WorldWideScience

Sample records for black nucleus model

  1. Axisymmetric nonstationary model of the central engine in an active galactic nucleus. I. Black hole electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous paper the authors analyzed an axisymmetric, nonstationary model of the central engine of an active galactic nucleus, consisting of a supermassive black hole surrounded by a magnetized accretion disk. The equations used were the equations of power output and angular momentum loss given by Macdonald and Thorne (1982), in which an axisymmetric, stationary model is described. In this paper, all the fundamental equations in a fully time-dependent manner and the electrodynamics of a black hole and its magnetosphere is investigated. Under the assumption that the mass accretion is confined to the equatorial plane of the black hole, the results suggest that, at the equatorial zone of the black hole, the angular velocity of the magnetic field lines anchored on the accreting matter must be close to that of the black hole. 21 references

  2. To test dual supermassive black hole model for broad line active galactic nucleus with double-peaked narrow [O III] lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Guang; Feng, Long-Long

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed an interesting method to test the dual supermassive black hole model for active galactic nucleus (AGN) with double-peaked narrow [O III] lines (double-peaked narrow emitters) through their broad optical Balmer line properties. Under the dual supermassive black hole model for double-peaked narrow emitters, we could expect statistically smaller virial black hole masses estimated by observed broad Balmer line properties than true black hole masses (total masses of central two black holes). Then, we compare the virial black hole masses between a sample of 37 double-peaked narrow emitters with broad Balmer lines and samples of Sloan Digital Sky Survey selected normal broad line AGN with single-peaked [O III] lines. However, we can find clearly statistically larger calculated virial black hole masses for the 37 broad line AGN with double-peaked [O III] lines than for samples of normal broad line AGN. Therefore, we give our conclusion that the dual supermassive black hole model is probably not statistically preferred to the double-peaked narrow emitters, and more efforts should be necessary to carefully find candidates for dual supermassive black holes by observed double-peaked narrow emission lines.

  3. Applying the elastic model for various nucleus-nucleus fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Elastic Model of two free parameters m,d given by Scalia has been used for wider energy regions to fit the available experimental data for potential barriers and cross sections. In order to generalize Scalia's formula in both sub- and above-barrier regions, we calculated m, d for pairs rather than those given by Scalia and compared the calculated cross sections with the experimental data. This makes a generalization of the Elastic Model in describing fusion process. On the other hand, Scalia's range of interacting systems was 24 ≤ A ≤194 where A is the compound nucleus mass number. Our extension of that model includes an example of the pairs of A larger than his final limit aiming to make it as a general formula for any type of reactants: light, intermediate or heavy systems. A significant point is the comparison of Elastic Model calculations with the well known methods studying complete fusion and compound nucleus formation, namely with the resultants of using Proximity potential with either Sharp or Smooth cut-off approximations

  4. Study of various models of nuclear interaction potentials: nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several models, performed within a mean field theory, are developed for the calculation of nucleon-nucleus interaction potentials. The first part of the thesis deals with the nucleon-nucleus average interaction. It is mainly devoted to the calculation of dynamical corrections to the Hartree-Fock approximation. Two approaches are used: a microscopic model performed in the framework of the nuclear structure approach and a semi-phenomenological one, based on the application of the dispersion relations to the empirical imaginary potential. Both models take into account finite size effects like collectivity or threshold effects which are important at low energy. The Green's function properties are used for both models. The second part of this work is devoted to the interaction potential between two heavy ions. This calculation, which is performed in the framework of the sudden approximation, uses the energy density formalism (Thomas-Fermi approximation). It has been extended to finite temperature. At T=0 the experimental fusion barriers of heavy systems are reproduced within 4%. Their temperature dependence is studied. The proximity scaling is checked and a universal function is obtained at T=0 and at finite temperature. It is found that the proximity theorem is well satisfied on the average. The dispersion around the mean behaviour increases with increasing temperature. At last, P+A* and α+A* interaction potentials are calculated within a double folding model using a schematic effective interaction

  5. Contemporary models of the atomic nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Nemirovskii, P E

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary Models of the Atomic Nucleus discusses nuclear structure and properties, expounding contemporary theoretical concepts of the low-energy nuclear processes underlying in nuclear models. This book focuses on subjects such as the optical nuclear model, unified or collective model, and deuteron stripping reaction. Other topics discussed include the basic nuclear properties; shell model; theoretical analysis of the shell model; and radiative transitions and alpha-decay. The deuteron theory and the liquid drop nuclear model with its application to fission theory are also mentioned, but o

  6. The significance of black line on lumbar magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of herniated nucleus pulposus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to assess retrospectively whether black line on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can differentiate contained from noncontained hernias. The subjects were 102 patients who underwent surgical exploration. On the basis of the presence or absence of complete rupture of the posterior fibrous ring at surgery, disk herniations in 100 lumbar spines were classified as contained (n=40) or noncontained (n=60). Using a black line as the sign of rupture on sagittal images, there were 9 false negative cases and 16 false positive cases; MRI had an accuracy of 75%, a sensitivity of 85%, and a specificity of 60% in diagnosing lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus. On axial transverse images, there were 10 false negative cases and 21 false positive cases; MRI had an accuracy of 79%, a sensitivity of 83%, and a specificity of 48%. In conclusion, MRI cannot differentiate contained from noncontained hernias accurately because there are many false positive cases. (N.K.)

  7. HST STIS spectroscopy of the triple nucleus of M31: two nested disks in Keplerian rotation around a Supermassive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, R; Bower, G; Green, R; Thomas, J; Danks, A C; Gull, T R; Hutchings, J B; Joseph, C L; Kaiser, M E; Lauer, T R; Nelson, C H; Richstone, D O; Weistrop, D; Woodgate, B; Bender, Ralf; Kormendy, John; Bower, Gary; Green, Richard; Thomas, Jens; Danks, Anthony C.; Gull, Theodore; Lauer, Tod R.; Nelson, Charles H.; Richstone, Douglas; Weistrop, Donna; Woodgate, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    We present HST spectroscopy of the nucleus of M31 obtained with STIS. Spectra taken around the CaT lines at 8500 see only the red giants in the double bright- ness peaks P1 and P2. In contrast, spectra taken at 3600-5100 A are sensitive to the tiny blue nucleus embedded in P2, the lower surface brightness red nucleus. P2 has a K-type spectrum, but the embedded blue nucleus has an A-type spectrum with strong Balmer absorption lines. Given the small likelihood for stellar collisions, a 200 Myr old starburst appears to be the most plausible origin of the blue nucleus. In stellar population, size, and velocity dispersion, the blue nucleus is so different from P1 and P2 that we call it P3. The line-of-sight velocity distributions of the red stars in P1+P2 strengthen the support for Tremaine s eccentric disk model. The kinematics of P3 is consistent with a circular stellar disk in Keplerian rotation around a super-massive black hole with M_bh = 1.4 x 10^8 M_sun. The P3 and the P1+P2 disks rotate in the same sense a...

  8. Active galactic nucleus black hole mass estimates in the era of time domain astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Pancoast, Anna [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Malkan, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-20

    We investigate the dependence of the normalization of the high-frequency part of the X-ray and optical power spectral densities (PSDs) on black hole mass for a sample of 39 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with black hole masses estimated from reverberation mapping or dynamical modeling. We obtained new Swift observations of PG 1426+015, which has the largest estimated black hole mass of the AGNs in our sample. We develop a novel statistical method to estimate the PSD from a light curve of photon counts with arbitrary sampling, eliminating the need to bin a light curve to achieve Gaussian statistics, and we use this technique to estimate the X-ray variability parameters for the faint AGNs in our sample. We find that the normalization of the high-frequency X-ray PSD is inversely proportional to black hole mass. We discuss how to use this scaling relationship to obtain black hole mass estimates from the short timescale X-ray variability amplitude with precision ∼0.38 dex. The amplitude of optical variability on timescales of days is also anticorrelated with black hole mass, but with larger scatter. Instead, the optical variability amplitude exhibits the strongest anticorrelation with luminosity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our results for estimating black hole mass from the amplitude of AGN variability.

  9. Active galactic nucleus black hole mass estimates in the era of time domain astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the dependence of the normalization of the high-frequency part of the X-ray and optical power spectral densities (PSDs) on black hole mass for a sample of 39 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with black hole masses estimated from reverberation mapping or dynamical modeling. We obtained new Swift observations of PG 1426+015, which has the largest estimated black hole mass of the AGNs in our sample. We develop a novel statistical method to estimate the PSD from a light curve of photon counts with arbitrary sampling, eliminating the need to bin a light curve to achieve Gaussian statistics, and we use this technique to estimate the X-ray variability parameters for the faint AGNs in our sample. We find that the normalization of the high-frequency X-ray PSD is inversely proportional to black hole mass. We discuss how to use this scaling relationship to obtain black hole mass estimates from the short timescale X-ray variability amplitude with precision ∼0.38 dex. The amplitude of optical variability on timescales of days is also anticorrelated with black hole mass, but with larger scatter. Instead, the optical variability amplitude exhibits the strongest anticorrelation with luminosity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our results for estimating black hole mass from the amplitude of AGN variability.

  10. The Black Hole Universe Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-06-01

    The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin

  11. Microscopic relativistic model for deuteron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relativistic deuteron structure described by the Bethe-Salpeter formalism is used to obtain the deuteron-nucleus interaction from the covariant convolution of Dirac-phenomenology nucleon-nucleus potentials. Multiple scattering contributions to deuteron-nucleus scattering are taken into account by the positive energy subtracted impulse approximation which results from an analysis of the role played by the relativistic degrees of freedom. A detailed comparison of calculations with deuteron-nucleus elastic scattering data at intermediate energies, including polarization observables, is presented. It is shown that good agreement with the data is obtained when the full spin structure of the interaction that results from the relativistic model is included in the calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Angular distributions of target black fragments in nucleus–nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results of space, azimuthal, and projected angular distributions of target black fragments produced in silicon-emulsion collisions at 4.5A GeV/c (the Dubna energy) are reported. A multi-source ideal gas model is suggested to describe the experimental angular distributions. The Monte Carlo calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  13. Black hole variability and the star formation-active galactic nucleus connection: Do all star-forming galaxies host an active galactic nucleus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the effect of active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability on the observed connection between star formation and black hole accretion in extragalactic surveys. Recent studies have reported relatively weak correlations between observed AGN luminosities and the properties of AGN hosts, which has been interpreted to imply that there is no direct connection between AGN activity and star formation. However, AGNs may be expected to vary significantly on a wide range of timescales (from hours to Myr) that are far shorter than the typical timescale for star formation (≳100 Myr). This variability can have important consequences for observed correlations. We present a simple model in which all star-forming galaxies host an AGN when averaged over ∼100 Myr timescales, with long-term average AGN accretion rates that are perfectly correlated with the star formation rate (SFR). We show that reasonable prescriptions for AGN variability reproduce the observed weak correlations between SFR and L AGN in typical AGN host galaxies, as well as the general trends in the observed AGN luminosity functions, merger fractions, and measurements of the average AGN luminosity as a function of SFR. These results imply that there may be a tight connection between AGN activity and SFR over galaxy evolution timescales, and that the apparent similarities in rest-frame colors, merger rates, and clustering of AGNs compared to 'inactive' galaxies may be due primarily to AGN variability. The results provide motivation for future deep, wide extragalactic surveys that can measure the distribution of AGN accretion rates as a function of SFR.

  14. Black hole variability and the star formation-active galactic nucleus connection: Do all star-forming galaxies host an active galactic nucleus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Chen, Chien-Ting J.; Civano, Francesca M.; Hainline, Kevin N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Mullaney, James R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Goulding, Andy D., E-mail: ryan.c.hickox@dartmouth.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We investigate the effect of active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability on the observed connection between star formation and black hole accretion in extragalactic surveys. Recent studies have reported relatively weak correlations between observed AGN luminosities and the properties of AGN hosts, which has been interpreted to imply that there is no direct connection between AGN activity and star formation. However, AGNs may be expected to vary significantly on a wide range of timescales (from hours to Myr) that are far shorter than the typical timescale for star formation (≳100 Myr). This variability can have important consequences for observed correlations. We present a simple model in which all star-forming galaxies host an AGN when averaged over ∼100 Myr timescales, with long-term average AGN accretion rates that are perfectly correlated with the star formation rate (SFR). We show that reasonable prescriptions for AGN variability reproduce the observed weak correlations between SFR and L {sub AGN} in typical AGN host galaxies, as well as the general trends in the observed AGN luminosity functions, merger fractions, and measurements of the average AGN luminosity as a function of SFR. These results imply that there may be a tight connection between AGN activity and SFR over galaxy evolution timescales, and that the apparent similarities in rest-frame colors, merger rates, and clustering of AGNs compared to 'inactive' galaxies may be due primarily to AGN variability. The results provide motivation for future deep, wide extragalactic surveys that can measure the distribution of AGN accretion rates as a function of SFR.

  15. Semiclassical model for single-particle transitions in nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously elaborated semiclassical one-body model for the dynamics of a single particle, moving in two potentials, in heavy-ion reactions or in fissioning systems has been extended with respect to the inclusion of angular momenta and more realistic separable potentials. The collective relative motion is assumed to proceed along a trajectory which is calculated from classical equations of motion including conservative and phenomenological friction forces. The formalism has been derived involving three-dimensional trajectories for symmetric as well as for asymmetric nucleus-nucleus systems. The model allows for the calculation of correct quantum mechanical transition amplitudes to final bound and continuum states. It has been applied for the investigation of the excitation of a neutron during a fission process, covering also non-statistical differential emission probabilities. From the numerical calculations, using parameters adapted to 252Cf(sf), one can conclude that in the underlying model without 'sudden' processes the energy spectrum consists of two parts. The low lying component is created in the neck region while a high lying part seems to be governed mainly by the dynamics of the underlying collective motion rather than by the specific initial conditions. (orig.)

  16. Statistical Model of the Early Stage of nucleus-nucleus collisions with exact strangeness conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Poberezhnyuk, R V; Gorenstein, M I

    2015-01-01

    The Statistical Model of the Early Stage, SMES, describes a transition between confined and deconfined phases of strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The model was formulated in the late 1990s for central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS energies. It predicted several signals of the transition (onset of deconfinement) which were later observed by the NA49 experiment. The grand canonical ensemble was used to calculate entropy and strangeness production. This approximation is valid for reactions with mean multiplicities of particles carrying conserved charges being significantly larger than one. Recent results of NA61/SHINE on hadron production in inelastic p+p interactions suggest that the deconfinement may also take place in these reactions. However, in this case mean multiplicity of particles with non-zero strange charge is smaller than one. Thus for the modeling of p+p interactions the exact strangeness conservation has to be implemented in the SMES. This extension of the SMES ...

  17. A Heuristic Model for the Active Galactic Nucleus Based on the Planck Vacuum Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The standard explanation for an active galactic nucleus (AGN is a "central engine" consisting of a hot accretion disk surrounding a supermassive black hole. Energy is generated by the gravitational infall of material which is heated to high temperatures in this dissipative accretion disk. What follows is an alternative model for the AGN based on the Planck vacuum (PV theory, where both the energy of the AGN and its variable luminosity are explained in terms of a variable photon flux emanating from the PV.

  18. A Heuristic Model for the Active Galactic Nucleus Based on the Planck Vacuum Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The standard explanation for an active galactic nucleus (AGN is a “central engine” consisting of a hot accretion disk surrounding a supermassive black hole [1, p. 32]. Energy is generated by the gravitational infall of material which is heated to high tem- peratures in this dissipative accretion disk. What follows is an alternative model for the AGN based on the Planck vacuum (PV theory [2, Appendix], where both the energy of the AGN and its variable luminosity are explained in terms of a variable photon flux emanating from the PV.

  19. Nuclear mean field and double-folding model of the nucleus-nucleus optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Khoa, Dao T; Loan, Doan Thi; Loc, Bui Minh

    2016-01-01

    Realistic density dependent CDM3Yn versions of the M3Y interaction have been used in an extended Hartree-Fock (HF) calculation of nuclear matter (NM), with the nucleon single-particle potential determined from the total NM energy based on the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem that gives rise naturally to a rearrangement term (RT). Using the RT of the single-nucleon potential obtained exactly at different NM densities, the density- and energy dependence of the CDM3Yn interactions was modified to account properly for both the RT and observed energy dependence of the nucleon optical potential. Based on a local density approximation, the double-folding model of the nucleus-nucleus optical potential has been extended to take into account consistently the rearrangement effect and energy dependence of the nuclear mean-field potential, using the modified CDM3Yn interactions. The extended double-folding model was applied to study the elastic $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C and $^{16}$O+$^{12}$C scattering at the refractive energies, wher...

  20. An eccentric disk model for the nucleus of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Tremaine, S

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus of M31 may be a thick eccentric disk, composed of stars traveling on nearly Keplerian orbits around a black hole or other dark compact object. This hypothesis reproduces most of the features seen in HST photometry of the center of M31; in particular the bright off-center source P1 is the apoapsis of the disk. An eccentric disk can also explain the rotation curve and asymmetric dispersion profile revealed by ground-based observations. The central object must be smaller than 1 pc so that the potential felt by the disk is nearly Keplerian. The disk eccentricity may be excited by a secular instability driven by dynamical friction from the bulge.

  1. Model Equations: "Black Box" Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    Black box reconstruction is both the most difficult and the most tempting modelling problem when any prior information about an appropriate model structure is lacking. An intriguing thing is that a model capable of reproducing an observed behaviour or predicting further evolution should be obtained only from an observed time series, i.e. "from nothing" at first sight. Chances for a success are not large. Even more so, a "good" model would become a valuable tool to characterise an object and understand its dynamics. Lack of prior information causes one to utilise universal model structures, e.g. artificial neural networks, radial basis functions and algebraic polynomials are included in the right-hand sides of dynamical model equations. Such models are often multi-dimensional and involve quite many free parameters.

  2. Sub-Arcsecond 2D Photometry and Spectrography of the Nucleus of M31: The Supermassive Black Hole Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, R.; Emsellem, E.; Monnet, G.; Nieto, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Sub-arcsecond imagery (HRCAM, 0".35 - 0".57 FWHM) and two-dimensional spectrography (TIGER, 0".9 FWHM) of the central nucleus of M31 have been obtained at CFHT. The photometric data clearly show the double-peaked nucleus, in excellent agreement with a recent HST image by Lauer et al. 1993. We built deconvolved surface brightness models, using the multi-Gaussian expansion method. We then perform a detailed morphological analysis of the three central photometric components (bulge, nucleus and b...

  3. BLACK-SCHOLESOV MODEL VREDNOTENJA OPCIJ

    OpenAIRE

    Najvirt, Damir

    2010-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi obravnavam Black-Scholesov model vrednotenja opcij, ki sta ga leta 1973 razvila Fisher Black in Myron Scholes. Black-Scholesov model je primeren za vrednotenje več vrst opcij, vendar pa v praksi prihaja do velikih razhajanj med vrednostjo opcije izračunano po Black-Scholesovem modelu in tržno ceno opcije. To razhajanje je že vrsto let podlaga raziskav, v katere se vključujejo tudi matematiki in fiziki. S stališča popularizacije fizike je predvsem zanimiva predpostavka model...

  4. Black hole collapse and democratic models

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, Aron

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of black hole entropy and temperature in collapse scenarios, finding three generic lessons. First, entropy evolution is extensive. Second, at large times, entropy and temperature ring with twice the frequency of the lowest quasinormal mode. Third, the entropy oscillations saturate black hole area theorems in general relativity. The first two features are characteristic of entanglement dynamics in `democratic' models. Solely based on general relativity and Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula, our results point to democratic models as microscopic theories of black holes. The third feature can be taken as a prediction for democratic models coming from black hole physics.

  5. Qubit Models of Black Hole Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Avery, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, several simple quantum mechanical toy models of black hole evaporation have appeared in the literature attempting to illuminate the black hole information paradox. We present a general class of models that is large enough to describe both unitary and nonunitary evaporation, and study a few specific examples to clarify some potential confusions regarding recent results. We also generalize Mathur's bound on small corrections to black hole dynamics. Conclusions are then drawn about the...

  6. Modelling diffusional transport in the interphase cell nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Wedemeier, Annika; Wu, Chen-Xu; Langowski, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a lattice model for diffusional transport of particles in the interphase cell nucleus is proposed. Dense networks of chromatin fibers are created by three different methods: randomly distributed, non-interconnected obstacles, a random walk chain model, and a self avoiding random walk chain model with persistence length. By comparing a discrete and a continuous version of the random walk chain model, we demonstrate that lattice discretization does not alter particle diffusion. The influence of the 3D geometry of the fiber network on the particle diffusion is investigated in detail, while varying occupation volume, chain length, persistence length and walker size. It is shown that adjacency of the monomers, the excluded volume effect incorporated in the self avoiding random walk model, and, to a lesser extent, the persistence length, affect particle diffusion. It is demonstrated how the introduction of the effective chain occupancy, which is a convolution of the geometric chain volume with the wal...

  7. Sub-Arcsecond 2D Photometry and Spectrography of the Nucleus of M31 The Supermassive Black Hole Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, R; Monnet, G; Nieto, J L

    1993-01-01

    Sub-arcsecond imagery (HRCAM, 0".35 - 0".57 FWHM) and two-dimensional spectrography (TIGER, 0".9 FWHM) of the central nucleus of M31 have been obtained at CFHT. The photometric data clearly show the double-peaked nucleus, in excellent agreement with a recent HST image by Lauer et al. 1993. We built deconvolved surface brightness models, using the multi-Gaussian expansion method. We then perform a detailed morphological analysis of the three central photometric components (bulge, nucleus and bright secondary peak) and derive various spatial luminosity models (oblate and triaxial). Stellar velocity and velocity dispersion fields were derived from the TIGER data: the former displays an extremely rapid rotation around the true center of the galaxy, while the latter exhibits a peaked structure offset in the opposite direction of the brightest light peak. Neglecting these offsets,both extended versions of the virial theorem and detailed hydrodynamical models confirm the classical strong central mass concentration, ...

  8. Black Hole Universe Model and Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2011-01-01

    Considering black hole as spacetime and slightly modifying the big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach principle and Einsteinian general relativity and self consistently explains various observations of the universe without difficulties. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole and gradually grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient material and merging with other black holes. The entire space is infinitely and hierarchically layered and evolves iteratively. The innermost three layers are the universe that we lives, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and zero limits for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of spacetime, and tend to expand outward physically. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of black hole universe have been presented in the recent sequence of American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and published in peer-review journals. This study will show how this new model explains the acceleration of the universe and why dark energy is not required. We will also compare the black hole universe model with the big bang cosmology.

  9. Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    van Meter, James R.; Wise, John H.; Miller, M. Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Centrella, Joan M.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.

    2009-01-01

    Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases where the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the stron...

  10. Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    van Meter, James R; Miller, M Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S; Centrella, Joan M; Baker, John G; Boggs, William D; Kelly, Bernard J; McWilliams, Sean T

    2009-01-01

    Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases where the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a step towards solving this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We find qualitative differences in collision and outflow speeds, including a signature of the merger when the net angular momentum of the matter is low, between the results from single and binary black holes, and between nonrotating and rotating holes in binaries. If future magnetohydrodynamic results confirm ...

  11. First observations of the nucleoplasmic lipid islets: "black holes" in the cell nucleus?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobol, Margaryta; Filimonenko, Anatolij; Filimonenko, Vlada; Hozák, Pavel

    Praha : ČSMS, 2013. [Mikroskopie 2013. 13.05.2013-14.05.2013, Lednice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/11/2232; GA TA ČR TE01020118; GA MPO FR-TI3/588; GA MŠk LD12063; GA MŠk LH12143 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cell nucleus * chromatin * PIP2 * 3D electron tomography * super-resolution microscopy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  12. First observations of the nucleoplasmic lipid islets: "black holes: in the cell nucleus?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobol, Margaryta; Yildirim, Sukriye; Filimonenko, Vlada; Filimonenko, Anatolij; Hozák, Pavel

    Regensburg : European Microscopy Society, 2013, s. 341-342. [MC 2013 Regensburg. Regensburg (DE), 25.08.2013-30.08.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/11/2232; GA TA ČR TE01020118; GA MŠk LD12063; GA MŠk LH12143 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cell nucleus * chromatin * PIP2 * 3D electron tomography * super-resolution microscopy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  13. The supermassive black hole and double nucleus of the core elliptical NGC5419

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzalay, X; Saglia, R P; Wegner, G A; Bender, R; Erwin, P; Fabricius, M H; Rusli, S

    2016-01-01

    We obtained adaptive-optics assisted SINFONI observations of the central regions of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC5419 with a spatial resolution of 0.2 arcsec ($\\approx 55$ pc). NGC5419 has a large depleted stellar core with a radius of 1.58 arcsec (430 pc). HST and SINFONI images show a point source located at the galaxy's photocentre, which is likely associated with the low-luminosity AGN previously detected in NGC5419. Both the HST and SINFONI images also show a second nucleus, off-centred by 0.25 arcsec ($\\approx 70$ pc). Outside of the central double nucleus, we measure an almost constant velocity dispersion of $\\sigma \\sim 350$ km/s. In the region where the double nucleus is located, the dispersion rises steeply to a peak value of $\\sim 420$ km/s. In addition to the SINFONI data, we also obtained stellar kinematics at larger radii from the South African Large Telescope. While NGC5419 shows low rotation ($v < 50$ km/s), the central regions (inside $\\sim 4 \\, r_b$) clearly rotate in the opposite direc...

  14. Petrographic working model of the ROSETTA sampling and modelling subgroup for a comet nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most probable ranges of the interior and surface properties of a comet nucleus as far as they are relevant for the planning of a Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission (ROSETTA), are documented according to the present status of discussion within the joint ROSETTA Science Working Group of ESA and NASA. On the basis of these data a comet nucleus regolith model has been developed which describes the properties of the near surface layer of a model comet nucleus at the macro- and microscale with respect to textural, compositional and geological properties. It consists of a multi-component system of fine-grained constituents forming a porous matrix and coarser grained, coherent inclusions of solid polycrystalline ice(s) rock-like aggregates

  15. Production of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ in nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energy from a blast wave model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song; Chen, Jin-Hui; Zhong, Chen

    2014-01-01

    The particle production of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ are studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energy based on a chemical equilibrium blast-wave model. The transverse momentum spectra of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ at the kinetic freeze-out stage from our model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The kinetic freeze-out parameters of temperature ($T_{kin}$) and radial flow parameter $\\rho_{0}$ are presented for the FOPI, RHIC and LHC energies. And the resonance decay effect is also discussed. The systematic study for beam energy dependence of the strangeness particle production will help us to better understand the properties of the matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the kinetic freeze-out stage.

  16. Pilot biomechanical design of biomaterials for artificial nucleus prosthesis using 3D finite-element modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qijin Huang; Guoquan Liu; Yong Li; Jin Gao; Zhengqiu Gu; Yuanzheng Ma; Haibin Xue

    2004-01-01

    Pilot biomechanical design of biomaterials for artificial nucleus prosthesis was carried out based on the 3D finite-element method. Two 3D models of lumbar intervertebral disc respectively with a real human nucleus and with the nucleus removed were developed and validated using published experimental and clinical data. Then the models with a stainless steel nucleus prosthesis implanted and with polymer nucleus prostheses of various properties implanted were used for the 3D finite-element biomechanical analysis. All the above simulation and analysis were carried out for the L4/L5 disc under a human worst-daily compression load of 2000 N. The results show that the polymer materials with Young's modulus of elasticity E = 0.1-100 MPa and Poisson's ratio v=0.35-0.5 are suitable to produce artificial nucleus prosthesis in view of biomechanical consideration.

  17. Black hole collapse and democratic models

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Aron; Magan, Javier M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of black hole entropy and temperature in collapse scenarios, finding three generic lessons. First, entropy evolution is extensive. Second, at large times, entropy and temperature ring with twice the frequency of the lowest quasinormal mode. Third, the entropy oscillations saturate black hole area theorems in general relativity. The first two features are characteristic of entanglement dynamics in `democratic' models. Solely based on general relativity and Bekenstein-Haw...

  18. Comparative study of alpha + nucleus elastic scattering using different models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha (α) elastic scattering from different targets potential over the energy range 10–240 MeV has been analyzed in the framework of the single-folding (SF) optical model. Four targets are considered, namely, 24Mg, 28Si, 32S and 40Ca. The SF calculations for the real central part of the nuclear optical potential are performed by folding an effective α–α interaction with the α-cluster distribution density in the target nucleus. The imaginary part of the optical potential is expressed in the phenomenological Woods–Saxon (WS) form. The calculated angular distributions of the elastic scattering differential cross-section using the derived semimicroscopic potentials successfully reproduce 36 sets of data all over the measured angular ranges. The obtained results confirm the validity of the α-cluster structure of the considered nuclei. For the sake of comparison, the same sets of data are reanalyzed using microscopic double-folded optical potentials based upon the density-dependent Jeukenne–Lejeune–Mahaux (JLM) effective nucleon–nucleon interaction. (author)

  19. Black Hole Lightning from the Peculiar Gamma-Ray Loud Active Galactic Nucleus IC 310

    CERN Document Server

    Glawion, Dorit Eisenacher; Mannheim, Karl; Colin, Pierre; Kadler, Matthias; Schulz, Robert; Ros, Eduardo; Bach, Uwe; Krauß, Felicia; Wilms, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    The nearby active galaxy IC 310, located in the outskirts of the Perseus cluster of galaxies is a bright and variable multi-wavelength emitter from the radio regime up to very high gamma-ray energies above 100 GeV. Originally, the nucleus of IC 310 has been classified as a radio galaxy. However, studies of the multi-wavelength emission showed several properties similarly to those found from blazars as well as radio galaxies. In late 2012, we have organized the first contemporaneous multi-wavelength campaign including radio, optical, X-ray and gamma-ray instruments. During this campaign an exceptionally bright flare of IC 310 was detected with the MAGIC telescopes in November 2012 reaching an averaged flux level in the night of up to one Crab above 1 TeV with a hard spectrum over two decades in energy. The intra-night light curve showed a series of strong outbursts with flux-doubling time scales as fast as a few minutes. The fast variability constrains the size of the gamma-ray emission regime to be smaller th...

  20. Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jingyi Zhang

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a canonical ensemble model for the black hole quantum tunnelling radiation is introduced. In this model the probability distribution function corresponding to the emission shell is calculated to second order. The formula of pressure and internal energy of the thermal system is modified, and the fundamental equation of thermodynamics is also discussed.

  1. Yrast structure of the shell model nucleus 89Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, report on the study of high-spin states in the N = 48 isotone 89Nb, produced through heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction has been made. The previously known level scheme in this nucleus has been extended to ∼ 10.5 MeV excitation energy and up to spin around 23ħ

  2. A New Cosmological Model: Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new cosmological model called black hole universe is proposed. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient mate- rials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we are living, the outside called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer is infinite in radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. The relationships among all layers or universes can be connected by the universe family tree. Mathematically, the entire space can be represented as a set of all universes. A black hole universe is a subset of the en- tire space or a subspace. The child universes are null sets or empty spaces. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics - the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-walker metric of spacetime - and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. The entire life of a universe begins from the birth as a hot star-like or supermassive black hole, passes through the growth and cools down, and expands to the death with infinite large and zero mass density and absolute temperature. The black hole universe model is consistent with the Mach principle, the observations of the universe, and the Einstein general theory of relativity. Its various aspects can be understood with the well-developed physics without any difficulty. The dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate its expansion. The inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe

  3. Black Scholes’ model and Bollinger bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Xudong; Zheng, Weian

    2006-11-01

    Bollinger bands are well-known in stock market as a popular technical analysis tool. We found that Black-Scholes stock price model had this Bollinger bands property also. In this paper, we give the proof of this phenomenon, and give a new distribution of a statistics generated by the Bollinger bands.

  4. Simulation of nucleus-nucleus interactions in the framework of the FRITIOF model at the energy of 3.3 GeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intranuclear cascade model overestimates the multiplicity of produced mesons in nucleus-nucleus interactions without taking into account meson and baryon resonance production. Inclusion of the resonances leads to decreasing multiplicity of mesons, neutrons and protons. In order to overcome the problem, it is proposed to use the FRITIOF model adapted to low energies in a combination with the reggeon theory inspired model of nuclear destruction. It is shown that the combination allows one to reproduce satisfactory the meson and baryon yields in the nucleus-nucleus collisions at the energy of 3.3 GeV/nucleon. The combined model works faster than typical quantum molecular dynamic model, and allows one to estimate the data needed for creation of electro-nuclear amplifier

  5. 16O nucleus in the 4α cluster model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    16O nucleus is considered as a bound state of four α-particle cluster with 3α + α clusterization. A phenomenological potential is used for αα interaction. The additional three-body potentials are introduced ti bind the three- and four-particle systems. Parameters of these potentials have been chosen from the requirement to reproduce experimental values of binding energy and root-mean-square radius of 12C and 16O nuclei. The calculations have been performed on the basis of s-wave differential equations for Faddeev and Yakubovsky components of the total wave function. Ground and first exited states of the 16O nucleus are investigated. The most probable configuration of α particles in the 12C and 16O nuclei is determined. The charge form factors of the 12C and 16O nuclei are calculated. The results of the performed calculations are in a good agreement with experimental data

  6. High resolution paraventricular nucleus serial section model constructed within a traditional rat brain atlas

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Donna M.; Larry W Swanson

    2008-01-01

    As a starting point for constructing a high resolution, resliceable computer graphics model for the extraction, quantitative analysis, display, and modeling of neuroanatomical data the outer border and the boundaries of inner divisions and parts of the paraventricular nucleus have been drawn for all 39 serial histological sections prepared for a published reference atlas of the rat brain. This careful parceling revealed three new features of paraventricular nucleus topography: the full rostra...

  7. Shape Evolution of the Compound Nucleus in the Superheavy Element Synthesis Reaction via the BUU Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Liang; LIU Yu-Xin

    2005-01-01

    @@ By taking the BUU model, we simulate the superheavy element synthesis reaction. With the rotation effect being included in the B UU model, the effect of the non-centrality of the reaction 48 Ca + 238U→ 286112 is studied. It is shown that the promising impact parameter in the synthesis process can be released from zero to a value little smaller than the radius of the smaller nucleus involved in the reaction. Meanwhile, the compound nucleus may involve rich shape phases.

  8. Description of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in a field theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of studying high energy heavy-ion collisions a self-consistent theory of relativistic nuclear fluid-dynamics coupled to classical meson fields is developed. The essential difference to the conventional fluid dynamic description arises from the coupling of meson fields to the nuclear fluid and from the non-linear relation for the effective baryon mass leading to a relativistic self-consistent description for the nuclear equation of state. The effects of different equations of state resulting from linear and nonlinear mean field approaches are studied in the event-by-event kinetic flow analysis of heavy ion collisions. The predictions for the symmetrical system Nb(Esub(Lab)=400 MeV/N)Nb are in good agreement with the experimental 4π-data. Investigating the phase structure in the linear mean field approach a phase transition occuring at Tapprox.=200 MeV for chemical potential μ=0 was found in this model. This transition is similar to recent QCD predictions. The model indicates a further phase transition at Tapprox.=20 MeV (baryon fluid to gas). There is, however, no correct description of the compressibility of nuclear matter in the linear mean field model. The extension to nonlinear scalar meson interaction allows for a correct description of the bulk properties of nuclear matter. It was found though that the phase transition is always present for reasonable values of the coupling constants. (orig./HSI)

  9. Modeling active galactic nucleus feedback in cool-core clusters: The balance between heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the long-term evolution of an idealized cool-core galaxy cluster under the influence of momentum-driven active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback using three-dimensional high-resolution (60 pc) adaptive mesh refinement simulations. The feedback is modeled with a pair of precessing jets whose power is calculated based on the accretion rate of the cold gas surrounding the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The intracluster medium first cools into clumps along the propagation direction of the jets. As the jet power increases, gas condensation occurs isotropically, forming spatially extended structures that resemble the observed Hα filaments in Perseus and many other cool-core clusters. Jet heating elevates the gas entropy, halting clump formation. The cold gas that is not accreted onto the SMBH settles into a rotating disk of ∼1011 M ☉. The hot gas cools directly onto the disk while the SMBH accretes from its innermost region, powering the AGN that maintains a thermally balanced state for a few Gyr. The mass cooling rate averaged over 7 Gyr is ∼30 M ☉ yr–1, an order of magnitude lower than the classic cooling flow value. Medium resolution simulations produce similar results, while in low resolution runs, the cluster experiences cycles of gas condensation and AGN outbursts. Owing to its self-regulating mechanism, AGN feedback can successfully balance cooling with a wide range of model parameters. Our model also produces cold structures in early stages that are in good agreement with the observations. However, the long-lived massive cold disk is unrealistic, suggesting that additional physical processes are still needed.

  10. Phantom Black Holes and Sigma Models

    OpenAIRE

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha; Clément, Gérard; Fabris, Júlio C.; Rodrigues, Manuel E.

    2011-01-01

    We construct static multicenter solutions of phantom Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory from null geodesics of the target space, leading to regular black holes without spatial symmetry for certain discrete values of the dilaton coupling constant. We also discuss the three-dimensional gravitating sigma models obtained by reduction of phantom Einstein-Maxwell, phantom Kaluza-Klein and phantom Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion theories. In each case, we generate by group transformations phantom charge...

  11. A holographic model for black hole complementarity

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, David A

    2016-01-01

    In the version of black hole complementarity advocated by the authors, interior infalling degrees of freedom evolve according to the usual semiclassical effective field theory, generating the black hole interior via propagation along geodesics. Meanwhile the exterior degrees of freedom evolve according to an exact description of holographic origin. The infalling degrees of freedom have a complementary description in terms of outgoing Hawking radiation and must eventually decohere with respect to the exterior Hamiltonian, leading to apparent violations of quantum mechanics for an infaller. Trace distance is used to quantify the difference between these complementary time evolutions, and to define the decoherence time and the scrambling time. In a particular model for the holographic theory which exhibits fast scrambling, we show these timescales coincide. Moreover we propose a dictionary between the holographic theory and the bulk description where mean field evolution corresponds to the evolution with respect...

  12. THE MASSIVE-BLACK-HOLE-VELOCITY-DISPERSION RELATION AND THE HALO BARYON FRACTION: A CASE FOR POSITIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Force balance considerations put a limit on the rate of active galactic nucleus radiation momentum output, L/c, capable of driving galactic superwinds and reproducing the observed MBH-σ relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion. We show that black holes cannot supply enough momentum in radiation to drive the gas out by pressure alone. Energy-driven winds give a MBH-σ scaling favored by a recent analysis but also fall short energetically once cooling is incorporated. We propose that outflow triggering of star formation by enhancing the intercloud medium turbulent pressure and squeezing clouds can supply the necessary boost and suggest possible tests of this hypothesis. Our hypothesis simultaneously can account for the observed halo baryon fraction.

  13. The lamppost model of accreting black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Niedzwiecki, Zdziarski & Szanecki (2016, ApJL, submitted) have studied the lamppost model, in which the X-ray source in accreting black-hole systems is located on the rotation axis close to the horizon. We point out a number of inconsistencies in the widely used lamppost model relxilllp. They appear to invalidate those model fitting results for which the source distances from the horizon are within several gravitational radii. Furthermore, we note that if those results were correct, most of the photons produced in the lamppost would be trapped by the black hole, and the source luminosity as measured at infinity would be much larger than that observed. This appears to be in conflict with the observed smooth state transitions between the hard and soft states of X-ray binaries. The required increase of the accretion rate and the associated efficiency reduction present also a problem for AGNs. Then, those models imply the luminosity measured in the local frame much higher than the dissipated power due to time dilation and redshift, and the electron temperature significantly higher than that observed. We show that these conditions imply that the fitted sources would be out of the pair equilibrium.

  14. Implications of the Glauber model for inelastic hadron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Glauber model for elastic hadron-nucleus scattering is extended to inelastic processes by supplementing it with the Abramovski, Gribov, Kancheli cutting rules. Inelastic screening due to low mass states is also included. The results can be interpreted in terms of the probabilistic multiple collision model. The mutual relationship of the two approaches is discussed. (author)

  15. Modulated Inflation Models and Primordial Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Erfani, Encieh

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, the running of the running of the spectral index, $\\beta_s$ has been measured by Planck. This parameter is crucial for dark matter Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) formation. We study the PBHs formation in inflation potentials with superimposed periodic oscillations. We show that the value of $\\beta_s$ suggested by the recent CMB data can be easily explained in these models. As a by-product we also show that the non-production of (long--lived) PBHs puts stronger upper bound on $\\beta_s$.

  16. Modulated inflation models and primordial black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Encieh

    2014-04-01

    For the first time, the running of the running of the spectral index βs has been measured by Planck. This parameter is crucial for dark matter primordial black holes (PBHs) formation. We study the PBHs formation in inflation potentials with superimposed periodic oscillations. We show that the value of βs suggested by the recent cosmic microwave background data is easily explained in these models. As a by-product, we also show that the nonproduction of (long-lived) PBHs puts a stronger upper bound on βs.

  17. National Black Nurses Association community collaboration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, L B; Georges, C A

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, the National Black Nurses Association was awarded a contract from the Division of Nursing, United States Department of Health and Human Services to develop a community education program addressing eight Healthy People 2000 objectives. Healthy People 2000 is the United States Public Health Services's statement of national priorities for improving the health of all Americans. It provides a framework to reduce preventable deaths and disabilities, and equalize disparities in health status for specific populations. The NBNA Board of Directors chose to address five priority areas: infant mortality, HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and recruitment and retention of Blacks in nursing. For each area, specific nursing responsibilities were identified: health promotion, health protection, disease prevention, preventive clinical services, and surveillance and data requirements. The authors developed a model for implementation of the NBNA's Healthy America Report recommendations. The model and data from program implementation are presented with commentary on the efficacy of community partnership models to achieve preventive health goals. PMID:9128538

  18. Different discharge properties of facial nucleus motoneurons following neurotmesis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Suming; Xu, Lei; Li, Jianfeng; Han, Yuechen; Wang, Haibo

    2016-08-26

    Facial nucleus motoneurons innervating the facial expressive muscles are involved in a wide range of motor activities, however, the types of movement related neurons and their electrophysiological transformation after peripheral facial nerve injury haven't been revealed. This study was designed to elucidate the types of facial nucleus motoneurons and their alterations of discharge parameters following peripheral facial nerve injury in vivo. Here we set up a rat model by implanting electrode arrays into the brainstem and recorded the electrophysiological signals of facial nucleus neurons in the intact rats for 5 days, then transected the trunk of facial nerve (TF), and continued the record for 4 weeks. At the 4th week post-surgery, the morphological changes of TFs were analyzed. In this paper, we described two types of putative facial nucleus motoneurons based on their electrophysiological properties and their firing frequency adaptation. Type I motoneurons (n=57.6%) were characterized by a sustained spike adaptation, Type II motoneurons (n=26.2%) were identified by a phasic fast spike firing. Facial palsy and synkinesia, caused by neurotmesis of TF, were accompanied by firing rates reduction and firing pattern alteration of motoneurons. Our findings suggest the presence of two types of facial nucleus motorneurons, and their response patterns after neurotmesis support the notion that the discharge pattern of motorneurons may play an important role in the facial nerve function. PMID:27423319

  19. Spin dependence of even-even nucleus shape in the model of Davydov-Chaban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape parameters of the even-even nuclei 154Gd, 156,158,160Dy, 164,168Er, 168Yb, 176Hf, 180W are calculated within the phenomenological model of the nonaxial soft by β-oscillation deformed nucleus. The spin dependence of the softness, nonaxiality and energy factor is assumed

  20. Development of global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus optical model potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on the development of new global optical model potentials for nucleon-nucleus scattering at medium energies. Using both Schroedinger and Dirac scattering formalisms, the goal is to construct a physically realistic optical potential describing nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering observables for a projectile energy range of (perhaps) 20 meV to (perhaps) 2 GeV and a target mass range of 16 to 209, excluding regions of strong nuclear deformation. They use a phenomenological approach guided by conclusions from recent microscopic studies. The experimental database consists largely of proton-nucleus elastic differential cross sections, analyzing powers, spin-rotation functions, and total reaction cross sections, and neutron-nucleus total cross sections. They will use this database in a nonlinear least-squares adjustment of optical model parameters in both relativistic equivalent Schroedinger (including relativistic kinematics) and Dirac (second-order reduction) formalisms. Isospin will be introduced through the standard Lane model and a relativistic generalization of that model

  1. A global assessment of strangeness-including statistical bootstrap model analysis of nucleus-nucleus and p-p-bar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strangeness and isospin asymmetry including statistical bootstrap model analysis of the multiparticle system produced in the Pb+Pb collision at 158 A GeV at CERN is presented. It is concluded that this interaction process has not crossed the deconfinement line. Direct comparisons with the results of similar analyses pertaining to nucleus-nucleus and p-p-bar collisions at CERN are made. The overall picture points to the S+S collision at 200 A GeV as a prime candidate of a process which has crossed the border separating the hadronic from the deconfined phase of matter. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  2. Hairy black holes in the general Skyrme model

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, C.; Kichakova, O.; Shnir, Ya.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the existence of hairy black holes in the generalized Einstein-Skyrme model. It is proven that in the BPS model limit there are no hairy black hole solutions, although the model admits gravitating (and flat space) solitons. Furthermore, we find strong evidence that a necessary condition for the existence of black holes with Skyrmionic hair is the inclusion of the Skyrme term $\\mathcal{L}_4$. As an example, we show that there are no hairy black holes in the $\\mathcal{L}_2+\\mathcal{L}_...

  3. Anomalies in option pricing: the Black-Scholes model revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Fortune

    1996-01-01

    In 1973, Myron Scholes and the late Fischer Black published their seminal paper on option pricing. The Black-Scholes model revolutionized financial economics in several ways: It contributed to our understanding of a wide range of contracts with option-like features, and it allowed us to revise our understanding of traditional financial instruments. This article addresses the question of how well the Black-Scholes model of option pricing works. The goal is to acquaint a general audience with t...

  4. Empat Model Aproksimasi Binomial Harga Saham Model black-Scholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Kami akan menyajikan empat bentuk nilai parameter-parameter u, d, dan p dalam model Binomial harga saham, yang dihasilkan dengan menggunakan penyamaan ekspektasi dan variansi model diskrit dengan kontinu. Metode pertama menggunakan asumsi u . d = 1, yang mana metode ini dapat menghasilkan tiga bentuk solusi untuk parameter-parameter u, d, dan p dalam model Binomial harga saham. Metode kedua menggunakan asumsi p = 0,5. Dari kedua metode ini ternyata dapat dihasilkan empat bentuk solusi u, d, dan p yang berbeda dan akan dibandingkan hasilnya dalam pendekatan nilai option dalam model Binomial dengan model Black-Scholes.

  5. A New Model of Black Hole Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayer G. D.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a black hole and its event horizon are described. Conclusions, which are the result of a thought experiment, show that Schwarzschild [1] was correct: A singularity develops at the event horizon of a newly-formed black hole. The intense gravitational field that forms near the event horizon results in the mass-energy of the black hole accumulating in a layer just inside the event horizon, rather than collapsing into a central singularity.

  6. Hairy black holes in the general Skyrme model

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, C; Shnir, Ya; Wereszczynski, A

    2016-01-01

    We study the existence of hairy black holes in the generalized Einstein-Skyrme model. It is proven that in the BPS model limit there are no hairy black hole solutions, although the model admits gravitating (and flat space) solitons. Furthermore, we find strong evidence that a necessary condition for the existence of black holes with Skyrmionic hair is the inclusion of the Skyrme term $\\mathcal{L}_4$. As an example, we show that there are no hairy black holes in the $\\mathcal{L}_2+\\mathcal{L}_6+\\mathcal{L}_0$ model and present a new kind of black hole solutions with compact Skyrmion hair in the $\\mathcal{L}_4+\\mathcal{L}_6+\\mathcal{L}_0$ model.

  7. Multiplicity distribution and multiplicity moment of black and grey particles in high energy nucleus–nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we have studied the multiplicity distribution of black and grey particles emitted from 16O–AgBr interactions at 2.1 AGeV and 60 AGeV. We have also calculated the multiplicity moment up to the fifth order for both the interactions and for both kinds of emitted particles. The variation of multiplicity moment with the order number has been investigated. It is seen that in the case of black particles multiplicity moment up to fourth order remains almost constant as energy increases from 2.1 AGeV to 60 AGeV. Fifth order multiplicity moment increases insignificantly with energy. However in the case of grey particles no such constancy of multiplicity moment with energy of the projectile beam is obtained. Later we have extended our study on the basis of Regge–Mueller approach to find the existence of second order correlation during the emission of black as well as the grey particles. The second Mueller moment is found to be positive and it increases as energy increases in the case of black particles. On the contrary in the case of grey particles the second Mueller moment decreases with energy. It can be concluded that as energy increases correlation among the black particles increases. On the other hand with the increase of energy correlation among the grey particles is found to diminish. (author)

  8. Black hole spectroscopy from Loop Quantum Gravity models

    OpenAIRE

    Barrau, A.; Cao, Xiangyu; Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compute the integrated emission spectra of black holes in the framework of Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). The black hole emission rates are governed by the entropy whose value, in recent holographic loop quantum gravity models, was shown to agree at leading order with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Quantum corrections depend on the Barbero-Immirzi parameter $\\gamma$. Starting with black holes of initial horizon area $A \\sim 10^2$ in Planck units, we present the...

  9. A geometric crescent model for black hole images

    OpenAIRE

    Kamruddin, Ayman Bin; Dexter, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry array operating at millimetre wavelengths, is spatially resolving the immediate environments of black holes for the first time. The current observations of the Galactic center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), and M87 have been interpreted in terms of either geometric models (e.g., a symmetric Gaussian) or detailed calculations of the appearance of black hole accretion flows. The former are not physically motivat...

  10. Black Holes in Pseudobulges: demography and models

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, F; Mathur, S; Bernardi, M; Bournaud, F

    2012-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that a significant fraction of Black Holes (BHs) today live in late-type galaxies, including bulge-less galaxies and those hosting pseudobulges, and are significantly undermassive with respect to the scaling relations followed by their counterpart BHs in classical bulges of similar stellar (or even bulge) mass. Here we discuss the predictions of two state-of-the-art hierarchical galaxy formation models in which BHs grow via mergers and, in one, also via disk instability. Our aim is to understand if the wealth of new data on local BH demography is consistent with standard models. We follow the merger trees of representative subsamples of BHs and compute the fractional contributions of different processes to the final BH mass. We show that the model in which BHs always closely follow the growth of their host bulges, also during late disk instabilities (i.e., bars), produces too narrow a distribution of BHs at fixed stellar mass to account for the numerous low-mass BHs now detected in ...

  11. Perturbative methods of solution for black holes and black strings in braneworld models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahabandu, Chetiya

    In this thesis we use perturbative methods to solve the gravitational field equations to construct solutions that describe black branes in Randall-Sundrum (RS) and Arkani-Hamed - Dimopoulos - Dvali (ADD) braneworld models. In the ADD model we consider a black hole localized on the visible brane with a hori-zon radius smaller than the compactified dimension and calculate the corrections due to the compactification. Performing a similar calculation in the RS model we show that the existence of a black hole implies an asymptotic spacetime that depends on half-integer powers of the mass. We also construct solutions that describe black branes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGB) gravity. In all cases we calculate important thermodynamical properties and investigate the stability of the solutions.

  12. The gross theory model for neutrino-nucleus cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear gross theory, originally formulated by Takahashi and Yamada (1969 Prog. Theor. Phys. 41 1470) for the β-decay, is applied to the electronic-neutrino nucleus reactions, employing a more realistic description of the energetics of the Gamow-Teller resonances. The model parameters are gauged from the most recent experimental data, both for β--decay and electron capture, separately for even-even, even-odd, odd-odd and odd-even nuclei. The numerical estimates for neutrino-nucleus cross-sections agree fairly well with previous evaluations done within the framework of microscopic models. The formalism presented here can be extended to the heavy nuclei mass region, where weak processes are quite relevant, which is of astrophysical interest because of its applications in supernova explosive nucleosynthesis

  13. Black hole Skyrmion in a generalized Skyrme model

    OpenAIRE

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Nitta, Muneto; Sawado, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We study a Skyrme-like model with the Skyrme term and a sixth-order derivative term as higher-order terms, coupled to gravity and we construct Schwarzschild black hole Skyrme hair. We find, surprisingly, that the sixth-order derivative term alone cannot stabilize the black hole hair solutions; the Skyrme term with a large enough coefficient is a necessity.

  14. Mathematical Model of Neuronal Morphology: Prenatal Development of the Human Dentate Nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković, Katarina; Bačić, Goran; Ristanović, Dušan; Milošević, Nebojša T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the morphological changes of the human dentate nucleus during prenatal development using mathematical models that take into account main morphometric parameters. The camera lucida drawings of Golgi impregnated neurons taken from human fetuses of gestational ages ranging from 14 to 41 weeks were analyzed. Four morphometric parameters, the size of the neuron, the dendritic complexity, maximum dendritic density, and the position of maximum density, were obtai...

  15. Study of proton-nucleus collisions at high energies based on the hydrodynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study proton-nucleus collisions at high energies using the one-dimensional hydrodynamical model of Landau with special emphasis on the effect of the size of the target nucleus and of the magnitude of velocity of sound of excited hadronic matter. We convert a collision problem of a proton and a nucleus with a spherical shape into that of a proton and a one-dimensional nuclear tunnel whose length is determined from the average impact parameter. By extending the methods developed by Milekhin and Emelyanov, we obtain the solutions of the hydrodynamical equations of proton-nucleus collisions for arbitrary target tunnel length and arbitrary velocity of sound. The connection between these solutions and observable physical quantities is established as in the work of Cooper, Frye, and Schonberg. Extensive numerical analyses are made at E/sub lab/ = 200 GeV and for the velocity of sound u = 1/√3 of a relativistic ideal Bose gas and u = 1/(7.5)/sup 1/2/ of an interacting Bose gas. In order to compare proton-nucleus collisions with proton-proton collisions, all the analyses are made in the equal-velocity frame. We find the following results. (1) In comparing the number of secondary particles produced in p-A collisions N/sub p/A with those in p-p collisions N/sub p/p, while most of the excess of N/sub p/A over N/sub p/p is concentrated in the backward rapidity region, there exists also an increase of N/sub p/A with A in the forward rapidity region. This result is at variance with the predictions of the energy-flux-cascade model and of the coherent-production model. (2) The excess energies are contained exclusively in the backward region. We also find evidence for new phenomena in proton-nucleus collisions. (3) The existence of an asymmetry of average energies of secondary particles between forward and backward regions, in particular, >> for larger nuclear targets. Thus, energetic particles are predominantly produced in the backward region

  16. Modelling the Growth of Supermassive Black Holes in Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Muldrew, Stuart I; Power, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence that supermassive black holes reside in all galaxies that contain a stellar spheroid and their mass is tightly correlated with properties such as stellar bulge mass and velocity dispersion. There are also strong theoretical arguments that feedback from supermassive black holes plays an important role in shaping the high mass end of the galaxy mass function, hence to accurately model galaxies we also need to model the black holes. We present a comparison of two black hole growth models implemented within a large-scale, cosmological SPH simulation including star formation and feedback. One model is a modified Bondi-Hoyle prescription that grows black holes based on the smooth density of local gas, while the other is the recently proposed Accretion Disc Particle (ADP) method. This model swallows baryonic particles that pass within an accretion radius of the black hole and adds them to a subgrid accretion disc. Black holes are then grown by material from this disc. We find that both model...

  17. A full annual cycle modeling framework for American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Orin J.; McGowan, Conor; Devers, Patrick K.; Brook, Rodney W.; Huang, Min; Jones, Malcom; McAuley, Daniel G.; Zimmerman, Guthrie

    2016-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) are a harvested, international migratory waterfowl species in eastern North America. Despite an extended period of restrictive harvest regulations, the black duck population is still below the population goal identified in the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP). It has been hypothesized that density-dependent factors restrict population growth in the black duck population and that habitat management (increases, improvements, etc.) may be a key component of growing black duck populations and reaching the prescribed NAWMP population goal. Using banding data from 1951 to 2011 and breeding population survey data from 1990 to 2014, we developed a full annual cycle population model for the American black duck. This model uses the seven management units as set by the Black Duck Joint Venture, allows movement into and out of each unit during each season, and models survival and fecundity for each region separately. We compare model population trajectories with observed population data and abundance estimates from the breeding season counts to show the accuracy of this full annual cycle model. With this model, we then show how to simulate the effects of habitat management on the continental black duck population.

  18. Application of the collective model to determine the rotation bands and vibrational bands of 152Sm and 152Gd nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of nuclear reactions is necessary to identify the specific characteristics of nucleus and it is the most effective experimental method up to now. However, in order to explain the properties of nuclear structures, in addition to the study of the nuclear reactions, nuclear structure models to explain experimental dat and its theory must be used. There are many nuclear structure models to solve those properties of nucleus. This paper presents a collective model application to identify some of rotational bands and vibrational bands of 152 Sm and 152Gd nucleus which result from beta decay of 152Eu source the. (author)

  19. The Mass of the Black Hole in Arp 151 from Bayesian Modeling of Reverberation Mapping Data

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, Brendon J; Pancoast, Anna; Barth, Aaron J; Bennert, Vardha N; Bentz, Misty C; Filippenko, Alexei V; Greene, Jenny E; Malkan, Matthew A; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2011-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are believed to be ubiquitous at the centers of galaxies. Measuring their masses is extremely challenging yet essential for understanding their role in the formation and evolution of cosmic structure. We present a direct measurement of the mass of a black hole in an active galactic nucleus (Arp 151) based on the motion of the gas responsible for the broad emission lines. By analyzing and modeling spectroscopic and photometric time series, we find that the gas is well described by a disk or torus with an average radius of 3.99 +- 1.25 light days and an opening angle of 68.9 (+21.4, -17.2) degrees, viewed at an inclination angle of 67.8 +- 7.8 degrees (that is, closer to face-on than edge-on). The black hole mass is inferred to be 10^(6.51 +- 0.28) solar masses. The method is fully general and can be used to determine the masses of black holes at arbitrary distances, enabling studies of their evolution over cosmic time.

  20. Black hole spectroscopy from loop quantum gravity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrau, Aurelien; Cao, Xiangyu; Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro

    2015-12-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compute the integrated emission spectra of black holes in the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG). The black hole emission rates are governed by the entropy whose value, in recent holographic loop quantum gravity models, was shown to agree at leading order with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Quantum corrections depend on the Barbero-Immirzi parameter γ . Starting with black holes of initial horizon area A ˜102 in Planck units, we present the spectra for different values of γ . Each spectrum clearly decomposes into two distinct parts: a continuous background which corresponds to the semiclassical stages of the evaporation and a series of discrete peaks which constitutes a signature of the deep quantum structure of the black hole. We show that γ has an effect on both parts that we analyze in detail. Finally, we estimate the number of black holes and the instrumental resolution required to experimentally distinguish between the considered models.

  1. Quasiparticles plus rotor model and analysis of level statistics of odd-odd nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy levels of odd-odd nucleus 84Y at low spins were calculated by using the axially symmetric particles plus rotor model. In order to study the statistical properties of the energy levels, the two standard tests of Random-Matrix Theory such as the nearest-neighbor level spacings and the spectral rigidity were adopted. It is shown that the chaotic degree of the energy levels initially increases with increasing spin and reaches a maximum around I = 10, and then decreases for spins above I ≅10. On the other hand, the proton-neutron interaction makes the energy levels slightly regular/ordered. However, the Coriolis force which makes the energy levels chaotic plays a major role in the spectral structure of the odd-odd nucleus 84Y

  2. A geometric crescent model for black hole images

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruddin, Ayman Bin

    2013-01-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry array operating at millimetre wavelengths, is spatially resolving the immediate environments of black holes for the first time. The current observations of the Galactic center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), and M87 have been interpreted in terms of either geometric models (e.g., a symmetric Gaussian) or detailed calculations of the appearance of black hole accretion flows. The former are not physically motivated, while the latter are subject to large systematic uncertainties. Motivated by the dominant relativistic effects of Doppler beaming and gravitational lensing in many calculations, we propose a geometric crescent model for black hole images. We show that this simple model provides an excellent statistical description of the existing EHT data of Sgr A* and M87, superior to other geometric models for Sgr A*. It also qualitatively matches physically predicted models, bridging accretion theory and observation. Based on our r...

  3. Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Horizon of Schwarzschild–de Sitter Black Holes Quantum Tunnelling Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W. X. Zhong

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we use the canonical ensemble model to discuss the radiation of a Schwarzschild–de Sitter black hole on the black hole horizon. Using this model, we calculate the probability distribution from function of the emission shell. And the statistical meaning which compare with the distribution function is used to investigate the black hole tunnelling radiation spectrum.We also discuss the mechanism of information flowing from the black hole.

  4. Framework for developing a hierarchical model of reward focusing on the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wesley; Nair, Satish S; Xu, Dong; Nair, Jyotsna; Beitman, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Computational modeling using GENESIS platform has led to advances in fabricating a model to test the influence of molecular/proteomic adaptations on behavior due to reward. The nucleus accumbens is an area of the brain that processes information from other parts of the brain and is an integral element of the 'reward pathway' in the brain. A simplified model of the accumbens using one neuron is developed as part of a larger effort to study reward and chemical dependency with a focus on cocaine addiction. A preliminary model of a biologically realistic neuron was developed with inhibitory and excitatory afferents as well as intrasynapse dynamics. The neuron displayed characteristic behavior of a neuron found in the nucleus accumbens including bistability. The neuron has afferents from other neurons via dendrites which carry the inputs relating to behavioral aspects and to learning. To add behavioral aspects to the model, a methodology is developed to model contexts and their reinforcing effects on behavior, similar to cocaine addiction. Results using both the biological and behavioral modeling are encouraging for this preliminary model. PMID:17271623

  5. The dynamical model and quantization of the Schwarzschild black hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The mass of the Schwarzschild black hole, an observable quantity, is defined as a dynamical variable, while the corresponding conjugate is considered as a general- ized momentum. Then a two-dimensional phase space is composed of the two variables. In the two-dimensional phase space, a harmonic oscillator model of the Schwarzschild black hole is obtained by a canonical transformation. By this model, the mass spectrum of the Schwarzschild black hole is firstly obtained. Further the horizon area operator, quantum area spectrum and entropy are obtained in the Fock representation. Lastly, the wave function of the horizon area is derived also.

  6. Models of galaxies with central black holes simulation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sigurdsson, S; Quinlan, G D; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Hernquist, Lars; Quinlan, Gerald D

    1994-01-01

    We present a method for simulating numerically the effect of the adiabatic growth of black holes on the structure of elliptical galaxies. Using a parallel self--consistent field code, we add black holes to N--body realizations of model distribution functions for spherical galaxies, using a continuous mass--spectrum. The variable particle mass, combined with a simple multiple timestep integration scheme, makes it possible to evolve the models for many dynamical times with N \\sim 10^6-10^8, allowing high spatial and mass resolution. This paper discusses verification of the code using analytic models for spherical galaxies, comparing our numerical results of the effect of central black holes on the structure of the galaxies with previously published models. The intrinsic and projected properties of the final particle distribution, including higher order moments of the velocity distribution, permit comparison with observed characteristics of real galaxies, and constrain the masses of any central black holes prese...

  7. Habitat suitability index model for black bear (Ursus americanus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This descriptive model applies only to black bear in the coastal forests and adjacent vegetative communities, which extend from Afognak Island and the shores of...

  8. Black Hole Evaporation in a Noncommutative Charged Vaidya Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, M.; Javed, Wajiha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstr$\\ddot{o}$m-like solution of this model which leads to an exact $(t-r)$ dependent metric. The behavior of temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature is investigated. The results are shown in the form of grap...

  9. BTZ Black Hole Entropy and the Turaev-Viro model

    CERN Document Server

    Geiller, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We show the explicit agreement between the derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a Euclidean BTZ black hole from the point of view of spin foam models and canonical quantization. This is done by considering a graph observable (corresponding to the black hole horizon) in the Turaev-Viro state sum model, and then analytically continuing the resulting partition function to negative values of the cosmological constant.

  10. Recent Results of the Relativistic Green's Function Model in Quasielastic Neutrino and Antineutrino-Nucleus Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Carlotta

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of quasielastic neutrino and antineutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections requires relativistic theoretical descriptions also accounting for the role of final-state interactions (FSI). In the relativistic Green's function (RGF) model FSI are described by a complex optical potential where the imaginary part recovers the contribution of final-state channels that are not included in other models based on the impulse approximation. The RGF results are compared with the data recently published by the MiniBooNE and MINER$\

  11. Release model for black liquor droplet; Mustalipeaepisaran vapautumismalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The release of sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulphur from black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification is studied by modelling work. A model for drying, pyrolysis and swelling of black liquor has been developed earlier. A submodel for the release of sulphur, which takes place at temperatures below 500 deg C has been incorporated to this model. A previous model for the combustion and gasification of char particles has been further developed to account for the effect of sodium, potassium and chlorine. A model for the release of these components as function of time has been developed. (orig.)

  12. A Quantum Model of Schwarzschild Black Hole Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Muñoz, José Luis; Mikovic, A.; Navarro Salas, José

    1996-01-01

    We construct a one-loop effective metric describing the evaporation phase of a Schwarzschild black hole in a spherically symmetric null-dust model. This is achieved by quantising the Vaidya solution and by chosing a time dependent quantum state. This state describes a black hole which is initially in thermal equilibrium and then the equilibrium is switched off, so that the black hole starts to evaporate, shrinking to a zero radius in a finite proper time. The naked singularity appears, and th...

  13. Holographic shell model: Stack data structure inside black holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Aharon

    2014-03-01

    Rather than tiling the black hole horizon by Planck area patches, we suggest that bits of information inhabit, universally and holographically, the entire black core interior, a bit per a light sheet unit interval of order Planck area difference. The number of distinguishable (tagged by a binary code) configurations, counted within the context of a discrete holographic shell model, is given by the Catalan series. The area entropy formula is recovered, including Cardy's universal logarithmic correction, and the equipartition of mass per degree of freedom is proven. The black hole information storage resembles, in the count procedure, the so-called stack data structure.

  14. A Liquid Model Analogue for Black Hole Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hochberg, D; Hochberg, David; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    1996-01-01

    We are able to characterize a 2--dimensional classical fluid sharing some of the same thermodynamic state functions as the Schwarzschild black hole. This phenomenological correspondence between black holes and fluids is established by means of the model liquid's pair-correlation function and the two-body atomic interaction potential. These latter two functions are calculated exactly in terms of the black hole internal (quasilocal) energy and the isothermal compressibility. We find the existence of a ``screening" like effect for the components of the liquid.

  15. Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Javed, W. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)

    2012-06-15

    We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstroem-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact (t - r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.

  16. Black Hole Evaporation in a Noncommutative Charged Vaidya Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstr$\\ddot{o}$m-like solution of this model which leads to an exact $(t-r)$ dependent metric. The behavior of temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature is investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of the charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. It is found that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from maximum value to zero. It is mentioned here that the final stage of black hole evaporation turns out to be a naked singularity.

  17. Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Javed, W.

    2012-06-01

    We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordström-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact ( t - r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.

  18. Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordström-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact (t − r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.

  19. Lovelock black hole thermodynamics in a string cloud model

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tae-Hun; Ghosh, Sushant G.; Maharaj, Sunil D.(Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag 54001, 4000, Durban, South Africa); Baboolal, Dharmanand

    2015-01-01

    The Lovelock theory is an extension of general relativity to higher dimensions. We study the Lovelock black hole for a string cloud model in arbitrary dimensional spacetime, and in turn also analyze its thermodynamical properties. Indeed, we compute the mass, temperature and entropy of the black hole and also perform a thermodynamical stability analysis. The phase structure suggests that the Hawking-Page phase transition is achievable. It turns out that the presence of the Lovelock terms and/...

  20. Comparing of the binomial model and the black-scholes model for options pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarova, Limonka; Jolevska-Tuneska, Biljana; Atanasova-Pacemska, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    In this paper will be considered the simple binomial model with one and more periods. It will be given the correspondence between binomial model and the Black-Scholes model for option pricing and also will be shown that the binomial model is more simple then the continuous Black- Scholes model from pedagogical point of view.

  1. Chaos in Matrix Models and Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Berkowitz, Evan; Maltz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Is the evaporation of a black hole described by a unitary theory? In order to shed light on this question ---especially aspects of this question such as a black hole's negative specific heat---we consider the real-time dynamics of a solitonic object in matrix quantum mechanics, which can be interpreted as a black hole (black zero-brane) via holography. We point out that the chaotic nature of the system combined with the flat directions of its potential naturally leads to the emission of D0-branes from the black brane, which is suppressed in the large $N$ limit. Simple arguments show that the black zero-brane, like the Schwarzschild black hole, has negative specific heat, in the sense that the temperature goes up when it evaporates by emitting D0-branes. While the largest Lyapunov exponent grows during the evaporation, the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy decreases. These are consequences of the generic properties of matrix models and gauge theory. Based on these results, we give a possible geometric interpretation of...

  2. A New Model for Calculating the Binding Energy of Lithium Nucleus under the Generalized Yukawa Potential and Hellmann Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazvini, M; Salehi, N; Rajabi, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the Schr\\"odinger equation for 6-body system is studied. We solved this equation for lithium nucleus by using supersymmetry method with the specific potentials. These potentials are Yukawa potential, the generalized Yukawa potential and Hellmann potential. The results of our model for all calculations show that the ground state binding energy of Lithium nucleus with these potentials are very close to the ones obtained in experiments.

  3. A holographic model for black hole complementarity

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2016-01-01

    We explore a version of black hole complementarity, where an approximate semiclassical effective field theory for interior infalling degrees of freedom emerges holographically from an exact evolution of exterior degrees of freedom. The infalling degrees of freedom have a complementary description in terms of outgoing Hawking radiation and must eventually decohere with respect to the exterior Hamiltonian, leading to a breakdown of the semiclassical description for an infaller. Trace distance i...

  4. A geometric crescent model for black hole images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruddin, Ayman Bin; Dexter, Jason

    2013-09-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry array operating at millimetre wavelengths, is spatially resolving the immediate environments of black holes for the first time. The current observations of the Galactic centre black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), and M87 have been interpreted in terms of either geometric models (e.g. a symmetric Gaussian) or detailed calculations of the appearance of black hole accretion flows. The former are not physically motivated, while the latter are subject to large systematic uncertainties. Motivated by the dominant relativistic effects of Doppler beaming and gravitational lensing in many calculations, we propose a geometric crescent model for black hole images. We show that this simple model provides an excellent statistical description of the existing EHT data of Sgr A* and M87, superior to other geometric models for Sgr A*. It also qualitatively matches physically predicted models, bridging accretion theory and observation. Based on our results, we make predictions for the detectability of the black hole shadow, a signature of strong gravity, in future observations.

  5. Qubit Transport Model for Unitary Black Hole Evaporation without Firewalls

    CERN Document Server

    Osuga, Kento

    2016-01-01

    We give an explicit toy qubit transport model for transferring information from the gravitational field of a black hole to the Hawking radiation by a continuous unitary transformation of the outgoing radiation and the black hole gravitational field. The model has no firewalls or other drama at the event horizon and fits the set of six physical constraints that Giddings has proposed for models of black hole evaporation. It does utilize nonlocal qubits for the gravitational field but assumes that the radiation interacts locally with these nonlocal qubits, so in some sense the nonlocality is confined to the gravitational sector. Although the qubit model is too crude to be quantitively correct for the detailed spectrum of Hawking radiation, it fits qualitatively with what is expected.

  6. Enhancement of φ Mesons in Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The фmeson production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated systematically usinga hadron-string cascade model LUCIAE. Within the framework of the model and relying on the collective

  7. Generating primordial black holes via hilltop-type inflation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown that black holes would have formed in the early Universe if, on any given scale, the spectral amplitude of the cosmic microwave background exceeds Pζ∼10-4. This value is within the bounds allowed by astrophysical phenomena for the small scale spectrum of the cosmic microwave background, corresponding to scales which exit the horizon at the end of slow-roll inflation. Previous work by Kohri et al. (2007) showed that for black holes to form from a single field model of inflation, the slope of the potential at the end of inflation must be flatter than it was at horizon exit. In this work we show that a phenomenological hilltop model of inflation, satisfying the Kohri et al. criteria, could lead to the production of black holes, if the power of the inflaton self-interaction is less than or equal to 3, with a reasonable number or e-folds. We extend our analysis to the running mass model, and confirm that this model results in the production of black holes, and by using the latest WMAP year 5 bounds on the running of the spectral index, and the black hole constraint we update the results of Leach et al. (2000) excluding more of parameter space.

  8. Symmetries and solvable models for evaporating 2D black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Muñoz, José Luis; Navarro-Salas, José; Navarro Navarro, Miguel; Talavera, C. F.

    1997-01-01

    We study the evaporation process of a 2D black hole in thermal equilibrium when the ingoing radiation is suddenly switched off. We also introduce global symmetries of generic 2D dilaton gravity models which generalize the extra symmetry of the CGHS model. © Elsevier Science B.V

  9. Modeling gravitational radiation from coalescing binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, J; Loustó, C O; Takahashi, R

    2002-01-01

    With the goal of bringing theory, particularly numerical relativity, to bear on an astrophysical problem of critical interest to gravitational wave observers we introduce a model for coalescence radiation from binary black hole systems. We build our model using the "Lazarus approach", a technique that bridges far and close limit approaches with full numerical relativity to solve Einstein equations applied in the truly nonlinear dynamical regime. We specifically study the post-orbital radiation from a system of equal-mass non-spinning black holes, deriving waveforms which indicate strongly circularly polarized radiation of roughly 3% of the system's total energy and 12% of its total angular momentum in just a few cycles. Supporting this result we first establish the reliability of the late-time part of our model, including the numerical relativity and close-limit components, with a thorough study of waveforms from a sequence of black hole configurations varying from previously treated head-on collisions to rep...

  10. Effects of the point-like nucleus model on the EGS simulation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although EGS simulation code has predicted many excellent results in various transport problems of charged particles, some discrepancy from experimental data is yet found in calculation of mean square deflection angle. We estimated reconstruction error of arrival direction observed in water cherenkov detector by the classical Fermi theory, which showed fairly good agreement with experimental data. On the other hand, a similar estimation made by Kamioka group using EGS code gave tendency of higher value at electron energy greater than about 20 MeV, and lower value at less energy. The discrepancy seems attributed on the Moliere formula used in EGS code. As well known, the formula gives divergence of mean deflection angle due to point-like model of nucleus, instead it gives high accuracy of angular distribution. Suppression of large angle scattering due to intereference by nucleus is not considered in EGS simulation. To keep accuracy also in the 2> estimation, it would be a practical method to introduce cut at about λ/d in the second term, or the single scattering term, of Moliere solution. (author)

  11. Gravitational Wave Recoil Oscillations of Black Holes: Implications for Unified Models of Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Komossa, S

    2008-01-01

    We consider the consequences of gravitational wave recoil for unified models of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Spatial oscillations of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) around the cores of galaxies following gravitational wave (GW) recoil imply that the SMBHs spend a significant fraction of time off-nucleus, at scales beyond that of the molecular obscuring torus. Assuming reasonable distributions of recoil velocities, we compute the off-core timescale of (intrinsically type-2) quasars. We find that roughly one-half of major mergers result in a SMBH being displaced beyond the torus for a time of 30 Myr or more, comparable to quasar activity timescales. Since major mergers are most strongly affected by GW recoil, our results imply a deficiency of type 2 quasars in comparison to Seyfert 2 galaxies. Other consequences of the recoil oscillations for the observable properties of AGNs are also discussed.

  12. PRIMUS: AN OBSERVATIONALLY MOTIVATED MODEL TO CONNECT THE EVOLUTION OF THE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND GALAXY POPULATIONS OUT TO z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an observationally motivated model to connect the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and galaxy populations at 0.2 1 ≈ –0.65 and an overall normalization that evolves with redshift. We test several simple assumptions to extend this model to high specific accretion rates (beyond the measurements) and compare the predictions for the XLF with the observed data. We find good agreement with a model that allows for a break in the specific accretion rate distribution at a point corresponding to the Eddington limit, a steep power-law tail to super-Eddington ratios with slope γ2=-2.1+0.3-0.5, and a scatter of 0.38 dex in the scaling between black hole and host stellar mass. Our results show that samples of low luminosity AGNs are dominated by moderately massive galaxies (M* ∼ 1010-1011 M☉) growing with a wide range of accretion rates due to the shape of the galaxy stellar mass function rather than a preference for AGN activity at a particular stellar mass. Luminous AGNs may be a severely skewed population with elevated black hole masses relative to their host galaxies and in rare phases of rapid accretion

  13. Efficient hedging in general Black-Scholes model

    OpenAIRE

    Kyong-Hui Kim; Myong-Guk Sin

    2013-01-01

    An investor faced with a contingent claim may eliminate risk by perfect hedging, but as it is often quite expensive, he seeks partial hedging (quantile hedging or efficient hedging) that requires less capital and reduces the risk. Efficient hedging for European call option was considered in the standard Black-Scholes model with constant drift and volatility coefficients. In this paper we considered the efficient hedging for European call option in general Black-Scholes model $dX_t=X_t(m(t)dt+...

  14. A Dynamical model for non-geometric quantum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Spallucci, Euro

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that quantum black holes can be described as N-graviton Bose-Einstein condensates. In this picture the quantum properties of BHs "... can be understood in terms of the single number N". However, so far, the dynamical origin of the occupational number N has not been specified. This description is alternative to the usual one, where black holes are believed to be well described geometrically even at the quantum level. In this paper we pursue the former point of view and develop a non-geometrical dynamical model of quantum black holes (BHs). In our model the occupational number N is proportional to the principal quantum number n of a Planckian harmonic oscillator. The so-called "classicalization" corresponds to the large-n limit, where the Schwarzschild horizon is recovered.

  15. Retrograde versus Prograde Models of Accreting Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garofalo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that magnetic fields, accretion disks, and rotating black holes are instrumental in the generation of the most powerful sources of energy in the known universe. Nonetheless, because magnetized accretion onto rotating black holes involves both the complications of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics that currently cannot fully be treated numerically, and uncertainties about the origin of magnetic fields that at present are part of the input, the space of possible solutions remains less constrained. Consequently, the literature still bears witness to the proliferation of rather different black hole engine models. But the accumulated wealth of observational data is now sufficient to meaningfully distinguish between them. It is in this light that this critical paper compares the recent retrograde framework with standard “spin paradigm” prograde models.

  16. Black hole spectroscopy from Loop Quantum Gravity models

    CERN Document Server

    Barrau, Aurelien; Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compute the integrated emission spectra of black holes in the framework of Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). The black hole emission rates are governed by the entropy whose value, in recent holographic loop quantum gravity models, was shown to agree at leading order with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Quantum corrections depend on the Barbero-Immirzi parameter $\\gamma$. Starting with black holes of initial horizon area $A \\sim 10^2$ in Planck units, we present the spectra for different values of $\\gamma$. Each spectrum clearly decomposes in two distinct parts: a continuous background which corresponds to the semi-classical stages of the evaporation and a series of discrete peaks which constitutes a signature of the deep quantum structure of the black hole. We show that $\\gamma$ has an effect on both parts that we analyze in details. Finally, we estimate the number of black holes and the instrumental resolution required to experimentally distinguish between the considered models.

  17. Level Density In Interacting Boson-Fermion-Fermion Model (IBFFM) Of The Odd-Odd Nucleus 196Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level density of the odd-odd nucleus 196Au is investigated in the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model (IBFFM) which accounts for collectivity and complex interaction between quasiparticle and collective modes.The IBFFM total level density is fitted by Gaussian and its tail is also fitted by Bethe formula and constant temperature Fermi gas model

  18. The Relativistic Green's function model and charged-current inclusive neutrino-nucleus scattering at T2K kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Meucci, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We compare the results of the relativistic Green's function model with the experimental data of the charged-current inclusive differential neutrino-nucleus cross sections published by the T2K Collaboration. The model, which is able to describe both MINER$\

  19. Jump-Diffusion Models for Option Pricing versus the Black Scholes Model

    OpenAIRE

    Storeng, Håkon Båtnes

    2014-01-01

    In general, the daily logarithmic returns of individual stocks are not normally distributed. This poses a challenge when trying to compute the most accurate option prices. This thesis investigates three different models for option pricing, The Black Scholes Model (1973), the Merton Jump-Diffusion Model (1975) and the Kou Double-Exponential Jump-Diffusion Model (2002). The jump-diffusion models do not make the same assumption as the Black Scholes model regarding the behavior of the underlyi...

  20. Unified model of primordial black holes and dark matter formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobov, A. V.; Dmitriev, A. E.; Dokuchaev, V. I.; Rubin, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a unified model of primordial black holes and soliton dark matter formation. Dynamic of spherically symmetric clumps of scalar field is considered in Newtonian approximation. The formation of hidden mass of the Universe is discussed. Numerical solution of the system of interacting scalar and gravitational fields is used to obtain the mass of a clumps.

  1. Generating Primordial Black Holes Via Hilltop-Type Inflation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Alabidi, Laila; Kohri, Kazunori

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that black holes would have formed in the early Universe if, on any given scale, the spectral amplitude of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) exceeds 10^(-4). This value is within the bounds allowed by astrophysical phenomena for the small scale spectrum of the CMB, corresponding to scales which exit the horizon at the end of slow-roll inflation. Previous work by Kohri et. al. (2007) showed that for black holes to form from a single field model of inflation, the slope of ...

  2. Holographic Shell Model: Stack Data Structure inside Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Aharon

    2011-01-01

    We suggest that bits of information inhabit, universally and holographically, the entire black hole interior, a bit per a light sheet unit interval of order Planck area difference. The number of distinguishable (tagged by a binary code) configurations, counted within the context of a discrete holographic shell model, is given by the Catalan series. The area entropy formula is recovered, including the universal logarithmic correction, and the equipartition of mass per degree of freedom is proven. The black hole information storage resembles a stack data structure.

  3. A toy model of black hole complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Souvik; Bryan, Jan-Willem; Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2016-05-01

    We consider the algebra of simple operators defined in a time band in a CFT with a holographic dual. When the band is smaller than the light crossing time of AdS, an entire causal diamond in the center of AdS is separated from the band by a horizon. We show that this algebra obeys a version of the Reeh-Schlieder theorem: the action of the algebra on the CFT vacuum can approximate any low energy state in the CFT arbitrarily well, but no operator within the algebra can exactly annihilate the vacuum. We show how to relate local excitations in the complement of the central diamond to simple operators in the band. Local excitations within the diamond are invisible to the algebra of simple operators in the band by causality, but can be related to complicated operators called "precursors". We use the Reeh-Schlieder theorem to write down a simple and explicit formula for these precursors on the boundary. We comment on the implications of our results for black hole complementarity and the emergence of bulk locality from the boundary.

  4. A toy model of black hole complementarity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Souvik; Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2016-01-01

    We consider the algebra of simple operators defined in a time band in a CFT with a holographic dual. When the band is smaller than the light crossing time of AdS, an entire causal diamond in the center of AdS is separated from the band by a horizon. We show that this algebra obeys a version of the Reeh-Schlieder theorem: the action of the algebra on the CFT vacuum can approximate any low energy state in the CFT arbitrarily well, but no operator within the algebra can exactly annihilate the vacuum. We show how to relate local excitations in the complement of the central diamond to simple operators in the band. Local excitations within the diamond are invisible to the algebra of simple operators in the band by causality, but can be related to complicated operators called "precursors". We use the Reeh-Schlieder theorem to write down a simple and explicit formula for these precursors on the boundary. We comment on the implications of our results for black hole complementarity and the emergence of bulk locality fr...

  5. The modified Black-Scholes model via constant elasticity of variance for stock options valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeki, S. O.; Owoloko, E. A.; Ugbebor, O. O.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the classical Black-Scholes option pricing model is visited. We present a modified version of the Black-Scholes model via the application of the constant elasticity of variance model (CEVM); in this case, the volatility of the stock price is shown to be a non-constant function unlike the assumption of the classical Black-Scholes model.

  6. Brane-World Black Holes in Randall-Sundrum Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, W T; Oh, M K; Yoon, M S; Kim, Won Tae; Oh, John J.; Oh, Marie K.; Yoon, Myung Seok

    2000-01-01

    We study brane-world black holes from Randall-Sundrum(RS) models in ($D+1$)-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes. The solutions are directly obtained by using a slightly modified RS metric ansatz in $D+1$ dimensions. The metric of the brane world can be described by the Schwarzschild solution promoted to the black cigar solution in $D+1$ dimensions, which is compatible with the recently suggested black cigar solution for D=4. Furthermore, we show that the Ricci flat condition for the brane can be easily derived from the effective gravity defined on the brane by using the RS dimensional reduction. Especially, it is shown that in two dimensions the effective gravity on the brane is described by the Polyakov action.

  7. Production cross sections of the superheavy nucleus 117 based on the dinuclear system model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei-Juan; ZHANG Yong-Qi; WANG Hua-Lei; SONG Li-Tao; LI Lu-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the dinuclear system model,the capture of two colliding nuclei,and the formation and de-excitation process of a compound nucleus are described by using an empirical coupled channel model,solving the master equation numerically and the statistical evaporation model,respectively.In the process of heavy-ion capture and fusion to synthesize superheavy nuclei,the barrier distribution func-tion is introduced and averaging collision orientations are considered.Based on this model,the production cross sections of the cold fusion system 76-82Se+209Bi and the hot fusion systems 55Mn+238U,51V-+244Pu,59 Co+232 Th,48 Ca+247-249 Bk and 45 Sc+246-248 Cm are calculated.The isotopic dependence of the largest production cross sections is analyzed briefly,and the optimal projectile-target combination and excitation energy of the ln-4n evaporation channels are proposed.It is shown that the hot fusion systems 48Ca+247 249Bk in the3n evaporation channels and 45Sc+248Cm in the 2n-4n channels are optimal for synthesizing the superheavy element 117.

  8. Photoionization Modeling of the Low Luminosity Seyfert 1 Nucleus in NGC 3516

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the low luminosity Seyfert 1 nucleus in NGC 3516 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope show that the visible spectrum is dominated by the Balmer emission lines of Hydrogen (H) and a continuum luminosity that rises into the UV. The anomalous H${\\alpha}$/H${\\beta}$ emission line ratio, the Balmer emission line luminosity and the distinctive shape observed for the H${\\alpha}$ emission line profile serve as important constraints in any photoionization model aimed at explaining the visible emission line spectrum of NGC 3516. Photoionization modeling using Cloudy demonstrates that the central UV-X-ray source is able to completely ionize the H gas in between the Balmer and dust reverberation radii if the electron density is ${\\le}$ 3 ${\\times}$ 10${^7}$ cm${^{-3}}$ throughout. Thus, according to this model the region responsible for producing the visible H lines is a dust free shell of ionized H gas. Interestingly, the model predicts a rapid rise in the electron temperature as the ce...

  9. Latent solitons, black strings, black branes, and equations of state in Kaluza-Klein models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Kaluza-Klein models with an arbitrary number of toroidal internal spaces, we investigate soliton solutions which describe the gravitational field of a massive compact object. Each di-dimensional torus has its own scale factor Ci, i=1,...,N, which is characterized by a parameter γi. We single out the physically interesting solution corresponding to a pointlike mass. For the general solution we obtain equations of state in the external and internal spaces. These equations demonstrate that the pointlike mass soliton has dustlike equations of state in all spaces. We also obtain the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters, which give the possibility to obtain the formulas for perihelion shift, deflection of light and time-delay of radar echoes. Additionally, the gravitational experiments lead to a strong restriction on the parameters of the model: τ=i=1Ndiγi=-(2.1±2.3)x10-5. The pointlike mass solution with γ1=...=γN=(1+i=1Ndi)-1 contradicts this restriction. The condition τ=0 satisfies the experimental limitation and defines a new class of solutions which are indistinguishable from general relativity. We call such solutions latent solitons. Black strings and black branes with γi=0 belong to this class. Moreover, the condition of stability of the internal spaces singles out black strings/branes from the latent solitons and leads uniquely to the black string/brane equations of state pi=-ε/2, i=1,...,N, in the internal spaces and to the number of the external dimensions d0=3. The investigation of multidimensional static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with a dustlike equation of state in the external space confirms the above results.

  10. Black-Scholes模型的参数估计%The Estimation of Parameters in Black-Scholes Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖庆宪; 张建海

    2001-01-01

    本文研究了Black-Scholes模型的参数估计问题,讨论了估计量的性质。%This paper discusses the estimation of parameters inBlack-Scholes model. The properties of the estimators are also discussed.

  11. The New Numerical Galaxy Catalog (ν2GC): An updated semi-analytic model of galaxy and active galactic nucleus formation with large cosmological N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiya, Ryu; Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagashima, Masahiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Okoshi, Katsuya; Oogi, Taira; Shirakata, Hikari

    2016-04-01

    We present a new cosmological galaxy formation model, ν2GC, as an updated version of our previous model νGC. We adopt the so-called "semi-analytic" approach, in which the formation history of dark matter halos is computed by N-body simulations, while the baryon physics such as gas cooling, star formation, and supernova feedback are simply modeled by phenomenological equations. Major updates of the model are as follows: (1) the merger trees of dark matter halos are constructed in state-of-the-art N-body simulations, (2) we introduce the formation and evolution process of supermassive black holes and the suppression of gas cooling due to active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, (3) we include heating of the intergalactic gas by the cosmic UV background, and (4) we tune some free parameters related to the astrophysical processes using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Our N-body simulations of dark matter halos have unprecedented box size and mass resolution (the largest simulation contains 550 billion particles in a 1.12 Gpc h-1 box), enabling the study of much smaller and rarer objects. The model was tuned to fit the luminosity functions of local galaxies and mass function of neutral hydrogen. Local observations, such as the Tully-Fisher relation, the size-magnitude relation of spiral galaxies, and the scaling relation between the bulge mass and black hole mass were well reproduced by the model. Moreover, the model also reproduced well the cosmic star formation history and redshift evolution of rest-frame K-band luminosity functions. The numerical catalog of the simulated galaxies and AGNs is publicly available on the web.

  12. Inference of the empirical variable moment of inertia model from the rotating liquid drop model of the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown that the equilibrium shape of the surface of a rotating liquid drop which represents the nucleus is an oblate spheroid with an excentricity proportional to the angular velocity Ω for the case of small angular velocity approximation. Using the pronounced surface of equilibrium shape the moment of inertia of the liguid drop has been found to be I approximately egual to I0+Ω2/2C. Using this expression of the moment of inertia the total excitation energy of the nucleus has been calculated by using the integral E=∫Ωd(IΩ). The result is in the form of E=J(J+1)/2I+C(I-I0)2/2 which is the same as the excitation energy in the empirical variable-moment-of-inertia (VMI) model which is proposed by Mariscotti, Scharff-Goldhaber, and Buck and which permits an excellent fit of level energies of ground-state bands in even-even nuclei. More over, it has been shown that the equilibrium condition ΔE/ΔI=O in the VMI model is automatically satisfied in the rotating-liquid-drop model. On the other hand, it has been found that the quantity CI0A a linear function Z2/A for the small angular velocity approximation. (author)

  13. Inclusive spectra of secondary particles in proton-nucleus interactions in the quark-gluon string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of high-energy hadrons with the 14C, Cu, Pb nuclei is considered in the framework of the model of quark-gluon strings. Inclusive spectra of secondary particles in pp- and pA interactions are calculated. Violation of the Feynman scaling in hadron-nucleus interactions is discussed

  14. The smallest matrix black hole model in the classical limit

    CERN Document Server

    Berenstein, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the smallest non-trivial matrix model that can be considered to be a (toy) model of a black hole. The model consists of a pair of $2\\times 2$ traceless hermitian matrices with a commutator squared potential and an $SU(2)$ gauge symmetry, plus an $SO(2)$ rotation symmetry. We show that using the symmetries of the system, all but two of the variables can be separated. The two variables that remain display chaos and a transition from chaos to integrability when a parameter related to an $SO(2)$ angular momentum is tuned to a critical value. We compute the Lyapunov exponents near this transition and study the critical exponent of the Lyapunov exponents near the critical point. We compare this transition to extremal rotating black holes.

  15. Generalized boson model and α-cluster states of 44Ti atomic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present some rotational bands for the 44Ti atomic nucleus with a sequence of spins and parities are discovered. For an analysis of these bands the generalized boson model U(6) direct X U(4) including the collective (quadrupole) degree of freedom and cluster (dipole) variable as well as an inter-relation of quadrupole and dipole degrees of freedom is used. Different collective bands of U(6) direct X SU(3) model reduction are considered as well. Parameter of SU(3) symmetrical Hamiltonian are equal to k=0.0016 MeV. (3/4k-k')=0.085 MeV. The U(4)contains U(3)-symmetry, caused by dipole clusterization of nucleons, describes bands of α-cluster states kπ=04+,02-, with theoretical parameters E0=-11 MeV, εp=0.1 MeV, β=0.15 MeV. An interaction of the cluster (dipole) degree with he quadrupole one allows to explain the band of parity, kπ=01-, beginning with E=6.22 MeV by values of parameters of kp=0, γ=6.2 MeV

  16. A multi-compartment model for interneurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Halnes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic interneurons (INs in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN shape the information flow from retina to cortex, presumably by controlling the number of visually evoked spikes in geniculate thalamocortical (TC neurons, and refining their receptive field. The INs exhibit a rich variety of firing patterns: Depolarizing current injections to the soma may induce tonic firing, periodic bursting or an initial burst followed by tonic spiking, sometimes with prominent spike-time adaptation. When released from hyperpolarization, some INs elicit rebound bursts, while others return more passively to the resting potential. A full mechanistic understanding that explains the function of the dLGN on the basis of neuronal morphology, physiology and circuitry is currently lacking. One way to approach such an understanding is by developing a detailed mathematical model of the involved cells and their interactions. Limitations of the previous models for the INs of the dLGN region prevent an accurate representation of the conceptual framework needed to understand the computational properties of this region. We here present a detailed compartmental model of INs using, for the first time, a morphological reconstruction and a set of active dendritic conductances constrained by experimental somatic recordings from INs under several different current-clamp conditions. The model makes a number of experimentally testable predictions about the role of specific mechanisms for the firing properties observed in these neurons. In addition to accounting for the significant features of all experimental traces, it quantitatively reproduces the experimental recordings of the action-potential- firing frequency as a function of injected current. We show how and why relative differences in conductance values, rather than differences in ion channel composition, could account for the distinct differences between the responses observed in two different neurons, suggesting

  17. A multi-compartment model for interneurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halnes, Geir; Augustinaite, Sigita; Heggelund, Paul; Einevoll, Gaute T; Migliore, Michele

    2011-09-01

    GABAergic interneurons (INs) in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) shape the information flow from retina to cortex, presumably by controlling the number of visually evoked spikes in geniculate thalamocortical (TC) neurons, and refining their receptive field. The INs exhibit a rich variety of firing patterns: Depolarizing current injections to the soma may induce tonic firing, periodic bursting or an initial burst followed by tonic spiking, sometimes with prominent spike-time adaptation. When released from hyperpolarization, some INs elicit rebound bursts, while others return more passively to the resting potential. A full mechanistic understanding that explains the function of the dLGN on the basis of neuronal morphology, physiology and circuitry is currently lacking. One way to approach such an understanding is by developing a detailed mathematical model of the involved cells and their interactions. Limitations of the previous models for the INs of the dLGN region prevent an accurate representation of the conceptual framework needed to understand the computational properties of this region. We here present a detailed compartmental model of INs using, for the first time, a morphological reconstruction and a set of active dendritic conductances constrained by experimental somatic recordings from INs under several different current-clamp conditions. The model makes a number of experimentally testable predictions about the role of specific mechanisms for the firing properties observed in these neurons. In addition to accounting for the significant features of all experimental traces, it quantitatively reproduces the experimental recordings of the action-potential- firing frequency as a function of injected current. We show how and why relative differences in conductance values, rather than differences in ion channel composition, could account for the distinct differences between the responses observed in two different neurons, suggesting that INs may be

  18. Numerical models of rotating accretion flows around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Igumenshchev, I V

    1999-01-01

    Numerical, two-dimensional, time-dependent hydrodynamical models of geometrically thick accretion discs around black holes are presented. Accretion flows with non-effective radiation cooling (ADAFs) can be both convectively stable or unstable depending on the value of the viscosity parameter \\alpha. The high viscosity flows (\\alpha~1) are stable and have a strong equatorial inflow and bipolar outflows. The low viscosity flows (\\alpha<0.1) are convectively unstable and this induces quasi-periodic variability.

  19. Black Hole Entropy Calculation in a Modified Thin Film Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jingyi Zhang

    2011-03-01

    The thin film model is modified to calculate the black hole entropy. The difference from the original method is that the Parikh–Wilczek tunnelling framework is introduced and the self-gravitation of the emission particles is taken into account. In terms of our improvement, if the entropy is still proportional to the area, then the emission energy of the particles will satisfy = /360.

  20. Holographic Shell Model: Stack Data Structure inside Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Aharon

    2011-01-01

    We suggest that bits of information inhabit, universally and holographically, the entire black hole interior, a bit per a light sheet unit interval of order Planck area difference. The number of distinguishable (tagged by a binary code) configurations, counted within the context of a discrete holographic shell model, is given by the Catalan series. The area entropy formula is recovered, including the universal logarithmic correction, and the equipartition of mass per degree of freedom is prov...

  1. Modelling Option Prices in Australia Using the Black-Scholes Model

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R L; T. J. Shevlin

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on the ability of the Black-Scholes model to price options traded on the Australian market. The only variable in the Black-Scholes model which is likely to be subject to significant measurement error is the standard deviation rate. Two different methods of estimation are examined here: historically-based and implied standard deviations. Using historical estimates of the standard deviation rates resulted in significant underpricing by the model relative to the mark...

  2. Persistent neuronal Ube3a expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of Angelman syndrome model mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly A.; Han, Ji Eun; DeBruyne, Jason P.; Philpot, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations or deletions of the maternal allele of the UBE3A gene cause Angelman syndrome (AS), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. The paternal UBE3A/Ube3a allele becomes epigenetically silenced in most neurons during postnatal development in humans and mice; hence, loss of the maternal allele largely eliminates neuronal expression of UBE3A protein. However, recent studies suggest that paternal Ube3a may escape silencing in certain neuron populations, allowing for persistent expression of paternal UBE3A protein. Here we extend evidence in AS model mice (Ube3am–/p+) of paternal UBE3A expression within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian pacemaker. Paternal UBE3A-positive cells in the SCN show partial colocalization with the neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) and clock proteins (PER2 and BMAL1), supporting that paternal UBE3A expression in the SCN is often of neuronal origin. Paternal UBE3A also partially colocalizes with a marker of neural progenitors, SOX2, implying that relaxed or incomplete imprinting of paternal Ube3a reflects an overall immature molecular phenotype. Our findings highlight the complexity of Ube3a imprinting in the brain and illuminate a subpopulation of SCN neurons as a focal point for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms of Ube3a imprinting.

  3. The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model study of the N=Z nucleus 52Fe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model(ReCAPS) is used in the study of the structure and electromagnetic transitions of the low-lying states in the N=Z nucleus 52Fe.The model calculations show a reasonably good agreement with the data.The backbending at 12+ is reproduced and the energy level structure suggests that neutron-proton interactions play important roles.

  4. Toward Construction of the Unified Lepton-Nucleus Interaction Model from a Few Hundred MeV to GeV Region

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, S X; Hirai, M; Kamano, H; Kumano, S; Sakuda, M; Saito, K; Sato, T

    2013-01-01

    Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments will need a quantitative understanding of neutrino-nucleus interaction far better than ever. Kinematics covered by the relevant neutrino-nucleus interaction spans wide region, from the quasi-elastic, through the resonance region, to the deeply inelastic scattering region. The neutrino-nucleus interaction in each region has quite different characteristics. Obviously, it is essential to combine different expertise to construct a unified model that covers all the kinematical region of the neutrino-nucleus interaction. Recently, several experimentalists and theorists got together to form a collaboration to tackle this problem. In this contribution, we report the collaboration's recent activity and a goal in near future.

  5. A Model For The Absorption Of Thermal Radiation By Gold-Black

    OpenAIRE

    Quinlan, Brendan Robert

    2015-01-01

    The work presented here addresses an important topic in thermal radiation detection when gold-black is used as an absorber. Sought is a model to simulate the absorption of thermal radiation by gold-black. Fractal geometry is created to simulate the topology of gold-black. Then electrical circuits based on the topology are identified that capture the physics of the interaction between the gold-black material and incident electro-magnetic radiation. Parameters of the model are then adj...

  6. The Lieb-Liniger model at the critical point as toy model for Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Panchenko, Mischa

    2015-01-01

    In a previous series of papers it was proposed that black holes can be understood as Bose-Einstein condensates at the critical point of a quantum phase transition. Therefore other bosonic systems with quantum criticalities, such as the Lieb-Liniger model with attractive interactions, could possibly be used as toy models for black holes. Even such simple models are hard to analyse, as mean field theory usually breaks down at the critical point. Very few analytic results are known. In this paper we present a method of studying such systems at quantum critical points analytically. We will be able to find explicit expressions for the low energy spectrum of the Lieb-Liniger model and thereby to confirm the expected black hole like properties of such systems. This opens up an exciting possibility of constructing and studying black hole like systems in the laboratory.

  7. Self-organized criticality in boson clouds around black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Mocanu, Gabriela-Raluca; Grumiller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Boson clouds around black holes exhibit interesting physical phenomena through the Penrose process of superradiance, leading to black hole spin-down. Axionic clouds are of particular interest, since the axion Compton wavelength could be comparable to the Schwarzschild radius, leading to the formation of "gravitational atoms" with a black hole nucleus. These clouds collapse under certain conditions, leading to a "Bosenova". We model the dynamics of such unstable boson clouds by a simple cellul...

  8. Time series modelling and forecasting of Sarawak black pepper price

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Venus Khim-Sen; Shitan, Mahendran; Hussain, Huzaimi

    2000-01-01

    Pepper is an important agriculture commodity especially for the state of Sarawak. It is important to forecast its price, as this could help the policy makers in coming up with production and marketing plan to improve the Sarawak’s economy as well as the farmers’welfare. In this paper, we take up time series modelling and forecasting of the Sarawak black pepper price. Our empirical results show that Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) time series models fit the price series well and they have...

  9. Dysregulation of AMPA receptor transmission in the nucleus accumbens in animal models of cocaine addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Plasticity of glutamate transmission in neuronal circuits involving the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is now recognized to play a critical role in cocaine addiction. NAc neurons are excited primarily by AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) and this is required for cocaine seeking. This review will briefly describe AMPAR properties and trafficking, with a focus on studies in NAc neurons, and then consider mechanisms by which cocaine may alter AMPAR transmission. Two examples will be discussed that may be important in two different stages of addiction: learning about drugs and drug-related cues during the period of drug exposure, and persistent vulnerability to craving and relapse after abstinence is achieved. The first example is drawn from studies of cultured NAc neurons. Elevation of DA levels (as would occur following cocaine exposure) facilitates activity-dependent strengthening of excitatory synapses onto medium spiny neurons, the main cell type and projection neuron of the NAc. This occurs because activation of D1-class receptors primes AMPAR for synaptic insertion, creating a temporal window in which stimuli related to cocaine-taking are more efficacious at eliciting synaptic plasticity and thus being encoded into memory. The second example involves rat models of cocaine addiction. Cell surface and synaptic expression of AMPAR on NAc neurons is persistently increased after withdrawal from repeated cocaine exposure. We hypothesize that this increases the reactivity of NAc neurons to glutamate inputs from cortex and limbic structures, facilitating the ability of these inputs to trigger cocaine seeking and thus contributing to the persistent vulnerability to relapse that characterizes addiction. PMID:20361291

  10. Synchronization of PER1 protein in Parabrachial nucleus in a natural model of food anticipatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Claudia; Morgado, Elvira; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Martínez, Armando J.; Meza, Enrique; Caba, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit pups represent a natural model of food anticipatory activity (FAA). FAA is the behavioral output of a putative food entrainable oscillator (FEO). It had been suggested that the FEO is comprised of a distributed system of clocks that work in concert in response to gastrointestinal input by food. Scheduled food intake synchronizes several nuclei in the brain, and the hypothalamus has received particular attention. On the contrary, brainstem nuclei, despite being among the brain structures to first receive food cues, have been scarcely studied. Here we analyzed by immunohistochemistry possible oscillation of FOS and PER1 proteins through a complete 24 h cycle in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of seven to eight day old rabbit pups scheduled to nurse during the night (02:00) or day (10:00) and also in fasted subjects to explore the possible persistence of oscillations. We found a clear induction of FOS that peaks 1.5 h after nursing in all nuclei studied. PER1 was only synchronized in the PBN, reaching highest values 12 h after nursing. Only PER1 oscillations persisted in fasted subjects. We conclude that the DVC nuclei are probably more related to the transmission of food cues to other brain regions but that the PBN participates in the integration of information essential for FAA. Our results support previous findings suggesting that the DVC nuclei, but not PBN, are not essential for FAA. We suggest that PBN is a key component of the proposed distributed system of clocks involved in FAA. PMID:22471601

  11. Black Hole Atom as a Dark Matter Particle Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Dokuchaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the new dark matter particle candidate—the “black hole atom,” which is an atom with the charged black hole as an atomic nucleus and electrons in the bound internal quantum states. As a simplified model we consider the the central Reissner-Nordström black hole with the electric charge neutralized by the internal electrons in bound quantum states. For the external observers these objects would look like the electrically neutral Schwarzschild black holes. We suppose the prolific production of black hole atoms under specific conditions in the early universe.

  12. Black Hole Atom as a Dark Matter Particle Candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose the new dark matter particle candidate—the “black hole atom,” which is an atom with the charged black hole as an atomic nucleus and electrons in the bound internal quantum states. As a simplified model we consider the the central Reissner-Nordström black hole with the electric charge neutralized by the internal electrons in bound quantum states. For the external observers these objects would look like the electrically neutral Schwarzschild black holes. We suppose the prolific production of black hole atoms under specific conditions in the early universe

  13. Spin-dependent level density in interacting Boson-Fermion-Fermion model of the Odd-Odd Nucleus 196Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level density of the odd-odd nucleus 196Au is investigated in the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model (IBFFM) which accounts for collectivity and complex interaction between quasiparticle and collective modes.The IBFFM spin-dependent level densities show high-spin reduction with respect to Bethe formula.This can be well accounted for by a modified spin-dependent level density formula. (authors)

  14. Structure of the nucleus of 1928+738

    CERN Document Server

    Roland, J; Kun, E; Henri, G; Lambert, S; Zensus, A

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of the trajectories of VLBI components ejected by the nucleus of 1928+738 shows the VLBI jet contains three families of trajectories, i.e. VLBI components are ejected from three different origins. The fit of components C1, C6 and C8 indicates that the nucleus of 1928+738 contains two binary black hole systems. The first binary black hole system is associated with the stationary components Cg and CS and is characterized by a radius $R_{bin,1} \\approx 0.220$ mas; both black holes ejected VLBI components quasi regularly between 1990 and 2010. The second binary black hole system is not associated with stationary components and is characterized by a radius $R_{bin,2} \\approx 0.140$ mas; it ejected only three VLBI components between 1994 and 1999. The two black hole sytems are separated by $\\approx 1.35$ mas. We briefly discuss the consequences of the existence of binary black holes systems in radio quasars to make the link between radio quasars and GAIA.

  15. On the lamppost model of accreting black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Niedzwiecki, Andrzej; Szanecki, Michal

    2016-01-01

    We study the lamppost model, in which the X-ray source in accreting black-hole systems is located on the rotation axis close to the horizon. We point out a number of inconsistencies in the widely used lamppost model relxilllp, e.g., the neglect of the redshift of the photons emitted by the lamppost and directly observed. They appear to invalidate those model fitting results for which the source distances from the horizon are within several gravitational radii. Furthermore, if those results were correct, most of the photons produced in the lamppost would be trapped by the black hole, and the luminosity generated in the source as measured at infinity would be much larger than that observed. This appears to be in conflict with the observed smooth state transitions between the hard and soft states of X-ray binaries. The required increase of the accretion rate and the associated efficiency reduction present also a problem for AGNs. Then, those models imply the luminosity measured in the local frame to be much high...

  16. Model for nonsingular black hole collapse and evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the formation of a black hole and its subsequent evaporation in a model employing a minisuperspace approach to loop quantum gravity. In previous work the static solution was obtained and shown to be singularity-free. Here, we examine the more realistic dynamical case by generalizing the static case with the help of the Vaidya metric. We track the formation and evolution of trapped surfaces during collapse and evaporation and examine the buildup of quantum gravitationally caused stress energy preventing the formation of a singularity.

  17. Variational calculations of the 12C nucleus structure in a 3α model using a deep potential with forbidden states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy spectrum of the 12C nucleus with (Jπ,T)=(0+,0) and (2+,0) is investigated within the framework of the multicluster dynamical model by using a deep α α-potential with forbidden states in the S and D waves. A very high sensitivity of the compact ground and first excited 2+1 state energy levels to the description of the two-body forbidden states wavefunctions has been established. It is also shown that the chosen method of orthogonalizing pseudopotentials yields convergent results for the energies of the excited (0+2,0) and (0+3,0) states of the 12C nucleus with a well developed cluster-like structure. (author)

  18. Large scale experiments and modeling of black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Per

    2011-07-01

    Biomass gasification could provide a basis for increased electricity and engine fuel production from a renewable source in the pulp and paper industry. This work focuses on the largest byproduct available at the pulp mills, black liquor. Black liquor is a mixture of spent cooking chemicals, dissolved lignin, dissolved carbohydrates and a small portion of inorganic compounds found in the wood. The conventional technology to recover the cooking chemicals and the chemical energy as heat is combustion in large boilers. Here, gasification could be an alternative, replacing or complementing the boilers. The gasification technology produces a combustible gas that can be cleaned to produce electricity in a gas turbine/engine or, be synthesized into valuable chemicals or liquid engine fuels. The technology has been demonstrated in development scale since 2005 and appears to be promising. Still, commercial plants have not yet been built. This thesis focuses on the understanding of the oxygen blown, pressurized, entrained flow, black liquor gasification technology. The main goals have been to increase the understanding about the dominating mechanisms in black liquor gasification and to develop an engineering tool that can be used to design and optimize, pressurized, entrained flow, black liquor gasifiers. To accomplish these goals gas samples were extracted from the gasification reactor using a gas sampling probe that was developed within this work. Gas samples were also collected downstream the quench located underneath the reactor and the results were compared. Finally, an existing numerical model was developed so it can predict the behavior of the black liquor gasifier within reasonable accuracy. Even though the actual mechanisms in the reactor and quench are very complex it appears that they can be described with relatively simple global mechanisms. The main gas components are dictated by the water gas shift reaction. At the outlet of the reactor the gas composition is

  19. A dynamical evolution model on the black-hole horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jianyang [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2005-07-07

    This paper demonstrates a dynamical evolution model of the black-hole (BH) horizon. The result indicates that a kinetic area-cell model of the BH horizon can model the evolution of the BH due to the Hawking radiation, and this area-cell system can be considered as an interacting geometrical particle system. Thus, the evolution turns into a problem of statistical physics. In the present work, this problem is treated in the framework of non-equilibrium statistics. It is proposed that each area cell possesses energy like a microscopic black hole and has gravitational interaction with the other area cells. We consider both a non-interaction ideal system and a system with small nearest-neighbour interactions, and obtain an analytic expression of the expected value of the horizon area of a dynamical BH. We find that, after a long enough evolution, a dynamical BH with the Hawking radiation can be in equilibrium with a finite-temperature radiation field. However, we also find that the system has a critical point, and when the temperature of the radiation field surrounding the BH approaches the critical temperature of the BH, a critical slowing-down phenomenon occurs.

  20. Is Black-Scholes Model An Appropriate Option Pricing Tool in Chinese Stock Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Qing

    2007-01-01

    In order to further develop the derivative markets, the Chinese government has decided to launch stock options as soon as possible. The Black-Scholes formula has been the most commonly used option pricing model today. But is the Black-Scholes model an appropriate tool for pricing of Chinese stock option? If the Black-Sholes model is perfect, implied volatilities should be exactly the same for options on the same underlying asset with different strike prices. This project, however, discove...

  1. Dark Matter Primordial Black Holes and Inflation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Drees, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A broad range of single field models of inflation are analyzed in light of all relevant recent cosmological data, checking whether they can lead to the formation of long--lived Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) as candidate for dark matter. To that end we calculate the spectral index of the power spectrum of primordial perturbations as well as its first and second derivatives. PBH formation is possible only if the spectral index $n_S(k_0)$ increases significantly at small scales. Since current data indicate that the first derivative $\\alpha_S$ of the spectral index is negative at the pivot scale, PBH formation is only possible in the presence of a sizable and positive second derivative ("running of the running") $\\beta_S$. Among the three small-field and five large-field models we analyze, only the "running-mass" model allows PBH formation, for a narrow range of parameters.

  2. Dysregulation of AMPA receptor transmission in the nucleus accumbens in animal models of cocaine addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Marina E.

    2010-01-01

    Plasticity of glutamate transmission in neuronal circuits involving the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is now recognized to play a critical role in cocaine addiction. NAc neurons are excited primarily by AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) and this is required for cocaine seeking. This review will briefly describe AMPAR properties and trafficking, with a focus on studies in NAc neurons, and then consider mechanisms by which cocaine may alter AMPAR transmission. Two examples will be discussed that ...

  3. Lithium ameliorates nucleus accumbens phase signaling dysfunction in a genetic mouse model of mania

    OpenAIRE

    Dzirasa, Kafui; Coque, Laurent; Sidor, Michelle M.; Kumar, Sunil; Dancy, Elizabeth A.; Takahashi, Joseph S.; McClung, Colleen A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphisms in circadian genes such as CLOCK convey risk for bipolar disorder. While studies have begun to elucidate the molecular mechanism whereby disruption of Clock alters cellular function within mesolimbic brain regions, little remains known about how these changes alter gross neural circuit function and generate mania-like behaviors in Clock-Δ19 mice. Here we show that the phasic entrainment of nucleus accumbens (NAC) low-gamma (30–55Hz) oscillations to delta (1–4Hz) oscillations is ...

  4. The nature of orbits in a prolate elliptical galaxy model with a bulge and a dense nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolaos D. Caranicolas; Euaggelos E. Zotos

    2011-01-01

    We study the transition from regular to chaotic motion in a prolate elliptical galaxy dynamical model with a bulge and a dense nucleus.Our numerical investigation shows that stars with angular momentum Lz less than or equal to a critical value Lzc,moving near the galactic plane,are scattered to higher z,when reaching the central region of the galaxy,thus displaying chaotic motion.An inverse square law relationship was found to exist between the radius of the bulge and the critical value Lzc of the angular momentum.On the other hand,a linear relationship exists between the mass of the nucleus and Lzc.The numerically obtained results are explained using theoretical arguments.Our study shows that there are connections between regular or chaotic motion and the physical parameters of the system,such as the star's angular momentum and mass,the scale length of the nucleus and the radius of the bulge.The results are compared with the outcomes of previous work.

  5. Nonspinning black hole-neutron star mergers: a model for the amplitude of gravitational waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Pannarale, Francesco; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Black hole-neutron star binary mergers display a much richer phenomenology than black hole-black hole mergers, even in the relatively simple case - considered in this paper - in which both the black hole and the neutron star are nonspinning. When the neutron star is tidally disrupted, the gravitational wave emission is radically different from the black hole-black hole case and it can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. We present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain that encompasses the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, "mild", and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to general relativistic numerical simulations using piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. It should prove useful to extract information on the nuclear equation of state from future gravitational-wave observations, and also to obtain more accurate estimates of black hole-neutron ...

  6. Analysis of Data on Xanthan Fermentation in Stationary Phase Using Black Box and Metabolic Network Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红武; 赵学明; 唐寅杰

    1999-01-01

    The xanthan fermentation data in the stationary phase was analyzed using the black box and the metabolic network models. The data consistency ls checked through the elemental balance in the black box model. In the metabolic network model, the metabolic flux distribution in the cell is calculated using the metabolic flux analysis method, then the maintenance coefficients is calculated.

  7. Black hole demography: from scaling relations to models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contributed paper, I review our current knowledge of the local black hole (BH) scaling relations and their impact on the determination of the local BH mass function. I particularly emphasize the remaining systematic uncertainties impinging upon a secure determination of the BH mass function and how progress can be made in this direction. I then review and discuss the evidence for a different time evolution for separate BH–galaxy scaling relations, and how these independent empirical evidences can be reconciled with the overall evolution of the structural properties of the host galaxies. I conclude discussing BH demography in the context of semi-empirical continuity accretion models, as well as more complex evolutionary models, emphasizing the general constraints we can set on them. (paper)

  8. Black Hole Demography: From scaling relations to models

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed paper I review our current knowledge of the local Black Hole (BH) scaling relations, and their impact on the determination of the local BH mass function. I particularly emphasize the remaining systematic uncertainties impinging upon a secure determination of the BH mass function and how progress can be made. I then review and discuss the evidence for a different time evolution for separate BH-galaxy scaling relations, and how these independent empirical evidences can be reconciled with the overall evolution of the structural properties of the host galaxies. I conclude discussing BH demography in the context of semi-empirical continuity accretion models, as well as more complex evolutionary models, emphasizing the general constraints we can set on them.

  9. Lattice model for amyloid peptides: OPEP force field parametrization and applications to the nucleus size of Alzheimer's peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh Thuy; Nguyen, Phuong H.; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Coarse-grained protein lattice models approximate atomistic details and keep the essential interactions. They are, therefore, suitable for capturing generic features of protein folding and amyloid formation at low computational cost. As our aim is to study the critical nucleus sizes of two experimentally well-characterized peptide fragments Aβ16-22 and Aβ37-42 of the full length Aβ1-42 Alzheimer's peptide, it is important that simulations with the lattice model reproduce all-atom simulations. In this study, we present a comprehensive force field parameterization based on the OPEP (Optimized Potential for Efficient protein structure Prediction) force field for an on-lattice protein model, which incorporates explicitly the formation of hydrogen bonds and directions of side-chains. Our bottom-up approach starts with the determination of the best lattice force parameters for the Aβ16-22 dimer by fitting its equilibrium parallel and anti-parallel β-sheet populations to all-atom simulation results. Surprisingly, the calibrated force field is transferable to the trimer of Aβ16-22 and the dimer and trimer of Aβ37-42. Encouraged by this finding, we characterized the free energy landscapes of the two decamers. The dominant structure of the Aβ16-22 decamer matches the microcrystal structure. Pushing the simulations for aggregates between 4-mer and 12-mer suggests a nucleus size for fibril formation of 10 chains. In contrast, the Aβ37-42 decamer is largely disordered with mixed by parallel and antiparallel chains, suggesting that the nucleus size is >10 peptides. Our refined force field coupled to this on-lattice model should provide useful insights into the critical nucleation number associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate black carbon (BC model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentrations, aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD retrievals from AERONET and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and BC column estimations based on AERONET. In regions other than Asia, most models are biased high compared to surface concentration measurements. However compared with (column AAOD or BC burden retreivals, the models are generally biased low. The average ratio of model to retrieved AAOD is less than 0.7 in South American and 0.6 in African biomass burning regions; both of these regions lack surface concentration measurements. In Asia the average model to observed ratio is 0.7 for AAOD and 0.5 for BC surface concentrations. Compared with aircraft measurements over the Americas at latitudes between 0 and 50N, the average model is a factor of 8 larger than observed, and most models exceed the measured BC standard deviation in the mid to upper troposphere. At higher latitudes the average model to aircraft BC ratio is 0.4 and models underestimate the observed BC loading in the lower and middle troposphere associated with springtime Arctic haze. Low model bias for AAOD but overestimation of surface and upper atmospheric BC concentrations at lower latitudes suggests that most models are underestimating BC absorption and should improve estimates for refractive index, particle size, and optical effects of BC coating. Retrieval uncertainties and/or differences with model diagnostic treatment may also contribute to the model-measurement disparity. Largest AeroCom model diversity occurred in northern Eurasia and the remote Arctic, regions influenced by anthropogenic sources. Changing emissions, aging, removal, or optical properties within a single model

  11. Review on the structural approach of the Black-Scholes model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Shakila; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2015-05-01

    Black-Scholes model developed in 1973 has become one of the important concepts in modern financial theory. This model is regarded as one of the best ways in determining fair prices of the options. Many studies have been done to improve the performance of the Black-Scholes model since this model is built with few limitations. Thus, the objective of this review paper is to discuss on the Black-Scholes model. The aim of this review paper is to present the derivation of Black-Scholes, Merton and KMV-Merton models. Besides, it provides a literature review on the modifications done by the researchers on the Black-Scholes model.

  12. Evaluation of Black Carbon Estimations in Global Aerosol Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, D.; Schulz, M.; Kinne, Stefan; McNaughton, C. S.; Spackman, J. R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Bond, Tami C.; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, M.; Clarke, A. D.; De Luca, N.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Dubovik, O.; Easter, Richard C.; Fahey, D. W.; Feichter, J.; Fillmore, D.; Freitag, S.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Horowitz, L.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Klimont, Z.; Kondo, Yutaka; Krol, M.; Liu, Xiaohong; Miller, R.; Montanaro, V.; Moteki, N.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Perlwitz, Ja; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Sahu, L.; Sakamoto, H.; Schuster, G.; Schwarz, J. P.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Takemura, T.; Textor, C.; van Aardenne, John; Zhao, Y.

    2009-11-27

    We evaluate black carbon (BC) model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentrations, aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) from AERONET and OMI retrievals and BC column estimations based on AERONET. In regions other than Asia, most models are biased high compared to surface concentration measurements. However compared with (column) AAOD or BC burden retreivals, the models are generally biased low. The average ratio of model to retrieved AAOD is less than 0.7 in South American and 0.6 in African biomass burning regions; both of these regions lack surface concentration measurements. In Asia the average model to observed ratio is 0.6 for AAOD and 0.5 for BC surface concentrations. Compared with aircraft measurements over the Americas at latitudes between 0 and 50N, the average model is a factor of 10 larger than observed, and most models exceed the measured BC standard deviation in the mid to upper troposphere. At higher latitudes the average model to aircraft BC is 0.6 and underestimate the observed BC loading in the lower and middle troposphere associated with springtime Arctic haze. Low model bias for AAOD but overestimation of surface and upper atmospheric BC concentrations at lower latitudes suggests that most models are underestimating BC absorption and should improve estimates for refractive index, particle size, and optical effects of BC coating. Retrieval uncertainties and/or differences with model diagnostic treatment may also contribute to the model-measurement disparity. Largest AeroCom model diversity occurred in northern Eurasia and the remote Arctic, regions influenced by anthropogenic sources. Changing emissions, aging, removal, or optical properties within a single model generated a smaller change in model predictions than the

  13. Entrained Flow Black Liquor Gasification - Detailed Experiments and Mathematical Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Per (Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)), e-mail: per.carlsson@etcpitea.se

    2009-07-01

    Black liquor, a by-product from the Kraft pulping process is a highly viscous fluid consisting of approximately 30% water, 30 % alkali salts and 40 % combustible material. The alkali salts originating from the pulp making process need to be recovered in order for the pulp mill to be economical and to satisfy environmental regulation. Currently, the recovery takes place in large boilers called Tomlinson recovery boilers. However, a more energy efficient way to recover the chemicals could be via gasification in a pressurized, entrained flow, high temperature gasifier. To demonstrate this technology a development plant (DP1) was built in 2005 by the technology vendor Chemrec. Since then, the plant has been running for more than 10,000 h and frequently been updated and optimized. As steps towards commercialization and scale-up different computational models of varying sophistication are used as design and optimization tools for the process. Still, the engineering tools can only provide sensible predictions if they are properly validated and verified. This thesis is concerned with validation of a comprehensive mathematical model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) describing the gasification reactor and experimental investigations of the process characteristics in the DP1 gasifier. Paper A describes the system design and methodology for high temperature gas sampling during pressurized black liquor gasification. In this work a water-cooled gas sampling probe is installed in the hot part of the DP1 gasification reactor and several gas samples are withdrawn and analyzed. The experimentally obtained data in Paper A are then used as validation data for the CFD-model described in Paper B. In Paper C the obtained data from Paper A are thoroughly analyzed and the influence of reactor operation on producer gas composition is determined. In Paper D black liquor sprays from a gas assisted nozzle is experimentally investigated using high speed photography. Furthermore, the

  14. Linear relations between pion-nucleus s-wave scattering lengths and cluster models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is examined whether the recently noted proportionality of s-wave π-nucleus to the πα scattering length provides evidence for α-clustering in nuclei. An analysis of low-energy πd scatterings is used as argument against a simple interpretation of the observed linear relations. It is noted that all πA scattering lengths for Z=N nuclei are approximate multiples of a π''d''-like unit, without evidence for ''d'' clustering. (author)

  15. Global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIJING generator simulation of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies is presented. It is shown that the global characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions, such as distribution of a charged multiplicity, total and electromagnetic transverse energy over pseudorapidity are rather sensitive to some predictions of models of high-exited nuclear medium formation, namely parton energy losses in dense nuclear matter. These losses result in appearance of a broad maximum in global variable distributions over pseudorapidity. The most profound of this effect occurs at central heavy ion collisions at LHC energy

  16. Implementation of Black Sea numerical model based on NEMO and 3DVAR data assimilation scheme for operational forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Peneva, Elisaveta; Storto, Andrea; Rostislav, Kandilarov; Lecci, Rita; Yang, Chunxue; Coppini, Giovanni; Masina, Simona; Pinardi, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    This study describes a new model implementation for the Black Sea, which uses data assimilation, towards operational forecasting, based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean, Madec et al., 2012). The Black Sea domain is resolved with 1/27°×1/36° horizontal resolution (~3 km) and 31 z-levels with partial steps based on the GEBCO bathymetry data (Grayek et al., 2010). The model is forced by momentum, water and heat fluxes interactively computed by bulk formulae using high resolution atmospheric forcing provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecast (ECMWF). The initial condition is calculated from long-term climatological temperature and salinity 3D fields. Precipitation field over the basin has been computed from the climatological GPCP rainfall monthly data (Adler et al., 2003; Huffman et al., 2009), while the evaporation is derived from the latent heat flux. The climatological monthly mean runoff of the major rivers in the Black Sea is computed using the hydrological dataset provided by SESAME project (Ludvig et al., 2009). The exchange with Mediterranean Sea through the Bosporus Straits is represented by a surface boundary condition taking into account the barotropic transport calculated to balance the fresh water fluxes on monthly bases (Stanev and Beckers, 1999, Peneva et al., 2001). A multi-annual run 2011-2015 has been completed in order to describe the main characteristics of the Black Sea circulation dynamics and thermohaline structure and the numerical results have been validated using in-situ (ARGO) and satellite (SST, SLA) data. The Black Sea model represents also the core of the new Black Sea Forecasting System, implemented at CMCC operationally since January 2016, which produces at daily frequency 10-day forecasts, 3-days analyses and 1-day simulation. Once a week, the system is run 15-day in the past in analysis mode to compute the new optimal initial condition for the forecast cycle. The assimilation is performed by a

  17. Running-Mass Inflation Model and Primordial Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Drees, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the question whether the running-mass inflation model allows the formation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) that are sufficiently long-lived to serve as candidates for Dark Matter. We incorporate recent cosmological data, including the WMAP 7-year results. Moreover, we include ``the running of the running'' of the spectral index of the power spectrum, as well as the renormalization group ``running of the running'' of the inflaton mass term. Our analysis indicates that formation of sufficiently heavy, and hence long-lived, PBHs still remains possible in this scenario. As a by-product, we show that the additional term in the inflaton potential still does not allow significant negative running of the spectral index.

  18. Photodisintegration of 4 He nucleus into p3 H and n3 He channels on the base of potential cluster models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process of direct cluster photodisintegration on 4 He nucleus into p3 H and n3 He channels are considered on the base of two-cluster potential models. Inter cluster interactions being in agreement with elastic scattering phase shifts and characteristics of the bound state of a nucleus have in some cases forbidden states. The scattering phase shifts and potential are separated in the channels with minimum spin on the base of Young schemes and isospin states. (author)

  19. A model of radiating black hole in noncommutative geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolini, Piero

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenology of a radiating Schwarzschild black hole is analyzed in a noncommutative spacetime. It is shown that noncommutativity does not depend on the intensity of the curvature. Thus we legitimately introduce noncommutativity in the weak field limit by a coordinate coherent state approach. The new interesting results are the following: i) the existence of a minimal non-zero mass to which black hole can shrink; ii) a finite maximum temperature that the black hole can reach before cooli...

  20. Effect of climate variables on cocoa black pod incidence in Sabah using ARIMAX model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling Sheng Chang, Albert; Ramba, Haya; Mohd. Jaaffar, Ahmad Kamil; Kim Phin, Chong; Chong Mun, Ho

    2016-06-01

    Cocoa black pod disease is one of the major diseases affecting the cocoa production in Malaysia and also around the world. Studies have shown that the climate variables have influenced the cocoa black pod disease incidence and it is important to quantify the black pod disease variation due to the effect of climate variables. Application of time series analysis especially auto-regressive moving average (ARIMA) model has been widely used in economics study and can be used to quantify the effect of climate variables on black pod incidence to forecast the right time to control the incidence. However, ARIMA model does not capture some turning points in cocoa black pod incidence. In order to improve forecasting performance, other explanatory variables such as climate variables should be included into ARIMA model as ARIMAX model. Therefore, this paper is to study the effect of climate variables on the cocoa black pod disease incidence using ARIMAX model. The findings of the study showed ARIMAX model using MA(1) and relative humidity at lag 7 days, RHt - 7 gave better R square value compared to ARIMA model using MA(1) which could be used to forecast the black pod incidence to assist the farmers determine timely application of fungicide spraying and culture practices to control the black pod incidence.

  1. A model of radiating black hole in noncommutative geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolini, Piero [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2005-09-30

    The phenomenology of a radiating Schwarzschild black hole is analysed in a noncommutative spacetime. It is shown that noncommutativity does not depend on the intensity of the curvature. Thus, we legitimately introduce noncommutativity in the weak field limit by a coordinate coherent state approach. The new interesting results are the following: (i) the existence of a minimal nonzero mass to which black hole can shrink; (ii) a finite maximum temperature that the black hole can reach before cooling down to absolute zero; (iii) the absence of any curvature singularity. The proposed scenario offers a possible solution to conventional difficulties when describing the terminal phase of black hole evaporation. (letter to the editor)

  2. A model of radiating black hole in noncommutative geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenology of a radiating Schwarzschild black hole is analysed in a noncommutative spacetime. It is shown that noncommutativity does not depend on the intensity of the curvature. Thus, we legitimately introduce noncommutativity in the weak field limit by a coordinate coherent state approach. The new interesting results are the following: (i) the existence of a minimal nonzero mass to which black hole can shrink; (ii) a finite maximum temperature that the black hole can reach before cooling down to absolute zero; (iii) the absence of any curvature singularity. The proposed scenario offers a possible solution to conventional difficulties when describing the terminal phase of black hole evaporation. (letter to the editor)

  3. Lattice approximations for Black-Scholes type models in Option Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Karlén, Anne; Nohrouzian, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies binomial and trinomial lattice approximations in Black-Scholes type option pricing models. Also, it covers the basics of these models, derivations of model parameters by several methods under different kinds of distributions. Furthermore, the convergence of the binomial model to normal distribution, Geometric Brownian Motion and Black-Scholes model is discussed. Finally, the connections and interrelations between discrete random variables under the Lattice approach and con...

  4. Triaxial projected shell model study of transition probabilities for 134Pr nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest to establish stable triaxial shapes in nuclei is being pursued with keen interest during the last about half-a-century. In the initial phases for it, the structures of energy levels at relatively low angular momenta were considered. Generally, the deviations from axially symmetric shape are expected at high spins since the rotational effects are strong for high-j orbitals. The loss of axial symmetry affects a number of observables. For a nucleus having a stable triaxial shape, different moments of inertia are associated with each of the principal axes and the rotational motion is possible about all the three axes. Therefore, the rotational spectra are expected to be richer for stable triaxial nuclei as compared to that for axially symmetric deformed nuclei. There are several empirical observations indicating that axial symmetry is broken in transitional regions and therefore the nuclei in these regions have triaxial shapes

  5. Toward construction of the unified lepton-nucleus interaction model from a few hundred MeV to GeV region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S. X. [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8542 (Japan); Hayato, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka (Japan); Hirai, M.; Saito, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Kamano, H. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki 567-0047 (Japan); Kumano, S. [KEK Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); J-PARC Branch, KEK Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tokai 319-1106 (Japan); Sakuda, M. [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sato, T. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); J-PARC Branch, KEK Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tokai 319-1106 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments will need a quantitative understanding of neutrino-nucleus interaction far better than ever. Kinematics covered by the relevant neutrino-nucleus interaction spans wide region, from the quasi-elastic, through the resonance region, to the deeply inelastic scattering region. The neutrino-nucleus interaction in each region has quite different characteristics. Obviously, it is essential to combine different expertise to construct a unified model that covers all the kinematical region of the neutrino-nucleus interaction. Recently, several experimentalists and theorists got together to form a collaboration to tackle this problem. In this contribution, we report the collaboration’s recent activity and a goal in near future.

  6. Toward construction of the unified lepton-nucleus interaction model from a few hundred MeV to GeV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments will need a quantitative understanding of neutrino-nucleus interaction far better than ever. Kinematics covered by the relevant neutrino-nucleus interaction spans wide region, from the quasi-elastic, through the resonance region, to the deeply inelastic scattering region. The neutrino-nucleus interaction in each region has quite different characteristics. Obviously, it is essential to combine different expertise to construct a unified model that covers all the kinematical region of the neutrino-nucleus interaction. Recently, several experimentalists and theorists got together to form a collaboration to tackle this problem. In this contribution, we report the collaboration’s recent activity and a goal in near future

  7. Effects of septal nucleus lesion on dopamine D2 receptor expression in the prefrontal lobe, striatum, and brainstem in a rat model of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Shuande Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that the septal nucleus is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Based on autopsies of schizophrenia patients, studies have shown a reduced number of septal nucleus neurons and gila. In addition, experimental rat models of schizophrenia have shown increased dopamine receptor D2 binding sites in the basal ganglia, septal nuclei, and substantia nigra. Previous studies have demonstrated that the septal nucleus modulates dopamine metabolic disorder and dopamine D2 receptor balance.OBJECTIVE: Dopamine D2 receptor expression in a rat model of schizophrenia, combined with antipsychotic drugs, was analyzed in the prefrontal lobe, striatum, and brainstem. In situ hybridization was used to observe the effects of stereotactic septal nucleus lesions on dopamine D2 receptor expression in the brains of methylamphetamine-treated rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment was performed in the Laboratory of General Institute of Psychosurgery, Third Hospital of Chinese PLA from November 2005 to June 2006. MATERIALS: A total of 120 healthy, adult Sprague Dawley rats, weighing approximately 200 g, were included. Methylamphetamine (Sigma, USA) and an in situ hybridization detection kit for dopamine D2 receptor (Boster, China) were also used for this study. METHODS: All rats were randomly allocated to the following 4 groups, with 30 rats in each group: normal control, simple administration, septal nucleus lesion, and sham-operated groups. In the normal control group, rats were not administered or lesioned. In the remaining 3 groups, rats were intraperitoneally administered 10 mg/kg methylamphetamine, once per day, for 15 successive days to establish a schizophrenia model. Following successful model establishment, rats from the septal nucleus lesion group were subjected to stereotactic septal nucleus lesions. The cranial bone was exposed in rats from the sham-operated group, and the septal nucleus was not

  8. Unification models with reheating via primordial black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, J. C.; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo; Liddle, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    We study the possibility of reheating the universe through the evaporation of primordial black holes created at the end of inflation. This is shown to allow for the unification of inflation and dark matter under the dynamics of a single scalar field. We determine the necessary conditions to recover the standard Big Bang by the time of nucleosynthesis after reheating through black holes.

  9. A Toy Model for Black Hole in Noncommutative Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demetrian, M.; Presnajder, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new point of view on the problem of the Schwarzschild black hole in the noncommutative spaces, proposed recently by F. Nasseri. We apply our treatment also to the case of the 2+1 dimensional Ba\\~ nados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole.

  10. Stochastic Correlation Model of Galactic Bulge Velocity Dispersions and Central Black Holes Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the cosmological model in which a part of the Universe \\Omega_h\\sim 10^-5 is in the form of primordial black holes with mass \\sim 10^5M_\\odot. These primordial black holes would be centers for growing protogalaxies which experienced multiple mergers with ordinary galaxies. This process of galaxies formation is accompanied by the merging of central black holes in the galactic nuclei. It is shown that recently discovered correlations between the central black holes and bulges of gal...

  11. Primordial black hole formation from an axion-like curvaton model

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Masahiro(Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, the University of Tokyo, Chiba, 277-8582, Japan); Kitajima, Naoya; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the existence of the cold dark matter is explained by primordial black holes.We show that a significant number of primordial black holes can be formed in an axion-like curvaton model, in which the highly blue-tilted power spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations is achieved.It is found that the produced black holes with masses $\\sim 10^{20} -10^{38} \\mathrm{g}$ account for the present cold dark matter.We also argue the possibility of forming the primordial black holes with...

  12. A dispersive optical model potential for nucleon induced reactions on 238U nucleus with 15 coupled levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new dispersive coupled-channel optical model potential (OMP) for 238U nucleus is presented. The derived OMP couples almost all 238U excited levels below 1 MeV of excitation energy, including the ground state, octupole, beta, gamma, and non-axial bands. The coupled-channel potential is based on a vibrational-rotational description of the target nucleus structure, where dynamic vibrations are considered as perturbations of the rigid rotor underlying structure. OMP parameters that show a smooth energy dependence and energy independent geometry were determined from fits to the available experimental database (including strength functions and scattering radius) for neutron and proton scattering. The energy range 0.001-200 MeV is covered. Derived high-quality OMP is used to calculate the reaction cross section and corresponding theoretical uncertainties in nucleon-induced reactions on U-238. Theoretical calculations are compared with available results derived from existing experimental data on total cross-sections and angular distributions measurements based on the Wick's limit. Reduction of the uncertainty of the calculated reaction cross-section for neutron-induced reactions on 238U is discussed. (author)

  13. The Black-Litterman Model : mathematical and behavioral finance approaches towards its use in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mankert, Charlotta

    2006-01-01

    The financial portfolio model often referred to as the Black-Litterman model is analyzed using two approaches; a mathematical and a behavioral finance approach. After a detailed description of its framework, the Black-Litterman model is derived mathematically using a sampling theoretical approach. This approach generates a new interpretation of the model and gives an interpretable formula for the mystical parameter τ, the weight-on-views. Secondly, implications are drawn from research results...

  14. Numerical modeling of dispersion of pollutant in the coastal zone of the Western Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years in NIMH numerical models were used for forecasting the sea state in the Western Black Sea. The recent developments in this field include a numerical model for computation the dispersion of pollutants in the coastal zone first of all the adaptation of the operational oil-spill model of Meteo-France for the hydrological conditions of the Black Sea and under verification is numerical model for transportation of radionuclides as specific conservative tracers

  15. Numerical models of black body dominated GRBs: II. Emission properties

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta-Martínez, Carlos F; Mimica, Petar; Thöne, Christina C; de Ugarte-Postigo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We extend an existing theoretical model to explain the class of Black-Body Dominated (BBD) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), long lasting events characterized by the presence of a significant thermal component trailing the GRB prompt emission, and also by an absence of a traditional afterglow. GRB 101225A, the Christmas Burst, is a prototype of such class. It has been suggested that BBD-GRBs could be observed after a merger in a binary system consisting of a neutron star and a Helium core of a main sequence star. Using detailed relativistic hydrodynamic numerical simulations we model the propagation of ultrarelativistic jets through the environments created by such mergers. In this paper we focus on explaining the emission properties of the jet evolution computing the whole radiative signature (both thermal and non-thermal) of the jet dynamical evolution. A comprehensive parameter study of the jet/environment interaction has been performed and synthetic spectra and light curves are compared with the observational data...

  16. Estimation of Genetic Parameters, and Genetic and Environmental Effects on Progeny Carcass Traits of a Nucleus Breeding Population in Japanese Black Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    SAKATA, Ken; Hoque, Azharul; Hirai, Tomokazu; TSUKAGUCHI, Daisuke; TOMARU, Mayuko; Suzuki, Keiichi; Oikawa, Takuro

    2004-01-01

    Genetic parameters of body weight at the start of fattening (BSF), carcass weight (CWT), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), rib thickness (RBT), meat quality grade (MQG), beef marbling score (BMS) and rib eye area (REA) in Japanese Black cattle were estimated. The effects of genetic and environmental factors on fattening performance and carcass quality traits of the progeny were also analyzed. The averages of BSF, CWT, SFT, RBT and REA were 189 kg, 408 kg, 24.9 mm, 69.3 mm and 47.5 cm^2, respe...

  17. A review of the microscopic modeling of the 5-dim. black hole of IIB string theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spenta R Wadia

    2001-01-01

    We review the theory of the microscopic modeling of the 5-dim. black hole of type IIB string theory in terms of the 1-5 brane system. A detailed discussion of the low energy effective Lagrangian of the brane system is presented and the black hole micro-states are identified. These considerations are valid in the strong coupling regime of supergravity due to the non-renormalization of the low energy dynamics in this model. Using Maldacena duality and standard statistical mechanics methods one can account for black hole thermodynamics and calculate the absorption cross section and the Hawking radiation rates. Hence, at least in the case of this model black hole, since we can account for black hole properties within a unitary theory, there is no information paradox.

  18. Analysis of quantum evaporation process of black holes in the model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Sima, Jozef; Sukenik, Miroslav; Vanko, Julius

    2000-01-01

    In the model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe, black hole cannot totally evaporate via quantum evaporation process proposed by Hawking. In a limiting case, an equilibrium of gravitation creation and black hole evaporation can be reached keeping the surface of its horizon constant. This conclusion is in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  19. Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignati, E.; Karl, M.; Krol, M.C.; Wilson, J.; Stier, P.; Cavalli, F.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the global black carbon (BC) cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of its properties. This work investigates two source of uncertainties in modelling black carbon: those due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in th

  20. Brick Wall Model and the Spectrum of a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; ZHAO Zheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ The quantum entropy of a scalar field near a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated by employing the brick-wall model in the grand canonical ensemble. A positive chemical potential is introduced if the cutoff is set to be of order of the Planck length. We also discuss the relation between the chemical potential and the mass quantum of the black hole.

  1. Modeling Lolium perenne L. roots in the presence of empirical black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant root models are designed for understanding structural or functional aspects of root systems. When a process is not thoroughly understood, a black box object is used. However, when a process exists but empirical data do not indicate its existence, you have a black hole. The object of this re...

  2. A short half-life GFP mouse model for analysis of suprachiasmatic nucleus organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSauter, Joseph; Yan, Lily; Vishnubhotla, Bhavana; Quintero, Jorge E.; Kuhlman, Sandra J.; McMahon, Douglas G.; Silver, Rae

    2012-01-01

    Period1 (Per1) is one of several clock genes driving the oscillatory mechanisms that mediate circadian rhythmicity. Per1 mRNA and protein are highly expressed in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which contain oscillator cells that drive circadian rhythmicity in physiological and behavioral responses. We examined a transgenic mouse in which degradable green fluorescent protein (GFP) is driven by the mPer1 gene promoter. This mouse expresses precise free-running rhythms and characteristic light induced phase shifts. GFP protein (reporting Per1 mRNA) is expressed rhythmically as measured by either fluorescence or immunocytochemistry. In addition the animals show predicted rhythms of Per1 mRNA, PER1 and PER2 proteins. The localization of GFP overlaps with that of Per1 mRNA, PER1 and PER2 proteins. Together, these results suggest that GFP reports rhythmic Per1 expression. A surprising finding is that, at their peak expression time GFP, Per1 mRNA, PER1 and PER2 proteins are absent or not detectable in a subpopulation of SCN cells located in the core region of the nucleus. PMID:12576188

  3. Testing a Mahalanobis distance model of black bear habitat use in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, E.C.; Bales, S.L.; Gregory, M.S.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Clark, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Regional wildlife–habitat models are commonly developed but rarely tested with truly independent data. We tested a published habitat model for black bears (Ursus americanus) with new data collected in a different site in the same ecological region (i.e., Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma, USA). We used a Mahalanobis distance model developed from relocations of black bears in Arkansas to produce a map layer of Mahalanobis distances on a study area in neighboring Oklahoma. We tested this modeled map layer with relocations of black bears on the Oklahoma area. The distributions of relocations of female black bears were consistent with model predictions. We conclude that this modeling approach can be used to predict regional suitability for a species of interest.

  4. An Empirical Investigation of the Black-Scholes Model: Evidence from the Australian Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaffar Subedar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the probability of an exchange traded European call option beingexercised on the ASX200 Options Index. Using single-parameter estimates of factors withinthe Black-Scholes model, this paper utilises qualitative regression and a maximum likelihoodapproach. Results indicate that the Black-Scholes model is statistically significant at the 1%level. The results also provide evidence that the use of implied volatility and a jump-diffusionapproach, which increases the tail properties of the underlying lognormal distribution,improves the statistical significance of the Black-Scholes model.

  5. On the use of the Black & Scholes model in a stochastic interest rate economy

    OpenAIRE

    Krister Rindell

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the pelformance of the Black & Scholes (1973) model for pricing of European style stock options in a stochastic interest rate economy. Throughout the paper we assume that Jarrow"s (1988) version of the Merton (1973) model correctly describes the reality. We examine the implications of two standard estimation methods of the value of the volatility parameter in the Black & Scholes model, the historical estimate method and the implied value method, respectively. Specific form...

  6. Where are all the gravastars? Limits upon the gravastar model from accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gravastar model, which postulates a strongly correlated thin shell of anisotropic matter surrounding a region of anti-de Sitter space, has been proposed as an alternative to black holes. We discuss constraints that present-day observations of well-known black hole candidates place on this model. We focus upon two black hole candidates known to have extraordinarily low luminosities: the supermassive black hole in the galactic centre, Sagittarius A*, and the stellar-mass black hole, XTE J1118 + 480. We find that the length scale for modifications of the type discussed in Chapline et al (2003 Int. J. Mod. Phys. 18 3587-90) must be sub-Planckian

  7. Gene expression microarray analysis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus in a rat model of migraine with aura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruozhuo Liu; Shengyuan Yu; Fengpeng Li; Enchao Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression can trigger migraine with aura and activate the trigeminal vascular system. To examine gene expression profiles in the spinal trigeminal nucleus in rats following cortical spreading depression-induced migraine with aura, a rat model was established by injection of 1 M potassium chloride, which induced cortical spreading depression. DNA microarray analysis revealed that, compared with the control group, the cortical spreading depression group showed seven upregulated genes-myosin heavy chain 1/2, myosin light chain 1, myosin light chain (phosphorylatable, fast skeletal muscle), actin alpha 1, homeobox B8, carbonic anhydrase 3 and an unknown gene. Two genes were downregulated-RGD1563441 and an unknown gene. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and bioinformatics analysis indicated that these genes are involved in motility, cell migration, CO2 /nitric oxide homeostasis and signal transduction.

  8. Bilateral dorsal cochlear nucleus lesions prevent acoustic-trauma induced tinnitus in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozoski, Thomas Jeffrey; Wisner, Kurt W; Sybert, Lauren T; Bauer, Carol A

    2012-02-01

    Animal experiments suggest that chronic tinnitus ("ringing in the ears") may result from processes that overcompensate for lost afferent input. Abnormally elevated spontaneous neural activity has been found in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) of animals with psychophysical evidence of tinnitus. However, it has also been reported that DCN ablation fails to reduce established tinnitus. Since other auditory areas have been implicated in tinnitus, the role of the DCN is unresolved. The apparently conflicting electrophysiological and lesion data can be reconciled if the DCN serves as a necessary trigger zone rather than a chronic generator of tinnitus. The present experiment used lesion procedures identical to those that failed to decrease pre-existing tinnitus. The exception was that lesions were done prior to tinnitus induction. Young adult rats were trained and tested using a psychophysical procedure shown to detect tinnitus. Tinnitus was induced by a single unilateral high-level noise exposure. Consistent with the trigger hypothesis, bilateral dorsal DCN lesions made before high-level noise exposure prevented the development of tinnitus. A protective effect stemming from disruption of the afferent pathway could not explain the outcome because unilateral lesions ipsilateral to the noise exposure did not prevent tinnitus and unilateral lesions contralateral to the noise exposure actually exacerbated the tinnitus. The DCN trigger mechanism may involve plastic circuits that, through loss of inhibition, or upregulation of excitation, increase spontaneous neural output to rostral areas such as the inferior colliculus. The increased drive could produce persistent pathological changes in the rostral areas, such as high-frequency bursting and decreased interspike variance, that comprise the chronic tinnitus signal. PMID:21969021

  9. Sources of uncertainties in modelling Black Carbon at the global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cavalli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the global black carbon cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of the properties of black carbon. This work investigates uncertainties related to modelling black carbon: due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in the global Transport-Chemistry model TM5 and due to the uncertainties in the definition and quantification of observed black carbon, which propagate through to both the emission inventories, and the measurements used for the model evaluation.

    The schemes for the atmospheric processing of black carbon that have been tested with the model are (i a simple approach considering black carbon as bulk aerosol and a simple treatment in the removal and (ii a more complete description of microphysical aging within an aerosol dynamics model, where removal is coupled to the microphysical properties of the aerosol. In the first approach a fixed 70% of black carbon is scavenged in clouds and removed when rain is present. The second leads to a global average of 40% black carbon that is scavenged in clouds and subsequently removed by rain, thus resulting in a longer lifetime. This difference is reflected in comparisons between both sets of modelled results and the measurements. Close to the sources, both anthropogenic and vegetation fire source regions, the model results do not differ significantly, showing that the emissions are the prevailing mechanism determining the concentrations and the choice of the aerosol scheme does not influence the levels. In more remote areas such as oceanic and polar regions the differences can be orders of magnitude, due to the differences between the two schemes. The more complete description reproduces the seasonal trend of the black carbon observations in those areas, although not always the magnitude of the signal, while the more simplified approach underestimates black carbon concentrations by orders of magnitude.

  10. 期货期权的多维Black-Scholes模型%Multi-dimensional Black-Scholes model on future option

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛红

    2001-01-01

    建立了具有变系数的期货期权的多维Black-Scholes模型.利用倒向随机微分方程和鞅方法,直接得到欧式期货未定权益的一般定价公式以及套期保值策略.由此给出了欧式期货看涨期权与看跌期权的定价公式与套期保值策略.%Multi-dimensional Black-Scholes model with non-constant coefficients on future option is established in this paper.The pricing formula and hedging strategy of European Future contingent claim are obtained by back-ward stochastic different equation and martingale method.In view of the result,the pricing formula and hedging strategy of European Future call and put option are given.

  11. Unitarity of black hole evaporation in final-state projection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Seth; Preskill, John

    2014-08-01

    Almheiri et al. have emphasized that otherwise reasonable beliefs about black hole evaporation are incompatible with the monogamy of quantum entanglement, a general property of quantum mechanics. We investigate the final-state projection model of black hole evaporation proposed by Horowitz and Maldacena, pointing out that this model admits cloning of quantum states and polygamous entanglement, allowing unitarity of the evaporation process to be reconciled with smoothness of the black hole event horizon. Though the model seems to require carefully tuned dynamics to ensure exact unitarity of the black hole S-matrix, for a generic final-state boundary condition the deviations from unitarity are exponentially small in the black hole entropy; furthermore observers inside black holes need not detect any deviations from standard quantum mechanics. Though measurements performed inside old black holes could potentially produce causality-violating phenomena, the computational complexity of decoding the Hawking radiation may render the causality violation unobservable. Final-state projection models illustrate how inviolable principles of standard quantum mechanics might be circumvented in a theory of quantum gravity.

  12. Evaluating The Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model And Possible Option Pricing Alternative Using Market Data

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Desmond Hin Lun

    2009-01-01

    This project investigates the underlying properties of the Black-Scholes option pricing model and unveils some of its limitations. We investigate its characteristics by employing historical S&P500 data on a number of options transactions and evaluate its assumptions in the light of market data . Knowing the outlined limitations of Black-Scholes, we will then study the effects of using a trinomial tree to approximate the Black-Scholes model as well as counter the weakness by developing a m...

  13. Black hole mass and binary model for BL Lac object OJ 287

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F. K.; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2002-01-01

    Recent intensive observations of the BL Lac object OJ 287 raise a lot of questions on the models of binary black holes, processing jets, rotating helical jets and thermal instability of slim accretion disks. After carefully analyzing their radio flux and polarization data, Valtaoja et al. (\\cite{valtaoja00}) propose a new binary model. Based on the black hole mass of $4 \\times 10^8 {\\rm M_\\odot}$ estimated with the tight correlations of the black hole masses and the bulge luminosity or centra...

  14. Suprathermal electrons near the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at 3 AU: Model comparisons with Rosetta data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanian, H.; Cravens, T. E.; Rahmati, A.; Goldstein, R.; Burch, J.; Eriksson, A. I.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Henri, P.; Mandt, K.; Clark, G.; Rubin, M.; Broiles, T.; Reedy, N. L.

    2016-06-01

    Observations of the coma near the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) made by the IES (Ion and Electron Sensor) instrument onboard the Rosetta Orbiter during late 2014 showed that electron fluxes greatly exceeded solar wind electron fluxes. The IES is part of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium. This paper reports on electron energy spectra measured by IES near the nucleus as well as approximate densities and average energies for the suprathermal electrons when the comet was at a heliocentric distance of about 3 AU. Comparisons are made with electron densities measured by other instruments. The high electron densities observed (e.g., ne ≈ 10-100 cm-3) must be associated with the cometary ion density enhancement created mainly by the photoionization of cometary gas by solar radiation; there are other processes that also contribute. Quasineutrality requires that the electron and ion densities be the same, and under certain conditions an ambipolar electric field is required to achieve quasi-neutrality. We present the results of a test particle model of cometary ion pickup by the solar wind and a two-stream electron transport code and use these results to interpret the IES data. We also estimate the effects on the electron spectrum of a compression of the electron fluid parcel. The electrons detected by IES can have energies as high as about 100-200 eV near the comet on some occasions, in which case the hot electrons can significantly enhance ionization rates of neutrals via impact ionization.

  15. Particle production in ultrarelativistic proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions in a parton-string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The longitudinal momentum distributions of particles produced in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions are calculated in terms of quark distribution functions and empirical string fragmentation functions. With very few parameters I consistently describe the projectile fragmentation region in hadron-nucleus collisions at 100 GeV. 9 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  16. Light fragment production at small angles in Ar + Nucleus collisions with the Diogene detector. Comparison with theoric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work concerns the study of light fragment production at small angles in Ar + Nucleus collisions with the Diogene detector. After a brief review of the Relativistic Heavy Ion collisions, we describe the Diogene detector; we study experimental analysis in particular the simulation of the experimental filter. We analyse the correlations between the multiplicities in the central chamber and in the plastic wall, and we determine differential production cross sections of light fragments at small angles. Then, we compare experimental production cross sections of Z = 1 fragment with theoretical predictions from theoretical models: the thermodynamical model, the Intranuclear Cascade model and the theory of Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD). The thermodynamical model allows us to confirm the existence of two sources: the projectile remnant the participant region. We have extracted apparent temperatures which confirm a low excitation energy of the projectile remnant. With the Intranuclear Cascade, we simulate Ar + (Ca,Nb) reactions at 200 and 400 A.MeV. A qualitative description is only obtained. With QMD, we consider two systems: Ar + (Ca,Nb) at 400 and 600 A.MeV, with different impact parameters and with two equations of state (soft and hard). The comparison between experimental data and theoretical data shows a good qualitative agreement. The quantitative agreement depends of centrality of the collisions, and we note a sensitivity of the results to the equation of state for central asymetric collisions, favouring a hard equation of state

  17. Integrable models, degenerate horizons and AdS_2 black holes

    OpenAIRE

    J. Cruz; Fabbri, A; Navarro, D. J.; Navarro-Salas, J.; Navarro, P.

    1999-01-01

    The near extremal Reissner-Nordstrom black holes in arbitrary dimensions ca be modeled by the Jackiw-Teitelboim (JT) theory. The asymptotic Virasoro symmetry of the corresponding JT model exactly reproduces, via Cardy's formula, the deviation of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the Reissner-Nordstrom black holes from extremality. We also comment how can we extend this approach to investigate the evaporation process.

  18. How to hedge Asian options in fractional Black-Scholes model

    CERN Document Server

    Tikanmäki, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    We prove change of variables formulas [It\\^o formulas] for both arithmetic and geometric averages of geometric fractional Brownian motion. They are valid for all convex functions, not only for smooth ones. Moreover, they can be used for obtaining hedges (but not prices) for Asian options in fractional Black-Scholes model. We get explicit hedges in some cases where explicit hedges are not known even in the ordinary Black-Scholes model.

  19. An Empirical Investigation of the Black-Scholes Model: Evidence from the Australian Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Zaffar Subedar; Dionigi Gerace; Scott McKenzie

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the probability of an exchange traded European call option beingexercised on the ASX200 Options Index. Using single-parameter estimates of factors withinthe Black-Scholes model, this paper utilises qualitative regression and a maximum likelihoodapproach. Results indicate that the Black-Scholes model is statistically significant at the 1%level. The results also provide evidence that the use of implied volatility and a jump-diffusionapproach, which increases the tail proper...

  20. Robust option replication for a Black-Scholes model extended with nondeterministic trends

    OpenAIRE

    John G. M. Schoenmakers; Peter E. Kloeden

    1999-01-01

    Statistical analysis on various stocks reveals long range dependence behavior of the stock prices that is not consistent with the classical Black and Scholes model. This memory or nondeterministic trend behavior is often seen as a reflection of market sentiments and causes that the historical volatility estimator becomes unreliable in practice. We propose an extension of the Black and Scholes model by adding a term to the original Wiener term involving a smoother process which accounts for th...

  1. Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale

    OpenAIRE

    Vignati, E.; Karl, M; M. Krol; Wilson, J.(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom); Stier, P; F. Cavalli

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the global black carbon (BC) cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of its properties. This work investigates two source of uncertainties in modelling black carbon: those due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in the global Transport-Chemistry model TM5 and those due to the uncertainties in the definition and quantification of the observations, which propagate through to both the emission inventories, and the...

  2. Aligned spin neutron star-black hole mergers: a gravitational waveform amplitude model

    CERN Document Server

    Pannarale, Francesco; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Lackey, Benjamin D; Shibata, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational radiation emitted during the merger of a black hole with a neutron star is rather similar to the radiation from the merger of two black holes when the neutron star is not tidally disrupted. When tidal disruption occurs, gravitational waveforms can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. Extending previous work by some of us, here we present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain encompassing the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, "mild" and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to 134 general-relativistic numerical simulations of binaries where the black hole spin is either aligned or antialigned with the orbital angular momentum. All simulations were produced using the SACRA code and piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. The present model can be used to determine when black-hole binary waveforms are sufficient for gravitational-wave...

  3. Simulating the use of products: applying the nucleus paradigm to resource-integrated virtual interaction models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegte, W.F.; Horváth, I.; Rusák, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a methodology for modelling and simulating fully virtual human-artefact systems, aiming to resolve two issues in virtual prototyping: (i) integration of distinct modelling and simulation approaches, and (ii) extending the deployability of simulations towards conceptual design. We are go

  4. Fission cross section calculations for 209Bi target nucleus based on fission reaction models in high energy regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of projects of new generation nuclear power plants requires the solving of material science and technological issues in developing of reactor materials. Melts of heavy metals (Pb, Bi and Pb-Bi due to their nuclear and thermophysical properties, are the candidate coolants for fast reactors and accelerator-driven systems (ADS. In this study, α, γ, p, n and 3He induced fission cross section calculations for 209Bi target nucleus at high-energy regions for (α,f, (γ,f, (p,f, (n,f and (3He,f reactions have been investigated using different fission reaction models. Mamdouh Table, Sierk, Rotating Liquid Drop and Fission Path models of theoretical fission barriers of TALYS 1.6 code have been used for the fission cross section calculations. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data taken from the EXFOR database. TALYS 1.6 Sierk model calculations exhibit generally good agreement with the experimental measurements for all reactions used in this study.

  5. The preferentially magnified active nucleus in IRAS F10214+4724 - I. Lens model and spatially resolved radio emission

    CERN Document Server

    Deane, R P; Marshall, P J; Heywood, I; Klöckner, H -R; Grainge, K; Mauch, T; Serjeant, S

    2013-01-01

    This is the first paper in a series that present a multi-wavelength analysis of the archetype Ultra-Luminous InfraRed Galaxy (ULIRG) IRAS FSC10214+4724, a gravitationally lensed, starburst/AGN at z=2.3. Here we present a new lens model and spatially-resolved radio data, as well as a deep HST F160W map. The lens modelling employs a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm with extended-source, forward ray-tracing. Using these high resolution HST, MERLIN and VLA maps, the algorithm allows us to constrain the level of distortion to the continuum spectral energy distribution resulting from emission components with differing magnification factors, due to their size and proximity to the caustic. Our lens model finds the narrow line region (NLR), and by proxy the active nucleus, is preferentially magnified. This supports previous claims that preferential magnification could mask the expected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon spectral features in the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum which roughly trace the star-forming...

  6. An Introduction to the Interacting Boson Model of the Atomic Nucleus, Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeifer, Walter

    2002-01-01

    This work introduces to the Interacting Boson Model, which was created in 1974 by F. Iachello and A. Arima and then extend by numerous papers. Many-body configurations with s- and d-boson states are described and creation- and annihilation-operators for bosons are introduced. States with defined angular momentum are dealt with and the Hamilton operator of the IBM1-model is expressed in terms of Casimir operators. Level energies and electromagnetic transition probabilities are compared with measured data. A short introduction to Lie algebras and their application to the IBM1-model are given. In the IBM2-model protons and neutrons are treated separately and in IBFM single nucleons are added to the boson model. Comparison with experimental results.

  7. An Introduction to the Interacting Boson Model of the Atomic Nucleus. Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeifer, Walter

    2002-01-01

    This work introduces to the Interacting Boson Model, which was created in 1974 by F. Iachello and A. Arima and then extended by numerous papers. Many-body configurations with s- and d-boson states are described and creation- and annihilation-operators for bosons are introduced. States with defined angular momentum are dealt with and the Hamilton operator of the IBM1-model is expressed in terms of Casimir operators. Level energies and electromagnetic transition probabilities are compared with measured data. A short introduction to Lie algebras and their application to the IBM1-model are given. In the IBM2-model protons and neutrons are treated separately and in IBFM single nucleons are added to the boson model. Comparison with experimental results.

  8. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS PAIRS FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY. II. EVIDENCE FOR TIDALLY ENHANCED STAR FORMATION AND BLACK HOLE ACCRETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are occasionally seen in pairs, suggesting that tidal encounters are responsible for the accretion of material by both central supermassive black holes (BHs). In Paper I of this series, we selected a sample of AGN pairs with projected separations rp –170 kpc and velocity offsets –1 from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and quantified their frequency. In this paper, we address the BH accretion and recent star formation properties in their host galaxies. AGN pairs experience stronger BH accretion, as measured by their [O III] λ5007 luminosities (corrected for contribution from star formation) and Eddington ratios, than do control samples of single AGNs matched in redshift and host-galaxy stellar mass. Their host galaxies have stronger post-starburst activity and younger mean stellar ages, as indicated by stronger Hδ absorption and smaller 4000 Å break in their spectra. The BH accretion and recent star formation in the host galaxies both increase with decreasing projected separation in AGN pairs, for rp ∼–170 kpc. The intensity of BH accretion, the post-starburst strength, and the mean stellar ages are correlated between the two AGNs in a pair. The luminosities and Eddington ratios of AGN pairs are correlated with recent star formation in their host galaxies, with a scaling relation consistent with that observed in single AGNs. Our results suggest that galaxy tidal interactions enhance both BH accretion and host-galaxy star formation in close AGN pairs, even though the majority of low-redshift AGNs are not coincident with on-going interactions.

  9. Black holes and gravitational waves in models of minicharged dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Macedo, Caio F. B.; Pani, Paolo; Ferrari, Valeria

    2016-05-01

    In viable models of minicharged dark matter, astrophysical black holes might be charged under a hidden U(1) symmetry and are formally described by the same Kerr-Newman solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory. These objects are unique probes of minicharged dark matter and dark photons. We show that the recent gravitational-wave detection of a binary black-hole coalescence by aLIGO provides various observational bounds on the black hole's charge, regardless of its nature. The pre-merger inspiral phase can be used to constrain the dipolar emission of (ordinary and dark) photons, whereas the detection of the quasinormal modes set an upper limit on the final black hole's charge. By using a toy model of a point charge plunging into a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, we also show that in dynamical processes the (hidden) electromagnetic quasinormal modes of the final object are excited to considerable amplitude in the gravitational-wave spectrum only when the black hole is nearly extremal. The coalescence produces a burst of low-frequency dark photons which might provide a possible electromagnetic counterpart to black-hole mergers in these scenarios.

  10. One-shot decoupling and Page curves from a dynamical model for black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Bradler, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    One-shot decoupling is a powerful primitive in quantum information theory and was hypothesized to play a role in the black hole information paradox. We study black hole dynamics modeled by a trilinear Hamiltonian whose semiclassical limit gives rise to the Hawking radiation. An explicit numerical calculation of the discretized path integral of the S-matrix shows that decoupling is exact in the continuous limit, implying that quantum information is perfectly transferred from the black hole to radiation. A striking consequence of decoupling is the emergence of an output radiation entropy profile that follows Page's prediction.

  11. An Improved Thin Film Brick-Wall Model of Black Hole Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-Biao; ZHAO Zheng

    2001-01-01

    We improve the brick-wall model to take only the contribution of a thin film near the event horizon into account. This improvement not only gives us a satisfactory result, but also avoids some drawbacks in the original brick wall method such as the little mass approximation, neglecting logarithm term, and taking the term L3 as the contribution of the vacuum surrounding a black hole. It is found that there is an intrinsic relation between the event horizon and the entropy. The event horizon is the characteristic of a black hole, so the entropy calculating of a black hole is also naturally related to its horizon.

  12. Monte Carlo modeling of the net effects of coma scattering and thermal reradiation on the energy input to cometary nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo simulation method is presented that can, to an accuracy of a few percent, calculate the effects of a dusty coma on the total energy input to the cometary nucleus. This method treats nonconservative nonisotropic scattering, as well as the reflection from the nucleus surface. Results are presented as a function of the optical thickness of the dust column in the sun-comet axis. The total energy input to the nucleus appears to be only weakly dependent on the opacity of the coma, the radial distribution of the dust, or the details of the extinction processes. 18 references

  13. Neutron Pairing Correlations in an {α}-{n}-{n} Three-Cluster Model of the {6}He Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, H.; Furuya, J.; Yamaguchi, M.; Oryu, S.

    2016-04-01

    An {α}- n- n three-cluster model of the {^6}He nucleus is studied by solving the Faddeev equations, where the cluster potential between {α} and n takes into account the Pauli exclusion correction, using the Fish-Bone Optical Model (Schmid in Z Phys A 297:105, 1980). The resulting binding energy of the ground state ({0^+}) is 0.831 MeV and the resonance energy of the first excited state ({2^+}), 0.60-i0.012 MeV, is extracted from the three-cluster break-up threshold. These theoretical values are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data: 0.973 MeV and 0.824-i0.056 MeV, respectively. In order to investigate the structure of these states, we calculate the angle density matrix for the {angle n_1 α n_2} angle in the triangle formed by the three clusters. The angle density matrix of the ground state has two peaks and the configuration of {0^+} wave function corresponding to the peaks constitutes a mixture of an acute-angled triangle structure and an obtuse-angled one. This finding is consistent with the former result from a variational approach (Hagino and Sagawa in Phys Rev C 72:044321, 2005). On the other hand, in the case of {2^+} state only a single peak is obtained.

  14. Building the nucleus from quarks: The cloudy bag model and the quark description of the nucleon-nucleon wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Cloudy Bag Model hadrons are treated as quarks confined in an M.I.T. bag that is surrounded by a cloud of pions. Computations of the charge and magnetism distributions of nucleons and baryons, pion-nucleon scattering, and the strong and electromagnetic decays of mesons are discussed. Agreement with experimental results is excellent if the nucleon bag radius is in the range between 0.8 and 1.1 fm. Underlying qualitative reasons which cause the pionic corrections to be of the obtained sizes are analyzed. If bags are of such reasonably large sizes, nucleon bags in nuclei will often come into contact. As a result one needs to consider whether explicit quark degrees of freedom are relevant for Nuclear Physics. To study such possibilities a model which treats a nucleus as a collection of baryons, pions and six-quark bags is discussed. In particular, the short distance part of a nucleon-nucleon wave function is treated as six quarks confined in a bag. This approach is used to study the proton-proton weak interaction, the asymptotic D to S state ratio of the deuteron, the pp → dπ reaction, the charge density of /sup 3/He, magnetic moments of /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H and, the /sup 3/He-/sup 3/H binding energy difference. It is found that quark effects are very relevant for understanding nuclear properties

  15. Relativistic proton-nucleus scattering and one-boson-exchange models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic p-40Ca elastic scattering observables are calculated using four sets of relativistic NN amplitudes obtained from different one-boson-exchange (OBE) models. The first two sets are based upon a relativistic equation in which one particle is on mass shell and the other two sets are obtained from a quasipotential reduction of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Results at 200, 300, and 500 MeV are presented for these amplitudes. Differences between the predictions of these models provide a study of the uncertainty in constructing Dirac optical potentials from OBE-based NN amplitudes

  16. Magnetically charged regular black hole in a model of nonlinear electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Meng-Sen

    2015-01-01

    We obtain a magnetically charged regular black hole in general relativity. The source to the Einstein field equations is nonlinear electrodynamic field in a physically reasonable model of nonlinear electrodynamics (NED). "Physically" here means the NED model is constructed on the basis of three conditions: the Maxwell asymptotic in the weak electromagnetic field limit; the presence of vacuum birefringence phenomenon; and satisfying the weak energy condition (WEC). In addition, we analyze the thermodynamic properties of the regular black hole in two ways. According to the usual black hole thermodynamics, we calculate the heat capacity at constant charge, from which we know the smaller black hole is more stable. We also employ the horizon thermodynamics to discuss the thermodynamic quantities, especially the heat capacity at constant pressure.

  17. Neutrino nucleus cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of our calculation which has been performed to study the nuclear effects in the quasielastic, inelastic and deep inelastic scattering of neutrinos(antineutrinos) from nuclear targets. These calculations are done in the local density approximation. We take into account the effect of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion, Coulomb effect, renormalization of weak transition strengths in the nuclear medium in the case of the quasielastic reaction. The inelastic reaction leading to production of pions is calculated in a $\\Delta $- dominance model taking into account the renormalization of $\\Delta$ properties in the nuclear medium and the final state interaction effects of the outgoing pions with the residual nucleus. We discuss the nuclear effects in the $F_{3}^{A}(x)$ structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino(antineutrino) reaction using a relativistic framework to describe the nucleon spectral function in the nucleus.

  18. The Ramsauer model for the total cross sections of neutron nucleus scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Gowda, R. S.; Suryanarayana, S. S. V.; Ganesan, S

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical study of systematics of neutron scattering cross sections on various materials for neutron energies up to several hundred MeV are of practical importance. In this paper, we analysed the experimental neutron scattering total cross sections from 20MeV to 550MeV using Ramsauer model for nuclei ranging from Be to Pb.

  19. A review of presented mathematical models in Parkinson's disease: black- and gray-box models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbaz, Yashar; Pourakbari, Hakimeh

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most common movement disorders, is caused by damage to the central nervous system. Despite all of the studies on PD, the formation mechanism of its symptoms remained unknown. It is still not obvious why damage only to the substantia nigra pars compacta, a small part of the brain, causes a wide range of symptoms. Moreover, the causes of brain damages remain to be fully elucidated. Exact understanding of the brain function seems to be impossible. On the other hand, some engineering tools are trying to understand the behavior and performance of complex systems. Modeling is one of the most important tools in this regard. Developing quantitative models for this disease has begun in recent decades. They are very effective not only in better understanding of the disease, offering new therapies, and its prediction and control, but also in its early diagnosis. Modeling studies include two main groups: black-box models and gray-box models. Generally, in the black-box modeling, regardless of the system information, the symptom is only considered as the output. Such models, besides the quantitative analysis studies, increase our knowledge of the disorders behavior and the disease symptoms. The gray-box models consider the involved structures in the symptoms appearance as well as the final disease symptoms. These models can effectively save time and be cost-effective for the researchers and help them select appropriate treatment mechanisms among all possible options. In this review paper, first, efforts are made to investigate some studies on PD quantitative analysis. Then, PD quantitative models will be reviewed. Finally, the results of using such models are presented to some extent. PMID:26546075

  20. On the derivation and solution of the black-scholes option pricing model

    OpenAIRE

    David CHAPPELL

    1992-01-01

    The derivation and solution of the celebrated Black-Scholes Option Pricing Formula is set out in rather more detail than has appeared in the literature so far. One problem with the Black-Scholes analysis is that the mathematical skills required in the derivation and particularly in the solution of the model are fairly advanced and probably unfamiliar to most economists. This paper derives the partial differential equation for the call option price and gives full details of its sol...

  1. Changes in the creditability of the Black-Scholes option pricing model due to financial turbulences

    OpenAIRE

    Angeli, Andrea; Bonz, Cornelius

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the performance of the Black-Scholes model to price stock index options is influenced by the general conditions of the financial markets. For this purpose we calculated the theoretical values of 5814 options (3366 put option price observations and 2448 call option price observations) under the Black-Scholes assumptions. We compared these theoretical values with the real market prices in order to put the degree of deviations in two different time windows built aroun...

  2. Solution of the Fractional Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model by Finite Difference Method

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Song; Weiguo Wang

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the put option pricing problems based on the time-fractional Black-Scholes equation, where the fractional derivative is a so-called modified Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. With the aid of symbolic calculation software, European and American put option pricing models that combine the time-fractional Black-Scholes equation with the conditions satisfied by the standard put options are numerically solved using the implicit scheme of the finite difference method.

  3. Antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Min; Gweon, Oh-Cheon; Seo, Yeong-Ju; Im, Jieun; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Myo-Jeong; Kim, Jung-In

    2009-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in the diabetic state increases oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy can be strongly correlated with decreased risks for diabetic complications. The purpose of this study is to determine antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activity of garlic and aged black garlic was measured as the activity in scavenging free radicals by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Three week-old db/db mice were ...

  4. A Unified Model of Magnetic Extraction of Spin Energy from a Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪定雄; 肖看; 雷卫华

    2002-01-01

    A unified model of magnetic extraction of spin energy from a black hole is discussed based on the theory of black hole magnetosphere. The magnetic extracting power is expressed by a unified formula, which is applicable to both the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process and the magnetic coupling (MC) process. The strength and characteristics of the BZ power and the MC power are compared in detail. In addition, the impedance matching condition for the BZ power is extended to the more general case.

  5. Double folding model analysis of elastic scattering of halo nucleus 11Be from 64Zn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Hemalatha

    2014-05-01

    Calculations of elastic scattering cross-sections for 9,10,11Be+64Zn at near-Coulomb barrier energy have been performed using a potential obtained from the double folding model and are compared with the experiment. In the framework of the double folding model, the nuclear matter densities of 9,10,11Be projectiles and a 64Zn target are folded with the complex energydependent effective M3Y interaction. The angular distributions of the differential cross-section for 9,10Be scattering from 64Zn at $E_{c.m.} ≈$24.5 MeV agree remarkably well with the data, while in case of 11Be, calculations show a Coulomb–nuclear interference peak which is not observed in the data.

  6. Effective Field Theory and the Gamow Shell Model: The 6He Halo Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Rotureau, J

    2012-01-01

    We combine Halo/Cluster Effective Field Theory (H/CEFT) and the Gamow Shell Model (GSM) to describe the $0^+$ ground state of $\\rm{^6He}$ as a three-body halo system. We use two-body interactions for the neutron-alpha particle and two-neutron pairs obtained from H/CEFT at leading order, with parameters determined from scattering in the p$_{3/2}$ and s$_0$ channels, respectively. The three-body dynamics of the system is solved using the GSM formalism, where the continuum states are incorporated in the shell model valence space. We find that in the absence of three-body forces the system collapses, since the binding energy of the ground state diverges as cutoffs are increased. We show that addition at leading order of a three-body force with a single parameter is sufficient for proper renormalization and to fix the binding energy to its experimental value.

  7. Microscopic shell-model description of an exotic nucleus ^{16}C

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, S; Mizusaki, T; Otsuka, T; Sebe, T

    2007-01-01

    The structure of neutron-rich carbon isotopes ^{14, 16, 18}C is described by introducing a new microscopic method of the no-core shell-model type. The model space is composed of the 0s, 0p, 1s0d, and 1p0f shells. The effective interaction is microscopically derived from the CD-Bonn potential and the Coulomb force through a unitary transformation. Calculated low-lying energy levels of ^{16}C agree well with the experiment. The B(E2;2_{1}^{+} \\to 0_{1}^{+}) value is calculated with the bare charges. The anomalously hindered B(E2) value for ^{16}C, measured recently, is reproduced.

  8. Imipramine Treatment and Resiliency Exhibit Similar Chromatin Regulation in the Mouse Nucleus Accumbens in Depression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Matthew B.; Xiao, Guanghua; Kumar, Arvind; LaPlant, Quincey; Renthal, William; Sikder, Devanjan; Kodadek, Thomas J; Nestler, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Though it is a widely studied psychiatric syndrome, major depressive disorder remains a poorly understood illness, especially with regard to the disconnect between treatment initiation and the delayed onset of clinical improvement. We have recently validated chronic social defeat stress in mice as a model in which a depression-like phenotype is reversed by chronic, but not acute, antidepressant administration. Here, we use ChIP-chip assays—chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by geno...

  9. Synchronization of PER1 protein in Parabrachial nucleus in a natural model of food anticipatory activity

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez, Claudia; Morgado, Elvira; Stefan M. Waliszewski; Armando J. Martínez; Meza, Enrique; Caba, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit pups represent a natural model of food anticipatory activity (FAA). FAA is the behavioral output of a putative food entrainable oscillator (FEO). It had been suggested that the FEO is comprised of a distributed system of clocks that work in concert in response to gastrointestinal input by food. Scheduled food intake synchronizes several nuclei in the brain, and the hypothalamus has received particular attention. On the contrary, brainstem nuclei, despite being among the brain structure...

  10. Nuclear Shell Model Calculations of Neutralino-Nucleus Cross Sections for Silicon 29 and Germanium 73

    CERN Document Server

    Ressell, M T; Bloom, S D; Griest, K; Mathews, G J; Resler, D A

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of detailed nuclear shell model calculations of the spin-dependent elastic cross section for neutralinos scattering from \\si29 and \\ge73. The calculations were performed in large model spaces which adequately describe the configuration mixing in these two nuclei. As tests of the computed nuclear wave functions, we have calculated several nuclear observables and compared them with the measured values and found good agreement. In the limit of zero momentum transfer, we find scattering matrix elements in agreement with previous estimates for \\si29 but significantly different than previous work for \\ge73. A modest quenching, in accord with shell model studies of other heavy nuclei, has been included to bring agreement between the measured and calculated values of the magnetic moment for \\ge73. Even with this quenching, the calculated scattering rate is roughly a factor of 2 higher than the best previous estimates; without quenching, the rate is a factor of 4 higher. This implies a higher se...

  11. Systematic study of projectile fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 4.1-4.5 A GeV/c and multi-source thermal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, M.A.; Fakhraddin, S.; Asharabi, H. [Sana' a University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sana' a (Yemen)

    2012-08-15

    The multiplicity distributions of projectile fragments (PFs) produced in interactions of ({sup 4}He, {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 22}Ne and {sup 28}Si) with emulsion (Em) at 4.1-4.5 A GeV/c beam energies, and their dependence on target groups (H, CNO and AgBr) are presented and have been reproduced by using a multi-source thermal model. The dependence of the mean multiplicities on masses of projectile and target nuclei is investigated. The experimental results are compared with the corresponding ones from the theoretically calculated ones. The experimental results agree with theoretical calculations using the multi-source thermal model. (orig.)

  12. Formation of light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal experimental results on the yield of the light charged particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the low and intermediate energies are reviewed. Inclusive spectra of light particles and their coincidences with the characteristic KX-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, projectile-like fragments, other light particles, fission fragments, and evaporation residues are analyzed. The main theoretical models used for the description of the light particle formation are briefly outlined together with their merits and shortcomings. The unsolved problems of fast light particle formation, in particular, and of nucleus-nucleus interaction dynamics, on the whole, are discussed with the outlooks of new experiments able to clear up some of these problems. (author) 144 refs., 40 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Numerical modelling of charged black holes with massive dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The static and spherically symmetric electrically charged black hole solutions in Einstein-Born-Infeld gravity with massive dilaton are investigated numerically. The Continuous Analog of Newton Method is used to solve originated nonlinear boundary-value problems. The corresponding linearized BVPs are solved numerically by means of the spline-collocation scheme of the fourth order. An important class of solutions are the extremal ones. We show that the extremal horizons satisfy some nonlinear system of an algebraic equation. Depending on the charge q and dilaton mass γ the black holes can have either one, two, or three horizons. This allows one to construct a Hermite polynomial of the third order, which real roots describe the number, the kind and the values of the horizons. (author)

  14. A Comprehensive Model of Dark Energy, Inflation AND Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Biermann, Peter L.; Harms, Benjamin C.

    2013-01-01

    We derive two new equations of quantum gravity and combine them with reinterpretations of previously proposed concepts of dark energy, black holes, inflation, the arrow of time and the energy at which rest-mass first manifests itself into a theory which may be a first step toward a comprehensive description of all these phenomena. The resulting theory also predicts new tests which can be experimentally checked within a few years.

  15. Effective three-body interactions in the α-cluster model for the 12C nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, S. I.; Kartavtsev, O. I.; Malykh, A. V.

    2005-11-01

    Properties of the lowest 0+ states of 12C are calculated to study the role of three-body interactions in the α-cluster model. An additional short-range part of the local three-body potential is introduced to incorporate the effects beyond the α-cluster model. There is enough freedom in this potential to reproduce the experimental values of the ground-state and excited-state energies and the ground-state root-mean-square radius. The calculations reveal two principal choices of the two-body and three-body potentials. Firstly, one can adjust the potentials to obtain the width of the excited 02+ state and the monopole 02+↦01+ transition matrix element in good agreement with the experimental data. In this case, the three-body potential has strong short-range attraction supporting a narrow resonance above the 02+ state, the excited-state wave function contains a significant short-range component, and the excited-state root-mean-square radius is comparable to that of the ground state. Next, rejecting the solutions with an additional narrow resonance, one finds that the excited-state width and the monopole transition matrix element are insensitive to the choice of the potentials and both values exceed the experimental ones.

  16. Effective three-body interactions in the alpha-cluster model for the ^{12}C nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Fedotov, S I; Malykh, A V

    2005-01-01

    Properties of the lowest $0^{+}$ states of $^{12}\\mathrm{C}$ are calculated to study the role of three-body interactions in the $\\alpha$-cluster model. An additional short-range part of the local three-body potential is introduced to incorporate the effects beyond the $\\alpha$-cluster model. There is enough freedom in this potential to reproduce the experimental values of the ground-state and excited-state energies and the ground-state root-mean-square radius. The calculations reveal two principal choices of the two-body and three-body potentials. Firstly, one can adjust the potentials to obtain the width of the excited $0_2^+$ state and the monopole $0_2^+ \\to 0_1^+ $ transition matrix element in good agreement with the experimental data. In this case, the three-body potential has strong short-range attraction supporting a narrow resonance above the $0_2^+$ state, the excited-state wave function contains a significant short-range component, and the excited-state root-mean-square radius is comparable to that ...

  17. M33 A Galaxy with No Supermassive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Gebhardt, K; Kormendy, J; Pinkney, J C; Bower, G A; Green, R; Gull, T R; Hutchings, J B; Joseph, C L; Kaiser, M E; Nelson, C H; Richstone, D O; Weistrop, D; Gebhardt, Karl; Lauer, Tod R.; Kormendy, John; Pinkney, Jason; Bower, Gary A.; Green, Richard; Gull, Theodore; Joseph, Chuck; Nelson, Charles H.; Richstone, Douglas; Weistrop, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Galaxies that contain bulges appear to contain central black holes whose masses correlate with the velocity dispersion of the bulge. We show that no corresponding relationship applies in the pure disk galaxy M33. Three-integral dynamical models fit Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 photometry and STIS spectroscopy best if the central black hole mass is zero. The upper limit is 1500 M_sun. This is significantly below the mass expected from the velocity dispersion of the nucleus and far below any mass predicted from the disk kinematics. Our results suggest that supermassive black holes are associated only with galaxy bulges and not with their disks or dark halos.

  18. Superdeformed band in the $N = Z+4$ nucleus $^{40}$Ar: A projected shell model analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ying-Chun; Sun, Yang; Guidry, Mike

    2015-01-01

    It has been debated whether the experimentally-identified superdeformed rotational band in $^{40}$Ar [E. Ideguchi, et al., Phys. Lett. B 686 (2010) 18] has an axially or triaxially deformed shape. Projected shell model calculations with angular-momentum-projection using an axially-deformed basis are performed up to high spins. Our calculated energy levels indicate a perfect collective-rotor behavior for the superdeformed yrast band. However, detailed analysis of the wave functions reveals that the high-spin structure is dominated by mixed 0-, 2-, and 4-quasiparticle configurations. The calculated electric quadrupole transition probabilities reproduce well the known experimental data and suggest a reduced, but still significant, collectivity in the high spin region. The deduced triaxial deformation parameters are small throughout the entire band, suggesting that triaxiality is not very important for this superdeformed band.

  19. Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vignati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the global black carbon (BC cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of its properties. This work investigates two source of uncertainties in modelling black carbon: those due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in the global Transport-Chemistry model TM5 and those due to the uncertainties in the definition and quantification of the observations, which propagate through to both the emission inventories, and the measurements used for the model evaluation.

    The schemes for the atmospheric processing of black carbon that have been tested with the model are (i a simple approach considering BC as bulk aerosol and a simple treatment of the removal with fixed 70% of in-cloud black carbon concentrations scavenged by clouds and removed when rain is present and (ii a more complete description of microphysical ageing within an aerosol dynamics model, where removal is coupled to the microphysical properties of the aerosol, which results in a global average of 40% in-cloud black carbon that is scavenged in clouds and subsequently removed by rain, thus resulting in a longer atmospheric lifetime. This difference is reflected in comparisons between both sets of modelled results and the measurements. Close to the sources, both anthropogenic and vegetation fire source regions, the model results do not differ significantly, indicating that the emissions are the prevailing mechanism determining the concentrations and the choice of the aerosol scheme does not influence the levels. In more remote areas such as oceanic and polar regions the differences can be orders of magnitude, due to the differences between the two schemes. The more complete description reproduces the seasonal trend of the black carbon observations in those areas, although not always the magnitude of the signal, while the more simplified approach underestimates black carbon concentrations by orders of

  20. The Capital Asset Pricing Model as a corollary of the Black-Scholes model

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Vovk

    2011-01-01

    We consider a financial market in which two securities are traded: a stock and an index. Their prices are assumed to satisfy the Black-Scholes model. Besides assuming that the index is a tradable security, we also assume that it is efficient, in the following sense: we do not expect a prespecified self-financing trading strategy whose wealth is almost surely nonnegative at all times to outperform the index greatly. We show that, for a long investment horizon, the appreciation rate of the stoc...

  1. Black holes and gravitational waves in models of minicharged dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo; Ferrari, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    In viable models of minicharged dark matter, astrophysical black holes might be charged under a hidden $U(1)$ symmetry and are formally described by the same Kerr-Newman solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory. These objects are unique probes of minicharged dark matter and dark photons. We show that the recent gravitational-wave detection of a binary black-hole coalescence by aLIGO provides various observational bounds on the black hole's charge, regardless of its nature. The pre-merger inspiral phase can be used to constrain the dipolar emission of (ordinary and dark) photons, whereas the detection of the quasinormal modes set an upper limit on the final black hole's charge. By using a toy model of a point charge plunging into a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, we also show that in dynamical processes the (hidden) electromagnetic quasinormal modes of the final object are excited to considerable amplitude in the gravitational-wave spectrum only when the black hole is nearly extremal. The coalescence produces a burs...

  2. Fractional Black-Scholes Model and Technical Analysis of Stock Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the stock market, some popular technical analysis indicators (e.g., Bollinger bands, RSI, ROC, etc. are widely used to forecast the direction of prices. The validity is shown by observed relative frequency of certain statistics, using the daily (hourly, weekly, etc. stock prices as samples. However, those samples are not independent. In earlier research, the stationary property and the law of large numbers related to those observations under Black-Scholes stock price model and stochastic volatility model have been discussed. Since the fitness of both Black-Scholes model and short-range dependent process has been questioned, we extend the above results to fractional Black-Scholes model with Hurst parameter H>1/2, under which the stock returns follow a kind of long-range dependent process. We also obtain the rate of convergence.

  3. Single-prolonged stress induces apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus in the rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Dongjuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that develops after exposure to a life-threatening traumatic experience. Meta-analyses of the brainstem showed that midsagittal area of the pons was significantly reduced in patients with PTSD, suggesting a potential apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus after single-prolonged stress (SPS. The aim of this study is to investigate whether SPS induces apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus in PTSD rats, which may be a possible mechanism of reduced volume of pons and density of gray matter. Methods In this study, rats were randomly divided into 1d, 7d and 14d groups after SPS along with the control group. The apoptosis rate was determined using annexin V-FITC/PI double-labeled flow cytometry (FCM. Levels of Cytochrome c (Cyt-C was examined by Western blotting. Expression of Cyt-C on mitochondria in the dorsal raphe nucleus neuron was determined by enzymohistochemistry under transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The change of thiamine monophosphatase (TMP levels was assessed by enzymohistochemistry under light microscope and TEM. Morphological changes of the ultrastructure of the dorsal raphe nucleus neuron were determined by TEM. Results Apoptotic morphological alterations were observed in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron for all SPS-stimulate groups of rats. The apoptosis rates were significantly increased in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron of SPS rats, along with increased release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm, increased expression of Cyt-C and TMP levels in the cytoplasm, which reached to the peak of increase 7 days of SPS. Conclusions The results indicate that SPS induced Cyt-C released from mitochondria into cytosol and apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron of rats. Increased TMP in cytoplasm facilitated the clearance of apoptotic cells. We propose that this presents one of the mechanisms that lead to reduced volume of pons and gray matter associated

  4. A note on Black-Scholes pricing model for theoretical values of stock options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeki, S. O.; Ugbebor, O. O.; Owoloko, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we consider some conditions that transform the classical Black-Scholes Model for stock options valuation from its partial differential equation (PDE) form to an equivalent ordinary differential equation (ODE) form. In addition, we propose a relatively new semi-analytical method for the solution of the transformed Black-Scholes model. The obtained solutions via this method can be used to find the theoretical values of the stock options in relation to their fair prices. In considering the reliability and efficiency of the models, we test some cases and the results are in good agreement with the exact solution.

  5. High-Frequency Stimulation at the Subthalamic Nucleus Suppresses Excessive Self-Grooming in Autism-Like Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Andrew D; Berges, Victoria A; Chung, Sunho J; Fridman, Gene Y; Baraban, Jay M; Reti, Irving M

    2016-06-01

    Approximately one quarter of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display self-injurious behavior (SIB) ranging from head banging to self-directed biting and punching. Sometimes, these behaviors are extreme and unresponsive to pharmacological and behavioral therapies. We have found electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can produce life-changing results, with more than 90% suppression of SIB frequency. However, these patients typically require frequent maintenance ECT (mECT), as often as every 5 days, to sustain the improvement gained during the acute course. Long-term consequences of such frequent mECT started as early as childhood in some cases are unknown. Accordingly, there is a need for alternative forms of chronic stimulation for these patients. To explore the feasibility of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for intractable SIB seen in some patients with an ASD, we utilized two genetically distinct mouse models demonstrating excessive self-grooming, namely the Viaat-Mecp2(-/y) and Shank3B(-/-) lines, and administered high-frequency stimulation (HFS) via implanted electrodes at the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS). We found that STN-HFS significantly suppressed excessive self-grooming in both genetic lines. Suppression occurs both acutely when stimulation is switched on, and persists for several days after HFS is stopped. This effect was not explained by a change in locomotor activity, which was unaffected by STN-HFS. Likewise, social interaction deficits were not corrected by STN-HFS. Our data show STN-HFS suppresses excessive self-grooming in two autism-like mouse models, raising the possibility DBS might be used to treat intractable SIB associated with ASDs. Further studies are required to explore the circuitry engaged by STN-HFS, as well as other potential stimulation sites. Such studies might also yield clues about pathways, which could be modulated by non-invasive stimulatory techniques. PMID:26606849

  6. A noncommutative model for a mini black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arraut, I; Nowakowski, M [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de los Andes, Cra.1E No. 18A-10, Bogota (Colombia); Batic, D [Departamento de Matematica, Universidad de los Andes, Cra 1E, No. 18A-10, Bogota (Colombia)

    2009-12-21

    We analyze the static and spherically symmetric perfect fluid solutions of Einstein field equations inspired by the noncommutative geometry. In the framework of the noncommutative geometry, this solution is interpreted as a mini black hole which has the Schwarzschild geometry outside the event horizon, but whose standard central singularity is replaced by a self-gravitating droplet. The energy-momentum tensor of the droplet is of the anisotropic fluid obeying a nonlocal equation of state. The radius of the droplet is finite and the pressure, which gives rise to the hydrostatic equilibrium, is positive definite in the interior.

  7. A noncommutative model for a mini black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the static and spherically symmetric perfect fluid solutions of Einstein field equations inspired by the noncommutative geometry. In the framework of the noncommutative geometry, this solution is interpreted as a mini black hole which has the Schwarzschild geometry outside the event horizon, but whose standard central singularity is replaced by a self-gravitating droplet. The energy-momentum tensor of the droplet is of the anisotropic fluid obeying a nonlocal equation of state. The radius of the droplet is finite and the pressure, which gives rise to the hydrostatic equilibrium, is positive definite in the interior.

  8. Simple Heuristic Approach to Introduction of the Black-Scholes Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalamova, Rossitsa

    2010-01-01

    A heuristic approach to explaining of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in undergraduate classes is described. The approach draws upon the method of protocol analysis to encourage students to "think aloud" so that their mental models can be surfaced. It also relies upon extensive visualizations to communicate relationships that are…

  9. Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwalli, T.; Zeeman, G.; Otterpohl, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste(water) produced from the following systems:

  10. A Moderated Mediation Model: Racial Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Racial Identity among Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…

  11. Adaptive MPC based on probabilistic black-box input-output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel adaptive model-based predictive-control algorithm is proposed for the control of stable nonlinear dynamic systems. The model of controlled dynamical system is a Gaussian process (GP) model. It is a probabilistic, nonparametric, kernel, black-box model. An evolving GP-modelling method is used for the online model identification. Model-based predictive control utilising such a model results in an adaptive feedback control. The proposed control-method features are illustrated on a simulation example. Key words: evolving Gaussian process model, model-based predictive control, adaptive control

  12. Autologous nucleus pulposus transplantation to lumbar 5 dorsal root ganglion after epineurium discission in rats: a modified model of non-compressive lumbar herniated intervertebral disc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-jun; SONG Wu; LUO Wen-ying; WEI Ming; SUN Lai-bao; ZOU Xue-nong; LIAO Wei-ming

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs has proinflammatory characteristics that play a key role in neuropathic pain in lumbar herniated intervertebral disc. One of the most commonly used animal models (the traditional model) of non-compressive lumbar hemiated intervertebral disc is created by L4-L5 hemilaminectomy and the application of autologous nucleus pulposus to cover the left L4 and L5 nerve roots in rats. However, such procedures have the disadvantages of excessive trauma and low success rate. We proposed a modified model of non-compressive lumbar herniated intervertebral disc in which only the left L5 dorsal root ganglion is exposed and transplanted with autologous nucleus pulposus following incision of epineurium. We aimed to compare the modified model with the traditional one with regard to trauma and success rate.Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into three groups: sham operation group (n=6). traditional group (n=12), and modified group (n=12). The amount of blood loss and operative time for each group were analyzed. The paw withdrawal threshold of the left hind limb to mechanical stimuli and paw withdrawal latency to heat stimuli were examined from the day before surgery to day 35 after surgery.Results Compared with the traditional group, the modified group had shorter operative time, smaller amount of blood loss, and higher success rate (91.7% versus 58.3%, P <0.05). There was no decrease in paw withdrawal latency in any group. The sham operation group had no decrease in postoperative paw withdrawal threshold, whereas the modified and traditional groups had significant reduction in paw withdrawal threshold after surgery (mechanical hyperalgesia).Conclusions Transplantation of nucleus pulposus onto the L5 dorsal root ganglion following incision of epineurium in rats established an improved animal model of non-compressive lumbar herniated intervertebral disc with less trauma and more stable pain ethology.

  13. Modeling AGN outbursts from supermassive black hole binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When galaxies merge to assemble more massive galaxies, their nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs should form bound binaries. As these interact with their stellar and gaseous environments, they will become increasingly compact, culminating in inspiral and coalescence through the emission of gravitational radiation. Because galaxy mergers and interactions are also thought to fuel star formation and nuclear black hole activity, it is plausible that such binaries would lie in gas-rich environments and power active galactic nuclei (AGN. The primary difference is that these binaries have gravitational potentials that vary – through their orbital motion as well as their orbital evolution – on humanly tractable timescales, and are thus excellent candidates to give rise to coherent AGN variability in the form of outbursts and recurrent transients. Although such electromagnetic signatures would be ideally observed concomitantly with the binary’s gravitational-wave signatures, they are also likely to be discovered serendipitously in wide-field, high-cadence surveys; some may even be confused for stellar tidal disruption events. I discuss several types of possible “smoking gun” AGN signatures caused by the peculiar geometry predicted for accretion disks around SMBH binaries.

  14. Photo nuclear energy loss term for muon-nucleus interactions based on xi scaling model of QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, R.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive air showers (EMC) experiments discovered a significant deviation of the ratio of structure functions of iron and deuteron from unity. It was established that the quark parton distribution in nuclei are different from the corresponding distribution in the nucleus. It was examined whether these results have an effect on the calculation of photo nucleus energy loss term for muon-nucleus nuclear interaction. Though the EMC and SLAC data were restricted to rather large q sq region it is expected that the derivation would persist even in the low q sq domain. For the ratio of iron and deuteron structure function a rather naive least square fit of the form R(x) = a + bx was taken and it is assumed that the formula is valid for the whole q sq region the absence of any knowledge of R(x) for small q sq.

  15. Analysis of ecological transitions in the Black Sea during the last four decades: A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoglu, Ekin; Salihoglu, Baris; Oguz, Temel

    2010-05-01

    This work investigates the Black Sea ecosystem and the changes it had undergone in the second half of the 20th century from a fisheries perspective using Ecopath, a widely adopted fisheries model. Different states of the Black Sea ecosystem were modeled using 5 simulation scenarios: Simulation 1, represents the quasi-pristine conditions of the Black Sea ecosystem during early 1960's; Simulation 2, represents the over-enrichment period of the ecosystem during early 1980's before the fisheries collapse and the outburst of alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi; Simulation 3, represents the changes in the ecosystem along with the outburst of Mnemiopsis in 1989; Simulation 4, represents the aftermath effects in the components of the Black Sea ecosystem just after the collapse of the fisheries; and Simulation 5, represents the recovery period of the fish stocks in the very beginning of the 1990's. According to the results of the model runs, it was found that the Black Sea ecosystem in its quasi-pristine conditions during early 1960's was top-down controlled. The piscivorous pelagic fish and dolphins exerted predation pressure on small pelagic fish species and suppressed their over-development. Our findings suggest that after the removal of these top predators from the ecosystem due to fishing and whaling, the small pelagic fish species had the opportunity to thrive themselves along with the over-enrichment of the Black Sea and reached high biomass levels in 1980's. Small pelagic fishes prevailed in the Black Sea ecosystem until the highly debated outburst of alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. In 1989, the biomass of small pelagic fish species declined drastically and their population did not recover until the very beginning of 1990's due to various ecological and anthropogenic effects put forward by the outcomes of the simulations.

  16. Study of high energy nucleus nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CERN experiment WA80 studies ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions by calorimetry and charged particle measurements over a large fraction of 4π. Here I want to concentrate on a closer study of nucleus nucleus collisions and recent results from the lead glass spectrometer Saphir. 6 refs., 5 figs

  17. Aligned spin neutron star-black hole mergers: A gravitational waveform amplitude model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannarale, Francesco; Berti, Emanuele; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Lackey, Benjamin D.; Shibata, Masaru

    2015-10-01

    The gravitational radiation emitted during the merger of a black hole with a neutron star is rather similar to the radiation from the merger of two black holes when the neutron star is not tidally disrupted. When tidal disruption occurs, gravitational waveforms can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. Extending previous work by some of us, here we present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain encompassing the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, and "mild" and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to 134 general-relativistic numerical simulations of binaries where the black hole spin is either aligned or antialigned with the orbital angular momentum. All simulations were produced using the SACRA code and piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. The present model can be used to determine when black-hole binary waveforms are sufficient for gravitational-wave detection, to extract information on the equation of state from future gravitational-wave observations, to obtain more accurate estimates of black hole-neutron star merger event rates, and to determine the conditions under which these systems are plausible candidates as central engines of gamma-ray bursts and macronovae/kilonovae.

  18. Analytical solutions of accreting black holes immersed in a ΛCDM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the mass of a black hole embedded in a universe filled with dark energy and cold dark matter is calculated in a closed form within a test fluid model in a Schwarzschild metric, taking into account the cosmological evolution of both fluids. The result describes exactly how accretion asymptotically switches from the matter-dominated to the Λ-dominated regime. For early epochs, the black hole mass increases due to dark matter accretion, and on later epochs the increase in mass stops as dark energy accretion takes over. Thus, the unphysical behaviour of previous analyses is improved in this simple exact model.

  19. Numerical modeling of the central Black Sea ecosystem functioning during the eutrophication phase

    OpenAIRE

    Grégoire, M.; Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the central Black Sea at the end of the 1980s when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and dynamics of the system. The physical model is the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and the biogeochemical model describes the foodweb, from bacteria to gelatinous carnivores through 24 state variables including three groups of phytoplankton: diatom...

  20. Extension of the full-folding optical model for nucleon-nucleus scattering with applications up to 1.5 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonrelativistic full-folding optical model approach for nucleon-nucleus scattering is extended into the relativistic regime. In doing so, kinematical issues involving the off-shell Lorentz boost of the colliding particles between the two nucleons and the projectile-nucleus center-of-mass reference frames have been taken into account. The two-body effective interaction is obtained in the framework of the nuclear matter g matrix using nucleon-nucleon optical model potentials that fully account for the inelasticities and isobar resonances in the continuum at nucleon energies up to 3 GeV. Diverse nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential models were constructed by supplementing the basic Paris, Nijmegen, Argonne, or Gel'fand-Levitan-Marchenko inversion potentials with complex separable terms. In each case the additional separable terms ensured that the combination led to NN scattering phase shifts in excellent agreement with experimental values. With each phase shift fitting potential nuclear matter g matrices have been formed and with each of those relativistic full-folding optical potentials for nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering determined. Application to such scattering for projectile energies up to 1.5 GeV have been made. Good and systematic agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured observables, both differential and integrated quantities, over the whole energy range of our study. A moderate sensitivity to off-shell effects in the differential scattering observables also is observed

  1. Notes on non-singular models of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, Valeri P

    2016-01-01

    We discuss static spherically symmetric metrics which represent non-singular black holes in four- and higher-dimensional spacetime. We impose a set of restrictions, such as a regularity of the metric at the center $r=0$ and Schwarzschild asymptotic behavior at large $r$. We assume that the metric besides mass $M$ contains an additional parameter $\\ell$, which determines the scale where modification of the solution of the Einstein equations becomes significant. We require that the modified metric obeys the limiting curvature condition, that is its curvature is uniformly restricted by the value $\\sim \\ell^{-2}$. We also make a "more technical" assumption that the metric coefficients are rational functions of $r$. In particular, the invariant $(\

  2. Models of Kilonova/macronova emission from black hole-neutron star mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Shibata, Masaru; Tanaka, Masaomi

    2016-01-01

    Black hole-neutron star mergers are among the promising gravitational-wave sources for ground-based detectors, and gravitational waves from black hole-neutron mergers are expected to be detected in the next few years. Simultaneous detection of electromagnetic counterparts with gravitational-wave detection provides rich information about the merger events. Among the possible electromagnetic counterparts from the black hole-neutron merger, the emission powered by the decay of radioactive r-process nuclei, so called kilonova/macronova, is one of the best targets for follow-up observation. We derive fitting formulas for the mass and the velocity of ejecta from a generic black hole-neutron merger based on recently performed numerical relativity simulations. We combined these fitting formulas with a new semi-analytic model for a black hole-neutron kilonova/macronova lightcurve which reproduces the results of radiation-transfer simulations. Specifically, the semi-analytic model reproduces the result of each band mag...

  3. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  4. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Numerical Relativity Waveforms from Binary Black Hole Coalescences Using Surrogate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E.; Galley, Chad R.; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A.; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A.

    2015-09-01

    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic -2Yℓm waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8 . We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50 M⊙ to 300 M⊙ for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases).

  5. Fast and accurate prediction of numerical relativity waveforms from binary black hole mergers using surrogate models

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Jonathan; Galley, Chad R; Szilagyi, Bela; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. In this paper, we construct an accurate and fast-to-evaluate surrogate model for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from non-spinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios from $1$ to $10$ and durations corresponding to about $15$ orbits before merger. Our surrogate, which is built using reduced order modeling techniques, is distinct from traditional modeling efforts. We find that the full multi-mode surrogate model agrees with waveforms generated by NR to within the numerical error of the NR code. In particular, we show that our modeling strategy produces surrogates which can correctly predict NR waveforms that were {\\em not} used for the surrogate's training. For all practical purposes, then, the surrogate waveform model is equivalent to the high-accuracy, large-scale simulation waveform but can be evaluated in a millisecond to a second dependin...

  6. Estimation parameters and black box model of a brushless DC motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Becerra-Vargas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of a process or a plant is vital for the design of its control system, since it allows predicting its dynamic and behavior under different circumstances, inputs, disturbances and noise. The main objective of this work is to identify which model is best for a permanent magnet brushless DC specific motor. For this, the mathematical model of a DC motor brushless PW16D, manufactured by Golden Motor, is presented and compared with its black box model; both are derived from experimental data. These data, the average applied voltage and the angular velocity, are acquired by a data acquisition card and imported to the computer. The constants of the mathematical model are estimated by a curve fitting algorithm based on non-linear least squares and pattern search using computational tool. To estimate the mathematical model constants by non-linear least square and search pattern, a goodness of fit of 84.88% and 80.48% respectively was obtained. The goodness of fit obtained by the black box model was 87.72%. The mathematical model presented slightly lower goodness of fit, but allowed to analyze the behavior of variables of interest such as the power consumption and the torque applied to the motor. Because of this, it is concluded that the mathematical model obtained by experimental data of the brushless motor PW16D, is better than its black box model.

  7. Constraints on black hole spins with a general relativistic accretion disk corona model

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Bei; Cao, Xin-Wu; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2016-04-01

    The peaks in the spectra of the accretion disks surrounding massive black holes in quasars are in the far-UV or soft X-ray band, which are usually not observed. However, in the disk corona model, soft photons from the disk are Comptonized to high energy in the hot corona, and the hard X-ray spectra (luminosity and spectral shape) contain information on the incident spectra from the disk. The values of black hole spin parameter a* are inferred from the spectral fitting, which are spread over a large range, ˜ -0.94 to 0.998. We find that the inclination angles and mass accretion rates are well determined by the spectral fitting, but the results are sensitive to the accuracy of black hole mass estimates. No tight constraints on the black hole spins are achieved, if the uncertainties in black hole mass measurements are a factor of four, which are typical for the single-epoch reverberation mapping method. Recently, the accuracy of black hole mass measurement has been significantly improved to 0.2 - 0.4 dex with the velocity resolved reverberation mapping method. The black hole spin can be well constrained if the mass measurement accuracy is ≲ 50%. In the accretion disk corona scenario, a fraction of power dissipated in the disk is transported into the corona, and therefore the accretion disk is thinner than a bare disk for the same mass accretion rate, because the radiation pressure in the disk is reduced. We find that the thin disk approximation, H/R ≲ 0.1, is still valid if 0.3 < ṁ < 0.5, provided half of the dissipated power is radiated in the corona above the disk.

  8. Unveiling the nucleus of NGC 7172

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajić, S.; Fischer, S.; Zuther, J.; Eckart, A.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: We present the results of near-infrared (NIR) H + K European Southern Observatory SINFONI integral field spectroscopy (IFS) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 7172. We investigate the central 800 pc, concentrating on excitation conditions, morphology, and stellar content. NGC 7172 was selected from a sample of the ten nearest Seyfert 2 galaxies from the Veron-Cetty & Veron catalogue. All objects were chosen as test cases for adaptive optics (AO) assisted observations that allow a detailed study (at high spatial and spectral resolution) of the nuclear and host environments. NGC 7172 has a prominent dustlane crossing the central galaxy region from east to west, which makes it an ideal candidate to investigate the effect of obscuration by strong galactic extinction on (active) galaxies and their classification. Methods: The NIR is less influenced by dust extinction than optical light and is sensitive to the mass-dominating stellar populations. SINFONI integral field spectroscopy combines NIR imaging and spectroscopy and provides us with the opportunity to analyze several emission and absorption lines to investigate the stellar populations and ionization mechanisms over the 4″ × 4″ field of view (FOV). Results: We present emission and absorption line measurements in the central 800 pc of NGC 7172. The detection of [Si vi] and broad Paα and Brγ components are clear signs of an accreting super-massive black hole hiding behind the prominent dustlane at visible wavelengths. Hot temperatures of about 1300 K are indicative of a dusty torus in the nuclear region. Narrow components of Paα and Brγ enable us to make an extinction measurement. Our measures of the molecular hydrogen lines, hydrogen recombination lines, and [Fe ii] indicate that the excitation of these lines is caused by an active galactic nucleus. The central region of the galactic disk is predominantly inhabited by gas, dust, and an old K-M type giant stellar population. The gaseous, molecular, and

  9. Adaptive-Wave Alternative for the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinear wave alternative for the standard Black-Scholes option-pricing model is presented. The adaptive-wave model, representing 'controlled Brownian behavior' of financial markets, is formally defined by adaptive nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) equations, defining the option-pricing wave function in terms of the stock price and time. The model includes two parameters: volatility (playing the role of dispersion frequency coefficient), which can be either fixed or stochastic, and adaptive ma...

  10. Modeling seed dispersal of black cherry, an invasive forest tree: how microsatellites may help?

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jonard, Mathieu; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-01-01

    We used empirical models and three dispersal functions (Weibull, lognormal and 2Dt) to model seed distributions derived from the black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) understorey of a pine-dominated stand. Two different approaches were used to disentangle the overlapping seed shadows: the traditional inverse modeling approach and the genetic approach that uses microsatellite markers to assign a dispersed seed to its maternal parent. The distinction was made between the seeds passively disperse...

  11. Comment on Self-Consistent Model of Black Hole Formation and Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In an earlier work, Kawai et al proposed a model of black-hole formation and evaporation, in which the geometry of a collapsing shell of null dust is studied, including consistently the back reaction of its Hawking radiation. In this note, we illuminate the implications of their work, focusing on the resolution of the information loss paradox and the problem of the firewall.

  12. Hispanic Acculturation in a Predominately Black High School: Application of an Adapted Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carolyn; Hollander, Matthew J.; Martinez, Amber W.

    2009-01-01

    The authors applied an adaptation of prior models of acculturation to all 16 Hispanic students attending a predominately Black, high-poverty, urban high school (n = 1,267 students) identified by No Child Left Behind standards as failing. No published study to date has investigated Hispanic acculturation within such a setting. Findings reveal that…

  13. Simple Entropic Derivation of a Generalized Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Stutzer

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A straightforward derivation of the celebrated Black-Scholes Option Pricing model is obtained by solution of a simple constrained minimization of relative entropy. The derivation leads to a natural generalization of it, which is consistent with some evidence from stock index option markets.

  14. Simple Entropic Derivation of a Generalized Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Stutzer

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: A straightforward derivation of the celebrated Black-Scholes Option Pricing model is obtained by solution of a simple constrained minimization of relative entropy. The derivation leads to a natural generalization of it, which is consistent with some evidence from stock index option markets.

  15. Wavelet methods for Black-Scholes model of one and two assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawatia, M.

    2012-07-01

    A review of application of wavelet methods to Black-Scholes model of option pricing technology along wih some new results is presented. This paper is essentially based on interesting papers; Bouchouev and Isakov [8], Bouchouev, Isakov and Valadivia [9] and Shen and Strang [40].

  16. A Model of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Black Currant Juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Andrésen, René;

    2011-01-01

    -side spacing of tubular-type unit."  Turtuosity and porosity are characteristics of the membrane in use and have been estimated base don eksperimental studies on destillation of pure water. The fitted model shows a good fit to experimental data obtained by destillation of black currant juice....

  17. A model for early diagenetic processes in sediments of the continental shelf of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model for early diagenetic processes in the sediments of the north-western continental shelf of the Black Sea is presented. The north-western shelf area is influenced by nutrient, organic matter and reactive iron inputs from major rivers such as the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester. Low oxyg

  18. A Research Brief: A Novel Characteristic of Role Model Choice by Black Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B. J.; Davis, R.; Harris, A.; Brown, K.; Wood, P.; Jones, D. R.; Spencer, S.; Nelson, L.; Brown, J.; Waddell, T.; Jones, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present research brief is to report a novel characteristic of role model choice that may be unreported in the literature for black males and to assess this finding in relation to perceived attractiveness of self and a member of the opposite sex. The study found that the proportion of males choosing themselves as their own role…

  19. Fluid accretion onto a spherical black hole: relativistic description versus Bondi model

    OpenAIRE

    Malec, Edward

    1999-01-01

    We describe general-relativistically a spherically symmetric stationary fluid accretion onto a black hole. Relativistic effects enhance mass accretion, in comparison to the Bondi model predictions, in the case when backreaction is neglected. That enhancement depends on the adiabatic index and the asymptotic gas temperature and it can magnify accretion by one order in the ultrarelativistic regime.

  20. A refined sub-grid model for black hole accretion and AGN feedback in large cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, Lisa K; Hirschmann, Michaela; Prieto, M Almudena; Remus, Rhea-Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In large scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations simplified sub-grid models for gas accretion onto black holes and AGN feedback are commonly used. Such models typically depend on various free parameters, which are not well constrained. We present a new advanced model containing a more detailed description of AGN feedback, where those parameters reflect the results of recent observations. The model takes the dependency of these parameters on the black hole properties into account and describes a continuous transition between the feedback processes acting in the so-called radio-mode and quasar-mode. In addition, we implement a more detailed description of the accretion of gas onto black holes by distinguishing between hot and cold gas accretion. Our new implementations prevent black holes from gaining too much mass, particularly at low redshifts so that our simulations are now very successful in reproducing the observed present-day black hole mass function. Our new model also suppresses star formation in ma...

  1. Modelling non-paradoxical loss of information in black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Modak, Sujoy K

    2016-01-01

    We give general overview of a novel approach, recently developed by us, to address the issue black hole information paradox. This alternative viewpoint is based on theories involving modifications of standard quantum theory, known as "spontaneous dynamical state reduction" or "wave-function collapse models" which were historically developed to overcome the notorious foundational problems of quantum mechanics known as the "measurement problem". We show that these proposals, when appropriately adapted and refined for this context, provide a self-consistent picture where loss of information in the evaporation of black holes is no longer paradoxical.

  2. A Model of the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Core Collapse to Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Crocker, K; Regimbau, T; Belczynski, K; Gladysz, W; Olive, K; Prestegard, T; Vangioni, E

    2015-01-01

    Superposition of gravitational waves generated by astrophysical sources is expected to give rise to the stochastic gravitational-wave background. We focus on the background generated by the ring-down of black holes produced in the stellar core collapse events across the universe. We systematically study the parameter space in this model, including the most recent information about the star formation rate and about the population of black holes as a function of redshift and of metallicity. We investigate the accessibility of this gravitational wave background to the upcoming gravitational-wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and Einstein Telescope.

  3. Bohr's Semiclassical Model of the Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankovic, V.; Predojevic, M.; Grujic, P.

    2008-06-01

    ekenstein, J. D. 1973, Phys. Rev. D, 7, 2333 Bekenstein, J. D. 1994, gr-qc/9409015v2 Bekenstein, J. D. 1998, gr-qc/9808028v3 Frasca, M. 2005, hep-th/0411245v4 Grujic, P. V. 1993, Bull. Astron. Belgrade, 147, 15 Hawking, S. W. 1975, Comm. Math. Phys., 43, 199 Hawking, S. W. 1979, in "General Relativity, an Einstein Centenary Survey," Eds. S. W. Hawking and W. Israel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) Nagatani, Y. 2007, Progr. Theor. Phys. Suppl., 164, 54 Nicolai,H., Peeters, K., & Zamaklar, M. 2005, Class. Quantum Grav., 22, R193 Norcliffe A. 1975, in "Case Studies in Atomic Physics - Vol. 4," Eds. E. W. McDaniel and M. R. McDowell (Amsterdam: North-Holland), 46 Page, D. N. 2004, hep-th/0409024 Pavon, D. 2007, J. Phys. A, 40, 6865 Proline, B. 2006, hep-th/0607227 Ram, B. 2000, Phys. Lett. A, 265, 1 Ram, B., Ram, A, Ram, N. 2005, The Quantum Black Hole, gr-qc/0504030 Samuel, J., & Chowdhury, S. R. 2007, Class. Quantum Grav., 24, F47 Strominger, D. N., Vafa, C. 1996, Phys. Lett. B, 339, 99 Wald, R. M. 1997, gr-qc/9702022 Wald, R. M. 1999, gr-qc/9912119

  4. Hawking evaporation of cosmogenic black holes in TeV-gravity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the properties of black holes of mass 104–1011 GeV in models with the fundamental scale of gravity at the TeV. These black holes could be produced in the collision of a ultrahigh energy cosmic ray with a dark matter particle in our galactic halo or with another cosmic ray. We show that QCD bremsstrahlung and pair production processes are unable to thermalize the particles exiting the black hole, so a chromosphere is never formed during Hawking evaporation. We evaluate with HERWIG the spectrum of stable four-dimensional particles emitted during the Schwarzschild phase and find that in all cases it is peaked at energies around 0.2 GeV, with an approximate 43% of neutrinos, 28% of photons, 16% of electrons and 13% of protons. Bulk gravitons are peaked at higher energies; they account for 0.4% of the particles (16% of the total energy) emitted by the most massive black holes in n = 6 extra dimensions or just the 0.02% of the particles (1.4% of the energy) emitted by a 10 TeV black hole for n = 2

  5. One-Shot Decoupling and Page Curves from a Dynamical Model for Black Hole Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brádler, Kamil; Adami, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    One-shot decoupling is a powerful primitive in quantum information theory and was hypothesized to play a role in the black hole information paradox. We study black hole dynamics modeled by a trilinear Hamiltonian whose semiclassical limit gives rise to Hawking radiation. An explicit numerical calculation of the discretized path integral of the S matrix shows that decoupling is exact in the continuous limit, implying that quantum information is perfectly transferred from the black hole to radiation. A striking consequence of decoupling is the emergence of an output radiation entropy profile that follows Page's prediction. We argue that information transfer and the emergence of Page curves is a robust feature of any multilinear interaction Hamiltonian with a bounded spectrum.

  6. An improved thin film brick-wall model of black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Wen Biao

    2001-01-01

    The authors improve the brick-wall model to take only the contribution of a thin film near the event horizon into account. This improvement not only gives them a satisfactory result, but also avoids some drawbacks in the original brick-wall method such as the little mass approximation, neglecting logarithm term, and taking the term L/sup 3/ as the contribution of the vacuum surrounding a black hole. It is found that there is an intrinsic relation between the event horizon and the entropy. The event horizon is the characteristic of a black hole, so the entropy calculating of a black hole is also naturally related to its horizon. (12 refs).

  7. One-Shot Decoupling and Page Curves from a Dynamical Model for Black Hole Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brádler, Kamil; Adami, Christoph

    2016-03-11

    One-shot decoupling is a powerful primitive in quantum information theory and was hypothesized to play a role in the black hole information paradox. We study black hole dynamics modeled by a trilinear Hamiltonian whose semiclassical limit gives rise to Hawking radiation. An explicit numerical calculation of the discretized path integral of the S matrix shows that decoupling is exact in the continuous limit, implying that quantum information is perfectly transferred from the black hole to radiation. A striking consequence of decoupling is the emergence of an output radiation entropy profile that follows Page's prediction. We argue that information transfer and the emergence of Page curves is a robust feature of any multilinear interaction Hamiltonian with a bounded spectrum. PMID:27015471

  8. Dynamical nucleus-nucleus potential at short distances

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yongying; Wang, Ning; Li, Zhuxia; Scheid, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The dynamical nucleus-nucleus potentials for fusion reactions 40Ca+40Ca, 48Ca+208Pb and 126Sn+130Te are studied with the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation for the kinetic energies of nuclei. The obtained fusion barrier for 40Ca+40Ca is in good agreement with the extracted fusion barrier from the measured fusion excitation function, and the depth of the fusion pockets are close to the results of time-dependent Hartree-Fock c...

  9. Modeling of Temperature Conditions Between Temperature Artifact and Black Test Corner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beges, G.

    2011-12-01

    The case study in this article is temperature condition modeling between a temperature artifact and a black test corner measuring instrument. The black test corner is an instrument which consists of two wooden walls and a floor, with build-in thermocouples fixed on the back side of the copper disks. The front of the disk is flush with the surface of the board. The black test corner is used for measuring how the temperature of a household appliance is influencing the surroundings in the real environment, e.g., in the kitchen, the living room, etc. The temperature artifact as presented in this article is a specially developed heating plate which is very stable and can be set to different temperatures. Technical standards for conformity assessment usually describe only what should be measured, in some cases also how accurate the measurement should be, but not what kind of measuring instrument should be used. Therefore, it sometimes happens that measurements are performed with improper equipment or in an improper way. For the same level of appliance conformance testing, laboratories shall use the same testing procedures and comparable measuring instruments. This article deals with the analysis of influencing parameters when measuring the temperature rise using the black test corner. Modeling of temperature conditions between a temperature artifact and a black test corner, using commercial modeling software, was performed to find out whether this modeling can be used for detailed evaluation of all possible influencing parameters of the mentioned testing procedure. A scheme and a list of influencing parameters that has to be modeled in the following research is prepared to arrange an optimal experiment.

  10. Default risk modeling beyond the first-passage approximation: extended Black-Cox model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yuri A; Shokhirev, Nikolai V

    2010-07-01

    We develop a generalization of the Black-Cox structural model of default risk. The extended model captures uncertainty related to firm's ability to avoid default even if company's liabilities momentarily exceeding its assets. Diffusion in a linear potential with the radiation boundary condition is used to mimic a company's default process. The exact solution of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation allows for derivation of analytical expressions for the cumulative probability of default and the relevant hazard rate. Obtained closed formulas fit well the historical data on global corporate defaults and demonstrate the split behavior of credit spreads for bonds of companies in different categories of speculative-grade ratings with varying time to maturity. Introduction of the finite rate of default at the boundary improves valuation of credit risk for short time horizons, which is the key advantage of the proposed model. We also consider the influence of uncertainty in the initial distance to the default barrier on the outcome of the model and demonstrate that this additional source of incomplete information may be responsible for nonzero credit spreads for bonds with very short time to maturity. PMID:20866698

  11. Facial nucleus up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA following electroacupuncture treatment in a rabbit model of facial nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Gao; Bangyu Ju; Guohua Jiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of acupuncture treatment on peripheral facial nerve injury is generally accepted. However, the mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To validate the effect of acupoint electro-stimulation on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the facial nucleus of rabbits with facial nerve injury, with the hypothesis that acupuncture treatment efficacy is related to BDNE DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Peripheral facial nerve injury, in situ hybridization, and randomized, controlled, animal trial. The experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Anatomy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine from March to September 2005. MATERIALS: A total of 120 healthy, adult, Japanese rabbits, with an equal number of males and females were selected. Models of peripheral facial nerve injury were established using the facial nerve pressing method. METHODS: The rabbits were randomly divided into five groups (n = 24): sham operation, an incision to the left facial skin, followed by suture; model, no treatment following facial nerve model establishment; western medicine, 10 mg vitamin B1, 50 μg vitamin B12, and dexamethasone (2 mg/d, reduced to half every 7 days) intramuscular injection starting with the first day following lesion, once per day; traditional acupuncture, acupuncture at Yifeng, Quanliao, Dicang, Jiache, Sibai, and Yangbai acupoints using a acupuncture needle with needle twirling every 10 minutes, followed by needle retention for 30 minutes, for successive 5 days; electroacupuncture, similar to the traditional acupuncture group, the Yifeng (negative electrode), Jiache (positive electrode), Dicang (negative electrode), and Sibai (positive electrode) points were connected to an universal pulse electro-therapeutic apparatus for 30 minutes per day, with disperse-dense waves for successive 5 days, and resting for 2 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Left hemisphere brain stem tissues were harvested on post-operative days 7, 14

  12. Black carbon inclusive multichemical modeling of PBDE and PCB biomagnification and -transformation in estuarine food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine; Koelmans, Albert A

    2010-10-01

    Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are affected by adsorption on black carbon (BC) and metabolism in biota, respectively. Recent studies have addressed these two processes separately, illustrating their importance in assessing contaminant dynamics. In order to properly examine biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PBDEs in an estuarine food-web, here we set up a black carbon inclusive multichemical model. A dual domain sorption model, which accounted for sorption to organic matter (OM) and black carbon (BC), was used to estimate aqueous phase concentrations from the measured chemical concentrations in suspended solids. We adapted a previously published multichemical model that tracks the movement of a parent compound and its metabolites in each organism and within its food web. First, the model was calibrated for seven PCB congeners assuming negligible metabolism. Subsequently, PBDE biomagnification was modeled, including biotransformation and bioformation of PBDE congeners, keeping the other model parameters the same. The integrated model was capable of predicting trophic magnification factors (TMF) within error limits. PBDE metabolic half-lives ranged 21-415 days and agreed to literature data. The results showed importance of including BC as an adsorbing phase, and biotransformation and bioformation of PBDEs for a proper assessment of their dynamics in aquatic systems. PMID:20828201

  13. A magnetic model for low/hard state of black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yong-Chun; Huang, Chang-Yin; Cao, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    A magnetic model for low/hard state (LHS) of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs),H1743-322 and GX 339-4, is proposed based on the transportation of magnetic field from a companion into an accretion disk around a black hole (BH). This model consists of a truncated thin disk with an inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). The spectral profiles of the sources are fitted in agreement with the data observed at four different dates corresponding to the rising phase of the LHS. In addition, the association of the LHS with quasi-steady jet is modelled based on transportation of magnetic field, where the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) and Blandford-Payne (BP) processes are invoked to drive the jets from BH and inner ADAF. It turns out that the steep radio/X-ray correlations observed in H1743-322 and GX 339-4 can be interpreted based on our model.

  14. A model for early diagenetic processes in sediments of the continental shelf of the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; P. M. J. Herman; Middelburg, J. J.; K. Soetaert

    2001-01-01

    A numerical model for early diagenetic processes in the sediments of the north-western continental shelf of the Black Sea is presented. The north-western shelf area is influenced by nutrient, organic matter and reactive iron inputs from major rivers such as the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester. Low oxygen concentrations in the bottom water and high carbon deposition rates have resulted in a dominance of anoxic mineralization processes including manganese, iron and sulphate reduction. The model in...

  15. New results on nuclear multifragmentation in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some new aspects on the multifragmentation processes in nucleus-nucleus and nucleon-nucleus collisions at high energies are discussed in this work. Experimental data obtained in international collaborations (for example, MULTI Collaboration with KEK Tsukuba (Japan) and SKM 200 Collaboration with JINR Dubna (Russia)) are used to discuss new mechanisms in the target nucleus fragmentation. Correlations with stopping power, participant region size and energy density are included. Comparisons of the experimental results with the predictions of a phenomenological geometric model of intermediate mass fragment multiplicity, caloric curves and angular distributions are also presented. These results are used for global description of the multifragmentation processes in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies. The size of the participant region and the average intermediate mass fragments multiplicity are taken into consideration using the free space probability. A few correlations between the deposited energy in the participant region and stability state of the intermediate mass fragments are presented in this work. The importance of the collision geometry in the multifragmentation processes is stressed. The results suggest different time moments for the incident nucleus fragmentation and for the target nucleus fragmentation. The associated entropies are distinct. (authors)

  16. An Accretion Model for the Growth of Black Hole in Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ye; Cheng, K. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    A possible accretion model associated with the ionization instability of quasar disks is proposed to address the growth of the central black hole harbored in the host galaxy. The evolution of quasars in cosmic time is assumed to change from a highly active state to a quiescent state triggered by the S-shaped ionization instability of the quasar accretion disk. For a given external mass transfer rate ionization instability can modify accretion rate in the disk and separates the accretion flows of the disk into three different phases like a S-shape. We suggest that the bright quasars observed today are those quasars with disks in the upper branch of S-shaped instability and the dormant quasars are the system in the lower branch. The disk is assumed to evolve as ADIOS configuration in the lower branch. The mass ratio between black hole and its host galactic bulge is a nature consequence of ADIOS. Our model also demonstrates that a seed black hole 2 x 10(exp 6) solar masses similar to those found in spiral galaxies today is needed to produce a black hole with a final mass 2 x 10(exp 8) solar masses.

  17. A comparison of modelled and measured Chernobyl 90Sr distributions in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 data are used to verify the mixing and ventilation patterns simulated in a circulation model of the Black Sea. We trace physical processes using 90Sr which was delivered after the Chernobyl accident, primarily via riverine discharges in the Northwest shelf region. The results used for the verification of our model simulations were obtained from samples collected between 1986 and 1992. A three-dimensional circulation/transport model coupled with a tracer model simulates the transport of 90Sr and its penetration into the intermediate and deep layers. Though most of the 90Sr is introduced in the model at the sea surface by river runoff in the NW shelf area, the concentration patterns suggest that a large amount of this signal penetrates the halocline in the Bosphorus area and along the southern coast. This fundamental spatial characteristic of mixing in the Black Sea is associated with the entrainment of surface and intermediate waters in the vicinity of the Bosphorus strait, and with vertical exchanges along the southern coast resulting from the anticyclonic circulation patterns. Another important fraction of the river water penetrates intermediate layers at the shelf edge in the NW Black Sea. Higher model resolution and more elaborated forcing functions would be needed in order to more accurately define mesoscale features in this basin. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Modeling Black Sea circulation with high resolution in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesnyi, V. B.; Gusev, A. V.; Agoshkov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    We present a numerical model of Black Sea circulation based on primitive equations with improved spatial resolution in the coastal zone. The model equations are formulated in a two-pole orthogonal coordinate system with arbitrary locations of the poles and a vertical σ coordinate. Increased horizontal resolution is gained by displacing the pole into the vicinity of the separated subdomain. The problem is solved over a grid with a variable step. The northern coordinate pole is displaced to the vicinity of Gelendzhik; the grid step varies from 150 m in the coastal zone to 4.6 km in the main basin. We simulated the fields of currents, sea level, temperature, and salinity under the given atmospheric forcing in 2007. The model is capable of reproducing the large-scale Black Sea circulation and submesoscale variations in the coastal currents.

  19. A model for 3:2 HFQPO pairs in black hole binaries based on cosmic battery

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Chang-Yin; Wang, Ding-Xiong; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    A model for 3:2 high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) with 3:2 pairs observed in four black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) is proposed by invoking the epicyclic resonances with the magnetic connection (MC) between a spinning black hole (BH) with a relativistic accretion disc. It turns out that the MC can be worked out due to Poynting-Robertson cosmic battery (PRCB), and the 3:2 HFQPO pairs associated with the steep power-law states can be fitted in this model. Furthermore, the severe damping problem in the epicyclic resonance model can be overcome by transferring energy from the BH to the inner disc via the MC process for emitting X-rays with sufficient amplitude and coherence to produce the HFQPOs. In addition, we discuss the important role of the magnetic field in state transition of BHXBs.

  20. Adaptation of warrant price with Black Scholes model and historical volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Khairu Azlan Abd; Idris, Mohd Fazril Izhar Mohd; Saian, Rizauddin; Daud, Wan Suhana Wan

    2015-05-01

    This project discusses about pricing warrant in Malaysia. The Black Scholes model with non-dividend approach and linear interpolation technique was applied in pricing the call warrant. Three call warrants that are listed in Bursa Malaysia were selected randomly from UiTM's datastream. The finding claims that the volatility for each call warrants are different to each other. We have used the historical volatility which will describes the price movement by which an underlying share is expected to fluctuate within a period. The Black Scholes model price that was obtained by the model will be compared with the actual market price. Mispricing the call warrants will contribute to under or over valuation price. Other variables like interest rate, time to maturity date, exercise price and underlying stock price are involves in pricing call warrants as well as measuring the moneyness of call warrants.

  1. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. 9Be,16O, 20Ne and 32S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from 28Si, 24Mg and 40Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-parameter formalism of the present quantal formulation and from the Strong Absorption Model for comparison. Typical fits are shown and the nuclear parameters obtained from the analyses of both approaches are presented. (author)

  2. A Novel Role of the WNT-Dishevelled-GSK3β Signaling Cascade in the Mouse Nucleus Accumbens in a Social Defeat Model of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Matthew B.; Dias, Caroline; Magida, Jane; Mazei-Robison, Michelle; Lobo, MaryKay; Kennedy, Pamela; Dietz, David; Covington, Herbert; Russo, Scott; Neve, Rachael; Ghose, Subroto; Tamminga, Carol; Nestler, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Based on earlier gene expression and chromatin array data, we identified the protein, dishevelled-2 (DVL2), as being regulated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region, in the mouse social defeat model of depression. Here, we validate these findings by showing that DVL2 mRNA and protein levels are downregulated in NAc of mice susceptible to social defeat stress, effects not seen in resilient mice. Other DVL isoforms, DVL1 and DVL3, show similar patterns of regulation. Downreg...

  3. To test dual supermassive black hole model for broad line AGN with double-peaked narrow [OIII] lines

    CERN Document Server

    XueGuang, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we proposed an interesting method to test the dual supermassive black hole model for AGN with double-peaked narrow \\oiii lines (double-peaked narrow emitters), through their broad optical Balmer line properties. Under the dual supermassive black hole model for double-peaked narrow emitters, we could expect statistically smaller virial black hole masses estimated by observed broad Balmer line properties than true black hole masses (total masses of central two black holes). Then, we compare the virial black hole masses between a sample of 37 double-peaked narrow emitters with broad Balmer lines and samples of SDSS selected normal broad line AGN with single-peaked \\oiii lines. However, we can find clearly statistically larger calculated virial black hole masses for the 37 broad line AGN with double-peaked \\oiii lines than for samples of normal broad line AGN. Therefore, we give our conclusion that the dual supermassive black hole model is probably not statistically preferred to the double-pea...

  4. Estimation parameters and black box model of a brushless DC motor

    OpenAIRE

    José A. Becerra-Vargas; Francisco E. Moreno-García; Juan J. Quiroz-Omaña; Deyanira Bautista-Arias

    2014-01-01

    The modeling of a process or a plant is vital for the design of its control system, since it allows predicting its dynamic and behavior under different circumstances, inputs, disturbances and noise. The main objective of this work is to identify which model is best for a permanent magnet brushless DC specific motor. For this, the mathematical model of a DC motor brushless PW16D, manufactured by Golden Motor, is presented and compared with its black box model; both are derived from experimenta...

  5. Black carbon fractal morphology and short-wave radiative impact: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kahnert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the morphological properties of freshly emitted black carbon aerosols on optical properties and on radiative forcing. To this end, we model the optical properties of fractal black carbon aggregates by use of numerically exact solutions to Maxwell's equations within a spectral range from the UVC to the mid-IR. The results are coupled to radiative transfer computations, in which we consider six realistic case studies representing different atmospheric pollution conditions and surface albedos. The spectrally integrated radiative impacts of black carbon are compared for two different fractal morphologies, which brace the range of recently reported experimental observations of black carbon fractal structures. We also gauge our results by performing corresponding calculations based on the homogeneous sphere approximation, which is commonly employed in climate models. We find that at top of atmosphere the aggregate models yield radiative impacts that can be as much as 2 times higher than those based on the homogeneous sphere approximation. An aggregate model with a low fractal dimension can predict a radiative impact that is higher than that obtained with a high fractal dimension by a factor ranging between 1.1–1.6. Although the lower end of this scale seems like a rather small effect, a closer analysis reveals that the single scattering optical properties of more compact and more lacy aggregates differ considerably. In radiative flux computations there can be a partial cancellation due to the opposing effects of differences in the optical cross sections and asymmetry parameters. However, this cancellation effect can strongly depend on atmospheric conditions and is therefore quite unpredictable. We conclude that the fractal morphology of black carbon aerosols and their fractal parameters can have a profound impact on their radiative forcing effect, and that the use of the homogeneous sphere model introduces unacceptably

  6. Multi-asset Black-Scholes model as a variable second class constrained dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M.; Contreras, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study the multi-asset Black-Scholes model from a structural point of view. For this, we interpret the multi-asset Black-Scholes equation as a multidimensional Schrödinger one particle equation. The analysis of the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian mechanics associated with this quantum model implies that, in this system, the canonical momentums cannot always be written in terms of the velocities. This feature is a typical characteristic of the constrained system that appears in the high-energy physics. To study this model in the proper form, one must apply Dirac's method for constrained systems. The results of the Dirac's analysis indicate that in the correlation parameters space of the multi-assets model, there exists a surface (called the Kummer surface ΣK, where the determinant of the correlation matrix is null) on which the constraint number can vary. We study in detail the cases with N = 2 and N = 3 assets. For these cases, we calculate the propagator of the multi-asset Black-Scholes equation and show that inside the Kummer ΣK surface the propagator is well defined, but outside ΣK the propagator diverges and the option price is not well defined. On ΣK the propagator is obtained as a constrained path integral and their form depends on which region of the Kummer surface the correlation parameters lie. Thus, the multi-asset Black-Scholes model is an example of a variable constrained dynamical system, and it is a new and beautiful property that had not been previously observed.

  7. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  8. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  9. Observational Evidence for Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Ramesh; McClintock, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have discovered two populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range 10^6 to 10^{10} solar masses, one each in the nucleus of every galaxy. There is strong circumstantial evidence that all these objects are true black holes with event horizons. The measured masses of supermassive black hole are strongly corr...

  10. Sampling a Cometary Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Horst Uwe; Küppers, Michael; Kuehrt, Ekkehard

    Understanding of the physics and chemistry of the proto solar nebula and the formation of our planetary system is a prime objective of planetary research. The key role of comets as witnesses of the early conditions is well established. Material, dust and condensed compounds, were stored at very low temperatures in cometary nuclei and have since been preserved. These icy grains are the source material out of which all planetary bodies formed in more or less complex processes. Analysis of this material will provide fundamental (in its original meaning) information about the proto solar nebula and the physical processes that dominated during the final stages of its collapse toward the ecliptic plane and the formation of the sun. Recent observations of comets and modelling results have shown that pristine material can be found at a few centimetres or decimetres below the surface of cometary nuclei. Comets have been visited by space probes over the last 20 years with increasing frequency. All observations and analyses show that cometary nuclei have low density, are porous, and their (surface) material has a very low tensile strength. Therefore collecting a sample from a cometary nucleus is relatively simple (simpler than from any other planetary body) and does not even require landing (touch and go). The Rosetta spacecraft is on its way to rendezvous a short period comet. The evolution of cometary activity will be followed from its onset through perihelion. The spacecraft will be operated in the near nucleus environment over several months providing extensive experience. It is now the time to conceive and prepare a comet nucleus sample return (CNSR) mission. The focus of such a mission must lie on the sampling and the return of the material. The concept of a CNSR mission will be discussed based on our understanding of cometary nuclei consolidated by the recent Stardust and Deep Impact results. Taking advantage of the easy sample collection brings a CNSR mission well

  11. A Heuristic Image Search Algorithm for Active Shape Model Segmentation of the Caudate Nucleus and Hippocampus in Brain MR Images of Children with FASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Eicher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging provides a non-invasive means to study the neural correlates of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD - the most common form of preventable mental retardation worldwide. One approach aims to detect brain abnormalities through an assessment of volume and shape of two sub-cortical structures, the caudate nucleus and hippocampus. We present a method for automatically segmenting these structures from high-resolution MR images captured as part of an ongoing study into the neural correlates of FASD. Our method incorporates an Active Shape Model, which is used to learn shape variation from manually segmented training data. A modified discrete Geometrically Deformable Model is used to generate point correspondence between training models. An ASM is then created from the landmark points. Experiments were conducted on the image search phase of ASM segmentation, in order to find the technique best suited to segmentation of the hippocampus and caudate nucleus. Various popular image search techniques were tested, including an edge detection method and a method based on grey profile Mahalanobis distance measurement. A novel heuristic image search method was also developed and tested. This heuristic method improves image segmentation by taking advantage of characteristics specific to the target data, such as a relatively homogeneous tissue colour in target structures. Results show that ASMs that use the heuristic image search technique produce the most accurate segmentations. An ASM constructed using this technique will enable researchers to quickly, reliably, and automatically segment test data for use in the FASD study.

  12. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S

    2003-01-01

    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  13. The NINJA-2 project: Detecting and characterizing gravitational waveforms modelled using numerical binary black hole simulations

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endrőczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kremin, A; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C -H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Roux, A Le; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Litvine, V; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Luijten, E; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Milde, S; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Kumar, D Nanda; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Sperandio, L; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Stops, D; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Brügmann, B; Buchman, L T; Campanelli, M; Chu, T; Etienne, Z B; Hannam, M; Healy, J; Hinder, I; Kidder, L E; Laguna, P; Liu, Y T; London, L; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; MacDonald, I; Marronetti, P; Mösta, P; Müller, D; Mundim, B C; Nakano, H; Paschalidis, V; Pekowsky, L; Pollney, D; Pfeiffer, H P; Ponce, M; Pürrer, M; Reifenberger, G; Reisswig, C; Santamaría, L; Scheel, M A; Shapiro, S L; Shoemaker, D; Sopuerta, C F; Sperhake, U; Szilágyi, B; Taylor, N W; Tichy, W; Tsatsin, P; Zlochower, Y

    2014-01-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave astrophysics communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the ability to detect gravitational waves emitted from merging binary black holes and recover their parameters with next-generation gravitational-wave observatories. We report here on the results of the second NINJA project, NINJA-2, which employs 60 complete binary black hole hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modelling the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modelling the early inspiral. In a "blind injection challenge" similar to that conducted in recent LIGO and Virgo science runs, we added 7 hybrid waveforms to two months of data recolored to predictions of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo sensitivity curves during their first observing runs. The resulting data was analyzed by gravitational-wave detection algorithms and 6 of the waveforms were recovered w...

  14. Robust option replication for a Black-Scholes model extended with nondeterministic trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. M. Schoenmakers

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical analysis on various stocks reveals long range dependence behavior of the stock prices that is not consistent with the classical Black and Scholes model. This memory or nondeterministic trend behavior is often seen as a reflection of market sentiments and causes that the historical volatility estimator becomes unreliable in practice. We propose an extension of the Black and Scholes model by adding a term to the original Wiener term involving a smoother process which accounts for these effects. The problem of arbitrage will be discussed. Using a generalized stochastic integration theory [8], we show that it is possible to construct a self financing replicating portfolio for a European option without any further knowledge of the extension and that, as a consequence, the classical concept of volatility needs to be re-interpreted.

  15. Modelling of dielectric relaxation processes of epoxy-resin filled with carbon black particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composites of an epoxy-resin matrix with randomly dispersed carbon black nanoparticles in various amounts and below the percolation threshold were prepared and their dielectric spectra were measured in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 20 MHz and temperature range from 20 °C to 95 °C. The obtained data were analyzed by means of electric permittivity formalism. Two dielectric relaxation processes were revealed in the frequency range and temperature interval of the measurements. One of these relaxations appearing near the glass transition temperature was associated with the interfacial polarization effect. Whereas the other appearing at lower temperature is consistent with the Havriliak–Negami model. Furthermore, the analysis of the temperature dependence of their relaxation time using the Vogel–Tammam–Fulcher (VTF) model shows the existence of carbon black/matrix interaction

  16. Modeling temporal and spatial variability of traffic-related air pollution: Hourly land use regression models for black carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Dons, Evi; Van Poppel, Martine; Kochan, Bruno; Wets, Geert; Int Panis, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modeling is a statistical technique used to determine exposure to air pollutants in epidemiological studies. Time-activity diaries can be combined with LUR models, enabling detailed exposure estimation and limiting exposure misclassification, both in shorter and longer time lags. In this study, the traffic related air pollutant black carbon was measured with mu-aethalometers on a 5-mm time base at 63 locations in Flanders, Belgium. The measurements show that hourly c...

  17. On the Black-Scholes European Option Pricing Model Robustness and Generality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Hellinton Hatsuo; de Oliveira Siqueira, José

    2008-11-01

    The common presentation of the widely known and accepted Black-Scholes European option pricing model explicitly imposes some restrictions such as the geometric Brownian motion assumption for the underlying stock price. In this paper, these usual restrictions are relaxed using maximum entropy principle of information theory, Pearson's distribution system, market frictionless and risk-neutrality theories to the calculation of a unique risk-neutral probability measure calibrated with market parameters.

  18. Models of Kilonova/Macronova Emission from Black Hole–Neutron Star Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Tanaka, Masaomi

    2016-07-01

    Black hole–neutron star (BH–NS) mergers are among the most promising gravitational-wave sources for ground-based detectors, and gravitational waves from BH–NS mergers are expected to be detected in the next few years. The simultaneous detection of electromagnetic counterparts with gravitational waves would provide rich information about merger events. Among the possible electromagnetic counterparts from BH–NS mergers is the so-called kilonova/macronova, emission powered by the decay of radioactive r-process nuclei, which is one of the best targets for follow-up observations. We derive fitting formulas for the mass and the velocity of ejecta from a generic BH–NS merger based on recently performed numerical-relativity simulations. We combine these fitting formulas with a new semi-analytic model for a BH–NS kilonova/macronova lightcurve, which reproduces the results of radiation-transfer simulations. Specifically, the semi-analytic model reproduces the results of each band magnitude obtained by the previous radiation-transfer simulations within ∼1 mag. By using this semi-analytic model we found that, at 400 Mpc, the kilonova/macronova is as bright as 22–24 mag for cases with a small chirp mass and a high black hole spin, and >28 mag for a large chirp mass and a low black hole spin. We also apply our model to GRB 130603B as an illustration, and show that a BH–NS merger with a rapidly spinning black hole and a large neutron star radius is favored.

  19. The finite infinite range Heisenberg model and microcanonical black hole statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Aste, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Gelfand pattern of the reduction of the N-fold tensor product of the fundamental representation of the special unitary group SU(2) by itself is studied in the framework of a finite Heisenberg model with infinite range, where N spins couple to each other with the same strength. The present findings are related to the microstatistics of non-rotating black holes for illustrative purposes.

  20. Fractional Black-Scholes Model and Technical Analysis of Stock Price

    OpenAIRE

    Song Xu; Yujiao Yang

    2013-01-01

    In the stock market, some popular technical analysis indicators (e.g., Bollinger bands, RSI, ROC, etc.) are widely used to forecast the direction of prices. The validity is shown by observed relative frequency of certain statistics, using the daily (hourly, weekly, etc.) stock prices as samples. However, those samples are not independent. In earlier research, the stationary property and the law of large numbers related to those observations under Black-Scholes stock price model and stochastic...

  1. Trajectory Optimization under Changing Conditions through Evolutionary Approach and Black-Box Models with Refining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Karel; Rojíček, J.; Bičík, V.

    Vol. XVIII. Cham: Springer, 2013, s. 267-274. (XVIII. 217). ISBN 978-3-319-00550-8. [10th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence . Salamanca (ES), 22.05.2013-24.05.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Empirical function minimization * black-box modeling * simplification * refining * dynamic building control Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/macek-trajectory optimization under changing.pdf

  2. A validation study of lawless expectancy model on low-level rural black workers

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, N. A.; J. C. D. Augustyn

    1986-01-01

    The object of this research is to validate the expectancy theory model propogated by Lawler(1971; 1973) on low level rural Black shop assistants in the Republic of Transkei. The criterion measure, performance, is measured by a performance appraisal instrument developed by the NIPR and the expectancy theory components by means of a translated version of the instrument which appears in the Michigan Organizational Assessment Package Part II. For a sample of 183 shop assistants from 10 organizati...

  3. Modeling gravitational recoil from black-hole binaries using numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the developments in modeling gravitational recoil from merging black-hole binaries and introduce a new set of 20 simulations to test our previously proposed empirical formula for the recoil. The configurations are chosen to represent generic binaries with unequal masses and precessing spins. Results of these simulations indicate that the recoil formula is accurate to within a few km s-1 in the similar mass-ratio regime for the out-of-plane recoil.

  4. Modeling Wood Fibre Length in Black Spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) Based on Ecological Land Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Elisha Townshend; Bharat Pokharel; Art Groot; Doug Pitt; DECH, JEFFERY P.

    2015-01-01

    Effective planning to optimize the forest value chain requires accurate and detailed information about the resource; however, estimates of the distribution of fibre properties on the landscape are largely unavailable prior to harvest. Our objective was to fit a model of the tree-level average fibre length related to ecosite classification and other forest inventory variables depicted at the landscape scale. A series of black spruce increment cores were collected at breast height from trees in...

  5. Factors associated with leisure time physical inactivity in black individuals: hierarchical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. A number of studies have shown that the black population exhibits higher levels of leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI, but few have investigated the factors associated with this behavior. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze associated factors and the explanatory model proposed for LTPI in black adults. Methods. The design was cross-sectional with a sample of 2,305 adults from 20–96 years of age, 902 (39.1% men, living in the city of Salvador, Brazil. LTPI was analyzed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. A hierarchical model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPI, distributed in distal (age and sex, intermediate 1 (socioeconomic status, educational level and marital status, intermediate 2 (perception of safety/violence in the neighborhood, racial discrimination in private settings and physical activity at work and proximal blocks (smoking and participation in Carnival block rehearsals. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR using logistic regression. Results. The variables inversely associated with LTPI were male gender, socioeconomic status and secondary/university education, although the proposed model explains only 4.2% of LTPI. Conclusions. We conclude that male gender, higher education and socioeconomic status can reduce LTPI in black adults.

  6. Primordial black hole production during preheating in a chaotic inflationary model

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Lomas, E

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we review the production of primordial black holes (PBHs) during preheating after a chaotic inflationary model. All relevant equations of motion are solved numerically in a modified version of HLattice, and we then calculate the mass variance to determine structure formation during preheating. It is found that production of PBHs can be a generic result of the model, even though the results seem to be sensitive to the values of the smoothing scale. We consider a constraint for overproduction of PBHs that could uncover some stress between inflation-preheating models and observations.

  7. Black-Scholes期权定价模型修正%The modification of Black-Scholes option pricing model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓雷

    2007-01-01

    Black-Scholes模型成功地解决了在有效市场下的期权定价问题,但它是在一定的假设条件下建立的.然而在实际的交易中,投资者通常会在得到一定的股票红利的同时也将面临着不容忽视的交易成本.本文在Black-Scholes模型的基础上,对界定了交易成本并考虑红利支付的情况下的期权定价的模型进行研究,从而使Black-Scholes模型更符合市场实际.

  8. High-redshift quasars and the supermassive black hole mass budget: constraints on quasar formation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, J. M.; Somerville, R. S.; Fabian, A. C.

    2004-05-01

    We investigate the constraints on models of supermassive black hole (SMBH) and quasar formation obtainable from two recent observational developments: the discovery of luminous quasars at z~ 6, and estimates of the local mass density of SMBHs. If ~90 per cent of this mass was accreted at redshifts zjoint constraints pose a challenge for models, which must account for the observed luminous quasar population at z~ 6 within a very limited `mass budget'. We investigate a class of models based within the hierarchical structure formation scenario, in which major mergers lead to black hole formation and fuelling, and the resulting quasars shine at their Eddington-limited rate until their fuel is exhausted. We show that the simplest such model, in which a constant fraction of the gas within the halo is accreted in each major merger, cannot satisfy both constraints simultaneously. When this model is normalized to reproduce the number density of luminous quasars at z~ 6, the mass budget is grossly exceeded owing to an overabundance of lower-mass SMBHs. We explore a range of modifications to the simple model designed to overcome this problem. We show that both constraints can be satisfied if the gas accretion fraction scales as a function of the halo virial velocity. Similar scalings have been proposed in order to reproduce the local M•-σ relation. Successful models can also be constructed by restricting the formation of seed black holes to redshifts above zcrit~ 11.5 or to haloes above a velocity threshold vcrit~ 55 km s-1, or assuming that only a fraction of major mergers result in formation of a seed SMBH. We also briefly discuss the issue of trying to assume a `universal M•-σ relation' within the framework of simple Press-Schechter models, and further show that a fixed universal relation between SMBH mass and host halo mass is unlikely.

  9. The spectrum of strings on BTZ black holes and spectral flow in the SL(2,R) WZW model

    CERN Document Server

    Hemming, S; Hemming, Samuli; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko

    2002-01-01

    We study the spectrum of bosonic string theory on rotating BTZ black holes, using a SL(2,R) WZW model. Previously, Natsuume and Satoh have analyzed strings on BTZ black holes using orbifold techniques. We show how an appropriate spectral flow in the WZW model can be used to generate the twisted sectors, emphasizing how the spectral flow works in the hyperbolic basis natural for the BTZ black hole. We discuss the projection condition which leads to the quantization condition for the allowed quantum numbers for the string excitations, and its connection to the anomaly in the corresponding conserved Noether current.

  10. Two-phase model for Black Hole feeding and feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, Sergei

    2013-01-01

    We study effects of AGN feedback outflows on multi-phase inter stellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. We argue that SMBH growth is dominated by accretion of dense cold clumps and filaments. AGN feedback outflows overtake the cold medium, compress it, and trigger a powerful starburst -- a positive AGN feedback. This predicts a statistical correlation between AGN luminosity and star formation rate at high luminosities. Most of the outflow's kinetic energy escapes from the bulge via low density voids. The cold phase is pushed outward only by the ram pressure (momentum) of the outflow. The combination of the negative and positive forms of AGN feedback leads to an $M-\\sigma$ relation similar to the result of King (2003). Due to porosity of cold ISM in the bulge, SMBH influence on the low density medium of the host galaxy is significant even for SMBH well below the $M-\\sigma$ mass. The role of SMBH feedback in our model evolves in space and time with the ISM structure. In the early gas rich phase, SMBH accelerate...

  11. Wave modelling to assess the storm conditions in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Liliana; Raileanu, Alina

    2014-05-01

    The work proposed herewith presents the results of a ten-year wave hindcast performed in the Black Sea and focused on the storm conditions. A wave modelling system, SWAN based, was implemented in the basin of the Black Sea. Validations have been performed both against in situ and remotely sensed data for the entire ten-year period considered (1999-2008). The wind field provided by NCEP-CFSR (United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) with a spatial resolution of 0.312ºx0.312º and a temporal resolution of 3 hours was considered for forcing the wave model. In statistical terms, the results are in general in line with those provided by similar wave prediction systems implemented in enclosed or semi-enclosed seas, the most important factors in increasing the general system reliability being the accuracy and resolution of the wind fields considered. As regards the physical processes, the calibration tests performed show that whitecapping still represents the weak link in deep water wave modelling. The most relevant storm conditions encountered in this ten-year period considered were further analysed. This analysis was performed from the point of view of the intensity, location of occurrence, duration and propagation in the geographical space of the storms. Following the results of the work, the western side of the sea is more energetic and almost each year storms with significant wave heights of about eight meters are encountered in this part of the Black Sea, while in the case of the extreme storms significant wave heights even greater than eleven meters may occur. From this perspective, it can be concluded that the present work provides valuable information about the characteristics of the storm conditions and on their dynamics in the Black Sea. Moreover, this marine environment is currently subjected to high navigation traffic and to offshore operations and the strong storms that systematically occur may produce

  12. Effect of image capture device on the accuracy of black-box printer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jason; Sun, Jian; Ju, Yanling; Kashti, Tamar; Frank, Tal; Kella, Dror; Fischer, Mani; Ulichney, Robert; Adams, Guy; Allebach, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In the process of electrophotograpic (EP) printing, the deposition of toner to the printer-addressable pixel is greatly influenced by the neighboring pixels of the digital halftone. To account for these effects, printer models can either be embedded in the halftoning algorithm, or used to predict the printed halftone image at the input to an algorithm that is used to assess print quality. Most recently,1 we developed a series of six new models to accurately account for local neighborhood effects and the influence of a 45 x 45 neighborhood of pixels on the central printer-addressable pixel. We refer to all these models as black-box models, since they are based solely on measuring what is on the printed page, and do not incorporate any information about the marking process itself. In this paper, we will compare black-box models developed with three different capture devices: an Epson Expression 10000XL (Epson America, Inc., Long Beach, CA, USA) flatbed scanner operated at 2400 dpi with an active field of view of 309.88 mm x 436.88 mm, a QEA PIAS-II (QEA, Inc., Billerica, MA, USA) camera with resolution 7663.4 dpi and a field of view of 2.4 mm x 3.2 mm, and Dr. CID, a 1:1 magnification 3.35 micron true resolution Dyson Relay lens-based 3 Mpixel USB CMOS imaging device2 with resolution 7946.8 dpi and a field of view of 4.91 mm 6.55 mm developed at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories { Bristol. Our target printer is an HP Indigo 5000 Digital Press (HP Indigo, Ness Ziona, Israel). In this paper, we will compare the accuracy of the black-box model predictions of print microstructure using models trained from images captured with these three devices.

  13. Bayesian model selection for testing the no-hair theorem with black hole ringdowns

    CERN Document Server

    Gossan, S; Sathyaprakash, B S

    2011-01-01

    General relativity predicts that a black hole that results from the merger of two compact stars (either black holes or neutron stars) is initially highly deformed but soon settles down to a quiescent state by emitting a superposition of quasi-normal modes (QNMs). The QNMs are damped sinusoids with characteristic frequencies and decay times that depend only on the mass and spin of the black hole and no other parameter - a statement of the no-hair theorem. In this paper we have examined the extent to which QNMs could be used to test the no-hair theorem with future ground- and space-based gravitational-wave detectors. We model departures from general relativity (GR) by introducing extra parameters which change the mode frequencies or decay times from their general relativistic values. With the aid of numerical simulations and Bayesian model selection, we assess the extent to which the presence of such a parameter could be inferred, and its value estimated. We find that it is harder to decipher the departure of d...

  14. Black Swans and Many Worlds: Contemporary models in music, the arts and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black Swans and Many Worlds are new models to help explain musical structures, and by extension, events in the social environment and in internal human experience. Many Worlds takes its departure point from quantum physics, and especially the work of Hugh Everett III, who used the defining point of a measurement in the sub-atomic world as initiating alternative courses of action. Everett extrapolated this idea to the macro-world: a defining point may initiate multiple outcomes, each with its own character and events, as parallel worlds. One application of this model is to consider musical works within a genre as Many Worlds. Black Swans derive from Nassim Taleb, who proposes that social, political, and in fact all aspects of today’s world are not understandable by logical processes or incremental change but are often rocked by extreme, unpredictable shocks. If Many Worlds provide new ways of thinking about potentiality, probability and innovation, Black Swans arrest us in our tracks by eruptions that threaten to derail contemporary life, and with it, music, the arts and ideas.

  15. Black-Scholes finite difference modeling in forecasting of call warrant prices in Bursa Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Nur Jariah; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2014-07-01

    Call warrant is a type of structured warrant in Bursa Malaysia. It gives the holder the right to buy the underlying share at a specified price within a limited period of time. The issuer of the structured warrants usually uses European style to exercise the call warrant on the maturity date. Warrant is very similar to an option. Usually, practitioners of the financial field use Black-Scholes model to value the option. The Black-Scholes equation is hard to solve analytically. Therefore the finite difference approach is applied to approximate the value of the call warrant prices. The central in time and central in space scheme is produced to approximate the value of the call warrant prices. It allows the warrant holder to forecast the value of the call warrant prices before the expiry date.

  16. Two-dimensional models of hydrodynamical accretion flows into black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Igumenshchev, I V; Igumenshchev, Igor V.; Abramowicz, Marek Artur

    2000-01-01

    We present a systematic numerical study of two-dimensional axisymmetric accretion flows around black holes. The flows have no radiative cooling and are treated in the framework of the hydrodynamical approximation. The models calculated in this study cover the large range of the relevant parameter space. There are four types of flows, determined by the values of the viscosity parameter $\\alpha$ and the adiabatic index $\\gamma$: convective flows, large-scale circulations, pure inflows and bipolar outflows. Thermal conduction introduces significant changes to the solutions, but does not create a new flow type. Convective accretion flows and flows with large-scale circulations have significant outward-directed energy fluxes, which have important implications for the spectra and luminosities of accreting black holes.

  17. Spherical and nonspherical models of primordial black hole formation: exact solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    We construct spacetimes which provide spherical and nonspherical models of black hole formation in the flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution and the Szekeres quasispherical solution, respectively. These dust solutions may contain both shell-crossing and shell-focusing naked singularities. These singularities can be physically regarded as the breakdown of dust description, where strong pressure gradient force plays a role. We adopt the simultaneous big bang condition to extract a growing mode of adiabatic perturbation in the flat FLRW universe. If the density perturbation has a sufficiently homogeneous central region and a sufficiently sharp transition to the background FLRW universe, its central shell-focusing singularity is globally covered. If the density concentration is {\\it sufficiently large}, there appears no shell-crossing singularity and a black hole is formed. If the density concentration is {\\it not sufficiently large}, there appears shell-...

  18. Evaluation of a black-footed ferret resource utilization function model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, D.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Jachowski, D.S.; Livieri, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Resource utilization function (RUF) models permit evaluation of potential habitat for endangered species; ideally such models should be evaluated before use in management decision-making. We evaluated the predictive capabilities of a previously developed black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) RUF. Using the population-level RUF, generated from ferret observations at an adjacent yet distinct colony, we predicted the distribution of ferrets within a black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony in the Conata Basin, South Dakota, USA. We evaluated model performance, using data collected during post-breeding spotlight surveys (2007-2008) by assessing model agreement via weighted compositional analysis and count-metrics. Compositional analysis of home range use and colony-level availability, and core area use and home range availability, demonstrated ferret selection of the predicted Very high and High occurrence categories in 2007 and 2008. Simple count-metrics corroborated these findings and suggested selection of the Very high category in 2007 and the Very high and High categories in 2008. Collectively, these results suggested that the RUF was useful in predicting occurrence and intensity of space use of ferrets at our study site, the 2 objectives of the RUF. Application of this validated RUF would increase the resolution of habitat evaluations, permitting prediction of the distribution of ferrets within distinct colonies. Additional model evaluation at other sites, on other black-tailed prairie dog colonies of varying resource configuration and size, would increase understanding of influences upon model performance and the general utility of the RUF. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  19. Modelling aperiodic X-ray variability in black hole binaries as propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations: a short review

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Black hole binary systems can emit very bright and rapidly varying X-ray signals when material from the companion accretes onto the black hole, liberating huge amounts of gravitational potential energy. Central to this process of accretion is turbulence. In the propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations model, turbulence is generated throughout the inner accretion flow, causing fluctuations in the accretion rate. Fluctuations from the outer regions propagate towards the black hole, modulating the fluctuations generated in the inner regions. Here, I present the theoretical motivation behind this picture before reviewing the array of statistical variability properties observed in the light curves of black hole binaries that are naturally explained by the model. I also discuss the remaining challenges for the model, both in terms of comparison to data and in terms of including more sophisticated theoretical considerations.

  20. Modelling aperiodic X-ray variability in black hole binaries as propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations: A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    Black hole binary systems can emit very bright and rapidly varying X-ray signals when material from the companion accretes onto the black hole, liberating huge amounts of gravitational potential energy. Central to this process of accretion is turbulence. In the propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations model, turbulence is generated throughout the inner accretion flow, causing fluctuations in the accretion rate. Fluctuations from the outer regions propagate towards the black hole, modulating the fluctuations generated in the inner regions. Here, I present the theoretical motivation behind this picture before reviewing the array of statistical variability properties observed in the light curves of black hole binaries that are naturally explained by the model. I also discuss the remaining challenges for the model, both in terms of comparison to data and in terms of including more sophisticated theoretical considerations.

  1. The Adjoint Method Formulation for an Inverse Problem in the Generalized Black-Scholes Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIERRE NGNEPIEBA

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A general framework is developed to treat optimal control problems for a generalized Black-Scholes model, which is used for option pricing. The volatility function is retrieved from a set of market observations. The optimal volatility function is found by minimizing the cost functional measuring the discrepancy between the model solution (pricing and the observed market price, via the unconstrained minimization algorithm of the quasi-Newton limited memory type. The gradient is computed via the adjoint method. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on an European call option.

  2. Minimal Length Effects on Entanglement Entropy of Spherically Symmetric Black Holes in Brick Wall Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng; Ying, Shuxuan

    2015-01-01

    We compute the black hole horizon entanglement entropy for a massless scalar field in the brick wall model by incorporating the minimal length. Taking the minimal length effects on the occupation number $n(\\omega,l)$ and the Hawking temperature into consideration, we obtain the leading UV divergent term and the subleading logarithmic term in the entropy. The leading divergent term scales with the horizon area. The subleading logarithmic term is the same as that in the usual brick wall model without the minimal length.

  3. Minimal length effects on entanglement entropy of spherically symmetric black holes in the brick wall model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang; Ying, Shuxuan

    2016-01-01

    We compute the black hole horizon entanglement entropy for a massless scalar field in the brick wall model by incorporating the minimal length. Taking the minimal length effects on the occupation number n(ω, l) and the Hawking temperature into consideration, we obtain the leading ultraviolet (UV) divergent term and the subleading logarithmic term in the entropy. The leading divergent term scales with the horizon area. The subleading logarithmic term is the same as that in the usual brick wall model without the minimal length.

  4. Lie Symmetry Analysis of the Black-Scholes-Merton Model for European Options with Stochastic Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronikos Paliathanasis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We perform a classification of the Lie point symmetries for the Black-Scholes-Merton Model for European options with stochastic volatility, σ, in which the last is defined by a stochastic differential equation with an Orstein-Uhlenbeck term. In this model, the value of the option is given by a linear (1 + 2 evolution partial differential equation in which the price of the option depends upon two independent variables, the value of the underlying asset, S, and a new variable, y. We find that for arbitrary functional form of the volatility, σ ( y , the (1 + 2 evolution equation always admits two Lie point symmetries in addition to the automatic linear symmetry and the infinite number of solution symmetries. However, when σ ( y = σ 0 and as the price of the option depends upon the second Brownian motion in which the volatility is defined, the (1 + 2 evolution is not reduced to the Black-Scholes-Merton Equation, the model admits five Lie point symmetries in addition to the linear symmetry and the infinite number of solution symmetries. We apply the zeroth-order invariants of the Lie symmetries and we reduce the (1 + 2 evolution equation to a linear second-order ordinary differential equation. Finally, we study two models of special interest, the Heston model and the Stein-Stein model.

  5. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Numerical Relativity Waveforms from Binary Black Hole Coalescences Using Surrogate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E; Galley, Chad R; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A

    2015-09-18

    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic _{-2}Y_{ℓm} waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8. We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50M_{⊙} to 300M_{⊙} for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases). PMID:26430979

  6. Photon Exchange in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2002-01-01

    The strong electromagnetic fields in peripheral heavy ion collisions give rise to photon-photon and photon-nucleus interactions. I present a general survey of the photon-photon and photon-hadron physics accessible in these collisions. Among these processes I discuss the nuclear fragmentation through the excitation of giant resonances, the Coulomb dissociation method for application in nuclear astrophysics, and the production of particles.

  7. Antiproton-nucleus interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugnon, J.; Vandermeulen, J.

    The antiproton-nucleus physics is reviewed. On the experimental side, the recent results obtained at the LEAR, BNL and KEK facilities are analyzed. A brief summary of the main pp and pn experimental data is also given. The antiproton-nucleus interaction can lead to elasic, inelastic and charge exchange scattering and to annihilation. The latter is very dominant. The scattering cross-sections are usually analyzed in terms of complex potential models. The relationship between potentials, charge conjugation and Dirac phenomenology is discussed. Much emphasis is put on the dynamics of the antiproton annihilation on nuclei. The energy transfer, pion absorption and target response are analyzed within the intranuclear cascade model. Special interest is devoted to strangeness production, hypernucleus formation and possible annihilation on two nucleons. Signatures for this new process are searched in experimental data. Finally, the highly debated question of quark-gluon formation is analyzed. Cet article constitue une revue de la physique antiproton-noyau. Du point de vue expérimental, cette revue porte particulièrement sur les récents résultats obtenus à LEAR, BNL et KEK. On y a aussi inclus une mise à jour des faits expérimentaux principaux pour pp et pn. L'interaction antiproton-noyau conduit à la diffusion élastique, inélastique et d'xA9change de charge et à des processus d'annihilation. Habituellement, les expériences de diffusion sont analysées en termes de potentiels complexes. La relation entre ces potentiels, la conjugaison de charge et la phénoménologie de Dirac est discutée. On s'est particulièrement intéressé à la dynamique de l'annihilation d'antiprotons sur des noyaux. Le transfert d'énergie, l'absorption de pions et la réponse de la cible sont analysés dans le cadre du modèle de cascade intranucléaire. Certains autres points sont discutés plus en détail: la production d'étrangeté, la formation d'hypernoyaux et l'annihilation sur

  8. Basic mathematical model for the normal black smoker system and the hydrothermal megaplume formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A tube model to simulate the normal black smoker system has been built, where the Darcy flow equation, the Ergun equation and the turbulent pipe flow equation are used respectively to describe the dynamic process of different key areas in the hydrothermal circulation system. At the same time, a convection-diffuse Equation for the temperature field is used for describe the exchange of thermal energy and the law of temperature variation. Combining the above facts and using efficient mathematical algorithms and programming with the MatLab programming language, the variation curves of temperature, pressure and mass flow rate are determined, while also the dynamic heat equilibrium and pressure equilibrium within the black smoker system are analyzed. On the basis of the model of the normal black smoker system, a megaplume formation model is further built. For instance, the hydrothermal venting plume on the Juan de Fuca Ridge has been simulated and the simulation results are fairly consistent with Baker's imputed data in 1986. On the basis of the above productive simulation, a series of factors for megaplume formation and the effectiveness of the main parameters of the periodicity of the megaplume formation, temperature and the maximum mass flow rate are systematically discussed. Main conclusions are as follows: The normal black smoker system can evolve into a megaplum eruption. In fact, the passageway of the hydrothermal discharge is blocked by the hydrothermal sediments during the black smoker period, which leads to a hydrothermal fluid accumulation, rise of temperature and increase of buoyancy pressure under the seabed. After a period of 2~3 a, the megaplume hydrothermal eruption will occur when the increasing buoyancy pressure is high enough to crack the blockage (cap).Meanwhile, the temperature of the heat source must exceed 500 ℃, while the highest temperature of the eruption fluid may be high up to 413 ℃, which is fairly consistent with the surveying data

  9. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaswant, Maharshi; Poudyal, Hemant; Mathai, Michael L; Ward, Leigh C; Mouatt, Peter; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    Both black (B) and green (G) cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C) or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H) for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom) rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom) rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom. PMID:26378573

  10. The Binary Black Hole Model for Mrk 231 Cannot Explain the Observed Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Leighly, Karen M; Gallagher, Sarah C; Lucy, Adrian B

    2016-01-01

    Mrk 231 is a nearby quasar with an unusually red continuum, generally explained as heavy reddening by dust (e.g., Leighly et al. 2014). Yan et al. 2015 proposed that Mrk 231 is a milli-parsec black-hole binary with little intrinsic reddening. The large-mass black hole experiences advection-dominated accretion, emitting little continuum, while the accretion disk of the small-mass black hole emits as an ordinary quasar, dominating the observed weak UV continuum and contributing all of the photoionizing flux. We demonstrate that this model is untenable for four reasons. (1) To produce the observed near-infrared emission lines, the equivalent widths would have to be ~100 times larger than typical values with respect to the photoionizing continuum, a situation that seems energetically unlikely. (2) We use the photoionization code Cloudy to demonstrate it is not possible to produce the HeI* emission line intensity for the observed HeI*/Pbeta flux ratios, even if the line-emitting gas intersects all of the photoioni...

  11. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharshi Bhaswant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Both black (B and green (G cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom.

  12. Altered neuronal activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus: An electrophysiological study in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiwen; Xie, Jinlu; Wang, Xuenan; Wang, Xiusong; Zhang, Xiao; Hou, Yabing; Lei, Chengdong; Li, Min; Qu, Qingyang; He, Tingting; Han, Hongyu; Yao, Xiaomeng; Wang, Min

    2016-05-15

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a new deep brain stimulation target for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). But the alterations of the PPN electrophysiological activities in PD are still debated. To investigate these potential alterations, extracellular single unit and local field potential (LFP) activities in the PPN were recorded in unilateral hemispheric 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats and in control rats, respectively. The spike activity results revealed two types of neurons (Type I and Type II) with distinct electrophysiological characteristics in the PPN. Both types of neurons had increased firing rate and changed firing pattern in lesioned rats when compared to control rats. Specifically, Type II neurons showed an increased firing rate when the rat state was switched from rest to locomotion. The LFP results demonstrated that lesioned rats had lower LFP power at 0.7-12Hz and higher power at 12-30Hz than did control animals in either resting or locomotor state. These findings provide a better understanding of the effects of 6-OHDA lesion on neuronal activities in the PPN and also provide a proof of the link between this structure and locomotion, which contributes to better understanding the mechanisms of the PPN functioning in the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:26924016

  13. Two-oscillator Kantowski-Sachs model of the Schwarzschild black hole interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Goran S.; Nesic, Ljubisa; Radovancevic, Darko

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the interior of the Schwarzschild black hole, which is presented as a vacuum, homogeneous and anisotropic Kantowski-Sachs minisuperspace cosmological model, is considered. Lagrangian of the model is reduced by a suitable coordinate transformation to Lagrangian of two decoupled oscillators with the same frequencies and with zero energy in total (an oscillator-ghost-oscillator system). The model is presented in a classical, a p-adic and a noncommutative case. Then, within the standard quantum approach Wheeler-DeWitt equation and its general solutions, i.e. a wave function of the model is written, and then an adelic wave function is constructed. Finally, thermodynamics of the model is studied by using the Feynman-Hibbs procedure.

  14. Two-oscillator Kantowski-Sachs model of the Schwarzschild black hole interior

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Goran S; Radovancevic, Darko

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the interior of the Schwarzschild black hole, which is presented as a vacuum homogeneous and anisotropic Kantowski-Sachs minisuperspace cosmological model, is considered. Lagrangian of the model is reduced by a suitable coordinate transformation to Lagrangian of two decoupled oscillators with the same frequencies and with zero energy in total (an oscillator-ghost-oscillator system). The model will be presented in a classical, a p-adic and a noncommutative case. Then, within the standard quantum approach Wheeler-DeWitt equation and its general solutions, i.e. a wave function of the model, will be written, and then an adelic wave function will be constructed. Finally, thermodynamics of the model will be studied by using the Feynman-Hibbs procedure.

  15. The Disk Wind Model and the Effect on the Virial Black Hole Mass Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Suk Yee

    2015-09-01

    The current 'standard quasar model' consists of a central engine, accretion disk, and jet. However, these components cannot entirely explain some quasar spectral features, specifically, the presence of broad emission lines (BELs), which are assumed to originate from high velocity gas in the broad line region (BLR). The addition of a wind to the standard model provides a mechanism to drive the outflowing gas emanated from the accretion disk. The shape of the emission line profiles in the BLR, in particular, the velocity offsets and skewness for different viewing angles, are explored. The impact on the virial black hole mass calculation due to the quasar's orientation to the observer is also tested. The geometry of the BLR is modelled by implementing the wind component or the disk wind model. While the models are dependent on the specified parameters, they are able to qualitatively reproduce the predicted features of the emission lines.

  16. Two aspects of black hole entropy in Lanczos-Lovelock models of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Sanved; Kothawala, Dawood; Padmanabhan, T.

    2012-03-01

    We consider two specific approaches to evaluate the black hole entropy which are known to produce correct results in the case of Einstein’s theory and generalize them to Lanczos-Lovelock models. In the first approach (which could be called extrinsic), we use a procedure motivated by earlier work by Pretorius, Vollick, and Israel, and by Oppenheim, and evaluate the entropy of a configuration of densely packed gravitating shells on the verge of forming a black hole in Lanczos-Lovelock theories of gravity. We find that this matter entropy is not equal to (it is less than) Wald entropy, except in the case of Einstein theory, where they are equal. The matter entropy is proportional to the Wald entropy if we consider a specific mth-order Lanczos-Lovelock model, with the proportionality constant depending on the spacetime dimensions D and the order m of the Lanczos-Lovelock theory as (D-2m)/(D-2). Since the proportionality constant depends on m, the proportionality between matter entropy and Wald entropy breaks down when we consider a sum of Lanczos-Lovelock actions involving different m. In the second approach (which could be called intrinsic), we generalize a procedure, previously introduced by Padmanabhan in the context of general relativity, to study off-shell entropy of a class of metrics with horizon using a path integral method. We consider the Euclidean action of Lanczos-Lovelock models for a class of metrics off shell and interpret it as a partition function. We show that in the case of spherically symmetric metrics, one can interpret the Euclidean action as the free energy and read off both the entropy and energy of a black hole spacetime. Surprisingly enough, this leads to exactly the Wald entropy and the energy of the spacetime in Lanczos-Lovelock models obtained by other methods. We comment on possible implications of the result.

  17. Testing models of supermassive black hole seed formation through gravity waves

    OpenAIRE

    Koushiappas, Savvas M.; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2005-01-01

    We study the gravitational wave background produced from the formation and assembly of supermassive black holes within the cosmological paradigm of hierarchical structure formation. In particular, we focus on a supermassive black hole formation scenario in which the present-day population of supermassive black holes is built from high-mass seed black holes and we compute the concomitant spectrum of gravitational radiation produced by mergers of the seed black holes. We find that this scenario...

  18. Amendment of European Black- Scholes Options Pricing Model%欧式期权的Black-Scholes模型的修正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海燕

    2005-01-01

    Black-Scholes模型的基础上,通过改变B-S模型的基本假设,给出了几种基本的修正模型及定价公式.修正后的模型使得股票价格行为更接近现实市场的运作规律,从而更有实际意义.

  19. A magnetic model for low/hard state of black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong-Chun; Wang, Ding-Xiong; Huang, Chang-Yin; Cao, Xiao-Feng

    2016-03-01

    A magnetic model for the low/hard state (LHS) of two black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs), H1743-322 and GX 339-4, is proposed based on transport of the magnetic field from a companion into an accretion disk around a black hole (BH). This model consists of a truncated thin disk with an inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). The spectral profiles of the sources are fitted in agreement with the data observed at four different dates corresponding to the rising phase of the LHS. In addition, the association of the LHS with a quasi-steady jet is modeled based on transport of magnetic field, where the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) and Blandford-Payne (BP) processes are invoked to drive the jets from BH and inner ADAF. It turns out that the steep radio/X-ray correlations observed in H1743-322 and GX 339-4 can be interpreted based on our model.

  20. Modeling Wood Fibre Length in Black Spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. BSP Based on Ecological Land Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Townshend

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective planning to optimize the forest value chain requires accurate and detailed information about the resource; however, estimates of the distribution of fibre properties on the landscape are largely unavailable prior to harvest. Our objective was to fit a model of the tree-level average fibre length related to ecosite classification and other forest inventory variables depicted at the landscape scale. A series of black spruce increment cores were collected at breast height from trees in nine different ecosite groups within the boreal forest of northeastern Ontario, and processed using standard techniques for maceration and fibre length measurement. Regression tree analysis and random forests were used to fit hierarchical classification models and find the most important predictor variables for the response variable area-weighted mean stem-level fibre length. Ecosite group was the best predictor in the regression tree. Longer mean fibre-length was associated with more productive ecosites that supported faster growth. The explanatory power of the model of fitted data was good; however, random forests simulations indicated poor generalizability. These results suggest the potential to develop localized models linking wood fibre length in black spruce to landscape-level attributes, and improve the sustainability of forest management by identifying ideal locations to harvest wood that has desirable fibre characteristics.

  1. Self-Consistent Models of the AGN and Black Hole Populations: Duty Cycles, Accretion Rates, and the Mean Radiative Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, Francesco; Weinberg, David H.; Miralda-Escude, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    We construct evolutionary models of the populations of AGN and supermassive black holes, in which the black hole mass function grows at the rate implied by the observed luminosity function, given assumptions about the radiative efficiency and the Eddington ratio. We draw on a variety of recent X-ray and optical measurements to estimate the bolometric AGN luminosity function and compare to X-ray background data and the independent estimate of Hopkins et al. (2007) to assess remaining systemati...

  2. Tilted black hole accretion disc models of Sagittarius A*: time-variable millimetre to near-infrared emission

    OpenAIRE

    Dexter, Jason; Fragile, P. Chris

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution, multi-wavelength, and time-domain observations of the Galactic centre black hole candidate, Sgr A*, allow for a direct test of contemporary accretion theory. To date, all models have assumed alignment between the accretion disc and black hole angular momentum axes, but this is unjustified for geometrically thick accretion flows like that onto Sgr A*. Instead, we calculate images and spectra from a set of simulations of accretion flows misaligned ('tilted') by 15 degrees from ...

  3. Black carbon and trace gases over South Asia: Measurements and Regional Climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Pradip; Pathak, Binita; Parottil, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    Trace gases and aerosols are simulated with 50 km spatial resolution over South Asian CORDEX domain enclosing the Indian sub-continent and North-East India for the year 2012 using two regional climate models RegCM4 coupled with CLM4.5 and WRF-Chem 3.5. Both models are found to capture the seasonality in the simulated O3 and its precursors, NOx and CO and black carbon concentrations together with the meteorological variables over the Indian Subcontinent as well as over the sub-Himalayan North-Eastern region of India including Bangladesh. The model simulations are compared with the measurements made at Dibrugarh (27.3°N, 94.6°E, 111 m amsl). Both the models are found to capture the observed diurnal and seasonal variations in O3 concentrations with maximum in spring and minimum in monsoon, the correlation being better for WRF-Chem (R~0.77) than RegCM (R~0.54). Simulated NOx and CO is underestimated in all the seasons by both the models, the performance being better in the case of WRF-Chem. The observed difference may be contributed by the bias in the estimation of the O3 precursors NOx and CO in the emission inventories or the error in the simulation of the meteorological variables which influences O3 concentration in both the models. For example, in the pre-monsoon and winter season, the WRF-Chem model simulated shortwave flux overestimates the observation by ~500 Wm-2 while in the monsoon and post monsoon season, simulated shortwave flux is equivalent to the observation. The model predicts higher wind speed in all the seasons especially during night-time. In the post-monsoon and winter season, the simulated wind pattern is reverse to observation with daytime low and night-time high values. Rainfall is overestimated in all the seasons. RegCM-CLM4.5 is found to underestimate rainfall and other meteorological parameters. The WRF-Chem model closely captured the observed values of black carbon mass concentrations during pre-monsoon and summer monsoon seasons, but

  4. A new perspective on Quantum Finance using the Black-Scholes pricing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Lamine

    2007-03-01

    Options are known to be divided into two types, the first type is called a call option and the second type is called a put option and these options are offered to stock holders in order to hedge their positions against risky fluctuations of the stock price. It is important to mention that due to fluctuations of the stock price, options can be found sometimes deep in the money, at the money and out of the money. A deep in the money option is described when the option's holder has a positive expected payoff, at the money option is when the option's holder has a zero expected payoff and an out of the money option is when the payoff is negative. In this work, we will assume the stock price to be described by the well known Black-Scholes model or sometimes called the multiplicative model. Using Ito calculus, Martingale and supermartingale theories, we investigated the Black-Scholes pricing equation at the money (X(stock price)= K (strike price)) when the expected payoff of the options holder is zero. We also hedged the Black-Scholes pricing equation in the limit when delta is zero to obtain the non-relativistic time independent Schroedinger equation in quantum mechanics. We compared the two equations and found the diffusion constant to be a function of the stock price in contrast to the Bachelier model we have worked on earlier. We solved the Schroedinger equation and found a dependence between interest rate, volatility and strike price at the money.

  5. Reproduction and evaluation of a rat model of inhalation lung injury caused by black gunpowder smog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-fan LIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce and evaluate a rat model of inhalation lung injury caused by black gunpowder smog. Methods The smog composition was analyzed and a rat model of inhalation lung injury was reproduced. Forty two healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC group and 1h, 2h, 6h, 24h, 48h and 96h after inhalation group (n=6. The arterial blood gas, wet to dry weight ratio (W/D of lung, leukocyte count, and protein concentration in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF were determined. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in lung tissue were observed. Results The composition of black gunpowder smog was composed mainly of CO2 and CO, and their concentrations remained stable within 12 minutes. Smog inhalation caused a significant hypoxemia, the concentration of blood COHb reached a peak value 1h, and the W/D of lung reached peak value 2h after inhalation (P<0.05. The amount of leukocytes and content of protein in BALF increased significantly within 24h after inhalation (P<0.05. Histopathological observation showed diffuse hemorrhage, edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue as manifestations of acute lung injury, and the injury did not recover at 96h after inhalation. Conclusion The rat model of inhalation lung injury can be reproduced using black gunpowder smog, and it has the advantages of its readiness for reproduction, reliability and stability, and it could be used for the experiment of inhalation injury in a battlefield environment.

  6. Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, Tarek; Zeeman, Grietje; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste (water) produced from the following systems: vacuum toilet for black water (VBW), vacuum toilet for faeces with urine separation (VF), dry toilet (DT), dry toilets for faeces with urine separation (DF), separated faecal matter from conventional black water by filter bag (FB). For evaluation of the AC system treating the proposed waste (water) sources at 20 and 35 degrees C, two options were studied: (1) The filling period of the AC system was constant for all waste (water) sources (either 1, 3 or 6 months) and for each period, the seed sludge volume was varied; (2) The volume of the AC system was constant for all proposed waste (water) sources. The results showed that the filling period of the AC system was the main parameter affecting the system performance, followed by operational temperature, while the increase of the seed sludge volume slightly enhanced the performance of the system. The model results indicated that the filling period of the AC system should be higher than 150 days for obtaining a stable performance. It was found that the hydrolysis of biodegradable particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) is the rate limiting step, as volatile fatty acid concentration is very low in all experimental conditions (< 200 mgCOD/L at 20 degrees C and < 100 mgCOD/L at 35 degrees C). Based on the results of the two options, it was found that the concentrated waste (water) sources have better performance than the diluted waste (water) sources, like VBW waste (water). Furthermore, smaller volume will be required for the AC system. PMID:21902047

  7. Study of average multiplicities, rapidity distributions and ratios and x-distributions in hadron-nucleus collisions in the dual multi-chain Monte-Carlo fragmentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data measured in hadron-nucleus interactions are studied within the framework of the multi-chain Monte Carlo fragmentation model. Average multiplicities for all charged particles and negative charged particles measured in proton-xenon, antiproton-xenon, proton-argon, antiproton-argon as well as proton-antiproton and proton-proton collisions at 200 GeV/c are compared to Monte Carlo results. Furthermore, comparisons between experimental and Monte Carlo data are presented for rapidity distributions and ratios for projectile protons and different targets. Finally, the differential cross sections Edσ/dp3 measured at fixed transverse momentum of 0.3 GeV/c and p/sub lab/ = 100 GeV/c are shown ranging between approximately 0.2 and 0.8. The Monte Carlo curves to be compared with are corrected by some factor due to the using of all transverse momenta in order to obtain the Monte Carlo results

  8. Black holes as random particles: entanglement dynamics in infinite range and matrix models

    CERN Document Server

    Magan, Javier M

    2016-01-01

    We first propose and study a quantum toy model of black hole dynamics. The model is unitary, displays quantum thermalization, and the Hamiltonian couples every oscillator with every other, a feature intended to emulate the color sector physics of large-$\\mathcal{N}$ matrix models. Considering out of equilibrium initial states, we analytically compute the time evolution of every correlator of the theory and of the entanglement entropies, allowing a proper discussion of global thermalization/scrambling of information through the entire system. Microscopic non-locality causes factorization of reduced density matrices, and entanglement just depends on the time evolution of occupation densities. In the second part of the article, we show how the gained intuition extends to large-$\\mathcal{N}$ matrix models, where we provide a gauge invariant entanglement entropy for `generalized free fields', again depending solely on the quasinormal frequencies. The results challenge the fast scrambling conjecture and point to a ...

  9. Data Assimilation and Sensitivity of the Black Sea Model to Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    An adjoint based technique is applied to a Shallow Water Model in order to estimate influence of the model's parameters on the solution. Among parameters the bottom topography, initial conditions, boundary conditions on rigid boundaries, viscosity coefficients and the amplitude of the wind stress tension are considered. Their influence is analyzed from different points of view. Two configurations have been analyzed: an academic case of the model in a square box and a more realistic case simulating Black Sea currents. It is shown in both experiments that the boundary conditions near a rigid boundary influence the most the solution. This fact points out the necessity to identify optimal boundary approximation during a model development.

  10. Anomalously strong bora over the Black Sea: Observations from space and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrikov, A. V.; Ivanov, A. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    An anomalously strong Novorossiysk bora (strong coastal wind) observed in January-February 2012 with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from the Radarsat-1 and Radarsat-2 satellites is studied using the high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). The bora was reliably reproduced not only in the narrow coastal zone, but also far in the open part of the Black Sea. As a result of modeling we demonstrated that an optimally configured WRF—ARW model with nested grids and horizontal resolution equal to 9/3/1 km quite well qualitatively and quantitatively reproduces the bora events. The details and structure of the bora (for example, wind strips and other peculiarities) seen on the SAR images were clearly reproduced by numerical modeling. Coupled analysis allowed us to conclude that these two alternative methods of investigating this dangerous meteorological phenomenon are highly effective.

  11. The ionospheric source of magnetospheric plasma is not a black box input for global models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, D. T.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2016-06-01

    Including ionospheric outflow in global magnetohydrodynamic models of near-Earth outer space has become an important step toward understanding the role of this plasma source in the magnetosphere. Of the existing approaches, however, few tie the outflowing particle fluxes to magnetospheric conditions in a self-consistent manner. Doing so opens the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to nonlinear mass-energy feedback loops, profoundly changing the behavior of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Based on these new results, it is time for the community eschew treating ionospheric outflow as a simple black box source of magnetospheric plasma.

  12. Modelling the coastal processes at the mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen; Zanopol, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    The mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea represent the main southern entrance in the seventh Pan European transportation corridor that links the Black and the Northern seas and is the most important inland navigable waterway in Europe. For this reason the coastal area close to the Danube Delta is subjected to high navigation traffic, which is crucially affected by the strong processes mainly induced by the interactions between the waves and the currents generated by the Danube River outflow. From this perspective, the objective of the present work is to develop a computational framework based on numerical models able to evaluate properly the effects of these interactions and to provide reliable predictions concerning the wave and current conditions corresponding to various environmental patterns. Following this target, a wave modelling system, SWAN based, was implemented in the entire basin of the Black Sea and focused on the coastal sector at the entrance of the Danube Delta. As a next step of the modelling process, SWAN simulations were performed at two different computational levels, considering in parallel the situations without and with the current fields for the main environmental conditions characteristic to the target area. The first level covers the entire coastal area at the mouths of the Danube River and has a resolution in the geographical space of 500m. The second is a computational domain with the resolution of 50m that is focused on the Sulina channel, which is the main navigation gate at the mouths of the Danube River. The results show that the presence of the currents induces relevant enhancements in terms of significant wave heights. Additionally, the Benjamin Feir index (BFI) was also evaluated. This is a spectral shape parameter that is related to the kurtosis of the distribution and indicates the risk of the freak wave occurrence. The enhanced values for BFI in the case when the current fields are considered in the modelling process

  13. Investigation of Gaussian Processes and Random Forests as Surrogate Models for Evolutionary Black-Box Optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bajer, Lukáš; Pitra, Z.; Holeňa, Martin

    New York: ACM, 2015 - (Silva, S.), s. 1351-1352 ISBN 978-1-4503-3488-4. [GECCO Companion '15. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. Madrid (ES), 11.07.2015-15.07.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17187S Grant ostatní: ČVUT(CZ) SGS14/205/OHK4/3T/14; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0078 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Black-box optimization * Surrogate model * Gaussian process * Random forest Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  14. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Maharshi Bhaswant; Hemant Poudyal; Mathai, Michael L.; Ward, Leigh C.; Peter Mouatt; Lindsay Brown

    2015-01-01

    Both black (B) and green (G) cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C) or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H) for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular ...

  15. Model guided sampling optimization with gaussian processes for expensive black-box optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bajer, Lukáš; Charypar, V.; Holeňa, Martin

    New York : ACM, 2013 - (Blum, C.), s. 1715-1716 ISBN 978-1-4503-1964-5. [GECCO 2013. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. Amsterdam (NL), 06.07.2013-10.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1368; GA ČR GA13-17187S Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 278511/2011; CTU(CZ) SGS12/196/OHK3/3T/14 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : benchmarking * black-box optimization * modelling * gaussian processes Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  16. Modeling and field observations of char bed processes in black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engblom, M.

    2010-07-01

    The char bed plays an important role in kraft black liquor combustion. Stable operation of the char bed promotes efficient and safe operation of the black liquor recovery boiler. It also plays a crucial role in the recovery of the pulping chemicals. Char bed operation involves controlling the char bed size and shape. Mathematical modeling based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) haas been applied to recovery boilers for increased insights into the recovery furnace processes and to aid in the design of new boilers. So far, all CED-based char bed models reported in literature have used a fixed bed shape. This imposes restrictions on simulation of char bed burning by not considering inherently occurring changes in bed shape. In this thesis, a CED -based recovery furnace model is further developed to predict changes in bed shape. The new model is used in simulation of existing recovery boilers. The predictions of bed shape are compared with observations from real boilers. The furnace model is capable of correctly simulating the overall response of the char bed size to operational changes. This confirms the current quantitative overall understanding of char bed burning. In addition to modeling, visual observations of the char bed processes were made in this work. The observations provide validation data concerning the physical behavior of the char bed, and the findings from the observations can be used in further development of char bed models. Modeling and simulations of fundamental laboratory scale char bed experiments reported in literature are also carried out. The simulations complement the experimental data by providing detailed insights into gas phase reactions that can occur inside the gas boundary layer above a char bed. (orig.)

  17. Inner Structure of Boiling Nucleus and Interfacial Energy Between Nucleus and Bulk Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Dong; TIAN Yong; PENG Xiao-Feng; WANG Bu-Xuan

    2004-01-01

    @@ A model of two-region structure of a nucleus is proposed to describe nucleus evolution. The interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus is dependent on the density gradient in the transition region and varies with the structure change of the transition region. With the interfacial tension calculated using this model, the predicted nucleation rate is very close to the experimental measurement. Furthermore, this model and associated analysis provide solid theoretical evidence to clarify the definition of nucleation rate and understand the nucleation phenomenon with insight into the physical nature.

  18. Black hole thermodynamics as seen through a microscopic model of a relativistic Bose gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skákala, Jozef; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2016-02-01

    Equations of gravity when projected on spacetime horizons resemble Navier-Stokes equation of a fluid with a specific equation of state [T. Damour, Surface effects of black hole physics, in Proc. M. Grossman Meeting (North Holland, 1982), p. 587, T. Padmanabhan, Phys. Rev. D 83 (2011) 044048, arXiv:gr-qc/1012.0119, S. Kolekar and T. Padmanabhan, Phys. Rev. D 85 (2011) 024004, arXiv:gr-qc/1012.5421]. We show that this equation of state describes massless ideal relativistic gas. We use these results, and build an explicit and simple molecular model of the fluid living on the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström black hole horizons. For the spin zero Bose gas, our model makes two predictions: (i) The horizon area/entropy is quantized as given by Bekenstein’s quantization rule, (ii) The model explains the correct type of proportionality between horizon area and entropy. However, for the physically relevant range of parameters, the proportionality constant is never equal to 1/4.

  19. A fuzzy compromise programming approach for the Black-Litterman portfolio selection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gharakhani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine advanced optimization approach for portfolio problem introduced by Black and Litterman to consider the shortcomings of Markowitz standard Mean-Variance optimization. Black and Litterman propose a new approach to estimate asset return. They present a way to incorporate the investor’s views into asset pricing process. Since the investor’s view about future asset return is always subjective and imprecise, we can represent it by using fuzzy numbers and the resulting model is multi-objective linear programming. Therefore, the proposed model is analyzed through fuzzy compromise programming approach using appropriate membership function. For this purpose, we introduce the fuzzy ideal solution concept based on investor preference and indifference relationships using canonical representation of proposed fuzzy numbers by means of their correspondingα-cuts. A real world numerical example is presented in which MSCI (Morgan Stanley Capital International Index is chosen as the target index. The results are reported for a portfolio consisting of the six national indices. The performance of the proposed models is compared using several financial criteria.

  20. Testing string dynamics in lepton nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of nuclear attenuation of 10-100 GeV lepton nucleus (ell A) reactions to space-time aspects of hadronization is investigated within the context of the Lund string model. We consider two mechanisms for attenuation in a nucleus: final state cascading and string flip excitations. Implications for the evolution of the energy density in nuclear collisions are discussed. 16 refs., 10 figs

  1. Modelling of Black and Organic Carbon Variability in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurganskiy, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mahura, Alexander; Kaas, Eigil; Baklanov, Alexander; Hansen Sass, Bent

    2016-04-01

    Black and organic carbon as short-lived climate forcers have influence on air quality and climate in Northern Europe and Arctic. Atmospheric dispersion, deposition and transport of these climate forcers from remote sources is especially difficult to model in Arctic regions due to complexity of meteorological and chemical processes and uncertainties of emissions. In our study, the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols model Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) was employed for evaluating spatio-temporal variability of black and organic carbon aerosols in atmospheric composition in the Northern Hemisphere regions. The model setup included horizontal resolution of 0.72 deg, time step of 450 sec, 6 h meteorological surface data assimilation, 1 month spin-up; and model was run for the full year of 2010. Emissions included anthropogenic (ECLIPSE), shipping (AU_RCP&FMI), wildfires (IS4FIRES), and interactive sea salt, dust and DMS. Meteorological (from IFS at 0.75 deg) and chemical (from MACC Reanalysis at 1.125 deg) boundary conditions were obtained from ECMWF. Annual and month-to-month variability of mean concentration, accumulated dry/wet and total deposition fluxes is analyzed for the model domain and selected European and Arctic observation sites. Modelled and observed BC daily mean concentrations during January and July showed fair-good correlation (0.31-0.64) for stations in Germany, UK and Italy; however, for Arctic stations (Tiksi, Russia and Zeppelin, Norway) the correlations were negative in January, but higher correlations and positive (0.2-0.7) in July. For OC, it varied 0.45-0.67 in January and 0.19-0.57 in July. On seasonal scale, during both summer and winter seasons the BC and OC correlations are positive and higher for European stations compared with Arctic. On annual scale, both BC and OC correlations are positive and vary between 0.4-0.6 for European stations, and these are smoothed to negligible values for Arctic

  2. The Emotional Gatekeeper: A Computational Model of Attentional Selection and Suppression through the Pathway from the Amygdala to the Inhibitory Thalamic Reticular Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Yohan J; Zikopoulos, Basilis; Bullock, Daniel; Barbas, Helen

    2016-02-01

    In a complex environment that contains both opportunities and threats, it is important for an organism to flexibly direct attention based on current events and prior plans. The amygdala, the hub of the brain's emotional system, is involved in forming and signaling affective associations between stimuli and their consequences. The inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a hub of the attentional system that gates thalamo-cortical signaling. In the primate brain, a recently discovered pathway from the amygdala sends robust projections to TRN. Here we used computational modeling to demonstrate how the amygdala-TRN pathway, embedded in a wider neural circuit, can mediate selective attention guided by emotions. Our Emotional Gatekeeper model demonstrates how this circuit enables focused top-down, and flexible bottom-up, allocation of attention. The model suggests that the amygdala-TRN projection can serve as a unique mechanism for emotion-guided selection of signals sent to cortex for further processing. This inhibitory selection mechanism can mediate a powerful affective 'framing' effect that may lead to biased decision-making in highly charged emotional situations. The model also supports the idea that the amygdala can serve as a relevance detection system. Further, the model demonstrates how abnormal top-down drive and dysregulated local inhibition in the amygdala and in the cortex can contribute to the attentional symptoms that accompany several neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26828203

  3. The Emotional Gatekeeper: A Computational Model of Attentional Selection and Suppression through the Pathway from the Amygdala to the Inhibitory Thalamic Reticular Nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan J John

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a complex environment that contains both opportunities and threats, it is important for an organism to flexibly direct attention based on current events and prior plans. The amygdala, the hub of the brain's emotional system, is involved in forming and signaling affective associations between stimuli and their consequences. The inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN is a hub of the attentional system that gates thalamo-cortical signaling. In the primate brain, a recently discovered pathway from the amygdala sends robust projections to TRN. Here we used computational modeling to demonstrate how the amygdala-TRN pathway, embedded in a wider neural circuit, can mediate selective attention guided by emotions. Our Emotional Gatekeeper model demonstrates how this circuit enables focused top-down, and flexible bottom-up, allocation of attention. The model suggests that the amygdala-TRN projection can serve as a unique mechanism for emotion-guided selection of signals sent to cortex for further processing. This inhibitory selection mechanism can mediate a powerful affective 'framing' effect that may lead to biased decision-making in highly charged emotional situations. The model also supports the idea that the amygdala can serve as a relevance detection system. Further, the model demonstrates how abnormal top-down drive and dysregulated local inhibition in the amygdala and in the cortex can contribute to the attentional symptoms that accompany several neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Science intervention programs for Southern Black students: A cluster evaluation and two proposed models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Courtney Anne

    This study investigated science intervention programs for Black students in South Carolina, Georgia, and Maryland. The sample consisted of five programs that aim to increase the participation of Blacks in science via after-school, Saturday, and summer experiences. These long-term programs offered a variety of experiences, including hands-on science activities, contact with mentors and role models, exposure to science-related careers, and opportunities to increase science content knowledge and improve science process skills. Artifact data, a Program Coordinator Questionnaire, site visits, and interviews were used to identify and describe five existing science intervention programs for Black students. The study proposed a set of standards for science intervention programs for Black students. These standards addressed eight components of programs, including objectives, format, location, target population, recruitment and selection, intervention activities, staff, and financial information. Using a modified approach to cluster evaluation, the five programs were compared to the standards. This evaluation revealed the strengths and underlying weaknesses of the cluster that informed the development of two models for future science intervention programs. Though implemented in numerous ways, the cluster's strengths included sound, measurable objectives; articulation of program objectives to staff, participants, and parents; frequent contact during sessions; the potential for continuous involvement of staff and participants; the inclusion of a range of student achievement levels; programs that served their target group; the representation of various communities, neighborhoods, and schools; effective recruitment strategies; financially inclusive programs; a variety of intervention activities; intensive training for staff, and substantial staff compensation. Three major shortcomings of the cluster were identified as inadequate focus on science-related careers and science

  5. Coupling Fluid and Solute Dynamics Within the Ocular Surface Tear Film: A Modelling Study of Black Line Osmolarity

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.

    2012-07-06

    We present a mathematical model describing the spatial distribution of tear film osmolarity across the ocular surface of a human eye during one blink cycle, incorporating detailed fluid and solute dynamics. Based on the lubrication approximation, our model comprises three coupled equations tracking the depth of the aqueous layer of the tear film, the concentration of the polar lipid, and the concentration of physiological salts contained in the aqueous layer. Diffusive boundary layers in the salt concentration occur at the thinnest regions of the tear film, the black lines. Thus, despite large Peclet numbers, diffusion ameliorates osmolarity around the black lines, but nonetheless is insufficient to eliminate the build-up of solute in these regions. More generally, a heterogeneous distribution of solute concentration is predicted across the ocular surface, indicating that measurements of lower meniscus osmolarity are not globally representative, especially in the presence of dry eye. Vertical saccadic eyelid motion can reduce osmolarity at the lower black line, raising the prospect that select eyeball motions more generally can assist in alleviating tear film hyperosmolarity. Finally, our results indicate that measured evaporative rates will induce excessive hyperosmolarity at the black lines, even for the healthy eye. This suggests that further evaporative retardation at the black lines, for instance due to the cellular glycocalyx at the ocular surface or increasing concentrations of mucus, will be important for controlling hyperosmolarity as the black line thins. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  6. Black carbon concentration and deposition estimations in Finland by the regional aerosol-climate model REMO-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Hienola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction skill of the regional aerosol-climate model REMO-HAM was assessed against the black carbon (BC concentration measurements from five locations in Finland, with focus on Hyytiälä station for the year 2005. We examined to what extent the model is able to reproduce the measurements using several statistical tools: median comparison, overlap coefficient OVL (the common area under two probability distributions curves and Z-score (a measure of standard deviation, shape and spread of the distributions. The results of the statistics showed that the model is biased low, suggesting either an excessive loss of black carbon in the model, or missing emissions. A further examination of the precipitation data from both measurements and model showed that there is no correlation between REMO's excessive precipitation and BC underestimation. This suggests that the excessive wet removal is not the main cause for the low black carbon concentration output. In addition, a comparison of wind directions in relation with high black carbon concentrations shows that REMO-HAM is able to predict the BC source directions relatively well. Cumulative black carbon deposition fluxes over Finland were estimated, including the deposition on snow.

  7. Quantum collapse of a self-gravitating thin shell and statistical model of quantum black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum collapse of a self-gravitating thin shell in the minisuperspace models is revisited on the assumption that the shell is composed of N distinguishable identical particles. The ground state of the shell is found and defined as a quantum black hole (QBH). We show that the energy of single particle in the QBH is dependent on N, and N has an up-limit for a stable QBH. The effective exciting energy of single particle is determined, which is universally 1/2 of the Planck energy for the full-filled QBHs. We also propose a simple statistical model of QBH and show that a QBH is full-filled at low temperatures and half-filled at high temperatures. The specific heat of QBH is found to be positive at low temperatures and the relation of the QBH mass with its temperature is obtained in the high-temperature limit of our model

  8. Mixing model for the north-west Black Sea using 90Sr and salinity as tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model to quantify the mixing ratios of Danube and Dnieper river water in the northwestern region of the Black Sea is presented. In this model, mixing ratios are determined from the measured salinity and 90Sr activities of surface water samples. The details of this model and error and sensitivity analyses are presented. Using this approach, mean mixing ratios and hence river transport values can be reliably derived which are of interest to more general questions of pollution transport in this region. Inter-annual variability in the 90Sr input from the Dnieper river and the overall decrease in 90Sr inputs limit the ultimate applicability of this approach. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Emergent horizon, Hawking radiation and chaos in the collapsed polymer model of a black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed that the interior of a macroscopic Schwarzschild black hole (BH) consists of highly excited, long, closed, interacting strings and, as such, can be modeled as a collapsed polymer. It was previously shown that the scaling relations of the collapsed-polymer model agree with those of the BH. The current paper further substantiates this proposal with an investigation into some of its dynamical consequences. In particular, we show that the model predicts, without relying on gravitational effects, an emergent horizon. We further show that the horizon fluctuates quantum mechanically as it should and that the strength of the fluctuations is inversely proportional to the BH entropy. It is then demonstrated that the emission of Hawking radiation is realized microscopically by the quantum-induced escape of small pieces of string, with the rate of escape and the energy per emitted piece both parametrically matching the Hawking temperature. We also show, using standard methods from statistical mechanics a...

  10. GENIE implementation of IFIC Valencia model for QE-like 2p2h neutrino-nucleus cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Schwehr, J; Gran, R

    2016-01-01

    The model by Nieves, Ruiz-Simo, and Vicente-Vacas and their group (IFIC, Valencia, Spain) for 2p2h reactions that produce QE-like (no pion) final states has been implemented in GENIE. Since the model currently does not predict the kinematics of the outgoing hadrons, a simple two-nucleon system is grafted onto the model's prediction of isospin, energy transfer, and momentum transfer. These two nucleons are then given to the GENIE FSI models. This whitepaper is a guide to the kind of information available from this model and some limitations. There are several figures that illustrate the output of the model, and detailed discussion of the physics context for this model. Finally, any other authors' model (or variations of this one) that can be expressed as hadronic tensors for total and pn initial state will be easy to incorporate into this framework.

  11. Thermodynamics with long-range interactions: from Ising models to black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2003-07-01

    Methods are presented which enables one to analyze the thermodynamics of systems with long-range interactions. Generically, such systems have entropies which are nonextensive (do not scale with the size of the system). We show how to calculate the degree of nonextensivity for such a system. We find that a system interacting with a heat reservoir is in a probability distribution of canonical ensembles. The system still possesses a parameter akin to a global temperature, which is constant throughout the substance. There is also a useful quantity which acts like a local temperatures and it varies throughout the substance. These quantities are closely related to counterparts found in general relativity. A lattice model with long-range spin-spin coupling is studied. This is compared with systems such as those encountered in general relativity and gravitating systems with Newtonian-type interactions. A long-range lattice model is presented which can be seen as a black hole analog. One finds that the analog's temperature and entropy have many properties which are found in black holes. Finally, the entropy scaling behavior of a gravitating perfect fluid of constant density is calculated. For weak interactions, the entropy scales like the volume of the system. As the interactions become stronger, the entropy becomes higher near the surface of the system, and becomes more area scaling. PMID:12935201

  12. Two Aspects of Black hole entropy in Lanczos-Lovelock models of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T

    2011-01-01

    We consider two specific approaches to evaluate the black hole entropy which are known to produce correct results in the case of Einstein's theory and generalize them to Lanczos-Lovelock models. In the first approach (which could be called extrinsic) we use a procedure motivated by earlier work by Pretorius, Vollick and Israel, and by Oppenheim, and evaluate the entropy of a configuration of densely packed gravitating shells on the verge of forming a black hole in Lanczos-Lovelock theories of gravity. We find that this matter entropy is not equal to (it is less than) Wald entropy, except in the case of Einstein theory, where they are equal. The matter entropy is proportional to the Wald entropy if we consider a specific m-th order Lanczos-Lovelock model, with the proportionality constant depending on the spacetime dimensions D and the order m of the Lanczos-Lovelock theory as (D-2m)/(D-2). Since the proportionality constant depends on m, the proportionality between matter entropy and Wald entropy breaks down ...

  13. Numerical modeling of counter-current condensation in a Black Liquor Gasification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressurized Entrained flow High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification is a novel technique to recover the inorganic chemicals and available energy in black liquor originating from kraft pulping. The gasifier has a direct quench that quickly cools the raw syngas when it leaves the hot reactor by spraying the gas with a water solution. As a result, the raw syngas becomes saturated with steam. Typically the gasifier operates at 30 bar which corresponds to a dew point of about 235 °C and a steam concentration in the saturated syngas that is about 3 times higher than the total concentration of the other species in the syngas. After the quench cooler the syngas is passed through a counter-current condenser where the raw syngas is cooled and most of the steam is condensed. The condenser consists of several vertical tubes where reflux condensation occurs inside the tubes due to water cooling of the tubes on the shell-side. A large part of the condensation takes place inside the tubes on the wall and results in a counterflow of water driven by gravity through the counter current condenser. In this study a computational fluid dynamics model is developed for the two-phase fluid flow on the tube-side of the condenser and for the single phase flow of the shell-side. The two-phase flow was treated using an Euler–Euler formulation with closure correlations for heat flux, condensation rate and pressure drop inside the tubes. The single-phase model for the shell side uses closure correlations for the heat flux and pressure drop. Predictions of the model are compared with results from experimental measurements in a condenser used in a 3 MW Black Liquor Gasification development plant. The results are in good agreement with the limited experimental data that has been collected in the experimental gasifier. However, more validation data is necessary before a definite conclusion can be drawn about the predictive capability of the code. -- Highlights: • A multi-phase model for a

  14. Coherent Pion Production in Neutrino Nucleus Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Saraswat, Kapil; Kumar, Vineet; Singh, Venktesh

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we study the coherent pion production in neutrino-nucleus interaction in the resonance region using the formalism based on partially conserved axial current (PCAC) theorem which relates the neutrino-nucleus cross section to the pion-nucleus elastic cross section. The pion nucleus elastic cross section is calculated using the Glauber model in terms of pion-nucleon cross sections obtained by parameterizing the experimental data. We calculate the differential and integrated cross sections for charged current coherent pion production in neutrino carbon scattering. The results of integrated cross section calculations are compared with the measured data. Predictions for the differential and integrated cross sections for coherent pion productions in neutrino iron scattering using above formalism are also made.

  15. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance......-styled references to, among other things, the culturally and ideologically effervescent interwar-period have made me curious as to what alternative possibilities – for instance ‘emancipation’ – a comparative analysis might disclose concerning the visual rhetoric of black. Thus, in conclusion, it is briefly...

  16. Modeling of flow dynamics in layered groundwater system: Comparative evaluation of black box and numerical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical flow and transport models are used to calculate the streamline distribution in the aquifer and the tracer concentration in the outflow from the system for the groundwater aquifer consists of parallel layers with different hydraulic conductivity. Infiltration takes place through the whole aquifer surface and the aquifer is drainaged by the river (constant head). Using the streamline distribution calculated using numerical model of water flow, the distribution of the transit time of water particle through the aquifer is constructed. These distribution functions calculated for different imagine aquifers are compared with the well known distribution functions of Black-Box-Model (BBM) approach. In that way it was found which of BBM functions approximates the real hydrological situation with the best accuracy. It was also found the relation of the mean transit time of water to the aquifer parameters. Additionally, the numerical transport model was applied for the continuous injection of ideal tracer through the aquifer surface and the calculated weighted concentrations found for the outflow (river) were taken into BBM modeling. It was found which BBM model can be calibrated to the observed output concentrations and what is the value of the mean transit time of water through the aquifer. The aquifer parameters obtained by applying distribution functions to the numerical modeling of water flow and by applying BBM to the transport modeling, are compared with the real parameters of the aquifers being considered. (author)

  17. Evidence for a supermassive object in the nucleus of the galaxy M87 from SIT and CCD area photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. J.; Westphal, J. A.; Kristian, J.; Wilson, C. P.; Landauer, F. P.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for broadband three-color (BVR) photometric observations of the peculiar elliptical radio galaxy M87, which were obtained with digital two-dimensional SIT and CCD detector systems on the Palomar 60-in. and 200-in. telescopes. The observations and the reduction procedures for the digital data are outlined, the luminosity profile of M87 is given, and a nuclear luminosity spike is found to be centered within 0.02 arcsec of the center of M87. Attempts are made to fit various theoretical models to the luminosity profile, and a satisfactory fit is obtained between the observed profile and a model involving a massive black hole in the galactic nucleus. A model-independent dynamical analysis of the central regions is performed which indicates that the nucleus of M87 contains a supermassive object of about 5 billion solar masses with a radius of no more than 100 pc and an M/L ratio of at least 60. The possible nature of this object is considered, and it is concluded that M87 is probably the most plausible candidate for a massive black hole in a galactic nucleus.

  18. A constituent quark model with colour degrees of freedom confronts the data on hadron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three version of a model with colour excitations of constituent quarks are examined using inclusive leading proton and antiproton spectra in nuclear interactions at high energies. The comparison with experimental data excludes the models in which fragmentation into leading final hadrons depends only on the colour charge of constituents in an intermediate system. (author)

  19. A variational study of the 11Be nucleus level-ordering problem in the three-body 9Be+n+n cluster model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level ordering problem in the light halo nucleus 11Be is studied within the three body 9Be(1/2+) +n+n cluster model with the excited core by using a high-accuracy variational method on a Gaussian basis. The energy value and RMS charge and matter radii of the 11Be ground state are reproduced with parity- and spin-independent S-wave 9Be(1/2+)+n potential. The parameters of the potential are fitted to reproduce the excited 10Be(0+2) state energy value. The NN interaction is fixed as a RSC potential. With the additional parity dependent forces, yielding an attraction in odd waves about two times stronger than in even waves, we have reproduced the excited 11Be(1/2-) state energy value. By examining the energy behavior of the positive and negative parity levels in dependence on the parity- and spin-dependent core+n potentials, we found that in the three-body cluster model the energy reverse problem does not occur in contrast to the shell-model picture. (authors)

  20. Effect of pulping variables on enthalpy of kraft black liquors: Empirical predictive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-07-01

    The effects of pulping variables on enthalpy of slash pine kraft black liquors from a 2{sup k} + 2k + 1 (k = 4) central composite design pulping experiments that were performed in a large pilot scale digester have been studied. The four cooling variables were effective alkali, sulfidity, cooking temperature, and time at temperature. In all cases, the white liquor was adjusted to a causticizing efficiency of 85% and a reduction of 93% with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The enthalpy of these liquors was determined over wide ranges of temperature and solids concentrations using a Setaram C-80 calorimeter. In this work, previous models for enthalpy-concentration relations were used to perform a systematic study on the effects of pulping conditions on enthalpy and to develop statistically based quantitative models for enthalpy as a function of pulping variables. These results are presented, and their utility is discussed.

  1. CHANGES IN BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY BLACK SOILS AT GLEYISATION (MODEL EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandashova K. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory modeling of gleyisation and its effect on the biological properties of soils with stagnant regime in ordinary black soils. Gleyisation is a complex biochemical process that occurs under oxygen reduction conditions. Anaerobic microorganisms, the presence of organic substances, and the constant or prolonged waterlogging of individual horizons or the entire soil profile promote gleyisation. Model experiments revealed that gleyisation increase the total number of bacteria and suppresses number of actinomycetes, micromycetes and growth of fungal mycelium. Gleyisation decreases the activity of oxidoreductases and increases the hydrolases activity. In addition, the second content of humus slightly increases and active acidity (pH changes to neutral. Accumulation of large amounts of iron oxide (II in soil is revealed

  2. Transverse energy distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transverse energy ET distributions of nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the framework of a simple geometrical model. The distributions for inclusive production of J/ψ and muon pairs in the mass continuum are analyzed. The shape of the ET distribution of the continuum agrees with the model. The previously observed decrease of the ratio (J/ψ)/continuum with increasing ET is due to the behavior of the J/ψ. (orig.)

  3. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  4. Generalized 2d-dilaton models, the true black hole and quantum integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Katanaev, M O; Liebl, H; Vasilevich, D V

    1997-01-01

    All 1+1 dimensional dipheomorphism-invariant models can be viewed in a unified manner. This includes also general dilaton theories and especially spherically symmetric gravity (SSG) and Witten's dilatonic black hole (DBH). A common feature --- also in the presence of matter fields of any type --- is the appearance of an absolutely conserved quantity C which is determined by the influx of matter. Only for a subclass of generalized dilaton theories the singularity structure vanishes together with C. Such `physical' theories include, of course, SSG and DBH. It seems to have been overlooked until recently that the (classical) 'black hole' singularity of the DBH deviates from SSG in a physically nontrivial manner. At the quantum level for all generalized dilaton theories --- in the absence of matter --- the local quantum effects are shown to disappear. This enables us to compute e.g. the second loop order correction to the Polyakov term. For non-minimal scalar coupling we also believe to have settled the controver...

  5. Numerical modeling of the central Black Sea ecosystem functioning during the eutrophication phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, M.; Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.

    2008-03-01

    A one-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the central Black Sea at the end of the 1980s when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and dynamics of the system. The physical model is the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and the biogeochemical model describes the foodweb from bacteria to gelatinous carnivores through 24 state variables including three groups of phytoplankton: diatoms, small phototrophic flagellates and dinoflagellates, two zooplankton groups: micro- and mesozooplankton, two groups of gelatinous zooplankton: the omnivorous and carnivorous forms, an explicit representation of the bacterial loop: bacteria, labile and semi-labile dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter. The model simulates oxygen, nitrogen, silicate and carbon cycling. In addition, an innovation of this model is that it explicitly represents processes in the anoxic layer. Biogeochemical processes in anaerobic conditions have been represented using an approach similar to that used in the modeling of diagenetic processes in the sediments lumping together all the reduced substances in one state variable [Soetaert, K., Herman, P., 1996. A model of early diagenetic processes from the shelf to abyssal depths. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60 (6) 1019-1040]. In this way, processes in the upper oxygenated layer are fully coupled with anaerobic processes in the deep waters, allowing to perform longterm simulations. The mathematical modeling of phytoplankton and zooplankton dynamics, detritus and the microbial loop is based on the model developed by Van den Meersche et al. [Van den Meersche, K., Middelburg, J., Soetaert, K., van Rijswijk P.H.B., Heip, C., 2004. Carbon-nitrogen coupling and algal-bacterial interactions during an experimental bloom: Modeling a 13c tracer experiment. Limnology and Oceanography 49 (3), 862-878] and tested in the modeling of mesocosm

  6. Nucleus Driven Electronic Pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, H; Xue, S -S

    2014-01-01

    We derive and solve by the spectral method the equations for a neutral system of ultra-relativistic electrons that are compressed to the radius of the nucleus and subject to a driving force. This driving force can be thought of as originating from a nuclear breathing mode, a possibility we discuss in detail.

  7. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblay, Grant R; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen L; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds - a departure from the "hot mode" accretion model - although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z=0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities can precipitate from this hot gas, producing a rain of c...

  8. Electron-Nucleus Collisions at THERA

    CERN Document Server

    Frankfurt, L L; McDermott, M; Strikman, M I

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear option at THERA provides an ideal and unique opportunity to investigate the black body limit (BBL) of high energy Deep Inelastic Scattering of highly virtual photons off heavy nuclear targets and thereby probe QCD in a new regime. At high enough energies, whichever hadronic configuration the photon fluctuates into, the interaction at a given impact parameter with the heavy nuclear target will eventually reach its geometrical limit corresponding to the scattering from a black disk. An attractive feature of the BBL regime for a large nucleus is that the interaction is strong although the coupling constant is small. Predictions for longitudinal and transverse distributions of the leading hadrons in inclusive and diffractive channels and exclusive vector meson production are found to be strikingly different in BBL and the leading twist approximation. In particular, the multiplicity of leading hadrons in the current fragmentation region is strongly suppressed, while the cross section of diffractive vec...

  9. Spatial planning modeling in ICZM implementation for Black Sea- case study Sulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichersu, Iuliana; Marin, Eugenia; Nichersu, Iulian; Mierla, Marian; Trifanov, Cristian

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of modeling the spatial planning system in the context of implementation the Protocol for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in the area of Sulina, on the Romanian coastal zone of Black Sea. Spatial Planning system in coastal zone is complex and composed by a big number of factors (identified from all its' components: environment, social, economic and cultural), with multivalent connections. By describing and considering the relationships between the identified factors related to the aspects of coastal zone Sulina we obtain a detailed model of this spatial planning system.This modeling process helps us to visualize the entire systems' dynamics and it is very important for future developments (scenarios, forward looking studies, etc.). The spatial planning system model is use to develop ideas, to use the complex process or predict possible evolution of coastal zone management. Romania already has the legal basis for the implementation of ICZM Protocol, which is very important for the spatial planning system in the coastal zone and aspires towards an efficient coastal zone management. This positive aspect is revealed also in the model and gives the system a beneficial evolution. The results of modeling show how spatial planning is strongly influenced by other factors, in various stages of analysis.One of the most important observations is that spatial planning in the coastal zone is influenced in similar ways by all its' four components, but there are still differences in the evolution of this process.

  10. The Neuronal Transition Probability (NTP) Model for the Dynamic Progression of Non-REM Sleep EEG: The Role of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Merica, H

    2011-01-01

    Little attention has gone into linking to its neuronal substrates the dynamic structure of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, defined as the pattern of time-course power in all frequency bands across an entire episode. Using the spectral power time-courses in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), we showed in the typical first episode, several moves towards-and-away from deep sleep, each having an identical pattern linking the major frequency bands beta, sigma and delta. The neuronal transition probability model (NTP) - in fitting the data well - successfully explained the pattern as resulting from stochastic transitions of the firing-rates of the thalamically-projecting brainstem-activating neurons, alternating between two steady dynamic-states (towards-and-away from deep sleep) each initiated by a so-far unidentified flip-flop. The aims here are to identify this flip-flop and to demonstrate that the model fits well all NREM episodes, not just the first. Using published data on suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN...

  11. Approximation analytic formulas for pricing American option in the fractional Black-Scholes model%分数次Black-Scholes模型下美式期权定价的近似解析式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林汉燕; 邓国和

    2012-01-01

    In this paper based on the assumption of the fractional Black-Scholes model, the classical quadratic approximation in the Black-Scholes model is applied to pricing A-merican options with continuous-paying dividends, similar approximate formulas are derived, and the influence of dividends on early exercise of American options is analyzed.%在分数次Black-Scholes模型下,应用二次近似法推导连续支付红利的美式期权定价的近似公式,并根据公式分析红利对美式期权提前实施的影响.

  12. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)

  13. Tilted black hole accretion disc models of Sagittarius A*: time-variable millimetre to near-infrared emission

    CERN Document Server

    Dexter, Jason

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution, multi-wavelength, and time-domain observations of the Galactic centre black hole candidate, Sgr A*, allow for a direct test of contemporary accretion theory. To date, all models have assumed alignment between the accretion disc and black hole angular momentum axes, but this is unjustified for geometrically thick accretion flows like that onto Sgr A*. Instead, we calculate images and spectra from a set of simulations of accretion flows misaligned ('tilted') by 15 degrees from the black hole spin axis and compare them with millimetre (mm) to near-infrared (NIR) observations. Non-axisymmetric standing shocks from eccentric fluid orbits dominate the emission, leading to a wide range of possible image morphologies. These effects invalidate previous parameter estimates from model fitting, including estimates of the dimensionless black hole spin, except possibly at low values of spin or tilt. At 1.3mm, the images have crescent morphologies, and the black hole shadow may still be accessible to future...

  14. Variability in and agreement between modeled and personal continuously measured black carbon levels using novel smartphone and sensor technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Rivas, Ioar; de Castro, Montserrat; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Seto, Edmund; Jerrett, Michael; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    Novel technologies, such as smartphones and small personal continuous air pollution sensors, can now facilitate better personal estimates of air pollution in relation to location. Such information can provide us with a better understanding about whether and how personal exposures relate to residential air pollution estimates, which are normally used in epidemiological studies. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the variability in personal air pollution levels during the day and (2) the relationship between modeled home and school estimates and continuously measured personal air pollution exposure levels in different microenvironments (e.g., home, school, and commute). We focused on black carbon as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. We recruited 54 school children (aged 7-11) from 29 different schools around Barcelona as part of the BREATHE study, an epidemiological study of the relation between air pollution and brain development. For 2 typical week days during 2012-2013, the children were given a smartphone with CalFit software to obtain information on their location and physical activity level and a small sensor, the micro-aethalometer model AE51, to measure their black carbon levels simultaneously and continuously. We estimated their home and school exposure to PM2.5 filter absorbance, which is well-correlated with black carbon, using a temporally adjusted PM2.5 absorbance land use regression (LUR) model. We found considerable variation in the black carbon levels during the day, with the highest levels measured during commuting periods (geometric mean = 2.8 μg/m(3)) and the lowest levels at home (geometric mean = 1.3 μg/m(3)). Hourly temporally adjusted LUR model estimates for the home and school showed moderate to good correlation with measured personal black carbon levels at home and school (r = 0.59 and 0.68, respectively) and lower correlation with commuting trips (r = 0.32 and 0.21, respectively). The correlation between modeled home

  15. Running spectral index and formation of primordial black hole in single field inflation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of single field models of inflation are analyzed in light of all relevant recent cosmological data, checking whether they can lead to the formation of long-lived Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). To that end we calculate the spectral index of the power spectrum of primordial perturbations as well as its first and second derivatives. PBH formation is possible only if the spectral index increases significantly at small scales, i.e. large wave number k. Since current data indicate that the first derivative αS of the spectral index nS(k0) is negative at the pivot scale k0, PBH formation is only possible in the presence of a sizable and positive second derivative (''running of the running'') βS. Among the three small-field and five large-field models we analyze, only one small-field model, the ''running mass'' model, allows PBH formation, for a narrow range of parameters. We also note that none of the models we analyze can accord for a large and negative value of αS, which is weakly preferred by current data

  16. Inverse Optimization: A New Perspective on the Black-Litterman Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Gupta, Vishal; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch

    2012-12-11

    The Black-Litterman (BL) model is a widely used asset allocation model in the financial industry. In this paper, we provide a new perspective. The key insight is to replace the statistical framework in the original approach with ideas from inverse optimization. This insight allows us to significantly expand the scope and applicability of the BL model. We provide a richer formulation that, unlike the original model, is flexible enough to incorporate investor information on volatility and market dynamics. Equally importantly, our approach allows us to move beyond the traditional mean-variance paradigm of the original model and construct "BL"-type estimators for more general notions of risk such as coherent risk measures. Computationally, we introduce and study two new "BL"-type estimators and their corresponding portfolios: a Mean Variance Inverse Optimization (MV-IO) portfolio and a Robust Mean Variance Inverse Optimization (RMV-IO) portfolio. These two approaches are motivated by ideas from arbitrage pricing theory and volatility uncertainty. Using numerical simulation and historical backtesting, we show that both methods often demonstrate a better risk-reward tradeoff than their BL counterparts and are more robust to incorrect investor views. PMID:25382873

  17. Black carbon concentration and deposition estimations in Finland by the regional aerosol–climate model REMO-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Hienola

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The prediction skill of the regional aerosol–climate model REMO-HAM was assessed against the black carbon (BC concentration measurements from five locations in Finland, with focus on Hyytiälä station for the year 2005. We examined to what extent the model is able to reproduce the measurements using several statistical tools: median comparison, overlap coefficient (OVL; the common area under two probability distributions curves and Z score (a measure of standard deviation, shape and spread of the distributions. The results of the statistics showed that the model is biased low. The local and regional emissions of BC have a significant contribution, and the model tendency to flatten the observed BC is most likely dominated by the lack of domestic burning of biofuel in the emission inventories. A further examination of the precipitation data from both measurements and model showed that there is no correlation between REMO's excessive precipitation and BC underestimation. This suggests that the excessive wet removal is not the main cause of the low black carbon concentration output. In addition, a comparison of wind directions in relation with high black carbon concentrations shows that REMO-HAM is able to predict the BC source directions relatively well. Cumulative black carbon deposition fluxes over Finland were estimated, including the deposition on snow.

  18. Statistical model analysis of hadron yields in proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions at SIS 18 energies

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, G; Balanda, A; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Berger-Chen, J C; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Destefanis, M; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Epple, E; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzon, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gilardi, C; Göbel, K; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kornakov, G; Kotte, R; Krasa, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kuc, H; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Ladygin, V; Lalik, R; Lange, J S; Lang, S; Lapidus, K; Lebedev, A; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Moriniere, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Münzer, R; Naumann, L; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Rehnisch, L; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Scheib, T; Schmah, A; Schuldes, H; Schwab, E; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Vasiliev, T; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wisniowski, M; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y

    2015-01-01

    The HADES data from p+Nb collisions at center of mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 3.2 GeV are analyzed by employing a statistical model. Accounting for the identified hadrons $\\pi^0$, $\\eta$, $\\Lambda$, $K^{0}_{s}$, $\\omega$ allows a surprisingly good description of their abundances with parameters $T_{chem}=(99\\pm11)$ MeV and $\\mu_{b}=(619\\pm34)$ MeV, which fits well in the chemical freeze-out systematics found in heavy-ion collisions. In supplement we reanalyze our previous HADES data from Ar+KCl collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 2.6 GeV with an updated version of the statistical model. We address equilibration in heavy-ion collisions by testing two aspects: the description of yields and the regularity of freeze-out parameters from a statistical model fit. Special emphasis is put on feed-down contributions from higher-lying resonance states which have been proposed to explain the experimentally observed $\\Xi^-$ excess present in both data samples.

  19. Parametric uncertainties in global model simulations of black carbon column mass concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Hana; Lee, Lindsay; Reddington, Carly; Carslaw, Ken; Mann, Graham

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have deduced that the annual mean direct radiative forcing from black carbon (BC) aerosol may regionally be up to 5 W m‑2 larger than expected due to underestimation of global atmospheric BC absorption in models. We have identified the magnitude and important sources of parametric uncertainty in simulations of BC column mass concentration from a global aerosol microphysics model (GLOMAP-Mode). A variance-based uncertainty analysis of 28 parameters has been performed, based on statistical emulators trained on model output from GLOMAP-Mode. This is the largest number of uncertain model parameters to be considered in a BC uncertainty analysis to date and covers primary aerosol emissions, microphysical processes and structural parameters related to the aerosol size distribution. We will present several recommendations for further research to improve the fidelity of simulated BC. In brief, we find that the standard deviation around the simulated mean annual BC column mass concentration varies globally between 2.5 x 10‑9 g cm‑2 in remote marine regions and 1.25 x 10‑6 g cm‑2 near emission sources due to parameter uncertainty Between 60 and 90% of the variance over source regions is due to uncertainty associated with primary BC emission fluxes, including biomass burning, fossil fuel and biofuel emissions. While the contributions to BC column uncertainty from microphysical processes, for example those related to dry and wet deposition, are increased over remote regions, we find that emissions still make an important contribution in these areas. It is likely, however, that the importance of structural model error, i.e. differences between models, is greater than parametric uncertainty. We have extended our analysis to emulate vertical BC profiles at several locations in the mid-Pacific Ocean and identify the parameters contributing to uncertainty in the vertical distribution of black carbon at these locations. We will present preliminary

  20. Probabilistic Analysis of Onion Routing in a Black-box Model

    CERN Document Server

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Syverson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We perform a probabilistic analysis of onion routing. The analysis is presented in a black-box model of anonymous communication in the Universally Composable framework that abstracts the essential properties of onion routing in the presence of an active adversary that controls a portion of the network and knows all a priori distributions on user choices of destination. Our results quantify how much the adversary can gain in identifying users by exploiting knowledge of their probabilistic behavior. In particular, we show that, in the limit as the network gets large, a user u's anonymity is worst either when the other users always choose the destination u is least likely to visit or when the other users always choose the destination u chooses. This worst-case anonymity with an adversary that controls a fraction b of the routers is shown to be comparable to the best-case anonymity against an adversary that controls a fraction \\surdb.

  1. Numerical modelling of the internal mixing by coagulation of black carbon particles in aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, S.; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    When exhaust gases from an aircraft engine mix with ambient air the humidity may reach water saturation and water droplets will form on the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is still not resolved if the CCN, on which the cloud droplets form, are mainly particles present in the ambient air or particles emitted by the aircraft. It the exhaust from a jet engine the particles are believed to consist mainly of black carbon (BC) and sulfate. The aim is to study, with the help of a numerical model, how a two-component aerosol (i.e. BC and sulfate) in an exhaust trail may be transformed in terms of hygroscopicity by coagulation mixing and how this may depend on the sulfur content in the fuel. (R.P.) 15 refs.

  2. A new method of option pricing based on Black-Scholes model%基于Black-Scholes模型的期权定价新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈玉波; 张待见; 宋立新

    2011-01-01

    考虑到实际金融市场的不完备性以及收益率分布的厚尾性,基于经典Black-Scholes模型并运用函数的下凸性,期权定价公式H(a)=E[(X-a)2]被推广为Hk(a)=E[(X-a)2k].通过DJSH(道琼斯上海)指数收益率的GARCH模型,并使用随机模拟的方法对这两个公式进行定价比较.结果表明这种方法有效提高了定价,从而降低了风险.%Actual financial markets are incompleted and distributions of yield rate are fat-tailed,so based on the classical Black-Scholes model and using downward convex property of function,option pricing formula H(a)=E[(X-a)2] is generalized to Hk(a)=E[(X-a)2k].With the GARCH model of DJSH rate and by using the method of stochastic simulation,effects of the two pricing formulas are compared.The results show that the new formula of option pricing effectively increases the price and reduces the risk.

  3. Wave modelling south of the Danube Delta in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen; Butunoiu, Dorin

    2015-04-01

    A multilevel wave modelling system, based on SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) spectral model, was implemented in the Black Sea and focused on the western coast. Model simulations have been performed for a 10-year time interval (1999-2008). Validations have been carried out against both satellite data and in situ measurements. A high resolution SWAN computational domain (100m x100m), which is focused on the coastal environment south of the Danube Delta, was also implemented. This coastal area includes Sacalin, which is a newly formed island in the Black Sea, south of the Saint George branch of the Danube. Initially, this was an island system, which consisted of two smaller islands, Greater Sacalin and Lesser Sacalin. In time, due to the enhanced sedimentary processes, the two islands merged into a single continuous landmass. The island has become the habitat of a great variety of rare species and for this reason it was declared an ecological reserve. In the high resolution computational domain, focused on the Sacalin Island, the effect of the currents induced by the Danube River outflow was also accounted in the model, together with some other processes specific to the coastal environment as diffraction, triad wave-wave interactions and wave induced set up. Considering the results of the ten-year SWAN model simulations with the modelling system covering the entire sea basin, the most relevant configurations of the environmental matrix, characteristic to this side of the sea, were defined. On this basis, by performing SWAN simulations in the high resolution coastal domain, the wave propagation patterns in the nearshore, together with some parameters related to the shoreline conditions, were evaluated. A great number of possible situations were analyzed. The most relevant correspond to different directions of the incoming waves (N, NE, E and SE, respectively) and significant wave energy conditions. The results provided by the modelling system indicate two different

  4. Numerical models of black body dominated GRBs: I. Hydrodynamics and the origin of the thermal emission

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta-Martínez, Carlos F; Mimica, Petar

    2014-01-01

    We extend an existing theoretical model to explain the class of Black-Body Dominated GRBs, namely long lasting events characterized by the presence of a notable thermal component trailing the GRB prompt emission, and a rather weak traditional afterglow. GRB 101225A, the Christmas Burst (CB), is a prototype of such class. It has been suggested that BBD-GRBs could result from the merger of a binary system formed by a neutron star and the Helium core of a main sequence star. We have modeled the propagation of ultrarelativistic jets through the environment left behind the merger by means of detailed relativistic hydrodynamic numerical simulations. In this paper, the output of our numerical models is further postprocessed to obtain the (thermal) radiative signature of the resulting outflow. The complete (thermal and non-thermal) output of our models is considered in a companion contribution. Here, we outline the most relevant dynamical details of the jet propagation and connect them to the generation of thermal ra...

  5. Modelling sulphate stream concentrations in the Black Forest catchments Schluchsee and Villingen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prechtel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sulphate (SO4 released by mineralisation and desorption from soil can play an important role in determining concentrations of SO4 in streams. The MAGIC model was calibrated for two catchments in the Black Forest, Germany (Schluchsee and Villingen and SO4 concentrations in the streams for the years 2016 and 2030 were predicted. Special emphasis was placed on the dynamics of soil sulphur (S pools. At Schluchsee, 90% of soil S is stored in the organic S (Sorg pool, whereas at Villingen, 54% is in the inorganic (Sinorg pool. The Villingen stream chemistry was modelled successfully by measured Langmuir isotherm parameters (LIPs for Sinorg. Schluchsee data could not be modelled satisfactorily using measured or freely adapted LIPs only, as the Sinorg pool would have to be more than five times larger than what was measured. With 60.5 mmolc SO4 m-2 yr-1 as internal soil source by mineralisation and the measured LIPs, stream data was modelled successfully. The modelling shows that in these two catchments pre-industrial concentrations of SO4 in runoff can be reached in the next two decades if S deposition decreases as intended under currently agreed national and international legislation. Sorg is the most likely dominant source of SO4 released at Schluchsee. Mineralization from the Sorg pool must be included when modelling SO4 concentrations in the stream. As the dynamics and the controlling factors of S release by mineralisation are not yet clear, this process remains a source of uncertainty for predictions of SO4 concentrations in streams. Future research should concentrate on dynamics of S mineralisation in the field, such that mathematical descriptions of long-term S-mineralisation can be incorporated into biogeochemical models. Keywords: sulphate release, organic S, mineralisation, acidification, recovery, modelling, MAGIC, catchments, predictions, Germany, forest

  6. Investigation of the rotational nuclei 167168Hf and 170171W and the shell-model nucleus 26Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two gamma-gamma coincidence experiments on neighbouring nuclei that exhibit the backbending phenomenon are described. The first experiment performed with the cyclotron of the KVI at Groningen is an investigation of 167Hf and 168Hf, whereas in the second experiment, performed at the cyclotron facility of Louvain University, high spin states are studied and compared with predictions of the cranked shell model. A new method for the correction of the large background of Compton-scattered events is described. Apart from this, an investigation of the single particle (d,p) transfer reaction at 26Mg has been performed with the van de Graaff tandem accelerator at 14 MeV. Specroscopic factors are presented for many levels up to an excitation energy of 8 MeV. Several new spin assignments could be made. (Auth.)

  7. Antinucleon-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical results on anti p-nucleus interactions are reviewed. We focus on determinations of the anti p optical potential from elastic scattering, the use of (anti p, anti p') inelastic scattering to reveal aspects of the spin-isospin dependence of N anti N amplitudes, and some puzzling features of (anti p, anti n) charge exchange reactions on nuclei. 47 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Polarized Proton Nucleus Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Trueman, T. L.

    2000-01-01

    We show that, to a very good approximation, the ratio of the spin-flip to the non-flip parts of the elastic proton-nucleus amplitude is the same as for proton-nucleon scattering at very high energy. The result is used to do a realistic calculation of the analyzing power A_N for pC scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) region of momentum transfer.

  9. Hadron nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elastic and inelastic scattering of intermediate energy (less than or equal to 1 GeV) protons by nuclei is considered first. The discussion focuses on the determination of the proton-nucleus optical potential in terms of the elementary nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes and the properties of the target and residual nucleus. The result is a series of terms for the optical potential. Then the interaction of pions with nuclei for energies in the neighborhood of the Δ-resonance is discussed. In this energy domain an incident pion will with high probability be absorbed by a nucleon to produce the Δ-resonance and thus form a Δ-particle hole state in the nucleus. Next, the subject of hypernuclei is taken up. The Λ hypernuclei and a recently observed Σ hypernuclei comprise situations in which the core nucleus can be probed by a baryon of roughly the same mass as a nucleon, with similar albeit not identical interactions with nucleons. But the Λ (or Σ) does not need to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle with respect to the nucleons, and therefore can be in orbits forbidden to it if it were a nucleon. As the energy of the projectile increases, it becomes correspondingly more important to take relativistic effects into account. The importance of these effects is strikingly revealed by experiments involving the collision of ultrarelativistic hadrons, protons, pions, kaons (up to Fermilab energies) with nuclei. This phenomenon forms part of the final topic, which includes as well as the collision of relativistic heavy ion projectiles with nuclei. A nuclear Weiszaecker-Williams method developed for dealing with peripheral collisions is described. 32 figures, 10 tables

  10. EMPIRICAL TESTING OF MODIFIED BLACK-SCHOLES OPTION PRICING MODEL FORMULA ON NSE DERIVATIVE MARKET IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to incorporate modification in Black-Scholes option pricing model formula by adding some new variables on the basis of given assumption related to risk-free interest rate, and also shows the calculation process of new risk-free interest rate on the basis of modified variable. This paper also identifies the various situations in empirical testing of modified and original Black-Scholes formula with respect to the market value on the basis of assumed and calculated risk-free interest rate.

  11. EMPIRICAL TESTING OF MODIFIED BLACK-SCHOLES OPTION PRICING MODEL FORMULA ON NSE DERIVATIVE MARKET IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrish Gupta; Matloob Ullah Khan; Sadaf Siraj

    2013-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are to incorporate modification in Black-Scholes option pricing model formula by adding some new variables on the basis of given assumption related to risk-free interest rate, and also shows the calculation process of new risk-free interest rate on the basis of modified variable. This paper also identifies the various situations in empirical testing of modified and original Black-Scholes formula with respect to the market value on the basis of assumed and cal...

  12. Extraction of anthocyanins and polyphenols from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) by modeling and assessing their reversibility and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Alessandra Cristina; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali

    2016-01-15

    This study was aimed the extraction of total flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolics, as well as the antioxidant activity of black rice (Oryza sativa) and to study the stability in relation to pH, light and copigmentation. Variations in temperature (10-50°C), time (20-80min), and solid-solvent ratio (1:15-1:45) were studied using a Box-Behnken design. The regression models were significant (Pphytic and gallic acids in the optimized extract exposed to light displayed an intermolecular copigmentation. The main anthocyanin identified in black rice was cyanidin-3-glucoside. PMID:26258696

  13. Black hole solutions to the F{sub 4}-model and their orbits (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemissany, W., E-mail: chemissany.wissam@gmail.com [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Giaccone, P.; Ruggeri, D.; Trigiante, M. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dipartimento di Scienze Applicate e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we continue the program of the classification of nilpotent orbits using the approach developed in (arXiv:1107.5986), within the study of black hole solutions in D=4 supergravities. Our goal in this work is to classify static, single center black hole solutions to a specific N=2 four-dimensional 'magic' model, with special Kaehler scalar manifold Sp(6,R)/U(3), as orbits of geodesics on the pseudo-quaternionic manifold F{sub 4(4)}/[SL(2,R) Multiplication-Sign Sp{sup Prime }(6,R)] with respect to the action of the isometry group F{sub 4(4)}. Our analysis amounts to the classification of the orbits of the geodesic 'velocity' vector with respect to the isotropy group H{sup Low-Asterisk }=SL(2,R) Multiplication-Sign Sp{sup Prime }(6,R), which include a thorough classification of the nilpotent orbits associated with extremal solutions and reveals a richer structure than the one predicted by the {beta}-{gamma}-labels alone, based on the Kostant-Sekiguchi approach. We provide a general proof of the conjecture made in (hep-th/0908.1742) which states that regular single center solutions belong to orbits with coinciding {beta}-{gamma}-labels. We also prove that the reverse is not true by finding distinct orbits with the same {beta}-{gamma}-labels, which are distinguished by suitably devised tensor classifiers. Only one of these is generated by regular solutions. Since regular static solutions only occur with nilpotent degree not exceeding 3, we only discuss representatives of these orbits in terms of black hole solutions. We prove that these representatives can be found in the form of a purely dilatonic four-charge solution (the generating solution in D=3) and this allows us to identify the orbit corresponding to the regular four-dimensional metrics. H{sup Low-Asterisk }-orbits with degree of nilpotency greater than 3 are analyzed solely from a group theoretical point of view, leaving a systematic analysis of their possible interpretation in

  14. The INTEGRAL View of the Galactic Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Goldwurm, A; Goldoni, P; Paul, J; Terrier, R; Falanga, M; Ubertini, P; Bazzano, A; Santo, M D; Winkler, C; Parmar, A N; Kuulkers, E; Ebisawa, K; Roques, J P; Skinner, G K; Lund, N; Melia, F; Yusef-Zadeh, F

    2004-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of the observational campaign performed in 2003 to study the Galactic Nucleus with INTEGRAL. The mosaicked images obtained with the IBIS/ISGRI coded aperture instrument in the energy range above 20 keV, give a yet unseen view of the high-energy sources of this region in hard X and gamma-rays, with an angular resolution of 12'. We report on the discovery of a source, IGR J17456-2901, compatible with the instrument's point spread function and coincident with the Galactic Nucleus Sgr A* to within 0.9'. The source is visible up to 60-80 keV with a 20-100 keV luminosity at 8 kpc of 3 x 10E35 erg/s. Although we cannot unequivocally associate the new INTEGRAL source to the Galactic Nucleus, this is the first report of significant hard X-ray emission from within the inner 10' of the Galaxy and a contribution from the galactic center supermassive black hole itself cannot be excluded. Here we discuss the results obtained and the perspectives for future observations of the Galactic Nuc...

  15. Improved reflection models of black hole accretion disks: Treating the angular distribution of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray reflection models are used to constrain the properties of the accretion disk, such as the degree of ionization of the gas and the elemental abundances. In combination with general relativistic ray tracing codes, additional parameters like the spin of the black hole and the inclination to the system can be determined. However, current reflection models used for such studies only provide angle-averaged solutions for the flux reflected at the surface of the disk. Moreover, the emission angle of the photons changes over the disk due to relativistic light bending. To overcome this simplification, we have constructed an angle-dependent reflection model with the XILLVER code and self-consistently connected it with the relativistic blurring code RELLINE. The new model, relxill, calculates the proper emission angle of the radiation at each point on the accretion disk and then takes the corresponding reflection spectrum into account. We show that the reflected spectra from illuminated disks follow a limb-brightening law highly dependent on the ionization of disk and yet different from the commonly assumed form I∝ln (1 + 1/μ). A detailed comparison with the angle-averaged model is carried out in order to determine the bias in the parameters obtained by fitting a typical relativistic reflection spectrum. These simulations reveal that although the spin and inclination are mildly affected, the Fe abundance can be overestimated by up to a factor of two when derived from angle-averaged models. The fit of the new model to the Suzaku observation of the Seyfert galaxy Ark 120 clearly shows a significant improvement in the constraint of the physical parameters, in particular by enhancing the accuracy in the inclination angle and the spin determinations.

  16. A thalamic input to the nucleus accumbens mediates opiate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingjie; Wienecke, Carl F R; Nachtrab, Gregory; Chen, Xiaoke

    2016-02-11

    Chronic opiate use induces opiate dependence, which is characterized by extremely unpleasant physical and emotional feelings after drug use is terminated. Both the rewarding effects of a drug and the desire to avoid withdrawal symptoms motivate continued drug use, and the nucleus accumbens is important for orchestrating both processes. While multiple inputs to the nucleus accumbens regulate reward, little is known about the nucleus accumbens circuitry underlying withdrawal. Here we identify the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus as a prominent input to the nucleus accumbens mediating the expression of opiate-withdrawal-induced physical signs and aversive memory. Activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens pathway is necessary and sufficient to mediate behavioural aversion. Selectively silencing this pathway abolishes aversive symptoms in two different mouse models of opiate withdrawal. Chronic morphine exposure selectively potentiates excitatory transmission between the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus and D2-receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons via synaptic insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Notably, in vivo optogenetic depotentiation restores normal transmission at these synapses and robustly suppresses morphine withdrawal symptoms. This links morphine-evoked pathway- and cell-type-specific plasticity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens circuit to opiate dependence, and suggests that reprogramming this circuit holds promise for treating opiate addiction. PMID:26840481

  17. Pion and Kaon Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Intermediate Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation transport codes require accurate models for hadron production in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Codes require cross sections to be written in terms of lab frame variables and it is important to be able to verify models against experimental data in the lab frame. Several models are compared to lab frame data. It is found that models based on algebraic parameterizations are unable to describe intermediate energy differential cross section data. However, simple thermal model parameterizations, when appropriately transformed from the center of momentum to the lab frame, are able to account for the data.

  18. Pion production at 1800 in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey experiment of pion production at 1800 in nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. Beams of 1.05 GeV/A and 2.1 GeV/A protons, alphas, and carbon were used, as well as proton beams of 0.80 GeV, 3.5 GeV, and 4.89 GeV, and argon beams of 1.05 GeV/A and 1.83 GeV/A. This is the first such experiment to use the heavier beams. Targets used ranged from carbon to lead. An in-depth review of the literature, both experimental and theoretical, is also presented. The systematics of the data are discussed, and comparisons are made both with prior experiments and with the predictions of the models reviewed. The cross sections appear consistent with a simple single nucleon-nucleon collision picture, without the need for collective or other exotic effects. Suggestions for future work are made

  19. 具有变系数和红利的多维Black-Scholes模型%Multi-dimensional Black-Scholes Model with Non-constant Coefficients and Dividends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛红; 聂赞坎

    2000-01-01

    本文提出具有变系数和红利的多维Black-Scholes模型,利用倒向随机微分方程和鞅方法, 得到欧式未定权益的一般定价公式及套期保值策略.在具体金融市场,给出欧式期权的定价公式和套期保值策略,以及美式看涨期权价格的界.%For discussing the arbitrage-free pricing of European contingent claim, this paper proposes multi-dimensional Black-Scho les model with non-constant coefficients and the underlying stocks pay dividends . By means of backward stochastic different equation and martingale methods, we obtain general pricing formula and hedging strategy of European contingent claim . In the particular financial market, the pricing formula and hedging strategy o f European option and bounds of the price on American call option are also consi dered.

  20. Analysis of Intermediate-Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Spallation, Fission, and Fragmentation Reactions with the LAQGSM code

    OpenAIRE

    Mashnik, S. G.; Gudima, K. K.; Prael, R. E.; Sierk, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    The LAQGSM code has been recently developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to simulate nuclear reactions for proton radiography applications. We have benchmarked our code against most available measured data both for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at incident energies from 10 MeV to 800 GeV and have compared our results with predictions of other current models used by the nuclear community. Here, we present a brief description of our code and show illustrative results obta...

  1. Multivariate model of female black bear habitat use for a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Dunn, James E.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1993-01-01

    Simple univariate statistical techniques may not adequately assess the multidimensional nature of habitats used by wildlife. Thus, we developed a multivariate method to model habitat-use potential using a set of female black bear (Ursus americanus) radio locations and habitat data consisting of forest cover type, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to roads, distance to streams, and forest cover type diversity score in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas. The model is based on the Mahalanobis distance statistic coupled with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. That statistic is a measure of dissimilarity and represents a standardized squared distance between a set of sample variates and an ideal based on the mean of variates associated with animal observations. Calculations were made with the GIS to produce a map containing Mahalanobis distance values within each cell on a 60- × 60-m grid. The model identified areas of high habitat use potential that could not otherwise be identified by independent perusal of any single map layer. This technique avoids many pitfalls that commonly affect typical multivariate analyses of habitat use and is a useful tool for habitat manipulation or mitigation to favor terrestrial vertebrates that use habitats on a landscape scale.

  2. On Singularities and Black Holes in Combination-Driven Models of Technological Innovation Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Solé

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that innovations occur mainly by combination: the more inventions accumulate, the higher the probability that new inventions are obtained from previous designs. Additionally, it has been conjectured that the combinatorial nature of innovations naturally leads to a singularity: at some finite time, the number of innovations should diverge. Although these ideas are certainly appealing, no general models have been yet developed to test the conditions under which combinatorial technology should become explosive. Here we present a generalised model of technological evolution that takes into account two major properties: the number of previous technologies needed to create a novel one and how rapidly technology ages. Two different models of combinatorial growth are considered, involving different forms of ageing. When long-range memory is used and thus old inventions are available for novel innovations, singularities can emerge under some conditions with two phases separated by a critical boundary. If the ageing has a characteristic time scale, it is shown that no singularities will be observed. Instead, a "black hole" of old innovations appears and expands in time, making the rate of invention creation slow down into a linear regime.

  3. On Singularities and Black Holes in Combination-Driven Models of Technological Innovation Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard; Amor, Daniel R; Valverde, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that innovations occur mainly by combination: the more inventions accumulate, the higher the probability that new inventions are obtained from previous designs. Additionally, it has been conjectured that the combinatorial nature of innovations naturally leads to a singularity: at some finite time, the number of innovations should diverge. Although these ideas are certainly appealing, no general models have been yet developed to test the conditions under which combinatorial technology should become explosive. Here we present a generalised model of technological evolution that takes into account two major properties: the number of previous technologies needed to create a novel one and how rapidly technology ages. Two different models of combinatorial growth are considered, involving different forms of ageing. When long-range memory is used and thus old inventions are available for novel innovations, singularities can emerge under some conditions with two phases separated by a critical boundary. If the ageing has a characteristic time scale, it is shown that no singularities will be observed. Instead, a "black hole" of old innovations appears and expands in time, making the rate of invention creation slow down into a linear regime. PMID:26821277

  4. Black liquor devolatilization and swelling - a detailed droplet model and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present results from a new detailed physical model for single black liquor droplet pyrolysis and swelling, and validate them against experimental data from a non-oxidizing environment using two different reactor configurations. In the detailed model, we solve for the heat transfer and gas phase mass transfer in the droplet and thereby, the intra-particle gas-char and gas-gas interactions during drying and devolatilization can be studied. In the experimental part, the mass change, the swelling behaviour, and the volume fraction of larger voids, i.e. cenospheres in the droplets were determined in a non-oxidizing environment. The model gave a good correlation with experimental swelling and mass loss data. Calculations suggest that a considerable amount of the char can be consumed before the entire droplet has experienced the devolatilization and drying stages of combustion. Char formed at the droplet surface layer is generally consumed by gasification with H2O flowing outwards from the droplet interior. The extent of char conversion during devolatilization and the rate of devolatilization are greatly affected by swelling and the formation of larger voids in the particle. The more the particle swells and the more homogeneous the particle structure is, the larger is the conversion of char at the end of devolatilization

  5. Analysing black phosphorus transistors using an analytic Schottky barrier MOSFET model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penumatcha, Ashish V; Salazar, Ramon B; Appenzeller, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the difficulties associated with substitutional doping of low-dimensional nanomaterials, most field-effect transistors built from carbon nanotubes, two-dimensional crystals and other low-dimensional channels are Schottky barrier MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors). The transmission through a Schottky barrier-MOSFET is dominated by the gate-dependent transmission through the Schottky barriers at the metal-to-channel interfaces. This makes the use of conventional transistor models highly inappropriate and has lead researchers in the past frequently to extract incorrect intrinsic properties, for example, mobility, for many novel nanomaterials. Here we propose a simple modelling approach to quantitatively describe the transfer characteristics of Schottky barrier-MOSFETs from ultra-thin body materials accurately in the device off-state. In particular, after validating the model through the analysis of a set of ultra-thin silicon field-effect transistor data, we have successfully applied our approach to extract Schottky barrier heights for electrons and holes in black phosphorus devices for a large range of body thicknesses. PMID:26563458

  6. Testing the nature of the black hole candidate in GRO J1655-40 with the relativistic precession model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are a common feature in the X-ray flux of stellar-mass black hole candidates, but their exact origin is not yet known. Recently, some authors have pointed out that data of GRO J1655-40 simultaneously show three QPOs that nicely fit in the relativistic precession model. However, they find an estimate of the spin parameter that disagrees with the measurement of the disk's thermal spectrum. In the present work, I explore the possibility of using the relativistic precession model to test the nature of the black hole candidate in GRO J1655-40. If properly understood, QPOs may become a quite powerful tool to probe the spacetime geometry around black hole candidates, especially if used in combination with other techniques. It turns out that the measurements of the relativistic precession model and of the disk's thermal spectrum may be consistent if we admit that the black hole candidate in GRO J1655-40 is not of the Kerr type. (orig.)

  7. An Approximation Formula for Pricing American Option under the Fractional Black-Scholes Model%分数次Black-Scholes模型下美式期权定价的近似公式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林汉燕; 邓国和

    2011-01-01

    在分数次Black—Scholes模型下,以连续支付红利的美式看涨期权为例,用二次近似法推导美式期权定价的近似公式,得到了与经典Black-Scholes模型下相似的结果.最后证明美式看涨一看跌期权的对称关系在分数次Black-Scholes模型下也成立.%Based on the assumption of the fractional Black-Scholes model, a quadratic approximation under the Black-Scholes model is applied to pricing the American call option with continuous-paying divi- dend, a similar approximate formula is derived, and the call-put symmetric relation is proved.

  8. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  9. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zong-Han

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. Results The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results

  10. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S1 x S2. We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  11. Future of option pricing: use of log logistic distribution instead of log normal distribution in Black Scholes model

    OpenAIRE

    Raja, Ammar

    2009-01-01

    Options are historically being priced using Black Scholes option pricing model and one of the prominent features of it is normal distribution. In this research paper I will calculate European call options using log logistic distribution instead of normal distribution. My argument is that a model with logistic distribution reflects better fit of option prices as compared to normal distribution. In this research paper I have used historic data on stocks, value European call options using both ...

  12. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in 16O and 32S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter bNA, that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus

  13. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.S.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bradnova, V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Cai, X.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Chen, G.M.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Dhamija, S.; Chenawi, K.El; Felea, D.; Feng, S.Q.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Grote, J.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Henjes, U.; Jakobsson, B.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Larionova, V.G.; Li, Y.X.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Lu, Y.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manhas, I.; Mittra, I.S.; Musaeva, A.K.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Nystrand, J.; Otterlund, I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; Rao, N.K.; Roeper, M.; Rusakova, V.V.; Saidkhanov, N.; Salmanova, N.A.; Seitimbetov, A.M.; Sethi, R.; Singh, B.; Skelding, D.; Soderstrem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Svensson, T.; Tawfik, A.M.; Tothova, M.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tuleeva, U.I.; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S.; Vrlakova, J.; Wang, H.Q.; Wang, X.R.; Weng, Z.Q.; Wilkes, R.J.; Yang, C.B.; Yin, Z.B.; Yu, L.Z.; Zhang, D.H.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhokhova, S.I.; Zhou, D.C

    1999-03-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in {sup 16}O and {sup 32}S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b{sub NA}, that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus.

  14. NEW LIMITS ON AN INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE IN OMEGA CENTAURI. II. DYNAMICAL MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a detailed dynamical analysis of the projected density and kinematical data available for the globular cluster ω Centauri. We solve the spherical anisotropic Jeans equation for a given density profile to predict the projected profiles of the rms velocity σ-bar(R), in each of the three orthogonal coordinate directions (line of sight, proper motion radial, and proper motion tangential). The models allow for the presence of a central dark mass, such as a possible intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). We fit the models to new Hubble Space Telescope star count and proper motion data near the cluster center presented in the companion paper, which is Paper I in this series, combined with existing ground-based measurements at larger radii. The projected density profile is consistent with being flat near the center, with an upper limit γ ∼BH = 0; cusp models require a dark mass. If the dark mass in cusp models is an IMBH, then MBH = (8.7 ± 2.9) x 103 Msun; if it is a dark cluster, then its extent must be ∼4 = -0.023 ± 0.004, h6 = 0.001 ± 0.004). There are no unusually fast-moving stars observed in the wings of the proper motion distribution, but we show that this does not strongly constrain the mass of any possible IMBH. The overall end result of the modeling is an upper limit to the mass of any possible IMBH in ω Centauri: MBH ∼4 Msun at ∼1σ confidence (or ∼4 Msun at ∼3σ confidence). The 1σ limit corresponds to MBH/Mtot ∼BH they suggested is firmly ruled out.

  15. Validating the effective-one-body model of spinning, precessing binary black holes against numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Babak, Stanislav; Buonanno, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    In Ref. [1], the properties of the first gravitational wave detected by LIGO, GW150914, were measured by employing an effective-one-body (EOB) model of precessing binary black holes whose underlying dynamics and waveforms were calibrated to numerical-relativity (NR) simulations. Here, we perform the first extensive comparison of such EOBNR model to 70 precessing NR waveforms that span mass ratios from 1 to 5, dimensionless spin magnitudes up to 0.5, generic spin orientations, and length of about 20 orbits. We work in the observer's inertial frame and include all $\\ell=2$ modes in the gravitational-wave polarizations. We introduce new prescriptions for the EOB ringdown signal concerning its spectrum and time of onset. For total masses between 10Msun and 200Msun, we find that precessing EOBNR waveforms have unfaithfulness within about 3% to NR waveforms when considering the Advanced-LIGO design noise curve. This result is obtained without recalibration of the inspiral-plunge of the underlying nonprecessing EOBN...

  16. Statistical modeling of the fluid dual to Boulware-Deser Black hole

    CERN Document Server

    López, J L; Shankaranarayanan, S

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the statistical and thermodynamic properties of the horizon fluid corresponding to the Boulware-Deser (BD) black hole of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGB) gravity. Using mean field theory, we show explicitly that the BD fluid exhibits the coexistence of two phases, a BEC and a non-condensed phase corresponding to the Einstein term and the Gauss-Bonnet term in the gravity action, respectively. In the fluid description, the high-energy corrections associated to Gauss-Bonnet gravity are modeled as excitations of the fluid medium. We provide statistical modeling of the excited part of the fluid and explicitly show that it is characterized by a generalized dispersion relation which in $D=6$ dimensions corresponds to a non-relativistic fluid. We also shed light on the ambiguity found in the literature regarding the expression of the entropy of the horizon fluid. We provide a general prescription to obtain the entropy and show that it is indeed given by Wald entropy.

  17. Statistical modeling of the fluid dual to Boulware-Deser black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. L.; Bhattacharya, Swastik; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we study the statistical and thermodynamic properties of the horizon fluid corresponding to the Boulware-Deser (BD) black hole of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Using mean field theory, we show explicitly that the BD fluid exhibits the coexistence of two phases, a BEC (Bose Einstein Condensate) and a noncondensed phase corresponding to the Einstein term and the Gauss-Bonnet term in the gravity action, respectively. In the fluid description, the high-energy corrections associated to Gauss-Bonnet gravity are modeled as excitations of the fluid medium. We provide statistical modeling of the excited part of the fluid and explicitly show that it is characterized by a generalized dispersion relation which in D =6 dimensions corresponds to a nonrelativistic fluid. We also shed light on the ambiguity found in the literature regarding the expression of the entropy of the horizon fluid. We provide a general prescription to obtain the entropy and show that it is indeed given by Wald entropy.

  18. Optical reflection, transmission and absorption properties of single-layer black phosphorus from a model calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Vl A.; Muryumin, E. E.; Gaiduk, E. A.

    2016-05-01

    An effective anisotropic tight-binding model is developed to analytically describe the low-energy electronic structure and optical response of phosphorene (a black phosphorus (BP) monolayer). Within the framework of the model, we derive explicit closed-form expressions, in terms of elementary functions, for the elements of the optical conductivity tensor of phosphorene. These relations provide a convenient parametrization of the highly anisotropic optical response of phosphorene, which allows the reflectance, transmittance, and absorbance of this material to be easily calculated as a function of the frequency of the incident radiation at arbitrary angles of incidence. The results of such a calculation are presented for both a free-standing phosphorene layer and the phosphorene layer deposited on a {{SiO}}2 substrate, and for the two principal cases of polarization of the incident radiation either parallel to or normal to the plane of incidence. Our findings (e.g., a ‘quasi-Brewster’ effect in the reflectance of the phosphorene/{{SiO}}2 overlayer system) pave the way for developing a new, purely optical method of distinguishing BP monolayers.

  19. An assessment of the wind re-analyses in the modelling of an extreme sea state in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Adem; Ponce de León, S.

    2016-03-01

    This study aims at an assessment of wind re-analyses for modelling storms in the Black Sea. A wind-wave modelling system (Simulating WAve Nearshore, SWAN) is applied to the Black Sea basin and calibrated with buoy data for three recent re-analysis wind sources, namely the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-Interim), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), and Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) during an extreme wave condition that occurred in the north eastern part of the Black Sea. The SWAN model simulations are carried out for default and tuning settings for deep water source terms, especially whitecapping. Performances of the best model configurations based on calibration with buoy data are discussed using data from the JASON2, TOPEX-Poseidon, ENVISAT and GFO satellites. The SWAN model calibration shows that the best configuration is obtained with Janssen and Komen formulations with whitecapping coefficient (Cds) equal to 1.8e-5 for wave generation by wind and whitecapping dissipation using ERA-Interim. In addition, from the collocated SWAN results against the satellite records, the best configuration is determined to be the SWAN using the CFSR winds. Numerical results, thus show that the accuracy of a wave forecast will depend on the quality of the wind field and the ability of the SWAN model to simulate the waves under extreme wind conditions in fetch limited wave conditions.

  20. Black Flowers in Flatland

    CERN Document Server

    Alkac, Gokhan; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Asymptotically flat black holes in $2+1$ dimensions are a rarity. We study the recently found black flower solutions (asymptotically flat black holes with deformed horizons), static black holes, rotating black holes and the dynamical black flowers (black holes with radiative gravitons ) of the purely quadratic version of new massive gravity. We show how they appear in this theory and we also show that they are also solutions to the infinite order extended version of the new massive gravity, that is the Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity with an amputated Einsteinian piece. The same metrics also solve the topologically extended versions of these theories, with modified conserved charges and the thermodynamical quantities, such as the Wald entropy. Besides these we find new conformally flat radiating type solutions to these extended gravity models. We also show that these metrics do not arise in Einstein's gravity coupled to physical perfect fluids.

  1. Antineutron-nucleus annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, E

    2001-01-01

    The n-nucleus annihilation process has been studied by the OBELIX experiment at the CERN Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) in the (50-400) MeV/c projectile momentum range on C, Al, Cu, Ag, Sn, and Pb nuclear targets. A systematic survey of the annihilation cross- section, sigma /sub alpha /(A, p/sub n/), has been performed, obtaining information on its dependence on the target mass number and on the incoming n momentum. For the first time the mass number dependence of the (inclusive) final state composition of the process has been analyzed. Production of the rho vector meson has also been examined. (13 refs).

  2. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, H.; /Tufts U.; Garvey, G.; /Los Alamos; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  3. Dominant efficiency of nonregular patterns of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease and obsessive-compulsive disorder in a data-driven computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamintziou, Sofia D.; Deligiannis, Nick G.; Piallat, Brigitte; Polosan, Mircea; Chabardès, Stephan; David, Olivier; Stathis, Pantelis G.; Tagaris, George A.; Boviatsis, Efstathios J.; Sakas, Damianos E.; Polychronaki, Georgia E.; Tsirogiannis, George L.; Nikita, Konstantina S.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Almost 30 years after the start of the modern era of deep brain stimulation (DBS), the subthalamic nucleus (STN) still constitutes a standard stimulation target for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the use of STN-DBS is also now supported by level I clinical evidence for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Disruption of neural synchronization in the STN has been suggested as one of the possible mechanisms of action of standard and alternative patterns of STN-DBS at a local level. Meanwhile, recent experimental and computational modeling evidence has signified the efficiency of alternative patterns of stimulation; however, no indications exist for treatment-refractory OCD. Here, we comparatively simulate the desynchronizing effect of standard (regular at 130 Hz) versus temporally alternative (in terms of frequency, temporal variability and the existence of bursts or pauses) patterns of STN-DBS for PD and OCD, by means of a stochastic dynamical model and two microelectrode recording (MER) datasets. Approach. The stochastic model is fitted to subthalamic MERs acquired during eight surgical interventions for PD and eight surgical interventions for OCD. For each dynamical system simulated, we comparatively assess the invariant density (steady-state phase distribution) as a measure inversely related to the desynchronizing effect yielded by the applied patterns of stimulation. Main results. We demonstrate that high (130 Hz)—and low (80 Hz)—frequency irregular patterns of stimulation, and low-frequency periodic stimulation interrupted by bursts of pulses, yield in both pathologic conditions a significantly stronger desynchronizing effect compared with standard STN-DBS, and distinct alternative patterns of stimulation. In PD, values of the invariant density measure are proven to be optimal at the dorsolateral oscillatory region of the STN including sites with the optimal therapeutic window. Significance. In addition to providing

  4. Rotational properties of the odd- Z transfermium nucleus 255Lr by a particle-number-conserving method in the cranked shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Chun; He, Xiao-Tao

    2016-07-01

    Experimentally observed ground state band based on the 1/2-[521] Nilsson state and the first exited band based on the 7/2-[514] Nilsson state of the odd- Z nucleus 255Lr are studied by the cranked shell model (CSM) with the paring correlations treated by the particle-number-conserving (PNC) method. This is the first time the detailed theoretical investigations are performed on these rotational bands. Both experimental kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia ( J (1) and J (2)) versus rotational frequency are reproduced quite well by the PNC-CSM calculations. By comparing the theoretical kinematic moment of inertia J (1) with the experimental ones extracted from different spin assignments, the spin 17/2- → 13/2- is assigned to the lowest-lying 196.6(5) keV transition of the 1/2-[521] band, and 15/2- → 11/2- to the 189(1) keV transition of the 7/2-[514] band, respectively. The proton N = 7 major shell is included in the calculations. The intruder of the high- j low-Ω 1 j 15/2 (1/2-[770]) orbital at the high spin leads to band-crossings at ħω ≈ 0.20 ( ħω ≈ 0.25) MeV for the 7/2-[514] α = -1/2 ( α = +1/2) band, and at ħω ≈ 0.175 MeV for the 1/2-[521] α = -1/2 band, respectively. Further investigations show that the band-crossing frequencies are quadrupole deformation dependent.

  5. Long-lasting alterations in membrane properties, K+ currents and glutamatergic synaptic currents of nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons in a rat model of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IgorSpigelman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure causes marked changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state that are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Although the NAcc plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced neuroadaptive changes in NAcc function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE treatment, a rat model of alcohol withdrawal and dependence, on intrinsic electrical membrane properties and glutamatergic synaptic transmission of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the NAcc core during protracted withdrawal. We show that CIE treatment followed by prolonged withdrawal increased the inward rectification of MSNs observed at hyperpolarized potentials. In addition, MSNs from CIE-treated animals displayed a lower input resistance, faster action potentials (APs and larger fast afterhyperpolarizations (fAHPs than MSNs from vehicle-treated animals, all suggestive of increases in K+-channel conductances. Significant increases in the Cs+-sensitive inwardly-rectifying K+-current accounted for the increased input resistance, while increases in the A-type K+-current accounted for the faster APs and increased fAHPs in MSNs from CIE rats. We also show that the amplitude and the conductance of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR-mediated mEPSCs were enhanced in CIE-treated animals due to an increase in a small fraction of functional postsynaptic GluA2-lacking AMPARs. These long-lasting modifications of excitability and excitatory synaptic receptor function of MSNs in the NAcc core could play a critical role in the neuroadaptive changes underlying alcohol withdrawal and dependence.

  6. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  7. 随机利率模型下Black-Scholes方程的Dirichlet问题解的存在性%The Existence of the Solution for the Dirichlet Problem of Black-Scholes Equation in Stochastic Interest Rate Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽君

    2012-01-01

    在传统Black-Scholes期权定价模型的基础上,进一步考虑随机利率模型.根据一个自治常微分方程的解的存在性结果,利用上下解方法得到随机利率模型下Black-Scholes方程的Dirichlet问题的解存在的一个条件.%Based on the classical Black-Scholes option pricing model,this paper further considers the stochastic interest rate case. According to the result about the existence of the solution of an autonomy ordinary differential equation,we obtain an existence condition for the solution of the Black-Scholes Dirichlet problem with stochastic interest rate using sub-supsolution method.

  8. Stress-energy tensor in soluble models of spherically symmetric charged black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the decay of a near-extremal black hole in AdS2, related to the near-horizon region of (3+1)-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime, following Fabbri, Navarro, and Navarro-Salas. Back reaction is included in a semiclassical approximation. Calculations of the stress-energy tensor of matter coupled to the physical spacetime for an affine null observer demonstrate that the black hole evaporation proceeds smoothly and the near-extremal black hole evolves back to an extremal ground state, until this approximation breaks down

  9. Nonlinear integral equations for the SL(2,R)/U(1) black hole sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was previously established that the critical staggered XXZ spin chain provides a lattice regularization of the black hole conformal field theory (CFT). We reconsider the continuum limit of this spin chain with the exact method of nonlinear integral equations (NLIEs), paying particular attention to the effects of a singular integration kernel. With the help of the NLIEs, we rederive the continuous black hole spectrum, but also numerically match the density of states of the spin chain with that of the CFT, which is a new result. Finally, we briefly discuss the integrable structure of the black hole CFT and the identification of its massive integrable perturbation on the lattice. (paper)

  10. The Binary Black Hole Model for Mrk 231 Cannot Explain the Observed Emission Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Leighly, Karen M.; Terndrup, Donald M.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Lucy, Adrian B.

    2016-01-01

    Mrk 231 is a nearby quasar with an unusually red continuum, generally explained as heavy reddening by dust (e.g., Leighly et al. 2014). Yan et al. 2015 proposed that Mrk 231 is a milli-parsec black-hole binary with little intrinsic reddening. The large-mass black hole experiences advection-dominated accretion, emitting little continuum, while the accretion disk of the small-mass black hole emits as an ordinary quasar, dominating the observed weak UV continuum and contributing all of the photo...

  11. Thermalization in high energy proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relativistic proton-nucleus collision using the intranuclear cascade model is studied. The purpose is to verify the equilibration hypothesis at fragmentation time made by many nuclear fragmentation models. (author)

  12. Characterization and Modeling of Mass Segregation and Intermediate-Mass Black Holes in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, Roeland

    2011-10-01

    Studies of the dynamics and stellar populations of globular clusters are at the forefront of HST research. These two topics are deeply intertwined. Clusters experience an interplay of collisional processes that drive stars toward energy equipartition, thus segregating more massive stars to the core. In young clusters, this can even lead to the formation of intermediate-mass black holes {IMBHs}, which are of great astrophysical interest, although evidence for them continues to be disputed. Our recent HST{-supported} observational and theoretical studies indicate that equipartition in a cluster is not generally attained. Measurement of the actual mass segregation in clusters can yield significant insight into some of the most important cluster parameters, including the mass of any IMBH {which tends to quench mass segregation}. We have demonstrated this explictly on archival data of NGC2298 and M10. HST imaging {including parallel fields} exists in fact over large radial ranges for many globular clusters. This trove of information remains largely untapped, as studies generally focus on the cluster core. We propose here to rigorously quantify and model the mass segregation in all 66 Galactic globular clusters with suitable HST data. We will create CMDs, LFs, and MFs as function of radius, and will release the resulting Legacy data products to the community to enable a host of ancillary investigations. We will run N-body models to interpret the observed mass segregation in the sample clusters. Data-model comparisons will constrain the mass of any IMBHs, will identify IMBH-candidates for more targeted follow-up, and will shed new light on cluster structure and evolution.

  13. Modeling the buoyancy-driven Black Sea Water outflow into the North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kokkos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate the Black Sea Water (BSW outflux and spreading over the North Aegean Sea, and its impact on circulation and stratification–mixing dynamics. Model results were validated against satellite-derived sea surface temperature and in-situ temperature and salinity profiles. Further, the model results were post-processed in terms of the potential energy anomaly, ϕ, analyzing the factors contributing to its change. It occurs that BSW contributes significantly on the Thracian Sea water column stratification, but its signal reduces in the rest of the North Aegean Sea. The BSW buoyancy flux contributed to the change of ϕ in the Thracian Sea by 1.23 × 10−3 W m−3 in the winter and 7.9 × 10−4 W m−3 in the summer, significantly higher than the corresponding solar heat flux contribution (1.41 × 10−5 W m−3 and 7.4 × 10−5 W m−3, respectively. Quantification of the ϕ-advective term crossing the north-western BSW branch (to the north of Lemnos Island, depicted a strong non-linear relation to the relative vorticity of Samothraki Anticyclone. Similar analysis for the south-western branch illustrated a relationship between the ϕ-advective term sign and the relative vorticity in the Sporades system. The ϕ-mixing term increases its significance under strong winds (>15 m s−1, tending to destroy surface meso-scale eddies.

  14. A Toy Model for Magnetic Extraction of Energy from Black Hole Accretion Disc

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, D X; Ma, R Y; Wang, Ding-Xiong; Ye, Yong-Cun; Ma, Ren-Yi

    2004-01-01

    A toy model for magnetic extraction of energy from black hole (BH) accretion disk is discussed by considering the restriction of the screw instability to the magnetic field configuration. Three mechanisms of extracting energy magnetically are involved. (1) The Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process is related to the open magnetic field lines connecting the BH with the astrophysical load; (2) the magnetic coupling (MC) process is related to the closed magnetic field lines connecting the BH with its surrounding disk; and (3) a new scenario (henceforth the DL process) for extracting rotational energy from the disk is related to the open field lines connecting the disk with the astrophysical load. The expressions for the electromagnetic powers and torques are derived by using the equivalent circuits corresponding to the above energy mechanisms. It turns out that the DL power is comparable with the BZ and MC powers as the BH spin approaches unity. The radiation from a quasi-steady thin disk is discussed in detail by applyi...

  15. Comparisons of eccentric binary black hole simulations with post-Newtonian models

    CERN Document Server

    Hinder, Ian; Laguna, Pablo; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2008-01-01

    We present the first comparison between numerical relativity (NR) simulations of an eccentric binary black hole system with corresponding post-Newtonian (PN) results. We evolve an equal-mass, non-spinning configuration with an initial eccentricity e = 0.1 for 21 gravitational wave cycles before merger, and find agreement in the gravitational wave phase with an adiabatic eccentric PN model with 2 PN radiation reaction within 0.1 radians for 8 cycles. The NR and PN phase difference grows to 0.8 radians by 5 cycles before merger. We find that these results can be obtained by expanding the eccentric PN expressions in terms of the frequency-related variable x = (omega M)^{2/3} with M the total mass of the binary. When using instead the mean motion n = 2 pi/P, where P is the orbital period, the comparison leads to significant disagreements with NR. We also introduce a new method for matching NR and PN waveforms, based on extrapolating parameters determined from least squares fitting as t -> -infinity.

  16. Black Carbon Inclusive Multichemical Modeling of PBDE and PCB Biomagnification and -Transformation in Estuarine Food Webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paolo, C.; Gandhi, N.; Bhavsar, S.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are affected by adsorption on black carbon (BC) and metabolism in biota, respectively. Recent studies have addressed these two processes separately, illustrating their importance in assessing contaminant dynamics. In order

  17. Black hole production and graviton emission in models with large extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, B.

    2007-11-21

    This thesis studies the possible production of microscopical black holes and the emission of graviational radiation under the assumption of large extra dimensions. We derive observables for the Large Hadron Collider and for ultra high energetic cosmic rays. (orig.)

  18. Black hole production and graviton emission in models with large extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis studies the possible production of microscopical black holes and the emission of graviational radiation under the assumption of large extra dimensions. We derive observables for the Large Hadron Collider and for ultra high energetic cosmic rays. (orig.)

  19. Antibaryon-nucleus bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Hrtánková, J

    2014-01-01

    We calculated antibaryon ($\\bar{B}$ = $\\bar{p}$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\bar{\\Sigma}$, $\\bar{\\Xi}$) bound states in selected nuclei within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. The G-parity motivated $\\bar{B}$-meson coupling constants were scaled to yield corresponding potentials consistent with available experimental data. Large polarization of the nuclear core caused by $\\bar{B}$ was confirmed. The $\\bar{p}$ annihilation in the nuclear medium was incorporated by including a phenomenological imaginary part of the optical potential. The calculations using a complex $\\bar{p}$-nucleus potential were performed fully self-consistently. The $\\bar{p}$ widths significantly decrease when the phase space reduction is considered for $\\bar{p}$ annihilation products, but they still remain sizeable for potentials consistent with $\\bar{p}$-atom data.

  20. Two-Center Black Holes Duality-Invariants for stu Model and its lower-rank Descendants

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Orazi, Emanuele; Stora, Raymond; Yeranyan, Armen

    2011-01-01

    We classify 2-center extremal black hole charge configurations through duality-invariant homogeneous polynomials, which are the generalization of the unique invariant quartic polynomial for single-center black holes based on homogeneous symmetric cubic special Kaehler geometries. A crucial role is played by an horizontal SL(p,R) symmetry group, which classifies invariants for p-center black holes. For p = 2, a (spin 2) quintet of quartic invariants emerge. We provide the minimal set of independent invariants for the rank-3 N = 2, d = 4 stu model, and for its lower-rank descendants, namely the rank-2 st^2 and rank-1 t^3 models; these models respectively exhibit seven, six and five independent invariants. We also derive the polynomial relations among these and other duality invariants. In particular, the symplectic product of two charge vectors is not independent from the quartic quintet in the t^3 model, but rather it satisfies a degree-16 relation, corresponding to a quartic equation for the square of the sym...