

    The status of Transverse Energy (E/sub T/) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS is reviewed. The definition of E/sub T/ and its physical significance are discussed. The basic techniques and limitations of the experimental measurements are presented. The acceptances of the major experiments to be discussed are shown, along with remarks about their idiosyncrasies. The data demonstrate that the nuclear geometry of colliding spheres primarily determines the shapes of the observed spectra. Careful account of the acceptances is crucial to comparing and interpreting results. It is concluded that nuclear stopping power is high, and that the amount of energy deposited into the interaction volume is increasing with beam energy even at SPS energies. The energy densities believed to be obtained at the SPS are close to the critical values predicted for the onset of a quark-gluon plasma. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Dimuon enhancement in nucleus-nucleus ultrarelativistic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordalo, Paula; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Bohrani, A.; Boldea, V.; Bussiere, A.; Capelli, L.; Caponi, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constans, N.; Constantinescu, S.; Contardo, D.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Ducroux, L.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Ferreira, R.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Gorodetzky, P.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkanyan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kossakowski, R.; Kurepin, A.B.; Landau, G.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Luquin, L.; Macciotta, P.; Mac Cormick, M.; Mandry, R.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Monteno, M.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Ropotar, I.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Sitta, M.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.L.; Varela, J.; Vercellin, E.; Villatte, L

    1999-12-27

    The study of muon pairs in the mass region 1.5 < M{sub {mu}}{sub {mu}} < 2.5 GeV/c{sup 2} in 450 GeV/c p-A, 200 GeV/nucleon S-U and 158 GeV/nucleon Pb-Pb collisions is presented. In p-A interactions, the dimuon signal mass spectra are well described by a superposition of Drell-Yan and charmed meson semi-leptonic decay contributions, in agreement with previous experiments when considering a linear A dependence. In nucleus-nucleus reactions, taking only into account these two physical ingredients, a dimuon enhancement both with increasing A{center_dot}B and centrality is observed.

  9. Reaction cross sections of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Sagawa, H

    2012-01-01

    Using the Glauber theory, we calculate reaction cross sections for the deformed halo nucleus $^{31}$Ne. To this end, we assume that the $^{31}$Ne nucleus takes the $^{30}$Ne + $n$ structure. In order to take into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus $^{30}$Ne, we employ the particle-rotor model (PRM). We compare the results to those in the adiabatic limit of PRM, that is, the Nilsson model, and show that the Nilsson model works reasonably well for the reaction cross sections of $^{31}$Ne. We also investigate the dependence of the reaction cross sections on the ground state properties of $^{31}$Ne, such as the deformation parameter and the p-wave component in the ground state wave function.

  10. A quantum model of option pricing: When Black-Scholes meets Schrödinger and its semi-classical limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mauricio; Pellicer, Rely; Villena, Marcelo; Ruiz, Aaron

    2010-12-01

    The Black-Scholes equation can be interpreted from the point of view of quantum mechanics, as the imaginary time Schrödinger equation of a free particle. When deviations of this state of equilibrium are considered, as a product of some market imperfection, such as: Transaction cost, asymmetric information issues, short-term volatility, extreme discontinuities, or serial correlations; the classical non-arbitrage assumption of the Black-Scholes model is violated, implying a non-risk-free portfolio. From Haven (2002) [1] we know that an arbitrage environment is a necessary condition to embedding the Black-Scholes option pricing model in a more general quantum physics setting. The aim of this paper is to propose a new Black-Scholes-Schrödinger model based on the endogenous arbitrage option pricing formulation introduced by Contreras et al. (2010) [2]. Hence, we derive a more general quantum model of option pricing, that incorporates arbitrage as an external time dependent force, which has an associated potential related to the random dynamic of the underlying asset price. This new resultant model can be interpreted as a Schrödinger equation in imaginary time for a particle of mass 1/σ2 with a wave function in an external field force generated by the arbitrage potential. As pointed out above, this new model can be seen as a more general formulation, where the perfect market equilibrium state postulated by the Black-Scholes model represent a particular case. Finally, since the Schrödinger equation is in place, we can apply semiclassical methods, of common use in theoretical physics, to find an approximate analytical solution of the Black-Scholes equation in the presence of market imperfections, as it is the case of an arbitrage bubble. Here, as a numerical illustration of the potential of this Schrödinger equation analogy, the semiclassical approximation is performed for different arbitrage bubble forms (step, linear and parabolic) and compare with the exact

  11. Problema de calibración de mercado y estructura implícita del modelo de bonos de Black-Cox || Market Calibration Problem and the Implied Structure of the Black-Cox Bond Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Jiménez, Lisette Josefina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El principal resultado de este artículo consiste en la resolución del problema inverso del modelo de Black-Cox (1976, usando el método propuesto por Sukhomlin (2007. Se parte del enfoque retrógrado (backward para obtener una expresión exacta de la volatilidad implícita en función de parámetros cuantificables con datos de mercado y de variables conocidas. Se descubre la existencia de dos valores de la volatilidad para un activo subyacente en elmodelo referido, lo que indica que las asunciones tradicionales no lo definen de manera unívoca. Se encuentra la causa de que el modelo de Black-Cox contenga dos valores de la volatilidad. Además, se lleva a cabo una simulación, afin de verificar, numéricamente, que la expresión obtenida para la volatilidad es la inversión de la fórmula que representa la probabilidad de que la firma no alcance un nivel de insolvencia antes del tiempo de madurez de la deuda. Finalmente, se resuelve el problema de calibración de mercadodesde el punto de vista directo (forward, encontrándose una expresión que resulta de mayor utilidad para los agentes de mercado. || The main result of this paper consists in the resolution of the inverse problem for the Black-Cox (1976 model, using the method proposed by Sukhomlin (2007. Based on the backward approach, we obtain an exact expression of the implied volatility expressed as a function of quantifiable market parameters and known variables. We discover the existence of two values of the volatility for an underlying asset, in the referred model, which means that the model's traditional assumptions do not define it univocally. We findthe cause that the Black-Cox model contains two values of the volatility. Besides, we carry out a simulation in order to verify, numerically, that our volatility expression is in fact the inversion of the formula that represents the probability that the firm has not reached the reorganization boundary before the debt expires. Finally, we

  12. CASTOR: Centauro and strange object research in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelis, A.L.S.; Bartke, J.; Bogolyubsky, M.Yu.; Gadysz-Dziadus, E.; Kharlov, Yu.V.; Kurepin, A.B.; Maevskaya, A.I.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Sadovsky, S.A.; Stefanski, P.; Wodarczyk, Z

    2001-04-01

    We present a phenomenological model which describes the formation of a Centauro fireball in the baryon-rich projectile fragmentation region in nucleus-nucleus interactions in the upper atmosphere and at the LHC, and its decay to non-strange baryons and Strangelets. Strangelets are assimilated to the 'strongly penetrating component' frequently observed accompanying hadron-rich cosmic ray events. We describe the CASTOR subdetector for the ALICE experiment at the LHC. CASTOR will probe, in an event-by-event mode, the very forward, baryon-rich phase space 5.6 {<=} {eta} {<=} 7.2 in 5.5 x A TeV central Pb + Pb collisions. It will look for events with pronounced imbalance between hadronic and photonic content and for deeply penetrating objects. We present results of simulations for the response of the CASTOR calorimeter to the passage of Strangelets.

  13. CASTOR Centauro And STrange Object Research in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelis, Aris L S; Bogolyubsky, M Yu; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Kharlov, Yu V; Kurepin, A B; Maevskaya, A I; Mavromanolakis, G; Panagiotou, A D; Sadovsky, S A; Stefanski, P; Wiodarczyk, Z

    2001-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model which describes the formation of a Centauro fireball in the baryon-rich projectile fragmentation region in nucleus-nucleus interactions in the upper atmosphere and at the LHC, and its decay to non-strange baryons and Strangelets. Strangelets are assimilated to the "strongly penetrating component" frequently observed accompanying hadron-rich cosmic ray events. We describe the CASTOR subdetector for the ALICE experiment at the LHC. CASTOR will probe, in an event-by-event mode, the very forward, baryon-rich phase space 5.6< eta <7.2 in 5.5*A TeV central Pb+Pb collisions. It will look for events with pronounced imbalance between hadronic and photonic content and for deeply penetrating objects. We present results of simulations for the response of the CASTOR calorimeter to the passage of Strangelets. (15 refs).

  14. Extracting a common high frequency signal from Northern Quebec black spruce tree-rings with a Bayesian hierarchical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Boreux

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available One basic premise of dendroclimatology is that tree rings can be viewed as climate proxies, i.e. rings are assumed to contain some hidden information about past climate. From a statistical perspective, this extraction problem can be understood as the search of a hidden variable which represents the common signal within a collection of tree-ring width series. Classical average-based techniques used in dendrochronology have been applied to estimate the mean behavior of this latent variable. Still, depending on tree species, regional factors and statistical methods, a precise quantification of uncertainties associated to the hidden variable distribution is difficult to assess. To model the error propagation throughout the extraction procedure, we propose and study a Bayesian hierarchical model that focuses on extracting an inter-annual high frequency signal. Our method is applied to black spruce (Picea mariana tree-rings recorded in Northern Quebec and compared to a classical average-based techniques used by dendrochronologists (Cook and Kairiukstis, 1992.

  15. Tomographic reflection modelling of quasi-periodic oscillations in the black hole binary H 1743-322

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, Adam; Middleton, Matthew; Altamirano, Diego; Uttley, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Accreting stellar mass black holes (BHs) routinely exhibit Type-C quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). These are often interpreted as Lense-Thirring precession of the inner accretion flow, a relativistic effect whereby the spin of the BH distorts the surrounding space-time, inducing nodal precession. The best evidence for the precession model is the recent discovery, using a long joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observation of H 1743-322, that the centroid energy of the iron fluorescence line changes systematically with QPO phase. This was interpreted as the inner flow illuminating different azimuths of the accretion disc as it precesses, giving rise to a blue/red shifted iron line when the approaching/receding disc material is illuminated. Here, we develop a physical model for this interpretation, including a self-consistent reflection continuum, and fit this to the same H 1743-322 data. We use an analytic function to parameterise the asymmetric illumination pattern on the disc surface that would result from inner...

  16. Extracting a common high frequency signal from northern Quebec black spruce tree-rings with a Bayesian hierarchical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Boreux

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology, the scientific dating method based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns, has been frequently applied in climatology. The basic premise of dendroclimatology is that tree rings can be viewed as climate proxies, i.e. rings are assumed to contain some hidden information about past climate. From a statistical perspective, this extraction problem can be understood as the search of a hidden variable which represents the common signal within a collection of tree-ring width series. Classical average-based techniques used in dendrochronology have been, with different degrees of success (depending on tree species, regional factors and statistical methods, applied to estimate the mean behavior of this latent variable. Still, a precise quantification of uncertainties associated to the hidden variable distribution is difficult to assess. To model the error propagation throughout the extraction procedure, we propose and study a Bayesian hierarchical model that focuses on extracting an inter-annual high frequency signal. Our method is applied to black spruce (Picea mariana tree-rings recorded in northern Quebec and compared to a classical average-based techniques used by dendrochronologists.

  17. Measuring the mass of the central black hole in the bulgeless galaxy NGC 4395 from gas dynamical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Brok, Mark den; Barth, Aaron J; Carson, Daniel J; Neumayer, Nadine; Cappellari, Michele; Debattista, Victor P; Ho, Luis C; Hood, Carol E; McDermid, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    NGC 4395 is a bulgeless spiral galaxy, harboring one of the nearest known type 1 Seyfert nuclei. Although there is no consensus on the mass of its central engine, several estimates suggest it to be one of the lightest massive black holes (MBHs) known. We present the first direct dynamical measurement of the mass of this MBH from a combination of two-dimensional gas kinematic data, obtained with the adaptive optics assisted near infrared integral field spectrograph Gemini/NIFS, and high-resolution multiband photometric data from Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). We use the photometric data to model the shape and stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of the nuclear star cluster. From the Gemini/NIFS observations, we derive the kinematics of warm molecular hydrogen gas as traced by emission through the H$_2$ 1--0 S(1) transition. These kinematics show a clear rotational signal, with a position angle orthogonal to NGC 4395's radio jet. Our best fitting tilted ring models of the kinematics of th...

  18. PCDD/F and PCB water column partitioning examination using natural organic matter and black carbon partition coefficient models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Nathan L; Rifai, Hanadi S

    2016-04-01

    A 9-year water dataset from the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) was analyzed to understand partitioning in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Total PCBs had more mass as dissolved (74%) whereas total PCDD/Fs did not (11%). Generally, the limited number of PCDD/Fs (only 2378 substituted) explained these differences though differences in chemical behavior beyond log K ow also likely influence partitioning. The particular fractionation seen in the HSC also seemed related to a wide variation in particulate organic carbon (POC)/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ratio (0.42-180%). Published and unaltered linear free energy and linear solvation energy relationships for DOC, POC, and particulate black carbon (BC) resulted in predictions that were at best 27% (PCB) and 25% root-mean-square error (RMSE) (PCDD/F) partition fraction compared to observed (using estimated BC/POC fractions of 10 and 25%, respectively). These results show, at least in light of the uncertainties in this data (e.g., precise fraction of BC), that a 25% accuracy in model prediction of operationally dissolved or suspended fraction for any one PCB or PCDD/F congener is the best prediction that may be expected. It is therefore recommended that site-specific data be used to calibrate most any water column-partitioning model if it is to be expected to describe what actually occurs in field conditions.

  19. Inflow Generated X-ray Corona Around Supermassive Black Holes and Unified Model for X-ray Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lile

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, covering the spatial domain from hundreds of Schwarzschild radii to $2\\ \\mathrm{pc}$ around the central supermassive black hole of mass $10^8 M_\\odot$, with detailed radiative cooling processes, are performed. Generically found is the existence of a significant amount of shock heated, high temperature ($\\geq 10^8\\ \\mathrm{K}$) coronal gas in the inner ($\\leq 10^4 r_\\mathrm{sch}$) region. It is shown that the composite bremsstrahlung emission spectrum due to coronal gas of various temperatures are in reasonable agreement with the overall ensemble spectrum of AGNs and hard X-ray background. Taking into account inverse Compton processes, in the context of the simulation-produced coronal gas, our model can readily account for the wide variety of AGN spectral shape, which can now be understood physically. The distinguishing feature of our model is that X-ray coronal gas is, for the first time, an integral part of the inflow gas and its observable characteristics are phys...

  20. Evolution of massive black hole binaries in rotating galactic nuclei: implications for gravitational wave detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasskazov, Alexander; Merritt, David

    2017-01-01

    The subject of our study is a binary supermassive black hole (BSBH) in the center of a galactic nucleus. We model the evolution of its orbit due to interactions with the stars of the galaxy by means of 3-body scattering experiments. Our model includes a new degree of freedom - the orientation of the BSBH’s orbital plane - which is allowed to change due to interaction with the stars in a rotating nucleus. The binary’s eccentricity also evolves in an orientation-dependent manner. We find that the dynamics are qualitatively different compared with non-rotating nuclei: 1) The BSBH's orbital plane evolves toward alignment with the plane of rotation of the nucleus; 2) The BSBH’s eccentricity decreases for aligned BSBHs and increases for counter-aligned ones.We then apply our model to calculate the effects of stellar environment on the gravitational wave background spectrum produced by BSBHs. Using the results of recent N-body/Monte-Carlo simulations we account for different rates of stellar interaction in spherical, axisymmetric and triaxial galaxies. We also consider the possibility that SBH masses are systematically lower than usually assumed. The net result of the new physical mechanisms included here is a spectrum for the stochastic gravitational wave background that has a significantly lower amplitude than in previous treatments, which could explain the discrepancy that currently exists between the models and the upper limits set by pulsar timing array observations.