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Sample records for black liquor steam

  1. Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

    1995-10-01

    This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which bums the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  3. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  4. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  5. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  6. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

    1987-10-01

    Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  7. Kraft black liquor delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

    1990-02-01

    Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))

    1993-04-01

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  9. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  10. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  11. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  12. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  13. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  14. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  15. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  16. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  17. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  18. Estimation of elemental composition from proximate analysis of black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakkilainen, E.K. [Andritz-Ahlstrom Corporation, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The black liquor properties will vary depending on the raw material used for pulping, the pulping conditions, the equipment used for pulping and the treatment of the liquor after the pulping. Accurate analysis of black liquor is needed to determine energy efficiency of o pulp mill, to calculate gas flows for environmental compliance reports and for production statistics. Black liquor composition and combustion properties can be estimated from known spread of data. Main source has been an internal company black liquor databank, which contains over 900 black liquor analysis. Regression equations for black liquor carbon, hydrogen, and inorganic element contents were derived. (orig.)

  19. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  20. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M.; Backman, P.; Ek, P.; Hulden, S.T.; Kullberg, M.; Sorvari, V.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  1. Experiments on black liquor splashplate nozzle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, K.

    1996-12-31

    The performance of a throttled black liquor splashplate nozzle was studied in this work. A series of industrial-scale experiments were performed using mass flow rate as a variable at a fixed temperature. The experiments were carried out in a spraying chamber next to the recovery boiler with real mill liquor. The disintegration process of the liquor sheet was videotaped for analyzing. The mass flow rate distribution was measured with a collector. The liquor drops produced by the nozzle were videotaped and measured with a video image analysis technique. The industrial-scale experiments were afterwards repeated on a small scale in the laboratory environment which made it possible to study the liquid sheet disintegration process thoroughly. The small-scale experiments were carried out with a solution of water and glycerol and a splashplate nozzle of approximately one tenth the size of full-scale nozzle. The whole liquid sheet and close-up exposures of the plate area were videotaped. However, the videotaping equipment (camera and objective) were not capable of observing the very thin and transparent liquid sheet. The mass flow rate distribution was measured with steps of 2.5 deg from the plate centerline with a collector device. The drop sizes were measured from various sheet angles with Malvern Particle Sizer and a phase Doppler particle anemometer (Aerometrics). The modeling was based on dimensional analysis. The objective was to compare these two experimental settings and to find out whether small-scale experiments can be used in predicting the spraying characteristics in the full-scale. It was also of interest to test the measured black liquor drop sizes against drop size correlations obtained from the literature. (31 refs.)

  2. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; T'ien, James S.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY)) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  3. In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Alan Sinquefield

    2005-10-01

    Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

  4. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and

  5. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Siistonen, H.; Heikkinen, T.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (author)

  6. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

  7. Comparison of pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified black liquor with stand-alone production from gasified biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When gasified black liquor is used for hydrogen production, significant amounts of biomass must be imported. This paper compares two alternative options for producing hydrogen from biomass: (A) pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified back liquor; and (B) stand-alone production of hydrogen from gasified biomass. The comparison assumes that the same amount of biomass that is imported in Alternative A is supplied to a stand-alone hydrogen production plant and that the gasified black liquor in Alternative B is used in a black liquor gasification combined cycle (BLGCC) CHP unit. The comparison is based upon equal amounts of black liquor fed to the gasifier, and identical steam and power requirements for the pulp mill. The two systems are compared on the basis of total CO2 emission consequences, based upon different assumptions for the reference energy system that reflect different societal CO2 emissions reduction target levels. Ambitions targets are expected to lead to a more CO2-lean reference energy system, in which case hydrogen production from gasified black liquor (Alternative A) is best from a CO2 emissions' perspective, whereas with high CO2 emissions associated with electricity production, hydrogen from gasified biomass and electricity from gasified black liquor (Alternative B) is preferable. (author)

  8. Kinetics and compensation effects during steam gasification of Fujian anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Ju; Zhang Ji-yu; Zhong Xue-qing [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China). Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-08-15

    Catalytic steam gasification kinetics of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst was investigated in an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analyzer under ambient pressure. Coal conversions versus reaction time with different viscose liquor concentrations (0-12% NaOH) were measured at the temperature range from 850 to 950{sup o}C. The research shows that the viscose liquor can greatly improve the gasification rate and carbon conversion. The Loading Saturation Level (LSL) of the viscose liquor within the experimental conditions was also determined. The catalytic steam gasification reaction can be well fitted by a shrinking-core model (SCM) and the reaction rate constants are obtained. The kinetic analysis indicates that the catalytic gasification exhibits a prominent compensation effect between the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor. The kinetic equation including the compensation effects for the catalytic steam gasification of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst is presented. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  10. ON THE BLACK LIQUOR AND RECYCLE COOKING OF AS-AQ STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiqiang Shi; Beihai He; Bingyue Liu

    2004-01-01

    Thick black liquor, thin black liquor and solid state sodium hydroxide are added to the liquor treated by sulfur dioxide, then the blended liquor is used to recycle cooking of straw pulp. The black liquor,separated liquor and pulp of every cycles are analyzed respectively. Result shows that the content of lignin and organism in recycle black liquor and separated liquor increases faster in the first three cycles and then continues to increase slowly till four or five times, after that it trends to a stable state. The main organism separated from waste liquor of AS-AQ treated by sulfur dioxide is alkali-lignin,above 50% of total lignin in black liquor. The yield of pulp made from recycle cooking is steady, the hardness of pulp has a great improvement with recycle cooking. The brightness of pulp reduces correspondingly before bleaching, and after bleaching the brightness of pulp is relatively high and steady at the same sodium hypo chlorite dosage.

  11. Drop formation of black liquor spraying; Mustalipeaen pisaroituminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelholm, C.J.; Kankkunen, A.; Nieminen, K.; Laine, J.; Miikkulainen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Lab. of Energy Technology and Environmental Protection

    1997-10-01

    Black liquor is a spent liquor of the pulp and paper industry. It is burned in kraft recovery boilers for chemical and energy recovery. The high dry solids content and viscosity of black liquor require a high spraying temperature. This affects the performance of the boiler. Kraft recovery boiler deposit formation, emissions and chemical recovery are strongly affected by the drop size and the velocity of the black liquor spray formed by a splashplate nozzle. The sheet breakup mechanism is studied with a system based on a video and image-analysis. The drop size of mill-scale nozzles was measured also with an image-analysis-system. Measurements were carried out in a spray test chamber. The sheet breakup mechanism and drop size tests were carried out both below and over the boiling point of black liquor. Special attention was paid to the effect of flashing on drop formation. Temperature increase normally decreases drop size. In the temperature where the wavy-sheet disintegration changes to perforated-sheet disintegration the drop size increases. Spray velocity rises when the temperature is increased above the boiling point. (orig.)

  12. Release model for black liquor droplet; Mustalipeaepisaran vapautumismalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The release of sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulphur from black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification is studied by modelling work. A model for drying, pyrolysis and swelling of black liquor has been developed earlier. A submodel for the release of sulphur, which takes place at temperatures below 500 deg C has been incorporated to this model. A previous model for the combustion and gasification of char particles has been further developed to account for the effect of sodium, potassium and chlorine. A model for the release of these components as function of time has been developed. (orig.)

  13. Mass and Energy Balances for Black Liquor Gasification with Borate Autocausticization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arosenius, Anna-Karin

    2007-01-15

    Gasification of black liquor is considered to be a promising alternative technique for recovery of black liquor in kraft pulping. Compared to the conventional recovery process, i.e. combustion of black liquor in a recovery boiler, the primary advantage of gasification is the potential to produce biofuels and chemicals. The causticizing demand is though higher for the gasification technology. If the existing lime kiln can not handle the extra load, partial borate autocausticizing may be an alternative. In this work, the energy balance for a kraft pulp mill using black liquor gasification and partial borate autocausticization is compared with a mill using gasification and extended lime causticizing and also with a mill having a conventional recovery cycle. Additionally, the chemical costs for the partial borate autocausticizing is compared to the investment cost of the larger lime kiln. Mass and energy balances are based on the updated reference mill in the MISTRA Research Program, 'The Eco-Cyclic Pulp Mill', producing 2000 ADt of pulp per day. The results show that less energy is released to steam production in a gasifier than in a recovery boiler and instead energy is released in chemical form in the produced syn gas. Using partial borate autocausticizing, the demand of external energy is lowered in the lime kiln compared to extended lime causticization. The borate autocausticization, taking place in the gasifier with black liquor as energy source, only demands a third of the energy saved in the lime kiln. On the other hand the chemical costs for the borate autocausticization exceeds the investment cost for a larger lime kiln after five years.

  14. Influence of the chemical composition on the combustion properties of kraft black liquor; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Siistonen, H.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (orig.)

  15. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  16. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  17. In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Big Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert DeCarrera

    2007-04-14

    This Final Technical Report provides an account of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific LLC's Big Island, VA facility. This report covers the period from May 5, 2000 through November 30, 2006.

  19. Catalytic effect of black liquor on the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Xiuli; Zhou, ZhiJie; Wang, Fuchen [Kay Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2010-05-15

    CO{sub 2} gasification of petroleum coke using black liquor as a catalyst was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) under temperatures 1223-1673 K at ambient pressure to evaluate the effect of black liquor loading on petroleum coke gasification. It was found that the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke was improved greatly by black liquor. The gasification reactivity was affected by different loading methods in the order: wet grinding > dry grinding > physical impregnation > dry mix. The catalytic activity of black liquor was higher than that of pure alkali metal. The effect of temperature on the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke was changed by black liquor. The reactivity reaches its maximum at 1573 K. The reactivity of petroleum coke was found higher than that of Shenfu coal when black liquor loading is 5 wt.% (of petroleum coke), clearly demonstrating that black liquor could be an effective catalyst for petroleum coke gasification. (author)

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Lignin Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Kraft and Sulphite Black Liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Duarte; Cecília Baptista; Nuno Gil; Hélio Faustino

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds present in industrial black liquors obtained from the two cooking processes (kraft and sulphite) used in Portugal to produce Eucalyptus globulus pulp was evaluated. The black liquors treated at several pH values were extracted with ethyl acetate. Phenolic fractions were further separated by liquid chromatography of the crude extracts of kraft liquor at pH = 6 and sulphite liquor at the original pH. Total phenolic content was determined in ter...

  1. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of alkaline black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Changqing; Guo, Liejin; Chen, Yunan; Lu, Youjun [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China)

    2010-07-01

    Black liquor was gasified continuously in supercritical water successfully and the main gaseous products were H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} with little amount of CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The increase of the temperature and the decrease of the flow rate and black liquor concentration enhanced SCWG of black liquor. The change of the system pressure had limited influence on the gasification effect. The maximal COD removal efficiency of 88.69 % was obtained at the temperature of 600 C. The pH values of the aqueous residue were all decreased to the range of 6.4{proportional_to}8 while the pH value of cooling effluence below 360 C increased to about 11 and the sodium content was much higher than that in the aqueous residue. The reaction rate for COD degradation in supercritical water was obtained by assuming pseudo first order reaction. And the activation energy and pre-exponential for COD removal in SCWG were 74.38kJ/mol and 1.11 x 10{sup 4} s{sup -1} respectively. (orig.)

  2. Large scale experiments and modeling of black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Per

    2011-07-01

    Biomass gasification could provide a basis for increased electricity and engine fuel production from a renewable source in the pulp and paper industry. This work focuses on the largest byproduct available at the pulp mills, black liquor. Black liquor is a mixture of spent cooking chemicals, dissolved lignin, dissolved carbohydrates and a small portion of inorganic compounds found in the wood. The conventional technology to recover the cooking chemicals and the chemical energy as heat is combustion in large boilers. Here, gasification could be an alternative, replacing or complementing the boilers. The gasification technology produces a combustible gas that can be cleaned to produce electricity in a gas turbine/engine or, be synthesized into valuable chemicals or liquid engine fuels. The technology has been demonstrated in development scale since 2005 and appears to be promising. Still, commercial plants have not yet been built. This thesis focuses on the understanding of the oxygen blown, pressurized, entrained flow, black liquor gasification technology. The main goals have been to increase the understanding about the dominating mechanisms in black liquor gasification and to develop an engineering tool that can be used to design and optimize, pressurized, entrained flow, black liquor gasifiers. To accomplish these goals gas samples were extracted from the gasification reactor using a gas sampling probe that was developed within this work. Gas samples were also collected downstream the quench located underneath the reactor and the results were compared. Finally, an existing numerical model was developed so it can predict the behavior of the black liquor gasifier within reasonable accuracy. Even though the actual mechanisms in the reactor and quench are very complex it appears that they can be described with relatively simple global mechanisms. The main gas components are dictated by the water gas shift reaction. At the outlet of the reactor the gas composition is

  3. THE SHEAR-THINNING PHENOMENON OF BAGASSE KRAFT BLACK LIQUOR FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rendang Yang; Kefu Chen; Jun Xu; Heng Zhang; Qifeng Chen; Jin Wang

    2004-01-01

    The flow curves of bagasse Kraft black liquor over a shear-rate range of 10-1s-l~103s-1 were investigated by using the Rheometric RFSⅡ rheometer.Experimental results show that Bagasse black liquors are non-Newtonian fluids instead of Newtonian fluids at higher solids contents, and the viscosities of black liquor would decrease .about 2~3 orders of magnitude with an increase in the shear rates. The apparent viscosity and flow behavior of bagasse black liquor are also affected by its solids content, and the higher solids content the more shear-thinning bagasse black liquor fluid is. In addition, the power-law equation was utilized to fit these flow curves at different conditions. Finally, the significances of shear-thinning properties of bagasse black liquor in the chemical recovery system, such as friction calculation of pipe and design optimization of the whole recovery system, were presented.

  4. Treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry by acidification and reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-bo; MU Huan-zhen; HUANG Yan-chu

    2003-01-01

    Two different kinds of black liquor from the papermaking industry were treated by acidification and reuse. The experimental parameters and conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicated that the treatment process mentioned in this article is an effective process for the treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry. By the treatment, the solid materials in black liquor are transferred into two by-products and the other components are reused or evaporated. Thus, no wastewater except some condensation water would be discharged in pulping process and the problem of pollution of black liquor would be effectively solved.

  5. Treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry by acidification and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bo; Mu, Huan-Zhen; Huang, Yan-Chu

    2003-09-01

    Two different kinds of black liquor from the papermaking industry were treated by acidification and reuse. The experimental parameters and conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicated that the treatment process mentioned in this article is an effective process for the treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry. By the treatment, the solid materials in black liquor are transferred into two by-products and the other components are reused or evaporated. Thus, no wastewater except some condensation water would be discharged in pulping process and the problem of pollution of black liquor would be effectively solved. PMID:14562934

  6. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  7. ON THE BLACK LIQUOR AND RECYCLE COOKING OF AS-AQ STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaiqiangShi; BeihaiHe; BingyueLiu

    2004-01-01

    Thick black liquor, thin black liquor and solid state sodium hydroxide are added to the liquor treated by sulfur dioxide, then the blended liquor is used to recycle cooking of straw pulp. The black liquor, separated liquor and pulp of every cycles are analyzed respectively. Result shows that the content of lignin and organism in recycle black liquor and separated liquor increases faster in the first three cycles and then continues to increase slowly till four or five times, after that it trends to a stable state. The main organism separated fi'om waste liquor of AS-AQ treated by sulfur dioxide is alkali-lignin,above 50% of total lignin in black liquor. The yield of pulp made fi'om recycle cooking is steady, the hardness of pulp has a great improvement with recycle cooking. The brightness of pulp reduces correspondingly before bleaching, and after bleaching the brightness of pulp is relatively high and steady at the same sodium hypo chlorite dosage.

  8. System aspects of black liquor gasification - Consequences for both industry and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The pulp and paper industry consumes large quantities of biofuels (mainly bark and black liquor) to satisfy process requirements. Biomass is however a limited resource, and biofuel usage should therefore be as effective as possible. Modern pulp mills and integrated pulp and paper mills have excess fuel compared to the amounts needed to satisfy the process steam demand. The excess fuel is often used for cogeneration of electric power in CHP units. For integrated pulp and paper mills, this usually requires import of supplementary fuel to the plant. For market pulp mills, the excess internal biofuel quantities are sufficient to also allow electric power generation in condensing power plant units. If biofuel availability at a reasonable price is limited, import/export to, from a mill changes the amount of such biofuel available to alternative users. The goal of this thesis is to compare different mill powerhouse technologies and CHP plant configurations (including conventional recovery boiler technology and black liquor gasification technology) in order to identify the technology and CHP plant configuration that can produce the most electric power output from a given fuel resource for a given process steam demand. Different process steam demand levels for different representative mill types are considered. The comparison accounts for increased/decreased electricity production in an alternative energy system when biofuel is imported/exported to/from from the mill. The alternative energy system considered includes a district heating system with CHP capacity and natural gas fired combined cycle power plant capacity. The results show that black liquor gasification is in all cases considered an attractive powerhouse recovery cycle technology compared to conventional recovery boiler technology. If the marginal electric power generation efficiency for biofuel exported to the reference alternative energy system is 49%, excess mill internal biofuel should be used on mill

  9. Entrained Flow Black Liquor Gasification - Detailed Experiments and Mathematical Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Per (Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)), e-mail: per.carlsson@etcpitea.se

    2009-07-01

    Black liquor, a by-product from the Kraft pulping process is a highly viscous fluid consisting of approximately 30% water, 30 % alkali salts and 40 % combustible material. The alkali salts originating from the pulp making process need to be recovered in order for the pulp mill to be economical and to satisfy environmental regulation. Currently, the recovery takes place in large boilers called Tomlinson recovery boilers. However, a more energy efficient way to recover the chemicals could be via gasification in a pressurized, entrained flow, high temperature gasifier. To demonstrate this technology a development plant (DP1) was built in 2005 by the technology vendor Chemrec. Since then, the plant has been running for more than 10,000 h and frequently been updated and optimized. As steps towards commercialization and scale-up different computational models of varying sophistication are used as design and optimization tools for the process. Still, the engineering tools can only provide sensible predictions if they are properly validated and verified. This thesis is concerned with validation of a comprehensive mathematical model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) describing the gasification reactor and experimental investigations of the process characteristics in the DP1 gasifier. Paper A describes the system design and methodology for high temperature gas sampling during pressurized black liquor gasification. In this work a water-cooled gas sampling probe is installed in the hot part of the DP1 gasification reactor and several gas samples are withdrawn and analyzed. The experimentally obtained data in Paper A are then used as validation data for the CFD-model described in Paper B. In Paper C the obtained data from Paper A are thoroughly analyzed and the influence of reactor operation on producer gas composition is determined. In Paper D black liquor sprays from a gas assisted nozzle is experimentally investigated using high speed photography. Furthermore, the

  10. The kinetics of the gasification of black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Tobias; Theliander, Hans; Wintoko, Joko [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Forest Products and Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Within the project, a special equipment has been manufactured in order to perform gasification experiments on single black liquor droplets. There are possibilities with the equipment to dynamically measure the weight of the droplet as well as its center temperature. Furthermore, some key gases (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}) are continuously measured. It is also possible to follow the gasification stages visually through a glass window. Parallel with this, a mathematical model has been developed to describe the gasification. It consists of both reaction kinetics and transport phenomenon. As a first step, the temperature profile was modeled and after that the model has been expanded to describe the swelling.

  11. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  12. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor. PMID:17092702

  13. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Ligniinifraktion vaikutus mustalipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Rantanen, K.; Ekman, J.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find relationships between the structure of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties (pyrolysis time, char burning time, and swelling) of softwood and hardwood kraft black liquors. In this conjunction, pine and birch chips, as well as their two mixtures (the mass ratios of pine chips to birch chips were 80:20 and 60:40), were delignified by conventional kraft pulping. In each cook series, a liquor sample was withdrawn at certain time intervals to obtain liquor samples with different chemical composition. The black liquors obtained were analyzed with respect to the content of lignin and `lignin monomers`, but also the molecular-mass distribution and the mass average molecular mass of lignin were made. In addition, the dissolved lignin was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Further data on the chemical structures of lignin in black liquors were obtained by identifying various degradation products formed from this material during oxidative (CuO oxidation) and pyrolytic treatments. Several correlations between the `structural parameters` of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties of black liquor were found. These correlations were significant especially in the case of pine cook. The results revealed many findings which are, together with the earlier data, useful for a better understanding of the thermochemical behavior of different kraft black liquors during combustion in a recovery furnace. (author)

  14. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  15. Utilization of black liquor as concrete admixture and set retarder aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar A. El-Mekkawi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of black liquor, produced by the pulp and paper industry in Egypt, as a workability aid and set retarder admixture has been investigated. This approach may help eliminate the environmentally polluting black liquor waste. It also provides a low cost by-product, which can be widely used in the construction industry. The properties of black liquor and its performance on concrete at two different ratios of water to cement have been studied. The results revealed that black liquor from rice straw pulp increases concrete workability, improves compaction, and reduces honeycombing. Moreover, it retards the initial and final set time and enhances uniform compaction. The effect of incorporating small portions of silica fume has been investigated. The ageing effect of this material over a period of one year, to determine its safe storage period, has been studied. Finally, this admixture was found to comply with the relevant Egyptian standards.

  16. New black liquor combustion characteristics III; Mustalipeaen uudet poltto-ominaisuudet III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Forssen, M.; Backman, R.; Enestam, S.; Lauren, T.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The main purposes in this work is to: 1. Compare black liquor combustion characterization results to recovery boiler experiences. 2. Study the mechanisms of sodium release in black liquor combustion In the first part results from black liquor combustion characterization tests developed by Aabo Akademi University will be compared to experiences at four Finnish kraft recovery boilers. When comparing the laboratory data to the compiled field data emphasis will be put on the behavior of the black liquor during burning, the release of sodium and potassium, the melting behavior of the deposits and the NO and SO{sub 2} emissions. The main purpose in the second part of the work is to study the release mechanisms of sodium from black liquor char during combustion. Sodium is mainly released from the char by the mechanism where the molten sodiumcarbonate reacts with the char carbon. The study is divided into four subtasks and is performed mainly by conducting experiments in laboratory scale devices: (1) Sodium release during char reactions is studied for different liquors by analyzing the amount of sodium remaining in char after different holding times in a hot inert atmosphere. (2) A DTA/TGA apparatus is used to study in isothermal conditions the char reactions on prepyrolyzed char. (3) The effect of the form of sodium on the sodium release during char reactions. Black liquors added with different sodium salts (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}S sekae NaCl) are used in experiments as in subtask 1. (4) Sodium release during combustion (2-5 % O{sub 2}) of single black liquor particles

  17. Effect of pulsation on black liquor gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.; Jeong, H.; Kushari, A.; Rosen, L.J.

    1998-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an endothermic process. The heat of reaction is provided either by partial combustion of the waste or by heat transfer from an external combustion process. In one proposed system black liquor is pyrolized in a fluidized bed to which heat is added through a series of pulse combustor tail pipes submerged in the bed material. This system appears promising because of the relatively high heat transfer in pulse combustors and in fluidized beds. Other advantages of pulse combustors are discussed elsewhere. The process is, however, only economically viable if a part of the pyrolysis products can be used to fire the pulse combustors. The overall goals of this study were to determine: (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tail pipe to the bed and through the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the heat transfer benefits of the pulse combustor can be utilized while maintaining the temperature in the bed within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

  18. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzai Nong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. Therefore, the recovery ratios of elemental sodium and biomass solids are 80.4% and 76%, respectively. Treating black liquor by electrolysis is an environmentally friendly technology that can, in particular, be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black liquor recovery.

  19. Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

    2006-06-29

    with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the

  20. Form transition of sodium during combustion of black liquor coal slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Ze-quan; CAO Xin-yu; ZHOU Jun-hu; LIU Jian-zhong; CHENG Jun; CEN Ke-fa

    2008-01-01

    Several typical ash samples from a 0.25 MW test furnace fired black liquor coal slurry were selected for investigation. The phases and compounds containing sodium in ash samples were acquired from X-ray diffraction analyses. As well, detailed analyses of the amounts of major mineral elements along thickness gradients of representative ash samples were carried out. The elements, including Na, Si, Al, S and Cl were analyzed by the advanced electron probe microanalyzer equipment, which provid evidence and interpretation for the analytical results of XRD. The findings indicate that the occurrence form of sodium has experi-enced important changes during the combustion of black liquor coal slurry, which translated into nepheline, thenardite, sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, sodium silicoaluminate, hauyne and other phases containing sodium, from NaOH, Na2CO3 and Na2S in raw fuel. Of all the sodium compounds, nepheline, thenardite and sodium sulfate are the most important forms of Na in solid com-bustion residues. Such a transformation of Na during the combustion of black liquor coal slurry resulted in a considerable impact on ash deposition and is not only different from the raw coal and papermaking black liquors, but is also affected by local circum-stances in the combustion furnace. Amounts of Na, S and Cl in ash deposits from low temperature zones were larger than those from high temperature zones. Our findings should provide important theoretical instructions for industrial applications of black liquor coal slurry.

  1. Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

    2006-06-29

    with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the

  2. Promoted slurryability of petroleum coke-water slurry by using black liquor as an additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Xiuli; Zhou, Zhijie; Wang, Fuchen [Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Kang, Wanzhong [School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to prepare the petroleum coke-water slurry with a maximal coke mass fraction and the superior slurry natures using black liquor as an additive. The variations of rheological properties, contact angle, fluidity, stability and zeta potential of the coke-water slurry with different black liquor dosages were investigated. It was observed that the addition of a black liquor dosage around 1.0 wt.% of the petroleum coke remarkably improved the rheological properties, fluidity and stability of the slurry, and the slurry could hold a mass of petroleum coke as high as 70 wt.%, with the superior apparent viscosity, fluidity and stability available for practical utilization. (author)

  3. Preparation of adhesive for bamboo plywood using concentrated papermaking black liquor directly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Adhesive for bamboo plywood prepared directly using lignin existing in the black liquor as a kind of material replacing phenol was proposed on the basis of the same structural properties of lignin and phenol. The results indicate that the reaction time of black liquor methylating is 30 min, when the ratio of alkali to formaldehyde is controlled at approximately 0.20, decomposition rate of formaldehyde is the lowest and the effect of black liquor methylating is the best, the optimal molar ratio of phenol: formaldehyde to NaOH to H2O of preparing phenolic resin is liquor to phenolic resin, all terms of performance of black liquor phenolic resin are excellent and satisfy the requirement. All terms of performance of bamboo plywood prepared using this technique are better than that of excellent bamboo plywood of national criteria. Using this technique, the cost is depressed by 28.69% without altering the traditional adhesive producing technique flow, and without using additional equipment.

  4. Technoeconomical evaluation of black liquor gasification processes; Teknisk ekonomisk utvaerdering av svartlutfoergasningsprocesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnqvist, Bjoern; Delin, Lennart [AaF-IPK AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Theliander, Hans; Nohlgren, Ingrid [Luleaa Tekniska Universitet (Sweden). Chemical Engineering Design

    2000-06-01

    Black liquor gasification processes have been studied as an alternative to conventional chemical recovery with recovery boiler/steam turbine. Energy balances and investment costs have been calculated/estimated for four gasification processes in a model mill for 1000 ADt/d bleached kraft market pulp (according to the KAM-Mistra program, i.e. a mill with the best available technology). The original four alternatives studied were: (1) Pressurised entrained-flow high temperature gasifier (950 deg C) with smelt formation. Quencher and gas/liquor production (cf. Chemrec) with high temperature gas turbine, waste heat boiler and steam turbine; (2) Ditto with combined cycle with pressurised steam boiler and gas turbine (moderate gas turbine temperature); (3) Pressurised gasification in a fluidised bed (700 deg C) in a combined cycle with pressurised steam boiler and gas turbine; (4) Pressurised gasification in a fluidised bed with titanate for direct causticising (850-900 deg C) in a combined cycle with pressurised steam boiler and gas turbine. All systems have a bark boiler (falling bark) and steam central. All but the last system also have conventional causticising and lime kiln. All systems also have a condensing turbine to absorb the net surplus of steam that both the conventional recovery and the gasification systems produce. After the completion of the original study, a more detailed description of the Chemrec concept has been made available to us. An alternative that more closely resembles the Chemrec process has therefore been added. A more detailed description of the ABB system has not been available, but this system has also been recalculated for the same type of gas turbine that is used in the Chemrec case. We have also added the alternative that the biomass fuel is gasified and used in a combined cycle. We have furthermore added calculations with the new alternatives implemented in a hypothetical integrated mill with a need for external fuel. The development of

  5. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornetti, Micheal [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States); Freeman, Douglas [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States)

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  6. Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Muhammad R.

    2012-07-01

    Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of the biomass worldwide including bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern mills have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to poly-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and paper products. There is a potential to export electricity or bio-fuels by improving energy systems of existing chemical pulp mills by integrating gasification technology. The present study investigates bio-fuel alternatives from the dry black liquor gasification (BLG) system with direct causticization and direct methane production from the catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system. The studied systems are compared with bio-fuel alternatives from the Chemrec BLG system and the improvements in the energy systems of the pulp mill are analyzed. The results are used to identify the efficient route based on system performance indicators e.g. material and energy balances to compare BLG systems and the conventional recovery boiler system, potential biofuel production together with biomass to biofuel conversion efficiency, energy ratios, potential CO{sub 2} mitigation combining on-site CO{sub 2} reduction using CO{sub 2} capture and potential CO{sub 2} offsets from biofuel use, and potential motor fuel replacement. The results showed that the dry BLG system for synthetic natural gas (SNG) production offers better integration opportunities with the chemical pulp mill in terms of overall material and energy balances. The biofuel production and conversion efficiency are higher in the CHG system than other studied configurations but at a cost of larger biomass import. The dry BLG system for SNG production achieved high biomass to biofuel efficiency and considerable biofuel production

  7. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  8. Assessment of the release of atomic Na from a burning black liquor droplet using quantitative PLIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The Environment Institute, School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The Environment Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The quantitative measurement of atomic sodium (Na) release, at high concentration, from a burning black liquor droplet has been demonstrated using a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique, corrected for fluorescence trapping. The local temperature of the particle was measured to be approximately 1700 C, at a height of 10 mm above a flat flame burner. The PLIF technique was used to assess the temporal release of atomic Na from the combustion of black liquor and compare it with the Na concentration in the remaining smelt. A first-order model was made to provide insight using a simple Plug Flow Reactor model based on the independently measured concentration of residual Na in the smelt as a function of time. This model also required the dilution ratio of the combustion products in the flat flame entrained into the plume gas from the black liquor particle to be estimated. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the peak concentration of atomic Na from the combustion of the black liquor droplets is around 1.4 ppm; (ii) very little atomic Na is present during the drying, devolatilisation or char combustion stages; and (iii) the presence of atomic Na during smelt phase dominates over that from the other combustion stages. (author)

  9. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is

  10. New black liquor combustion characteristics II; Mustalipeaen uudet poltto-ominaisuudet II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Backman, R.; Bostroem, S.; Forssen, M.; Uusikartano, T. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In an earlier study (LIEKKI 2, Y 17), the combustion characteristics of 17 liquors of different origin were studied by four laboratory tests. These tests were (1) single droplet burning, (2) single droplet pyrolysis, (3) pressurized gasification, and (4) calculation of melting properties of inorganic carryover particles. The study showed that there are big differences between liquors of different origin. These differences strongly affect the combustion properties, i.e. pyrolysis and burning times, swelling, and fouling tendency of heat transfer surfaces. The objective for the present research project was to investigate the reasons why some properties affect the combustion behavior more than others. The project is partly complementary to the previous study, partly a more detailed study of some of the phenomena observed earlier. The work constitutes of the following studies: (1) further study of several more liquors by the same methods, (2) pyrolysis swelling in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at two temperatures, 700 deg C and 900 deg C, (3) effect of heat treatment black liquors, (4) effect of addition of sodium compounds to a virgin black liquor, (5) data treatment and correlations, (6) nitrogen oxide formation tendency. (author)

  11. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  12. Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

    2010-03-02

    Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. “syngas”) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950°C), but was limited to pressures below

  13. Use of steam explosion liquor from sugar cane bagasse for lignin peroxidase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Maria Antonieta; Bon, Elba P S; Araujo Neto, Julio Silva

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using two by-products of the sugar cane industry, molasses and bagasse steam explosion liquor (SEL), for lignin peroxidase (LiP) production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. For comparison, the fungus was initially cultivated in synthetic media containing either glucose, sucrose, xylose, or xylan as sole carbon sources. The effect of veratryl alcohol (VA) was also investigated in relation to the enzyme activity levels. Results showed that sucrose was not metabolized by this fungus, which precluded the use of molasses as a carbon source. Glucose, xylose, and xylan promoted equivalent cell growth. Enzyme levels in the absence of VA were lower than 28 UI/L and in the presence of VA reached 109 IU/L with glucose and 85 IU/L with xylose or xylan. SEL was adequate for P. chrysosporium LiP production as LiP activity reached 90 IU/L. When VA was added to this medium, enzyme concentration increased to 155 IU/L.

  14. Effect of pulping variables on enthalpy of kraft black liquors: Empirical predictive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-07-01

    The effects of pulping variables on enthalpy of slash pine kraft black liquors from a 2{sup k} + 2k + 1 (k = 4) central composite design pulping experiments that were performed in a large pilot scale digester have been studied. The four cooling variables were effective alkali, sulfidity, cooking temperature, and time at temperature. In all cases, the white liquor was adjusted to a causticizing efficiency of 85% and a reduction of 93% with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The enthalpy of these liquors was determined over wide ranges of temperature and solids concentrations using a Setaram C-80 calorimeter. In this work, previous models for enthalpy-concentration relations were used to perform a systematic study on the effects of pulping conditions on enthalpy and to develop statistically based quantitative models for enthalpy as a function of pulping variables. These results are presented, and their utility is discussed.

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Lignin Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Kraft and Sulphite Black Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Duarte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds present in industrial black liquors obtained from the two cooking processes (kraft and sulphite used in Portugal to produce Eucalyptus globulus pulp was evaluated. The black liquors treated at several pH values were extracted with ethyl acetate. Phenolic fractions were further separated by liquid chromatography of the crude extracts of kraft liquor at pH = 6 and sulphite liquor at the original pH. Total phenolic content was determined in terms of gallic acid equivalents (Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, and the antioxidant activity in the crude extracts at several pH values and in the separated fractions was measured using the DPPH test for radical scavenging capacity. The total phenolic content of crude extracts and separated fractions ranged from 92.7 to 181.6 and from 91.6 to 1,099.6 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the antioxidant activity index (AAI ranged from 2.20 to 3.41 and from 2.21 to 11.47 respectively, showing very strong antioxidant activity in all studied cases. The fractions separated by column chromatography were submitted to mass spectrometry analysis and the results were compared to others in the literature of natural products, mainly from Eucalyptus, and the characteristic bands of functional groups were identified by 1H-NMR and FTIR. These methods allowed the identification of 17 phenolic compounds.

  16. Characterization of combustion properties of black liquor by gas-liquid chromatography; Mustalipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksien karakterisointi kaasukromatografian avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Barck, M.; Liukkonen, S.; Louhelainen, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-11-01

    A new idea of characterizing the combustion properties (burning time and swelling) of black liquor is presented in this paper. It is based on detailed analysis low-molecular-mass degradation products (aliphatic carboxylic acids and ligninmonomers) derived from wood feedstock. The complex mixture of these substances can be resolved into single components by using gas chromatography (GC). The method is theoretically based on the fact that the concentration some of these low-molecular-mass constituents and the combustion properties of black liquor are both systematically changing as the cook proceeds. For this reason, the combustion behavior of black liquors from the different stage delignification can be predicted with reasonable accurance on the basis of the GLC data. The preliminary tests performed with the kraft black liquors from conventional lab-scale cooking of softwood and hardwood look promising. (author)

  17. Lignin Prepared by Ultrafiltration of Black Liquor : Investigation of Solubility, Viscosity, and Ash Content

    OpenAIRE

    Giummarella, Nicola; Lindgren, Christofer; Lindström, Mikael; Henriksson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Technical lignin, which can be potentially obtained in large amounts as a by-product from kraft pulping, represents a potential resource for manufacturing fuels and chemicals. Upgrading of lignin, by lowering its molecular weight, is a valuable alternative to precipitation from black liquor, which occurs in the Lignoboost process. The solubility properties of Lignoboost lignin and filtered lignin in a number of technically feasible solvents were compared, and it was found that both lignins we...

  18. Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills

    OpenAIRE

    Naqvi, Muhammad Raza

    2012-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of the biomass worldwide including bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern mills have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to poly-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and pa...

  19. Black liquor and the hangover effect: fish assemblage recovery dynamics following a pulse disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle R. Piller; Geheber, Aaron D

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic perturbations impact aquatic systems causing wide-ranging responses, from assemblage restructuring to assemblage recovery. Previous studies indicate the duration and intensity of disturbances play a role in the dynamics of assemblage recovery. In August 2011, the Pearl River, United States, was subjected to a weak black liquor spill from a paper mill which resulted in substantial loss of fish in a large stretch of the main channel. We quantified resilience and recovery of fish a...

  20. ANALYSIS ON COMPOSITION OF FOULANTS FROM ALKALINE WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR AND DISCUSSION ON ITS FORMING MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuan Jia

    2004-01-01

    Analysis on foulants shows that: the elements(except for C, H and O) in foulants formed during evaporating alkaline wheat straw black liquor are Si,Ca, K, Na, Mg and Al; Si and Ca account for about 36% of the weight of foulants; The organic ingredients amout to about 20% of the foulant;Rhodesite (Ca,K,Na)8Si16O40 @llH2O is the main composition in foulants.The fouling mechanism of wheat black liquor is quite different from that of soft/hard wood black liquor,because the content of Si inside wheat straw black liquor is much more than that of soft/hard wood black liquor. Complex chemical reactions occur when evaporating wheat straw black liquor. The author considers that colloid H2SiO3 plays an important role in the process. The minerals produced by reactions between H2SiO3, with anion charges and positive ions, such as Ca2+, K+, Na+, etc. Further investigation on the process should be done.The fractal theory is used to analyze the fouling geometric texture. The fractal dimension values D of foulants are also calculated.

  1. ANALYSIS ON COMPOSITION OF FOULANTS FROM ALKALINE WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR AND DISCUSSION ON ITS FORMING MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuanJia

    2004-01-01

    Analysis on foulants shows that: the elements (except for C, H and O) in foulants formed during evaporating alkaline wheat straw black liquor are Si,Ca, K, Na, Mg and AI; Si and Ca account for about 36% of the weight of foulants, The organic ingredients about to about 20% of the foulant; Rhodesite (Ca,K,Na)8Si16O40 ·11H2O is the main composition in foulants. The fouling mechanism of wheat black liquor is quite different from that of soft/hard wood black liquor, because the content of Si inside wheat straw black liquor is much more than that of soft/hard wood black liquor. Complex chemical reactions occur when evaporating wheat straw black liquor. The author considers that colloid H2SiO3 plays an important role in the process. The minerals produced by reactions between H2SiO3, with anion charges and positive ions, such as Ca2-, K-, Na-, etc. Further investigation on the process should be done. The fractal theory is used to analyze the fouling geometric texture. The fractal dimension values D of foulants are also calculated.

  2. Green chemicals from pulp production black liquor by partial wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddassar, Hassan Raja; Melin, Kristian; de Villalba Kokkonen, Daniela; Riera, Gerard Viader; Golam, Sarwar; Koskinen, Jukka

    2015-11-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, more sustainable sources of energy, fuel and chemicals are needed. Biomass side streams such as black liquor, which is a by-product of pulp production, has the potential to be used for this purpose. The aim of the study was the production of carboxylic acids, such as lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid, from kraft and non-wood black liquor. The processes studied were partial wet oxidation (PWO) and catalytic partial wet oxidation (CPWO). The results show that the yield of carboxylic acid is higher when treated by PWO than the results from CPWO at temperatures of 170 °C and 230 °C. The results shows that the PWO process can increase the yield of carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids in black liquor, reduce lignin content and decrease pH, which makes further separation of the acids more favourable. The hydroxy acids are valuable raw materials for biopolymers, and acetic acid and formic acid are commonly used chemicals conventionally produced from fossil feedstock. PMID:26377325

  3. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from soda-AQ pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegarfar, N; Behrooz, R; Bahramifar, N

    2015-02-01

    The effect of electrocoagulation treatment was investigated on black liquor from soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping of wheat straw. Removal of phenol, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total solids (TS) from black liquor was investigated at different current densities by using aluminum electrodes at various electrolysis times (10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 min) and pH levels (3, 5, 7, 9, and 10.5). It was observed that at 16 V, electrolysis time of 55 min and current density of 61.8 mA/cm(2) were sufficient for the removal of the pollutants. Energy consumption was evaluated as an important cost-relation parameter. Results showed that the electrocoagulation treatment reduced color intensity from the high initial value of 18,750 to 220 PCU. This was strongly influenced by the pH level of the wastewater. In addition, it was found that the removal efficiency increased with increasing of current density. The maximum efficiencies for removal were 98.8, 81, 80, 92, 61, and 68 % for color, phenol, COD, TSS, TDS, and TS, respectively. The lowest energy consumption values were obtained at neutral pH after 55 min. Electrocoagulation was found to be an effective, simple, and low-cost technique to treat black liquor.

  4. New Advanced Technology on Waste Resourcelization of the Black Pulping Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi; HAN Yuan-yuan; ZHANG Dong-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Combining the characteristics of the black pulping liquor that contains a lot of lignin and other biomass resources, the technology of comprehensive waste utilization is employed. The reconstructive preparation of modified urea-formaldehyde glue by adding black pulping liquor and the application in extruding the medium density fibre board using this modified urea-formaldehyde glue is researched. Results show that when applying the preparation technology that alkaline reaction and then weak acid reaction, the appropriate preparation process is as follows: the adding urea process is divided into three stages (proportion 2∶1∶1); the pH value is 8.0, and the reaction time is 40min in the addition reaction stage; the pH value will be naturally reduced to 3.5-5.0, and the reaction time is 45min in the aggregation reaction stage; the pH value is 8.0 in the urea complement stage. And the optimal condition of the reconstructive preparation the modified urea-formaldehyde glue is adding the condensed black pulping liquor after hydroxymethylation in the beginning of polycondensation reaction by 5% proportion. The application in extruding medium density fibre board with this modified urea-fosmaldehyde glue is proved feasible.

  5. Evaluation of treated black liquor used as dispersant of concentrated coal-water slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingsong Zhou; Qian Kong; Bing Pan; Xueqing Qiu; Dongjie Yang; Hongming Lou [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering

    2010-03-15

    The paper making waste liquor is a great water pollution source and much work has been done over the years to overcome this challenge. We present here a solution of black liquor used as dispersant of coal-water slurry (abbreviated as CWS) following chemical treatment. The treated black liquor (abbreviated as TBL) is used to prepare CWS for three bituminous coals, and the factors influencing its dispersing ability and the properties of CWS are investigated. The results show that the increasing sulfonating agent and formaldehyde dosage increase the sulfonic group content while reducing the molecular weight of TBL. The comparison with a naphthalene dispersant shows that TBL has a similar or better dispersing ability, and the large quantity of sulfonic groups engrafted in lignin molecules and the markedly increase of molecular weight are considered the key reason for the excellent performance of TBL. Moreover, the change of the molecular configuration from globular to flocculent in solution observed by TEM is also considered as an important reason for the excellent dispersing effect of TBL for CWS. 25 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

  7. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  8. THREE -PHASE CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED EVAPORATOR FOR WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR EVAPORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuanJia

    2004-01-01

    A novel vapor-liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed evaporator, meaning for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling, is applied to wheat straw black liquor, which is the primary pollutant in China's papermaking industry. It is treated by alkali recovery, in which evaporation is a key process. The experimental results show that the vapor-liquid-solid three-phase boiling heat transfer coefficient is enhanced by 20%-40% than that of vapor-liquid two-phase boiling flow, also, the novel evaporator exhibits an excellent function of fouling prevention.

  9. THREE -PHASE CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED EVAPORATOR FOR WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR EVAPORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuan Jia

    2004-01-01

    A novel vapor-liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed evaporator, meaning for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling, is applied to wheat straw black liquor, which is the primary pollutant in China′s papermaking industry. It is treated by alkali recovery,in which evaporation is a key process. The experimental results show that the vapor-liquid-solid three-phase boiling heat transfer coefficient is enhanced by 20% ~40% than that of vapor-liquid two-phase boiling flow, also, the novel evaporator exhibits an excellent function of fouling prevention.

  10. A constructed alkaline consortium and its dynamics in treating alkaline black liquor with very high pollution load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial community was found accidentally in a black liquor storing pool in a paper pulp mill of China. The community was effective in pH decreasing, color and COD removing from the high alkaline and high COD black liquor. FINDINGS: Thirty-eight strains of bacteria were isolated from the black liquor storing pool, and were grouped as eleven operational taxonomy units (OTUs using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles (RAPD. Eleven representative strains of each OTU, which were identified as genera of Halomonas and Bacillus, were used to construct a consortium to treat black liquor with a high pH value of 11.0 and very high COD pollution load of 142,600 mg l(-1. After treatment by the constructed consortium, about 35.4% of color and 39,000 mg l(-1 (27.3% COD(cr were removed and the pH decreased to 7.8. 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis suggested a two-stage treatment mechanism to elucidate the interspecies collaboration: Halomonas isolates were important in the first stage to produce organic acids that contributed to the pH decline, while Bacillus isolates were involved in the degradation of lignin derivatives in the second stage under lower pH conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tolerance to the high alkaline environment and good controllability of the simple consortium suggested that the constructed consortium has good potential for black liquor

  11. Material Characterization and Analysis for Selection of Refractories Used in Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2010-01-01

    Black liquor gasification provides the pulp and paper industry with a technology which could potentially replace recovery boilers with equipment that could reduce emissions and, if used in a combined cycle system, increase the power production of the mill allowing it to be a net exporter of electrical power. In addition, rather than burning the syngas produced in a gasifier, this syngas could be used to produce higher value chemicals or fuels. However, problems with structural materials such as the refractory lining of the reactor vessel have caused unplanned shutdowns and resulted in component replacement much sooner than originally planned. Through examination of exposed materials, laboratory corrosion tests and cooperative efforts with refractory manufacturers, many refractory materials issues in high-temperature black liquor gasification have been addressed and optimized materials have been selected for this application. In this paper, an updated summary of the characterization and analysis techniques used for refractory screening and selection will be discussed along with characteristic results from these methods which have led to the selection of optimized materials for both the hot-face and back-up linings used in this application.

  12. Bio-refinery system integrated with pulp and paper mills using black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Muhammad

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass energy utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of biomass worldwide that include bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern pulp and paper industries have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to co-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and paper products. There is a potential to export electricity or bio-fuels by improving today's existing chemical pulp and paper mills integrating gasification technology.The present study evaluates the energy conversion performance of integrated black liquor gasification (BLG) within the chemical pulp mills in comparison with conventional pulp mill energy system. The objective is to investigate and compare various BLG technologies and bio-fuel production routes. The comparison is performed to identify the advantageous route based on system performance indicators e.g. bio-fuel production potential, fuel to product efficiency (FTPE), biomass import, overall system thermal energy efficiency, on-site CO{sub 2} reduction using carbon capture, and potential CO{sub 2} offsets from bio-fuel use in transport sector.The study on a variety of BLG configurations shows promising results for potential bio-fuel production offering significant contributions toward fossil fuel savings, emission reductions, and improved energy security. Methanol, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and dimethyl ether (DME) show promising features as potential fuel candidates. The comparative results show significantly larger bio-fuel production potential of black liquor conversion to SNG from catalytic hydrothermal gasification than DME, methanol or SNG production from the dry BLG (DBLG) and Chemrec BLG (CBLG) systems. The energy ratio of SNG production from the CHG system is higher than DME and

  13. Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Agrawal

    2004-09-07

    The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

  14. Preparation of Adsorbent with Magnesium Sulfate and Straw Pulp Black Liquor and Its Phenol Adsorption Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lugang; WANG Haizeng

    2009-01-01

    A magnesia adsorbent was prepared from straw pulp black liquor and magnesium sulfate for the first time, and its adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution was examined. The characteristics of the adsorbent were tested through chemical analysis,surface analysis, X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The effects of various factors, such as dose, adsorption time and adsorption temperature, on phenol adsorption behavior were studied. The results show that the adsorption processes can be fitted to the isotherm Langmuir model very well. It was found that the adsorption process was strongly influenced by temperature and the optimal temperature for phenol removal was 40 ℃. The optimum adsorption time was 10 min, and desorption would happen afterwards. Between the models of Langmuir and Freundlich, the adsorption process of phenol onto magnesia fitted the Langmuir equation better.

  15. Study of the reduction of particle emissions and borate black liquor gasification in bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, Sylvain

    2004-11-01

    zone of the boiler. The results from the simulations were validated against measurements. The temperature field was well described and the velocity field was predicted with acceptable accuracy. Chemical reactions were not included in these simulations. Turbulence was modelled using the RNG k-{epsilon} model, which is relatively easy to use. This thesis also performs a study on a new model of black liquor gasification with borate autocausticizing, which has the potential to improve the production performance of pulp mills. The earlier model from Jansson did not have the efficiency expected, and was found unacceptable as a means of replacing the lime cycle. The new process has a real advantage compared to earlier borate autocausticizing processes; it can theoretically be led either on a full scale or as a part of the process to an ordinary causticizing and with moderate borate setting. The booster gasifier is studied. The material and energy balance is formulated for a sulphate- recycling block with this process and is compared with the conventional techniques. The results of the usual black liquor gasification were very close to reality and very promising. Regarding the black liquor gasification with borate, lack of data for the orthoborate, like the Gibbs free energy, did not enable good accuracy of the results. The model is so far a good start in black liquor gasification, but it needs to be improved as soon as some new data are available.

  16. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  17. Modeling and field observations of char bed processes in black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engblom, M.

    2010-07-01

    The char bed plays an important role in kraft black liquor combustion. Stable operation of the char bed promotes efficient and safe operation of the black liquor recovery boiler. It also plays a crucial role in the recovery of the pulping chemicals. Char bed operation involves controlling the char bed size and shape. Mathematical modeling based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) haas been applied to recovery boilers for increased insights into the recovery furnace processes and to aid in the design of new boilers. So far, all CED-based char bed models reported in literature have used a fixed bed shape. This imposes restrictions on simulation of char bed burning by not considering inherently occurring changes in bed shape. In this thesis, a CED -based recovery furnace model is further developed to predict changes in bed shape. The new model is used in simulation of existing recovery boilers. The predictions of bed shape are compared with observations from real boilers. The furnace model is capable of correctly simulating the overall response of the char bed size to operational changes. This confirms the current quantitative overall understanding of char bed burning. In addition to modeling, visual observations of the char bed processes were made in this work. The observations provide validation data concerning the physical behavior of the char bed, and the findings from the observations can be used in further development of char bed models. Modeling and simulations of fundamental laboratory scale char bed experiments reported in literature are also carried out. The simulations complement the experimental data by providing detailed insights into gas phase reactions that can occur inside the gas boundary layer above a char bed. (orig.)

  18. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  19. Numerical modelling of the CHEMREC black liquor gasification process. Conceptual design study of the burner in a pilot gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Magnus

    2001-02-01

    The work presented in this report is done in order to develop a simplified CFD model for Chemrec's pressurised black liquor gasification process. This process is presently under development and will have a number of advantages compared to conventional processes for black liquor recovery. The main goal with this work has been to get qualitative information on influence of burner design for the gas flow in the gasification reactor. Gasification of black liquor is a very complex process. The liquor is composed of a number of different substances and the composition may vary considerably between liquors originating from different mills and even for black liquor from a single process. When a black liquor droplet is gasified it loses its organic material to produce combustible gases by three stages of conversion: Drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. In the end of the conversion only an inorganic smelt remains (ideally). The aim is to get this smelt to form a protective layer, against corrosion and heat, on the reactor walls. Due to the complexity of gasification of black liquor some simplifications had to be made in order to develop a CFD model for the preliminary design of the gasification reactor. Instead of modelling droplets in detail, generating gas by gasification, sources were placed in a prescribed volume where gasification (mainly drying and pyrolysis) of the black liquor droplets was assumed to occur. Source terms for the energy and momentum equations, consistent with the mass source distribution, were derived from the corresponding control volume equations by assuming a symmetric outflow of gas from the droplets and a uniform degree of conversion of reactive components in the droplets. A particle transport model was also used in order to study trajectories from droplets entering the reactor. The resulting model has been implemented in a commercial finite volume code (AEA-CFX) through customised Fortran subroutines. The advantages with this simple

  20. Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

  1. Mechanism on microwave-assisted acidic solvolysis of black-liquor lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chengjian; Feng, Chunguang; Liu, Qian; Shen, Dekui; Xiao, Rui

    2014-06-01

    Microwave-assisted degradation of black-liquor lignin with formic acid was studied, concerning the product yield and distribution of phenolic compounds against reaction temperature (110-180°C) and reaction time (5-90 min). The liquid product consisting of bio-oil 1 and bio-oil 2, achieved the maxima yield of 64.08% at 160°C and 30 min (bio-oil 1: 9.69% and bio-oil 2: 54.39%). The chemical information of bio-oil 1 and bio-oil 2 were respectively identified by means of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), while the solid residue was analyzed by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). A possible mechanism was proposed for the microwave-assisted acidic solvolysis of lignin, specifying the kinetic relationship among the primary cracking of lignin, repolymerization of the oligomers and formation of solid residue. PMID:24747392

  2. Electrochemical degradation of acidified reed pulp black liquor with three-dimensional electrode reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 叶晟; 柴立元; 王云燕; 舒余德; 尤翔宇

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical degradation of reed pulp black liquor containing lignin pretreated by acidification method was investigated using a three-dimensional electrode reactor. Using activated carbon as particle electrode, the effects of pH value, reaction temperature, electrolysis time and current on residual concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) were discussed in detail. The optimal conditions were obtained: pH 2.5, influent flow rate of 200 mL/min, 25 °C, 300 mA and 2 h of electrolysis time, and the removal efficiency of TOC maintains at 35.57 %. The results of the electrochemical method indicate that •OH radicals are produced in activated carbon anode in the electrolysis process and then adsorbed on the activated carbon surface. Microcell consists of •OH radicals and the absorbed lignin. With the microcell reaction, the lignin is degraded, while the anodic polarized curve illustrates that the lignin is obviously oxidized in the anode. The contributions of direct and indirect electrolyses to the TOC removal ratio are about 50%, respectively.

  3. A win-win technique of stabilizing sand dune and purifying paper mill black-liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hanjie; Penning de Vries FRITS; JIN Yongcan

    2009-01-01

    The principle and technique were reported here to produce lignin-based sand stabilizing material (LSSM) using extracted lignin from black liquor of straw paper mills. Field tests by using LSSM to stabilize and green sand dunes started in 2002. The field experiment was carried out in August 2005 when the newly formed plant community was 3 years old. The results from the comprehensive field experiment demonstrated that unlike polyvinyl acetate or foamed asphalt commonly used for dune stabilization, LSSM was plant-friendly material and could be used in combination with seeding and planting of desert species. By the help of LSSM, the desert species (i.e., Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq. and Artemisia desertorum Spreng. etc.) could be used to form community in 2-3 yeas and to stabilize sand dune effectively. The newly formed community was sustainable under an extremely dry climate conditions. The organic matter and total nitrogen in the soil increased significantly as the community were formed, while the change in P and K contents of the soil was negligible.

  4. Mechanical Design of Steel Tubing for Use in Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taljat, B.; Zacharaia, T.; Wang, X.; Kesier, J.; Swindeman, R.; Hubbard, C.

    1999-05-26

    Finite element models were developed for thermal-mechanical analysis of black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes. Residual stresses in boiler floors due to various manufacturing processes were analyzed. The modeling results were verified by X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements at room temperature on as-manufactured tubes as well as tubes after service. The established finite element models were then used to evaluate stress conditions during boiler operation. Using these finite element models, a parametric response surface study was performed to investigate the influence of material properties of the clad layer on stresses in the floor tubes during various boiler operating conditions, which yielded a generalized solution of stresses in the composite tube floors. The results of the study are useful for identifying the mechanisms of cracking experienced by recovery boilers. Based on the results of the response surface study, a recommendation was made for more suitable materials in terms of the analyzed mechanical properties. Alternative materials and manufacturing processes are being considered to improve the resistance to cracking and the in-service life of composite tubes. To avoid numerous FE stress-strain analyses of composite tubes made of different material combinations, a response surface study was performed that considered two essential mechanical properties of the clad material - coefficient of thermal expansion and yield stress - as independent variables. The response surface study provided a generalized solution of stresses in the floor in terms of the two selected parameters.

  5. Desilication of spent liquors derived from alkaline pulping of non-wood plant fibres. Compendium on low- and non-waste technology. Addendum. Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-02-22

    Removal of silica from spent liquors of alkaline non-wood plant fiber pulping. When using non-wood annual plant as raw material for pulping a considerable amount of silica (SiO2) is carried into the process, which prohibits recycling of the quick lime to the causticizing process. The desilication of the black liquor requires steam boiler flue gas as the only reagent. Precipitated matter is separated from the liquor by means of conventional mechanical systems.

  6. Multi-Response Optimization via Desirability Functionfor the Black Liquor DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Fitrianto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment that was conducted to examine the advanced oxidation of the black liquor effluent obtained from the pulp and paper industry using the dark Fenton reaction in a lab-scale experiment based on Central Composite Design. The three factors along with their range values in that experiment were temperature (298; 333, K, H2O2 concentration (29.4; 58.8, mM, and Fe(II concentration (0.36; 8.95, mM. The range of the factors were examine at fixed phase pH=3. Three response variables studied in the experiment, namely, COD removal after 90 min(%, UV254 removal after 90 min(aromatic content,%, and UV280 removal after 90 min (lignin content, %. The most widespread application of the RSM is in the situation where input variables potentially influence some quality characteristics of a process. Due to the fact that the experiment has several response variables, we employed a desirability function approach to optimize the responses simultaneously at one best setting of available factors. The resulted simultaneous optimization of an experiment is, in fact, the real situation where the experimenter should deal with since in an experiment, there is certainly a single input setting. After analyzing the data, both separated for each response variable and simultaneous for all response variables provided the same terms (factors which are significantly contribute to the quadratic model (H2O2 and Fe(II concentration. Nevertheles, they produced different factor settings. Through desirability function approach, we found that the best settings are 46.84 mM and 6.771 mM of H2O2 and Fe(II concentration, respectively. Those setting can be obtained at desirability function’s value of 0.782.

  7. Black liquor and the hangover effect: fish assemblage recovery dynamics following a pulse disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Kyle R; Geheber, Aaron D

    2015-06-01

    Anthropogenic perturbations impact aquatic systems causing wide-ranging responses, from assemblage restructuring to assemblage recovery. Previous studies indicate the duration and intensity of disturbances play a role in the dynamics of assemblage recovery. In August 2011, the Pearl River, United States, was subjected to a weak black liquor spill from a paper mill which resulted in substantial loss of fish in a large stretch of the main channel. We quantified resilience and recovery of fish assemblage structure in the impacted area following the event. We compared downstream (impacted) assemblages to upstream (unimpacted) assemblages to determine initial impacts on structure. Additionally, we incorporated historic fish collections (1988-2011) to examine impacts on assemblage structure across broad temporal scales. Based on NMDS, upstream and downstream sites generally showed similar assemblage structure across sample periods with the exception of the 2 months postdischarge, where upstream and downstream sites visually differed. Multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) indicated significant seasonal variation among samples, but found no significant interaction between impacted and unimpacted assemblages following the discharge event. However, multivariate dispersion (MVDISP) showed greater variance among assemblage structure following the discharge event. These results suggest that 2 months following the disturbance represent a time period of stochasticity in regard to assemblage structure dynamics, and this was followed by rapid recovery. We term this dynamic the "hangover effect" as it represents the time frame from the cessation of the perturbation to the assemblage's return to predisturbance conditions. The availability and proximity of tributaries and upstream refugia, which were not affected by the disturbance, as well as the rapid recovery of abiotic parameters likely played a substantial role in assemblage recovery. This study not only demonstrates

  8. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

  9. 黑液成分分析及溶出木素的测定%Componential Analysis of Black Liquor and Determining of Dissohtion Lignin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春敬; 刘玉

    2012-01-01

    The composition of black liquor was analyzed, then dissolved lignin was separated by fractionation with acidulation precipitation, and the UV lignin was quantified by UV analysis. The result showed that UV lignin is more than 90% of the total lignin in the black liquor. In other words, using acidulation precipitation can separate lignin from the black liquor is completely feasible.%对黑液的成分进行分析。利用改进酸析法分级分离析出黑液中的木素,并用紫外法对酸析后黑液中的木素进行定量分析。实验结果表明,酸析木素占黑液中总木素的比例可达90%以上,证明应用此法分离黑液中的木素是可行的。

  10. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry Kraft recovery boilers. Final report, Phase 1, Volume 1: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The objectives are to develop a preliminary design of a recovery furnace simulator; evaluate the economics of high-solids; and delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies to improve chemical recovery.

  11. Increasing the lignin yield of the Alkaline Polyol Pulping process by treating black liquor with laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Norman; Hundt, Martin; Schapals, Tino

    2016-03-01

    The Alkaline Polyol Pulping process separates cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass by dissolving lignin to a great extent. Due to the pulping conditions the dissolved lignin depolymerises and only 75% can be precipitated. To increase this amount, a 24 h reaction of laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila with lignin dissolved in black liquor of the AlkaPolP process was investigated. The influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and partial oxygen pressure was examined in a batch stirred tank reactor using a Box-Behnken factorial design. Due to the enzymatic reaction the lignin polymerises which results in an enhanced lignin precipitation. The addition of a mediator improves the polymerisation but decreases the amount of precipitable lignin. The influence of the parameters on precipitation yield and molecular mass can sufficiently be described with a second-order model and optimum conditions can be assessed. FT-IR spectra of the obtained lignins revealed that its typical phenolic structure is preserved. PMID:26722808

  12. Effect of black tea on antioxidant, textural, and sensory properties of Chinese steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Sakulnak, Ratchaneekorn; Wang, Sunan

    2016-03-01

    Black tea is rich in phenolic antioxidants and has various health benefits. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a traditional food produced through steaming of fermented dough. Black tea extracts were incorporated into northern style CSB formulation at varying concentrations up to 175mg gallic acid equivalent/gram of wheat flour. Gelatinization properties of wheat flour were not affected by the black tea addition. Rheological analysis of wheat flour showed that black tea increased pasting viscosity, consistency index of flow curves, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) during dynamic oscillation. Black tea incorporation increased the antioxidant activity as measured by chemical assays, had little effect on textural properties, and increased the darkness of CSB. Sensory evaluation showed a good overall acceptance of black tea fortified CSB.

  13. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

  14. Catalytic oxidative treatment of diluted black liquor at mild conditions using copper oxide/cerium oxide catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anurag; Mishra, Indra M; Chand, Shri

    2008-02-01

    Wet-air oxidation of diluted black liquor (chemical oxygen demand [COD] approximately 3250 to 14 500 mg/L) was performed at mild operating conditions (temperature = 388 to 423 K and total pressure = 0.6 MPa) in the presence of heterogeneous 60% copper oxide (CuO)/ 40% cerium oxide (CeO2) catalyst. Maximum COD reduction of 77.3% was obtained at 423 K at pH 3.0, which was marginally higher than that obtained at 413 K temperature (77.1%). In the acidic environment (pH < or = 3), most of the COD was removed in the form of settleable solids during the transient heating of the wastewater from room temperature to the desired one. The solid residue obtained after the reaction has a heating value of 20.1 MJ/kg, which is comparable with that of Indian coal. Thermal degradation kinetic determination suggested that thermal characteristics of the solid residue are well represented by a power law model with Agarwal and Sivasubramanian approximation (Safi et al., 2004). PMID:18330223

  15. Pyrolysis and auto-gasification of black liquor in presence of ZnO: An integrated process for Zn/ZnO nanostructure production and bioenergy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a new process for valorisation of black liquor into gases that are used to reduce ZnO and promote zinc nanosheet synthesis, besides energy generation. During the black liquor pyrolysis and auto-gasification, gases evolve, especially carbon monoxide, and promote ZnO reduction with Zn(v) release. The metal is condensed yielding zinc nanosheets, with partial surface re-oxidation in presence of carbon dioxide. The process was investigated at the micro scale using thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA) and the gases evolved were analysed by FTIR spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The process was also studied in laboratory scale using a tubular electric furnace. The black liquor/ZnO mixture was placed at the quartz tube and the sample was heated to 900 °C at 10 °C/min, and the temperature was held at 900 °C for 1 h. The nanostructures growth was catalyst-free, without pressure reduction or a template, at temperatures lower than those required in the classical carbothermal reduction of ZnO with fossil carbon. The nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). One mechanism was presented in an attempt to explain the synthesis of Zn/ZnO nanosheets that are crystalline. This green and innovative process has potential use at the industry due to its operational conditions, low costs and technological importance of Zn and ZnO nanostructures. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Black liquor and ZnO mixture were submitted to a heat treatment until 900 °C. ► The black liquor suffered pyrolysis and auto-gasification. ► ZnO is reduced by CO yielding Znv, that is condensed generating Zn/ZnO nanosheets. ► The nanostructures are characterized and a mechanism of reactions is presented. ► The new process can produce energy and nanostructures in large scale.

  16. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities of steamed and irradiated ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waje, Catherine K; Kim, Hyun-Ku; Kim, Kyong-Su; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2008-06-25

    The effects of steam and irradiation treatments on the physicochemical properties (moisture content, pH, extractable yield, reducing sugar, soluble pigment, antioxidant activity, piperine, Hunter's color, and sensory attributes) and microbiological quality (total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and yeasts and molds) of ground black pepper stored at refrigerated and room temperatures for 6 months were compared and evaluated. Irradiation resulted in a higher microbial reduction in pepper, with minimal effects on the proximate composition, functional components, color, and sensory attributes of the spice. Steamed peppers appeared darker, and a considerable decrease in the piperine content was observed after treatment and storage. This study illustrates that irradiation is a better decontamination method than steam treatment in eliminating microorganisms without apparently affecting the quality of the powdered spice. Storage at 4 degrees C enhanced the microbial quality and minimized the loss of piperine content in ground black peppers.

  17. Laccase-initiated cross-linking of lignocellulose fibres using a ultra-filtered lignin isolated from kraft black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegir, G; Bussini, D; Antonsson, S; Lindström, M E; Zoia, L

    2007-12-01

    In this work, the effect of Trametes pubescens laccase (TpL) used in combination with a low-molecular-weight ultra-filtered lignin (UFL) to improve mechanical properties of kraft liner pulp and chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp was studied. UFL was isolated by ultra-filtration from the kraft cooking black liquor obtained from softwood pulping. This by-product from the pulp industry contains an oligomeric lignin with almost twice the amount of free phenolic moieties than residual kraft pulp lignin. The reactivity of TpL on UFL and kraft pulp was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. Laccase was shown to polymerise UFL and residual kraft pulp lignin in the fibres, seen by the increase in their average molecular weight and in the case of UFL as a decrease in the amount of phenolic hydroxyls. The laccase initiated cross-linking of lignin, mediated by UFL, which gives rise to more than a twofold increase in wet strength of kraft liner pulp handsheets without loosing other critical mechanical properties. Hence, this could be an interesting path to decrease mechano-sorptive creep that has been reported to lessen in extent as wet strength is given to papers. The laccase/2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) mediator system showed a greater increase in wet tensile strength of the resulting pulp sheets than the laccase/UFL system. However, other mechanical properties such as dry tensile strength, compression strength and Scott Bond internal strength were negatively affected by the laccase/ABTS system. PMID:17955195

  18. 麦草浆黑液燃烧法除硅研究%Remove silicon through black liquor combustion for wheat straw pulping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永建; 孙浩; 张鼎军; 田勇

    2015-01-01

    研究了硫酸铝对麦草浆浓黑液理化性能及除硅效果的影响.实验结果表明,铝盐有利于提高浓黑液膨胀率,在添加量为3%时达到了最大值64.19%;流变仪检测表明,在高温下铝盐添加量对浓黑液的黏度几乎没有影响,可在110℃输送浓黑液;黑液燃烧法结果表明,铝盐具有一定的除硅作用,硫酸铝的除硅效果最高可达53.02%;SEM‐EDAX检测结果表明,铝离子能和硅形成不溶于水的沉淀物.上述结果表明:硫酸铝具有一定的除硅效果,当其添加量为3%时除硅效果最好.%Effect of physical and chemical properties and desilication rate of aluminium sul‐phate were studied on thick black liquor of grows wheat straw .Results showed that expan‐sion rate was enhanced with an increase in aluminum salt which reached the maximum desili‐cation rate of 64 .19% in addition amount of 3% .Rheometer showed aluminum salt would have little impact on the viscosity of thick black liquor at a high temperature ,so it was a bet‐ter selection that thick black liquor could be conveyed at 110 ℃ .It was studied the effect of adding aluminium salt on silicon removal rate during black liquor combusting .The experi‐mental results showed that aluminium sulphate had the function of desilication ,while the de‐silication rate of aluminum sulphate could reach 53 .02% .SEM‐EDX illustrated the alumi‐num and silicon ions was formed into insoluble precipitate .It was a optimum way to choose 3% of aluminium sulphate as the desilication agent under comprehensive consideration .

  19. Comparison of two continuous fungal bioreactors for posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Marín-Mezo, G; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Montes-Horcasitas, M C; Caffarel-Méndez, S; Barrera-Cortés, Josefina; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate and compare two continuous systems of posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor (WBL). The first system consisted of a packed bed reactor (PBR) with Trametes versicolor (Tv) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak (biocubes). The second system was a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) with Lentinus edodes (Le) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak. The reactors operated for 65 days at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days, at 28 degrees C, with continuous aeration. Response variables monitored were conventional and specific, unit, net removal efficiency (eta and eta(sun), respectively) of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, and ligninoids, and enzymatic activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase (Lac) and proteases. The PBR showed an average color eta superior to that of the FBR (52.42 +/- 21.78% and 25.34 +/- 14.38% for PBR and FBR, respectively); removals of COD and ligninoids presented a similar pattern to that of color. Lac activity was significantly larger in PBR than in FBR. Activity of MnP in PBR was higher than that of the FBR (0.004 and 0.002 U MnP/mL, respectively). This difference could be ascribed to the different fungi present in each bioreactor. LiP activity was very low in both reactors. Average value of proteases was almost double in the FBR as compared with PBR (0.472 and 0.209 U Proteases/mL, respectively). During the last 2 weeks of operation, biocubes in the FBR experienced a significant loss of the attached Le biomass, probably by attrition. This and higher protease activity in the FBR could explain the lower pollutant removals achieved in the FBR. Overall, PBR with immobilized Tv showed a better performance than the FBR with Le for the posttreatment of the recalcitrant anaerobic effluent. Extended and sustained pollutant removal (65 days) was achieved in the PBR, although more research is needed to evaluate bioreactor performance at shorter hydraulic

  20. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  1. Novel technology of resource recovery from reed black liquor%芦苇浆造纸黑液资源化处理新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫春; 尤翔宇; 王云燕; 赵静; 柴立元; 舒余德

    2012-01-01

    A novel process was proposed to treat reed black liquor: desilication-acidification-three-dimensional electrolysis-causticization-reuse in pulp making. The precipitation method was used to remove silicon by adding Ca(OH)2. The residual concentration of silicon decreases from 6.68 g/L to 0.12 g/L and the removal rate of silicon is maintained at 98.2%. Lignin was recovered by acidulation-precipitation after the addition of sulfuric acid. The residual concentration of CODCr can be reduced from 220.648 g/L to 54.179 g/L and its removal rate is maintained at 75.45%. 8.5 g lignin was recovered from 100 mL black liquor. Based on the analysis of FTIR, EDX and SEM, it is found that the structure of lignin consists mainly of syringyl monomers and hydroxyl groups, and the lignin particles are not fibrous but granular. The reed pulp black liquor pretreated by acidification method was treated by electrolysis with a three-dimensional electrode reactor. The removal rate of TOC is maintained at 35.57% and the residual concentration of CODCr can be reduced to 36.761 g/L. Then, causticization was adopted to recovery residual alkali from the black liquor, which can be reused in the paper mill. After causticization, the concentration of effective alkali is 8.30 g/L and the causticization rate of the solution is about 78.60%, the residual concentration of CODcr in the black liquor is further reduced to 33.085 g/L and the removal rate of TOC is 9.99%.%针对芦苇浆造纸产生的浓缩黑液的特点,提出了黑液脱硅—酸析回收木质素—三维电极电解—苛化回收NaOH-出水返回生产的工艺流程.采用Ca(OH)2沉淀法去除黑液中的SiO2,黑液中硅含量由6.68 g/L降至0.12g/L,脱硅率为98.20%;黑液脱硅后加入H2SO4去除COD并回收木质素,CODCr由220.648 g/L降至54.179 g/L左右,脱除率达到75.45%,每100mL黑液可回收8.5 g木质素.FTIR、SEM和EDX的分析结果表明:酸析木质素结构以紫丁香基和对羟基的单体结构为

  2. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  3. 催化湿式氧化预处理造纸黑液%Pretreatment of Black Liquor by Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董振海; 李利敏; 闫海生; 于姗姗; 李秀珍; 毕延文

    2011-01-01

    采用连续式固定床反应器,利用自制稀土类复合金属氧化物催化剂对草浆造纸黑液进行了催化湿式氧化(CWAO)预处理研究.通过正交实验确定了最佳工艺条件为:进水COD 40 800 mg/L,空速0.8h-1,反应温度260℃,反应压力6.5 MPa.在此最佳条件下进行实验,COD去除率达90%.经CWAO工艺处理后,草浆造纸黑液的可生化性显著提高,BOD5/COD由0.11提高至0.62.在1 000 h CWAO连续实验中,自制稀土类复合金属氧化物催化剂显示出较高催化活性和较好的稳定性.%The black liquor from straw pulp paper-making was pretreated by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) in the continuous fixed bed reactor with self-made rare earth oxide catalyst. The optimum process conditions determined by the orthogonal tests are as follows: influent COD 40 800 mg/L,space velocity 0. 8 h-1 .reaction temperature 260℃, reaction pressure 6. 5 Mpa. Under these conditions, the COD removal rate is 90%. The biodegradability of the treated black liquor is significantly improved with BOD5/COD increased from 0. 11 to 0. 62. During 1 000 h of the CWAO continuous experiment, the catalytic activity and stability of the self-made rare earth oxide catalyst are good.

  4. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  5. Preparation and research of black liquor modified amino sulfonate superplasticizer%黑液改性氨基磺酸盐高效减水剂的制备与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖广兴; 方云辉; 郑飞龙; 林添兴

    2013-01-01

    通过一系列的单因素试验,研究了氨基磺酸盐高效减水剂合成的最佳参数,并在最佳合成参数基础上添加黑液进行改性,合成了一系列不同黑液掺量的改性氨基磺酸盐高效减水剂.采用红外光谱对黑液改性产物的分子结构进行了表征,并对黑液改性产物进行净浆流动度、砂浆流动度、泌水率、混凝土坍落度等测试,结果显示,黑液添加量为18%的改性氨基磺酸盐高效减水剂性价比最高、综合性能最佳.%The best synthesized parameters of the amino sulfonate superplasticizer was studied by a series of single-factor test and added the black liquor on the basis of the best synthesis parameters to modify and a series of the amino sulfonate superplas ticizer with the different dosage of black liquor were synthesized. The molecular structure of the black liquor modified products were characterized by FT-IR and were tested by paste fluidity,mortar fluidity,bleeding rate and concrete slump. The results show that,the amino sulfonate superplasticizer with the 18% amount of black liquor has the highest cost performance and the best com prehensive performance.

  6. Preparation of Concrete Water-reducer by Oxidation and Sulfomethylation of Bamboo Pulping Black Liquor%竹浆黑液氧化-磺甲基化制备混凝土减水剂研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何贵萍; 吕思宁; 刘一山; 周建; 何强

    2011-01-01

    对碱法竹浆黑液进行氧化-磺甲基化改性,制备了可用作混凝士减水剂的磺化木素,并研究了该产品的水溶性和表面活性,探讨了其作为减水剂在水泥浆中的应用性能.结果表明,氧化-磺甲基化处理能有效改善碱法竹浆黑液中木素的水溶性,提高其表面活性.%Lignosulfonate was prepared as water-reducer via oxidation and sulfomethylation of bamboo alkaline-pulping black liquor. Results indicated that the water-solubility and surfactivity of lignin in black liquor can be effectively improved through the modification. The prepared lignosulfonate can be employed as a cost-effectively water-reducer in concrete industry, since it can reduce cement slurry viscosity so as to increase the fluidity by means of dispersing cement slurry floc and releasing the bound water. This work shows great significance in pollution prevention and the reuse of black liquor.

  7. Sulphur distribution during air gasification of kraft black liquor solids in a fluidized bed of TiO{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, L. [BC Research Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Van Heiningen, A.R.P. [Main Univ., Orono, ME (United States)

    1999-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine if kraft black liquor (KBL) gasification is a viable alternative for conventional kraft recovery, and to evaluate the sulphur distribution during gasification of KBL in the presence of TiO{sub 2}. KBL gasification can be combined with direct causticization by TiO{sub 2} to prevent smelt formation, minimize sodium emission and to eliminate the lime causticizing cycle. However, the presence of TiO{sub 2} should theoretically lead to the complete volatilization of the sulphur in KBL mostly as H{sub 2}S and Na{sub 2}S. Experiments were conducted at 700 to 900 degrees C in a pilot fluidized bed system. The bed residual solids were analyzed for sulphite, sulphate, thiosulphate and sulphide using various techniques. Results showed that Na{sub 2}S was not found in the KBL solids but Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} content was high probably because of oxidation of NA{sub 2}S during drying. It was suggested that thermal cracking of CH{sub 3}SH and (CH{sub 3}) {sub 2}S is the major cause for H{sub 2}S generation. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. CO{sub 2} emission balances for different black liquor gasification biorefinery concepts for production of electricity or second-generation liquid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Karin; Harvey, Simon [Department of Energy and Environment/Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) is currently being developed as an alternative technology for energy and chemical recovery at chemical pulp mills. This study examines how different assumptions regarding systems surrounding the pulp mill affect the CO{sub 2} emission balances for different BLG concepts. The syngas from the gasification process can be used for different applications; this study considers production of renewable motor fuels and electricity generation. Both a market pulp mill and an integrated pulp and paper mill are considered as host mill for the BLG plant. Furthermore, the consequences of limited availability of biomass are shown, i.e., increasing the use of biomass in a mill is not necessarily CO{sub 2}-neutral. The results show that the potential to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by introducing BLG is generally much higher for a market pulp mill than for an integrated pulp and paper mill. Electricity generation from the syngas is favoured when assuming high grid electricity CO{sub 2} emissions whereas motor fuel production is favoured when assuming low grid electricity CO{sub 2} emissions. When considering the consequences of limited availability of biomass, the CO{sub 2} emission balances are strongly affected, in some cases changing the results from a decrease to an increase of the CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  9. 造纸黑液中碱木素的提取及其在石化工业中的应用%The application of alkali lignin from black liquor in petroleum industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立波; 赵长征

    2012-01-01

    主要介绍了碱木素的提取,碱木素的结构特性和反应性能。详细阐述了碱木素在石化工业中的应用及其它应用前景。%The application of alkali lignin from black liquor in petroleum industry was summarized. The extraction procedure, structure characteristics and reaction performance forward alkali lignins were introduced. The use of alkali lignin in petroleum industry was elaborated in detail. Going forward, the alkali lignin will be used in many trade.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of high photocatalytic activity and stable Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers for photocatalytic degradation of black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Li, E-mail: 50647698@qq.com; Long, Qiyi; Yin, Chao

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers were prepared via in situ Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} particles onto the surface of TiO{sub 2} fiber. • Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers have stronger catalytic activity and excellent chemical stability. • Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor. - Abstract: The TiO{sub 2} fiber was prepared by using cotton fiber as a template, and then Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers were synthesized via in situ Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} particles onto the surface of TiO{sub 2} fiber. Their structure and physical properties were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra (PL). SEM analysis indicated that the well-defined surface morphology of natural cotton fiber was mostly preserved in TiO{sub 2} and Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers. Compared with TiO{sub 2} fiber, the absorbance wavelengths of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers were apparently red shifted and the PL intensities revealed a significant decrease. By using the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor as a model reaction, the visible light and ultraviolet light catalytic efficiencies of TiO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers were evaluated. The reaction results showed that Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers had stronger photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability in repeated and long-term applications. Therefore, the prepared Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers could act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor, which suggested their promising applications. It was proposed that the • OH radicals played the leading role in the photocatalytic degradation of the black liquor by Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers system.

  11. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase Ia - Low-temperature gasifier evaluation. Final report, November 1, 1995--October 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southards, W.T.; Blude, J.D.; Dickinson, J.A. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This project, conducted under The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-94GO10002/A002, was part of a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies that improve the energy efficiency and economics of chemical process recovery in the pulp and paper industry. The approach taken was to consider two major alternatives in two phases. Phase I, conducted previously, considered means to improve pulp mill recovery boilers using high-solids advanced combustion of black liquor; while this project, Phase la, considered means to recover kraft pulping mill process chemicals by low-temperature black liquor gasification. The principal steps previously proposed in this program were: (1) Evaluate these two technologies, high-solids advanced combustion and gasification, and then select a path forward using the more promising of these two options for future work. (2) Design and construct a pilot-scale unit based on the selected technology, and using that unit, develop the precompetitive data necessary to make commercialization attractive. (3) Develop and deploy a first-of-a-kind (FOAK) commercial unit in a kraft pulp mill. Phase I, which evaluated the high-solids advanced combustion option, was concluded in 1995. Results of that project phase were reported previously. This report describes the work conducted in Phase Ia. The work is described in Sections 1 through 4 and six appendices provide additional detail.

  12. A Technique Research on Disposing Alkali Pulp-making Black Liquor with Bagasse by Recovery and Recycle Suitability%碱法蔗渣制浆黑液循环处理技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆环珍; 杨问波; 姚春丽; 黄衍初; 何艳明; 王建平; 袁庆波; 江渝

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism and technique to treat black liquor from alkali pulp-making with bagasse was studied. The result shows that this technique is more applicability. By this way, pulping black liquor can be disposed overall. Two utility products will be recovered and the liquid will be recycled to pulping at the same time. The materials of acidification will be translated into pulping reagent and reused to pulp-making. The properties of the pulp and paper reused the liquid are all right.%对碱法蔗渣制浆黑液良性循环处理技术路线及原理进行研究。研究结果表明,此技术路线可行,制浆黑液将被全部处理,同时实现了液体回用和回收两种实用价值好的产品目标。处理黑液所用的酸化剂转化为制浆药液成分回用于制浆蒸煮,得到的浆、纸性能良好。

  13. Improvement of physical properties of gluten-free steamed cake based on black waxy rice flour using different hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthivadhanapong, Pimchada; Jantathai, Srinual; Schleining, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of 1 % addition of four selected hydrocolloids (xanthan, guar, hypdroxypropylmethylcellulose and carrageenan) on quality characteristics of batter and of black waxy rice steamed cake compared to a control without hydrocolloids. Dynamic frequency sweeps of the batters at 25 °C indicated that all formulations exhibited gel-like behaviour with storage moduli (G') higher than loss moduli (G″). Hydrocolloids increased the apparent viscosity and the thixotropic behaviour, depending on the type of hydrocolloids. Xanthan had the greatest effects on both moduli, whereas carrageenan had the smallest effects. During a storage period of 4 days the cakes with xanthan remained softer than control samples. The overall acceptability of cake with xanthan and guar were higher than control. This study is the first report on using black waxy rice flour as a main raw material in gluten free cake. The results of this study provided useful information for selection hydrocolloids as ingredients that can help to improve the physical properties of waxy rice steamed cake.

  14. Improvement of physical properties of gluten-free steamed cake based on black waxy rice flour using different hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthivadhanapong, Pimchada; Jantathai, Srinual; Schleining, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of 1 % addition of four selected hydrocolloids (xanthan, guar, hypdroxypropylmethylcellulose and carrageenan) on quality characteristics of batter and of black waxy rice steamed cake compared to a control without hydrocolloids. Dynamic frequency sweeps of the batters at 25 °C indicated that all formulations exhibited gel-like behaviour with storage moduli (G') higher than loss moduli (G″). Hydrocolloids increased the apparent viscosity and the thixotropic behaviour, depending on the type of hydrocolloids. Xanthan had the greatest effects on both moduli, whereas carrageenan had the smallest effects. During a storage period of 4 days the cakes with xanthan remained softer than control samples. The overall acceptability of cake with xanthan and guar were higher than control. This study is the first report on using black waxy rice flour as a main raw material in gluten free cake. The results of this study provided useful information for selection hydrocolloids as ingredients that can help to improve the physical properties of waxy rice steamed cake. PMID:27478229

  15. Perspectives for the electricity surplus generation at the paper and cellulose segment through the gasification of black liquor; Perspectivas para a geracao de excedentes de eletricidade no segmento de papel e celulose atraves da gaseificacao de lixivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mail: velazquez@mackenzie.com.br; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [CENBIO - Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa, Sao Paulo, Sp (Brazil)]. E-mail: suani@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The pulp/paper segment is enclosed enters the most energointensive of the industrial sector. Its industries generate great part of the energy that consume from by-products of the process, but still are not self-sufficient. On the other hand, the difficulties of the industrial sector to the availability energy guarantee are well known, due to lack of trustworthiness of the electricity transmission and distribution. In this context, the increase of the self generation of electricity in the segment's plants certainly would go to collaborate for bigger flexibility in the Brazilian energy matrix, not only for the option of Demand Side Management, but even for the possibility of electricity excesses generation, as it is considered in this study. Thus, this work presents an economic and technique analysis of the energy cogeneration and the generation of electricity excesses in the pulp and paper segment and cellulose using more efficient technologies (although in development), as the black liquor gasification. The perspectives for the use of black liquor gasification systems and coupling of this unit to a gas turbine (BLGCC) are studied, with exploitation of the exhaustion gases in cogeneration systems. One is about technology in development phase in the industrialized countries and that it allows high conversion efficiency. They are, also, calculated the excesses generation costs, by means of the thermo economy, on the basis of the exergy concept, the most adjusted methodology to analyze cogeneration processes. Despite the biggest efficiency, the exceeding electricity, in some of the studied configurations, presented generation costs that do not reveal competitive with the sale's price of electricity, defined for the PROINFA, leaving evident the necessity of other mechanisms that make possible the implementation of new technologies, as the incorporation of the external factors and the carbon credits discouragement of the generation costs. In the pulp and paper

  16. EFFECTS OF A COMPOUND FERTILIZER OF ORGANIC NPK MADE OF CONCRETIONS OF BLACK-LIQUOR IN PAPER-MAKING ON PEANUT%造纸黑液固化物有机NPK对花生的效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪怀建; 周跃龙; 罗运阔; 李琳

    2001-01-01

    The concretions of black liquor, a waste produced in paper-making indu stry, was used as a compound NPK fertilizer and applied to peanut plants with th e compound fertilizers “Shidazhuang” as the control. The black-liquor based fe rt ilizer increased the branch, fruit and plump fruit number per plant and extended flowering period, thus giving 5.6% and 16.4% higher yield than Shidazhuang No.1 and No.2, respectively. The new compound fertilizer also helped improve the qua lity of peanut fruit, increased the total N content in the peanut field and enha nced its fertility.%研究了造纸黑液固化物有机NPK复合肥对花生产量、品质及土壤的影响,结果与“施大壮”复混肥相比,造纸黑液固化物有机NPK复合肥能促进花生分枝多、延长开花期、果数多、饱果数多,因而产量比“施大壮”复混肥1号和2号分别增产5.6%和16.4%。该肥对提高花生品质有一定效应。且该肥增加花生地中土壤的有机质和全氮含量,从而提高土壤肥力。

  17. Chemical treatment of liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquor, which may contain heavy metal species, e.g. U or Pu, is passed along a pipeline provided with a cascade of fluidic mixing devices for adding a reagent or reagents. Pipeline sections are disposed downstream of mixing devices dimensioned so that the liquor and reagent(s) are afforded a residence time for reaction as they flow through it. The mixed liquor/reagent(s) are then fed into a settling vessel from which part of the contents is fed to a centrifugal separator to effect liquid/solid separation. A proportion of the solid separated is recycled back to the cascaded mixing pipeline to provide nuclei to enhance precipitation and/or increase concentration of a constituent, such as a floc-forming agent, used in the treatment of the liquor. (author)

  18. Study on radix puerariae,black beans,black rice and honey health steamed bread%葛根黑豆黑米蜂蜜保健馒头研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张首玉; 胡二坤

    2015-01-01

    Theoptimum parameters were studied through the single factor experiments andorthogonal teston radix puerariae,black beans,black rice andhoneyhealth steamed bread.The results showed that the best ratioof radix puerariae,black beans,black rice,honey,wheat powder were radix puerariae 15%,black bean 12%,black rice 10%,wheat flour 100% andhoney 6%.The bestconditionofmaking steamed bread were water 50%,fermentation temperatureof 38℃,humidity 88%,time 40min.After forming,under theconditionof temperature 38℃,humidity 88% the dough rested again for about 15 min and was steamed for 20min by boiled–water,then removed and letitcool to room temperature. Under theseconditions,the steamed breadhadgood quality andhigh nutritional value.%通过单因素试验及正交试验研究了葛根、黑豆、黑米、蜂蜜保健馒头的最佳工艺,结果表明,葛根、黑豆、黑米、蜂蜜、小麦粉混合的最佳配比是葛根粉添加量15%、黑豆粉添加量12%、黑米粉添加量10%、小麦粉添加量100%、蜂蜜添加量6%。馒头制作的最佳工艺条件为加水量50%、发酵温度38℃、湿度88%,发酵时间40 min,成型后在温度38℃、湿度88%条件下再次醒发15min,沸水蒸制20min,取出冷却到室温。此条件下生产的馒头具有较好的品质和较高的营养价值。

  19. Análisis Termodinámico de un Sistema de Cogeneración con Gasificación del Licor Negro Thermodynamic Analysis of a Cogeneration System with Black Liquor Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el análisis termodinámico de un proceso de cogeneración de energía con gasificación del licor negro, utilizando balances de exergía para identificar y cuantificar las principales irreversibilidades presentes. Se realizó una simulación del proceso de cogeneración con un simulador comercial, a partir de la cual fue posible realizar el balance de exergía del sistema. Se evaluó la influencia de la composición de los gases obtenidos en el gasificador sobre las pérdidas exergéticas en el proceso. Las condiciones operacionales del gasificador de licor negro que contribuyen a reducir la concentración de estos compuestos responsables de las pérdidas de exergía, son la baja temperatura (700°C y la baja presión (200 kPa. El análisis mostró útil para determinar de viabilidad técnica del proceso alternativo de generación de energía a través de la gasificación del licor negro.This work presents a thermodynamic analysis of a cogeneration energy process with black liquor gasification obtained in pulp and paper industries, using exergy balances to identify and quantify the main irreversibilities in the process. The cogeneration process was analyzed using a commercial simulator from which it was possible to develop the exergy balance. The influence of the composition of the gases produced in the gasifier over the exergy losses in the process was evaluated. The most appropriated operating conditions in the gasifier to reduce the concentration of these components, which are responsible for the exergy losses are the low temperature (700 ºC and the low pressure (200 kPa. The analysis showed to be useful to determine the technical viability of this alternative process of energy generation using black liquor gasification.

  20. DETERMINACIÓN DE FENOLES TOTALES EN DERIVADOS LÍGNICOS OBTENIDOS DEL “LICOR NEGRO” COMO ALTERNATIVA DE PRODUCCIÓN // DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOL DERIVATIVES OBTAINED FROM LIGNIN "BLACK LIQUOR" AS ALTERNATIVE TO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José López Villalobos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is an industrial waste being worthless in papermaking byproduct of black liquor obtained from the pulping process in some Venezuelan plants. The black liquor is obtained from the Kraft pulping process to extract lignin sulphite by acid precipitation and quantify the amount of total phenols in such lignin products used in this study. Spectrophotometry Molecular absorption in the UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR region were used to carry out these study techniques. The products obtained in the study had the same signs than commercial lignin (LA, along with the extracted lignin present little degradation HCl, confirmed by infrared spectra. Also, the amount of total phenols was quantified in derivative lignin obtained using the Folin-Ciocalteu. In the sulphite process extracted lignin with acetic acid derivative contains more phenols, and in the Kraft process, the derivative lignin extracted with fewer nitric acid present. The amount of total phenolics present in these derivatives are good for making antiseptics, detergents, nylon, resin and many industrial products. // RESUMEN La lignina es un subproducto del licor negro obtenido del proceso de despulpado en algunas plantas de Venezuela, siendo un desecho industrial que carece de valor en la fabricación de papel. En este estudio se utilizó el licor negro obtenido de los procesos de pulpado Kraft y Sulfito para extraer la lignina mediante precipitaciones ácidas y cuantificar la cantidad de fenoles totales en dichos productos lígnicos. Para llevar a cabo este estudio, se utilizaron las técnicas de Espectrofotometría de Absorción Molecular en la región UV-Visible y la Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo (FTIR. Los productos obtenidos en el estudio presentaron señales similares que la lignina comercial (LA, además la lignina extraída con HCl presentó poca degradación, corroborado por los espectros infrarrojos. Asimismo, se cuantificó la cantidad de fenoles totales en los

  1. 造纸黑液和煤泥制备水煤浆的技术研究%TECHNOLOGY STUDY ON PREPARING COAL WATER MIXTURE BY USING SLIME AND PAPER-MAKING BLACK LIQUOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李效其; 任瑞鹏; 吕永康

    2012-01-01

    将干燥的块状煤泥研磨至不同粒度的煤粉,与造纸黑液按一定比例配制成水煤浆,考察其综合性能指标.当黑液添加量为7.2%,煤粉粒度小于160目时,制备的水煤浆浓度为67.44%,流动性为A级,稳定性达到20 d保持良好.改变黑液的pH值,研究其配制的水煤浆,发现废液pH对水煤浆的成浆性没有太大的影响.由于造纸黑液中含有大量有机质,因此还可提高同等条件下水煤浆的燃烧热值.利用GB 213-87测定所制备水煤浆的恒容高位发热量为21.63 MJ/kg,低位发热量为15 MJ/kg.%Based on the character of high ash and large amount of moisture in the coal slime, and hard to handle of the actual situation of black liquor for paper making which contains abundant organism, it is an useful attempt by using dry method to make water coal mixture both as the raw material. The water coal mixture is made from powdered coal of different particle size which abrading the dry nubby coal slime and black liquor for paper making by a certain percentage in order to research the indicator of comprehensive performance. When the add content of black liquid is 7. 2% and the particle size of powdered coal is less than 160 mesh, the concentration of water coal mixture is 67. 44% , liquidity will be A grade and the stability will retain almost 20 d in good condition. The experiment results indicate that the pH value of waste almost has no effect on the slurry-ability of water coal slime if the pH value of black liquid is changed to research the prepared of water coal slime. Due to the black liquid of paper making contains large amount of or ganic matter, therefore, it can also improve the combustion heat value of water coal slime under the same conditions. The constant-volume high heat of the prepared water coal slime is 21. 63 MJ/kg, low heat is 15 MJ/kg, which is measured by GB 213-87.

  2. Black Liquor Treatment Project of Guizhou Pulp and Paper Making Factory%对贵州制浆造纸厂“黑液”治理方案的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁媛; 李皖; 曾祥钦

    2001-01-01

    According to the local conditions and the comparison between different proposals,the reclaiming of rough lignin by acid settlement and the reuse of processed lignin are adopted as the most economically effcient project to treat the black liquor pollution.A primary estimate shows that a recovery of 1000 kg of rough lignin will bring 100 renminbi yuan of net income to the enterprise,not including the economic benefits from the usage of the processed lignin.The relevant technology is based on the production and experiments,so it is completely feasible.%从贵州省情出发,通过方案比较,采取酸沉析回收粗木素治理黑液、木素改性再利用方案,黑液的污染将得到有效治理,而且还将获得新的经济效益。初步估算:每回收1吨粗木素可净增效益100元,粗木素改性利用后还可以产生新的经济效益,这对促进地方经济持续发展和社会稳定都很有意义。方案中的有关技术都有生产和生产性中试基础,方案具备可行性。

  3. Pyrolysis characteristics of main organic components of kraft pulping black liquor%硫酸盐法制浆黑液中主要有机组分的热解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴涛; 武书彬; 郭大亮

    2013-01-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of black liquor solids (BLS) and three major organic components including alkali lignin (AL), polysaccharide (PLS) and lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC) )were studied in a tubular furnace at 400 ~800℃ with 100℃ interval. The component distribution characteristics of the tar and gas were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography (GC). The surface morphology and chemical structure groups of char were characterized by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) and Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy ( FT-IR). The results show that the composition and distribution rules of pyrolysis products from BLS and its organic components pyrolysis are obviously different. AL, PLS and LCC have little effect on the yields of H2 and CO from BLS pyrolysis. The yield of CO2 from PLS pyrolysis is significantly higher than that from BLS, AL and LCC. Phenols and ethers in liquid products of BLS pyrolysis are mainly from the AL and LCC. Ketones and acids were resulted from AL, PLS, and LCC. The surface morphology of the BLS, AL, PLS, and LCC pyrolysis char is significant different. AL, PLS, and LCC affect each other in BLS pyrolysis process, and determine its pyrolysis characteristics together.%采用管式炉对硫酸盐法竹子、阔叶木混合制浆黑液固形物(BLS)及其三种主要组分碱木素(AL)、多糖(PLS)和木素-碳水化合物复合体(LCC),在400~ 800℃进行热解,全面分析了各相热解产物组成与分布规律.结果表明,BLS及其三种主要组分的热解产物组成与分布规律存在明显差异.AL、PLS和LCC对BLS热解产生H2和CO的产率影响不大,PLS热解生成CO2的能力明显高于BLS、AL和LCC.BLS热解液相产物中的酚类和醚类主要是来自AL和LCC;酮类和酸类是由AL、PLS和LCC共同贡献的.BLS、AL、PLS和LCC热解半焦表面形貌存在明显差异.在BLS热解过程中,AL、PLS和LCC会相互影响、相互制约,共同决定着BLS的热解特性.

  4. Characterization of geosmin as source of earthy odor in different aroma type Chinese liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2011-08-10

    Earthy odor is one of the most frequent and serious causes for the aroma deterioration in Chinese liquor, which causes a dirty and dusty impression. The odor in Chinese liquor is similar to that of rice husk, one kind of auxiliary material widely used as a filler in the distillation process. So it is experientially hypothesized that such odor may derive from rice husk. In this paper, the gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to discover and identify the characteristic odoriferous zone of Chinese liquor marked by earthy odor. Geosmin was found to be responsible for this odor. The levels of the compound in ten bottled liquors and thirty liquors aging for different years belonging to four different aroma types were determined by the optimized headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method. Quantitative analysis of bottled liquor revealed the presence of geosmin in all aroma type liquors with concentrations ranging from 1.10 μg/L to 9.90 μg/L, except for strong-aroma type liquor. Meanwhile in the aged liquors belonging to the same aroma type, geosmin was detected with significant concentrations and high odor activity values (OAVs) during different years of aging. However, geosmin was not detected in steamed rice husk nor in nonsteamed rice husk, which suggests that rice husk is not the origin of earthy odor in Chinese liquor, and there may be another origin of it during the brewing process.

  5. Pomegranate liquor preparation and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Galego, Ludovina; Leticia M. Estevinho; Silva, José Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) liquor has been produced for several centuries in the south of Portugal, mainly in the mountain areas. The “Assaria” variety is the preferred cultivar due to its organoleptic properties and high arils to peel ratio. Wild pomegranates are also widely distributed but, despite the health benefits that have been associated to the fruits, they continue to be unappreciated for consumption. Liquor preparation is a very good alternative for wild pomegranate fruits...

  6. Improvement of linerboard compressive strength by hot-pressing and addition of recovered lignin from spent pulping liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Saidan Motasem N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of addition of precipitated lignin, from spent pulping black liquor, to a wet single-ply linerboard handsheet followed by hot-pressing at different temperatures, on the improvement of its compressive strength. Linerboard handsheets for testing the effect of lignin addition were prepared so that the lignin-modified sheets would have the same basis weights as the control handsheets. Both the commercial and the black liquor lign...

  7. 基于热重红外的硫酸盐法黑液热解特性分析%TG-FT-IR Analysis of Pyrolysis Characteristics of Sulfate Black Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 武书彬; 戴涛

    2014-01-01

    为了深入地探讨黑液热解的反应机理以及黑液热解过程中产物的释放规律,采用热重-红外联用( TG-FT-IR)技术对竹子和桉木混合硫酸盐法制浆黑液固形物( BLS)的热裂解过程进行了研究。 TG-FT-IR结果显示,BLS热解产物的释放主要集中在500~2000 s,热解产物主要是 CO2、CH4、H2O、CO、醇酚类化合物和醛酮类化合物。 BLS的整个热解过程可分为3个阶段,第1阶段的失重主要是原料中结合水的挥发引起的,此阶段的最大失重速率出现在105℃;第2失重阶段主要发生在173~518℃,失重率约为25.19%,主要产物是CO2、CH4、H2O、醇酚类化合物、醛酮类化合物以及少量的CO,此阶段CO2的生成量最大;第3阶段主要发生在722~1000℃,失重率接近39.05%,产物主要是CO,其它小分子产物的产率都很低。%To investigate the pyrolysis mechanism and the release law of pyrolysis products, the sulfate black liquor ( BLS) from bamboo&eucalyptus was pyrolyzed and the process was investigated by thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry ( TG-FT-IR) . The results revealed that the release of BLS pyrolysis products, such as CO2 , CH4 , H2 O, CO and alcohols & phenols, aldehydes & ketones, were mainly concentrated in 500-2 000 s. The BLS pyrolysis process could be divided into three stages. The weight loss in the first stage should be attributed to the release of bound water in the raw material and the maximum weight loss rate was observed at 105 ℃. During the second weight loss stage from 173 ℃ to 518 ℃, the weight loss rate was about 25. 19%, and the release products were CO2 , CH4 , H2 O, alcohols & phenols, aldehydes &ketones and a small amount of CO, and CO2 was the dominant product. The third weight loss stage was from 722℃ to 1 000℃, and the weight loss rate was nearly 39. 05%. In this stage, CO was the dominant product and very few amounts of other small molecule products

  8. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely...

  9. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-06-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

  10. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

  11. Study on Preparation and Properties of Black Liquor Montmorillonite Complex/PVC/NBR Thermoplastic Elastomer%黑液-蒙脱土/聚氯乙烯/丁腈橡胶热塑性弹性体的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹏; 曹仲林; 苏胜培

    2011-01-01

    采用蒙脱土对造纸黑液中的木质素进行絮凝沉淀,制备黑液-蒙脱土复合物(BL-MMT),然后将其应用于聚氯乙烯/丁腈橡胶(PVC/NBR)热塑性弹性体,并对其力学性能、耐老化性能及热降解性能进行测试.结果表明:随着BL-MMT中木质素蒙脱土比例增大,热塑性弹性体力学性能先增大后减小,适宜配比m(木质素):m(蒙脱土)=1:1.BL-MMT份数增大,热塑性弹性体力学性能先增大后减小,20份时出现最大值.BL-MMT填充的PVC/NBR热塑性弹性体与添加炭黑和碳酸钙相比,力学性能和热性能相当,而耐老化性能更为优越.黑液-蒙脱土复合物可望用作PVC/NBR热塑性弹性体的补强剂.%A black liquor-montmorillonite complex (BL-MMT) was prepared by flocculating precipitation of lignin in black liquor with montmorillonite, and applied in the preparation of PVC/NBR thermoplastic elastomer composites. The mechanical properties,aging performance and thermal properties of the PVC/NBR composites were tested. The experimental results indicated that the mechanical properties of BL-MMT/PVC/NBR composites were affected by the loadings and composition of BL-MMT complex. A high performance was achieved at a lignin/ MMT ratio of 1:1. The mechanical properties of BL-MMT/PVC/NBR increase with the loading of BL-MMT up to 20 phr. A comparison study was also performed using carbon black and calcium carbonate as comparative fillers. There is no significant mechanical and thermal property difference among BL-MMT,carbon black and calcium carbonate as fillers for PVC/NBR composites. However,the aging property of BL-MMT/PVC/NBR was the best. All experimental results indicated that BL-MMT could be an effective reinforcing agent in PVC/NBR thermoplastic elastomer.

  12. Determinations of Se in white liquor and leach liquor by ICP-AES%电感耦合等离子发射光谱(ICP-AES)测定白酒及浸提液中Se

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高薇; 王莹; 张鲜; 张鹤小

    2012-01-01

    对白酒及浸提液进行分析,为人们饮用芝麻酒提供科学依据。微波消解方法消化样品,白酒浸泡黑芝麻,浸提其中的Se元素,应用ICP-AES法测定浸提液中Se元素的含量。黑芝麻中Se的回收率为97.5%,相对标准偏差为1.45%。黑芝麻中丰富的Se元素,经过白酒的浸泡,使白酒中Se元素含量更高,与普通的白酒相比,更具有营养价值。黑芝麻酒是一种简单自制的保健酒,其药用及保健价值应引起人们的广泛关注。%Analysis white liquor and leach liquor, for people drank sesame liquor provide the scientific basis. The samples were digested in the microwave systerm, soak black sesame in white liquor, recover Se from it. ICP-AES was applied to the determination of the content of Se in leach liquor. The recovery rate of the method is 97.5% and relative standard deviation is 1.45%. We soaked the black sesame which have aburdant content of element Se in the liquor in order to increase the content of element Se. And this kind of liquor has more nutritional value compared to the ordinary liquor. Black sesame liquor is one kind of simple homemade health wine.its value of medical and health should be aroused wide attention.

  13. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of used liquor... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  14. PYROLIGNEOUS LIQUOR PRODUCED FROM ACACIA MEARNSII DE WILD WOOD UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina M. Furtado; Aline dos Santos Stolz; Fernanda L. Pinto; Angela B. D. Moura; Fernando Dal Pont Morisso; Ana Paula Pitarelo; Luiz Pereira Ramos; Carin von Mühlen; Izabel C. Riegel-Vidotti

    2015-01-01

    Acacia mearnsii de Wild (black wattle) is one of the most important trees planted in Southern Brazil for tannin extraction and charcoal production. The pyrolysis of the black wattle wood used for obtaining charcoal is performed in brick ovens, with the gas fraction being sent directly into the environment. The present study examines the condensable compounds present in the liquor produced from black wattle wood at different thermal degradation conditions, using gas chromatography coupled with...

  15. Beyond steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, Pat

    2011-09-15

    Over the past decades, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) has been the technology of choice for new in situ oilsands projects. Although the process had spectacular successes, it also met with disappointments and it is now conceded that further technological development is needed to harvest Alberta's oilsands resources. The aim of this article is to present the use of electric power instead of steam to reduce bitumen viscosity. Five different technologies are presented, these are based on the use of: radio waves, electric mineral insulated heaters, mineral insulated cable, induction stove technology and electric current between electrodes installed in heater wells. The use of electric power would be easier to control than steam and would not require the construction of water-handling infrastructures. Using electricity over steam would be beneficial in terms of both environmental footprint and capital cost and the tests underway on the technologies presented will help to determine their operating costs.

  16. Steam turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Vališ, Petr

    2010-01-01

    The master´s thesis concentrates on a project of steam turbine with controlled extraction points destined for a communal waste incineration plant. First, there the history of devices using steam as a moving medium is introduced and than follows the description of computing program, where the calculation was running. The master´s thesis subject consists in the thermodynamic project of turbine vaning, in basic project of gearbox including the check calculations and in technical economic compari...

  17. Simultaneous production of α-cellulose and furfural from bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Vittaya Punsuvon

    2008-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated by steam explosion for the simultaneous production of furfural and α-cellulose pulp. The components of bagasse were fractionated after steam explosion. The details of the process are as follows. Bagasse was soaked in water for one night and steamed at temperatures varying between 206 and 223 C for 4 minutes. The steam exploded pulp was strained and washed with hot water to yield a liquor rich in hemicellulose-derived mono- and oligosaccharides. The remaining...

  18. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....C. 5232, the formula shall include a statement to that effect. If any product contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These.... If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such...

  19. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of refilled... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of refilled liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for...

  20. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer...

  1. Steam boiler technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teir, S.

    2002-07-01

    The steam boiler technology e-Book is provided by the Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection at Helsinki University of Technology. The book covers the basics and the history of steam generation, modern boilers types and applications, steam/water circulation design, feedwater and steam systems components, heat exchangers in steam boilers, boiler calculations, thermal design of heat exchangers.

  2. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum incu

  3. Ozonização em meio básico para redução de cor do licor negro de indústria de celulose de algodão Color reduction of black liquor from cotton cellulose industry using ozonation in an alkaline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Guimarães

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As indústrias de papel e celulose descartam no ambiente um grande volume de efluente contendo grande quantidade da substância lignina, que atribui coloração e apresenta considerável potencial de toxicidade. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a ozonização em meio básico para a redução de cor do licor negro gerado por uma indústria de celulose de algodão. Face aos resultados, foi possível observar que, para menores concentrações iniciais de ozônio (0,4 gO3 L-1 h-1, foi necessário um tempo mais longo de ozonização para se obter a redução desejada de 80% da cor. O consumo específico de ozônio, entretanto, em comparação a experimentos com dosagens mais elevadas (4,3 gO3 L-1 h-1 foi menor. Sugere-se que o oxigênio molecular desempenhe, também, um importante papel na oxidação dos compostos, participando do mecanismo de oxidação iniciado por radical hidroxila, •OH, formado na ozonização em meio básico.Pulp and paper mills discharge large amounts of wastewater containing high concentrations of lignin, a coloring substance that is dangerous and presents high toxicity to the environment. In this study, ozonation in alkaline ambience was evaluated for color reduction in black liquor, generated in a cotton linter mill. It was observed that the ozonation time to reach 80% color reduction was higher at a lower initial ozone dose (0,4 gO3 L-1 h-1 in comparison to a higher initial ozone dose (4,3 gO3 L-1 h-1. On the other hand, the amount of consumed oxidant was lower at the lower ozone dose. It is suggested that molecular oxygen participates in the oxidation mechanism of colored compounds, which is initiated by hydroxyl radicals (•OH formed during ozonation in alkaline ambience.

  4. Steam iron cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cleaner is a substance used to clean steam irons. Poisoning occurs when someone swallows steam iron cleaner. This ... Below are symptoms of steam iron cleaner poisoning in different ... AND THROAT Severe pain in the throat Severe pain in the mouth ...

  5. Imidacloprid in processed tea and tea liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANYAL N.; HAZRA D.; PAL R.; SOMCHAUDHURY A.K.; CHOWDHURY A.

    2006-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a newly introduced broad-spectrum chloronicotinyl insecticide and will find its way in agricultural production, particularly in Asia. However, information on the fate of imidacloprid in crop plants is lacking. The degradation of imidacloprid in processed CTC tea and tea liquor was investigated in the present study in which imidacloprid was applied at recommended application rate (30.0 g a.i./ha) and twice the recommended application rate (60.0 g a.i./ha) for three consecutive seasons. Imidacloprid was rapidly dissipated in processed tea following first order reaction kinetics at all application rates and had half-lives of 0.91~1.16 d with the residue in tea liquor found to be below detectable limit on 3rd day samples. The study revealed that imidacloprid is safe for human consumption and will not pose any residual toxicity problem.

  6. Eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Antunes Schiave Germano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Liquoric fistula (LF is defined as the communication of the subarachnoid space with the external environment, which main complication is the development of infection in the central nervous system. We reported the case of a patient with non-traumatic eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele (congenital lesion, which main clinical manifestation was unilateral eyelid edema. Her symptoms and clinical signs appeared in adulthood, which is uncommon. The patient received surgical treatment, with complete resolution of the eyelid swelling. In conclusion, eyelid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF fistula is a rare condition but with great potential deleterious to the patient. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral eyelid edema, and surgical treatment is almost always mandatory.

  7. Reduction in Ammonium Ions in Sludge Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Šlajūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquor rejected from the centrifugation of the digested sludge can contain the concentrations of ammonium ions up to 1750 mg/L. These loads are usually returned to the intake of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP without additional treatment and can have a negative impact on biological wastewater and/or sludge treatment processes, e.g. phosphorus and nitrogen removal. This article deals with the use of naturally obtained sorbent, zeolite, in batch and column test procedure for removing ammonium from the rejected liquor. This research study was carried out using different sizes of zeolite particles: 0.8–1.6 mm and 1.6–2.5 mm. The highest efficiency of ammonium removal (up to 98 % was achieved by applying the zeolite particles of 0.8–1.6 mm.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Simultaneous production of α-cellulose and furfural from bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittaya Punsuvon

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated by steam explosion for the simultaneous production of furfural and α-cellulose pulp. The components of bagasse were fractionated after steam explosion. The details of the process are as follows. Bagasse was soaked in water for one night and steamed at temperatures varying between 206 and 223 C for 4 minutes. The steam exploded pulp was strained and washed with hot water to yield a liquor rich in hemicellulose-derived mono- and oligosaccharides. The remaining pulp was delignified by alkali for 120 minutes at 170C using, separately, NaOH load of 15, 20 and 25% of weight of the pulp. The delignified pulp was further bleached twice with 4% H2O2 charge of weight of the pulp to produce high α-cellulose pulp. The water liquor was evaporated and further hydrolysed and dehydrated with diluted H2SO4 in a stainless steel reactor to produce furfural. The result shows that the optimal pretreatment of steam explosion for 4 min at 218C leads to the yield of α-cellulose pulp at 193-201 g∙kg-1 of the original bagasse, and that furfural can be produced from xylose present in the liquor with a maximum conversion factor of 0.16.

  9. Imidacloprid in processed tea and tea liquor*

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal, N.; Hazra, D.; Pal, R; Somchaudhury, A.K.; Chowdhury, A.

    2006-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a newly introduced broad-spectrum chloronicotinyl insecticide and will find its way in agricultural production, particularly in Asia. However, information on the fate of imidacloprid in crop plants is lacking. The degradation of imidacloprid in processed CTC tea and tea liquor was investigated in the present study in which imidacloprid was applied at recommended application rate (30.0 g a.i./ha) and twice the recommended application rate (60.0 g a.i./ha) for three consecutive ...

  10. Estudo do liquor de cupuaçu Study of cupuassu liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly de Oliveira Cohen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum, que é um fruto amazônico, vem conquistando a cada ano mais espaço no mercado nacional e internacional com a comercialização de sua polpa. Suas sementes, consideradas como subproduto, vem despertando interesse não só no mundo científico como pelas indústrias. Sabe-se que, a partir das sementes, pode-se obter produtos análogos aos oriundos das sementes de cacau, seguindo as mesmas etapas de processamento. Dentre esses produtos tem-se o liquor de cupuaçu, semelhante ao liquor de cacau que é um dos ingredientes da formulação do chocolate. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da obtenção e caracterização física, química e físico-química do liquor de cupuaçu. Obteve-se três amostras de liquor de cupuaçu, cada qual partindo de lotes diferentes de fermentação. Foram avaliados a composição centesimal e o comportamento reológico. O liquor de cupuaçu apresentou alto teor de lipídios (63,93 a 66,51% e alto valor calórico (677,35 a 691,17kcal/100g. O teor de proteínas variou de 8,95 a 10,31%. A viscosidade plástica de Casson diminuiu com o aumento de temperatura. A distribuição do tamanho das partículas influenciou nas diferenças de viscosidades entre as amostras, havendo maior redução de viscosidade plástica com o aumento da temperatura nas amostras que apresentaram maior diâmetro de partículas. A gordura de cupuaçu apresentou comportamento newtoniano à 40ºC.Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum is an amazon fruit, that each year is conquering more space in national and international market with the commercialization of its pulp. Its seeds, considered as subproducts, are arousing interest not only in the scientific world but also in the industry. It's known that from those seeds, it can be obtained analogous products as those cocoa seeds, following the same stages of processing. Among those products there is the cupuassu liquor, similar to cocoa liquor that is one

  11. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  12. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5.46 Section 5.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill...

  13. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if...

  14. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew [Sellafield Ltd, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  15. Strategies for steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a review of worldwide developments in the steam turbine and heat recovery steam generator markets. The Far East is driving the market in HRSGs, while China is driving the market in orders placed for steam turbine prime movers. The efforts of several major suppliers are discussed, with brief technical details being provided for several projects

  16. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  17. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...

  18. Treatment and disposal of steam generator and heat exchanger chemical cleaning wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet air oxidation was effective in reducing the organic loading of Ontario Hydro's EDTA-based steam generator cleaning wastes and the organic acid formulation used for heat exchanger chemical cleaning. Destruction of the complexing agents resulted in direct precipitation of iron from the waste steam generator magnetite solvent and from the heat exchanger cleaning waste. The oxidized liquors contain lower molecular weight organic acids, ammonia and amines, suitable for secondary biological treatment. The oxidized copper waste requires further treatment to reduce dissolved copper levels prior to biological digestion. A preliminary evaluation of UV and ozone degradation of these wastes showed less promise than wet air oxidation. 24 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  19. Thermal Analysis of Main Vessel in Uranium Liquor Critical Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The thermal stress analysis of No.2 vessel in the Uranium Liquor Critical Facility is carried through, in order to research the thermal stability of the vessel and provide the data for general stress evaluation.

  20. Characteristics of Gouda cheese supplemented with fruit liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Young; Yang, Chul Ju; Choi, Kap Seong; Bae, Inhyu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the quality characteristics of Gouda cheeses supplemented with fruit liquor (Prunusmume or Cornus officinalis). Fruit liquor was supplemented to Gouda cheeses during preparation. Changes in chemical composition, lactic acid bacterial population, pH, water-soluble nitrogen, sensory characteristics, and proteolysis were monitored in the prepared ripened cheese. The electrophoresis patterns of cheese proteins, fruit liquor functional component concentrations, and the flavonoid content of the cheeses were also determined. The addition of fruit liquor did not affect (p> 0.05) the appearance or sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Higher amounts of crude ash, mineral, and flavonoids (psupplemented cheese than in the control cheese. Findings from this study suggest that wine supplemented Gouda could provide additional nutrients while maintaining flavor and quality.

  1. Redesign of Steam Strainer

    OpenAIRE

    Jannesson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This thesis was done at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Finspång. Placed in the inlet to a steam turbine is a filter, a steam strainer, which separates particles and larger objects from the steam. These particles and objects will cause solid particle erosion in the actual turbine if they pass by. The strainer is exposed to large pressure drops when clogged, i.e., static loads which require a good creep resistance in the material. The temperature of the steam in the turbines is increas...

  2. Nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear steam generator has a blowdown pump arranged to pump water from the blowdown line through a filter for return to the steam generator. The piping is arranged so that the pump may operate to reverse the direction of pumping through the blowdown line whereby reverse circulation may be established during wet lay up of the steam generator. A blower is arranged to withdraw nitrogen from an upper elevation in the steam generator and inject the nitrogen into the blowdown line in combination with the pumped reverse circulation during wet lay up. (author)

  3. Will the Ban on Liquor Sales To Juveniles Be Effective?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Retailers are not allowed to sell alcohol to juveniles and signs advertising this must be clearly shown in supermarkets and liquor stores. This is according to Article 19 of the Regulations on Management of Alcohol Circulation, which was put into practice on January 1. The provision marks the second time in 2005 that the tightening up of liquor sales was written into the law. The first occasion was a provision in the Regulations on Retail Sales

  4. Pretreatment of citrus peel press liquor before anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, A.G.

    1983-02-01

    Centrifugation and aeration were unsuitable pretreatments before anaerobic digestion of press liquors from citrus peel. Non-aerated fermentation without pH control resulted in conversion of sugars to acids and ethyl alcohol with reduction in pH to 2.8 - 3.5. These acidified liquors had a pleasant smell, were stable on storage and were satisfactory feedstock for anaerobic digestion. (Refs. 7).

  5. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Kuang Lin; Guang-Jer Lai; Yoshiyuki Kobayashi; Masahiro Matsuo; Min-Chie Chiu

    2015-01-01

    Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure) is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator i...

  6. Isolating lignin from spent liquor of thermomechanical pulping process via adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oveissi, Farshad; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Wood chips are pretreated with steam prior to refining in the thermomechanical pulping process. The steam treatment dissolves part of lignin of wood chips in the spent liquor (SL) of this process, and subsequently the SL is sent to the wastewater system of the process. However, the lignin of SL can be used in the production of value-added chemicals, but it should first be separated from the SL in order to have a feasible downstream process. In this study, activated carbon (AC) was considered as an adsorbent to isolate lignin from SL. The results showed that the maximum adsorption of lignin on AC was 166 mg/g under the optimal conditions of pH 5.2, 30 degrees C and 3 h treatment. Furthermore, the separation of lignin from SL was improved from 45% to 60% by having a two-stage adsorption process at pH 5.2, which also reduced the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand of SL by 39% and 32%, respectively.

  7. Determination of the microbial origin of geosmin in Chinese liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2012-03-01

    Geosmin is the major cause of the common earthy off-flavor in light-aroma type Chinese liquor and, thus, highly detrimental to the aromatic quality. To find out its origin, the evolving process of geosmin in light-aroma type liquor making was monitored, and microbial analysis of Daqu containing geosmin was carried out. The results showed that geosmin appeared in all the fermented sorghums at different fermentation periods. About 57% geosmin in the fermented sorghums was distilled into liquor. During the distillation process, the peak of geosmin concentration appeared when alcohol content was 50-60% vol. More importantly, high geosmin content was observed during the Daqu-making process. Furthermore, five Streptomyces strains were isolated from different types of Daqu used for the fermentation of light-aroma type liquor. All of them produced only geosmin as the main volatile metabolite but no 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB). It appears that microorganisms developing in Daqu are responsible for the presence of geosmin in liquor. Because of the relatively low detection threshold estimated at 110 ng/L in 46 vol % hydroalcoholic solution, the presence of geosmin in Daqu may pose a risk for Chinese liquor producers.

  8. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  9. Safety Picks up "STEAM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This column shares safety information for the classroom. STEAM subjects--science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics--are essential for fostering students' 21st-century skills. STEAM promotes critical-thinking skills, including analysis, assessment, categorization, classification, interpretation, justification, and prediction, and are…

  10. Running Out of Steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Promod

    2000-01-01

    Explains why schools should evaluate whether their older steam-heating systems are still cost-effective, or need to be repaired or replaced. The symptoms of deterioration are listed along with discussions on repair or replacement decision making on three areas of steam heating systems: boilers; distribution system; and terminal equipment. (GR)

  11. Replacement nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews past and current practices in the replacement of nuclear steam generators. Plants where steam generator replacement has occurred are reviewed to see what changes have been made, and how the evolving technology has significantly reduced outage time and man-rem exposures. Current preferences in design and material are reviewed. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  12. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  13. Steam generator life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam generators are a critical component of a nuclear power reactor, and can contribute significantly to station unavailability, as has been amply demonstrated in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). CANDU steam generators are not immune to steam generator degradation, and the variety of CANDU steam generator designs and tube materials has led to some unexpected challenges. However, aggressive remedial actions, and careful proactive maintenance activities, have led to a decrease in steam generator-related station unavailability of Canadian CANDUs. AECL and the CANDU utilities have defined programs that will enable existing or new steam generators to operate effectively for 40 years. Research and development work covers corrosion and mechanical degradation of tube bundles and internals, chemistry, thermal hydraulics, fouling, inspection and cleaning, as well as provision for specially tool development for specific problem solving. A major driving force is development of CANDU-specific fitness-for-service guidelines, including appropriate inspection and monitoring technology to measure steam generator condition. Longer-range work focuses on development of intelligent on-line monitoring for the feedwater system and steam generator. New designs have reduced risk of corrosion and fouling, are more easily inspected and cleaned, and are less susceptible to mechanical damage. The Canadian CANDU utilities have developed programs for remedial actions to combat degradation of performance (Gentilly-2, Point Lepreau, Bruce A/B, Pickering A/B), and have developed strategic plans to ensure that good future operation is ensured. This report shows how recent advances in cleaning technology are integrated into a life management strategy, discusses downcomer flow measurement as a means of monitoring steam generator condition, and describes recent advances in hideout return as a life management tool. The research and development program, as well as operating experience, has identified

  14. Microbial Community Composition Associated with Maotai Liquor Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hongxun; Liu, Xiu

    2016-06-01

    The solid-state fermentation state of Chinese Maotai liquor involves the interaction of several complex microbial communities leading to the generation of the most complex liquor fermentation system in the world and contributes to the unique flavor and aroma of the liquor. In this study, total DNA was extracted from 3 fermented grain samples (FG1, FG2, and FG3) and 12 environmental samples, including Daqu (DA1, DA2, DA3, and DA4), cellar mud (CS1, CS2, and CS3), soil (SL1 and SL2), air (A1 and A2), and sorghum (SH), and the 16S and 18S rRNA genes were amplified. The distribution of typical microorganisms in the samples was analyzed using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, while quantitative PCR amplification of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer genes was performed to estimate the microbial abundance present in each sample. The results indicated that Daqu was the primary source of bacteria, followed by the air, soil, and sorghum samples, while the majority of the fungi responsible for Maotai liquor fermentation were from Daqu and sorghum. Highest bacterial concentrations were found in fermented grains, followed by Daqu and sorghum, while the highest fungal concentrations were found in Daqu, followed by sorghum and an air sample from outside the liquor production area. The findings of this study may provide information regarding the mechanisms responsible for flavor development in Maotai liquor, and may be used to further optimize the traditional art of making liquor. PMID:27122124

  15. The use of stripped gas liquor (SGL) as process cooling water : analysis of the effects of operational conditions on microbial community dynamics, fouling, scaling and corrosion / by Dumisani Mzwandile Gubuza

    OpenAIRE

    Gubuza, Dumisani Mzwandile

    2007-01-01

    Sasol plants gasify more than 30 million tons per annum of coal via the Fischer- Tropsch process resulting in the production of synthesis gas and a condensate stream. After gravimetric separation of the tar products, the solvent extraction of phenolics and the steam stripping of ammonia from the condensate stream, a complex effluent referred to as stripped gas liquor (SGL) is generated. SGL has the potential to be used as process cooling water. Micro-organisms, scale deposit an...

  16. Solar steam generation: Steam by thermal concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The solar-driven generation of water steam at 100 °C under one sun normally requires the use of optical concentrators to provide the necessary energy flux. Now, thermal concentration is used to raise the vapour temperature to 100 °C without the need for costly optical concentrators.

  17. Steam boiler technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teir, S.

    2003-07-01

    This book is the published version of the e-book with the same name. The interactive lecture slides, which accompany most chapters, exist only in the online version and on the attached CD-Rom. The Steam Boiler Technology e-book is the main course book for the course on steam boiler technology provided by the Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection at Helsinki University of Technology. The steam boiler technology e-Book is provided by the Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection at Helsinki University of Technology. The book covers the basics and the history of steam generation, modern boilers types and applications, steam/water circulation design, feedwater and steam systems components, heat exchangers in steam boilers, boiler calculations, thermal design of heat exchangers. The chapters of the second edition have been corrected based on reader and reviewer comments, and four new chapters have been added. The user interface of the electronic version has also been updated. The password for the online book will be changed once a year. If you have problems accessing the online book, or need a new password, please contact sebastian.teir@hut.fi.

  18. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  19. Steam generator tube failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  20. Backpressure Steam turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Chrástek, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The diploma works demonstrates the thermodynamic calculation and design of the geometry flow profile of the back-pressure steam turbine for specified inlet and outlet conditions of steam. Next target of the work is to design the drawing of the turbine axial cross section. Structuring of this diploma work calculation is following: - regulating stage thermodynamic calculation - turbine stages calculation - equalizing-balancing piston calculation - entire turbine intrinsic efficiency and power r...

  1. Plastic Optical Fiber Sensing of Alcohol Concentration in Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Morisawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple optical fiber sensing system of alcohol concentration in liquors has been studied. In this sensor head, a mixture polymer of novolac resin and polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF with a ratio of 9 : 1 was coated as a sensitive cladding layer on the plastic fiber core made of polystyrene-(PS-coated polycarbonate (PC. Using this sensor head and a green LED light source, it was confirmed that alcohol concentration in several kinds of liquors from beer to whisky can easily be measured with a fast response time less than 1 minute.

  2. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas--First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance... to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates... adopted this amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance...

  3. Application of Deuterium NMR Analysis for the Differentiation of Korean and Foreign Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, G.C.; Lee, S.G. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    The {sup 2}H NMR analysis was used to determine the relative deuterium contents at the position of methyl and methylene in ethyl alcohols. Four different liquors manufactured in Korea clearly showed different R values from those of foreign liquors. These R values for the Korean liquors could be used to distinguish a adulteration. (author). 10 refs., 1 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. 76 FR 4366 - Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control Law AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes Liquor Control Law No. LB-06-08 of the Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel (Nation). The Liquor Control Law regulates and controls the possession, sale,...

  5. 77 FR 39731 - Swinomish Indian Tribal Community-Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Swinomish Indian Tribal Community--Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization... publishes Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and License Code for the Swinomish Indian... adopted Ordinance No. 296, Enacting Swinomish Tribal Code Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor...

  6. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  7. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline... where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  8. Steam explosion studies review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-03-01

    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  9. Steam explosion studies review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  10. Mixed-starter Fermentation of New-type Highland Barley Liquor%新型青稞酒混曲发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉蛟; 易欣; 吴正云; 张文学

    2015-01-01

    In this study, highland barley from Qinghai was used as raw materials, mixed-starter fermentation (new-type highland barley Daqu and Rhizopus Xiaoqu) was adopted to produce soft-taste highland barley liquor, and the technology of steaming and distilling one time respec-tively was applied. The experimental results suggested that, as the mixed ratio of highland barley Daqu and Rhizopus Xiaoqu was 10∶1, the yield and the quality of soft-taste highland barley liquor were better than that by traditional production methods. This study provided theoretical and technical base for efficient utilization of highland barley resources and the expansion of highland barley liquor market.%以青海青稞为主要酿酒原料,探讨了新型青稞大曲与根霉小曲混曲发酵酿造绵柔青稞酒的“清蒸一次清”工艺。研究发现,青稞大曲∶根霉小曲为10∶1混曲发酵时,绵柔青稞酒酒精产率及成品酒品质均优于传统青稞酒。该项研究结果为高原青稞资源的有效利用以及青稞酒市场的进一步拓展奠定了理论和技术基础。

  11. Performance of novel sludge-bed anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SB-AnMBR) treating prehydrolysis liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Mayur M; Singh, Kripa S

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of a novel sludge-bed anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SB-AnMBR) configuration for treating a waste stream from a dissolving pulp production industry was evaluated. The waste stream, called prehydrolysis liquor (PHL), is generated after the wood chips are subjected to high temperature steam to remove unwanted hemicelluloses. The PHL with total chemical oxygen demand (COD) of approximately 100 g/L contained mainly sugars, furfural, lignin, and acetic acid. The SB-AnMBR was fed with the PHL at organic loading rates in a range of 0.8 to10 kg-COD/(m(3)·d). The COD removal efficiency of more than 85% and an average rate of methane production of 0.35 m(3)/(kg-COD·d) were observed at each loading rate. No detectable sugars or furfural were present in the treated effluent from SB-AnMBR. Lignin removal varied from 60 to 90%. Flat-sheet membranes performed well with one fouling event during first 400 days of operation. PMID:24569279

  12. Steam generators - problems and prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, R.L

    1997-05-01

    Steam-generator problems, largely a consequence of corrosion and fouling, have resulted in increased inspection requirements and more regulatory attention to steam-generator integrity. In addition, utilities have had to develop steam-generator life-management strategies, including cleaning and replacement, to achieve design life. This paper summarizes the pertinent data to 1993/1994, and presents an overview of current steam-generator management practices. (author)

  13. Penentuan Konsentrasi Total Alkali Aktif dan Sulfiditas dalam White Liquor pada Proses Recausticizing PT. Toba Pulp Lestari, Tbk Porsea

    OpenAIRE

    Juliani, Eva

    2015-01-01

    White Liquor is liquor which is derived from green liquor with CaO (burnt lime), by recaustisizing process in caustisizer. This white liquor will use as wood cooking in digester unit. Before white liquor used, require to control the quality of white liquor. Parameter which analysis in white liquor is total active alkali (TAA), and Sulfidity (%). Total goals of active alkali wanted is 95 g/l- 110 g/l,white goals of sulfidity is 20 %-29%. From this perception have result that total active alkal...

  14. 香蕉对酒曲中主要微生物作用的研究%Effect of banana on the main microorganisms in liquor Qu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晨; 方中刚; 王世强

    2011-01-01

    试验分别用含不同浓度香蕉汁培养基,培养酒曲中的主要微生物酵母菌和根霉,结果表明,酵母菌的数量及出芽数随香蕉汁浓度的增加而增加,香蕉汁对根霉菌丝的生长和淀粉酶活力的提高有一定的促进作用.以香蕉为主料,添加酒饭,以酒曲为发酵剂酿制香蕉米酒.结果表明,含75%香蕉原料组出酒率为73.26%,酒精度为13.5°,比含50%香蕉原料组和纯米酒组出酒率分别只降低1%和7%,酒精度只降低1.5°.%The media containing banana juice at different concentrations were used for the cultivation of main microorganisms(yeasts and Rhizopus) in liquor Qu. The results showed that the biomass and budding rate of yeasts increased with the increase of banana juice concentration, and banana juice also had a certain stimulation effects on the mycelium growth and amylase activity of Rhizopus. Using banana as main material and liquor Qu as starter, a banana-rice wine was made with steamed rice. The results indicated that when 75% banana was used, the liquor distillation yield reached 73.26% and the alcohol content was 13.5°. The liquor distillation yield was only 1% and 7% lower than that of the rice wine made on 50% banana and the pure rice wine without banana respectively, while the alcohol content was slightly decreased by 1.5°.

  15. Design, Construction and Testing of a Parabolic Solar Steam Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Folaranmi, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the design, construction and testing of a parabolic dish solar steam generator. Using concentrating collector, heat from the sun is concentrated on a black absorber located at the focus point of the reflector in which water is heated to a very high temperature to form steam. It also describes the sun tracking system unit by manual tilting of the lever at the base of the parabolic dish to capture solar energy. The whole arrangement is mounted on a hinged frame supported with...

  16. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Simone; Carmela Conidi; Claudia Ursino; Alfredo Cassano; Alberto Figoli

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of o...

  17. Utilization of maltose enriched spent grains liquor for xanthan production

    OpenAIRE

    Dodić Jelena M.; Vučurović Damjan G.; Grahovac Jovana A.; Dodić Siniša N.; Popov Stevan D.; Jokić Aleksandar I.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris under aerobic conditions on spent grains liquor based cultivation media containing four different amounts of maltose. All four experiments were performed simultaneously, so that all stages of the biotechnological process would be carried out under identical conditions. In addition to the cultivation parameters (pH value, contents of dissolved oxygen, reducing sugars and assimilable nitrogen, turbidity and trickling ...

  18. Alberta's and Ontario's liquor boards: why such divergent outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Malcolm G

    2010-01-01

    The provinces of Alberta and Ontario have chosen very different methods to distribute alcoholic beverages: Alberta privatized the Alberta Liquor Control Board (ALCB) in 1993 and established a private market to sell beverage alcohol, while Ontario, in stark contrast, opted to retain and expand the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO). This article examines the reasons for the divergent policy choices made by Ralph Klein and Mike Harris' Conservative governments in each province. The article draws on John Kingdon's “multiple streams decision-making model,” to examine the mindsets of the key decision-makers, as well as “historical institutionalism,” to organize the pertinent structural, historical and institutional variables that shaped the milieu in which decision-makers acted. Unique, province-specific political cultures, histories, institutional configurations (including the relative influence of a number of powerful actors), as well as the fact that the two liquor control boards were on opposing trajectories towards their ultimate fates, help to explain the different decisions made by each government. Endogenous preference construction in this sector, furthermore, implies that each system is able to satisfy all relevant stakeholders, including consumers.

  19. PYROLIGNEOUS LIQUOR PRODUCED FROM ACACIA MEARNSII DE WILD WOOD UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Furtado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mearnsii de Wild (black wattle is one of the most important trees planted in Southern Brazil for tannin extraction and charcoal production. The pyrolysis of the black wattle wood used for obtaining charcoal is performed in brick ovens, with the gas fraction being sent directly into the environment. The present study examines the condensable compounds present in the liquor produced from black wattle wood at different thermal degradation conditions, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Branches of black wattle were thermally degraded at controlled ambient and temperature conditions. Overall, a higher variety of compounds were obtained under atmospheric air pressure than under synthetic air pressure. Most of the tentatively identified compounds, such as carboxylic acids, phenols, aldehydes, and low molecular mass lignin fragments, such as guayacol, syringol, and eugenol, were products of lignin thermoconversion. Substituted aromatic compounds, such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and 2-methoxy-4-propeny-phenol, were also identified. At temperatures above 200 ºC, furan, 2-acetylfuran, methyl-2-furoate, and furfural, amongst others, were identified as polysaccharide derivatives from cellulose and hemicellulose depolymerization. This study evidences the need for adequate management of the condensable by-products of charcoal production, both for economic reasons and for controlling their potential environmental impact.

  20. Steam separator latch assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  1. Infrared steam laser cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Pascal; Lang, Florian; Mosbacher, Mario; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Steam Laser Cleaning with a pulsed infrared laser source is investigated. The infrared light is tuned to the absorption maximum of water (λ = 2.94 µm, 10 ns), whereas the substrates used are transparent (glass, silicon). Thus a thin liquid water layer condensed on top of the contaminated substrate is rapidly heated. The pressure generated during the subsequent phase explosion generates a cleaning force which exceeds the adhesion of the particles. We examine the cleaning threshold in single sh...

  2. Steam generator life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full-Text:' Steam Generator Life Management responsibility embodies doing whatever is necessary to maintain the steam generation equipment of a nuclear plant in effective, reliable service. All comes together in that most critical deliverable, namely the submission of the documentation which wins approval for return to service after an outage program. Life management must address all aspects of SG reliability over the life of the plant. Nevertheless, the life management activities leading up to return to service approval is where all of it converges. Steam Generator Life Management activities entail four types of work, all equally important in supporting the objective of successful operation. These activities are i) engineering functions; including identification of inspection and maintenance requirements, outage planning and scope definition plus engineering assessment, design and analysis as necessary to support equipment operation, ii) fitness of service work; including the expert evaluation of degradation mechanisms, disposition of defects for return to service or not, and the fitness for service analysis as required to justify ongoing operation with acceptable defects, iii) inspection work; including large scale eddy current inspection of tubing, the definition of defect size and character, code inspections of pressure vessel integrity and visual inspections for integrity and iv) maintenance work; including repairs, retrofits, cleaning and modifications, all as necessary to implement the measures defined during activities i) through iii). The paper discusses the approach and execution of the program for the achievement of the above objectives and particularly of items i) and ii). (author)

  3. Steamed over SAGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulf Canada Resources asked the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) to suspend natural gas production by other producers on Gulf's Surmount lease, a huge pool of oilsands, because they were testing a new technology developed by the Alberta Energy Department called SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage). SAGD recovers bitumen from oilsands through the use of a pair of horizontal wells, placed one above the other. Steam is injected into the upper well, heating and thinning the bitumen which then drains down to the producing well which pumps it to the surface. While drilling the wells, Gulf had noticed pressure variations which they believe are due to gas production. They claim that the reservoir must be free of outside influences while they test combinations of steam pressure, temperature and volume for optimal productivity. The six gas producers in the area claim that their gas production is not affecting Gulf's oilsands reserves. If the suspension takes place, the AEUB could order Gulf to compensate the gas producers for lost production. 1 fig

  4. Wet steam wetness measurement in a 10 MW steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolovratník Michal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a new design of the extinction probes developed for wet steam wetness measurement in steam turbines. This new generation of small sized extinction probes was developed at CTU in Prague. A data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of a 10MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  5. Wet steam treatment with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehle, W.; Enkler, G. [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    After many years of excellent results using high all volatile treatment (HAVT) for operation of the secondary system of a PWR, flow assisted corrosion in the heating pipes of the intermediate steam reheaters has been experienced. Oxygen addition into the heating steam before the reheater is expected to improve the protective oxide layers formation. The reaction of oxygen with the alkalizing steam ingredients is described. (orig.)

  6. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.T.

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  7. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  8. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB. PMID:27682089

  9. Uranium recovery from acid leach liquors: Ix or Sx?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various technologies for uranium recovery from sulphuric acid leach solutions were compared. Although the main consideration was the economics (Capex, recovery and Opex) of the various technologies and associated unit operations, other factors, such as flexibility, reliability, ease of operation, fire risk, stability with regards to feed flow variations, and feed solids content, would also need to be considered in the overall analysis. The design basis used for the comparison was a production rate or 200 kg/h U3O8 over a solution concentration range of 40 to 1500 mg/L U3O8. The technologies to be compared included Resin-in-pulp (RIP), Fixed-bed Ion Exchange (FBIX), Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX, e.g. NIMCIX), and Solvent Extraction (Sx) using Bateman Pulsed Columns (BPC) and Bateman Settlers. Countercurrent Decantation (CCD) and clarification would be required for the Sx and FBIX technologies. The preliminary economic evaluation indicated that a flowsheet, comprising RIP for bulk uranium extraction and upgrade, followed by Sx, employing the BPC for purification of the RIP eluate stream, was the most economic option at leach liquor concentrations below 900 mg/L. Above 900 mg/L the economic evaluation suggested that CCDs followed by Sx in the BPC was the most economical processing option. For applications where the ore is abrasive and not amenable to RIP, due to the rate of resin consumption, Paste Thickeners to remove the bulk of the solids, followed by RIP, was found to be the most economic processing option at leach liquor concentrations below 200 mg/L. However, for leach liquor concentrations above 200 mg/L, a CCD-circuit followed by Sx using BPC was again the most economic favourable route

  10. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m²·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m²·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  11. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Weissgram

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL. The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB.

  12. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids, whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP. Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar, coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  13. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of steam generator operating experience for 1986 has been carried out for 184 pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors, and 1 water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor. Tubes were plugged at 75 of the reactors (40.5%). In 1986, 3737 tubes were plugged (0.14% of those in service) and 3148 tubes were repaired by sleeving. A small number of reactors accounted for the bulk of the plugged tubes, a phenomenon consistent with previous years. For 1986, the available tubesheet sludge data for 38 reactors has been compiled into tabular form, and sludge/deposit data will be incorporated into all future surveys

  14. Removal of vat and disperse dyes from residual pad liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Vera; Ojstršek, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of three wastewater treatment techniques, coagulation/flocculation, adsorption and ultrafiltration, has been studied for the removal of vat and disperse dyes from residual pad liquors. Three inorganic coagulants Al2(SO4)3 18H2O, FeSO4 7H2O, FeCl3 6H2O and commercial cationic flocculant, as individuals and in combination, were tested for the coagulation/flocculation methods. Granular activated carbon was used as an adsorbent in the adsorption technique. Ultrafiltration was perfo...

  15. Thermodynamic Analysis on Steam Parameters of the Steam Boiler%油田注汽锅炉蒸汽参数的热力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董珊珊; 王为民; 刘广鑫; 陈顺江; 张鑫; 贾冯睿; 赵桐

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of high energy consumption in the steam boiler, exergy analysis model of the steam boiler was established by "black box" model analysis method. Exergy efficiency and thermal efficiency of the steam boiler in a domestic oilfield were calculated. The influence of the steam pressure, the steam quality and the steam evaporation on the exergy efficiency and the thermal efficiency of the steam boiler was investigated. The research results show that, with increasing of the steam pressure and steam quality, the exergy efficiency and the thermal efficiency of the steam boiler decrease; but with increasing of the steam evaporation, the exergy efficiency and the thermal efficiency of the steam boiler increase. Among them, influence of the steam evaporation on the exergy efficiency and thermal efficiency of the boiler is the greatest; when the steam evaporation increases 0.2 t/h,the exergy efficiency of the steam boiler increases by about 0.30%, the thermal efficiency increases by about 0.70%.%针对油田注汽锅炉能耗过高问题,运用“黑箱”模型分析方法,建立了注汽锅炉火用分析模型,对国内某油田注汽锅炉进行了火用效率和热效率计算。分析了蒸汽压力、蒸汽干度和蒸汽蒸发量3个影响油田注汽锅炉火用效率和热效率的影响因素及其变化规律。研究表明,火用效率和热效率随蒸汽压力、蒸汽干度的增大而降低,随蒸汽蒸发量的增大而升高。其中,蒸汽蒸发量对锅炉火用效率和热效率影响最大,蒸汽蒸发量每增大0.2 t/h,锅炉火用效率增大约为0.30%,热效率增大约为0.70%。

  16. Steam generator module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The module of the steam generator is arranged such that the first working medium flows through the tubes of the heat exchange bundle and the second working medium flows through the intertube space. At least one side of the module is provided with a lid which is provided with a system of through-flow apertures. The apertures are expanded and provided with a thread in the direction of the outer side of the lid. They are coaxial with the tubes of the heat exchange bundle at the point of their anchorage in the tube plate. The apertures are closed with plugs with a male thread and the sealing surfaces are formed between the thread joint and the space of the first working medium. The plugs extend into the space of the heat exchange bundle and form a throttle which replaces the classical stop and allow for dismantling. This arrangement of the modular steam generator allows the control of the inner surfaces of heat exchange pipes and also the cleaning of these inner surfaces. (E.S.)

  17. Steam generator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to keep the nuclear power plant(NPP)s safe and increase their operating efficiency, axial stress corrosion cracking(SCC)(IGA/IGSCC, PWSCC, PbSCC) test techniques were developed and SCC property data of the archive steam generator tubing materials having been used in nuclear power plants operating in Korea were produced. The data obtained in this study were data-based, which will be used to clarify the damage mechanisms, to operate the plants safely, and to increase the lifetime of the tubing. In addition, the basic technologies for the improvement of the SCC property of the tubing materials, for new SCC inhibition, for damaged tube repair, and for manufacturing processes of the tubing were developed. In the 1 phase of this long term research, basic SCC test data obtained from the archive steam generator tubing materials used in NPPs operating in Korea were established. These basic technologies developed in the 1 phase will be used in developing process optimization during the 2 phase in order to develop application technologies to the field nuclear power plants

  18. Male Readership Differences in Liquor Magazine Ads Employing Nonsensical and Sexual Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined the attention getting value of nonsensical and sexual humor used in liquor advertisements to determine if one was more effective than the other in attracting male magazine readers. Thirty-two Starch-scored liquor ads taken from 1976 and 1977 issues of "Time,""Newsweek," and "Sports Illustrated" were analyzed by three male readers.…

  19. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b)...

  20. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology.

  1. Certification Becomes Important for the I Quality; and Safety Supervision of the Chinese Liquor Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The end of 2007, over 200 unit products of more than 80 Chinese firms have passed the quality grade certification for liquor products. These products involve distilled spirits, beer, wine, yellow wine, fruit syrup wine and others, and cover over 80% of the national top-branded liquor products.

  2. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production

  3. 77 FR 74025 - Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria-Liquor Control Statute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... process used for its production. (b) Alcoholic beverage means all alcohol, spirits, liquor, wine, beer and any liquid or solid containing alcohol, spirits, liquor, wine, or beer, and which contains one-half of... of Alcohol. The manufacture of beer and wine shall be lawful within Lands under the Jurisdiction...

  4. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.B.; Cai, X.L.; Chen, C.H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ye, X.C., E-mail: yexuchu@njtech.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  5. De kristallisatie-methode bij het onderzoek van de liquor cerebro-spinalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittermans, Aafko Willinge

    1941-01-01

    Ongeveer twaalfhonderd liquores zijn volgens een in de kliniek nog weinig bekende zeer eenvoudige methode van onderzoek van den Roemeenschen Hoogleraar TOMESCO onderzocht. Deze methode berust op het beoordeelen van het kristalbeeld dat ontstaat bij het indampen van druppels sterk verdunde liquor cer

  6. Removal of peel oil from citrus peel press liquors before anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, A.G.

    1983-02-01

    Aeration of the press liquors from citrus peel for periods up to 9 days permitted growth of limonene-degrading and other microorganisms present in the liquors. Reduction in oil levels to 0.01% (w/v) occurred within 6-8 hours, due to evaporation or stripping of the oil, rather than to microbial degradation. (Refs. 5).

  7. Synthesis of M-type hexaferrites from steel pickling liquors (ID 109)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, J.; Latorre, R.; Alcalá, E. M.; Negro, C.; Formoso, A.; López-Mateos, F.

    1996-05-01

    The recovery of steel pickling liquors is one of the main environmental aspects that the steelmaking industry must resolve. We propose the synthesis of barium M-type hexaferrite from these liquors as a recovery treatment. Two methods of synthesis have been studied: a variation of the ceramic method, and an oxicoprecipitation process. Products with excellent magnetic properties have been obtained.

  8. 27 CFR 31.61 - Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouse receipts. 31.61 Section 31.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.61 Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts. A single sale of distilled spirits, wines, or beer, or a single sale of one or more warehouse receipts...

  9. [Identification of Kweichow Moutai liquor by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry fingerprint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiran; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Baohua; Shen, Min

    2010-09-01

    The fingerprint of Kweichow Moutai liquor was established by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the similarity of fingerprints was evaluated by the fingerprint similarity calculation software designed by Zhejiang University based on included angle cosine. One milliliter of liquor sample was mixed with ten microliter of 2% n-pentyl acetate solution used as internal standard. One microliter of the prepared sample was injected into a GC-MS. The separation was performed on an HP-INNOWAX 19091N-113 capillary column. The precision and repeatability of the method were good as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of intrabatch was less than 5%. A total of 35 characteristic components of Kweichow Moutai liquor were identified. The fingerprints of 38 batches of Kweichow Moutai, 5 Moutai-flavor liquors produced by Kweichow Moutai Company Limited, the same manufacturer as Kweichow Moutai, and 12 other brand liquors were compared in characteristic components and similarity. The results demonstrated that different batches of Kweichow Moutai had good similarity (> or = 0.9), and Kweichow Moutai was differentiated from the liquors of different alcohol contents and flavors, but it was poorly distinguished from the Moutai-flavor liquors by fingerprint similarity calculation software. Therefore, only in combining characteristic components and fingerprint similarity results, Kweichow Moutai can be distinguished from other liquors. The established method offers technical basis for the identification of Kweichow Moutai. PMID:21171278

  10. A prospective clinical study of feto-maternal outcome in pregnancies with abnormal liquor volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutwa J. Chavda

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: A good clinical examination can pick up most subjects of abnormal liquor volume. Abnormal liquor volumes are associated with increased maternal morbidity and adverse perinatal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 181-184

  11. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  12. Marketing Booze to Blacks. A Report from the Center for Science in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, George A.; And Others

    Beer, wine, and liquor manufacturers aggressively seek to maximize sales of their products to blacks, despite public health and safety problems associated with those products. Rather than act to protect the public from the over-promotion of alcohol, government has set few effective constraints on the sales stratagems of alcoholic beverage…

  13. THE LIGNIN CONTENT IN BLACK LIQUID OF STRAW AS-AQ BY ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaiqiangShi; BingyueLiu; XingqiangLi; LongquanXu; BeihaiHe

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of lignin content in black liquid of straw AS-AQ by ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV) is discussed in this paper. Different dilution multiple and contrast solutions have an effect on the measured results of the lignin content by UV. The calculation method for the absorption coefficient and thes canning spectrum property of liquor acidified by SO are introduced in this paper.

  14. Steam generator tube integrity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  15. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  16. 78 FR 49283 - Chicken Ranch Rancheria-Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Chicken Ranch Rancheria--Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No... the Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the Chicken...

  17. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control. 430.03 Section 430... practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control... Liquor, Soap, and Turpentine Service: Any process vessel, storage tank, pumping system, evaporator,...

  18. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  19. CANDU steam generator life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam generators are a critical component of a nuclear power reactor, and can contribute significantly to station unavailability, as has been amply demonstrated in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). CANDU steam generators are not immune to steam generator degradation, and the variety of CANDU steam generator designs and tube materials has led to some unexpected challenges. However, aggressive remedial actions, and careful proactive maintenance activities, have led to a decrease in steam generator-related station unavailability of Canadian CANDUs. AECL and the CANDU utilities have defined programs that will enable existing or new steam generators to operate effectively for 40 years. Research and development work covers corrosion and mechanical degradation of tube bundles and internals, chemistry, thermalhydraulics, fouling, inspection and cleaning, as well as provision for specially tool development for specific problem solving. A major driving force is development of CANDU-specific fitness-for-service guidelines, including appropriate inspection and monitoring technology to measure steam generator condition. Longer-range work focuses on development of intelligent on-line monitoring for the feedwater system and steam generator. New designs have reduced risk of corrosion and fouling, are more easily inspected and cleaned, and are less susceptible to mechanical damage. The Canadian CANDU utilities have developed programs for remedial actions to combat degradation of performance (Gentilly-2, Point Lepreau, Bruce A/B, Pickering A/B), and have developed strategic plans to ensure that good future operation is ensured. The research and development program, as well as operating experience, has identified where improvements in operating practices and/or designs can be made in order to ensure steam generator design life at an acceptable capacity factory. (author)

  20. 不同茶类茶汤pH值的研究%Preliminary on pH of different tea liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭桂义; 葛国平

    2012-01-01

    The pH of green tea,black tea,Oolong tea,Pu-er tea liquor were measured.Different tea acid and alkaline differs somewhat.Green tea,black tea,and the weak acidic acid relatively strong tea,but for weakly acidic pH,tea and tea types and production methods.%对不同绿茶、红茶、乌龙茶和黑茶4种茶类茶汤的pH进行了测定,结果表明,不同茶叶的酸碱性有所不同。绿茶酸性最弱,红茶酸性最强,青茶和普洱茶酸性介于中间,但都为弱酸性,说明茶汤酸碱度与茶叶种类和制作方法有关。

  1. Advanced technologies on steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Kaoru; Nakamura, Yuuki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co., Takasago (Japan); Nakamori, Nobuo; Mizutani, Toshiyuki; Uwagawa, Seiichi; Saito, Itaru [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co., Kobe (Japan); Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The thermal-hydraulic tests for a horizontal steam generator of a next-generation PWR (New PWR-21) were performed. The purpose of these tests is to understand the thermal-hydraulic behavior in the secondary side of horizontal steam generator during the plant normal operation. A test was carried out with cross section slice model simulated the straight tube region. In this paper, the results of the test is reported, and the effect of the horizontal steam generator internals on the thermalhydraulic behavior of the secondary side and the circulation characteristics of the secondary side are discussed. (orig.). 3 refs.

  2. General purpose steam table library :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, John H.; Belcourt, Kenneth Noel; Nourgaliev, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Completion of the CASL L3 milestone THM.CFD.P7.04 provides a general purpose tabular interpolation library for material properties to support, in particular, standardized models for steam properties. The software consists of three parts, implementations of analytic steam models, a code to generate tables from those models, and an interpolation package to interface the tables to CFD codes such as Hydra-TH. Verification of the standard model is maintained through the entire train of routines. The performance of interpolation package exceeds that of freely available analytic implementation of the steam properties by over an order of magnitude.

  3. Hygroscopic slaking of lime with steam or humid air. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Hygroskopisk slaeckning av kalk med aanga eller fuktig luft. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2005-12-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional slaking method is that heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with steam or humid air, for example combined with a lime mud drier and a lime kiln. The task has included slaking of burned lime with steam or humid hot air, on purpose to test a specific machine equipment in pilote scale, and to investigate temperatures and hydratization rates able to reach. Also the lime slaked with steam/humid air should be compared with burned lime slaked in green liquor when green liquor is causticized, and to investigate the dewatering properties of formed lime mud. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The tests have been performed at SMA Svenska Mineral AB plant (lime burning) at Sandarne Sweden in years 2004-2005. Hydrated lime of varying slaking rates has been produced at temperatures up to 270 deg C. Caustizicing being performed show that dewatering properties of lime mud formed is quite up to the standard of lime mud from burned lime slaked in green liquor. The apprehension, that the hygroscopic slaked lime should result in lime mud difficult to dewater, has not become true. Important experiences have come out which could be used as a base in further investigations.

  4. Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owais, Ashour [Suez Canal Univ., Suez (Egypt). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.

    2012-11-15

    Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor obtained from secondary lead slag leached in hydrochloric acid is the main aim of this work. The resulted lead chloride solution (leachate) containing 2.2 wt.-% Pb and 1.24 wt.-% HCl was electrowon in an electrolytic cell containing one graphite plate as inert anode and two lead sheets as starting permanent cathodes. Different electrolysis parameters such as current density, electrolyte temperature and electrolyte stirring rate were studied. As indicated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses, fine and pure (100 % Pb) powders with a dispersed and needle-like shape were formed with cathodic current efficiency up to 67.9 % and electrical energy demand ranges from 0.809 to 4.998 kWh/kg Pb with productivity up to 2.63 g/Ah. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of Algorithms for an Electronic Nose in Identifying Liquors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-biao Shi; Tao Yu; Qun Zhao; Yang Li; Yu-bin Lan

    2008-01-01

    When the electronic nose is used to identify different varieties of distilled liquors, the pattern recognition algorithm is chosen on the basis of the experience, which lacks the guiding principle. In this research, the different brands of distilled spirits were identified using the pattern recognition algorithms (principal component analysis and the artificial neural network). The recognition rates of different algorithms were compared. The recognition rate of the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) is the highest. Owing to the slow convergence speed of the BPNN, it tends easily to get into a local minimum. A chaotic BPNN was tried in order to overcome the disadvantage of the BPNN. The convergence speed of the chaotic BPNN is 75.5 times faster than that of the BPNN.

  6. Incorporation of inorganic material in anoxic/aerobic-activated sludge system mixed liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, M C; Ubisi, M F; Lakay, M T; Ekama, G A

    2002-12-01

    In the bioreactor of the nitrification denitrification (ND)-activated sludge system, the mixed liquor is made up of organic and inorganic materials. In the current design procedures and simulation models, the influent wastewater characteristics and biological processes that influence the bioreactor mixed liquor organic solids (as volatile suspended solids, VSS, or COD) are explicitly included. However, the mixed liquor total suspended solids (TSS, i.e. organic + inorganic solids) are calculated simply from empirical ratios of VSS/TSS. The TSS concentration is fundamental in the design of secondary settling tanks and waste activated sludge disposal. Clearly, the empirical approach to obtaining an estimate for TSS is not satisfactory within the framework of a fundamentally based model. Accordingly, the incorporation of the inorganic material present in the influent wastewater into ND-activated sludge system mixed liquor was investigated. From an experimental investigation into the distribution of inorganics in the influent, mixed liquor and effluent of a laboratory-scale ND-activated sludge system, it was concluded inter alia that (i) of the total inorganic solids in the influent, only a small fraction (2.8-7.5%) is incorporated into the mixed liquor, (ii) most of the inorganics in the influent (mean 88%) and effluent (mean 98.5%) are in the dissolved form, the balance being particulate, and (iii) the influent and effluent inorganic dissolved solids concentrations are closely equal (mean effluent to influent ratio 100%). Further, a number of models were developed to quantify the mixed liquor inorganic, and, hence, total solids. From an evaluation of these models against the experimental data, it would appear that the best approach to model the incorporation of inorganics into the activated sludge mixed liquor is to follow the concepts and principles used to develop the existing models for organic materials. With this approach, reasonably close correlation between

  7. Research program plan: steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a plan for research in Steam Generators to be performed by the Materials Engineering Branch, MEBR, Division of Engineering Technology, (EDET), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. It is one of four plans describing the ongoing research in the corresponding areas of MEBR activity. In order to answer the questions posed, the Steam Generator Program has been organized with the three elements of non-destructive examination; mechanical integrity testing; and corrosion, cleaning and decontamination

  8. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  9. Options for Steam Generator Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selecting the best option for decommissioning steam generators is a key consideration in preparing for decommissioning PWR nuclear power plants. Steam Generators represent a discrete waste stream of large, complex items that can lend themselves to a variety of options for handling, treatment, recycling and disposal. Studsvik has significant experience in processing full size Steam Generators at its metal recycling facility in Sweden, and this paper will introduce the Studsvik steam generator treatment concept and the results achieved to date across a number of projects. The paper will outline the important parameters needed at an early stage to assess options and to help consider the balance between off-site and on-site treatment solutions, and the role of prior decontamination techniques. The paper also outlines the use of feasibility studies and demonstration projects that have been used to help customers prepare for decommissioning. The paper discusses physical, radiological and operational history data, Pro and Contra factors for on- and off-site treatment, the role of chemical decontamination prior to treatment, planning for off-site shipments as well as Studsvik experience This paper has an original focus upon the coming challenges of steam generator decommissioning and potential external treatment capacity constraints in the medium term. It also focuses on the potential during operations or initial shut-down to develop robust plans for steam generator management. (authors)

  10. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  11. Application of Mechanical Vapour Recompression (MVR) in Pulping Waste Liquor Evaporation%机械蒸汽再压缩(MVR)技术在制浆废液蒸发中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云松; 胡海军; 张丹

    2013-01-01

    以制浆废液为研究对象,提出了机械蒸汽再压缩(MVR)技术与多效蒸发相结合的组合蒸发工艺,并以化学浆黑液及化机浆废水的蒸发为例,比较了组合蒸发与多效蒸发两种工艺.%This paper studies the evaporation technique of pulping waste liquor, and puts forward a new evaporation process which combines mechanical vapour recompression (MVR) and multi-effect evaporation technology. With the evaporation of chemical pulping black liquor & APMP effluent as examples, the two process of combined evaporation and multi-effect evaporation are compared.

  12. Design, Construction and Testing of a Parabolic Solar Steam Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua FOLARANMI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design, construction and testing of a parabolic dish solar steam generator. Using concentrating collector, heat from the sun is concentrated on a black absorber located at the focus point of the reflector in which water is heated to a very high temperature to form steam. It also describes the sun tracking system unit by manual tilting of the lever at the base of the parabolic dish to capture solar energy. The whole arrangement is mounted on a hinged frame supported with a slotted lever for tilting the parabolic dish reflector to different angles so that the sun is always directed to the collector at different period of the day. On the average sunny and cloud free days, the test results gave high temperature above 200°C.

  13. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  14. Centrifugal steam-water separator for steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns a centrifugal steam-water separator for steam generators, using natural circulation. The turbulence chamber includes a perforated venturi composed of a decreasing cone-shaped convergent duct and a cone-shaped divergent diffuser section increasing from the narrowest part to the turbulence chamber outlet. In this way, the jected liquid phase and any particles of solids it may contain can be discharged through the perforations into the annular space formed between the perforated venturi and the vessel to accumulate at the bottom of this annular space for subsequent removal. The advantages of the invention are that the diffuser of the perforated venturi is used as an additional separation path and with the recovery of pressure in mind, and that the water droplets ejected, as well as any particles contained in these droplets discharged or ejected outside the action area of the rotational flow into the annular space, can flow in a practically free way towards the bottom of the interior edge of the containment wall. Because of this, the pressure drop is reduced and the degree of separation improved. The steam-water separator of the invention is therefore particularly suitable for the high power steam generators of nuclear reactor facilities. For a given steam output, it is possible with the lay-out specified in this invention to reduce the required number of separation units

  15. 75 FR 44011 - Liquor Ordinance of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Liquor Ordinance by Resolution No. WT-10-31 on May 14, 2010. Dated: July 18, 2010. Paul Tsosie, Chief of... license of any State or identification card issued by any State department of motor vehicles; (2)...

  16. 75 FR 23289 - Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... members shall not accept gratuity, compensation, or other things of value from any Liquor producer..., but not limited to, a determination that the applicant is of good character and reputation and...

  17. Static Analysis of No.2 Vessel in Uranium Liquor Critical Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In order to make it clear whether the No.2 vessel of the uranium liquor critical facility have enough intensity to endure the static loads or not and supply data for the general stress evaluation of the facility,

  18. Stress Analysis and Evaluation of Piping System in Uranium Liquor Critical Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The piplines of the piping system in the uranium liquor critical facility are very thin, so the piping rigidity is bad, the measuring cylinders piping system (Fig. 1) connects the vessel the pump and the rigid

  19. A GMDH Approach to Modelling Gibbsite Solubility in Bayer Process Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Muller

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The most widely employed industrial process for producing alumina (Bayer process involves the dissolution of available aluminium hydroxide minerals present in raw bauxite into high temperature sodium hydroxide solutions. On cooling of the solution, or liquor in the industrial vernacular, Al is precipitated from solution in the form of gibbsite (Al(OH3. In order to optimise the process, a detailed knowledge of factors influencing gibbsite solubility is required, a problem that is confounded by the presence of liquor impurities. In this paper, the use of the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH polynomial neural network for developing a gibbsite equilibrium solubility model for Bayer process liquors is discussed. The resulting predictive model appears to correctly incorporate the effects of liquor impurities and is found to offer a level of performance comparable to the most sophisticated phenomenological model presented to date.

  20. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  1. 78 FR 54670 - Miami Tribe of Oklahoma-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... defined by this Ordinance shall establish prima facie intent of unlawfully keeping liquor for sale... the obligations imposed upon the licensee by the MBRC, by the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, or any...

  2. A prospective clinical study of feto-maternal outcome in pregnancies with abnormal liquor volume

    OpenAIRE

    Rutwa J. Chavda; Hardev B. Saini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evaluating feto-maternal outcome in pregnancies with abnormal liquor volume. Methods: 200 pregnant subjects between 20 and 42 weeks of gestation, who were clinically suspected to have an abnormal amniotic fluid volume (oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios) were subjected to ultrasonographic (USG) assessment of amniotic fluid index. The subjects were closely monitored during pregnancy, labour and puerperium. Results: Ultrasonically, abnormal liquor volume was confirmed in 90-93...

  3. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cassano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS content of 10 g·100 g−1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF up to 32 g TSS 100 g−1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g−1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g−1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF. The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

  4. Steam quality and effective sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, R S; Rose, E F

    1985-01-01

    Faced with using steam from a commercial utility having boilers greater than 5 miles distant and being the last user on the system resulted in ineffective sterilization. A three phase testing program was established utilizing: Direct physical measurements - an Ellison model 915A portable steam calorimeter. Direct microbiology - Autoclaved feed pellets were aseptically placed in fluid thioglycolate medium and incubated at 37 degrees C. Indirect microbiology - Feces from "defined flora" mice fed the autoclaved pelleted feed were tested. Colorimetric measurements verified that the steam sometimes contained greater than 5% entrained water. During periods of wet steam it was impossible to maintain consistent sterility of the mouse pellets even using a cycle of 126 degrees C for 60 minutes. One spore-forming Gram positive rod, Clostridium perfringens type D was the predominant bacterium isolated. Lactating mice, or mice stressed experimentally came down with diarrhea within days of eating pellets treated with wet steam (calorimetric measurements) and a subsequent positive culture. These mice voided stools predominantly showing Clostridium perfringens type D. PMID:2862643

  5. Steam generator hand hole shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, W E

    2000-05-01

    Seabrook Station is an 1198 MWE Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) that began commercial operation in 1990. Expensive and dose intensive Steam Generator Replacement Projects among PWR operators have led to an increase in steam generator preventative maintenance. Most of this preventative maintenance is performed through access ports in the shell of the steam generator just above the tube sheet known as secondary side hand holes. Secondary side work activities performed through the hand holes are typically performed without the shielding benefit of water in the secondary side of the steam generator. An increase in cleaning and inspection work scope has led to an increase in dose attributed to steam generator secondary side maintenance. This increased work scope and the station goal of maintaining personnel radiation dose ALARA led to the development of the shielding concept described in this article. This shield design saved an estimated 2.5 person-rem (25 person-Smv) the first time it was deployed and is expected to save an additional 50 person-rem (500 person-mSv) over the remaining life of the plant. PMID:10770158

  6. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  7. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. PMID:27262718

  8. Steam reforming of light oxygenates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Resasco, Daniel E; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of ethanol, acetic acid, acetone, acetol, 1-propanol, and propanal has been investigated over Ni/MgAl2O4 at temperatures between 400 and 700 degrees C and at a steam-to-carbon-ratio (S/C) of 6. The yield of H-2 and conversion increased with temperature, while the yield of by-...... of CH4. Significant deactivation of the catalyst was observed for all of the compounds and was mainly due to carbon formation. The carbon formation was highest for alcohols due to a high formation of olefins, which are potent coke precursors....

  9. Steam turbines for PWR stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic cycle requirements and mechanical design features applying to modern GEC 3000 rev/min steam turbines for pressurised water reactor power stations are reviewed. The most recent developments include machines of 630 MW and 985 MW output which are currently under construction. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet steam turbines associated with a variety of types of water cooled reactor and its relevance to the design of modern 3000 rev/min turbines for pressurised water reactor applications is emphasised. (author)

  10. Fine crystallization purification of mother liquors for the growth of α-LiIO3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems encountered in the additional purification of mother liquors and the possibility of optimizing this process, using mother liquor for the crystal growth of lithium iodate, α-LiIO3, as a model system, are reviewed. The ability of some crystals, e.g., those of hexagonal lithium iodate, to absorb cation impurities from the mother liquor during growth, confirmed by experimental evidence, is used to develop a process for controlled fine purification of mother liquors. Using crystallization onto monocrystal plates of the same composition as the macro component in solution, one can achieve the desired purity of the mother liquor in terms of cation microimpurities. A routine procedure is proposed for calculating the desired degree of crystallization (using known values of λ), which makes it possible to achieve essentially any purity of mother liquors in terms of cation microimpurities

  11. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  12. Dynamic simulation analyzes expanded refinery steam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, S.L.; Graham, J.; Duffield, M.A.; Cortes, R.M. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    There is a rising demand for more-stable process operations with increasing facility modernization and automation. This requires steam system controls that provide effective and stable responses to operational disturbances. Today it is possible to use dynamic simulation analysis for designing steam systems. The main objectives were to: develop a high-fidelity dynamic simulation model of the steam system and its associated controls; develop dynamic system responses to major plant disturbances; and assist in designing new control strategies and modifying existing controls to minimize the impact of plant upsets on system performance. The steam system for this project included two power plant supplying steam and power and a steam pipe network comprising three levels of steam with stream flows to and from process units spread over several square kilometers. Whether the steam system and its controls would respond effectively to major operational upsets, such as boiler, steam turbogenerator or process gas compressor trips, or a steep increase in steam demand, can only be determined from evaluating dynamic responses to these incidents. The model consisted of about 5,000 equations, 1,000 parameters and data items, and was used for evaluating steam system responses to various operational upset scenarios. The responses were used to identify limitations of the as designed control system. The model also proved to be an effective tool for verifying adequacy of the proposed recommendations. These included modifications to control valve letdown stations, steam turbogenerator governor controls and the boiler master-pressure controller.

  13. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  14. Steam-water relative permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambusso, W.; Satik, C.; Home, R.N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous flow of steam and water in porous media have been measured in steady state experiments conducted under the conditions that eliminate most errors associated with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeabilities for steam-water flow in porous media vary approximately linearly with saturation. This departure from the nitrogen/water behavior indicates that there are fundamental differences between steam/water and nitrogen/water flows. The saturations in these experiments were measured by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. In addition the pressure gradients were obtained from the measurements of liquid phase pressure over the portions with flat saturation profiles. These two aspects constitute a major improvement in the experimental method compared to those used in the past. Comparison of the saturation profiles measured by the X-ray CT scanner during the experiments shows a good agreement with those predicted by numerical simulations. To obtain results that are applicable to general flow of steam and water in porous media similar experiments will be conducted at higher temperature and with porous rocks of different wetting characteristics and porosity distribution.

  15. Steam Greenlight for first-time developers : explaining Steam Greenlight from a game developer's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Eloranta, Minna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to go through the Steam Greenlight process and clarify misinformation and correct beliefs on the platform. The thesis proposes improvement ideas based on the findings of the research conducted. Steam Greenlight was created in 2012 by Valve Corporation and determines which new games can be available in the Steam Store. Steam users can vote on games which improves the games' chances of getting through Greenlight. Steam Greenlight has been created to enable ...

  16. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  17. Cycle improvement for nuclear steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pressure-increasig ejector element is disposed in an extraction line intermediate to a high pressure turbine element and a feedwater heater. The ejector utilizes high pressure fluid from a reheater drain as the motive fluid to increase the pressure at which the extraction steam is introduced into the feedwater heater. The increase in pressure of the extraction steam entering the feedwater heater due to the steam passage through the ejector increases the heat exchange capability of the extraction steam thus increasing the overall steam power plant efficiency

  18. Methane production from steam-exploded bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Take, Harumi; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2004-01-01

    To convert unutilized plant biomass into a useful energy source, methane production from bamboo was investigated using a steam explosion pretreatment. Methane could not be produced from raw bamboo but methane production was enhanced by steam explosion. The maximum amount of methane produced, i.e., about 215 ml, was obtained from 1 g of exploded bamboo at a steam pressure of 3.53 MPa and a steaming time of 5 min. A negative correlation between the amount of methane produced and the amount of Klason lignin was observed in the methane fermentation of steam-exploded bamboo.

  19. Changes in procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in cocoa procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting were studied by heating up cocoa liquor of fermented beans containing 58 g kg-1 of polyphenols and the same liquor which was enriched with crude polyphenols, extracted from freeze-dried unfermented cocoa beans to a final concentration of 170 g kg-1. The liquors were roasted at 120 OC for 15, 25, 35 and 45 min with three replications. Result of the study showed that cocoa bean polyphenol was resistant against high temperature during heating of cocoa liquor 120 OC for up to 45 min. The resistance was stronger with the unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol than with fermented cocoa. High temperature promoted a small quantity of monomers up to pentamers of the fermented cocoa bean polyphenol to polymerize into higher oligomers, but did not with unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol. These results imply that the problem of lack in cocoa flavor in terms high astringency and bitterness due to high polyphenol content cannot be overcome by the application of high temperature during chocolate processing, meanwhile cocoa bean polyphenol could still give beneficial as an antioxidant even after high temperature application.Key words: Cocoa bean, polyphenol, procyanidin, tannin, roasting, antioxidant, flavor, astringency.

  20. Laser Induced Fluorescence For Measurement Of Lignin Concentrations In Pulping Liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, J. J.; Semerjian, H. G.; Biasca, K. L.; Attala, R.

    1988-11-01

    Laser excited fluorescence of pulping liquors was investigated for use in the pulp and paper industry for process measurement and control applications. Liquors from both mill and laboratory cooks were studied. A Nd-YAG pumped dye laser was used to generate the excitation wavelength of 280 nm; measurements were also performed using a commercially available fluorometer. Measurements on mill pulping liquors gave strong signals and showed changes in the fluorescence intensity during the cook. Absorption spectra of diluted mill liquor samples showed large changes during the cook. Samples from well controlled and characterized laboratory cooks showed fluorescence to be linear with concentration over two decades with an upper limit of approximately 1000 ppm dissolved lignin. At the end of these cooks a possible chemical change was indicated by an increase in the observed fluorescence intensity. Results indicate that lignin concentrations in pulping liquors can be accurately determined with fluorescence in the linear optical region over a greater dynamic range than absorption spectroscopy. Laser induced fluorescence may also provide an indication of chemical changes occurring in the lignin structure during a cook.

  1. Imbibition-displacement of an aqueous interstitial liquor by an organic fluid containing a surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbibition was investigated as a method of assisting the removal of interstitial liquor from the salt cake contained in the Hanford underground storage tanks. In this application, imbibition would be the displacement of the interstitial liquor from the salt cake by a heavy organic containing a surfactant. Preliminary studies with a salt cake liquor system formed from NaNO3 alone indicated that a surfactant-tetrachloroethylene system could displace 75 percent of the interstitial liquor. Further investigations were carried out with a sale cake--liquor system containing NaNO3, NaNO2, NaAlO2, and NaOH. Twenty-seven surfactants and two heavy organics, carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene, were tested. In one test, an anionic surfactant and tetrachloroethylene gave promising results with the latter salt cake; however, these results could not be duplicated. All other surfactants tested gave unsatisfactory results. The presence of NaOH in the salt cake recipe seems to increase the interfacial tension of the interstitial liquid-organic fluid system. Investigations of chemical and radiation stability, corrosion aspects, and ease of removability from the tanks of the heavy organic systems revealed t

  2. A field experimental study of lignin sand stabilizing material (LSSM) extracted from spent-liquor of straw pulping paper mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Han-jie; LI Jing; LU Xiao-zhen; JIN Yong-can

    2005-01-01

    A new technique was introduced for sand stabilization and re-vegetation by use of lignin sand stabilizing material( LSSM). LSSM is a reconstructed organic compound with lignin as the most dominant component from the extracts of black-liquor issued by straw pulp paper mills. Unlike the polyvinyl acetate or foamed asphalt commonly used for dune stabilization, the new material is plant-friendly and can be used with virescence actions simultaneously. The field experimental study was conducted since 2001 in China' s Northwest Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and has been proved that LSSM is effective in stabilizing the fugitive dunes, making the arenaceous plants survive and the bare dune vegetative. The advisable solution concentration is 2% and the optimal field spraying quantity is 2.5 L/m2. The soil nutrients of the stabilized and greened dune, such as organic matter, available phosphorous and total nitrogen are all increased compared with the control treatment, which is certainly helpful to the growth of arenaceous plants. The technique is worthwhile to be popularized because it is provided not only a new method for desertification control but also an outlet for cleaning contaminants issued from the straw paper mills.

  3. Unsteady coupling effects of wet steam in steam turbines flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to conventional turbomachinery problems, both the behavior and performances of steam turbines are highly dependent on the vapour thermodynamic state and the presence of a liquid phase. EDF, the main French electricity producer, is interested in further developing its' modelling capabilities and expertise in this area to allow for operational studies and long-term planning. This PhD thesis explores the modelling of wetness formation and growth in a steam turbine and an analysis of the coupling between the liquid phase and the main flow unsteadiness. To this end, the work in this thesis took the following approach. Wetness was accounted for using a homogeneous model coupled with transport equations to take into account the effects of non-equilibrium phenomena, such as the growth of the liquid phase and nucleation. The real gas attributes of the problem demanded adapted numerical methods. Before their implementation in the 3D elsA solver, the accuracy of the chosen models was tested using a developed one-dimensional nozzle code. In this manner, various condensation models were considered, including both poly-dispersed and monodispersed behaviours of the steam. Finally, unsteady coupling effects were observed from several perspectives (1D, 1D - 3D, 3D), demonstrating the ability of the method of moments to sustain unsteady phenomena which were not apparent in a simple monodispersed model. (author)

  4. Rapid measurement of free cyanide in liquor by ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenlin; Xiao, Quanwei; Zhang, Ping; Ye, Mei; Wan, Yuping; Liang, Hengxing

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the measurement of free cyanide in liquor by ion chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (IC-PAD). Eluent concentration, interferent evaluation and method performance were discussed. Results show that free cyanide in liquor can be rapidly determined by the optimised IC-PAD method. A sample requires only 1:100 dilution and simple filtration before being subjected to IC-PAD. The linear range is 1-5000 μg/L with an R value of 0.9998. The detection limit is 1 μg/L for a 25 μL injection loop. The overall relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method is less than 5%, and the recovery range is from 98.1% to 105.0%. This study has been proven significant and may have potential applications in liquors analysis.

  5. ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER FABRIC IN CYANIDE LEACHING LIQUOR OF GOLD ORES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXiaozhen

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption capacity of ACFF in cyanide leaching liquor of gold ores was studied with cyanide leaching liquor of gold ores,containing various kinds of ions.The adsorbed leaching liquor was analyzed by atomic emission spectroscopy and colorimetric method.The contents of various kinds. of ions in ACFF were determined with X-ray photoctron spectroscopy.ACFF not only adsorbed gold but also adsorbed arsenic,nickel,zinc,calcium,sulphur,bismuth,copper,iron,silver and cyanide,anion.Atomic percentage of C and those of O,N,Zn,Fe increase and decrease respectively with the increase of the layer depth,while those of Ca,Au,Ag keep constant.

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING THE FIRST STAGE DIGESTION OF FORAGES USING FAECAL LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Solangi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the effect of duration of incubation on the digestibility with the aim to reduce the time of incubation of the first stage digestion. This could be achieved if method for improving the potency of faecal liquor is evolved and verified. To estimate the time required to complete digestion of forages, triplicate samples of ryegrass and two varieties of straw were incubated in the faecal liquor for digestion for the periods of 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 34, 48, 58, 72, 80 or 96 hours. It was observed that the incubation time required to complete digestion in faecal liquor for ryegrass and straw was 58 and 96 hours, respectively. The rate of digestion was maximal from 9 to 48 hours during which time approximately 1.11 mg/hour were solublised.

  7. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  8. Duplex steam reformer: alternate catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacturing feasibility of a duplex steam reformer tube for potential use in a high temperature gas cooled reactor has been successfully demonstrated. This technique consists of explosively expanding the inner tube into the outer tube. To successfully achieve the desired 0 to 3 mil radial gap between the tubes it is necessary to perform the expansion in two steps with an intermediate anneal. A catalyst design that would have replaced the conventional Raschig rings with a metal supported catalyst has been evaluated and it has been concluded that further development and testing are needed before fabrication of a full scale prototype is warranted. Consequently, the immediate efforts are directed towards reevaluating the incentives for developing a catalyst and the probability of successfully developing a catalyst that could be used for steam reforming

  9. 75 FR 39969 - Liquor Control Ordinance for the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point Arena...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Liquor Control Ordinance for the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Liquor Control Ordinance of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the...

  10. Investigation of boron extraction process with aid magnesium hydroxide from mother liquor of boron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions of boron - magnesium concentrate preparation from mother liquor by coprecipitation of borate - ions by magnesium hydroxide are investigated. It is shown that boron - magnesium concentrate and products of its heat treatment at 100 - 500 deg C in water are dissolved partially, and in ammonium citrate - practically completely. Suppositions are made on the composition of the product prepared, on the the structure of its crystal lattice and the processes taking place in it during heat treatment. The conclusion is made on the perspectiveness of processing of mother liquor of boron industry for boron - magnesium concentrate

  11. ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER FABRIC IN CYANIDE LEACHING LIQUOR OF GOLD ORES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption capacity of ACFF in cyanide leaching liquor of gold ores was studied withcyanide leaching liquor of gold ores, containing various kinds of ions. The adsorbed leaching liquorwas analyzed by atomic emission spectroscopy and colorimetric method. The contents of variouskinds of ions in ACFF were determined with X-ray photoctron spectroscopy. ACFF not onlyadsorbed gold but also adsorbed arsenic, nickel, zinc, calcium, sulphur, bismuth, copper, iron. silverand cyanide anion. Atomic percentage of C and those of O, N, Zr, Fe increase and decreaserespectively with the increase of the layer depth, while those of Ca, Au, Ag keep constant.

  12. Significant Silica Solubility in Geothermal Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Russell

    1986-01-21

    Although it is widely believed that silica solubility in low pressure (5 to 10 bar) geothermal steam is negligible, when one takes into account steam flows exceeding 10 million tonnes a year--at Wairakei, for instance--it is found that the amount transmitted in the vapor has the potential to give significant deposits on turbine nozzles and blades. A 150 MWe power station, when based on flows from a hot water reservoir at (a) 250 C or (b) 315 C, and with separator pressures of 6 bar, is found to carry about 100 and 200 kg/year respectively in the steam phase. In the case of a similar sized station exploiting a dry steam reservoir such as The Geysers, equivalent silica flows are obtained, dissolved in steam and carried as dust--the latter as solid particles precipitating from the vapor en route from source to turbine, and not preexisting in the formations as is commonly considered. Choking or coating of subterranean rock near such dry steam wells due to exsolving silica, may be the principal cause of declining steam discharge under production. Silica from completely dry or superheated steam can also seal the cap and sides of steam reservoirs when expanding below the criticus temperature (236 C) in a way previously thought possible only by hot water or wet steam.

  13. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S. M.; Xu, M. L.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Yang, M. Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100–400 MPa 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese “Junchang” liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p aging process of Chinese liquor. However, HP treatment caused a slight increase in solid content, which might be somewhat undesirable. Sensory evaluation results confirmed that favorable changes in color and flavor of Chinese liquor were induced by HP treatment; however, overall gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential.

  14. THE LIGNIN CONTENT IN BLACK LIQUID OF STRAW AS-AQ BY ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiqiang Shi; Bingyue Liu; Xingqiang Li; Longquan Xu; Beihai He

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of lignin content in black liquid of straw AS-AQ by ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV)is discussed in this paper. Different dilution multiple and contrast solutions have an effect on the measured results of the lignin content by UV. The calculation method for the absorption coefficient and the scanning spectrum property of liquor acidified by SO2 are introduced in this paper.

  15. An installation for steam conversion of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-01-28

    An installation is proposed for steam conversion of a hydrocarbon gas in order to produce an inorganic gas which chiefly consists of H2 and CO in which the line for feeding the hydrocarbon gas has a steam generator which has a microcapillary structure made of sponge metal, inorganic heat resistant fibers of glass, Si02, Al203 or carbon, inorganic heat resistant fibers twisted into a fiber or a cord of multipore ceramic material; the installation is equipped with a heater which regulates the water temperature, in which the steam generator is submerged. The installation is designed for converting natural gas, C3H8, other hydrocarbon gases and vapors of liquid hydrocarbons (Uv) into H2 and CO. The design and disposition of the steam generator simplify the design of the device, eliminating the pump for feeding the steam and the device for premixing of the steam and hydrocarbon gas.

  16. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... block your throat or esophagus and may cause choking. Do not take this product if you have ... take enough water. Otherwise, black psyllium might cause choking. Take at least 150 mL water for each ...

  17. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  18. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heartburn, dizziness, ringing in the ears, convulsions, and confusion. Also, people who drink black tea or other ... glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide ( ...

  19. Determination of steam wetness in the steam-generating equipment of nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorburov, V. I.; Gorburov, D. V.; Kuz'min, A. V.

    2012-05-01

    Calculation and experimental methods for determining steam wetness in horizontal steam generators for nuclear power stations equipped with VVER reactors, namely, the classic salt technique and calculations based on operating parameters are discussed considered and compared.

  20. Calculation of steam-water injector properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlicek, Petr; Linhart, Jiri

    2014-08-01

    The topic of this article is a calculation of steam-water injector properties using simplified one dimensional global model. In this case the injector is used as combined mixing heat exchanger and water pump. It mixes steam with water and inject water into an area with a set back-pressure. At the exit only liquid phase is present, which is caused by a shock wave which occurs in highly wet steam.

  1. Analysis of TROI-13 Steam Explosion Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Mitja Uršič; Matjaž Leskovar

    2008-01-01

    The prediction of steam explosion inducing loads in nuclear power plants must be based on results of experimental research programmes and on simulations using validated fuel-coolant interaction codes. In this work, the TROI-13 steam explosion experiment was analysed with the fuel-coolant interaction MC3D computer code. The TROI-13 experiment is one of several experiments performed in the TROI research program and resulted in a spontaneous steam explosion using corium melt. First, the TROI-13 ...

  2. Pilot Plant for Solar Process Steam Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Hennecke, Klaus; Hirsch, Tobias; Krüger, Dirk; Lokurlu, Ahmet; Walder, Markus

    2008-01-01

    An aluminium upgrading process will be supplied by steam directly generated in parabolic trough collectors. In this first of it’s kind installation in an industrial environment, steam at 4 bar will be fed into the existing distribution lines of the production to heat anodizing baths and storage tanks. The integration of the solar steam through separate heat exchangers in parallel to the existing system was also considered. In principle, due to the low temperatures of the baths, solar hot wate...

  3. Application of sequential aqueous steam treatments to the fractionation of softwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Li, Yebo; Mims, Michele R

    2005-01-01

    The FIRST (Feedstock Impregnation and Rapid Steam Treatment) approach was used in this study to isolate extractives, hemicellulose, lignin, fibers, and cellulosic fines of softwood. With hydrolysis and fermentation of the hemicellulose and cellulosic fines fractions, this approach produces four co-products: extractives, cellulose, lignin, and ethanol. The first unit operation uses aqueous/alcohol to remove and recover the extractive rich fraction. The second unit operation uses steam treatment to destructure the matrix and solubilize a large fraction of the hemicelluloses. The third unit operation uses alkaline delignification to dissolve a lignin fraction. The fourth unit operation uses the refining process to separate fibers from cellulosic fines. The fibers are bleached. The yields of lignin and bleached cellulose were about 20.0 kg and 38.3 kg out of 100 kg initial dry pine, respectively. The recovered hemicelluloses were 23.3 kg (containing 16.1 kg hexoses and 5.0 kg pentoses) and the cellulose fines derived hexoses amounted to 3.4 kg out of 100 kg initial dry pine. When the two liquors containing the hemicellulose sugars and the cellulose fines-derived hexoses were fermented for ethanol production, an ethanol yield of 6.8 kg was obtained.

  4. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y

    1986-10-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  5. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results

  6. CAREM-25 Steam Generator Stability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the stability of a once-through CAREM-25 steam generator is analyzed.A fix nodes numerical model, that allows the modelling of the liquid, two-phase and superheated steam zones, is implemented.This model was checked against a mobile finite elements model under saturated steam conditions at the channel exit and a good agreement was obtained.Finally the stability of a CAREM steam generator is studied and the range of in let restrictions that a assure the system stability is analyzed

  7. Analysis of TROI-13 Steam Explosion Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Uršič

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of steam explosion inducing loads in nuclear power plants must be based on results of experimental research programmes and on simulations using validated fuel-coolant interaction codes. In this work, the TROI-13 steam explosion experiment was analysed with the fuel-coolant interaction MC3D computer code. The TROI-13 experiment is one of several experiments performed in the TROI research program and resulted in a spontaneous steam explosion using corium melt. First, the TROI-13 premixing simulations were performed to determine the initial conditions for the steam explosion simulations and to evaluate the melt droplets hydrodynamic fragmentation model. Next, a number of steam explosion simulations were performed, varying the steam explosion triggering position and the melt droplets mass participating in the steam explosion. The simulation results revealed that there is an important influence of the participating melt droplets mass on the calculated pressure loads, whereas the influence of the steam explosion triggering position on the steam explosion development was less expressive.

  8. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  9. Maleic acid treatment of bioabated corn stover liquors improves cellulose conversion to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimination of inhibitory compounds released during pretreatment of lignocellulose is critical for efficient cellulose conversion and ethanol fermentation. This study examined the effect of bioabated liquor from pretreated corn stover on enzyme hydrolysis of Solka Floc or pretreated corn stover soli...

  10. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Sheng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women, aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v alcohol of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P<0.05. Serum uric acid (P=0.004 for TFL, P=0.001 for TCL, glucose (P<0.001 for TFL, P<0.001 for TCL and endothelial adhesion molecules (P<0.05 were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered.

  11. 76 FR 77549 - Lummi Nation-Title 20-Code of Laws-Liquor Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    .... The Lummi Indian Business Council adopted this amendment to Title 20--Lummi Nation Code of Laws... that the Lummi Indian Business Council duly adopted this amendment to Title 20--Lummi Nation Code of... revenue, the Lummi Indian Business Council adopts this liquor ordinance to be known as the ``Lummi...

  12. Post-Digestion Liquor Treatment in the Method Combining Chemical Precipitation with Reverse Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuglarz Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to develop an effective treatment of post-digestion liquors highly-loaded with biogenic and organic substances. The scope of the research project encompassed: mesophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS as well as the treatment of post-digestion liquors, coming from the most appropriate HRT value of 25 days, in the process of ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite precipitation targeted at ammonia nitrogen binding and a subsequent reverse osmosis (RO process. It was established that the method combining chemical precipitation and high-pressure filtration ensures a high degree of contaminants removal allowing for a direct release of treated liquors into the natural reservoir. However, in order to decrease the residual NH4+ concentration (6.1 mg NH4+/dm3 in the purified post-digestion liquors below the level allowing for a direct release to the natural reservoir, it turned out to be necessary to apply increased molar ratio of magnesium and phosphates (Mg:NH4+: PO43-= 1.5:1:1.5.

  13. 75 FR 22419 - Liquor Control Ordinance of the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... majority of child abuse, spousal abuse and elderly abuse that occurs on the Reservation is alcohol related... to combat the problems of alcohol abuse. (4) For the spiritual well-being of our children and..., and consumption of liquor within the Tribal lands and the treatment and reduction of alcohol abuse...

  14. Protozoan biomass relation to nutrient and chemical oxygen demand removal in activated sludge mixed liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpor, Oghenerobor B; Momba, Maggy N B; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2008-08-01

    The relationship between biomass concentration to nutrient and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in mixed liquor supplemented with sodium acetate was investigated, using three protozoan isolates and three different initial biomass concentrations (10(1), 10(2) and 10(3) cells/mL). The study was carried out in a shaking flask environment at a shaking speed of 100 rpm for 96 h at 25 degrees C. Aliquot samples were taken periodically for the determination of phosphate, nitrate, COD and dissolved oxygen, using standard methods. The results revealed remarkable phosphate removal of 82-95% at biomass concentration of 10(3)cells/mL. A high nitrate removal of over 87% was observed at all initial biomass concentration in mixed liquor. There was an observed COD increase of over 50% in mixed liquor in at the end of 96-h incubation and this was irrespective of initial biomass concentration used for inoculation. The study shows the trend in nutrient and COD removal at different biomass concentrations of the test isolates in mixed liquor.

  15. Characterization of volatile compounds in Fen-Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van-Diep, L.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.Y.; Han, B.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Fen-Daqu is a saccharifying agent and fermentation starter for the production of Chinese liquor Fen (alcoholic spirit) and Fen traditional vinegar. The volatile compounds produced at seven incubation steps were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS. A total of 83 major volatile compounds were identified, includ

  16. THE PRODUCTION OF ORANGE PRESS LIQUOR SPIRIT: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. FERREIRA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The orange juice industry produces, at the end of the residue extraction, a by-product called orange press liquor. Considering its high content of soluble solids and the large volume of the liquor produced in Brazilian orange juice plants, an earlier study was conducted on the technical viability of using orange press liquor as raw material for a new distilled beverage, with promising results. With a view to increasing efficiency and possibly attracting investments in the growing international market for new and exotic beverages, the aim of the present study was to optimize the orange press liquor spirit process and to evaluate the economic aspects of its production. The results showed that this process can yield a good quality beverage, comparable to the sugar cane spirit cachaça and other similar products, as well as having economic advantages and potential for immediate further growth, without extra investment costs.

  17. Steam Flooding after Steam Soak in Heavy Oil Reservoirs through Extended-reach Horizontal Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhengfu; Liu Huiqing; Zhang Hongling

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new development scheme of simultaneous injection and production in a single horizontal well drilled for developing small block reservoirs or offshore reservoirs.It is possible to set special packers within the long completion horizontal interval to establish an injection zone and a production zone.This method can also be used in steam flooding after steam soak through a horizontal well.Simulation results showed that it was desirable to start steam flooding after six steam soaking cycles and at this time the oil/steam ratio was 0.25 and oil recovery efficiency was 23.48%.Steam flooding performance was affected by separation interval and steam injection rate.Reservoir numerical simulation indicated that maximum oil recovery would be achieved at a separation section of 40-50 m at steam injection rate of 100-180 t/d; and the larger the steam injection rate,the greater the water cut and pressure difference between injection zone and production zone.A steam injection rate of 120 t/d was suitable for steam flooding under practical injection-production conditions.All the results could be useful for the guidance of steam flooding projects.

  18. RPV steam generator pressure boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strosnider, J.

    1996-03-01

    As the types of SG tube degradation affecting PWR SGs has changed, and improvements in tube inspection and repair technology have occurred, current SG regulatory requirements and guidance have become increasingly out of date. This regulatory situation has been dealt with on a plant-specific basis, however to resolve this problem in the long term, the NRC has begun development of a performance-based rule. As currently structured, the proposed steam generator rule would require licensees to implement SG programs that monitor the condition of the steam generator tubes against accepted performance criteria to provide reasonable assurance that the steam generator tubes remain capable of performing their intended safety functions. Currently the staff is developing three performance criteria that will ensure the tubes can continue to perform their safety function and therefore satisfy the SG rule requirements. The staff, in developing the criteria, is striving to ensure that the performance criteria have the two key attributes of being (1) measurable (enabling the tube condition to be {open_quotes}measured{close_quotes} against the criteria) and (2) tolerable (ensuring that failures to meet the criteria do not result in unacceptable consequences). A general description of the criteria are: (1) Structural integrity criteria: Ensures that the structural integrity of the SG tubes is maintained for the operating cycle consistent with the margins intended by the ASME Code. (2) Leakage integrity criteria: Ensures that postulated accident leakages and the associated dose releases are limited relative to 10 CFR Part 50 guidelines and 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix A GDC 19. (3) Operational leakage criteria: Ensures that the operating unit will be shut down as a defense-in depth measure when operational SG tube leakage exceeds established leakage limits.

  19. Steam turbine materials and corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Dogan, O.N.; Rawers, J.C.; Schrems, K.K.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2007-12-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This project examines the steamside oxidation of candidate alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. As part of this research a concern has arisen about the possibility of high chromia evaporation rates of protective scales in the turbine. A model to calculate chromia evaporation rates is presented.

  20. 220Rn in geothermal steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotope 220Rn (half-life 56 seconds) occurs in fumaroles in Japan and Taiwan, in amounts as high as 1000 times the 222Rn content. The authors report its presence in geothermal steam at Wairakei, New Zealand, in amounts as high as 130 times those of 222Rn. It is detected by a radiochemical separation of Pb, and gamma spectrometry. Some of the 220Rn/222Rn ratios are higher than theoretically expected, but have frequently been reported from similar locations. Theories of possible origins will be discussed. 22 refs., 1 tab

  1. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  2. Steam microturbines in distributed cogeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Kicinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the most recent trends and concepts in power engineering, especially with regard to prosumer and civic energy generation. In so doing, it draws widely on his experience gained during the development of steam microturbines for use in small combined heat and power stations based on the organic Rankine cycle (CHP-ORC). Major issues concerning the dynamic properties of mechanical systems, in particular rotating systems, are discussed, and the results obtained when using unconventional bearing systems, presented. Modeling and analysis of radial-flow and axial-flow microturbines a

  3. Strategic management of steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the general approach followed in Belgium for managing any kind of generic defect affecting a Steam Generator tubebundle. This involves the successive steps of: problem detection, dedicated sample monitoring, implementation of preventive methods, development of specific plugging criteria, dedicated 100% inspection, implementation of repair methods, adjusted sample monitoring and repair versus replacement strategy. These steps are illustrated by the particular case of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking in tube roll transitions, which is presently the main problem for two Belgian units Doele-3 and Tihange-2. (author)

  4. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  5. Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aims to compare the average price of liquor in the United States between retail alcohol outlets in states that have a monopoly ('control' states) with those that do not ('licence' states). Design A cross-sectional study of brand-specific alcohol prices in the United States. Setting We determined the average prices in February 2012 of 74 brands of liquor among the 13 control states that maintain a monopoly on liquor sales at the retail level and among a sample of 50 license-state liquor stores, using their online-available prices. Measurements We calculated average prices for 74 brands of liquor by control vs. license state. We used a random effects regression model to estimate differences between control and license state prices – overall and by alcoholic beverage type. We also compared prices between the 13 control states. Findings The overall mean price for the 74 brands was $27.79 in the license states (95% confidence interval [CI], $25.26–$30.32) and $29.82 in the control states (95% CI, $26.98–$32.66). Based on the random effects linear regression model, the average liquor price was approximately two dollars lower (6.9% lower) in license states. Conclusions In the United States monopoly of alcohol retail outlets appears to be associated with slightly higher liquor prices. PMID:22934914

  6. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  7. 2D-simulation of wet steam flow in a steam turbine with spontaneous condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lan-xin; ZHENG Qun; LIU Shun-long

    2007-01-01

    Removal of condensates from wet steam flow in the last stages of steam turbines significantly promotes stage efficiency and prevents erosion of rotors. In this paper, homogeneous spontaneous condensation in transonic steam flow in the 2-D rotor-tip section of a stage turbine is investigated.Calculated results agree with experimental data reasonably well. On the basis of the above work, a 2-D numerical simulation of wet steam flow in adjacent root sections of a complex steam turbine stage was carried out. Computational results were analyzed and provide insights into effective removal of humidity.

  8. Steam generator tubing NDE performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, G. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States); Welty, C.S. Jr. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator (SG) non-destructive examination (NDE) is a fundamental element in the broader SG in-service inspection (ISI) process, a cornerstone in the management of PWR steam generators. Based on objective performance measures (tube leak forced outages and SG-related capacity factor loss), ISI performance has shown a continually improving trend over the years. Performance of the NDE element is a function of the fundamental capability of the technique, and the ability of the analysis portion of the process in field implementation of the technique. The technology continues to improve in several areas, e.g. system sensitivity, data collection rates, probe/coil design, and data analysis software. With these improvements comes the attendant requirement for qualification of the technique on the damage form(s) to which it will be applied, and for training and qualification of the data analysis element of the ISI process on the field implementation of the technique. The introduction of data transfer via fiber optic line allows for remote data acquisition and analysis, thus improving the efficiency of analysis for a limited pool of data analysts. This paper provides an overview of the current status of SG NDE, and identifies several important issues to be addressed.

  9. Innovations relative to steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade the main object of attention in nuclear engineering has been that of safety; safety understood fundamentally as a study and examination of the possible consequences of accidents and of the devices for and phases of automatic protective intervention. Another problem of safety, that which concerns the criteria aimed at a less complex construction with advantages for transport, setting up, management, maintenance and decomissioning, seems, instead, to be ignored. The use of less specialised workshops for construction, easier control of the state of the structures and the possibility of substituing components during the life of the plant are factors with a direct influence on safety. These aspects, mainly of a creative engineering nature, are the concern of the MARS (Multipurpose Advanced Reactor inherently Safe) project. This memo concerns the innovations introduced by the project relative to the steam generator which is being realised by means of the assembly in situ of 5 sub-components of considerably reduced dimensions and weight with respect to traditional methods of uni-block construction. The economic-management benefits appear significant. Added to the proposal is a brief study for the removal and substitution of the tubing of the steam generator inside the reactor building

  10. BWR steam separator swirler optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial phase of a steam separator swirler optimization project has been completed. A half-scale cast acrylic steam separator and four different swirlers were designed and constructed. The four swirlers were fabricated by stereolithography techniques to reduce the time and expense of fabrication using traditional manufacturing methods. This test apparatus was used to experimentally measure the pressure drop across the swirlers utilizing a two-phase mixture of air and water. Two of the swirlers were designed to reduce pressure losses, one longer to reduce secondary flows and flow separation, and the other with extra vanes to reduce secondary flows. A third swirler with a low vane exit angle was used to determine the effect of swirl energy on pressure drop, and the fourth is a reference swirler developed in the 1960's, was used as a benchmark. An experimental method was developed and tested to provide correlations for measuring the pressure drop. Preliminary results suggest that the longer swirler has a lower pressure drop than the low vane exit angle swirler, and a lower pressure drop than the extra vane swirler. Results are not available for the benchmark swirler because the vanes were damaged during shakedown testing

  11. Steam generator tubing NDE performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam generator (SG) non-destructive examination (NDE) is a fundamental element in the broader SG in-service inspection (ISI) process, a cornerstone in the management of PWR steam generators. Based on objective performance measures (tube leak forced outages and SG-related capacity factor loss), ISI performance has shown a continually improving trend over the years. Performance of the NDE element is a function of the fundamental capability of the technique, and the ability of the analysis portion of the process in field implementation of the technique. The technology continues to improve in several areas, e.g. system sensitivity, data collection rates, probe/coil design, and data analysis software. With these improvements comes the attendant requirement for qualification of the technique on the damage form(s) to which it will be applied, and for training and qualification of the data analysis element of the ISI process on the field implementation of the technique. The introduction of data transfer via fiber optic line allows for remote data acquisition and analysis, thus improving the efficiency of analysis for a limited pool of data analysts. This paper provides an overview of the current status of SG NDE, and identifies several important issues to be addressed

  12. Steam turbine materials and corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2007-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. The list of alloys being examined is discussed, including the addition of new alloys to the study. These include alloy 625, selected because of its use as one of the two alloys used for turbine rotors, valves, casings, blading and bolts in the European AD700 full-scale demonstration plant (Scholven Unit F). The other alloy, alloy 617, is already one of the alloys currently being examined by this project. Other new alloys to the study are the three round robin alloys in the UK-US collaboration: alloys 740, TP347HFG, and T92. Progress on the project is presented on cyclic oxidation in 50% air – 50% water vapor, furnace exposures in moist air, and thermogravimetric analysis in argon with oxygen saturated steam. An update on the progress towards obtaining an apparatus for high pressure exposures is given.

  13. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S. M.; Xu, M. L.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Yang, M. Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100–400 MPa 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese “Junchang” liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential.

  14. [Study on the Recognition of Liquor Age of Gujing Based on Raman Spectra and Support Vector Regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-xiang; Wang, Hai-yan; Wang, Hu; Zhang, Zheng-yong; Liu, Jun

    2016-03-01

    It is an important and difficult research point to recognize the age of Chinese liquor rapidly and exactly in the field of liquor analyzing, which is also of great significance to the healthy development of the liquor industry and protection of the legitimate rights and interests of consumers. Spectroscopy together with the pattern recognition technology is a preferred method of achieving rapid identification of wine quality, in which the Raman Spectroscopy is promising because of its little affection of water and little or free of sample pretreatment. So, in this paper, Raman spectra and support vector regression (SVR) are used to recognize different ages and different storing time of the liquor of the same age. The innovation of this paper is mainly reflected in the following three aspects. First, the application of Raman in the area of liquor analysis is rarely reported till now. Second, the concentration of studying the recognition of wine age, while most studies focus on studying specific components of liquor and studies together with the pattern recognition method focus more on the identification of brands or different types of base wine. The third one is the application of regression analysis framework, which cannot be only used to identify different years of liquor, but also can be used to analyze different storing time, which has theoretical and practical significance to the research and quality control of liquor. Three kinds of experiments are conducted in this paper. Firstly, SVR is used to recognize different ages of 5, 8, 16 and 26 years of the Gujing Liquor; secondly, SVR is also used to classify the storing time of the 8-years liquor; thirdly, certain group of train data is deleted form the train set and put into the test set to simulate the actual situation of liquor age recognition. Results show that the SVR model has good train and predict performance in these experiments, and it has better performance than other non-liner regression method such

  15. Promotion of Chinese Liquor Principle is a Need for the Development of China Liquor Industry-review on Chinese Liquor Principle VII%弘扬中华酒道是我国酒业发展的需要--七论中华酒道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵玉

    2013-01-01

    The formation of Chinese liquor principle, its practice and development in Dalian were introduced. The relationship between Chinese liquor principle and alcoholic liquor marketing is briefly explained. It is regarded that alcoholic beverage culture is priceless, and a lubricant of the sustainable development of liquor industry. It is also tremendous and valuable assets as well as and an inexhaustible source of wisdom for liquor industry. Therefore, efforts should be made to promote Chinese liquor principle in order to promote China liquor industry.%介绍了中华酒道的形成及在大连的实践和发展,简单说明了中华酒道与酒类营销的关系,并认为酒文化是无价之宝,是维持酒业持续发展的润滑剂,是酿酒行业巨大而宝贵的无形资产,是酒业取之不竭的智慧源泉,因此,应努力弘扬中华酒道,以促进我国酒业发展。

  16. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues

  17. Process steam production from cotton gin trash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LePori, W.A.; Carney, D.B.; Lalk, T.R.; Anthony, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A steam producing system based on fluidized-bed gasification of biomass materials is discussed. Limited experimental results are discussed and show that steam has been produced at rates of 334.3 kg/hr. (737 lbs/hr.) with 2.8 kg of stream produced for each kilogram of cotton gin trash (2.8 lb/lb.). ref.

  18. Steam-frothing of milk for coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münchow, Morten; Jørgensen, Leif; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel;

    2015-01-01

    A method for evaluation of the foaming properties of steam-frothed milk, based on image analysis (feature extraction) carried out on a video taken immediately after foam formation, was developed. The method was shown to be able to analyse steam-frothed milk made using a conventional espresso mach...

  19. The Invention of the Steam Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kooij, B.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    This casestudy is a historic analysis of the developments that resulted in the steam engine. The range of inventions that started with Savery's 'Miner's Friend' (a water pump to solve the dramatic water problem in the British eighteenth century mines) over a century culminated in the steam engine us

  20. Replacement steam generators for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock and Wilcox Canada has developed an Advanced Series steam generator for PWR Systems. This design incorporates all of the features that have contributed to the successful CANDU steam generator performance. This paper presents an overview of the design features and how the overall design relates to the requirements of a PWR reactor system

  1. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  2. Steam chemistry - interaction of chemical species with water, steam, and materials during evaporation, superheating, and condensation. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Topics of this proceedings are: steam chemistry, supercritical water, effects of chemicals in steam (acetic acid, formic acid, phosphoric acid or other impurities); solubility and deposition, condensation processes and effect of impurities; nucleation; gas-liquid interfaces; steam treatment. (SR)

  3. Epidemiological and histopathological study of relevance of Guizhou Maotai liquor and liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wu; Yu-Mei Yao; Ying-Ying Zhang; Lan-Zhen Ren; Lan Ye; Ling Li; Hui-Na Zhang; Ming-Liang Cheng; Guo-Hao Zhang; Rong-Wei Zhai; Neng-Hui Huang; Cheng-Xiu Li; Tian-Yong Luo; Shuang Lu; Zhi-Qin Yu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the relevance of Maotai liquor and liverdiseases.METHODS: Epidemiological study was conducted on groupsof subjects, each consisting of 3 subjects from the Maotailiquor group consisting of 99 individuals and one from thenon-alcoholic control group consisting of 33 individuals.Liver biopsy was performed on 23 volunteers from GuizhouMaotai Distillery who had a constant and long history ofdrinking Maotai liquor. Experimental histopathological studywas conducted as follows: sixty male Wistar rats weredivided into 3 groups randomly and fed with Maotai liquor,ordinary white wine, and physiological saline respectivelyfor a period of 8 and 12 weeks The rats were sacrificed inbatches, then serum ALT,AST, TBil, and AKP weremeasured. Rat livers were harvested to measure the liverindexes, GSH, and MDA. Histopathological examinationswere also performod. Another eighty mica were randomlydivided into 4 groups and fed with Maotei (at differentdosages of 10 mi @ kg-1 and 20 mi @ kg-1 ), ethanol, andphysiological saline. The animals were sacrificed after 4weeks and serum ALT was determined. Then the livers wereharvested and liver indexes and MDA were measured.RESULTS: The incidence rate of hepatic symptoms,splenomegaly, liver function imlairment, reversal ofAIbumin/Glolulin and increased diameter of portal veins inthe Maotai liquor group were 1.0 %(1/99), 1.0 %(1/99), 1.0% (1/99), 1.0 % (1/99), 0(0/99)and 0(0/99), 0(0/99) ,0(0/99),0(0/99), 0 (0/99), respectively. There was no significantdifference between the Maotai group and the non-alcoholiccontrol group( P > 0.05). Various degree of fatty infiltrationof hepatocytes was found in the 23 volunteers receiving liverbiopsy, uut there was no obvious hepatic fibrosis orcirrhosis. A compsrison was made between the Maotailiquor group and the ordinary white wine group. It wasfound that hepatic MDA in rats and mice were 0.33 + 0.10and 0.49 + 0.23 respectively in Maotai group and 0.61 + 0.22and0.66+0.32 in the ordinary white

  4. Strategic maintenance plan for Cernavoda steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam generators are among the most important pieces of equipment in a nuclear power plant. They are required full time during the plant operation and obviously no redundancy exists. Past experience has shown that those utilities which implemented comprehensive steam generator inspection and maintenance programs and strict water chemistry controls, have had good steam generator performance that supports good overall plant performance. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a strategic Life Management and Operational-monitoring program for the Cernavoda steam generators. The program is first of all to develop a base of expertise for the management of the steam generator condition; and that is to be supported by a program of actions to be accomplished over time to assess their condition, to take measures to avoid degradation and to provide for inspections, cleaning and modifications as necessary. (author)

  5. Circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    1997-04-01

    On April 28, 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 95-03, {open_quote}Circumferential Cracking of Steam Generator Tubes.{close_quote} GL 95-03 was issued to obtain information needed to verify licensee compliance with existing regulatory requirements regarding the integrity of steam generator tubes in domestic pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). This report briefly describes the design and function of domestic steam generators and summarizes the staff`s assessment of the responses to GL 95-03. The report concludes with several observations related to steam generator operating experience. This report is intended to be representative of significant operating experience pertaining to circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes from April 1995 through December 1996. Operating experience prior to April 1995 is discussed throughout the report, as necessary, for completeness.

  6. Microbial activity in soils following steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ruth E; James, C Andrew; Bhupathiraju, Vishvesh K; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Steam enhanced extraction (SEE) is an aquifer remediation technique that can be effective at removing the bulk of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination from the subsurface, particularly highly volatile contaminants. However, low volatility compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are less efficiently removed by this process. This research evaluated the effects of steam injection on soil microbial activity, community structure, and the potential for biodegradation of contaminants following steam treatment. Three different soils were evaluated: a laboratory-prepared microbially-enriched soil, soil from a creosote contaminated field site, and soil from a chlorinated solvent and waste oil contaminated field site. Results from field-scale steaming are also presented. Microbial activity before and after steam treatment was evaluated using direct epifluorescent microscopy (DEM) using the respiratory activity dye 5-cyano-2,3, ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) in conjunction with the fluorochrome 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (DTAF) to yield a quantitative assessment of active and total microbial numbers. DEM results indicate that steamed soils that were analyzed while still hot exhibited microbial activity levels that were below detection. However, soil samples that were slowly cooled, more closely reflecting the conditions of applied SEE, exhibited microbial activity levels that were comparable to presteamed soils. Samples from a field-site where steam was applied continuously for 6 weeks also showed high levels of microbial activity following cooling. The metabolic capabilities of the steamed communities were investigated by measuring cell growth in enrichment cultures on various substrates. These studies provided evidence that organisms capable of biodegradation were among the mesophilic populations that survived steam treatment. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the soils with domain-level rRNA probes suggest

  7. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  8. Hygroscopic slaking of lime with steam or humid air. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Hygroskopisk slaeckning av kalk med aanga eller fuktig luft. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2003-07-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional slaking method is that heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with steam or humid air, for example combined with a lime mud drier and a lime kiln. The task has included slaking of burned lime with steam or humid hot air, on purpose to test a specific machine equipment in pilote scale, and to investigate temperatures and hydratization rates able to reach. Also the lime slaked with steam/humid air should be compared with burned lime slaked in green liquor when green liquor is causticized, and to investigate the dewatering properties of formed lime mud. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The tests have been performed at SMA Svenska Mineral AB plant (lime burning) at Sandarne Sweden in years 2004-2005. Project owner has been the Swedish company Torkapparater AB, and the project is performed inside the 'Vaermeforsk Program for Pulp and Paper Industry 2004-2005'. Other partners, besides SMA Svenska Mineral AB, has been Stora Enso Skoghalls Bruk, Carnot AB, AaF Process AB and KTH Energiprocesser. Hydrated lime of varying slaking rates has been produced at temperatures up to 270 deg C. Caustizicing being performed show that dewatering properties of lime mud formed is quite up to the standard of lime mud from burned lime slaked in green liquor. The apprehension, that the hygroscopic slaked lime should result

  9. Flow of Hydrolysed Polyacrylamide Mother Liquor through Filter Bag: Detecting the Effects of Formulation and Process Properties on Pressure Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Ming Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM mother liquor is mainly used to extract oil. The HPAM solution is needed to filter the impurity using a bag filter before it is injected into the oil well. Therefore, the pressure drop of HPAM mother liquor must be less than 0.02 MPa in the processing of impurity filtration. The influence factors on pressure drop need to be researched. In this work, the computational fluid dynamics program (CFD was used to research some key influence factors on pressure drop, such as porosity, outlet pressure of filter, inlet flow rate and viscosity of mother liquor. The simulation results indicated that with increasing porosity, outlet pressure, inlet flow rate and mother liquor viscosity, the pressure drop had increased after flowing through the filter bag.

  10. 浓香型白酒生产中酿酒微生物研究进展%A Review of Research Progress About Luzhou-flavor Liquor Making Microbes in Liquor Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵爽; 杨春霞; 徐曼; 窦屾; 廖永红

    2012-01-01

    In traditional liquor brewing process, microbes played an important role on liquor quality and flavor. In this paper, Overview of the liquor microbial researched situation, carried on the analysis and forecast, and proposed the importance of the relationship between research of liquor-making microbes and flavor. Ideas were provided for the production of Luzhou-flavor liquor brewing microbiology research, and the foundation was laid for liquor theory and practice research.%在传统固态白酒酿造过程中,微生物对白酒的品质、风味起着重要作用.本文概述了浓香型白酒微生物的研究状况,并对其进行分析和展望,提出研究酿酒微生物与风味物质之间关系的重要性.旨在为浓香型白酒生产中酿造微生物的研究提供思路,为白酒理论与实践研究奠定基础.

  11. Design of PFBR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical straight tube with an expansion bend in sodium path is the design selected for the steam generators of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). There are 4 secondary loops with each loop consisting of 3 modules. With sodium reheat incorporated each module comprises of one evaporator, superheater and reheater. Material of construction is 2.25Cr-1Mo for evaporator and 9Cr-1Mo for superheater and reheater. The tube to tubesheet weld is internal bore butt weld with tubesheet having raised spigot. Aim is to have reliable design with higher plant availability. Design considerations leading to the choice of design features selected are discussed in the paper and a ''reference'' design has been described. (author). 2 figs, 1 tab

  12. Design improvement and test verification of steam flow limiter of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Steam flow limiter is an important device of steam generator in nuclear power plant. It limits the steam flow during the event of steam line break. However, it is required that the steam flow limiter has low pressure loss during normal operation of steam generator. Purpose: The aim is to design a steam flow limiter with lower pressure loss. Methods: An improved design of steam flow limiter is developed by increasing the number of Venturies from 7 to 19. Two test models of steam flow limiters of traditional design and improved design are tested. Results: The pressure loss factor of the traditional design test model is 6.9. The pressure loss factor of the improved design test model is 4.4. Conclusion: Based on the same total throat flow area, it is verified by tests that the pressure loss of steam flow limiter containing 19 Venturis is significantly lower than that containing 7 Venturis. The pressure loss calculation method is verified simultaneously. (authors)

  13. Nuclear steam-reheat options: Russian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepts of nuclear reactors cooled with water at supercritical pressures were studied as early as the 1950s and 1960s in the USA and Russia. After a 30-year break, the idea of developing nuclear reactors cooled with SuperCritical Water (SCW) became attractive again as the ultimate development path for water cooling. The main objectives of using SCW in nuclear reactors are: 1) to increase the thermal efficiency of modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) from 30 - 35% to about 45 - 50%, and 2) to decrease capital and operational costs and hence decrease electrical-energy costs. SCW NPPs will have much higher operating parameters compared to modern NPPs (pressure about 25 MPa and outlet temperature up to 625oC), and a simplified flow circuit, in which steam generators, steam dryers, steam separators, etc., can be eliminated. Also, higher SCW temperatures allow direct thermo-chemical production of hydrogen at low cost due to increased reaction rates. To achieve higher thermal efficiency a nuclear steam reheat has to be introduced inside a reactor. Currently, all supercritical turbines at thermal power plants have a steam-reheat option. In the 60's and 70's, Russia and some other countries have developed and implemented the nuclear steam reheat at subcritical-pressure in experimental reactors. There are some papers, mainly published in the open Russian literature, devoted to this important experience. Analysis of the Russian literature on nuclear steam-reheat option is presented in the current paper. (author)

  14. Methane reforming with fast nuclear reactor steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the concept of utilizing nuclear fast reactor (FR) with a sodium coolant for methane steam reforming. Steam conditions of a power FR, e.g. the BN-600 now operating in Russia: steam pressure P=13.2 MPa and steam temperature T=500degC, do not absolutely comply with the catalytic reactor working parameters, which produces a synthetic gas (syngas), a mix of hydrogen and carbon oxide. In this connection, the present paper addresses a possibility of utilizing steam produced in one of three independent the BN-600 loops in an amount of 640 t/h for preparing a gas-steam mixture with T=500degC and its additional heating in a converter up to the operating temperature, T=850degC, at the expense of natural gas burning or electrical energy supplying. In this case, the fraction of burned natural gas burning or electrical energy supplying. In this case, the fraction of burned natural gas significantly decreases. It is estimated that steam parameters of the BN-600 afford to obtain ∼3·105 nm3/h of hydrogen. It is also considered a concept of nuclear heat transfer to remote regions to be achieved with the aid of syngas incoming from the converter, its cooling further and transmitting through a pipeline to the place of its utilization, where it is restored into methane with the heat extraction. (author)

  15. EFFECT OF LIGNIN ON ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF HARDWOOD AFTER GREEN LIQUOR AND SULFURIC ACID PRETREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douyong Min,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Red maple, sweet gum, trembling aspen, red alder, and Eucalyptus globulus samples were pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid and green liquor before enzymatic saccharification. Substrates showed different levels of delignification and sugar recovery, depending on the applied pretreatments and the syringaldehyde/vanillin ratio (S/V. Three major conclusions were drawn in this research. First, lignin is the greatest contributor to recalcitrance of hardwood to enzymatic saccharification. Second, a high S/V ratio is a useful indicator of high delignification during a pretreatment process. Third, green liquor pretreatment is a promising pretreatment method because of a high delignification degree and sugar recovery. In addition, xylan also contributes to the recalcitrance of hardwoods toward enzymatic saccharification.

  16. Pre-desilication and digestion of gibbsitic bauxite with lime in sodium aluminate liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-lin; Yu, Hai-yan; Dong, Kai-wei; Tu, Gan-feng; Bi, Shi-wen

    2012-11-01

    The effect of lime on the pre-desilication and digestion of gibbsitic bauxite in synthetic sodium aluminate liquor at different temperatures was investigated. The bauxite is comprised of gibbsite, aluminogoethite, hematite, kaolin, quartz, and minor boehmite. Lime increases the desilication efficiency of the bauxite during the pre-desilication process by promoting the conversion of sodalite and cancrinite to hydrogarnet. Desilication reactions during the digestion process promoted by lime result in the loss of Al2O3 entering the red mud, but the amount of aluminogoethite-to-hematite conversion promoted by lime leads to the increase of aluminogoethitic Al2O3 entering the digested liquor. The alumina digestion rate at 245°C is higher than that at 145°C due to the more pronounced conversion of aluminogoethite to hematite. The soda consumption during the digestion process decreases due to lime addition, especially at higher temperatures.

  17. Experimental Research on Removing Suspended Solids and Ammonium Ions from Sludge Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasparas Gražinskas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the processes of removing suspended solids and ammonium ions from sludge liquor. Experimental research was carried out at the Water Management Department laboratory of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University applying an experimental bench made of filters equipped with the zeolites of a different fraction and other appliances. Laboratory testing looked at the use of natural sorbent zeolite for removing ammonium ions from sludge liquor mixing liquid with powdered zeolite and filtering through zeolite filter media. Research was carried out employing the particles of zeolite 1.0–1.5 mm; 2.0–2.5 mm; 2.5–3.15 mm in diameter. The highest efficiency of removing ammonium ions reached 76% and was obtained using zeolite particles 2.0–2.5 mm in diameter.

  18. Value Addition to Sulfate Waste Pickle Liquor of Steel Industry Using Hydrometallurgical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    The solvent extraction of concentrated acid was investigated from sulfate waste pickle liquors using Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO); manufactured by Cytec Industries Inc., Woodland Park, NJ; provided by Cyanamid Canada Inc. (Markham, Canada)) as an extractant. The effect of various parameters was studied such as extractant concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, temperature. and retention time on acid extraction from the waste pickle liquor to the organic phase, After the saturation of the organic phase with sulfuric acid, stripping studies were performed to back-extract the pure acid into the aqueous phase. The raffinate of the solvent extraction process that contains both ferrous and ferric iron as well as trace impurities was subjected to oxidation and hydrothermal treatment to precipitate iron with a well-defined pseudo-cubic morphology and a high coercivity value that renders it suitable for high-grade ferrite production.

  19. PCR-DGGE analysis of the microbial communities in three different Chinese "Baiyunbian" liquor fermentation starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaomao; Hu, Yuanliang; Yan, Nanfeng; Huang, Yingna; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumiao

    2014-08-01

    A systematic investigation was performed on the bacterial, Bacillus, fungal, and yeast communities of the three types of Daqu (mechanically prepared, manually prepared, and mixed prepared) used in Baiyunbian Company by reconditioning PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The DGGE results showed that the microbes in the three types of Daqu were mainly thermotolerant and thermophilic microbes, and the most dominant bacterial species were Bacillus and Virgibacillus, followed by Lactobacillus and Trichococcus. Furthermore, the dominant fungi were found to be molds, such as Rasamsonia, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus, and the dominant yeasts were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Pichia anomala, and Debaryomyces hansenii. In general, the three types of Daqu showed slight differences in microbial communities, and the Shannon indexes (H') of the manually prepared and mechanically prepared Daqu were similar. The results suggest that mechanically prepared Daqu can replace manually prepared Daqu in liquor production, and this research provides useful information for liquor production and process improvement. PMID:24809292

  20. Failure analysis of retired steam generator tubings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, J. S.; Hwang, S. S. and others

    2005-04-15

    Degradation of steam generator leads to forced outage and extension of outage, which causes increase in repair cost, cost of purchasing replacement power and radiation exposure of workers. Steam generator tube rupture incident occurred in Uljin 4 in 2002, which made public sensitive to nuclear power plant. To keep nuclear energy as a main energy source, integrity of steam generator should be demonstrated. Quantitative relationship between ECT(eddy current test) signal and crack size is needed in assesment of integrity of steam generator in pressurized water reactor. However, it is not fully established for application in industry. Retired steam generator of Kori 1 has many kinds of crack such as circumferential and axial primary water stress corrosion crack and outer diameter stress corrosion crack(ODSCC). So, it can be used in qualifying and improving ECT technology and in condition monitoring assesment for crack detected in ISI(in service inspection). In addition, examination of pulled tube of Kori 1 retired steam generator will give information about effectiveness of non welded sleeving technology which was employed to repair defect tubes and remedial action which was applied to mitigate ODSCC. In this project, hardware such as semi hot lab. for pulled tube examination and modification transportation cask for pulled tube and software such as procedure of transportation of radioactive steam generator tube and non-destructive and destructive examination of pulled tube were established. Non-destructive and destructive examination of pulled tubes from Kori 1 retired steam generator were performed in semi hot lab. Remedial actions applied to Kori 1 retired steam generator, PWSCC trend and bulk water chemistry and crevice chemistry in Kori 1 were evaluated. Electrochemical decontamination technology for pulled tube was developed to reduce radiation exposure and enhance effectiveness of pulled tube examination. Multiparameter algorithm developed at ANL, USA was

  1. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  2. A Fuzzy Multi-attribute Decision Making Method for Sensory Evaluation of Tea Liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Haiping Ren; Wanzhen Liu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a new sensory evaluation method of tea liquor. Sensory data are usually expressed with linguistic terms, which are more suitable than crisp numbers under this situation. The proposed evaluation method firstly transforms the linguistic terms into triangular fuzzy numbers and then develops an evaluation method based on the concept of TOPSIS. To illustrate the feasibility and practicability of the proposed method, an applied example is given to verify the new ...

  3. Development of hydrometallurgical leaching liquor regeneration process by capture of CO2 from pyrometallurgical flue gas

    OpenAIRE

    Wylock, Christophe; Antunano, Nestor; Arias, Pedro Luis; Haut, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    The steelmaking industry that uses electric arc furnaces (EAF) generates as its main residue EAF dust, which must be treated to recycle Zn, Pb and other metals to prevent environmental impacts. Waelz process is the most common technology for this purpose, generating concentrates of Zn and Pb oxides (called Waelz oxides). One of their many applications is the Zn production in Imperial Smelting furnaces. This work deals with the development of a regeneration process of leaching liquors used in ...

  4. Biocontrol of geosmin-producing Streptomyces spp. by two Bacillus strains from Chinese liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yan; Wu, Qun; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-16

    Streptomyces spp. producing geosmin have been regarded as the most frequent and serious microbial contamination causing earthy off-flavor in Chinese liquor. It is therefore necessary to control the Streptomyces community during liquor fermentation. Biological control, using the native microbiota present in liquor making, appears to be a better solution than chemical methods. The objective of this study was to isolate native microbiota antagonistic toward Streptomyces spp. and then to evaluate the possible action mode of the antagonists. Fourteen Bacillus strains isolated from different Daqu (the fermentation starter) showed antagonistic activity against Streptomyces sampsonii, which is one of the dominant geosmin producers. Bacillus subtilis 2-16 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1-45 from Maotai Daqu significantly inhibited the growth of S. sampsonii by 57.8% and 84.3% respectively, and effectively prevented the geosmin production in the simulated fermentation experiments (inoculation ratio 1:1). To probe the biocontrol mode, the ability of strain 2-16 and 1-45 to produce antimicrobial metabolites and to reduce geosmin in the fermentation system was investigated. Antimicrobial substances were identified as lipopeptides by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF MS) and in vitro antibiotic assay. In addition, strains 2-16 and 1-45 were able to remove 45% and 15% of the geosmin respectively in the simulated solid-state fermentation. This study highlighted the potential of biocontrol, and how the use of native Bacillus species in Daqu could provide an eco-friendly method to prevent growth of Streptomyces spp. and geosmin contamination in Chinese liquor fermentation.

  5. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal. PMID:22751850

  6. Hydrometallurgical recovery of copper from leach liquor of polymetallic nodules in solvent extraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pospiech

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to present the possibilities of copper(II recovery from the synthetic sulphate leach liquor containing cobalt(II, nickel(II and manganese(II.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations have been undertaken in order to determine the influence of major parameters on the extraction process of copper(II from the leach liquor of polymetallic manganese nodules. Copper(II ions were extracted with Kelex 100 and LIX 70 in kerosene. The effect of different parameters such as pH of aqueous phase, extractants concentration in the organic phase, concentration of sulphuric acid as the stripping reagent were investigated.Findings: The optimal conditions of metal ions selectivity extraction have been determined. Over 99% of Cu(II can be effectively extracted with 5% Kelex 100 and 10% LIX 70 at pH of 2.0 from model leach liquor in the presence of Co(II, Ni(II and Mn(II, while less than 10% of the other metals is transported to the organic phase. The selectivity of Cu(II extraction over Co(II, Ni(II and Mn(II with Kelex 100 depended upon the acidity of aqueous solution and the selectivity increased with decreasing of pH in the feed solution. Separation of Cu(II from these metal ions is very effective. Cu(II can be recovered successfully from the loaded organic phase with Kelex 100 through stripping with 2.0 M H2SO4.Practical implications: The results can be used during the hydrometallurgical recovery of metals from nodules on the industrial scale.Originality/value: The study on the solvent extraction of Cu(II using LIX 70 and Kelex 100 from leach liquor of polymetallic manganese nodules has not been reported yet. Conducting this research is therefore the most reasonable and necessary.

  7. EFFECT OF BORIC ACID ON THE EXTRACTION OF BASTNASITE LEACHING LIQUOR BY CYANEX 923

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IntroductionIt is known that bastnasite is one of the mainsources of cerium. Bac it is still a problem forhydrometallurgy of bastnasite because of large amountof fluorine in the ore. Fltiorine in the bastnasiteleaching liquor forms precipitation with trivalent rareearths and leads to emulsion. So several roastingprocesses of bastnasite with alkali have been putforward and chelants have been added tO eliminate theinfluence of fluorinell-4]. The general chelant is boricacid. One new process with Cyanex 923151...

  8. Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor generated from leather industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boopathy, R.; Sekaran, G., E-mail: ganesansekaran@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) generated in Tannery. • Copper coating on electrode surface and horizontal mounting of electrodes for ERSL treatment. • Electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants under high saline condition. • The treated solution may be evaporated to dryness to get NaCl salt for hide/skin preservation. -- Abstract: The organic and suspended solids present in soak liquor, generated from leather industry, demands treatment. The soak liquor is being segregated and evaporated in solar evaporation pans/multiple effect evaporator due to non availability of viable technology for its treatment. The residue left behind in the pans/evaporator does not carry any reuse value and also faces disposal threat due to the presence of high concentration of sodium chloride, organic and bacterial impurities. In the present investigation, the aqueous evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) was treated by electrochemical oxidation. Graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite systems were used in electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL. Among these, graphite/graphite system was found to be effective over SS304/graphite system. Hence, the optimised conditions for the electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL using graphite/graphite system was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). The mass transport coefficient (k{sub m}) was calculated based on pseudo-first order rate kinetics for both the electrode systems (graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite). The thermodynamic properties illustrated the electrochemical oxidation was exothermic and non-spontaneous in nature. The calculated specific energy consumption at the optimum current density of 50 mA cm{sup −2} was 0.41 kWh m{sup −3} for the removal of COD and 2.57 kWh m{sup −3} for the removal of TKN.

  9. Electric-arc steam plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshakov, A. S.; Urbakh, E. K.; Radko, S. I.; Urbakh, A. E.; Faleev, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation results on the arc plasmatorch for water-steam heating are presented. The construction arrangement of steam plasma generator with copper electrodes of the stepped geometry was firstly implemented. The energy characteristics of plasmatorch and erosion of electrodes reflect the features of their behavior at arc glow in the plasma-forming environment of steam. The results of numerical study of the thermal state of the composite copper-steel electrodes had a significant influence on optimization of anode water-cooling aimed at improvement of its operation life.

  10. New type steam turbine for cogeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jianren; Yang Qiguo; Xu Damao

    2010-01-01

    A concept of energy saving & efficiency improving from cold source for cogeneration steam turbine was discussed herein.A new type"NCB"cogeneration steam turbine was proposed,which could considerably increase heat supply capacity,thermal efficiency and electric power.Taking 300 MW cogeneration steam turbine as an example,the results show that heat supply capacity reaches the maximum,i.e.increases by 30%,thermal efficiency is improved by12%,and electric power is enhanced by 15 MW during peak heat load.

  11. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.

  12. 白酒外包装的新应用%New Application of Liquor Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江贤贵

    2012-01-01

    With the development of the liquor industry,market competition is becoming furious.The homogenization of inner quality has forced the liquor enterprises pay more attention to the product packaging.In order to meet the colorful packaging and outstanding personality requirements,micro-flute box and flexographic printing have been used for liquor packaging and printing.The moderate but quality packaging not only realized the beauty,but also had certain environment value.%随着白酒业的发展,市场竞争也进入了白热化程度,因为内在品质的同质化,迫使各酒企更加重视产品的外包装,为了满足外包装丰富多彩和个性突出的要求,微型楞盒和柔版印刷开始用于白酒包装印刷,而它们的应用既可以实现色美但不唯美、适度但不过度的优质外包装产品,又有一定的环保价值。

  13. Community of environmental streptomyces related to geosmin development in Chinese liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Lu, Hu; Xu, Yan; Du, Xiaowei

    2013-02-13

    Diverse Streptomyces species act as geosmin producers in the Chinese liquor-making process. In this paper, the ecology of these Streptomyces species was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified Actinobacteria -specified rDNA. The result showed that Streptomyces were widely distributed during Daqu incubation, and multiple processing, geographic, and climate factors can affect their distribution and diversity. The genes associated with geosmin production were characterized in four geosmin-producing Streptomyces strains, all of which were isolated from geosmin-contaminated Daqu. On the basis of this information, a real-time PCR method was developed, enabling the detection of traces of Streptomyces in complex solid-state matrices. The primer was targeted at the gene coding for geosmin synthase (geoA). The real-time PCR method was found to be specific for geosmin-producing Streptomyces and did not show any cross-reactivity with geosmin-negative isolates, which are frequently present in the Chinese liquor-brewing process. Quantification of geoA in the Chinese liquor-making process could permit the monitoring of the level of geosmin producers prior to the occurrence of geosmin production. Comparison of the qPCR results based on the gene encoding geosmin synthase and Actinobacteria-specified rDNA showed that about 1-10% of the Actinobacteria carry the geosmin synthesis gene.

  14. Pretreatment of spent sulphite liquor via ultrafiltration and nanofiltration for bio-based succinic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateraki, Chrysanthi; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Kookos, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2016-09-10

    Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been employed to evaluate the simultaneous production of lignosulphonates and bio-based succinic acid using the bacterial strains Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Ultrafiltration with membranes of 10, 5 and 3kDa molecular weight cut-off results in significant losses of lignosulphonates (26-50%) in the permeate stream, while nanofiltration using membrane with 500Da molecular weight cut-off results in high retention yields of lignosulphonates (95.6%) in the retentate stream. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures using permeates from ultrafiltrated SSL resulted in similar succinic acid concentration (27.5g/L) and productivity (0.4g/L/h) by both strains. When permeates from nanofiltrated SSL were used, the strain B. succiniciproducens showed the highest succinic acid concentration (33.8g/L), yield (0.58g per g of consumed sugars) and productivity (0.48g/L/h). The nanofiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor could lead to the production of 306.3kg of lignosulphonates and 52.7kg of succinic acid, whereas the ultrafiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor using a 3kDa membrane could result in the production of 237kg of lignosulphonates and 71.8kg of succinic acid when B. succiniproducens is used in both cases. PMID:27374402

  15. The Effect of Iron Salt on Anaerobic Digestion and Phosphate Release to Sludge Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ofverstrom

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron salts are used at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs for several reasons: for removing chemical phosphorus, preventing from struvite formation and reducing the content of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in biogas. Anaerobic digestion is a common scheme for sludge treatment due to producing biogas that could be used as biofuel. Laboratory analysis has been carried out using anaerobic digestion model W8 (Armfield Ltd, UK to investigate any possible effect of adding FeCl3 on the anaerobic digestion of primary sludge (PS and waste activated sludge (WAS mixture as well as on releasing phosphates to digested sludge liquor. The obtained results showed that FeCl3 negatively impacted the anaerobic digestion process by reducing the volume of produced biogas. Fe-dosed sludge (max produced 30% less biogas. Biogas production from un-dosed and Fe-dosed sludge (min was similar to the average of 1.20 L/gVSfed. Biogas composition was not measured during the conducted experiments. Phosphorus content in sludge liquor increased at an average of 38% when digesting sludge without ferric chloride dosing. On the contrary, phosphate content in sludge liquor from digested Fe-dosed sludge decreased by approx. 80%.

  16. Uranium and thorium determination in Santa Quiteria liquor by ICP-OES analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedro Junior, A.; Rezende, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Leonel M.; Ferreira, Elizabeth de Massena, E-mail: apjunior@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mineral source of Itataia located in Santa Quiteria (Ceara/Brazil) is a phosphorus uraniferous one, where uranium occurs in collophanite (fluoroapatite) form. Phosphate minerals of the apatite family make possible the uses of uranium as a byproduct. The sulfuric leaching of the phosphate rock in order to obtain phosphoric acid also permits uranium recovery. Thus, the liquor coming from the leaching contains high levels of phosphoric acid as well as elements like Mg, Fe, U, Zr, Th and some rare earths in significant concentrations. The direct determination of U and Th content of this liquor is essential to a rapid response in the uranium separation and purification together process by solvent extraction, aiming its use for commercial purposes, as nuclear industry fuel. In this study U and Th were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP-OES) in several samples of liquor, in high concentrations of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in environment. Several ratios of U/Th and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} concentrations were studied, in order to find the optimal conditions for the direct determination of U and Th, without need to prior separation. (author)

  17. [The Near Infrared Spectral Bands Optimal Selection in the Application of Liquor Fermented Grains Composition Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ya-ting; Li, Zong-peng; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Shu-jun; Yin, Jian-jun; Song, Quan-hou

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the technical level of the rapid detection of liquor fermented grains, in this paper, use near infrared spectroscopy technology to quantitative analysis moisture, starch, acidity and alcohol of liquor fermented grains. Using CARS, iPLS and no information variable elimination method (UVE), realize the characteristics of spectral band selection. And use the multiple scattering correction (MSC), derivative and standard normal variable transformation (SNV) pretreatment method to optimize the models. Establish models of quantitative analysis of fermented grains by PLS, and in order to select the best modeling method, using R2, RMSEP and optimal number of main factors to evaluate models. The results showed that the band selection is vital to optimize the model and CARS is the best optimization of the most significant effect. The calculation results showed that R2 of moisture, starch, acidity and alcohol were 0.885, 0.915, 0.951, 0.885 respectively and RMSEP of moisture, starch, acidity and alcohol were 0.630, 0.519, 0.228, 0.234 respectively. After optimization, the model prediction effect is good, the models can satisfy the requirement of the rapid detection of liquor fermented grains, which has certain reference value in the practical. PMID:27228746

  18. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  19. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  20. Natural circulation steam generator model for optimal steam generator water level control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several authors have cited the control of steam generator water level as an important problem in the operation of pressurized water reactor plants. In this paper problems associated with steam generator water level control are identified, and advantages of modern estimation and control theory in dealing with these problems are discussed. A new state variable steam generator model and preliminary verification results using data from the loss of fluid test (LOFT) plant are also presented

  1. Study of Scaling Development on Tube Surfaces of Water Steam Loop in Steam Generator of CEFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Lu; LIU; Fu-chen; LUO; De-kang; WU; Qiang; ZHANG; Huan-qi

    2012-01-01

    <正>The steam generator worked as pressure boundary of Na-H2O loop in China Experimental FastReactor (CEFR), which was quite important for nuclear reactor safety. Once the tubes separating the water from steam leak because of corrosion by scaling, Na-H2O reaction would lead to severe accident. So it’s critically important to study how the scaling develops on the water-steam sides.

  2. Pretreatment of Corn Stalk by Steam Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵自强; 田永生; 谭惠民

    2003-01-01

    A steam explosion pretreatment, which is one of the best ways of pretreating plant stalk, is applied at various severities to corn stalk. It could effectively modify the super-molecular structure of corn stalk and defibrating corn stalk into individual components. The relationship between yield of reducing sugar and the operating conditions, including temperature, pressure of steam explosion pretreatment and acidity, is also established. Experimental results prove that the steam explosion substantially increases the yield of reducing sugar, and the optimal condition for steam explosion is as follows: the pressure is 2.0 MPa, the pressure-retaining time 300 s, the initial acid concentration 1% and the acid treatment time 24 h.

  3. Ultrasonic testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system is developed for inspection of steam generator tube, especially near the tube plate. Imaging, thickness measurement, radial profilometry, longitudinal and circonferential crack detection and welded joints testing are reviewed

  4. US PWR steam generator management: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, C.S. Jr. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This paper provides an overview on the status of steam generator management activities in US PWRs, and includes: (1) an overview of the impact of steam generator problems; (2) a brief discussion of historical damage trends and the current damage mechanism of most concern; (3) a discussion of the elements of {open_quotes}steam generator management{close_quotes}; and (4) a description of the approach being followed to implement a degradation-specific protocol for tubing inspection and repair. This paper was prepared in conjunction with another paper presented during the Plenary Session of this Conference, {open_quotes}Steam Generator Degradation: Current Mitigation Strategies for Controlling Corrosion{close_quotes}, and is provided as a supplement to that material.

  5. US PWR steam generator management: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview on the status of steam generator management activities in US PWRs, and includes: (1) an overview of the impact of steam generator problems; (2) a brief discussion of historical damage trends and the current damage mechanism of most concern; (3) a discussion of the elements of open-quotes steam generator managementclose quotes; and (4) a description of the approach being followed to implement a degradation-specific protocol for tubing inspection and repair. This paper was prepared in conjunction with another paper presented during the Plenary Session of this Conference, open-quotes Steam Generator Degradation: Current Mitigation Strategies for Controlling Corrosionclose quotes, and is provided as a supplement to that material

  6. Advanced low pressure steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A.P.

    1998-07-01

    Low pressure steam turbines for fossil and nuclear power plants are designed to provide maximum exhaust area per flow in order to achieve high efficiency and at the same time reduce the number of flows and thereby minimize costs. Therefore they are characterized by very long last stage blades (LSB) mounted on a relatively small hub diameter compared to other axial turbines e.g. gas turbines. The paper summarizes how this very high length to diameter ratio of the LSB creates challenging flow conditions concerning stage and blading design. The turbine designer has to cope with very low hub reaction and the corresponding danger of flow separation. Due to the extreme change of circumferential velocity from hub to tip and flow pitch angles in the range of 45 or more the flow field is highly three-dimensional even without considering endwall flow phenomena. The LSB is subjected to high inlet Mach number at the hub as well as at the tip. Furthermore, the exit Mach number at the tip might reach twice the speed of sound. This leads to strong compression shocks with high shock losses. Many ways to master these challenges have been described in the literature. A summary of these design features is given in the paper. A common goal of all design measures is to reduce the significant radial pressure gradient at the exit of the last stage vane. Beside the well-known forced ``vortex design'', the effects of blade lean angle and sweep angle are explained. Both features generate an additional radial force on the flow which at least partly balances the radial pressure gradient due to swirl. Finally, the major objective of the paper is to present how all these design features have been applied in combination for an actual advanced large low pressure steam turbine design. A highly three-dimensional last stage vane is introduced. It can be shown that it is possible to optimize radial mass flow distribution and pressure distribution simultaneously.

  7. Xylitol production from xylose mother liquor: a novel strategy that combines the use of recombinant Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Xylose mother liquor has high concentrations of xylose (35%-40%) as well as other sugars such as L-arabinose (10%-15%), galactose (8%-10%), glucose (8%-10%), and other minor sugars. Due to the complexity of this mother liquor, further isolation of xylose by simple method is not possible. In China, more than 50,000 metric tons of xylose mother liquor was produced in 2009, and the management of sugars like xylose that present in the low-cost liquor is a problem. Results We designed a novel strategy in which Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa were combined and used to convert xylose in this mother liquor to xylitol, a product of higher value. First, the xylose mother liquor was detoxified with the yeast C. maltosa to remove furfural and 5-hydromethylfurfural (HMF), which are inhibitors of B. subtilis growth. The glucose present in the mother liquor was also depleted by this yeast, which was an added advantage because glucose causes carbon catabolite repression in B. subtilis. This detoxification treatment resulted in an inhibitor-free mother liquor, and the C. maltosa cells could be reused as biocatalysts at a later stage to reduce xylose to xylitol. In the second step, a recombinant B. subtilis strain with a disrupted xylose isomerase gene was constructed. The detoxified xylose mother liquor was used as the medium for recombinant B. subtilis cultivation, and this led to L-arabinose depletion and xylose enrichment of the medium. In the third step, the xylose was further reduced to xylitol by C. maltosa cells, and crystallized xylitol was obtained from this yeast transformation medium. C. maltosa transformation of the xylose-enriched medium resulted in xylitol with 4.25 g L-1·h-1 volumetric productivity and 0.85 g xylitol/g xylose specific productivity. Conclusion In this study, we developed a biological method for the purification of xylose from xylose mother liquor and subsequent preparation of xylitol by C. maltosa-mediated biohydrogenation of xylose

  8. Xylitol production from xylose mother liquor: a novel strategy that combines the use of recombinant Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Mingguo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylose mother liquor has high concentrations of xylose (35%-40% as well as other sugars such as L-arabinose (10%-15%, galactose (8%-10%, glucose (8%-10%, and other minor sugars. Due to the complexity of this mother liquor, further isolation of xylose by simple method is not possible. In China, more than 50,000 metric tons of xylose mother liquor was produced in 2009, and the management of sugars like xylose that present in the low-cost liquor is a problem. Results We designed a novel strategy in which Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa were combined and used to convert xylose in this mother liquor to xylitol, a product of higher value. First, the xylose mother liquor was detoxified with the yeast C. maltosa to remove furfural and 5-hydromethylfurfural (HMF, which are inhibitors of B. subtilis growth. The glucose present in the mother liquor was also depleted by this yeast, which was an added advantage because glucose causes carbon catabolite repression in B. subtilis. This detoxification treatment resulted in an inhibitor-free mother liquor, and the C. maltosa cells could be reused as biocatalysts at a later stage to reduce xylose to xylitol. In the second step, a recombinant B. subtilis strain with a disrupted xylose isomerase gene was constructed. The detoxified xylose mother liquor was used as the medium for recombinant B. subtilis cultivation, and this led to L-arabinose depletion and xylose enrichment of the medium. In the third step, the xylose was further reduced to xylitol by C. maltosa cells, and crystallized xylitol was obtained from this yeast transformation medium. C. maltosa transformation of the xylose-enriched medium resulted in xylitol with 4.25 g L-1·h-1 volumetric productivity and 0.85 g xylitol/g xylose specific productivity. Conclusion In this study, we developed a biological method for the purification of xylose from xylose mother liquor and subsequent preparation of xylitol by C. maltosa

  9. BWR drywell behavior under steam blowdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, thermal hydraulics analyses on Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) have been focused on the transients within the reactor or steam generator. Few have studied the effects of steam blowdown on the containment building. This paper discusses some theoretical issues as well as presenting numerical and experimental results of the blowdown tests performed at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integrated Test Assembly (PUMA)

  10. Next Generation Steam Cracking Reactor Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, M.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    The steam cracking process is an important asset in the hydrocarbon processing industry. The main products are lower olefins and hydrogen, with ethylene being the world's largest volume organic chemical at a worldwide capacity of ~ 120 million tonnes per year. Feed stocks are hydrocarbons such as: ethane, LPG, naphtha's, gas condensates and gas oil. The research goal of this thesis is to search for the intrinsic optimal steam cracking reaction conditions, pushing the olefin yields to the maxi...

  11. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  12. Reciprocating wear in a steam environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.J.; Gee, M.G. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Tests to simulate the wear between sliding components in steam power plant have been performed using a low frequency wear apparatus at elevated temperatures under static load, at ambient pressure, in a steam environment. The apparatus was modified to accept a novel method of steam delivery. The materials tested were pre-exposed in a flowing steam furnace at temperature for either 500 or 3000 hours to provide some simulation of long term ageing. The duration of each wear test was 50 hours and tests were also performed on as-received material for comparison purposes. Data has been compared with results of tests performed on non-oxidised material for longer durations and also on tests without steam to examine the effect of different environments. Data collected from each test consists of mass change, stub height measurement and friction coefficient as well as visual inspection of the wear track. Within this paper, it is reported that both pre-ageing and the addition of steam during testing clearly influence the friction between material surfaces. (orig.)

  13. Steam pipelines' effort and durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Okrajni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main problem addressed in the paper is the description of an effort and durability of steam pipelines under the conditions of mechanical and thermal interactions.Design/methodology/approach: The FEM modelling has been used to determine the stress and strain fields in the pipelines and to describe their behaviour under mechanical and thermal loading.Findings: An appropriate model description has been developed. So far, experimental verification of the usefulness of the model description to determine the stress and strain patterns in particular object and for chosen operation conditions has been made. The analysis made has shown that the most probable cause of cracks occurrence on the analyzed chosen pipeline’ inner surfaces are thermal deformations and constraints of their dislocations.Research limitations/implications: The developed description should be useful in problems of behaviour predictions of high temperature components and their durability assessment under different mechanical and thermal loadings in industry practical applications.Originality/value: The method, which more precise description of power industry components behaviour makes possible have been shown in the work. The work is addressed to researchers interested in problems of component behaviour prediction under different loadings that we can meet in the operation practice and to power industry engineering maintenance staff.

  14. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadokami, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyogo-ku (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  15. Response of the steam generator VVER 1000 to a steam line break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic effects of a steam line break in the weld of the steam pipe and the steam collector on the steam generator system are analyzed. Modelling of a steam line break may concern two cases. The steam line without a restraint and the steam line protected by a whip restraint with viscous elements applied at the postulated break cross-section. The second case is considered. Programme SYSTUS offers a special element the stiffness and viscous damping coefficients of which may be defined as dependent on the relative displacement and velocity of its nodes respectively. A circumferential crack is simulated by a sudden decrease of longitudinal and lateral stiffness coefficients of these special SYSTUS elements to zero. The computation has shown that one can simulate the pipe to behave like completely broken during a time interval of 0,0001 s or less. These elements are used to model the whip restraint with viscous elements and viscous dampers of the GERB type as well. In the case of a whip restraint model the stiffness coefficient-displacement relation and damping coefficient - velocity relation are chosen to fit the given characteristics of the restraint. The special SYSTUS elements are used to constitute Maxwell elements modelling the elasto-plastic and viscous properties of the GERB dampers applied to the steam generator. It has been ascertained that a steam line break at the postulated weld crack between the steam pipe and the steam generator collector cannot endanger the integrity of the system even in a case of the absence of a whip restraint effect. (author)

  16. Xylitol production from xylose mother liquor: a novel strategy that combines the use of recombinant Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Mingguo; Lv Jiyang; Wang Ben; Cheng Hairong; Lin Shuangjun; Deng Zixin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Xylose mother liquor has high concentrations of xylose (35%-40%) as well as other sugars such as L-arabinose (10%-15%), galactose (8%-10%), glucose (8%-10%), and other minor sugars. Due to the complexity of this mother liquor, further isolation of xylose by simple method is not possible. In China, more than 50,000 metric tons of xylose mother liquor was produced in 2009, and the management of sugars like xylose that present in the low-cost liquor is a problem. Results We d...

  17. Synergistic extraction of uranium from Korean black shale ore leach liquors using amine with phosphorous based extractant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synergistic extraction of uranium using amine combined with phosphorous based extractant systems was described. The present study focused on the continuous extraction processing of uranium to form precipitation under higher pH conditions and higher aqueous phase ratios. To address this, synergistic extraction studies were carried out with P-based extractants as synergists and investigations were done with better pairs with an amine-based extractant system. Finally, all of the developed synergistic extraction methodologies were compared with each other. This showed that Alamine 336 and D2EHPA was the best pair for uranium extraction, offering as much separation as possible from other associated metals. (author)

  18. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning process testing in model steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion related problems in PWR power plant steam generators have caused high maintenance costs, increased radiation exposure to plant personnel, and reduced unit availability. Two cleaning methods were investigated for their ability to clean deposits from steam generators thereby increasing the integrity of the steam generators and reducing personnel radiation exposure, due to reduced maintenance. First, an on-line chemical cleaning process (Chelant Addition) was tested for its ability to prevent corrosion product buildup in a steam generator. Second, an off-line dilute chemical cleaning process was tested to evaluate its ability to remove corrosion product deposits and leave minimal waste for disposal. These two processes were tested in model steam generators which simulated the operating conditions of a typical full size steam generator. Six model steam generators (MSG) were fabricated and qualified for their ability to reproduce denting at tube support plates. The results of six chemical cleaning tests and the post-cleaning destructive metallurgical evaluation of two of the model steam generators are reported

  19. Computer modeling of a convective steam superheater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Superheater is for generating superheated steam from the saturated steam from the evaporator outlet. In the case of pulverized coal fired boiler, a relatively small amount of ash causes problems with ash fouling on the heating surfaces, including the superheaters. In the convection pass of the boiler, the flue gas temperature is lower and ash deposits can be loose or sintered. Ash fouling not only reduces heat transfer from the flue gas to the steam, but also is the cause of a higher pressure drop on the flue gas flow path. In the case the pressure drop is greater than the power consumed by the fan increases. If the superheater surfaces are covered with ash than the steam temperature at the outlet of the superheater stages falls, and the flow rates of the water injected into attemperator should be reduced. There is also an increase in flue gas temperature after the different stages of the superheater. Consequently, this leads to a reduction in boiler efficiency. The paper presents the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the first stage superheater of both the boiler OP-210M using the commercial software. The temperature distributions of the steam and flue gas along the way they flow together with temperature of the tube walls and temperature of the ash deposits will be determined. The calculated steam temperature is compared with measurement results. Knowledge of these temperatures is of great practical importance because it allows to choose the grade of steel for a given superheater stage. Using the developed model of the superheater to determine its degree of ash fouling in the on-line mode one can control the activation frequency of steam sootblowers.

  20. High temperature steam gasification of wastewater sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature steam gasification is one of the most promising, viable, effective and efficient technology for clean conversion of wastes to energy with minimal or negligible environmental impact. Gasification can add value by transforming the waste to low or medium heating value fuel which can be used as a source of clean energy or co-fired with other fuels in current power systems. Wastewater sludge is a good source of sustainable fuel after fuel reforming with steam gasification. The use of steam is shown to provide value added characteristics to the sewage sludge with increased hydrogen content as well total energy. Results obtained on the syngas properties from sewage sludge are presented here at various steam to carbon ratios at a reactor temperature of 1173 K. Effect of steam to carbon ratio on syngas properties are evaluated with specific focus on the amounts of syngas yield, syngas composition, hydrogen yield, energy yield, and apparent thermal efficiency. The apparent thermal efficiency is similar to cold gas efficiency used in industry and was determined from the ratio of energy in syngas to energy in the solid sewage sludge feedstock. A laboratory scale semi-batch type gasifier was used to determine the evolutionary behavior of the syngas properties using calibrated experiments and diagnostic facilities. Results showed an optimum steam to carbon ratio of 5.62 for the range of conditions examined here for syngas yield, hydrogen yield, energy yield and energy ratio of syngas to sewage sludge fuel. The results show that steam gasification provided 25% increase in energy yield as compared to pyrolysis at the same temperature.

  1. Computer modeling of a convective steam superheater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trojan Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Superheater is for generating superheated steam from the saturated steam from the evaporator outlet. In the case of pulverized coal fired boiler, a relatively small amount of ash causes problems with ash fouling on the heating surfaces, including the superheaters. In the convection pass of the boiler, the flue gas temperature is lower and ash deposits can be loose or sintered. Ash fouling not only reduces heat transfer from the flue gas to the steam, but also is the cause of a higher pressure drop on the flue gas flow path. In the case the pressure drop is greater than the power consumed by the fan increases. If the superheater surfaces are covered with ash than the steam temperature at the outlet of the superheater stages falls, and the flow rates of the water injected into attemperator should be reduced. There is also an increase in flue gas temperature after the different stages of the superheater. Consequently, this leads to a reduction in boiler efficiency. The paper presents the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the first stage superheater of both the boiler OP-210M using the commercial software. The temperature distributions of the steam and flue gas along the way they flow together with temperature of the tube walls and temperature of the ash deposits will be determined. The calculated steam temperature is compared with measurement results. Knowledge of these temperatures is of great practical importance because it allows to choose the grade of steel for a given superheater stage. Using the developed model of the superheater to determine its degree of ash fouling in the on-line mode one can control the activation frequency of steam sootblowers.

  2. Present Development Situations of Low-alcohol Baijiu(Liquor)%低度白酒发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程平言; 胡峰; 胡建锋; 路虎; 陆伦维

    2015-01-01

    分析了低度白酒的发展趋势,指出低度酒发展中的3个主要问题:失光浑浊、货架期酯水解和标准难适用。重点阐述解决低度白酒相关问题的有效措施,其中冷冻过滤和活性炭吸附都能较好地解决低度白酒的浑浊问题;而延缓酯水解、稳定酒质则需要从以下几方面考虑:高质量的基酒和调味酒、采用酸含量高的酒进行酒体设计、改变酸酯浓度使其接近平衡、低温避光贮存、设定保质期等;并列出了待实施标准中的相关指标变化。最后,从改善工艺技术和引入健康因子等方面思考低度白酒的发展前景。%In this paper, the development trend of low-alcohol Baijiu(liquor), and the three main problems in the development of low-alcohol Baijiu(liquor) including turbidity, ester hydrolysis in shelf period and standard inapplicability were analyzed. Specifically, the effective mea-sures to solve those problems were introduced as follows:freezing filtration and active carbon absorption could settle the problem of liquor tur-bidity, and the measures to delay ester hydrolysis and stabilize liquor quality included the use of high-quality base liquor and flavoring liquor, the design of liquor body by using liquor with high content of acids, and the change of acids/esters concentration to achieve the equilibrium, low-temperature dark storage, and the setting of expiration date etc. Finally, the development foreground of low-alcohol liquor was discussed from the aspects of technical improvement and the introduction of health factors etc.

  3. Steam generator tube laser sleeving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, Framatome has been used with different techniques and means to perform the steam generator tube sleeving operation, such as the 'mechanical' either GTAW welded or kinetic welding process. As soon as first power laser units appeared on the market we felt right interested in applying this process to the sleeving operation. After comparison between all the processes and equipments existing at that time (that is to say CO2 and YAG laser units), we chose the YAG and bought a 1.2 kW NEC laser unit in 1988. As it was installed in our Welding Center of Le Creusot, this equipment enabled us carrying out a preliminary test programme which targets were: getting the mastery of the equipment and associated technologies, implementing this process for the sleeve welding operation by improvement of the welding-pen. The NEC laser unit became afterwards transferred to our workshop in Chalon-sur-Saone (June 1990), where we achieved the final tests of the process at the same time we were investigating the development of industrial operation means. The actual program is mainly focused on 7/8'' tube steam generator repair process at tubesheet outlet. Yet made sure that our methods and means apply as well to 3/4'' tubes up to second tube support-plate level. Sleeves are made of heat-treated Inconel 690. The sleeved unit has been designed to provide the same breaking strength and leak-tightness as the tube. The upper part of sleeve consists of an anti-pop out length which ensures some locking-up in case the tube breaks in upper transition expansion area. Preliminary tests dealt with the various parameters which may exert an influence on geometry and quality of the, weld bead, as: - laser beam power (for continuous and pulsed modes), - welding speed, - focal spot size and location from the surface to be welded, - protective gas. After performance of preliminary tests on many thousands of weld beads we decided to use the process according to following criteria: Weld quality

  4. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded duckweed: Improvement of the ethanol yield by increasing yeast titre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Moates, G K; Elliston, A; Wilson, D R; Coleman, M J; Waldron, K W

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the conversion of Lemna minor biomass to bioethanol. The biomass was pre-treated by steam explosion (SE, 210°C, 10 min) and then subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Cellic® CTec 2 (20 U or 0.87 FPU g(-1) substrate) cellulase plus β-glucosidase (2 U g(-1) substrate) and a yeast inoculum of 10% (v/v or 8.0×10(7) cells mL(-1)). At a substrate concentration of 1% (w/v) an ethanol yield of 80% (w/w, theoretical) was achieved. However at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v), the ethanol yield was lowered to 18.8% (w/w, theoretical). Yields were considerably improved by increasing the yeast titre in the inoculum or preconditioning the yeast on steam exploded liquor. These approaches enhanced the ethanol yield up to 70% (w/w, theoretical) at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v) by metabolising fermentation inhibitors. PMID:26210138

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF SODA PULPING PROCESS OF LIGNO-CELLULOSIC RESIDUES OF LEMON AND SOFIA GRASSES PRODUCED AFTER STEAM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjeet Kaur

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sofia (Cymbopogon martini, and lemon (Cymbopogon flexuosus grasses, are exclusively cultivated for extraction of important lemongrass and palma rosa oils. Lignocellulosic residue (LCR of sofia and lemon grasses left after steam distillation can successfully be used for the production of chemical grade pulp. Steam distillation mitigates the problem of mass transfer, and facilitates the faster penetration of cooking liquor by leaching out a part of extraneous components. Sofia grass produces a pulp yield of 43.7% of kappa number 20 at an active alkali dose of 14% (as Na2O, maximum cooking temperature of 160 oC and cooking time 90 min. Likewise, lemon grass produces a pulp yield of 41.4% of kappa number 12.5 under the same conditions except temperature (150 oC by a soda pulping process. Addition of 0.1% AQ at optimum cooking conditions reduces kappa number by 26 and 8% for sofia and lemon grasses with insignificant increase in pulp yield i.e. 0.2 and 0.4% for sofia and lemon grasses, respectively. The mechanical strength properties of lemon grass soda-AQ pulp are better than sofia grass. Bauer-McNett fiber classification further validates that +20 fractions are more (62.63% in lemon grass than in sofia grass (42.72%.

  6. Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion--use of aqueous liquor from digestate pyrolysis for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Tobias; Mumme, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of aqueous pyrolysis liquor derived from pyrolysis of solid digestate was tested in batch mode using an un-adapted inoculum. Three pyrolysis liquors produced at 330°C, 430°C and 530°C in four COD-based concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 30 g L(-1) were investigated. The three lower concentrations showed considerable biogas production, whereas the 30 g L(-1) dosage caused process inhibition. The highest methane yield of 199.1±18.5 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 56.9±5.3%) was observed for the 330°C pyrolysis liquor, followed by the 430°C sample with only slightly lower values. The 530°C sample dropped to a yield of 129.3±19.7 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 36.9±5.6%). Most VOCs contained in the pyrolysis liquor (i.e. furfural, phenol, catechol, guaiacol, and levoglucosan) were reduced below detection limit (cresol by 10-60%). Consequently, integrated pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion in addition to thermochemical conversion of digestate also promises bioconversion of pyrolysis liquors. PMID:25725406

  7. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  8. Utilisation aspects of ashes and green liquor dregs from an integrated semichemical pulp and board mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manskinen, K.

    2013-09-01

    This thesis investigated the properties of bottom and fly ashes originating from a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (120 MW) using two different fuel mixtures (i.e. Fuel mixture A: coal, wood and peat; and B: wood and peat) and of the green liquor dregs originating from the associated semichemical pulp and board mill in relation to the potential utilisation of these residues from various aspects. The total concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg in the bottom ashes were lower than the maximum allowable concentrations for these elements in forest fertilisers. The total Ca concentrations in bottom ashes A (2.4%; d.w.) and B (3.4%; d.w.) were lower than the legal requirement of 6.0% (d.w.) for ash used as a forest fertiliser. The total Ca concentrations in fly ashes A (6.4%; d.w.) and B (11.0%; d.w.) were higher than the minimum limit value of 6.0% (d.w.), but the concentration of As in fly ashes A (46.9 mg/kg d.w.) and B (41.3 mg/kg; d.w.) exceeded the maximum limit value of 40 mg/kg (d.w.). Only bottom ash B could be used as a forest fertiliser, provided some additional Ca is used. The bottom ashes both fulfilled the Finnish regulations on waste recovery in earth construction. Due to the elevated total concentration of PAH (23 mg/kg; d.w.) and extractable concentrations of Mo (3.9 mg/kg; d.w.) and Se (0.2 mg/kg; d.w.) in fly ash A, this residue cannot be used in covered structures. Due to the elevated concentration of PAH (90 mg/kg; d.w.) in fly ash B, this residue cannot be used in covered and paved structures. However, the utilisation of these residues as an earth construction agent is still possible, but an environmental permit would be required. According to the sequential extraction studies, extractable concentrations of most of the elements in the fly ash A were higher than those in the bottom ash A. The extractability of various elements, both in the bottom and fly ashes A, varied widely. Most of the elements did not occur as readily soluble and

  9. Hydrothermal Conversion of Neutral Sulfite Semi-Chemical Red Liquor into Hydrochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Gamgoum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrochar was produced from neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC red liquor as a possible bio-based solid fuel for use in power generation facilities. Hydrothermal conversion (HTC experiments were conducted using a fixed liquor-to-water volume ratio of 1:8 and reaction time of 3 h. Solutions were processed using different chemical additives, pH and temperature conditions to determine the optimum conditions required for producing a high energy content solid fuel. The hydrochar samples produced were analyzed by ultimate, thermogravimetric (TGA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analyses to determine physicochemical properties that are important for utilization as a fuel. The residual process liquids were also analyzed to better understand the effect of HTC process conditions on their properties. It was determined that the optimum conditions for producing a solid fuel was at a reaction temperature of 250 °C, in the presence of acetic acid at pH 3. The maximum energy content (HHV of the hydrochar produced from red liquor at this condition was 29.87 MJ/kg, and its ash content was 1.12 wt.%. This result reflects the effect of increasing reaction temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of the hydrochar. The increase of HTC temperature significantly reduces the ash content of the hydrochar, leads to a significant increase in the carbon content of the hydrochar, and a reduction in both the oxygen and hydrogen content. These effects suggests an increase in the degree of condensation of the hydrochar products, and consequently the formation of a high energy content material. Based on TGA and FTIR analyses, hydrochars prepared at high HTC temperature showed lower adsorbed moisture, hemicellulose and cellulose contents, with enrichment in content of higher temperature volatiles, such as lignin.

  10. Solar steam supply: Initial operation of a plant

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Dirk; Lichtenthäler, Niels; Dersch, Jürgen; Schenk, Heiko; Hennecke, Klaus; Anthrakidis, Anette; Rusack, Markus; Lokurlu, Ahmet; Saidi, Karim; Walder, Marcus; Fischer, Stephan; Wirth, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiences in operating a parabolic trough collector field for process heat supply by direct steam generation. The solar steam generator has been running automatically since its start in 2010 except for a winter pause up to now, August 2011, without any malfunction. It has supplied steam at 4 bar absolute and 143°C to the main production steam line on sunny days. Direct steam generation has proven to be a viable technology to supply saturated steam to an industrial st...

  11. Studies on solar flat plate collector evaporation systems for tannery effluent (soak liquor)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SRITHAR K.; MANIA.

    2006-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer analysis of an incompressible, laminar boundary layer over solar flat plate collector evaporation systems for tannery effluent (soak liquor) is investigated. The goveming equations are solved for various liquid to air velocity ratios. Profiles of velocity, temperature and concentration as well as their gradients are presented. The heat transfer and mass transfer coefficients thus obtained are used to evaluate mass of water evaporated for an inclined fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP)solar flat plate collector (FPC) with and without cover. Comparison of these results with the experimental performance shows encouraging trend of good agreement between them.

  12. Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, E.; Arnell, M.; Flores-Alsina, X.;

    2014-01-01

    ) a moving-bed biofilm reactor. Results show that the calibrated model is partly capable of reproducing the behaviour of N2O as well as the nitritation/nitrification/denitrification dynamics. However, the results emphasize that additional work is required before N2O emissions from sludge liquor treatment...... production by both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification. In addition, mass transfer equations are implemented to characterize the dynamics of N2O in the water and the gas phases.The biochemical model is simulated and validated for two hydraulic patterns: (1) a sequencing batch reactor; and, (2...

  13. Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, E.; Arnell, M.; Flores-Alsina, X.;

    2016-01-01

    ) a moving-bed biofilm reactor. Results show that the calibrated model is partly capable of reproducing the behaviour of N2O as well as the nitritation/nitrification/denitrification dynamics. However, the results emphasize that additional work is required before N2O emissions from sludge liquor treatment...... production by both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification. In addition, mass transfer equations are implemented to characterize the dynamics of N2O in the water and the gas phases.The biochemical model is simulated and validated for two hydraulic patterns: (1) a sequencing batch reactor; and, (2...

  14. Otobasal liquor fistula causing recurrent bacterial meningitis; Otobasale Liquorfistel als Ursache einer rezidivierenden bakteriellen Meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doege, H. [Abteilung fuer Nuklearmedizin, Leipzig Univ. (Germany); Klinghammer, A.; Elix, H. [Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Leipzig Univ. (Germany); Pilz, D. [Institut fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik der Klinikum Chemnitz gGmbH (Germany); Bootz, F. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde/ Plastische Operationen, Leipzig Univ. (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Cerebral subarachnoid space scintigraphy today still is the modality of choice for detection of a liquorrea or a liquor fistula, especially in the case of a recurrent menengitis of unclear origin. This diagnostic method yielded the results required in the case reported for efficient and successful surgical treatment. (orig./CB) [German] Die zerebrale Liquorraumszintigraphie ist aufgrund der hohen Empfindlichkeit auch heute noch die Methode der Wahl zum Nachweis einer Liquorrhoe beziehungsweise einer Liquorfistel, insbesondere bei einer rezidivierenden Meningitis unklarer Genese. Sie ermoeglichte bei unserer Patientin eine gezielte definitive operative Behandlung. (orig.)

  15. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  16. Fermentability of the hemicellulose-derived sugars from steam-exploded softwood (Douglas fir)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussaid, A.; Robinson, J.; Cai, Y.J.; Gregg, D.J.; Saddler, J.N. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Faculty of Forestry)

    1999-08-05

    Steam explosion of Douglas fir wood chips under low-severity conditions resulted in the recovery of around 87% of the original hemicellulose component in the water-soluble stream. More than 80% of the recovered hemicellulose was in a monomeric form. As the pretreatment severity increased from 3.08 to 3.76, hemicellulose recovery dropped to 43% of the original hemicellulose found in Douglas fir chips while the concentration of glucose originating from cellulose hydrolysis increased along with the concentration of sugar degradation products such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. Despite containing a higher concentration of hexose monomers (mainly glucose originating from cellulose degradation), the water-soluble fraction prepared under high-severity conditions was not readily fermented. Only the two hydrolyzates obtained at low and medium severities were fermented to ethanol using a spent sulfur liquor adapted strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. High ethanol yields were obtained for these two hydrolyzates with 0.44 g of ethanol produced per gram of hexose utilized (86% of theoretical). However, the best results of hemicellulose recovery and fermentability were obtained for the low-severity water-soluble fraction which was fermented significantly faster than the fraction obtained after medium-severity treatment probably because it contained higher amounts of fermentation inhibitors.

  17. Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively

  18. Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Yaqi; Meng, Qinghao, E-mail: qh-meng@tju.edu.cn; Qi, Peifeng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Wei; Ma, Shugen [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-05-15

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively.

  19. Steam injection in Colombia under challenging environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waghray, J.P. [Mansovar Energy Colombia Ltd (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    Mansarovar Energy Columbia Ltd. is a company extracting heavy oil from its Colombian fields. In order to enhance the production and at the same time to contribute to the economic recovery, they are using the cyclic steam injection method. The aim of this presentation is to show what are the challenges facing heavy oil extraction in Colombia, what is the state of the art, and what needs to be improved. Heavy oil extraction in Colombia presents two sorts of challenges: operational ones related to sanding problems and diluents and gas availability; and commercial ones, related to low return rates. The use of steam injection in conventional wells can, however, increase both productivity and the rate of return while at the same time enhancing the recovery factor by 10 to 15%. For the future, improvement in drilling and completion, production, and steam efficiency will be necessary as well as the implementation of the appropriate enhanced oil recovery processes.

  20. Effects of wetness in steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesketh, J.A.; Walker, P.J. [Alstom Power, Rugby (United Kingdom). Power Turbo Systems Sector

    2005-12-15

    Courses in mechanical engineering usually introduce the theory of axial-flow turbo-machines in terms of simple velocity triangles representing the bulk flow of ideal compressible fluid through the blade passages. A distinctive practical difference, peculiar to steam turbines (ST), is the presence of liquid-water in the flow field. The steam wetness in such turbines is widely known to be doubly-damaging, leading to both loss of efficiency and to mechanical damage (erosion, etc.) of the machine components. Over recent decades, a whole new field of mechanical engineering science has evolved on the subject of wetness in steam turbines, and general practices have been established within the industry. This article reviews the general effects that are of major importance to the turbine designer/engineer, power plant operator, and especially to researchers in this field. (author)

  1. Development of ATSR (Auto Thermal Steam Reformer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Auto-thermal reformers are used popularly for fuel cell vehicle because they are compact and can start up quickly. On the other hand, steam reformers are used for stationary fuel cell power plant because they are good thermal efficiency. While, there are many cases using the auto- thermal reformer for stationary use with expectation of cost reduction in USA, as well. However, they are still insufficient for its durability, compactness and cost. We have been developing the new type of fuel processing system that is auto-thermal steam reformer (ATSR), which is hybrid of a conventional steam reformer (STR) and a conventional auto-thermal reformer (ATR). In this study, some proto-type of ATSR for field test were designed, tried manufacturing and tested performance and durability. And we have tried to operate with fuel cell stack to evaluate the system interface performance, that is, operability and controllability. (author)

  2. Erosion corrosion in a wet steam loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a technical loop of a power plant erosion corrosion behaviour of the steels C 22.8, 15 Mo 3 and 10 Cr Mo 9 10 was investigated in test periods up to 78 days under definite conditions in wet steam of a relative steam content of about 75% at a temperature of 185 to 2000C and flow velocities up to 180 m/s. For comparison one test was carried out also in hot steam. By gravimetric, metallographic, SEM- and X-ray-diffraction analysis essential information was obtained on the kinetics of erosion corrosion and the structure of oxide coatings. The rate of erosion corrosion shows a high dependence on time and steel composition and decrease in the above mentioned order. Structure and quality of the oxide layer also show a remarkable dependence on steel composition. (orig.)

  3. New ferritic steels for advanced steam plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K.H; Koenig, H. [GEC ALSTHOM Energie GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    During the last 15-20 years ferritic-martensitic 9-12 % chromium steels have been developed under international research programmes which permit inlet steam temperatures up to approx. 625 deg C and pressures up to about 300 bars, thus leading to improvements in thermal efficiency of around 8 % and a CO{sub 2} reduction of about 20 % versus conventional steam parameters. These new steels are already being applied in 13 European and 34 Japanese power stations with inlet steam temperature up to 610 deg C. This presentation will give an account of the content, scope and results of the research programmes and of the experience gained during the production of components which have been manufactured from the new steels. (orig.) 13 refs.

  4. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  5. SCC free design for nuclear steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major material degradation experiences in the nuclear turbine industry was LP rotor disc stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Besides basic laboratory researches, field monitoring tests in actual steam condition in service have been continuously conducted for 30 years to confirm the long term operation effects on SCC. Based on test results, blade/rotor design and material selection guidelines to prevent SCC were established. Principles to prevent SCC in nuclear turbines are: 1) using clean rotor materials with less inclusions or impurities, 2) using lower yield strength materials, and 3) reducing stresses. These requirements are achieved by the full integral or welded rotor design with integral shroud LP end blade design. Nuclear steam turbines applying these technologies have been operating without any SCC problems for more than 20 years. This paper presents the outline of SCC free solutions and review the SCC problems of nuclear steam turbines at present. (authors)

  6. Heat Recovery Steam Generator by Using Cogeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Vivek, P. Vijaya kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A heat recovery steam generator or HRSG is an energy recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from a hot gas stream. It produces steam that can be used in a process (cogeneration or used to drive a steam turbine (combined cycle. It has been working with open and closed cycle. Both of cycles are used to increase the performance and also power on the cogeneration plant. If we are using closed cycle technology, we can recycle the waste heat from the turbine. in cogeneration plant, mostly they are using open cycle technology. additional, by using closed cycle technology, we can use the waste heat that converts into useful amount of work. In this paper, the exhaust gas will be sent by using proper outlet from cogen unit, we are using only waste heat that produce from turbine.

  7. Market structure scenarios in international steam coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueby, Johannes; Paulus, Moritz

    2011-04-15

    The seaborne steam coal market changed in recent years. Trade volumes grew dynamically, important players emerged and since 2007 prices increased significantly and remained relatively high since then. In this paper we analyse market equilibria in the years 2006 and 2008 by testing for two possible market structure scenarios in this market: perfect competition and an oligopoly setup with major exporters competing in quantities. We conclude from our results that international steam coal trade is not perfectly competitive as there is a large spread between marginal costs and prices and a low capacity utilisation in 2008. Further, trade flows are generally more diversified in reality than in the competitive scenario. However, also the Cournot scenarios fail to accurately explain real market outcomes. We conclude that only more sophisticated models of strategic behaviour can predict market equilibria in international steam coal trade. (orig.)

  8. Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  9. How to compute the power of a steam turbine with condensation, knowing the steam quality of saturated steam in the turbine discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Albarran, Manuel Jaime; Krever, Marcos Paulo Souza [Braskem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    To compute the power and the thermodynamic performance in a steam turbine with condensation, it is necessary to know the quality of the steam in the turbine discharge and, information of process variables that permit to identifying with high precision the enthalpy of saturated steam. This paper proposes to install an operational device that will expand the steam from high pressure point on the shell turbine to atmosphere, both points with measures of pressure and temperature. Arranging these values on the Mollier chart, it can be know the steam quality value and with this data one can compute the enthalpy value of saturated steam. With the support of this small instrument and using the ASME correlations to determine the equilibrium temperature and knowing the discharge pressure in the inlet of surface condenser, the absolute enthalpy of the steam discharge can be computed with high precision and used to determine the power and thermodynamic efficiency of the turbine. (author)

  10. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Niels Wessel; Falsig, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, particle migration and coalescence in nickel steam reforming catalysts is studied. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Ni-OH dominate nickel transport at nickel surfaces in the presence of steam and hydrogen as Ni-OH has the lowest combined energies of formation and diffusion...... compared to other potential nickel transport species. The relation between experimental catalyst sintering data and the effective mass diffusion constant for Ni-OH is established by numerical modelling of the particle migration and coalescence process. Using this relation, the effective mass diffusion...

  11. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  12. The partitioning of iodides into steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate the likely releases of radioactive iodine during steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) faults, it is necessary to know the relevant partition coefficients as a function of temperature and solution composition. It has been suggested previously that, under SGTR fault conditions, partitioning of free or ion-paired I- into the steam may be more extensive than that for molecular HI. This report uses available information on the partitioning of iodides and other salts to provide a means of estimating the partition coefficient of the iodide ion as a function of boric acid concentration and temperature. (author)

  13. Function analysis of steam isolation valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Function analysis of system-medium-operated steam isolation valves has been the objective of the Swedish-Finnish IVLS project, the results of which are presented in this report. Theoretical models were to be verified against available experimental data, to some extent from the HDR blowdown experiments, which are part of a German reactor safety program. Finnish hydraulic measurements on a valve model (scale 1:2.15) have been performed to give complementary data. The analysis work has covered the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of steam isolation valves as well as phenomena related to structural mechanics. Work performed under contract with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. (Author)

  14. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries

  15. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture

  16. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.W.; Yan, Z.; Han, B.Z.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen- Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and cultur

  17. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  18. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  19. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  20. Organic acids and inorganic anions in Bayer liquors by ion chromatography after solid-phase extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Fu-jin; CHEN Xiao-qing; ZHANG Shu-chao; LI Yue-ping

    2007-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids and inorganic anions in Bayer liquors was developed by gradient ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. Formate, acetate, propionate, oxalate, succinate,glutarate, fluoride, chloride and sulfate were separated and determined in 33 min. The samples were pretreated with solid-phase extraction, which has high selectivity for removing a large number of metallic ions in the Bayer liquors, and filtered with a 0.45 μm filter membrane before being injected into the ion chromatographic system. The separation of six organic acids and three inorganic anions was achieved on an IonPac AS11-HC column with KOH as the eluent, and the detection was performed by a conductivity detection mode. No interference is found in the presence of fluorate, chlorate and sulphate when organic acids are determined. The calibration graphs of peak area for all the analytes are linear over a wide range. The relative standard derivation of the peak area of analytes is less than 2.14%. Under optimum conditions the detection ranges from 0.2 to 100.0 mg/L. The average recoveries of the added standards are between 94.3% and 102.8%.

  1. Production of red pigments by Monascus ruber in culture media containing corn steep liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Hamano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of red pigments by Monascus ruber was evaluated utilizing complex culture media composed of glucose or sucrose (10 g/L, corn steep liquor (5 or 10 g/L and monosodium glutamate (0, 5.0, 7.6, 11.4 or 15.2 g/L. Medium containing 10 g/L glucose, 5 g/L corn steep liquor and 7.6 g/L monosodium glutamate resulted the highest values of extracellular red pigment absorbance (20.7 U and productivity (0.35 U/h. This medium also produced better results than using semi-synthetic medium with analytical grade reagents (12.4 U and 0.21 U/h. The cell growth was similar in both media (X @ 6.5 g/L, indicating that the capacity of the cells to produce red pigments was higher in complex culture media. In addition, in the complex culture medium, less of the intracellular red pigments accumulated than in semi-synthetic medium (9.1% and 30%, respectively.

  2. Investigating the potential of thermophilic species for ethanol production from industrial spent sulfite liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Weissgram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic microorganisms hold a great potential for bioethanol production on waste biomass, due to their ability to utilize pentoses and hexoses alike. However, to date hardly any data on thermophiles growing directly on industrial substrates like spent sulfite liquor (SSL are available. This contribution investigates the ability of Thermoanaerobacter species to utilize the main sugars in the used SSL (mannose, glucose and xylose and the effect of process parameters (pH, temperature and sugar concentration on their growth. Based on these results the strain T. mathranii was chosen for further studies. The ability of T. mathranii to grow directly on SSL was investigated and the effect of several inhibiting substances on growth was elucidated. Furthermore it was tested whether pretreatment with activated charcoal can increase the fermentability of SSL. The fermentations were evaluated based on yields and specific rates. It could be shown that T. mathranii was able to ferment all sugars in the investigated softwood SSL and fermented diluted, untreated SSL (up to 2.7% (w/w dry matter. Pretreatment with activated charcoal could slightly reduce the amount of phenols in the substrate and thus facilitate growth and ethanol production on higher SSL concentrations (up to 4.7% (w/v dry matter. Ethanol yields of 0.29-0.44 Cmmol of ethanol per Cmmol sugar were obtained on untreated and pretreated spent sulfite liquor, respectively. These results on an industrial substrate strengthen the claim that thermophilic microorganisms might be the optimal candidates for forest biorefinery.

  3. Fast high-pressure freezing of protein crystals in their mother liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein crystals were vitrified using high-pressure freezing in their mother liquor at 210 MPa and 77 K without cryoprotectants or oil coating. The method was successfully applied to photosystem II, which is representative of a membrane protein with a large unit cell and weak crystal contacts. High-pressure freezing (HPF) is a method which allows sample vitrification without cryoprotectants. In the present work, protein crystals were cooled to cryogenic temperatures at a pressure of 210 MPa. In contrast to other HPF methods published to date in the field of cryocrystallography, this protocol involves rapid sample cooling using a standard HPF device. The fast cooling rates allow HPF of protein crystals directly in their mother liquor without the need for cryoprotectants or external reagents. HPF was first attempted with hen egg-white lysozyme and cubic insulin crystals, yielding good to excellent diffraction quality. Non-cryoprotected crystals of the membrane protein photosystem II have been successfully cryocooled for the first time. This indicates that the presented HPF method is well suited to the vitrification of challenging systems with large unit cells and weak crystal contacts

  4. Mathematical modeling of control system for the experimental steam generator

    OpenAIRE

    Podlasek Szymon; Lalik Krzysztof; Filipowicz Mariusz; Sornek Krzysztof; Kupski Robert; Raś Anita

    2016-01-01

    A steam generator is an essential unit of each cogeneration system using steam machines. Currently one of the cheapest ways of the steam generation can be application of old steam generators came from army surplus store. They have relatively simple construction and in case of not so exploited units – quite good general conditions, and functionality of mechanical components. By contrast, electrical components and control systems (mostly based on relay automatics) are definitely obsolete. It is...

  5. Research progress of the Superheated Steam Drying Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yongchun; Li, Jie; Li, Xuanyou; Zhao, Gaiju; Wu, Maogang

    2012-01-01

    The superheated steam drying technology has lots of advantages such as safe, energy-saving, pollution-free and so on, so it causes more and more extensive concern. The superheated steam drying technology is introduced and its merits and faults are analyzed. The theoretical research progress of the superheated steam drying is summarized and the recent application of the materials including the food, wood, paper, sludge and lignite is stated. In brief, the superheated steam drying technol...

  6. 7 CFR 305.23 - Steam sterilization treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam sterilization treatment schedules. 305.23... Steam sterilization treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature( °F) Pressure Exposure period (minutes) Directions T303-b-1 10 lbs 20 Use 28″ vacuum. Steam sterilization is not practical for...

  7. The Effect of Steaming on the Glucosinolate Content in Broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Knol, J.J.; Dekker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Total and individual glucosinolates were measured after different duration of steaming broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica). During steaming, the temperature profile, cell lysis and inactivation of myrosinase were assessed as well. Steaming resulted in high retention of total aliphatic and i

  8. Recent trends in repair and refurbishing of steam turbine components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Bhaduri; S K Albert; S K Ray; P Rodriguez

    2003-06-01

    The repair and refurbishing of steam generator components is discussed from the perspective of repair welding philosophy including applicable codes and regulations. Some case histories of repair welding of steam generator components are discussed with special emphasis on details of repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades and shrouds in some of the commercial nuclear power plants using procedures developed.

  9. 46 CFR 50.05-20 - Steam-propelled motorboats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam-propelled motorboats. 50.05-20 Section 50.05-20... Application § 50.05-20 Steam-propelled motorboats. (a) The requirements covering design of the propelling... than 40 feet in length and which are propelled by machinery driven by steam shall be in accordance...

  10. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-02-23

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  11. COMMAND AND CONTROL STRATEGIES APPLIED TO HIGHPOWER STEAM GENERATORS

    OpenAIRE

    DUINEA. A.M.; MIRCEA P.M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the actual operation scheme existing for steam generator drum. Following the trend valid for forced circulation steam generator, it is proposed to replace the classical adjustment loops with new regulation scheme highlighting its advantages in steam generation operation.

  12. COMMAND AND CONTROL STRATEGIES APPLIED TO HIGHPOWER STEAM GENERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUINEA. A.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the actual operation scheme existing for steam generator drum. Following the trend valid for forced circulation steam generator, it is proposed to replace the classical adjustment loops with new regulation scheme highlighting its advantages in steam generation operation.

  13. Active acoustic leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 6. Applicability to practical steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Kumagai, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Izumi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.

    1998-03-01

    It is necessary to develop a reliable water leak detection system for steam generators of liquid metal reactors in order to prevent the expansion of damage and to maintain the structural integrity of the steam generators. The concept of the active acoustic method is to detect the change of the ultrasonic field due to the hydrogen gas bubbles generated by a sodium-water reaction. This method has the potential for improved detection performance compared with conventional passive methods, from the viewpoint of sensitivity, response time and tolerance against the background noise. A feasibility study of the active acoustic leak detection system is being carried out. This report predicts the performance of the active acoustic method in the practical steam generators from the results of the large scale in-water experiments. The results shows that the active acoustic system can detect a 10 g/s leak within a few seconds in large-scale steam generators. (author)

  14. Cooldown strategies for a steam generator tube rupture event with failure of main steam safety valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an evaluation of the thermal-hydraulic response of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) event with the failure of a main steam safety valve (MSSV). Operator actions to successfully mitigate the consequences of this SGTR event are proposed. The desired actions are those which provide for control of the affected steam generator water level and minimize radiological doses to the environment. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the results of differences in operator actions to cooldown the power plant in terms of: (1) dose releases to the environment, (2) control of the affected steam generator level, (3) and optimal reactor coolant system cooldown and depressurization

  15. Steam Pyrolysis of Polyimides: Effects of Steam on Raw Material Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shogo; Hosaka, Tomoyuki; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-11-17

    Aromatic polyimides (PIs) have excellent thermal stability, which makes them difficult to recycle, and an effective way to recycle PIs has not yet been established. In this work, steam pyrolysis of the aromatic PI Kapton was performed to investigate the recovery of useful raw materials. Steam pyrolysis significantly enhanced the gasification of Kapton at 900 °C, resulting in 1963.1 mL g(-1) of a H2 and CO rich gas. Simultaneously, highly porous activated carbon with a high BET surface area was recovered. Steam pyrolysis increased the presence of polar functional groups on the carbon surface. Thus, it was concluded that steam pyrolysis shows great promise as a recycling technique for the recovery of useful synthetic gases and activated carbon from PIs without the need for catalysts and organic solvents.

  16. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing

  17. Dynamic simulation of steam generator failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program will be described which is capable to simulate severe transients in a gas heated steam generator. Such transients may arise in the safety analysis of accidents resulting from failures in the heat removal system of an HTGR power plant. Important failure modes which have to be considered are ruptures of one or more steam generator tubes leading to water or steam ejection into the primary system or anomalous operating conditions which my cause damage due to excessive thermal stress. Examples are the complete dryout as a consequence of feedwater interrupt in connection with continuing gas heating and the reflooding of the secondary channel with cold feedwater after dryout. The steam generator program which is capable to simulate accidents of this type is written as a module which can be implemented into a program system fur the simulation of the total heat rejection system. It based on an advanced mathematical model for the two phase flow taking deviations from thermal equilibrium into account. Mass, energy and momentum balances for the primary and secondary fluid and the heat diffusion equations for the heat exchanging wall form a system of coupled differential equations which is solved numerically by an algorithm which is stiffly stable and suppresses effectively oscillations of numerical origin. Results of the simulation of transients of the type mentioned above will be presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Investigation of beryllium/steam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhonadskikh, A.M.; Vurim, A.D.; Vasilyev, Yu.S.; Pivovarov, O.S. [Inst. of Atomic Energy National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V.P.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this report program on investigations of beryllium emissivity and transient processes on overheated beryllium surface attacked by water steam to be carried out in IAE NNC RK within Task S81 TT 2096-07-16 FR. The experimental facility design is elaborated in this Report. (author)

  19. Leakage experiences with 1 MW steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 1 MW steam generator was tested from October, 1971 and completed with the first series of experiments by May, 1972 after 3600 hours of operation. During these tests, unextraordinary heat absorption was experienced in the downcomer region, which led to shortage of heat transfer area to attain the rated steam temperature and to one of the reasons of flow instabilities. The steam generator was disassembled to get test pieces for structure as well as material examinations and then it was reassembled to proceed the second series of tests. Before it was done, a modification was provided to insulate the downcomer region by putting a gas space around the downcomer tube. The gas space was provided by a dual tube and spacers were welded on the inner tube and an end plate was welded on upper parts between the two to seal the gap by means of fillet welding. After the modified steam generator was put into operation, water happened to leak into a sodium side two times through these additional welding spots for the gas insulation. This paper presents operating conditions and behaviors of monitors at the time of the leakages, identifications of leaked spots, an evaluation of causes and a treatment or a precaution for them

  20. Next Generation Steam Cracking Reactor Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, M.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    The steam cracking process is an important asset in the hydrocarbon processing industry. The main products are lower olefins and hydrogen, with ethylene being the world's largest volume organic chemical at a worldwide capacity of ~ 120 million tonnes per year. Feed stocks are hydrocarbons such as: e

  1. Biophysical Evaluation of SonoSteam®:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan R.;

    /response relationship between SonoSteam treatment time and changes in collagen I, and a depth dependency in bacterial reduction, which points toward CFU counts overestimating total bacterial reduction. In conclusion the biophysical methods provide a less biased, reproducible and highly detailed system description...

  2. Steam Rankine Solar Receiver, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanda, L. E.; Faust, M.

    1981-01-01

    A steam rankine solar receiver (SRSR) based on a tubular concept was designed and developed. The SRSR is an insulated, cylindrical coiled tube boiler which is mounted at the focal plane of a fully tracking parabolic solar reflector. The concentrated solar energy received at the focal plane is then transformed to thermal energy through steam generation. The steam is used in a small Rankine cycle heat engine to drive a generator for the production of electrical energy. The SRSR was designed to have a dual mode capability, performing as a once through boiler with and without reheat. This was achieved by means of two coils which constitute the boiler. The boiler core size of the SRSR is 17.0 inches in diameter and 21.5 inches long. The tube size is 7/16 inch I.D. by 0.070 inch wall for the primary, and 3/4 inch I.D. by 0.125 inch wall for the reheat section. The materials used were corrosion resistant steel (CRES) type 321 and type 347 stainless steel. The core is insulated with 6 inches of cerablanket insulation wrapped around the outer wall. The aperture end and the reflector back plate at the closed end section are made of silicon carbide. The SRSR accepts 85 kwth and has a design life of 10,000 hrs when producing steam at 1400 F and 2550 psig.

  3. Determinations in the Production of Baijiu(Liquor)(XXⅢ):Baijiu(Liquor) Safety Detection(ContinueⅡ)%白酒生产检验(二十三):白酒食品安全检测(续二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大和; 王超凯; 李国红; 彭奎

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the detection methods of Baijiu(liquor) safety indicators such as acesulfame potassium, aspartame, and phthalate were introduced.(Trans. by YUE Yang)%介绍白酒食品安全指标中安赛蜜、阿斯巴甜、邻苯二甲酸酯(塑化剂)的检测方法.

  4. Failure Analysis of Retired Steam Generator Tubings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first commercial operation of Kori-1 in 1978, 20 units of nuclear power plants are operated, and the it covers 40 % of total electricity in Korea as of 2008. A steam generator tube rupture incident occurred in the Ulchin unit 4 in 2002, which made the public sensitive to nuclear power plant. In order to keep the nuclear energy as a main energy source, the integrity of steam generator should be demonstrated. It is important to improve a flaw detection capability of the eddy current testing(ECT) in steam generator(SG) tubings in order to maintain the tube integrity. A quantified evaluation on the flaws on SG tubings, which is crucial for the tube integrity evaluation is not satisfactory. It is necessary to utilize the retired SG having various types of corrosion damages. In addition, an examination of pulled tube from Kori 1 retired steam generator will give us information about effectiveness of a remedial action(TiO2 addition) which was applied to mitigate ODSCC. A crack growth model is also needed to ensure a tube repair criteria for a next fuel cycle based on the ASME safety evaluation code, which has to meet a requirement that the flaws have to sustain under three times of normal operation pressure difference and 1.4 times of severe accident condition. In this project, hardware such as semi hot lab for pulled tube examination and modification of transportation cask for pulled tube and software such as procedure of transportation of radioactive steam generator tube and non-destructive and destructive examination of pulled tube were established. The non-destructive and destructive examination of pulled tubes from Kori 1 retired steam generator were performed in the semi hot lab. An effect of remedial actions applied to Kori 1 retired steam generator, PWSCC trend and bulk water chemistry and crevice chemistry in Kori 1 were evaluated. An electrochemical decontamination technology for pulled tube was developed to reduce a radiation exposure and enhance

  5. Reduction of Microbe Contamination through Steaming Process to Cocoa Beans Using Steaming Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Hendy Firmanto

    2014-01-01

    Dry cocoa bean quality is also determined by its microbe contamination level. Steaming process for dried cocoa beans as a pretreatment process was selected because of less effect on organic compound inside the dried cocoa bean. This experiment aim was to study microbial contamination level of cocoa beans using steaming process, determining its microbial population and evaluate its chemical changes. Experiment was carried out in Postharvest Laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research In...

  6. Mechanism of temperature fluctuation phenomena below steam-water interface in a pressurizer spray pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a PWR plant, a steam-water two-phase flow may exist in the pressurizer spray pipe under a normal operating condition since the flow rate of the spray water is not sufficient to fill the horizontal section of the pipe completely. Initiation of high cycle fatigue cracks is suspected to occur under such thermally stratified two phase flow conditions. Experiments for a steam-water flow have been conducted to investigate the temperature fluctuation phenomena. It has been shown that the wall temperature fluctuations were not caused by the waves on the water surface, but were caused by temperature fluctuations in water layer below the interface. An experiment with visualization test section of rectangular pipe was conducted to investigate the temperature fluctuation mechanism in water layer in this paper. The black stripe pattern was observed below the steam-water interface due to the density change. The water temperature fluctuations had the dominant frequency of about 1Hz. The Richardson number calculated with the measured temperature and velocity gradient was larger than 0.25. The dominant frequency of temperature fluctuations was nearly equal to the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. It was shown that the temperature fluctuations in water layer below the interface were caused by the internal gravity wave in the thermal stratified flow. (author)

  7. Reduction of Microbe Contamination through Steaming Process to Cocoa Beans Using Steaming Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Firmanto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dry cocoa bean quality is also determined by its microbe contamination level. Steaming process for dried cocoa beans as a pretreatment process was selected because of less effect on organic compound inside the dried cocoa bean. This experiment aim was to study microbial contamination level of cocoa beans using steaming process, determining its microbial population and evaluate its chemical changes. Experiment was carried out in Postharvest Laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Cocoa beans for the experiment were lots collected from four farms in Jayapura, Papua with different microbial contamination level for each lot. Results of this experiment showed that optimum steaming process was 15 minutes at 100 O C with 10 minutes preheating time. Microbial analysis result of the four lots after complete steaming process by total plate count method showed the same result (<3.0 x 103 cfu. Most of the decrease in microbial contaminant appeared in the plate was 73.5% of Staphylococcus aureusand 0.058% of Penicilliumsp. Bean acidity (pH after steaming increased (4.76 to 4.80 and free fatty acid increased (1.81% to 1.96% while carbohydrate content decreased (17.5% to 15.9% and as well as protein content (12.6% into 11.7%. Key words: cocoa bean, steaming process, microbe reduction, nutrient changes

  8. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  9. Steam quality determination by self-tracers present in the BOP blowdown water and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam quality determination (the ratio between steam mass flow rate and the sum of steam and liquid water mass flow rate) or its reciprocal named moisture carryover, is a magnitude of importance in fossil fired and nuclear power plants as well. This is due to that, the steam quality participates in the determination of the power transferred from the primary to the secondary circuit (ASME PTC, Gross Heat Input) and the performance of the secondary circuit, in the efficiency of the liquid separators located in the dome of the recirculating type steam generators and finally because the drops carryover implies mechanical wear in the turbine blades and transport of impurities as well. It is after the above mentioned reasons, that several standardized procedures exist (ASTM) and international institutions devoted to the properties of water and steam and applications in power plants release recommendations on the steam quality (IAPWS). Even though, the measurement is still a subject of new publications (Thomas et al., NPC10). In general, the determination methods make use of the addition of a tracer, stable alkaline element or isotope, which has to be later quantified by an analytical or radiochemical technique. It also means keeping the BOP under specified conditions during the test. Chemicals dosing of is not always accepted considering that ions used as tracers concentrate in the steam generator media and modify the water chemistry conditions. This is more pronounced in old devices with presence of fouling and sludge piles on the tube sheet. In the present work a technique based on the concentration of the ions currently existing in the cycle: Blowdown Water (BDW) and condensate (MSR-MSC) of the main steam used as heating fluid in the Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR). The latter ensures a total representative sample of the two phase stream, unlike sampling in the main steam sampling line. Those ion concentrations participate in the calculation of the steam quality. To

  10. Use of corn steep liquor as an economical nitrogen source for biosuccinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. P.; Jahim, J. M.; Wu, T. Y.; Harun, S.; Mumtaz, T.

    2016-06-01

    Expensive raw materials are the driving force that leads to the shifting of the petroleum-based succinic acid production into bio-based succinic acid production by microorganisms. Cost of fermentation medium is among the main factors contributing to the total production cost of bio-succinic acid. After carbon source, nitrogen source is the second largest component of the fermentation medium, the cost of which has been overlooked for the past years. The current study aimed at replacing yeast extract- a costly nitrogen source with corn steep liquor for economical production of bio-succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. In this study, a final succinic acid concentration of 20.6 g/L was obtained from the use of corn steep liquor as the nitrogen source, which was comparable with the use of yeast extract as the nitrogen source that had a final succinate concentration of 21.4 g/l. In terms of economical wise, corn steep liquor was priced at 200 /ton, which was one fifth of the cost of yeast extract at 1000 /ton. Therefore, corn steep liquor can be considered as a potential nitrogen source in biochemical industries instead of the costly yeast extract.

  11. Surface Layer Properties of Dough Liquor Components: Are They Key Parameters in Gas Retention in Bread Dough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo Martin, C.; Hamer, R.J.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Gas cell stability during bread making is controlled by both surface and bulk properties. This paper is focused on studying the surface properties of the water-soluble phase of the dough, the dough liquor (with and without lipids), as well as the composition of the air/water interface. Using infrare

  12. 谈白酒的感官评价体系%Discussion on System of Liquor Sensory Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋国

    2012-01-01

    The content of scientific process,standardization and specialization of liquor sensory evaluation and its practical application were introduced.%介绍了白酒感官评价的科学化、标准化及专业化的内容及在实际评价中的应用。

  13. Analysis on the Research and Development of Tea Liquor%浅析茶酒的研制与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周才碧; 张敏星; 穆瑞禄; 陈文品

    2014-01-01

    Tea Liquor is a health drink with tea as the main raw material after extraction, fermentation, filtration, aging and blending, mixing process. Tea Liquor with the abundant compositions of polysaccharide, tea polyphenols, caffeine and amino acid, has nourishment, health care and medical treatment, and other functions. This paper was reviewed from the aspects of tea liquor composition, function, process and type as well as existed problems in order to provide some reference for the development of tea liquor scale, standardization and health.%茶酒以茶叶为主要原料,经浸提、发酵、过滤、陈酿和调配等工艺制作而成的一种保健饮品,富含多糖、茶多酚、咖啡碱和氨基酸等成分,具有营养、保健和医疗等功能。本文主要从茶酒的成分、功效、工艺和类型以及存在的问题等方面进行综述,以期为茶酒的发展规模化、标准化和健康化提供参考。

  14. 78 FR 15970 - Cedarville Rancheria-Liquor Licensing Ordinance of the Cedarville Rancheria, Ordinance No. 2012-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... otherwise. The term shall also include the businesses of the Tribe. It shall be interchangeable in this.... The Executive Committee shall have the authority to issue the following types of liquor licenses... matters connected therewith which may affect the public welfare and morals. The Executive Committee...

  15. Amniotic fluid index, non-stress test and color of liquor: as a predictor of perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruma Sarkar Anand

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: AFI, NST and color of liquor can effectively detect fetal distress already present at admission, thereby avoiding unnecessary delay and decrease in decision to delivery time and improve fetal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3512-3517

  16. A new process and equipment for waste minimization: Conversion of NO(x) scrubber liquor to fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Barile, Ronald G.; Gamble, Paul H.; Lueck, Dale E.; Young, Rebecca C.

    1995-01-01

    A new emissions control system for the oxidizer scrubbers that eliminates the current oxidizer liquor waste and lowers the NO(x) emissions is described. Since fueling and deservicing spacecraft constitute the primary operations in which environmental emissions occur, this will eliminate the second largest waste stream at KSC. This effort is in accord with Executive Order No. 12856 (Federal Compliance with Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements, data 6 Aug. 1993) and Executive Order No. 12873 (Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention, dated 20 Oct. 1993). A recent study found that the efficiencies of the oxidizer scrubbers during normal operations ranged from 70 percent to 99 percent. The new scrubber liquor starts with 1% hydrogen peroxide at a pH of 7 and the process control system adds hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide to the scrubber liquor to maintain those initial conditions. The result is the formation of a solution of potassium nitrate, which is sold as a fertilizer. This report describes the equipment and procedures used to monitor and control the conversion of the scrubber liquor to fertilizer, while reducing the scrubber emissions.

  17. Vibrational fatigue analysis for main steam pipelines on a NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vibration and noise of pipings adjacent to isolation valves of main steam pipelines in a NPP were excessive during operation. To assess the safety in operation of main steam pipelines, both stress and fatigue analysis were performed using ANSYS program, and evaluation was performed according to ASME code. The main steam pipeline considered in this report, includes the main steam piping, safety valves, main steam isolation valve and other branch pipings between the containment penetration and the first transverse direction limit stop downstream of the isolation valve

  18. Windage effect on HP sections of reheat steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uicker, J.; Tohme, B. [Detroit Edison Co., MI (United States); Bergmann, D.; Stannowski, G.; Havemann, J. [Siemens/KWU, Mulheim (Germany); Meade, W.; Termuehlen, H. [Siemens Power Corp., Bradenton, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Steam turbines or steam turbine sections, when operated at high speed and little or no steam flow, generate windage due to uncontrolled turbulent flow conditions which can cause high metal temperatures affecting the integrity of steam path components. Indications of blade overheating found in the Belle River 641 MW reheat steam turbines of Detroit Edison Company, have been the cause for addressing this issue. These units were not originally equipped with any preventative measures. This paper will summarize latest findings, investigations and the establishment of guidelines for preventing HP turbine component overheating caused by windage.

  19. A study of steam injection in fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dindoruk, M.D.S.; Aziz, K.; Brigham, W.; Castanier, L.

    1996-02-01

    Steam injection is the most widely used thermal recovery technique for unfractured reservoirs containing heavy oil. There have been numerous studies on theoretical and experimental aspects of steam injection for such systems. Fractured reservoirs contain a large fraction of the world supply of oil, and field tests indicate that steam injection is feasible for such reservoirs. Unfortunately there has been little laboratory work done on steam injection in such systems. The experimental system in this work was designed to understand the mechanisms involved in the transfer of fluids and heat between matrix rocks and fractures under steam injection.

  20. Study on mathematical model of steam coal blending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洪阁; 李白英; 刘泽常; 尹增德

    2002-01-01

    It is necessary to set up a new mathematical model of steam coal blending instead of the old model. Indexes such as moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, sulfur content and heating value in the new mathematical model have linear relation. The new mathematical model can also predict ash-fusion temperature precisely by considering coal ash ratio in steam coal blending, therefore it is possible to obtain linear relation of ash-fusion temperature between single coal and steam coal blending. The new mathematical model can improve precision of steam coal blending and perfect the old mathematical model of steam coal blending.