WorldWideScience

Sample records for black liquor slurry

  1. Catalytic mechanism of sodium compounds in black liquor during gasification of coal black liquor slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Jianping; Zhou Junhu; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2008-01-01

    The coal black liquor slurry (CBLS) was composed of coal and black pulping liquor, which has plenty of sodium compounds, lignin and cellulose. The sodium compounds have a catalytic effect on the gasification process of coal black liquor slurry, while lignin and cellulose enhance the heat value. Alkali-catalyzed gasification experiments of CBLS and CWS (coal water slurry) are investigated on the thermobalance and fixed bed reactor. The residues of the gasification of CBLS and CWS are analyzed by XRD, SEM and FT-IR. It is found that many micro- and mesopores and zigzag faces exist in the surface of the CBLS coke, which play a key role in the catalytic gasification. Sodium can enhance the reaction potential, weaken the bond of C-O and improve the gasification reaction rate. XRD results show that sodium aluminum silicate and nepheline are the main crystal components of the CBLS and CWS. The C-O stretching vibration peak in the 1060 cm -1 band in the CBLS shifts to 995.65 cm -1 in the CBLS coke after partial gasification. This means that the energy of the C-O stretching vibration in the CBLS carbon matrix decreases, so the structure of the carbon matrix is more liable to react with an oxygen ion or hydroxide ion. The amplitude of the C-O stretching vibration peak is augmented step by step due to the ground-excited level jump of the C-O band

  2. Evaluation of treated black liquor used as dispersant of concentrated coal-water slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingsong Zhou; Qian Kong; Bing Pan; Xueqing Qiu; Dongjie Yang; Hongming Lou [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering

    2010-03-15

    The paper making waste liquor is a great water pollution source and much work has been done over the years to overcome this challenge. We present here a solution of black liquor used as dispersant of coal-water slurry (abbreviated as CWS) following chemical treatment. The treated black liquor (abbreviated as TBL) is used to prepare CWS for three bituminous coals, and the factors influencing its dispersing ability and the properties of CWS are investigated. The results show that the increasing sulfonating agent and formaldehyde dosage increase the sulfonic group content while reducing the molecular weight of TBL. The comparison with a naphthalene dispersant shows that TBL has a similar or better dispersing ability, and the large quantity of sulfonic groups engrafted in lignin molecules and the markedly increase of molecular weight are considered the key reason for the excellent performance of TBL. Moreover, the change of the molecular configuration from globular to flocculent in solution observed by TEM is also considered as an important reason for the excellent dispersing effect of TBL for CWS. 25 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  4. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  5. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  6. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  7. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  8. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  9. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  10. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  11. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  12. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  13. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  14. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  15. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  16. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  17. Refractive Index of Black and Green Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Avramenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of reliable data on the optical properties of black and green liquors complicates control of their composition in technological process of sulphate cellulose production. In this regard the paper presents measurement results of refraction index of black liquors n (k,t at concentration in solutions of bone-dry solids up to k = 70% and at temperatures t = 10-90 °C, as well as in green liquors n(C,t at the total alkalinity of C = 0-250 g/l and in the same temperature range. All samples of solutions of black and green liquors were provided by Segezha Pulp and Paper Mill and certified in factory laboratory. Measurements were taken by means of the laboratory Abbe refractometer (URL-1, digital refractometer "Expert pro", goniometer spectrometer GS-5, and ultra-violet spectrophotometer as well. The work also presents optical D density spectra in the ultra-violet region of the wavelengths for the samples of a green liquor and main mineral component to form it, i.e. Na2S (sodium sulphide. To calculate dispersion of n (λ in the visible spectral range, here a Lorentz single-oscillator model was used. The paper discusses study results of dispersive dependence of refraction index in green liquors with various concentration and chemical components of n (λ, C forming them at t = 20°C. Computing and experimental dependences of n (λ had not only good qualitative, but also quite satisfactory quantitative compliance. The work also describes main mineral components defining optical properties in these liquors. Given here data on concentration and temperature dependences of a refraction index in black n(k,t and green n(C,t liquors have been never published before. These data are of essential interest to control soda recovery technologies in manufacturing sulphate cellulose. The received results can be also used to tune and calibrate modern domestic and foreign industrial refractometers.

  18. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  19. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K; Backman, R; Hupa, M; Backman, P; Ek, P; Hulden, S T; Kullberg, M; Sorvari, V

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  20. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Siistonen, H.; Heikkinen, T.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (author)

  1. Lignin derivatives from desilicated rice straw soda black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taraboulsi, M A; Nasser, M M

    1979-01-01

    Carboxymethyl lignin, cyanoethyl lignin, carboxyethyl lignin, and aminopropyl lignin were prepared from alkali lignin of rice straw black liquor (after disilication by storage for 1 wk to 1 yr) and used as sizes for paper, drilling fluid additives and flocculants.

  2. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

  3. Research on combustion of black-liquor drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, A.

    1999-01-01

    Black liquor, the major by-product of the kraft process for production of pulp, is one of the most important industrial fuels. It is burned in recovery boilers in the form of large spray drops (mm), with the objective of simultaneous recovery of heat and chemicals (sodium and sulfur). Even though black-liquor combustion in boilers has been practised for over half a century, research efforts toward improvement of combustion efficiency and abatement of environmental emissions are much more recent. The present paper addresses a specific aspect of that research, namely, elucidation of processes which occur during combustion of black-liquor drops in boiler-gas streams. The paper (a) gives a brief description of the kraft process, (b) reviews the experimental and theoretical (modeling) research advances on combustion of kraft-liquor drops during the 1980s and 1990s, (c) re-examines the results of an earlier combustion study in which black-liquor drops were observed in free flight at temperatures near those in recovery boilers, and (d) recommends input for the modeling of in-flight combustion of kraft-liquor drops in recovery boilers. (author)

  4. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  5. Sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M.; Janka, K. [Tampella Power, Tampere (Finland); Frederick, W.J.; Littau, M.; Sricharoenchaikul, V.; Jivakanun, N.; Waag, K. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Sulfate reduction and carbon conversion during pyrolysis and gasification of black liquor particles were experimentally studied in a laminar entrained-flow reactor. A model was also developed to simulate an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. Experimental results were then compared to model calculations. Results indicated that carbon must be present to get a high degree of sulfate reduction during gasification. It is therefore important to balance the rates of carbon conversion and sulfate reduction. High local temperatures in the reactor should be avoided so that carbon does not convert too rapidly, but temperatures of nearly 1000 degrees C are required to achieve good sulfate reduction. It was suggested that a new equation was needed to adequately predict sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Drop formation of black liquor spraying; Mustalipeaen pisaroituminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelholm, C J; Kankkunen, A; Nieminen, K; Laine, J; Miikkulainen, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Lab. of Energy Technology and Environmental Protection

    1997-10-01

    Black liquor is a spent liquor of the pulp and paper industry. It is burned in kraft recovery boilers for chemical and energy recovery. The high dry solids content and viscosity of black liquor require a high spraying temperature. This affects the performance of the boiler. Kraft recovery boiler deposit formation, emissions and chemical recovery are strongly affected by the drop size and the velocity of the black liquor spray formed by a splashplate nozzle. The sheet breakup mechanism is studied with a system based on a video and image-analysis. The drop size of mill-scale nozzles was measured also with an image-analysis-system. Measurements were carried out in a spray test chamber. The sheet breakup mechanism and drop size tests were carried out both below and over the boiling point of black liquor. Special attention was paid to the effect of flashing on drop formation. Temperature increase normally decreases drop size. In the temperature where the wavy-sheet disintegration changes to perforated-sheet disintegration the drop size increases. Spray velocity rises when the temperature is increased above the boiling point. (orig.)

  7. Release model for black liquor droplet; Mustalipeaepisaran vapautumismalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The release of sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulphur from black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification is studied by modelling work. A model for drying, pyrolysis and swelling of black liquor has been developed earlier. A submodel for the release of sulphur, which takes place at temperatures below 500 deg C has been incorporated to this model. A previous model for the combustion and gasification of char particles has been further developed to account for the effect of sodium, potassium and chlorine. A model for the release of these components as function of time has been developed. (orig.)

  8. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaied, M; Bellakhal, N

    2009-04-30

    The procedure of electrocoagulation is an effective, fast and economic technique for treatment of black liquor resulting from paper industry. The effect of electrolysis time, current density, type of electrode material and initial pH were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. Under the optimal experimental conditions (initial pH 7, t=50 min and J=14 mA cm(-2)), the treatment of black liquor by electrocoagulation has led to a removal capacity of 98% of COD, 92% of polyphenols and 99% of color intensity with a good repeatability (R.S.D.industrial interest of this electrochemical process.

  9. Formation of fuel NOx during black-liquor combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, K.M.; Lien, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel NOx and thermal NOx were measured in combustion gases from black liquors in two laboratory furnaces. Combustion at 950 C in air (8% O 2 ) produced NOx concentrations of 40-80ppm. Combustion at 950 C in synthetic air containing no nitrogen (21% 0 2 in Ar) produced the same result, demonstrating that all of the NOx produced during combustion at 950 C was fuel NOx. Formation of fuel NOx increased moderately with increasing temperature in the range of 800-1,000 C, but temperature sensitivity of fuel NOx was much less than that of thermal NOx. The results imply that the major source of NOx in recovery furnace emissions is the fuel NOx in recovery furnace formed by conversion of liquor-bound nitrogen during combustion. This is consistent with thermal NOx theory, which postulates that black-liquor combustion temperatures are too low to generate significant amounts of thermal NOx

  10. Utilization of black liquor as concrete admixture and set retarder aid

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mekkawi, Samar A.; Ismail, Ibrahim M.; El-Attar, Mohammed M.; Fahmy, Alaa A.; Mohammed, Samia S.

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of black liquor, produced by the pulp and paper industry in Egypt, as a workability aid and set retarder admixture has been investigated. This approach may help eliminate the environmentally polluting black liquor waste. It also provides a low cost by-product, which can be widely used in the construction industry. The properties of black liquor and its performance on concrete at two different ratios of water to cement have been studied. The results revealed that black liquor f...

  11. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  12. Feasibility of wood pulping black liquor for treatment of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... This study was carried out to determine the effects of neutral black liquor and moisture heating treatments ... The most commonly used methods of protecting protein include ..... Induced non-enzymatic browning of soybean meal for enhancing efficiency of ... ammonia relase of soluble soybean meal proterin.

  13. Influence of the chemical composition on the combustion properties of kraft black liquor; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R; Siistonen, H; Malkavaara, P [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (orig.)

  14. Influence of pressure on pyrolysis of black liquor: 1. Swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Kevin; Backman, Rainer; Hupa, Mikko

    2008-02-01

    This is the first of two papers concerning the behavior of black liquor during pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Two industrial kraft liquors were pyrolyzed in a laboratory-scale pressurized single particle reactor and a pressurized grid heater at temperatures ranging from 650 to 1100 degrees C and at pressures between 1 and 20 bar. The dimensions of the chars produced were measured and the specific swollen volume was calculated. Swelling decreased roughly logarithmically over the pressure range 1-20 r. An expression is developed to predict the specific swollen volume at elevated pressure when the volume at 1 bar is known. The bulk density of the char increased with pressure, indicating that liquors will be entrained less easily at higher pressures.

  15. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of alkaline black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Changqing; Guo, Liejin; Chen, Yunan; Lu, Youjun [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China)

    2010-07-01

    Black liquor was gasified continuously in supercritical water successfully and the main gaseous products were H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} with little amount of CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The increase of the temperature and the decrease of the flow rate and black liquor concentration enhanced SCWG of black liquor. The change of the system pressure had limited influence on the gasification effect. The maximal COD removal efficiency of 88.69 % was obtained at the temperature of 600 C. The pH values of the aqueous residue were all decreased to the range of 6.4{proportional_to}8 while the pH value of cooling effluence below 360 C increased to about 11 and the sodium content was much higher than that in the aqueous residue. The reaction rate for COD degradation in supercritical water was obtained by assuming pseudo first order reaction. And the activation energy and pre-exponential for COD removal in SCWG were 74.38kJ/mol and 1.11 x 10{sup 4} s{sup -1} respectively. (orig.)

  16. Fenton process combined with coagulation for the treatment of black liquor from bioethanol wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Hanifah, Ummu; Amriani, Feni; Ibadurrahman, Ahmad Faiz; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-11-01

    High amounts of black liquor are generated from bioethanol production by using oil palm empty fruit bunches. The black liquor is waste from alkaline pretreatment, it contains high amount of an alkaline solution (NaOH). The black liquor wastewater was highly contaminated with organic materials, and quite toxic for aquatic ecosystems if discharged directly into waters. This study aimed to determine ability of Fenton process combined with coagulation to treat black liquor. The addition 5% of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) could decolorized black liquor, degraded lignin, and produced sludge 70.64%, 68.28%, and 2.76 gram, respectively. Decolorization of black liquor was in line with degradation of black liquor because lignin is the main compound in black liquor. SEM images after addition of PAC of 5% indicated fragmentation of structure. Fenton reagent consist of 0.7 M FeSO4+ 3M H2O2 has able to decolorize black liquor, degrade lignin, and produce sludge 51.67% and 25.44%, and 0.44 gram, respectively. It was concluded that black liquor wastewater from bioethanol can be treated by using Fenton process combined with coagulation. However, these methods still need improvement to obtain the higher degradation rate, and coagulation sludge needs further consideration.

  17. Performance of Ceriporiopsis sp. in the Treatment of Black Liquor Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2016-01-01

    High amounts of black liquor wastewater are generated from bioethanol production by using oil palm empty fruit bunches. It contains an alkaline solution (NaOH), so it is quite toxic for aquatic ecosystems if discharged directly into waters. Black liquor has been treated by coagulation method, and it still needs additional treatment. This study aimed to determine degradation of black liquor wastewater by selected white-rot fungi (WRF). Five different strains of WRF have been tested for their a...

  18. Studies on inhibition characteristics of corn steep liquor and black sulphite liquor on corrosion of mild steel in acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, P C; Mukherjea, R N

    1968-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to economically reduce the attack by acid on the parent metal, during the process of removing mill scale by acid pickling. Two inhibitors, by-products of the starch industry and pulp industry, were studied due to their cheapness and availability in India. The inhibition efficiency of the corn steep liquor and black sulfite liquor was found to be below that of thiourea. For example, in 6.2% (w/w) H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (at 50/sup 0/C), an inhibition efficiency of 90.5% and 84.5% is reached for inhibitor concentrations of 10 g per liter in the case of corn steep liquor and black sulfite liquor, respectively, while a concentration of 0.25 g per liter of thiourea was required to reach an inhibition efficiency of 98.6%.

  19. Treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry by acidification and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bo; Mu, Huan-Zhen; Huang, Yan-Chu

    2003-09-01

    Two different kinds of black liquor from the papermaking industry were treated by acidification and reuse. The experimental parameters and conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicated that the treatment process mentioned in this article is an effective process for the treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry. By the treatment, the solid materials in black liquor are transferred into two by-products and the other components are reused or evaporated. Thus, no wastewater except some condensation water would be discharged in pulping process and the problem of pollution of black liquor would be effectively solved.

  20. Antioxidant capacity of Kraft black liquor from the pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Perez, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J

    2005-07-01

    The effect of Kraft black liquor on the lipid peroxidation of rat homogenates was examined. The lipid peroxidation of homogenates from different organs (kidney, brain, lung, and liver) was induced by Fenton's reagent. The products of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS were measured by FOX method and TBA assay, respectively. It was found that black liquor significantly reduced the concentration of TBARS, but not the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides. This inhibition was directly proportional to the concentration of Kraft black liquor and the incubation temperature. Conclusively, the black liquor from pulp and paper industry exhibited an antioxidant activity.

  1. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  2. Study on the changes of physical and chemical properties for the black liquor of straw plug induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guanghua; Lan Liqiao

    1994-12-01

    The black liquor of straw plug was treated by electron beam or γ-ray radiation. The relationship between the viscosity of the black liquor of straw plug and the radiation beam type, the irradiated dose, the temperature of the black liquor at irradiation time and the concentration of the solid state matter in the black liquor was investigated. The result shows that the radiation treatment makes the organic big molecular of the black liquor decomposed, the environmental loading factor of the black liquor reduced; after an irradiation of 20 kGy, the viscosity of the black liquor of straw plug with 30% solid state matter is reduced by 50%, the property of vaporization is obviously improved, but the calorific value of the black liquor has almost no change

  3. The kinetics of the gasification of black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Tobias; Theliander, Hans; Wintoko, Joko [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Forest Products and Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Within the project, a special equipment has been manufactured in order to perform gasification experiments on single black liquor droplets. There are possibilities with the equipment to dynamically measure the weight of the droplet as well as its center temperature. Furthermore, some key gases (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}) are continuously measured. It is also possible to follow the gasification stages visually through a glass window. Parallel with this, a mathematical model has been developed to describe the gasification. It consists of both reaction kinetics and transport phenomenon. As a first step, the temperature profile was modeled and after that the model has been expanded to describe the swelling.

  4. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  5. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Ligniinifraktion vaikutus mustalipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Rantanen, K.; Ekman, J.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find relationships between the structure of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties (pyrolysis time, char burning time, and swelling) of softwood and hardwood kraft black liquors. In this conjunction, pine and birch chips, as well as their two mixtures (the mass ratios of pine chips to birch chips were 80:20 and 60:40), were delignified by conventional kraft pulping. In each cook series, a liquor sample was withdrawn at certain time intervals to obtain liquor samples with different chemical composition. The black liquors obtained were analyzed with respect to the content of lignin and `lignin monomers`, but also the molecular-mass distribution and the mass average molecular mass of lignin were made. In addition, the dissolved lignin was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Further data on the chemical structures of lignin in black liquors were obtained by identifying various degradation products formed from this material during oxidative (CuO oxidation) and pyrolytic treatments. Several correlations between the `structural parameters` of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties of black liquor were found. These correlations were significant especially in the case of pine cook. The results revealed many findings which are, together with the earlier data, useful for a better understanding of the thermochemical behavior of different kraft black liquors during combustion in a recovery furnace. (author)

  6. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  7. Utilization of black liquor as concrete admixture and set retarder aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar A. El-Mekkawi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of black liquor, produced by the pulp and paper industry in Egypt, as a workability aid and set retarder admixture has been investigated. This approach may help eliminate the environmentally polluting black liquor waste. It also provides a low cost by-product, which can be widely used in the construction industry. The properties of black liquor and its performance on concrete at two different ratios of water to cement have been studied. The results revealed that black liquor from rice straw pulp increases concrete workability, improves compaction, and reduces honeycombing. Moreover, it retards the initial and final set time and enhances uniform compaction. The effect of incorporating small portions of silica fume has been investigated. The ageing effect of this material over a period of one year, to determine its safe storage period, has been studied. Finally, this admixture was found to comply with the relevant Egyptian standards.

  8. Stirred cell ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor generated from South African kraft mills

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor was carried out in a stirred batch cell using polyethersulfone membranes. Parameters such as operating pressure, feed concentration, stirring rate and membrane cut-off size were varied and their effects...

  9. New black liquor combustion characteristics III; Mustalipeaen uudet poltto-ominaisuudet III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Forssen, M.; Backman, R.; Enestam, S.; Lauren, T.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The main purposes in this work is to: 1. Compare black liquor combustion characterization results to recovery boiler experiences. 2. Study the mechanisms of sodium release in black liquor combustion In the first part results from black liquor combustion characterization tests developed by Aabo Akademi University will be compared to experiences at four Finnish kraft recovery boilers. When comparing the laboratory data to the compiled field data emphasis will be put on the behavior of the black liquor during burning, the release of sodium and potassium, the melting behavior of the deposits and the NO and SO{sub 2} emissions. The main purpose in the second part of the work is to study the release mechanisms of sodium from black liquor char during combustion. Sodium is mainly released from the char by the mechanism where the molten sodiumcarbonate reacts with the char carbon. The study is divided into four subtasks and is performed mainly by conducting experiments in laboratory scale devices: (1) Sodium release during char reactions is studied for different liquors by analyzing the amount of sodium remaining in char after different holding times in a hot inert atmosphere. (2) A DTA/TGA apparatus is used to study in isothermal conditions the char reactions on prepyrolyzed char. (3) The effect of the form of sodium on the sodium release during char reactions. Black liquors added with different sodium salts (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}S sekae NaCl) are used in experiments as in subtask 1. (4) Sodium release during combustion (2-5 % O{sub 2}) of single black liquor particles

  10. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzai Nong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. Therefore, the recovery ratios of elemental sodium and biomass solids are 80.4% and 76%, respectively. Treating black liquor by electrolysis is an environmentally friendly technology that can, in particular, be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black liquor recovery.

  11. Degradation of black liquor from bioethanol process using coagulation and Fenton-like methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Sari, Ajeng Arum; Abimanyu, Haznan

    2017-01-01

    Black liquor is one of the main by-products of the pretreatment process in bioethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches. Black liquor wastewater releases black coloured effluent with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low dissolved oxygen (DO). It had a distinctive dark coloration, high alkalinity (pH=13), high organic content (COD > 50,000 ppm) and a high solid content (TSS > 5,000 ppm). Lignin destruction can be done by using high oxidation from OH radical system such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Thereafter, the high concentration of COD, color, and TSS can be removed. The general aim of the present investigation was to determine degradation of black liquor wastewater by using a combined coagulation and Fenton-like methods. In this research, we use Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC) as a coagulant and FeCl3.6H2O and H2O2 for Fenton-like's reagent. The process was conducted in jar test at 200 rpm for 30 minutes and after that slowly mixed for 2 hours and left for sedimentation 24 hours. 50 ml black liquor was added with variation dose of 1-5% PAC, and 10 % Fenton-like reagent. Hydroxyl radical was generated by the Fenton-like's reagent (ratio FeCl3.6H2O : H2O2 was varied). The highest decolorization of black liquor 70 % was obtained under 5% PAC coagulant. The pH of the wastewater was reduced from 13.00 to 8.07 after the addition of the coagulant. The decolorization of original black liquor was approximately 58% through the Fenton-like process. The combination of PAC and Fenton-like reagent has able to enhance the decolorization of black liquor up to 97%.

  12. Synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification process using direct causticization with CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification system. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive lime kiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show large SNG production potential at significant energy efficiency (58%). ► Substantial CO 2 capture potential plus CO 2 reductions from natural gas replacement. ► Significant transport fuel replacement especially in Sweden and Europe. -- Abstract: Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from dry black liquor gasification (DBLG) system is an attractive option to reduce CO 2 emissions replacing natural gas. This article evaluates the energy conversion performance of SNG production from oxygen blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) black liquor gasification process with direct causticization by investigating system integration with a reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The direct causticization process eliminates use of energy intensive lime kiln that is a main component required in the conventional black liquor recovery cycle with the recovery boiler. The paper has estimated SNG production potential, the process energy ratio of black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG, and quantified the potential CO 2 abatement. Based on reference pulp mill capacity, the results indicate a large potential of SNG production (about 162 MW) from black liquor but at a cost of additional biomass import (36.7 MW) to compensate the total energy deficit. The process shows cold gas energy efficiency of about 58% considering black liquor and biomass import as major energy inputs. About 700 ktonnes per year of CO 2 abatement i.e. both possible CO 2 capture and CO 2 offset from bio-fuel use replacing natural gas, is estimated. Moreover, the SNG production offers a significant fuel replacement in transport sector especially in countries with large pulp and paper industry e.g. in Sweden, about 72% of motor gasoline and 40% of total motor fuel could be replaced.

  13. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and

  14. Rapid determination of methanol in black liquors by full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu; Liu, Mengru; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2007-12-14

    This paper reported a full evaporation headspace gas chromatographic (GC) technique for determination of methanol content in black liquors (pulping spent liquor). In this method, a very small volume (10-20 microL) of liquor sample is introduced into a headspace sample vial (20 mL) and heated up to a temperature of 105 degrees C. A near-complete mass transfer of methanol from the liquid phase to vapor phase (headspace), i.e., a full evaporation, can be achieved within 3 min. The methanol in the headspace of the vial is then measured by GC. The present method is simple, rapid and accurate.

  15. Elimination of Phenol and Color from Pulping Black Liquor Using Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Rastegarfar; Rabi Behrouz; Nader Bahramifar

    2013-01-01

    There are many non-wood lignocelluloses resources such as wheat, rice straw and other agriculture by- products with appropriate feature for pulp production in Iran. The most major deterrent to their use is presence of pulping black liquor that due to lignin of lignocelluloses solution contains significant amounts of color and phenol compounds. The aim of this paper was investigation of the ability to remove phenol and color as the most important organic pollutants from back liquor of agri-bas...

  16. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornetti, Micheal [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States); Freeman, Douglas [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States)

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  17. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  18. Application of a mechanism-based rate equation to black liquor gasification rate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overacker, N.L.; Waag, K.J.; Frederick, W.J. [Oregon State University, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Whitty, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    There is growing interest worldwide to develop alternate chemical recovery processes for paper mills which are cheaper, safer, more efficient and more environmentally sound than traditional technology. Pressurized gasification of black liquor is the basis for many proposed schemes and offers the possibility to double the amount of electricity generated per unit of dry black liquor solids. Such technology also has capital, safety and environmental advantages. One of the most important considerations regarding this emerging technology is the kinetics of the gasification reaction. This has been studied empirically at Aabo Akademi University for the pressurized gasification with carbon dioxide and steam. For the purposes of reactor modeling and scale-up, however, a thorough understanding of the mechanism behind the reaction is desirable. This report discusses the applicability of a mechanism-based rate equation to gasification of black liquor. The mechanism considered was developed for alkali-catalyzed gasification of carbon and is tested using black liquor gasification data obtained during simultaneous reaction with H{sub 2}O and CO. Equilibrium considerations and the influence of the water-gas shift reaction are also discussed. The work presented here is a cooperative effort between Aabo Akademi University and Oregon State University. The experimental work and some of the data analysis was performed at Aabo Akademi University. Development of the models and consideration of their applicability was performed primarily at Oregon State University

  19. Estimation of Theaflavins (TF) and Thearubigins (TR) Ratio in Black Tea Liquor Using Electronic Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuli, Amitava; Pal, Abhra; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyya, Rajib; Tamuly, Pradip; Gogoi, Nagen

    2011-09-01

    Quality of black tea is generally assessed using organoleptic tests by professional tea tasters. They determine the quality of black tea based on its appearance (in dry condition and during liquor formation), aroma and taste. Variation in the above parameters is actually contributed by a number of chemical compounds like, Theaflavins (TF), Thearubigins (TR), Caffeine, Linalool, Geraniol etc. Among the above, TF and TR are the most important chemical compounds, which actually contribute to the formation of taste, colour and brightness in tea liquor. Estimation of TF and TR in black tea is generally done using a spectrophotometer instrument. But, the analysis technique undergoes a rigorous and time consuming effort for sample preparation; also the operation of costly spectrophotometer requires expert manpower. To overcome above problems an Electronic Vision System based on digital image processing technique has been developed. The system is faster, low cost, repeatable and can estimate the amount of TF and TR ratio for black tea liquor with accuracy. The data analysis is done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Multiple Discriminate Analysis (MDA). A correlation has been established between colour of tea liquor images and TF, TR ratio. This paper describes the newly developed E-Vision system, experimental methods, data analysis algorithms and finally, the performance of the E-Vision System as compared to the results of traditional spectrophotometer.

  20. New black liquor combustion characteristics II; Mustalipeaen uudet poltto-ominaisuudet II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Backman, R.; Bostroem, S.; Forssen, M.; Uusikartano, T. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In an earlier study (LIEKKI 2, Y 17), the combustion characteristics of 17 liquors of different origin were studied by four laboratory tests. These tests were (1) single droplet burning, (2) single droplet pyrolysis, (3) pressurized gasification, and (4) calculation of melting properties of inorganic carryover particles. The study showed that there are big differences between liquors of different origin. These differences strongly affect the combustion properties, i.e. pyrolysis and burning times, swelling, and fouling tendency of heat transfer surfaces. The objective for the present research project was to investigate the reasons why some properties affect the combustion behavior more than others. The project is partly complementary to the previous study, partly a more detailed study of some of the phenomena observed earlier. The work constitutes of the following studies: (1) further study of several more liquors by the same methods, (2) pyrolysis swelling in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at two temperatures, 700 deg C and 900 deg C, (3) effect of heat treatment black liquors, (4) effect of addition of sodium compounds to a virgin black liquor, (5) data treatment and correlations, (6) nitrogen oxide formation tendency. (author)

  1. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  2. Effects of black liquor shocks on activated sludge treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Gabriela; Pesante, Silvana; Vidal, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Kraft pulp mills use activated sludge systems to remove organic matter from effluents. Process streams may appear as toxic spills in treatment plant effluents, such as black liquor, which is toxic to microorganisms of the activated sludge. The present study evaluates the effects of black liquor shocks in activated sludge systems. Four black liquor shocks from 883 to 3,225 mg chemical oxygen demand-COD L(-1) were applied during 24 hours in a continuously operating lab-scale activated sludge system. Removal efficiencies of COD, color and specific compounds were determined. Moreover, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), sludge volumetric index (SVI) and indicator microorganisms were evaluated. Results show that the addition of black liquor caused an increase in COD removal (76-67%) immediately post shock; followed two days later by a decrease (-19-50%). On the other hand, SOUR ranged between 0.152 and 0.336 mgO2 g(-1) volatile suspended solids-VSS• min(-1) during shocks, but the initial value was reestablished at hour 24. When the COD concentration of the shock was higher than 1,014 mg/L, the abundance of stalked ciliates and rotifers dropped. Finally, no changes in SVI were observed, with values remaining in the range 65.8-40.2 mL g(-1) total suspended solids-TSS during the entire operating process. Based on the results, the principal conclusion is that the activated sludge system with the biomass adapted to the kraft pulp effluent could resist a black liquor shock with 3,225 mgCOD L(-1) of concentration during 24 h, under this study's conditions.

  3. Elimination of Phenol and Color from Pulping Black Liquor Using Electrocoagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Rastegarfar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many non-wood lignocelluloses resources such as wheat, rice straw and other agriculture by- products with appropriate feature for pulp production in Iran. The most major deterrent to their use is presence of pulping black liquor that due to lignin of lignocelluloses solution contains significant amounts of color and phenol compounds. The aim of this paper was investigation of the ability to remove phenol and color as the most important organic pollutants from back liquor of agri-based pulping process using electrocoagulation method. In the electrocoagulation process aluminium electrode was used and cell potential and current intensity were adjusted on 16 V and 1700 mA respectively. The effect of various treatment time (10, 25, 40, 55, 70 min and initial pH (3, 5, 7, 9, 10/5 of black liquor were investigated.The results showed that maximum of decrease obtained at pH 5 that has led to a remove capacity 78% of phenol and 98% of color in treatment time 70 min. electrocoagulation method can be used for black liquor treatment because of simple, effective and its low investment cost compared to other technologies.

  4. Comparison of pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified black liquor with stand-alone production from gasified biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, E.; Harvey, S.

    2007-01-01

    When gasified black liquor is used for hydrogen production, significant amounts of biomass must be imported. This paper compares two alternative options for producing hydrogen from biomass: (A) pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified back liquor; and (B) stand-alone production of hydrogen from gasified biomass. The comparison assumes that the same amount of biomass that is imported in Alternative A is supplied to a stand-alone hydrogen production plant and that the gasified black liquor in Alternative B is used in a black liquor gasification combined cycle (BLGCC) CHP unit. The comparison is based upon equal amounts of black liquor fed to the gasifier, and identical steam and power requirements for the pulp mill. The two systems are compared on the basis of total CO 2 emission consequences, based upon different assumptions for the reference energy system that reflect different societal CO 2 emissions reduction target levels. Ambitions targets are expected to lead to a more CO 2 -lean reference energy system, in which case hydrogen production from gasified black liquor (Alternative A) is best from a CO 2 emissions' perspective, whereas with high CO 2 emissions associated with electricity production, hydrogen from gasified biomass and electricity from gasified black liquor (Alternative B) is preferable. (author)

  5. Life cycle greenhouse gases and non-renewable energy benefits of kraft black liquor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreault, Caroline; Malmberg, Barry; Upton, Brad; Miner, Reid

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fossil fuel benefits of black liquor recovery are analyzed. These benefits are due to the production of energy that can be used in the pulping process or sold, and the recovery of the pulping chemicals that would otherwise need to be produced from other resources. The fossil GHG emissions and non-renewable energy consumption of using black liquor in the kraft recovery system are approximately 90% lower than those for a comparable fossil fuel-based system. Across all scenarios, the systems relying on black liquor solids achieve a median reduction of approximately 140 kg CO 2 eq./GJ of energy produced, compared to the systems relying on fossil fuels to provide the same energy and pulping chemical production functions. The benefits attributable to the recovery of pulping chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit. Applied to the total production of kraft pulp in the U.S., the avoided emissions are equivalent to the total Scopes 1 and 2 emissions from the entire U.S. forest products industry. These results do not depend on the accounting method for biogenic carbon (because biogenic CO 2 emissions are the same for the systems compared) and the results are valid across a range of assumptions about the displaced fossil fuel, the GHG-intensity of the electricity grid, the fossil fuels used in the lime kiln, and the level of cogeneration at pulp and paper mills. The benefits occur without affecting the amount of wood harvested or the amount of chemical pulp produced. -- Highlights: ► Black liquor, a by-product of kraft pulping, represents about half of the energy used in the paper industry. ► The greenhouse gases (GHG) benefits of black liquor recovery compared to an equivalent fossil fuel system were analyzed. ► The GHG emissions of the black liquor system are approximately 90% lower than those for the fossil fuel system. ► The benefits from the recovery of the chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit.

  6. Centrifugal washing and recovery as an improved method for obtaining lignin precipitated from South African kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes centrifugal recovery as an improved method for collection of lignin isolated from black liquor obtained from a South African kraft mill. Precipitation of lignin was achieved by utilising 6 M sulphuric acid. Recovery...

  7. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Fröling, M

    2010-02-01

    There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH(4)) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH(4) production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH(4) production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill.

  8. Comparison of Refractory Performance in Black Liquor Gasifiers and a Smelt Test System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peascoe, RA

    2001-01-01

    Prior laboratory corrosion studies along with experience at the black liquor gasifier in New Bern, North Carolina, clearly demonstrate that serious material problems exist with the gasifier's refractory lining. Mullite-based and alumina-based refractories used at the New Bern facility suffered significant degradation even though they reportedly performed adequately in smaller scale systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's involvement in the failure analysis, and the initial exploration of suitable replacement materials, led to the realization that a simple and reliable, complementary method for refractory screening was needed. The development of a laboratory test system and its suitability for simulating the environment of black liquor gasifiers was undertaken. Identification and characterization of corrosion products were used to evaluate the test system as a rapid screening tool for refractory performance and as a predictor of refractory lifetime. Results from the test systems and pl ants were qualitatively similar

  9. Influence of pressure on pyrolysis of black liquor: 2. Char yields and component release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Kevin; Kullberg, Mika; Sorvari, Vesa; Backman, Rainer; Hupa, Mikko

    2008-02-01

    This is the second in a series of papers concerning the behavior of black liquor during pyrolysis at elevated pressures. Two industrial black liquors were pyrolyzed under pressurized conditions in two laboratory-scale devices, a pressurized single-particle reactor and a pressurized grid heater. Temperatures ranging between 650 and 1100 degrees C and pressures in the range 1-20 bar were studied. Char yields were calculated and based on analysis of some of the chars the fate of carbon, sodium, potassium and sulfur was determined as a function of pyrolysis pressure. At temperatures below 800 degrees C little variation in char yield was observed at different pressures. At higher temperatures char yield increased with pressure due to slower decomposition of sodium carbonate. For the same reason, sodium release decreased with pressure. Sulfur release, however, increased with pressure primarily because there was less opportunity for its capture in the less-swollen chars.

  10. Fundamental Study of Black Liquor Gasification Kinetics. Quarterly progress report for the period October 1999 to December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-31

    The overall objective of this research is to evaluate the kinetics of gasification of kraft black liquor under laboratory conditions simulating pressurized, oxygen-blown gasification. The significant independent variables are gasifier temperature, black liquor composition particle size, and particle residence time. The authors will quantify their impact on the concentration of major and trace gas phase species, as well as the composition of condensed phase inorganic products, including specification of the Na- and S-containing compounds and overall carbon conversion.

  11. Exploring the antioxidant potential of lignin isolated from black liquor of oil palm waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Khalil, H P S A; Karim, A A

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential antioxidant activity of lignin obtained from black liquor, a hazardous waste product generated during the extraction of palm oil. Antioxidant potential of the extracted lignin was evaluated by dissolving the extracted samples in 2 different solvent systems, namely, 2-methoxy ethanol and DMSO. Results revealed high percent inhibition of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in the lignin sample dissolved in 2-methoxy ethanol over DMSO (concentration range of 1-100 microg/ml). Lignin extracted in 2-methoxy ethanol exhibited higher inhibition percentage (at 50 microg/ml, 84.2%), whereas a concentration of 100 microg/ml was found to be effective in the case of the DMSO solvent (69.8%). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry revealed that the functional groups from the extracted lignin and commercial lignin were highly similar, indicating the purity of the lignin extracted from black liquor. These results provide a strong basis for further applications of lignin in the food industry and also illustrate an eco-friendly approach to utilize oil palm black liquor.

  12. Method of Black Liquor Combustion to Remove Silicon from Wheat Straw Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aluminium sulphate and sodium aluminate on physical and chemical properties of wheat straw pulp black liquor were studied. Results showed that the expansion rate was enhanced by increasing the aluminum salt content; furthermore, the effect of sodium aluminate was better than that of aluminum sulfate. The maximum desilication rate of 92.31% was reached with the addition of 3% sodium aluminate. A rheometer showed that aluminum salt had little impact on the viscosity of thick black liquor, so even at a high temperature it could be conveyed by pumps in paper mill at 110 °C. The effect of aluminium salt on the silicon removal rate during black liquor combustion was also studied. The experimental results showed that both aluminium sulphate and sodium aluminate helped to remove silicon. The desilication rate of sodium aluminate reached 62.33%, higher than that of aluminum sulphate. SEM-EDX illustrated that the aluminum and silicon ions were formed into insoluble precipitates. It was optimal to use 3% sodium aluminate as desilication agent.

  13. Potential of Black Liquor of Potassium Hydroxide to Pretreat Corn Stover for Biomethane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdul Hanan Siddhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the pretreatment cost of lignocellulosic biomass by utilizing alkali to alter its recalcitrant nature is an effective method for biofuel production. In this experiment, 1.5% KOH solution and its black liquor (spent liquor of KOH (BL were applied to pretreat corn stover (CS at a temperature of 20 °C to enhance the digestibility for anaerobic digestion (AD. Results showed no significant difference in weighted average methane content on the basis of experimental methane and biogas yields between BL-treated and original KOH-treated CS after AD. The BL process significantly increased the overall methane yield by 52.4% compared with untreated CS (135.2 mL/gVS, whereas no significant difference between the overall methane yields of 1.5% KOH-treated and BL-treated CS was observed. In addition, the BL process significantly saved water and KOH consumption, by 56.2% and 57.4%, respectively, compared with the 1.5% KOH pretreatment. Overall methane production was well explained by the modified Gompertz model. The physiochemical changes to CS after BL pretreatment were confirmed by SEM, FTIR, and XRD analyses. Our findings collectively suggest that recycling and reuse of KOH black liquor might be an efficient method for lignocellulosic biomass treatment and have the capability to reduce input costs in future AD processes.

  14. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

  15. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining

  16. Modelling, simulation, and optimisation of a downflow entrained flow reactor for black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Magnus [ETC Energitekniskt Centrum, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2003-12-01

    Black liquor, a by-product of the chemical pulping process, is an important liquid fuel in the pulp and paper industry. A potential technology for improving the recovery cycle of energy and chemicals contained in the liquid fuel is pressurised gasification of black liquor (PGLG). However, uncertainties about the reliability and robustness of the technology are preventing a large-scale market introduction. One important step towards a greater trust in the process reliability is the development of simulation tools that can provide a better understanding of the process and improve performance through optimisation. In the beginning of 2001 a project was initiated in order to develop a simulation tool for an entrained-flow gasifier in PBLG based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The aim has been to provide an advanced tool for a better understanding of process performance, to help with trouble shooting in the development plant, and for use in optimisation of a full-scale commercial gasifier. Furthermore, the project will also provide quantitative information on burner functionality through advanced laser-optical measurements by use of a Phase Doppler Anemometer (PDA). To this point in current project, three different concept models have been developed. The work has been comprised in a thesis 'Modelling and Simulation of Pressurised Black Liquor Gasification at High Temperature' and presented at Luleaa Univ. of Technology in Oct 2003. The construction of an atmospheric burner test rig has also been initiated. The main objective with the rig will be to quantify the atomisation performance of suitable burner nozzles for a PBLG gasifier that can be used as input for the CFD model. The main conclusions from the modelling work done this far can be condensed to the following points: From the first modelling results it was concluded that a wide spray pattern is preferable with respect to demand for long residence times for black liquor droplets and a low amount

  17. Fuel conversion characteristics of black liquor and pyrolysis oil mixture for efficient gasification with inherent catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Bach Oller, Albert; Furusjö, Erik; Umeki, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the technical feasibility of a catalytic co-gasification process using a mixture of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO). A technical concern is if gasifiers can be operated at low temperature (~1000 ºC) without problems of tar, soot or char, as is the case for pure BL due to the catalytic effect of fuel alkali. Hence, we investigated fuel conversion characteristics of BL/PO mixture: conversion of single droplet in flame, and char gasification reactivity. 20wt.% (BP20...

  18. Carbon distribution in char residue from gasification of kraft black liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon; Frederick, W.J.; Agrawal, Pradeep

    2003-01-01

    The char residue yields and the total carbon and carbonate content were measured for dry black liquor solids after pyrolysis or gasification in a laminar entrained-flow reactor. The experimental conditions were 700-1000 deg. C in N 2 ,CO 2 /N 2 or water vapor/N 2 at 1 bar total pressure, for residence times from 0.3 to 1.7 s. Fixed carbon yields, when measured at the same particle residence time, decreased with increasing reactor temperature. CO 2 and water vapor diminished the char carbon significantly at temperatures above 800 deg. C, compared with pyrolysis in N 2 . Water vapor oxidized the char carbon more rapidly than did CO 2 . At 1000 deg. C, the reactions of carbon with sulfate and carbonate became faster, resulting in a smaller difference between carbon conversion rates in the different gas environments. By the end of devolatilization, the amount of carbonate in the char had changed very little at 700-800 deg. C. After devolatilization, carbonate was formed more rapidly at higher temperatures. The presence of CO 2 or water vapor increased the formation of carbonate. In the presence of these gases, more carbonate was measured at all temperatures and residence times. The maximum carbonate measured in the char was 16% of the carbon in the black liquor solids, as compared to 4.4% in the original dry liquor solids. Under most conditions, the carbonate, as a fraction of carbon input, first increased to a constant, temperature-independent value and then decreased

  19. System aspects of black liquor gasification - Consequences for both industry and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The pulp and paper industry consumes large quantities of biofuels (mainly bark and black liquor) to satisfy process requirements. Biomass is however a limited resource, and biofuel usage should therefore be as effective as possible. Modern pulp mills and integrated pulp and paper mills have excess fuel compared to the amounts needed to satisfy the process steam demand. The excess fuel is often used for cogeneration of electric power in CHP units. For integrated pulp and paper mills, this usually requires import of supplementary fuel to the plant. For market pulp mills, the excess internal biofuel quantities are sufficient to also allow electric power generation in condensing power plant units. If biofuel availability at a reasonable price is limited, import/export to, from a mill changes the amount of such biofuel available to alternative users. The goal of this thesis is to compare different mill powerhouse technologies and CHP plant configurations (including conventional recovery boiler technology and black liquor gasification technology) in order to identify the technology and CHP plant configuration that can produce the most electric power output from a given fuel resource for a given process steam demand. Different process steam demand levels for different representative mill types are considered. The comparison accounts for increased/decreased electricity production in an alternative energy system when biofuel is imported/exported to/from from the mill. The alternative energy system considered includes a district heating system with CHP capacity and natural gas fired combined cycle power plant capacity. The results show that black liquor gasification is in all cases considered an attractive powerhouse recovery cycle technology compared to conventional recovery boiler technology. If the marginal electric power generation efficiency for biofuel exported to the reference alternative energy system is 49%, excess mill internal biofuel should be used on mill

  20. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  1. Numerical modeling of counter-current condensation in a Black Liquor Gasification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risberg, Mikael; Gebart, Rikard

    2013-01-01

    Pressurized Entrained flow High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification is a novel technique to recover the inorganic chemicals and available energy in black liquor originating from kraft pulping. The gasifier has a direct quench that quickly cools the raw syngas when it leaves the hot reactor by spraying the gas with a water solution. As a result, the raw syngas becomes saturated with steam. Typically the gasifier operates at 30 bar which corresponds to a dew point of about 235 °C and a steam concentration in the saturated syngas that is about 3 times higher than the total concentration of the other species in the syngas. After the quench cooler the syngas is passed through a counter-current condenser where the raw syngas is cooled and most of the steam is condensed. The condenser consists of several vertical tubes where reflux condensation occurs inside the tubes due to water cooling of the tubes on the shell-side. A large part of the condensation takes place inside the tubes on the wall and results in a counterflow of water driven by gravity through the counter current condenser. In this study a computational fluid dynamics model is developed for the two-phase fluid flow on the tube-side of the condenser and for the single phase flow of the shell-side. The two-phase flow was treated using an Euler–Euler formulation with closure correlations for heat flux, condensation rate and pressure drop inside the tubes. The single-phase model for the shell side uses closure correlations for the heat flux and pressure drop. Predictions of the model are compared with results from experimental measurements in a condenser used in a 3 MW Black Liquor Gasification development plant. The results are in good agreement with the limited experimental data that has been collected in the experimental gasifier. However, more validation data is necessary before a definite conclusion can be drawn about the predictive capability of the code. -- Highlights: • A multi-phase model for a

  2. THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Jaya Wistara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%, kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan

  3. Residual liquors of the pulp industries. 1. Lignohemicelluloses and silica from soda black liquors used as adjuvants in the manufacture of compact paper board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Saied, H; Nada, A A.M.; Ibrahem, A A

    1982-01-01

    Lignohemicellulosic materials and SiO/sub 2/ were recovered from black liquors from the pulping of rice straw. The lignohemicellulose improved the properties of compact cardboard from cotton stalk pulp more effectively than those of cardboard from rice straw pulp, while the effectiveness of the SiO/sub 2/ was in the opposite direction. The water resistance of cardboard from cotton stalk pulp made it suitable for both outdoor and indoor use, while cardboard from rice straw pulp could be used only indoors. The lignohemicellulose and SiO/sub 2/ could effectively replace more expensive phenolic resins in cardboard manufacture.

  4. Deep conversion of black oils with Eni Slurry technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, Nicoletta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2010-09-15

    Eni Slurry Technology represents a significant technological innovation in residue conversion and unconventional oils upgrading. EST allows the almost total conversion of heavy feedstocks into useful products, mainly transportation fuels, with a great major impact on the economic and environmental valorization of hydrocarbon resources. The peculiar characteristics of EST in terms of yields, products quality, absence of undesired by-products and feedstock flexibility constitute its superior economic and environmental attractiveness. The first full scale industrial plant based on this new technology will be realized in Eni's Sannazzaro refinery (23,000 bpd). Oil in is scheduled by 4th quarter 2012.

  5. Biobutanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum using xylose recovered from birch Kraft black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika L; Helmerius, Jonas; Nilsson, Robert T; Sjöblom, Magnus; Hodge, David B; Rova, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied using acid-hydrolyzed xylan recovered from hardwood Kraft black liquor by CO2 acidification as the only carbon source. Detoxification of hydrolyzate using activated carbon was conducted to evaluate the impact of inhibitor removal and fermentation. Xylose hydrolysis yields as high as 18.4% were demonstrated at the highest severity hydrolysis condition. Detoxification using active carbon was effective for removal of both phenolics (76-81%) and HMF (38-52%). Batch fermentation of the hydrolyzate and semi-defined P2 media resulted in a total solvent yield of 0.12-0.13g/g and 0.34g/g, corresponding to a butanol concentration of 1.8-2.1g/L and 7.3g/L respectively. This work is the first study of a process for the production of a biologically-derived biofuel from hemicelluloses solubilized during Kraft pulping and demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing xylan recovered directly from industrial Kraft pulping liquors as a feedstock for biological production of biofuels such as butanol. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  7. Study on Effectiveness of Processed and Unprocessed Black Liquor pulps in improving the properties of PPC mortar, Concrete and SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthkumar, M.; Sathyan, Dhanya; Prabha, B.

    2018-02-01

    The cost of construction materials is increasing day by day because of high demand, scarcity of raw materials and high price of energy. From the view point of energy saving and over consumption of resources, the use of alternative constituents in construction materials is now a global concern. From this, the extensive research and development works towards exploring new ingredients are required for producing sustainable and environment friendly construction materials. Bagasse pulp liquor is one such material that can be used as a chemical admixture which is obtained as a by-product of paper manufacturing process. Around 5 million tons of bagasse pulp is obtained throughout the world each year. since the material is a waste product from paper industry, this can be changed as a admixture by its effective use in concrete. In the present investigation black pulp liquor is added to fresh concrete in different dosages, the concrete is then tested for workability, compressive strength, flexural, split tensile strength and setting time. From results it is shown that 1% replacement of water with black pulp liquor increases the fresh properties of the concrete, 2% replacement of water with black pulp liquor increases the mechanical properties of the concrete and acts as a set retarder.

  8. Numerical modelling of the CHEMREC black liquor gasification process. Conceptual design study of the burner in a pilot gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Magnus

    2001-02-01

    The work presented in this report is done in order to develop a simplified CFD model for Chemrec's pressurised black liquor gasification process. This process is presently under development and will have a number of advantages compared to conventional processes for black liquor recovery. The main goal with this work has been to get qualitative information on influence of burner design for the gas flow in the gasification reactor. Gasification of black liquor is a very complex process. The liquor is composed of a number of different substances and the composition may vary considerably between liquors originating from different mills and even for black liquor from a single process. When a black liquor droplet is gasified it loses its organic material to produce combustible gases by three stages of conversion: Drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. In the end of the conversion only an inorganic smelt remains (ideally). The aim is to get this smelt to form a protective layer, against corrosion and heat, on the reactor walls. Due to the complexity of gasification of black liquor some simplifications had to be made in order to develop a CFD model for the preliminary design of the gasification reactor. Instead of modelling droplets in detail, generating gas by gasification, sources were placed in a prescribed volume where gasification (mainly drying and pyrolysis) of the black liquor droplets was assumed to occur. Source terms for the energy and momentum equations, consistent with the mass source distribution, were derived from the corresponding control volume equations by assuming a symmetric outflow of gas from the droplets and a uniform degree of conversion of reactive components in the droplets. A particle transport model was also used in order to study trajectories from droplets entering the reactor. The resulting model has been implemented in a commercial finite volume code (AEA-CFX) through customised Fortran subroutines. The advantages with this simple

  9. Black liquor-derived carbonaceous solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chenxi; Zhu, Linfeng; Shen, Feng; Qi, Xinhua

    2016-11-01

    Lignin-containing black liquor from pretreatment of rice straw by KOH aqueous solution was applied to prepare a carbonaceous solid acid catalyst, in which KOH played dual roles of extracting lignin from rice straw and developing porosity of the carbon material as an activation agent. The synthesized black liquor-derived carbon material was applied in catalytic hydrolysis of the residue solid from the pretreatment of rice straw, which was mainly composed of cellulose and hemicellulose, and showed excellent activity for the production of total reducing sugars (TRS) in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride. The highest TRS yield of 63.4% was achieved at 140°C for 120min, which was much higher than that obtained from crude rice straw under the same reaction conditions (36.6% TRS yield). Overall, this study provides a renewable strategy for the utilization of all components of lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

  11. System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthetic gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Circulating fluidized bed system for black liquor gasification with direct causticization. ► Effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on gasification are studied. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive limekiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show 10% higher SNG production from O 2 blown system than air blown system. ► SNG production is higher in O 2 blown system than air blown system. - Abstract: The black liquor gasification based bio-fuel production at chemical pulp mill is an attractive option to replace conventional recovery boilers increasing system energy efficiency. The present paper studies circulating fluidized bed system with direct causticization using TiO 2 for the gasification of the black liquor to the synthesis gas. The advantage of using direct causticization is the elimination of energy-intensive lime kiln which is an integral part of the conventional black liquor recovery system. The study evaluates the effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on the fluidized bed gasification system, the synthesis gas composition, and the downstream processes for the synthesis gas conversion to the synthetic natural gas (SNG). The results showed higher synthetic natural gas production potential with about 10% higher energy efficiency using oxygen blown gasification system than the air blown system. From the pulp mill integration perspective, the material and energy balance results in better integration of air blown system than the oxygen blown system, e.g. less steam required to be generated in the power boiler, less electricity import, and less additional biomass requirement. However, the air blown system still requires a significant amount of energy in terms of the synthesis gas handling and gas upgrading using the nitrogen rejection system

  12. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, M.; Jinyue Yan (Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology/Energy Processes, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)). e-mail: rnaqvi@kth.se; Froeling, Morgan (Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of fossil fuels is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need to develop technologies for renewable fuel production not only as alternatives but also as additional fuels. Efficient polygeneration of transportation fuels with heat and electricity is one of the innovative technologies which have potential to replace fossil fuels and mitigate climate change. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH4) as alternative fuels integrated with black liquor gasification have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) Comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) Fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) Biofuel Production Potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH4 production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH4 production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill

  13. Black liquor devolatilization and swelling - a detailed droplet model and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaervinen, M.; Zevenhoven, R.; Vakkilainen, E.; Forssen, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a new detailed physical model for single black liquor droplet pyrolysis and swelling, and validate them against experimental data from a non-oxidizing environment using two different reactor configurations. In the detailed model, we solve for the heat transfer and gas phase mass transfer in the droplet and thereby, the intra-particle gas-char and gas-gas interactions during drying and devolatilization can be studied. In the experimental part, the mass change, the swelling behaviour, and the volume fraction of larger voids, i.e. cenospheres in the droplets were determined in a non-oxidizing environment. The model gave a good correlation with experimental swelling and mass loss data. Calculations suggest that a considerable amount of the char can be consumed before the entire droplet has experienced the devolatilization and drying stages of combustion. Char formed at the droplet surface layer is generally consumed by gasification with H 2 O flowing outwards from the droplet interior. The extent of char conversion during devolatilization and the rate of devolatilization are greatly affected by swelling and the formation of larger voids in the particle. The more the particle swells and the more homogeneous the particle structure is, the larger is the conversion of char at the end of devolatilization

  14. Feasibility of reusing the black liquor for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Chen, Xiaoyan; Tan, Xuesong; Wang, Qiong; Liu, Yunyun; He, Minchao; Yu, Qiang; Qi, Wei; Luo, Yu; Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2017-03-01

    The black liquor (BL) generated in the alkaline pretreatment process is usually thought as the environmental pollutant. This study found that the pure alkaline lignin hardly inhibited the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (EHC), which led to the investigation on the feasibility of reusing BL as the buffer via pH adjustment for the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The pH value of BL was adjusted from 13.23 to 4.80 with acetic acid, and the alkaline lignin was partially precipitated. It deposited on the surface of cellulose and negatively influenced the EHC via blocking the access of cellulase to cellulose and adsorbing cellulase. The supernatant separated from the acidified BL scarcely affected the EHC, but inhibited the ethanol fermentation. The 4-times diluted supernatant and the last-time waste wash water of the alkali-treated sugarcane bagasse didn't inhibit the EHC and ethanol production. This work gives a clue of saving water for alkaline pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of alkali on the product distribution from black liquor conversion under supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawangchu, Y; Atong, D; Sricharoenchaikul, V

    2017-07-01

    Lignin in chemical pulping waste, or black liquor (BL), can be converted into various products via supercritical water gasification (SCWG). However, the inherited alkaline contents from the pulping chemicals may affect the product yields and properties. In this research, the influence of the residual alkali on the product distribution via SCWG of soda BL and kraft BL was evaluated. The SCWG was performed in a batch quartz reactor for 10 min at various temperatures (673, 773 and 873 K) and pressures (250, 300 and 400 bar). The highest hydrogen (H 2 ) production occurred at 873 K for the soda BL. The water-gas shift reaction with sodium ions played an important part in the H 2 production, while only small amounts of methane and carbon monoxide were detected. Hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids and esters were the dominant substrates in the liquid products, which denoted the potential of this method for bond cleaving of the lignin macromolecule. As a result, BL, which typically contains alkali salt, was an appropriate feedstock for the SCWG reaction to produce renewable fuel. This method not only has a positive influence on the generation of value added products from highly corrosive waste but also helps avoid some technical problems commonly encountered with direct firing in a recovery boiler.

  16. Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil: Evaluation of blend ratios and methanol production capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Furusjö, Erik; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Lundgren, Joakim; Landälv, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomethanol from co-gasified black liquor and pyrolysis oil at different capacities. • Enables higher biofuel production for given available amount of black liquor. • Opportunity for cost efficient black liquor gasification also in small pulp mills. • The methanol can be cost competitive to 2nd generation ethanol and fossil fuels. • Fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to meet given biofuel demand. - Abstract: The main aim of this study is to investigate integrated methanol production via co-gasification of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO), at Swedish pulp mills. The objectives are to evaluate techno-economically different blends ratios for different pulp mill capacities. Furthermore, the future methanol production potential in Sweden and overall system consequences of large-scale implementation of PO/BL co-gasification are also assessed. It is concluded that gasification of pure BL and PO/BL blends up to 50% results in significantly lower production costs than what can be achieved by gasification of unblended PO. Co-gasification with 20–50% oil addition would be the most advantageous solution based on IRR for integrated biofuel plants in small pulp mills (200 kADt/y), whilst pure black liquor gasification (BLG) will be the most advantageous alternative for larger pulp mills. For pulp mill sizes between 300 and 600 kADt/y, it is also concluded that a feasible methanol production can be achieved at a methanol market price below 100 €/MW h, for production capacities ranging between 0.9 and 1.6 TW h/y for pure BLG, and between 1.2 and 6.5 TW h/y for PO/BL co-gasification. This study also shows that by introducing PO/BL co-gasification, fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to biofuel plants than with pure BLG, to meet a certain biofuel demand for a region. Due to the technical as well as organizational complexity of the integration this may prove beneficial, and could also potentially lower the total investment

  17. Recycling of Dilute Deacetylation Black Liquor to Enable Efficient Recovery and Reuse of Spent Chemicals and Biomass Pretreatment Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Chen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Deacetylation/dilute alkaline pretreatment followed by mechanical refining (DMR has been proven as an effective process for biomass sugar liberation without severe chemical modification to lignin. Previous research has been focused on optimizing deacetylation conditions, reducing energy consumptions in mechanical refining, and improving sugar yields and titers in enzymatic hydrolysis. To successfully commercialize this process, another critical challenge is to develop a robust process to balance water usage, recover spent chemicals, and utilize waste carbons from the dilute deacetylation waste liquor. In this work, a new process modification and strategy is pioneered to recycle and reuse the weak black liquor (WBL in order to reduce water, chemical, and energy usage while increasing both inorganic and organic contents in the WBLto facilitate downstream processing. Results suggest that the accumulation did not lower acetyl and lignin removal in alkaline pretreatment, resulting in comparable sugar yields in enzymatic hydrolysis. Sodium and potassium were found to be the two most important inorganic compounds in the recycled WBL. Moreover, the accumulated sodium and phenolic compounds did not inhibit the downstream ethanol fermentation processes. Finally, techno-economic analysis (TEA showed a decrease in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP by ~5 to 15 cents per gallon of ethanol resulting from the inclusion of the recycling of weak black liquor when compared to a conventional non-recycling process.

  18. System Aspects of Black Liquor Gasification. A review of existing reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) is one of the high-prioritized RandD areas in Sweden. Research work is going on in the national program BLG-Programme. The main aims with the present study are to: - Identify larger projects dealing with energy oriented system aspects of BLG - Make a synthesis on system aspects results in these projects - Identify need for further work, e.g. as a part of a second period of the BLG Programme. No new work or calculations have been performed, the aim has been only to compile and draw conclusions from existing information. The focus has been on system studies. Most of the research on BLG has been technically, chemically and component oriented. These areas are not included in this report. In Chapter 2 basics for BLG are presented and in Chapter 3 important system aspects of this technology are discussed. Future opportunities for energy savings in mills are crucial for a BLG system, both technically and economically. Therefore present knowledge for such opportunities is presented in Chapter 4. In section 1.4 the report/projects included in this report are introduced and in Chapter 5-13 Summaries, especially on system aspects, of these reports are given. In order to keep the report at a reasonable size only major projects dealing with system aspects during the last 10 year period have been included. In Chapter 14 a synthesis of system aspects dealt with in the different reports is presented and in Chapter 15 suggestions for further work are given. In Chapter 16 references are given and finally in the Attachment a brief overview of different BLG technologies is presented

  19. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane: Ion exchange membrane fouling identification and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Maryam; Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent; Savadogo, Oumarou; Paris, Jean

    2017-02-15

    Integrated forest biorefinery offers promising pathways to sustainably diversify the revenue of pulp and paper industry. In this context, lignin can be extracted from a residual stream of Kraft pulping process, called black liquor, and subsequently converted into a wide spectrum of bio-based products. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane results in lignin extraction and caustic soda production. Even though the implementation of this method requires less chemicals than the chemical acidification process, fouling of the ion exchange membranes and especially bipolar membrane impairs its productivity. Membrane thickness and ash content measurements along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) analysis were performed to identify the nature and mechanisms of the membrane fouling. The results revealed that the fouling layer mostly consisted of organic components and particularly lignin. Based on our proposed fouling mechanisms, throughout the electrodialysis process the pH of the black liquor gradually decreased and as a result more proton ions were available to trigger protonation reaction of lignin phenolic groups and decrease the lignin solubility. Due to the abundance of the proton ions on the surface of the cation exchange layers of the bipolar membrane, destabilized lignin macro-molecules started to self-aggregate and formed lignin clusters on its surface. Over the time, these lignin clusters covered the entire surface of the bipolar membrane and the spaces between the membranes and, eventually, attached to the surface of the cation exchange membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy conversion performance of black liquor gasification to hydrogen production using direct causticization with CO(2) capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2012-04-01

    This paper estimates potential hydrogen production via dry black liquor gasification system with direct causticization integrated with a reference pulp mill. The advantage of using direct causticization is elimination of energy intensive lime kiln. Pressure swing adsorption is integrated in the carbon capture process for hydrogen upgrading. The energy conversion performance of the integrated system is compared with other bio-fuel alternatives and evaluated based on system performance indicators. The results indicated a significant hydrogen production potential (about 141MW) with an energy ratio of about 0.74 from the reference black liquor capacity (about 243.5MW) and extra biomass import (about 50MW) to compensate total energy deficit. About 867,000tonnes of CO(2) abatement per year is estimated i.e. combining CO(2) capture and CO(2) offset from hydrogen replacing motor gasoline. The hydrogen production offers a substantial motor fuel replacement especially in regions with large pulp and paper industry e.g. about 63% of domestic gasoline replacement in Sweden. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combustion oil production by direct liquefaction of the black liquor; Obtencao de oleo combustivel atraves da liquefacao direta de lixivia negra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, J L.M. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rodrigues, J A.R.; Schuchardt, U [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1985-12-31

    A large number of publications about the liquefaction of carbonaceous materials with carbon monoxide in water have appeared. As carbon monoxide reacts with water to form formate. We have decided to use this compound for the direct liquefaction of black liquor, obtained from the pulp and paper industry. The reactions were performed in a stainless steel autoclave of 1 litre using a ratio of water/black liquor/sodium formate of 69/29,5/1,5 %. The reaction conditions were varied between 200 and 300 deg C and 110 to 130 bar of inert gas. We obtained heavy oils of an average molecular weight around 500 in 90 to 100 % yield on a dry and ash-free basis. The calorific value of this oil was estimated in 38000 kJ/kg. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Structural elucidation and antioxidant activity of lignin isolated from rice straw and alkali‑oxygen black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Lihui; Wu, Wenjuan; Zhao, Huifang; Jin, Yongcan

    2018-05-17

    Alkali‑oxygen cooking of lignocellulose offers lignin many structural properties and bioactivities for biorefinery. In this work, milled wood lignin (MWL) and alkali‑oxygen lignin (AOL) were isolated from rice straw and alkali‑oxygen black liquor, respectively. The lignin structure was characterized by spectroscopy and wet chemistry. Antioxidant activity of lignins was assessed by DPPH·and ABTS scavenging ability assay. Results showed the oxidization and condensation of lignin occurred during alkali‑oxygen cooking. The p-hydroxyphenyl was more easily removed from rice straw than guaiacyl and syringyl units. The ester or ether linkages derived from hydroxycynnamic acids, and the main interunit linkages, i.e. β-O-4' bonds, were mostly cleaved. Lignin-xylan complex had high reactivity under alkali‑oxygen condition. Tricin, incorporated into lignin, was detected in MWL but was absent in AOL. Nitrobenzene oxidation showed MWL can well represent the protolignin of rice straw, and the products yield decreased dramatically after alkali‑oxygen cooking. AOL had higher radical scavenging ability than MWL indicating alkali‑oxygen cooking was an effective pathway for the enhancement of antioxidant activity of lignin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial decolorization and detoxification of black liquor from rayon grade pulp manufacturing paper industry and detection of their metabolic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Abhishek, Amar; Sankhwar, Monica

    2011-06-01

    This study deals with the decolorization of black liquor (BL) by isolated potential bacterial consortium comprising Serratia marcescens (GU193982), Citrobacter sp. (HQ873619) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (GU193983). The decolorization of BL was studied by using the different nutritional as well as environmental parameters. In this study, result revealed that the ligninolytic activities were found to be growth associated and the developed bacterial consortium was efficient for the reduction of COD, BOD and color up to 83%, 74% and 85%, respectively. The HPLC analysis of degraded samples of BL has shown the reduction in peak area compared to control. Further, the GC-MS analysis showed that, most of the compounds detected in control were diminished after bacterial treatment while, formic acid hydrazide, 4-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid, carbamic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and erythropentanoic acid were found as new metabolites. Further, the seed germination test using Phaseolus aureus has supported the detoxification of bacterial decolorized BL. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Precipitation and characterisation of lignin obtained from South African kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Namane_2014_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 637 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Namane_2014_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 2014... International Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics and South African Institution of Chemical Engineering Conference, Durban, South Africa, 27 July - 1 August 2014 Precipitation and characterisation of lignin obtained from South African kraft mill black...

  5. Pyrolysis and auto-gasification of black liquor in presence of ZnO: An integrated process for Zn/ZnO nanostructure production and bioenergy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, A.V.; Job, A.E.; Mussel, W.N.; Pasa, V.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a new process for valorisation of black liquor into gases that are used to reduce ZnO and promote zinc nanosheet synthesis, besides energy generation. During the black liquor pyrolysis and auto-gasification, gases evolve, especially carbon monoxide, and promote ZnO reduction with Zn (v) release. The metal is condensed yielding zinc nanosheets, with partial surface re-oxidation in presence of carbon dioxide. The process was investigated at the micro scale using thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA) and the gases evolved were analysed by FTIR spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The process was also studied in laboratory scale using a tubular electric furnace. The black liquor/ZnO mixture was placed at the quartz tube and the sample was heated to 900 °C at 10 °C/min, and the temperature was held at 900 °C for 1 h. The nanostructures growth was catalyst-free, without pressure reduction or a template, at temperatures lower than those required in the classical carbothermal reduction of ZnO with fossil carbon. The nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). One mechanism was presented in an attempt to explain the synthesis of Zn/ZnO nanosheets that are crystalline. This green and innovative process has potential use at the industry due to its operational conditions, low costs and technological importance of Zn and ZnO nanostructures. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Black liquor and ZnO mixture were submitted to a heat treatment until 900 °C. ► The black liquor suffered pyrolysis and auto-gasification. ► ZnO is reduced by CO yielding Zn v , that is condensed generating Zn/ZnO nanosheets. ► The nanostructures are characterized and a mechanism of reactions is presented. ► The new process can produce energy and nanostructures in large scale.

  6. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  7. Bio-refinery system in a pulp mill for methanol production with comparison of pressurized black liquor gasification and dry gasification using direct causticization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) for bio-fuel or electricity production at the modern pulp mills is a field in continuous evolution and the efforts are considerably driven by the climate change, fuel security, and renewable energy. This paper evaluates and compares two BLG systems for methanol production: (i) oxygen blown pressurized thermal BLG; and (ii) dry BLG with direct causticization, which have been regarded as the most potential technology candidates for the future deployment. A key objective is to assess integration possibilities of BLG technologies with the reference Kraft pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) pulp/day replacing conventional recovery cycle. The study was performed to compare the systems’ performance in terms of potential methanol production, energy efficiency, and potential CO 2 reductions. The results indicate larger potential of black liquor conversion to methanol from the pressurized BLG system (about 77 million tonnes/year of methanol) than the dry BLG system (about 30 million tonnes/year of methanol) utilizing identical amount of black liquor available worldwide (220 million tDS/year). The potential CO 2 emissions reduction from the transport sector is substantially higher in pressurized BLG system (117 million tonnes/year CO 2 reductions) as compared to dry BLG system (45 million tonnes/year CO 2 reductions). However, the dry BLG system with direct causticization shows better results when considering consequences of additional biomass import. In addition, comparison of methanol production via BLG with other bio-refinery products, e.g. hydrogen, dimethyl ether (DME) and bio-methane, has also been discussed.

  8. Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

    2002-01-01

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill

  9. Synthesis and characterization of high photocatalytic activity and stable Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers for photocatalytic degradation of black liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Li; Long, Qiyi; Yin, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were prepared via in situ Ag 3 PO 4 particles onto the surface of TiO 2 fiber. • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers have stronger catalytic activity and excellent chemical stability. • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor. - Abstract: The TiO 2 fiber was prepared by using cotton fiber as a template, and then Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were synthesized via in situ Ag 3 PO 4 particles onto the surface of TiO 2 fiber. Their structure and physical properties were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra (PL). SEM analysis indicated that the well-defined surface morphology of natural cotton fiber was mostly preserved in TiO 2 and Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers. Compared with TiO 2 fiber, the absorbance wavelengths of Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were apparently red shifted and the PL intensities revealed a significant decrease. By using the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor as a model reaction, the visible light and ultraviolet light catalytic efficiencies of TiO 2 , Ag 3 PO 4 and Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were evaluated. The reaction results showed that Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers had stronger photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability in repeated and long-term applications. Therefore, the prepared Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers could act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor, which suggested their promising applications. It was proposed that the • OH radicals played the leading role in the photocatalytic degradation of the black liquor by Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers system

  10. An approach to industrial application: influence of black liquor and pH on xylanase efficiency in bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Fillat Latorre, Úrsula; Roncero Vivero, María Blanca; Bassa, Alexandre; Sacón, Vera Maria

    2010-01-01

    To obtain a more realistic appraisal of the potential efficiency of xylanases in the industrial bleaching, the influence of pH and the presence of black liquor (measured as COD) on the bleaching efficiency of two commercial xylanases was studied at high temperature. These pH’s, CODs, and temperatures are close to those used in the storage tower of the B fiber line in Jacareı´ unit of Fibria (Brazil). The pulp samples obtained after each bleaching stage were analyzed for kappa number, brigh...

  11. Comparison of two continuous fungal bioreactors for posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Marín-Mezo, G; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Montes-Horcasitas, M C; Caffarel-Méndez, S; Barrera-Cortés, Josefina; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate and compare two continuous systems of posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor (WBL). The first system consisted of a packed bed reactor (PBR) with Trametes versicolor (Tv) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak (biocubes). The second system was a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) with Lentinus edodes (Le) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak. The reactors operated for 65 days at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days, at 28 degrees C, with continuous aeration. Response variables monitored were conventional and specific, unit, net removal efficiency (eta and eta(sun), respectively) of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, and ligninoids, and enzymatic activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase (Lac) and proteases. The PBR showed an average color eta superior to that of the FBR (52.42 +/- 21.78% and 25.34 +/- 14.38% for PBR and FBR, respectively); removals of COD and ligninoids presented a similar pattern to that of color. Lac activity was significantly larger in PBR than in FBR. Activity of MnP in PBR was higher than that of the FBR (0.004 and 0.002 U MnP/mL, respectively). This difference could be ascribed to the different fungi present in each bioreactor. LiP activity was very low in both reactors. Average value of proteases was almost double in the FBR as compared with PBR (0.472 and 0.209 U Proteases/mL, respectively). During the last 2 weeks of operation, biocubes in the FBR experienced a significant loss of the attached Le biomass, probably by attrition. This and higher protease activity in the FBR could explain the lower pollutant removals achieved in the FBR. Overall, PBR with immobilized Tv showed a better performance than the FBR with Le for the posttreatment of the recalcitrant anaerobic effluent. Extended and sustained pollutant removal (65 days) was achieved in the PBR, although more research is needed to evaluate bioreactor performance at shorter hydraulic

  12. The use of biomass energy in the pulp and paper industry and the prospects for black liquor gasification combined cycle generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, L J [Department of Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The world production of paper and paperboard products, which increased 3.3% per year since 1980, reached 243 million tonnes in 1991 and is expected to continue to grow by about 2.5% per year over the next decade. Consumption levels in 1990 ranged from 2.8 kg per capita in India to 313 kg per capita in the United States. The biggest producers of pulp are the United States, Canada and the Scandinavian countries, but much of the expansion of pulp production capacity is taking place in countries such as Brazil, Chile and Indonesia. The pulp and paper industry has always relied on biomass as a fuel source to meet process energy demands. Kraft pulping is the most common process accounting for about two thirds of world wood pulp production. Energy recovered from burning black liquor, a lignin-rich by-product, in a chemicals recovery boiler typically provides most of the on-site demand for heat and electricity in a modem kraft pulp mill. Another important fuel source is bark and wood waste generated at the mill. Aging recovery boilers in industrialized countries and increasing electricity/heat demand ratios are stimulating interest in alternative co-generation technologies. Most of the interest in new biomass and black liquor co-generation technologies focuses on those that would utilize gas turbines rather than steam turbines. Gas turbines are generally characterized by higher electricity/heat ratios than steam turbines, as well as lower unit capital costs. With the black liquor and biomass gasification technologies that are now being developed and demonstrated, the energy needs of an energy-efficient kraft pulp mill could be met and 40-50 MW of baseload power would be available for export. Using, in addition, currently unused logging residues for fuel would increase that potential. The pulp and paper industry is likely to be an important early market for advanced biomass-based cogeneration technology owing to its access to biomass fuels and the potential for co

  13. The use of biomass energy in the pulp and paper industry and the prospects for black liquor gasification combined cycle generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    The world production of paper and paperboard products, which increased 3.3% per year since 1980, reached 243 million tonnes in 1991 and is expected to continue to grow by about 2.5% per year over the next decade. Consumption levels in 1990 ranged from 2.8 kg per capita in India to 313 kg per capita in the United States. The biggest producers of pulp are the United States, Canada and the Scandinavian countries, but much of the expansion of pulp production capacity is taking place in countries such as Brazil, Chile and Indonesia. The pulp and paper industry has always relied on biomass as a fuel source to meet process energy demands. Kraft pulping is the most common process accounting for about two thirds of world wood pulp production. Energy recovered from burning black liquor, a lignin-rich by-product, in a chemicals recovery boiler typically provides most of the on-site demand for heat and electricity in a modem kraft pulp mill. Another important fuel source is bark and wood waste generated at the mill. Aging recovery boilers in industrialized countries and increasing electricity/heat demand ratios are stimulating interest in alternative co-generation technologies. Most of the interest in new biomass and black liquor co-generation technologies focuses on those that would utilize gas turbines rather than steam turbines. Gas turbines are generally characterized by higher electricity/heat ratios than steam turbines, as well as lower unit capital costs. With the black liquor and biomass gasification technologies that are now being developed and demonstrated, the energy needs of an energy-efficient kraft pulp mill could be met and 40-50 MW of baseload power would be available for export. Using, in addition, currently unused logging residues for fuel would increase that potential. The pulp and paper industry is likely to be an important early market for advanced biomass-based cogeneration technology owing to its access to biomass fuels and the potential for co

  14. Investigation of freeze concentration as a process for industrial energy conservation in black liquor, acetic acid, and citrus juice applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    One of the largest consumers of energy in industrial processing is the equipment that concentrates weak aqueous solutions to stronger more sellable or reusable concentrations. The technical and economic feasibility of applying freeze concentration (that is, crystallization and removal from solution of pure solvent - water) as an alternative to heat evaporation (or distillation) to three industrial applications is established. For each of the applications - pulp mill black liquor concentration, acetic acid recovery and orange juice concentration - the economic analyses indicate that the energy savings achievable by freezing justify the respective capital investments with pay out periods of generally one to three years. Past freeze concentration operations have been in the 10,000 to 100,000 gallons per day range for sea water desalination. Research and development work will be required to adapt this work to the three industrial applications.

  15. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  16. CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reduction through black liquor gasification and energy efficiency in pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, J M; Gustavsson, L [Ecotechnology and Environmental Science, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    We examine consequences of new energy technologies in the pulp and paper industry with respect to net CO{sub 2} emissions and oil use. The entire production chain from the extraction of primary resources is included in the analysis. Stand-alone production of electricity and transportation fuel from biomass is included to balance the systems compared, so that they produce the same CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reductions. The technologies considered are black liquor gasification (BLG) with electricity and motor fuels production in chemical pulp mills and increased energy efficiency in thermomechanical pulp mills. The technologies are evaluated with respect to net CO{sub 2} emission, oil use, primary energy use, biomass use and monetary cost. We find that BLG in chemical pulp mills is favourable compared to stand-alone production of fuels and electricity from biomass. It is more efficient to implement BLG with motor fuels production and stand-alone electricity production from biomass, than to implement BLG with electricity production and stand-alone production of motor fuels. Increased energy efficiency in refining of thermomechanical pulp gives CO{sub 2} savings more efficiently than stand-alone production of electricity from biomass. Sensitivity analysis indicates that our conclusions are robust with respect to energy and biomass prices and the choice of coal or natural gas for marginal electricity. Newsprint from thermomechanical pulp would require slightly less biomass and have lower costs than paper from chemical pulp, per metric ton (t) product, when the systems are also required to render the same oil use and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. Substituting mineral fillers for 25% of the chemical pulp changes the balance in favour of the chemical pulp paper. At an oil price of 40 US$/barrel, all studied pulp and paper mill technology improvements give unchanged or reduced monetary costs also when oil use and CO{sub 2} emissions are not balanced with stand

  17. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  18. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO 2 removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO 2 from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO 2 into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results

  19. Slurry reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuerten, H; Zehner, P [BASF A.G., Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    Slurry reactors are designed on the basis of empirical data and model investigations. It is as yet not possible to calculate the flow behavior of such reactors. The swarm of gas bubbles and cluster formations of solid particles and their interaction in industrial reactors are not known. These effects control to a large extent the gas hold-up, the gas-liquid interface and, similarly as in bubble columns, the back-mixing of liquids and solids. These hydrodynamic problems are illustrated in slurry reactors which constructionally may be bubble columns, stirred tanks or jet loop reactors. The expected effects are predicted by means of tests with model systems modified to represent the conditions in industrial hydrogenation reactors. In his book 'Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis' (1970) Satterfield complained of the lack of knowledge about the design of slurry reactors and hence of the impossible task of the engineer who has to design a plant according to accepted rules. There have been no fundamental changes since then. This paper presents the problems facing the engineer in designing slurry reactors, and shows new development trends.

  20. Perspectives for the electricity surplus generation at the paper and cellulose segment through the gasification of black liquor; Perspectivas para a geracao de excedentes de eletricidade no segmento de papel e celulose atraves da gaseificacao de lixivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mail: velazquez@mackenzie.com.br; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [CENBIO - Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa, Sao Paulo, Sp (Brazil)]. E-mail: suani@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The pulp/paper segment is enclosed enters the most energointensive of the industrial sector. Its industries generate great part of the energy that consume from by-products of the process, but still are not self-sufficient. On the other hand, the difficulties of the industrial sector to the availability energy guarantee are well known, due to lack of trustworthiness of the electricity transmission and distribution. In this context, the increase of the self generation of electricity in the segment's plants certainly would go to collaborate for bigger flexibility in the Brazilian energy matrix, not only for the option of Demand Side Management, but even for the possibility of electricity excesses generation, as it is considered in this study. Thus, this work presents an economic and technique analysis of the energy cogeneration and the generation of electricity excesses in the pulp and paper segment and cellulose using more efficient technologies (although in development), as the black liquor gasification. The perspectives for the use of black liquor gasification systems and coupling of this unit to a gas turbine (BLGCC) are studied, with exploitation of the exhaustion gases in cogeneration systems. One is about technology in development phase in the industrialized countries and that it allows high conversion efficiency. They are, also, calculated the excesses generation costs, by means of the thermo economy, on the basis of the exergy concept, the most adjusted methodology to analyze cogeneration processes. Despite the biggest efficiency, the exceeding electricity, in some of the studied configurations, presented generation costs that do not reveal competitive with the sale's price of electricity, defined for the PROINFA, leaving evident the necessity of other mechanisms that make possible the implementation of new technologies, as the incorporation of the external factors and the carbon credits discouragement of the generation costs. In the pulp and paper

  1. Spent sulfite liquor developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, H H

    1958-01-01

    A review of methods of utilizing spent sulfite liquor, including evaporation and burning, fermentation to produce yeast or alcohol, production of vanillin and lignosulfonates, and use as a roadbinder.

  2. Black Liquor Gasification with Motor Fuel Production - BLGMF II - A techno-economic feasibility study on catalytic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for synthetic diesel production in comparison with methanol and DME as transport fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekbom, Tomas; Berglin, Niklas; Loegdberg, Sara [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-06-15

    The present project presents additional results to the former BLGMF project, which investigate Black Liquor Gasification with Motor Fuels (BLGMF) production. The objectives were to investigate, based on the KAM 2 program Ecocyclic Pulp Mill (2,000 ADt/day of pulp) the feasibility of synthetic fuels production. Specifically the route to Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuels is investigated as comparison to earlier work on methanol/DME. As modern kraft pulp mills have a surplus of energy, they could become key suppliers of renewable fuels. It is thus of great interest to convert the spent cooking product 'black liquor' to an energy carrier of high value. The resulting biomass-to-fuel energy efficiency when only biomass is used as an external energy source was 43% for FTD or 65% for FT products compared with 66% for methanol and 67% for DME. The FTD calculation is considerably more complicated and based on assumptions, therefore the uncertainty is higher. Would the diesel be taken out with a T95% of 320 deg C the FTD efficiency would be 45%. FT synthesis also opens up a possibility to produce e.g. lube oils from waxes produced. The total net FT-products output equals 4115 barrels/day. The FTD production cost is calculated as the energy share of the total production cost and assumes an offset of naphtha covering its own costs, where it is essential that it finds a market. Assuming same petrol (methanol) and diesel (DME, FTD) costs for the consumer the payback time were 2.6, 2.9 and 3.4 years with an IRR of 40%, 45% and 30%, respectively. In conclusion, there are necessary resources and potential for large-scale methanol (or DME, FTD) production and substantial economic incentive for making plant investments and achieving competitive product revenues.

  3. Slurry explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-08-23

    A slurry explosive is comprised of (1) a composition consisting of ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate; or an alkaline earth metal nitrate; or an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate; at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels; and water; (2) 0.1 to 2.0% of guar gum; (3) between 0% and 0.3% of a sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium borate; and greater than 0% but not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine; and (4) 0.02 to 2.0% of antimony potassium tartarate, antimony trioxide, antimony trisulfide or a mixture of these antimony compounds, % by wt.

  4. Removal of sulfite liquor from digesters with partially diluted liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leshchenko, I G; Sykol, V P

    1957-01-01

    The yield of reducing sugars was raised from 189 to 224 kg/ton of pulp by displacing the cooking liquor with diluted liquor. As the pressure during blow-off dropped to 3.5-3.0 atmosphere, weak sulfite liquor was added at the rate 120 cu m/hr. After 5-10 minutes the liquor was pumped from the digester to the ethanol plant.

  5. DETERMINACIÓN DE FENOLES TOTALES EN DERIVADOS LÍGNICOS OBTENIDOS DEL “LICOR NEGRO” COMO ALTERNATIVA DE PRODUCCIÓN // DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOL DERIVATIVES OBTAINED FROM LIGNIN "BLACK LIQUOR" AS ALTERNATIVE TO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José López Villalobos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is an industrial waste being worthless in papermaking byproduct of black liquor obtained from the pulping process in some Venezuelan plants. The black liquor is obtained from the Kraft pulping process to extract lignin sulphite by acid precipitation and quantify the amount of total phenols in such lignin products used in this study. Spectrophotometry Molecular absorption in the UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR region were used to carry out these study techniques. The products obtained in the study had the same signs than commercial lignin (LA, along with the extracted lignin present little degradation HCl, confirmed by infrared spectra. Also, the amount of total phenols was quantified in derivative lignin obtained using the Folin-Ciocalteu. In the sulphite process extracted lignin with acetic acid derivative contains more phenols, and in the Kraft process, the derivative lignin extracted with fewer nitric acid present. The amount of total phenolics present in these derivatives are good for making antiseptics, detergents, nylon, resin and many industrial products. // RESUMEN La lignina es un subproducto del licor negro obtenido del proceso de despulpado en algunas plantas de Venezuela, siendo un desecho industrial que carece de valor en la fabricación de papel. En este estudio se utilizó el licor negro obtenido de los procesos de pulpado Kraft y Sulfito para extraer la lignina mediante precipitaciones ácidas y cuantificar la cantidad de fenoles totales en dichos productos lígnicos. Para llevar a cabo este estudio, se utilizaron las técnicas de Espectrofotometría de Absorción Molecular en la región UV-Visible y la Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo (FTIR. Los productos obtenidos en el estudio presentaron señales similares que la lignina comercial (LA, además la lignina extraída con HCl presentó poca degradación, corroborado por los espectros infrarrojos. Asimismo, se cuantificó la cantidad de fenoles totales en los

  6. Precipitation of uranium peroxide from the leach liquor of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xizhen; Lin Sirong; Guo Erhua; Lu Shijie

    1995-06-01

    A chemical precipitation process of recovering uranium from the leach liquor of uranium ores was investigated. The process primarily includes the precipitation of iron with lime, the preprocessing of the slurry of iron hydroxides and the precipitation of uranium with H 2 O 2 . The leach liquor is neutralized by lime milk to pH 3.7 to precipitate the iron hydroxides which after flocculation and settle is separated out and preprocessed at 170 degree C in an autoclave. H 2 O 2 is then used to precipitate uranium in the leach liquor free of iron, and the pH of process for uranium precipitation adjusted by adding MgO slurry to 3.5. The barren solution can be used to wash the filter cakes of leach tailing. The precipitated slurry of iron hydroxides after being preprocessed is recycled to leaching processes for recovering uranium in it. This treatment can not only avoid the filtering of the slurry of iron hydroxides, but also prevent the iron precipitate from redissolving and consequently the increase of iron concentration in the leach liquor. The results of the investigation indicate that lime, H 2 O 2 and MgO are the main chemical reagents used to obtain the uranium peroxide product containing over 65% uranium from the leach liquor, and they also do not cause environmental pollution. In accordance with the uranium content in the liquor, the consumption of chemical reagent for H 2 O 2 (30%) and MgO are 0.95 kg/kgU and 0.169 kg/kgU, respectively. (1 fig., 8 tabs., 7 refs.)

  7. Study of cupuassu liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Kelly de Oliveira; Jackix, Marisa de Nazaré Hoelz

    2005-01-01

    O cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum), que é um fruto amazônico, vem conquistando a cada ano mais espaço no mercado nacional e internacional com a comercialização de sua polpa. Suas sementes, consideradas como subproduto, vem despertando interesse não só no mundo científico como pelas indústrias. Sabe-se que, a partir das sementes, pode-se obter produtos análogos aos oriundos das sementes de cacau, seguindo as mesmas etapas de processamento. Dentre esses produtos tem-se o liquor de cupuaçu...

  8. Ice slurry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, M.J.; Goldstein, V. [Sunwell Technologies Inc., 180 Caster Avenue, Woodbridge, L4L 5Y (Canada); Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single-phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. (author)

  9. Potentialities of spinal liquor scanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlakhov, N.; Vylkanov, P.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that spinal liquor scanography is a harmless and informative method for the examination of patients, permitting to detect injury foci for spinal cord tumours in 90% cases, for acute injuries of the vertebral column and spinal cord in 89.5% cases, for herniation of nucleus pulposus in 81% cases. The method of spinal liquor scanography can be used in neurology and neurosurgery to select the method of treatment and to evaluate its efficiency

  10. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as well as sustainability. Meanwhile, the hidden knowledge behind the complicated and somehow empirical solid-state fermentation process of Chinese liquor can enrich the food sector to improve our qua...

  11. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  12. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  13. Overview of slurry pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, R L

    1982-01-01

    Slurry pipelines have proven to be a technically feasible, environmentally attractive and economic method of transporting finely divided particles over long distances. A pipeline system normally consists of preparation, pipeline and utilization facilities and requires optimization of all three components taken together. A considerable amount of research work has been done to develop hydraulic design of a slurry pipeline. Equipment selection and estimation of corrosion-erosion are considered to be as important as the hydraulic design. Future applications are expected to be for the large-scale transport of coal and for the exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits such as iron ore and copper. Application of slurry pipelines for the exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits is illustrated by the Kudremukh iron concentrate slurry pipeline in India.

  14. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as

  15. Slurry walls and slurry trenches - construction quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletto, R.J.; Good, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Slurry (panel) walls and slurry trenches have become conventional methods for construction of deep underground structures, interceptor trenches and hydraulic (cutoff) barriers. More recently polymers mixed with water are used to stabilize the excavation instead of bentonite slurry. Slurry walls are typically excavated in short panel segments, 2 to 7 m (7 to 23 ft) long, and backfilled with structural materials; whereas slurry trenches are fairly continuous excavations with concurrent backfilling of blended soils, or cement-bentonite mixtures. Slurry trench techniques have also been used to construct interceptor trenches. Currently no national standards exist for the design and/or construction of slurry walls/trenches. Government agencies, private consultants, contractors and trade groups have published specifications for construction of slurry walls/trenches. These specifications vary in complexity and quality of standards. Some place excessive emphasis on the preparation and control of bentonite or polymer slurry used for excavation, with insufficient emphasis placed on quality control of bottom cleaning, tremie concrete, backfill placement or requirements for the finished product. This has led to numerous quality problems, particularly with regard to identification of key depths, bottom sediments and proper backfill placement. This paper will discuss the inspection of slurry wall/trench construction process, identifying those areas which require special scrutiny. New approaches to inspection of slurry stabilized excavations are discussed

  16. Sulphate removal from uraniferous liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the recovery of uranium from liquor resulting from the attack of sulphur containing uraniferous ores by an alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is claimed. An ion exchange resin is used to separate the uranium from the solution of sodium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and sodium sulphate. The ion exchange resin is then eluted with a solution of ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate to provide an eluate containing ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and ammonium sulphate. The eluate is heated to boiling to convert the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate to ammonium uranate and/or diuranate. Ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor are released. The precipitated ammonium uranate and/or diuranate is separated from the remaining liquor and calcined to give uranium trioxide

  17. System and method for slurry handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Raymond Douglas; Oppenheim, Judith Pauline

    2015-12-29

    A system includes a slurry depressurizing system that includes a liquid expansion system configured to continuously receive a slurry at a first pressure and continuously discharge the slurry at a second pressure. For example, the slurry depressurizing system may include an expansion turbine to expand the slurry from the first pressure to the second pressure.

  18. Design of special facility for liquor irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Shibin; Chen Zigen

    1989-01-01

    The design principle, physical scheme, technological process, construction and safety features of a special facility used for irradiating liquors is briefly described. 0.925 x 10 15 Bq cobalt source is used and the irradiation capacity for liquors approaches 10 t per day. The facility bears advantages of simple in construction, easy to operate, safe, reliable and efficient in source utilization

  19. Liquor circulation disturbance after subarachnoid haemorrhages - comparative pneumoencephalography and liquor scintigraphic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, J.; Georgi, P.; Krastel, A.; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg

    1976-01-01

    Haemorrhages into the subarachnoid space often lead to instant blocking of the liquor circulation pathways with an acute increase of the intracranial pressure and acute venticular enlargement. These liquor circulation disturbances may be diagnosed by liquor scintiscanning as well as by pneumoencephalography. 165 patients were examined by both methods. The following results were obtained: liquor circulation disturbances after subarachnoid bleeding are frequent, they should be expected in 33% of all cases after spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhages and in 68% of the cases after traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhages. The most severe form of liquor circulation distrubance may also be diagnosed by liquor scintiscanning as well as by pneumoencephalography. Liquor scintiscanning is the more exact method in cases with transitory ventricular reflux, while lumbar pneumoencephalography, in this series, is the method of choice when it comes to documenting the extent of the hydrocephalus. (GSE) [de

  20. Rheology of oil sands slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Zhou, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Mineral Oil Sands Unit; Wallace, D. [Dean Wallace Consulting Inc., Beaumont, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This study focused on integrating rheology and colloid science to improve recovery of bitumen in surface mined oil sands. Factors that influence recovery, such as conditions of particle interaction, solids concentration and shear rate, were reviewed. In an effort to understand the rheological behaviour of clay-in-water suspensions, an elaborate procedure was developed to separate an inter-bedded clay layer from a site at Albian Sands Energy Inc. The variables were water chemistry, solids concentration, and shear rate. The research study was conducted at the Alberta Research Council with the support of the CONRAD Extraction Group. A controlled stress rheometer was used to provide the quantitative evaluations of the clay slurry properties. The research results indicate that the viscoelastic properties of the slurry are highly influenced by the shear history of the slurry, solids content, calcium concentration, and sample aging. Shear thinning behaviour was observed in all slurry samples, but the slurry viscosity increased with test time for a given shear rate. In order to classify the slurries, a method was developed to distinguish the gel strength. The slurries were then classified into 3 distinct patterns, including no gel, weak gel and strong gel. The evolution of the experimental protocols were described along with the current stability maps that correlate the domains of the gel strength according to the solids concentration, calcium ion content, and shear rate. It was concluded that the rheological properties of oil sands slurries influence bitumen recovery in commercial surface-mined oil sands operations. tabs., figs.

  1. Efficient exfoliation of layered materials by waste liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiheng; Zhao, Hongran; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Qiaolei; Chen, Hao; Dou, Huimin; Yu, Haibin

    2018-03-01

    Based on their unique material properties, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and boron nitride (BN) have been attracting increased research interest. The potential of 2D materials, in the form of nanoplatelets that are used as new materials, will be important to both nanomaterials and advanced materials. Water is usually considered to be the ideal dispersed medium, and the essential hydrophobicity and limitations to mass production of 2D nanoplatelets have become quite serious obstacles to their usage in various fields. In this paper, pulping black liquor was used as dispersant, with high concentration of lignin to get single- and few-layered nanoplatelets. The whole process required only the high-shear mixing of 2D layered materials and pulping waste liquor. This method was not only simple and efficient but also environmentally friendly and resource-recycling. Moreover, the fabricated single- or few-layered nanoplatelets possessed good solubility in aqueous solution due to their edge functionalization, and could be well dispersed in water at concentrations (10 mg ml-1 for graphene, 6.3 mg ml-1 for MoS2, and 6.0 mg ml-1 for BN) which were much higher than that of other methods. The dispersions of graphene, MoS2, and BN nanosheets were highly stable over several months, which allowed us to easily prepare graphene, MoS2, and BN films through simple vacuum filtration or spraying. These results indicated that pulping black liquor can be used as a material or reagent, and the mass production of 2D material is possible in a simple and fast method.

  2. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  3. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  4. Utilization of spent sulfite liquor carbohydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, A J; Whitmore, L M; Boggs, Jr, L A

    1959-01-01

    Possible utilization of the sugars in spent sulfite liquor in the manufacture of ethanol, torula food yeast, and other fermentation products, and in the production of sugar derivatives, such as the diacetone derivatives, is discussed.

  5. Medical ice slurry production device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Kenneth E [Palos Park, IL; Oras, John [Des Plaines, IL; Son, HyunJin [Naperville, IL

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  6. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.; Anderson, M.S.; Van Essen, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses

  7. Rheology of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, I.D.; Martin, H.D.; McLain, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The rheological properties of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry were determined. This nonradioactive slurry simulates the radioactive tetraphenylborate precipitate generated at the Savannah River Plant by the In-Tank Precipitation Process. The data obtained in this study was applied in the design of slurry pumps, transfer pumps, transfer lines, and vessel agitation for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and other High Level Waste treatment projects. The precipitate slurry behaves as a Bingham plastic. The yield stress is directly proportional to the concentration of insoluble solids over the range of concentrations studied. The consistency is also a linear function of insoluble solids over the same concentration range. Neither the yield stress nor the consistency was observed to be affected by the presence of the soluble solids. Temperature effects on flow properties of the slurry were also examined: the yield stress is inversely proportional to temperature, but the consistency of the slurry is independent of temperature. No significant time-dependent effects were found. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal.

  9. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha D.

    2016-01-01

    sections with 30-32 pigs with or without daily adjustment of slurry pH to below 6. Ammonia losses from reference sections with untreated slurry were between 9.5 and 12.4% of N excreted, and from sections with acidified slurry between 3.1 and 6.2%. Acidification reduced total emissions of NH3 by 66 and 71......% in spring and autumn experiments, and by 44% in the summer experiment. Regression models were used to investigate sources and controls of NH3 emissions. There was a strong relationship between NH3 emissions and ventilation rate during spring and autumn, but less so during summer where ventilation rates were...

  10. Liquor licences issued to Australian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette M; Kippen, Rebecca; Munro, Geoffrey; Buykx, Penny; McBride, Nyanda; Wiggers, John; Clark, Madeline

    2017-08-01

    Children's positive socialisation to alcohol is associated with early initiation of drinking and alcohol-related harm in adult life. Internationally, there have been reports of adults' alcohol consumption at school events in the presence of children. The aim of this research was to identify the conditions under which Australian schools are required to apply for a liquor licence and the associated prevalence of liquor licences for these events where children were likely to be present. A document review was conducted to examine temporary liquor licensing legislation. Quantitative analysis was used to examine relevant licensing data. Coding criteria was developed to determine school type, student year levels and the likely presence of children. Four jurisdictions provided data on 1817 relevant licences. The average annual licences/100 schools was highest amongst Independent schools followed by Catholic and public (government) schools. The rates were highest in Queensland and Victoria where children were present at 61% and 32% of events respectively. While there are legislative differences across jurisdictions, the prevalence of adults' alcohol use at school events in the presence of children may reflect the various education department policies and principals' and school communities' beliefs and attitudes. Licences are not required for all events where liquor is consumed so the prevalence of adults' use of alcohol at school events is likely to be higher than our analyses imply. Such practices may undermine teaching about alcohol use in the school curriculum and health promotion efforts to develop alcohol-free events when children are present.

  11. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor... ingredients. The following safe and suitable ingredients may be used: (1) Cacao fat and cocoas (breakfast cocoa, cocoa, or lowfat cocoa); (2) Alkali ingredients. Ammonium, potassium, or sodium bicarbonate...

  12. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum

  13. Determination of particle size distribution of salt crystals in aqueous slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.G.

    1977-10-01

    A method for determining particle size distribution of water-soluble crystals in aqueous slurries is described. The salt slurries, containing sodium salts of predominantly nitrate, but also nitrite, sulfate, phosphate, aluminates, carbonate, and hydroxide, occur in radioactive, concentrated chemical waste from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel elements. The method involves separating the crystals from the aqueous phase, drying them, and then dispersing the crystals in a nonaqueous medium based on nitroethane. Ultrasonic treatment is important in dispersing the sample into its fundamental crystals. The dispersed crystals are sieved into appropriate size ranges for counting with a HIAC brand particle counter. A preponderance of very fine particles in a slurry was found to increase the difficulty of effecting complete dispersion of the crystals because of the tendency to retain traces of aqueous mother liquor. Traces of moisture produce agglomerates of crystals, the extent of agglomeration being dependent on the amount of moisture present. The procedure is applicable to particles within the 2 to 600 μm size range of the HIAC particle counter. The procedure provides an effective means for measuring particle size distribution of crystals in aqueous salt slurries even when most crystals are less than 10 μm in size. 19 figures

  14. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite

  15. Sedimentation Effects of Adding Flocculants to Leached Slurries at Lab Scale in the “Comandante Ernesto Che Guevara” plant in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eluberto Espinosa-Espinosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of adding PICIZ 7010, AN 910SH and Quimifloc N-30 flocculants to leached and magnetized slurries at lab scale. The evaluation was completed through the comparative method in accordance to the NRBI-579 Standard: Sedimentation Tests which use Talmage and Fitch method. The addition of Quimifloc N-30 flocculants to 6 g/t of reduced ore increased slurry density by 5,9 %, improved liquor clarification as result of a reduction of up to 75 % in suspended solids and slightly reduced the required unit area.

  16. Ozonização em meio básico para redução de cor do licor negro de indústria de celulose de algodão Color reduction of black liquor from cotton cellulose industry using ozonation in an alkaline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Guimarães

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As indústrias de papel e celulose descartam no ambiente um grande volume de efluente contendo grande quantidade da substância lignina, que atribui coloração e apresenta considerável potencial de toxicidade. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a ozonização em meio básico para a redução de cor do licor negro gerado por uma indústria de celulose de algodão. Face aos resultados, foi possível observar que, para menores concentrações iniciais de ozônio (0,4 gO3 L-1 h-1, foi necessário um tempo mais longo de ozonização para se obter a redução desejada de 80% da cor. O consumo específico de ozônio, entretanto, em comparação a experimentos com dosagens mais elevadas (4,3 gO3 L-1 h-1 foi menor. Sugere-se que o oxigênio molecular desempenhe, também, um importante papel na oxidação dos compostos, participando do mecanismo de oxidação iniciado por radical hidroxila, •OH, formado na ozonização em meio básico.Pulp and paper mills discharge large amounts of wastewater containing high concentrations of lignin, a coloring substance that is dangerous and presents high toxicity to the environment. In this study, ozonation in alkaline ambience was evaluated for color reduction in black liquor, generated in a cotton linter mill. It was observed that the ozonation time to reach 80% color reduction was higher at a lower initial ozone dose (0,4 gO3 L-1 h-1 in comparison to a higher initial ozone dose (4,3 gO3 L-1 h-1. On the other hand, the amount of consumed oxidant was lower at the lower ozone dose. It is suggested that molecular oxygen participates in the oxidation mechanism of colored compounds, which is initiated by hydroxyl radicals (•OH formed during ozonation in alkaline ambience.

  17. Eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Antunes Schiave Germano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Liquoric fistula (LF is defined as the communication of the subarachnoid space with the external environment, which main complication is the development of infection in the central nervous system. We reported the case of a patient with non-traumatic eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele (congenital lesion, which main clinical manifestation was unilateral eyelid edema. Her symptoms and clinical signs appeared in adulthood, which is uncommon. The patient received surgical treatment, with complete resolution of the eyelid swelling. In conclusion, eyelid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF fistula is a rare condition but with great potential deleterious to the patient. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral eyelid edema, and surgical treatment is almost always mandatory.

  18. Fluidization mechanisms in slurry flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    There are two mechanisms by which heavy settling particles may be suspended in a horizontal slurry flow: (1) by particle-particle interactions (e.g. Bagnold dispersive stresses) and (2) by particle-fluid interactions (e.g. entrainment of the particles by turbulent eddies.) The purpose of this investigation is to determine to what extent each fluidization mechanism is active and the effect of the fluidization mechanism on the global properties of the slurry. The technique employs the understanding that the particles entrained in the turbulence of the fluid will appear as an increased hydrostatic head across the channel. This may be directly measured and can be related to the fraction of the mass of particles that are supported by fluid-particle forces. (The rest must therefore be supported by particle-particle forces.) 17 refs., 26 figs.

  19. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-01-01

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference

  20. Estudo do liquor de cupuaçu Study of cupuassu liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly de Oliveira Cohen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum, que é um fruto amazônico, vem conquistando a cada ano mais espaço no mercado nacional e internacional com a comercialização de sua polpa. Suas sementes, consideradas como subproduto, vem despertando interesse não só no mundo científico como pelas indústrias. Sabe-se que, a partir das sementes, pode-se obter produtos análogos aos oriundos das sementes de cacau, seguindo as mesmas etapas de processamento. Dentre esses produtos tem-se o liquor de cupuaçu, semelhante ao liquor de cacau que é um dos ingredientes da formulação do chocolate. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da obtenção e caracterização física, química e físico-química do liquor de cupuaçu. Obteve-se três amostras de liquor de cupuaçu, cada qual partindo de lotes diferentes de fermentação. Foram avaliados a composição centesimal e o comportamento reológico. O liquor de cupuaçu apresentou alto teor de lipídios (63,93 a 66,51% e alto valor calórico (677,35 a 691,17kcal/100g. O teor de proteínas variou de 8,95 a 10,31%. A viscosidade plástica de Casson diminuiu com o aumento de temperatura. A distribuição do tamanho das partículas influenciou nas diferenças de viscosidades entre as amostras, havendo maior redução de viscosidade plástica com o aumento da temperatura nas amostras que apresentaram maior diâmetro de partículas. A gordura de cupuaçu apresentou comportamento newtoniano à 40ºC.Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum is an amazon fruit, that each year is conquering more space in national and international market with the commercialization of its pulp. Its seeds, considered as subproducts, are arousing interest not only in the scientific world but also in the industry. It's known that from those seeds, it can be obtained analogous products as those cocoa seeds, following the same stages of processing. Among those products there is the cupuassu liquor, similar to cocoa liquor that is one

  1. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  2. Slurry discharge management-beach profile prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, R.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Mine tailings dams are embankments used by the mining industry to retain the tailings products after the mineral preparation process. Based on the acid-waste stereotype that all coal slurry is acid producing, current reclamation requires a four foot soil cover for inactive slurry disposal areas. Compliance with this requirement is both difficult and costly and in some case unnecessary, as not all the slurry, or portions of slurry impoundments are acid producing. Reduced costs and recent popularity of wetland development has prompted many operators to request reclamation variances for slurry impoundments. Waiting to address slurry reclamation until after the impoundment is full, limits the flexibility of reclamation opportunities. This paper outlines a general methodology to predict the formation of the beach profile for mine tailings dams, by the discharge volume and location of the slurry into the impoundment. The review is presented under the perspective of geotechnical engineering and waste disposal management emphasizing the importance of pre-planning slurry disposal land reclamation. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Comparison and analysis of organic components of biogas slurry from eichhornia crassipes solms and corn straw biogas slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, Y. B.; Liu, Z. H.; Min, J.; Cui, Y.; Gao, X. H.

    2017-11-01

    Biogas slurry is one of anaerobic fermentations, and biomass fermentation biogas slurries with different compositions are different. This paper mainly presents through the anaerobic fermentation of Eichhornia crassipes solms biogas slurry and biogas slurry of corn straw, the organic components of two kinds of biogas slurry after extraction were compared by TLC, HPLC and spectrophotometric determination of nucleic acid and protein of two kinds of biogas slurry organic components, and analyzes the result of comparison.

  4. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if no...

  5. Influence of probiotics on rumen liquor characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotics has been noted to work synergistically with rumen microbes and improved rumen liquor characteristics. In this study, we investigated the effect of probiotics inclusion on rumen liquor characteristics (physical, chemical and fermentative qualities) and microbiology in WAD goats. In a completely randomised design, ...

  6. Spray polyurea coatings as containment liners in coal slurry storage ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darden, J.W.; Loomis, R.; Roehm, F.T. [Willamette Valley Co., Eugene, OR (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Southern California Edison (SCE) Mohave Generating Station was built in the early 1970`s in response to the shortage of oil due to the OPEC boycott. Coal/water slurry from the Black Mesa Pipeline is used to generate energy at the plant. Eight storage ponds, each about 175,000 square feet, were built in the mid to late 1970`s to insure a constant supply of slurry to feed the generating units. This paper describes the application of POLYQuik{trademark} P400 spray polyurea coating to the Marcona Pond, a coal slurry storage area at Southern California Edison`s Mohave Generating Station. The coating forms an impermeable barrier to prevent water loss and contamination of subgrade soils. The use of these coatings reduces facility downtime and liner replacement costs, offering a cost savings over the life of the pond.

  7. Uranium complex recycling method of purifying uranium liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elikan, L.; Lyon, W.L.; Sundar, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    Uranium is separated from contaminating cations in an aqueous liquor containing uranyl ions. The liquor is mixed with sufficient recycled uranium complex to raise the weight ratio of uranium to said cations preferably to at least about three. The liquor is then extracted with at least enough non-interfering, water-immiscible, organic solvent to theoretically extract about all of the uranium in the liquor. The organic solvent contains a reagent which reacts with the uranyl ions to form a complex soluble in the solvent. If the aqueous liquor is acidic, the organic solvent is then scrubbed with water. The organic solvent is stripped with a solution containing at least enough ammonium carbonate to precipitate the uranium complex. A portion of the uranium complex is recycled and the remainder can be collected and calcined to produce U 3 O 8 or UO 2

  8. Biogas slurry utilization in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asser, C. [Ministry of Mines and Energy, Accra (Ghana)

    1999-07-01

    The biogas Technology Programme developed for villages remote from the national grid relies solely on cow-dung and human waste as raw materials for electricity generation. The technology helps control deforestation and desertification and reduces the long hours spent looking for fuelwood for cooking and the health risk that smoke from fuelwood poses. Rural electricity generation also supplies pipe-borne water, community toilets and organic fertilizer for farmers. The slurry, which is the by-product of the biogas, is an odourless, pathogen free organic fertilizer that is high in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. It is useful for crop production, fish farming and mushroom cultivation. Farmers now realize that energy can be extracted from cowdung, human waste, agricultural residue and other biomass resources and the biomass can still maintain its function as good organic manure. (author)

  9. Oxygen transfer in slurry bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Y; Moo-Young, M

    1991-04-25

    The oxygen transfer in bioreactors with slurries having a yield stress was investigated. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients in a 40-L bubble column with simulated fermentation broths, the Theological properties of which were represented by the Casson model, were measured. Experimental data were compared with a theoretical correlation developed on the basis of a combination of Higbie's penetration theory and Kolmogoroff's theory of isotropic turbulence. Comparisons between the proposed correlation and data for the simulated broths show good agreement. The mass transfer data for actual mycelial fermentation broths reported previously by the authors were re-examined. Their Theological data was correlated by the Bingham plastic model. The oxygen transfer rate data in the mycelial fermentation broths fit the predictions of the proposed theoretical correlation.

  10. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  11. Methylated liquor treatment process in caffeine production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junbo; Yang, Mingyang; Huang, Wenjia; Cui, Shenglu; Gao, Liping

    2018-02-01

    The caffeine production process produces a large amount of sodium methyl sulphate in the methylated mother liquor. In order to recycle this part of ingredient, we use the mother liquid of Shijiazhuang Xin Nuowei Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. as the object of study, the use of “nanofiltration (NF) - Dish Type Reverse Osmosis (DTRO) “combination of membrane technology for desalination and concentration. The experimental results show that the concentration of sodium sulfate in the nanofiltration solution is 0.37 g • L -1, the rejection rate is 98%, and the concentration of sodium methyl sulfate in DTRO concentrated solution is 453.80 g • L -1, which meets the requirements of the enterprise.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination...... of technologies) having the largest potential for reducing the overall environmental impacts....

  13. Non-aqueous slurries used as thickeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, J C

    1982-04-07

    A non-aqueous slurry is described that is suitable for use as a thickener or viscosifier in oil or gas drilling, fracturing, flow diversion completion or workover fluids. The slurry comprises a water-soluble cellulose ether polymer, a water-insoluble liquid hydrocarbon, a non-ionic surfactant having an HLB of from 7 to 14, and an organo modified clay. There also is described a process for thickening or viscosifying a drilling, fracturing, flow diversion, completion or workover fluid. The use of the slurry prevents bumping during addition to aqueous fluids. (27 claims)

  14. Yield Stress Reduction of DWPF Melter Feed Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M.E.; Smith, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    indicates that the bead slurry would not require higher flows rates than frit slurry at DWPF during transfers. Another key finding was that the pump impeller was not significantly damaged by the bead slurry, while the Frit 320 slurry rapidly destroyed the impeller. Evidence of this was first observed when black particles were seen in the Frit 320 slurry being recirculated and then confirmed by a post-test inspection of the impeller. Finally, the pumping of bead slurry could be recovered even if flow is stopped. The Frit 320 slurry could not be restarted after stopping flow due to the nature of the frit to pack tightly when settled. Beads were shown to represent a significant process improvement versus frit for the DWPF process in lowering yield stress of the melter feed. Lower erosion of process equipment is another expected benefit

  15. Rotary drum dryers for coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baunack, F

    1983-04-01

    The suitability, sizing and internal equipment of rotary drum dryers for high-ash coal slurries are discussed. Rotary dryers will handle also difficult slurries; by suitable drum sizes, lifter blades and chains not only high specific evaporation capacities can be achieved but also very high throughputs of up to 400 tons/h of finished product and high evaporation capacities of 60 tons/h.

  16. The differences between soil grouting with cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingting; Sui, Haitong; Yang, Honglu

    2018-01-01

    Cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry are the most widely applied for soil grouting reinforcement project. The viscosity change of cement slurry is negligible during grouting period and presumed to be time-independent while the viscosity of cement-water glass slurry increases with time quickly and is presumed to be time-dependent. Due to the significantly rheology differences between them, the grouting quality and the increasing characteristics of grouting parameters may be different, such as grouting pressure, grouting surrounding rock pressure, i.e., the change of surrounding rock pressure deduced by grouting pressure. Those are main factors for grouting design. In this paper, a large-scale 3D grouting simulation device was developed to simulate the surrounding curtain grouting for a tunnel. Two series of surrounding curtain grouting experiments under different geo-stress of 100 kPa, 150 kPa and 200 kPa were performed. The overload test on tunnel was performed to evaluate grouting effect of all surrounding curtain grouting experiments. In the present results, before 240 seconds, the grouting pressure increases slowly for both slurries; after 240 seconds the increase rate of grouting pressure for cement-water glass slurry increases quickly while that for cement slurry remains roughly constant. The increasing trend of grouting pressure for cement-water glass is similar to its viscosity. The setting time of cement-water glass slurry obtained from laboratory test is less than that in practical grouting where grout slurry solidifies in soil. The grouting effect of cement-water glass slurry is better than that of cement slurry and the grouting quality decreases with initial pressure.

  17. Utilization technology on slurried ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Yoshio; Yasuda, Minoru; Furuki, Yasuhiko [The Coal Mining Research Centre, Japan, Tokyo, Japan; Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1987-08-01

    Three research results of the utilization technology on slurried ash were reported. As for the utilization as the fly ash quick setting (FQS) backfill grout for tail void in shield works of tunneling, grout blending was simplified, the blended solution of cement, clay, additives and water was stabilized, and a favorable workability and long term durability were obtained. As for the utilization as the material of a SMW (soil mixing wall) method for continuous walls in long shaft digging, a fly ash-gypsum-cement (FGC) stabilizer showed an excellent workability and remarkably high water-tightness as compared with conventional cement bentonite. As for the utilization as the material of an injection method of overlay mats in foundation works of light weight structures on the sea bed mud foundation, since a FGC concrete weight in water was remarkably light as 0.7t/m{sup 3}, no both large mold form strength and vibration compacting were required. 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill for... appeal procedures, see part 13 of this chapter. (Sec. 5, 49 Stat. 981, as amended (27 U.S.C. 205); 26 U.S...

  19. Chemical by-products from spent sulfite liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, Jr, L M; Wiley, A J

    1958-01-01

    Current practices for recovering sugars, lignosulfonates, ethanol and feed yeast and product uses are reviewed. A process for separating sugars is described in which the sulfite liquor is spray dried and refluxed with acetone containing a concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ catalyst, and the di-acetone sugar derivatives are filtered or centrifuged from the acetone insolubles. Recovery of guaiacyl and syringyl derivatives from the lignosulfonate portion of the liquor is discussed.

  20. Studies of coal slurries property; Slurry no seijo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, M.; Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Hirosue, H. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously found that the increase of slurry temperature provides a significant effect of slurry viscosity reduction for the coal slurry with high concentration of 50 wt%. To investigate the detailed influence of slurry temperature for the coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt%, influence of temperature on the successive change of apparent viscosity was observed at the constant shear rate. When the concentration of coal was increased from 45 wt% to 50 wt%, viscosity of the slurry was rapidly increased. When heated above 70{degree}C, the apparent viscosity decreased during heating to the given temperature, but it increased successively after reaching to the given temperature. The apparent viscosity showed higher value than that of the initial viscosity. The coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt% showed the fluidity of Newtonian fluid at the lower shear rate region, but showed the fluidity of pseudo-plastic fluid at the higher shear rate region. The slurry having high apparent viscosity by the successive change showed higher apparent viscosity with increasing the higher even by changing the shear rate. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  1. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Seop [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  2. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do; Lee, Hyun Seop

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  3. Conductivity and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 slurry in the lithium slurry battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Caimei; Chen, Yongchong; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    Lithium slurry battery is a new type of energy storage technique which uses the slurry of solid active materials, conductive additions and liquid electrolyte as the electrode. The proportion of conductive addition and the active material has significant influence on the conductivity and electrochemical performance of the slurry electrode. In the present work, slurries with different volume ratios of LiFePO4 (LFP) and Ketjenblack (KB) were investigated by the electrochemical workstation and charge-discharge testing system (vs. Li/Li+). Results show that the conductivity of the slurry increases linearly with the addition of KB, and the measured specific capacity of the slurry reaches its theoretical value when the volume ratio of KB to LFP is around 0.2. Based on this ratio, a slurry battery with higher loading of LFP (19.1 wt.% in the slurry) was tested, and a specific capacity of 165 mAh/g at 0.2 mA/cm2 and 102 mAh/g at 5 mA/cm2 was obtained for LFP.

  4. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  5. Difference of microbial community stressed in artificial pit muds for Luzhou-flavour liquor brewing revealed by multiphase culture-independent technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Zhou, R; Niu, M; Zheng, J; Wu, C

    2015-11-01

    Artificial pit muds (APMs) is produced by peats, aged pit muds, yellow and black clays etc. and is one of essential factors for Luzhou-flavour liquor production. The microbial community of APMs significantly influence the quality of Luzhou-flavour liquor. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in bacterial, archaeal and fungal community of APMs, starters and materials. Multiphase culture-independent technology were employed in this study, including nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (nested PCR-DGGE), phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results suggested that the microbial diversity significantly changed under environmental stress and different culture patterns during APMs cultivation. The dominant bacteria in APMs mainly fell into Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales and Rhizobiales, Archaea affiliated with Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, and fungi belonged to Saccharomycetales and Eurotiales. Furthermore, the microbial community structures of APMs cultured by ground pile pattern were more similar with that of aged pit muds, meanwhile, the relative bands intensities of microbes, which are the main contributors for liquor brewing, increased with the culture times. Not only the niche selection and biogeochemical properties of APMs, but also the mutual collaboration and constraint between different microbes may result in enriching different liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. APM cultivation technology was necessary to promote enriching functional liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. These results may facilitate understanding the microbial succession during APMs manufacture. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  7. Rheological properties of defense waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of this two-year project has been to obtain refined and reliable experimental data about the rheological properties of melter feeds. The research has involved both experimental studies and model development. Two experimental facilities have been set up to measure viscosity and pressure drop. Mathematical models have been developed as a result of experimental observation and fundamental rheological theory. The model has the capability to predict the viscosity of melter slurries in a range of experimental conditions. The final results of the investigation could be used to enhance the current design base for slurry transportation systems and improve the performance of the slurry mixing process. If successful, the cost of this waste treatment will be reduced, and disposal safety will be increased. The specific objectives for this project included: (1) the design, implementation, and validation of the experimental facility in both batch and continuous operating modes; (2) the identification and preparation of melter feed samples of both the SRS and Hanford waste slurries at multiple solids concentration levels; (3) the measurement and analysis of the melter feeds to determine the effects of the solids concentration, pH value, and other factors on the rheological properties of the slurries; (4) the correlation of the rheological properties as a function of the measured physical and chemical parameters; and (5) transmission of the experimental data and resulting correlation to the DOE site user to guide melter feed preparation and transport equipment design

  8. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, L.M., E-mail: miguelbrito@esa.ipvc.pt [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Mourao, I. [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Coutinho, J., E-mail: j_coutin@utad.pt [C. Quimica, DeBA, EC Vida e Ambiente, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, ap 1013, 5001-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple management techniques were examined for composting slurry solid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting slurry solids was effective without bulking agents, turning or rewetting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum rates of organic matter destruction were observed in short piles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and moisture reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simple compost management approach maximised N retention and agronomic value. - Abstract: Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and 1 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2 m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 Degree-Sign C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 Degree-Sign C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg{sup -1} dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P < 0.001) increased nutrient concentrations during the composting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final

  9. Heavy cement slurries; Pastas pesadas de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Avelar da; Conceicao, Antonio C. Farias [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao; Marins, Carlos Cesar Silva [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Revestimento e Cimentacao

    1990-12-31

    When going deeper in a high pressure well, the only way to successfully cement your casing or linear is through the use of heavy cement slurry. In 1987 PETROBRAS geologists presented to the Drilling Department a series of deep, hot and high pressure wells to be drilled. The Casing and Cement Division of this department then started a program to face this new challenge. This paper introduces the first part of this program and shows how PETROBRAS is dealing with heavy weight slurries. We present the slurry formulations tested in laboratory, the difficulties found in mixing them in the field, rheology measurements, API free water and API fluid loss from both laboratory and field samples. (author) 3 tabs.

  10. Physico-chemical principles of slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiber, C.O.

    1984-12-01

    Spectacular accidents have occurred in mining with products considered non-explosive. In view of the disastrous consequences of these accidents, the old 'Anfo' idea has been revived (= ammonium nitrate and fuel oil). Experiments in wet wells have led to the development of a new type of non-explosive blasting agents, i.e. the so-called slurries. Detonation of these slurries is divided into an energy release process and an energy conversion process. The basic mechanisms are described with a view to practical problems, e.g. detonation control, temperature dependence of the blasting characteristics, pressure dependence of the ignition process, critical diameter, slurry state problems, and sensitivity.

  11. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.

  12. Study on the degradation of chitosan slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Martini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we measured the degradation rate of different chitosan slurries. Several parameters were monitored such as temperature (25 °C, 37 °C, 50 °C; chitosan concentration (1% and 2% (w/V; and polymer molecular weight. The samples were tested in dynamic sweep test mode. This test is able to provide a reliable estimation of viscosity variations of the slurries; in turn, these variations could be related to degradation rate of the system in the considered conditions. The resulting information is particularly important especially in applications in which there is a close relationship between physical properties and molecular structure.

  13. Prospects for coal slurry pipelines in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The coal slurry pipeline segment of the transport industry is emerging in the United States. If accepted it will play a vital role in meeting America's urgent energy requirements without public subsidy, tax relief, or federal grants. It is proven technology, ideally suited for transport of an abundant energy resource over thousands of miles to energy short industrial centers and at more than competitive costs. Briefly discussed are the following: (1) history of pipelines; (2) California market potential; (3) slurry technology; (4) environmental benefits; (5) market competition; and (6) a proposed pipeline.

  14. Biovailability of copper and zinc in pig and cattle slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubus, M.; Dach, J.; Starmans, D.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Slurry is an important source of macronutrients, micro-nutrients and organic matter. Despite the considerable fertilizer value of slurry, it may be abundant in amounts of copper and zinc originating from dietary. The study presents quantitative changes in copper and zinc in individual slurries (pig

  15. Radio-frequency slurry-density measurement for dredging pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eeten, M.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Hydraulic dredgers make use of a density meter to measure the instantaneous density in the slurry transport pipeline, primarily for process control and production calculation. the current ‘golden’ standard for slurry density measurement is the radioactive density meter. It is based on a slurry

  16. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of dairy farm slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, C

    1973-04-01

    Bell described the intermittent operation of a pilot-scale anaerobic digester receiving dilute dairy farm slurry. A 65 to 75 percent reduction of the ''permanganate (COD) value'' could be obtained at 35/sup 0/ and a 60 day detention time. Methane content of the gases ranged between 40 and 70 percent.

  18. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  19. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study

  20. Bio-slurry as fertilizer : is bio-slurry from household digesters a better fertilizer than manure? : a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Zwart, K.B.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Postma, R.; Haas, de M.J.G.; Nysingh, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries manure is anaerobically digested to produce biogas. The residue of manure digestion, bio-slurry, can be used as fertilizer for crop production and aquaculture. This study compared bio-slurry and manure as fertilizers. Nutrients in bio-slurry, especially nitrogen, are

  1. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  2. Plastic Optical Fiber Sensing of Alcohol Concentration in Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Morisawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple optical fiber sensing system of alcohol concentration in liquors has been studied. In this sensor head, a mixture polymer of novolac resin and polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF with a ratio of 9 : 1 was coated as a sensitive cladding layer on the plastic fiber core made of polystyrene-(PS-coated polycarbonate (PC. Using this sensor head and a green LED light source, it was confirmed that alcohol concentration in several kinds of liquors from beer to whisky can easily be measured with a fast response time less than 1 minute.

  3. Plastic Optical Fiber Sensing of Alcohol Concentration in Liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Morisawa; Shinzo Muto

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical fiber sensing system of alcohol concentration in liquors has been studied. In this sensor head, a mixture polymer of novolac resin and polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) with a ratio of 9 : 1 was coated as a sensitive cladding layer on the plastic fiber core made of polystyrene-(PS-)coated polycarbonate (PC). Using this sensor head and a green LED light source, it was confirmed that alcohol concentration in several kinds of liquors from beer to whisky can easily be measured with a...

  4. Predicting transport requirements for radioactive-waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, T.; Randall, C.T.

    1983-01-01

    A method for predicting the transport requirements of radioactive waste slurries was developed. This method involved preparing nonradioactive sludge slurries chemically similar to the actual high-level waste. The rheological and settling characteristics of these synthetic waste slurries were measured and found to compare favorably with data on actual defense waste slurries. Pressure drop versus flow rate data obtained fom a 2-in. slurry test loop confirmed the Bingham plastic behavior of the slurry observed during viscometry measurements. The pipeline tests, however, yielded friction factors 30 percent lower than those predicted from viscometry data. Differences between the sets of data were attributed to inherent problems in interpreting accurate yield-stress values of slurry suspensions with Couette-type viscometers. Equivalent lengths of fittings were also determined and found to be less than that of water at a specified flow rate

  5. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p counterfeit and defective products.

  6. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135 Section 122.135 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor...

  7. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax... adopted this amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance by...

  8. Utilization of Brewery Spent Grain Liquor by Aspergillus niger1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Y. D.; Splittstoesser, D. F.; Woodams, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    Aspergillus niger was found capable of rapidly converting about 97% of the sugar from brewery spent grain liquor to fungal mass. The yield of dry mycelium, based on the sugar consumed, was approximately 57%. This fungus produced 1.10% titratable acid calculated as citric acid and reduced the biochemical oxygen demand by 96%. PMID:1200633

  9. Context and consequences of liquor sachets use among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents a relatively new phenomenon regarding alcohol related problems in Malawi; the context and consequences of the consumption of liquor sachets among young people. The results presented are part of a larger study looking at the prevalence and social norms related to alcohol use, as well as people's ...

  10. Chemical composition and utilization of Hungarian spent sulfite liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, B

    1968-01-01

    A review on the composition of Hungarian spent sulfite liquor and on its possible utilization, e.g., for the manufacturing of vanillin, yeast protein, or ethanol, as well as its direct utilization as a plasticizer for cement, additive for insecticides, or in adhesives.

  11. Selective removal of chromium from sulphuric acid leach liquor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... removed in multiple batch extractions from the leach liquor and titanium losses were minimal (< 1%). The chromium content of extracted solutions was reduced to less than 1 ppm and thermal hydrolysis of these solutions yielded white titanium(IV) oxide pigments that are suitable for use in the coatings pigment industry.

  12. Evaluation of ogi liquor from different grains for antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the test organisms. This was done as above except that instead of making wells on the already seeded plates and pouring in the prepared liquors, standard commercial antibiotics disc was placed on the seeded agar plates before the plates were incubated at 37○C for 24 h.

  13. Structural characterization of Kraft lignins from different spent cooking liquors by 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Costas, C.; Gouveia, S.; Sanromán, M.A.; Moldes, D.

    2014-01-01

    Three Kraft lignins isolated from black liquors of several paper pulp mills of the North of Spain and Portugal were structurally characterized by using monodimensional ( 1 H and 13 C) and bidimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry. From the latter, 13 C– 1 H heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) were employed. Lignins from black liquors are usually burned for power generation. Nevertheless, they could become high value added products within a biorefinery context. In that case, a good understanding of their structure is a prior step to transform them. From all the NMR techniques studied, HSQC has risen as the most powerful tool in lignin characterization. Kraft cooking conditions and the type of wood seem to be the main factors that determine the differences observed in the lignins. All the samples have shown an important decrease in the number of β–O–4′ linkages, due to the Kraft process, and resinol has become the most resistant linkage to the process. Moreover, all samples seem to be mainly linked to a one polysaccharide: xylan. Several parameters like S/G ratio, portion of phenolic and aliphatic hydroxyls, amount of aromatic protons and other structural aspects were also estimated. - Highlights: • Lignins from three Kraft spent liquors were obtained by acid precipitation. • Structural characterization of the dissolved lignins was performed by NMR. • Wood source and pulping conditions determine the lignin characteristics. • Kraft process implies cleavage of β–O–4 linkages and survival of resinol linkages. • Comparison of the samples would aid decisions on its future revalorization

  14. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...... technology, or co-substrate for anaerobic digestion). With respect to odorous emissions, an LCIA method was developed, but due to a lack of data it proved difficult to include odour in LCA. Regulations appear to have an influence on the environmental impacts of slurry treatment. A decrease in N application...

  15. Pump transients in FGD slurry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce-Campos, C.D., Thoy, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the start-up transient of a limestone slurry system used for a power plant scrubber is discussed. Particular characteristics of these kind of systems are pointed out and incorporated into an ad-hoc numerical model. Three possible start-up scenarios are discussed and compared with field experimental data. The results illustrate well the importance of air pocket purging prior to system start-up

  16. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  17. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...

  18. Engineering properties of nuclear waste slurries - 16378

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, Simon; Fairweather, Michael; Hunter, Timothy; Omokanye, Qanitalillahi; Peakall, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The type of particulate systems encountered in legacy nuclear waste slurries is highly complicated, with the aggregation and flow behaviour being at times very variable. However, deconstructing the complex overall slurry activity to singular particle-particle interactions can lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved with particle aggregation, and so to predictions of their settling and flow in nuclear systems. Of particular importance to legacy waste is the role of salts in controlling the attraction of particles (and so in dictating the rheological properties of the system) as sludge may contain a variety of specific ions and generally have high ionic conductivity [1]. In this paper, particle-particle interactions are characterised using a number of complimentary methods, and their influence on resulting flow and bed compression is measured. The methods used to characterise the particle-particle interactions under various salt and pH conditions were electro-acoustic analysis (zeta potential) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Following on from the analysis of particle-particle properties, bulk sediment behaviour was investigated using shear and compressive yield stress measurements, vital parameters in dictating flow and dewatering performance, respectively. Together, these techniques enable the characterisation of a range of particulate systems that may be encountered in legacy wastes, and results point to a number of important factors that can help explain the observed variability in industrial slurry behaviour. (authors)

  19. Slurry explosive containing an improved thickening agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakazono, Y.; Otsuka, Y.

    1970-08-18

    A slurry explosive having stable physical properties and a thickening agent which when blended with a slurry explosive, maintains it in a uniform and stable state as a good suspended dispersion condition over a long period of time, are described. The slurry explosive has a composition consisting essentially of ammonium nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate, at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels, and water, 0.1 to 2.0% guar gum, not more than 0.3% of a borate or borates, and/or not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine, and 0.02 to 2.0% of an antimony compound or compounds, all percents being by weight. (6 claims)

  20. Improvement of linerboard compressive strength by hot-pressing and addition of recovered lignin from spent pulping liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidan Motasem N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effect of addition of precipitated lignin, from spent pulping black liquor, to a wet single-ply linerboard handsheet followed by hot-pressing at different temperatures, on the improvement of its compressive strength. Linerboard handsheets for testing the effect of lignin addition were prepared so that the lignin-modified sheets would have the same basis weights as the control handsheets. Both the commercial and the black liquor lignin were added as a powder to wet handsheets after couching from the handsheet mold. The experiments and testing of the physical and strength properties of dried handsheets were conducted according to TAPPI test methods. The results revealed that the addition of the recovered lignin (at pH of 2 to the wet handsheet followed by hot-pressing at 150°C increased the compressive strength of linerboard handsheets by 10% to 20% above that for handsheets made without the addition of lignin. The same results were achieved using purchased lignin. However, with a 16% addition to linerboard, purchased lignin would be too expensive. These results indicate that inclusion of kraft lignin in linerboard sheets could be proved as an attractive option to reduce linerboard basis weight.

  1. Authentication of Chinese vintage liquors using bomb-pulse 14C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; Burr, G. S.; Fu, Yunchong; Fan, Yukun; Wu, Shugang

    2016-12-01

    The older a bottle of Chinese vintage liquor is, the higher the price it commands. Driven by the potential for higher profits, some newly-founded distilleries openly sell liquor whose storage ages are exaggerated. In China, the market for vintage liquor has become fraught with uncertainty and a pressing need has arisen to establish an effective method to authenticate the age of vintage liquors. A radiocarbon (14C) dating method is described here that can verify cellar-stored years of Chinese liquors distilled within the last fifty years. Two different flavored Chinese liquors produced in “the golden triangular region” in the Upper Yangtze River region in southwest China, with known cellar-stored years, were analyzed to benchmark the technique. Strong flavored liquors are found to be consistent with local atmospheric Δ14C values. A small offset of 2-3 years between predicted vintage years of soy-sauce flavored liquors and strong flavored liquors is found to be associated with the fermentation cycle of certain varieties. The technique can measure cellar-stored years of a wide range of liquors including those with fundamentally different aromas. This demonstrates the strength of our method in identifying suspect Chinese vintage liquors.

  2. Gangue minerals reactivity in oxidative leaching of uraninite with dilute sulfuric acid from low-grade ores. An approach for better leach liquor purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madakkaruppan, V.; Chanchal Sarbajna; Pius, Anitha; Sreenivas, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of sulfuric acid leaching studies carried out on a low-grade uranium ore with emphasis on attaining maximum uranium leachability with minimum content of detrimental ions like Si, Al, Fe, Mg and P, which originate from reactive gangue minerals like chlorite, biotite and apatite. A 'two-stage leaching' scheme was developed wherein the total reaction time and the pH of the slurry were split such that the initial phase consists of higher acidity with shorter reaction period and the later phase involves reduced acidity and longer reaction time. This modification gives leach liquor of higher purity with good uranium leachability at relatively lower acid consumption. (author)

  3. Low frequency aeration of pig slurry affects slurry characteristics and emissions of greenhouse gases and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Salvador; Hunt, John; Misselbrook, Tom H

    2017-07-01

    Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH 3 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m 3 of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m 3  h -1 ), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control. A final phase of 9 days was established with no aeration in any tank. Emissions of NH 3 , CH 4 , carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and N 2 O were measured. In the initial phase no differences in emissions were detected, but during the second phase aeration increased NH 3 emissions by 20% with respect to the controls (8.48 vs. 7.07 g m -3  [slurry] d -1 , P emissions were 40% lower in the aerated tanks (2.04 vs. 3.39 g m -3  [slurry] d -1 , P emissions remained after the aeration phase had finished. No effect was detected for CO 2 , and no relevant N 2 O emissions were detected during the experiment. Our results demonstrate that low frequency aeration of stored pig slurry increases slurry pH and increases NH 3 emissions.

  4. Availability of phosphorus in cow slurry using isotopic labelling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongsakul, P.; Bertelsen, F.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1988-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of cow slurry on P uptake by corn and to estimate the readily available P in the slurry by using an isotopic labelling techique. Water-soluble P in soil was increased and isotopic equilibrium of available P was attained after labelled slurry was mixed thoroughly throughout the soil. Labelled slurry applied at planting increased the P uptake by corn, whereas the same amount applied one week before harvest did not affect the P uptake. It was estimated that 46-54% of the total P uptake in plants is derived from the slurry. The readily available P (the L-value) in the slurry was at least 26 mg/kg which equals 3.7% of the total P. (author)

  5. Biogas slurry pricing method based on nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-ai; Guo, Honghai; Yang, Zhengtao; Xin, Shurong

    2017-11-01

    In order to promote biogas-slurry commercialization, A method was put forward to valuate biogas slurry based on its nutrient contents. Firstly, element contents of biogas slurry was measured; Secondly, each element was valuated based on its market price, and then traffic cost, using cost and market effect were taken into account, the pricing method of biogas slurry were obtained lastly. This method could be useful in practical production. Taking cattle manure raw meterial biogas slurry and con stalk raw material biogas slurry for example, their price were 38.50 yuan RMB per ton and 28.80 yuan RMB per ton. This paper will be useful for recognizing the value of biogas projects, ensuring biogas project running, and instructing the cyclic utilization of biomass resources in China.

  6. Determination of {sup 241}Pu in nuclear waste slurries: A comparative study using LSC and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M., E-mail: maya.jaeggi@psi.ch [Department Logistics for Radiation Safety and Security, Radioanalytics, CH-5232 Villligen PSI (Switzerland); Roellin, S., E-mail: Stefan.Roellin@babs.admin.ch [Federal Office for Civil Protection, SPIEZ Laboratory, CH-3700 Spiez (Switzerland); Corcho Alvarado, J.A., E-mail: Corcho-Alvarado@chuv.ch [Institute of Radiation Physics, University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Eikenberg, J., E-mail: jost.eikenberg@psi.ch [Department Logistics for Radiation Safety and Security, Radioanalytics, CH-5232 Villligen PSI (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    {sup 241}Pu was determined in slurry samples from a nuclear reactor decommissioning project at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). To validate the results, the {sup 241}Pu activities of five samples were determined by LSC (TriCarb and Quantulus) and ICP-MS, with each instrument at a different laboratory. In lack of certified reference materials for {sup 241}Pu, the methods were further validated using the {sup 241}Pu information values of two reference sediments (IAEA-300 and IAEA-384). Excellent agreement with the results was found between LSC and ICP-MS in the nuclear waste slurries and the reference sediments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement between the {sup 241}Pu activity of 5 slurry samples, using 3 measurement techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 241}Pu information values of two IAEA samples agreed well for the 3 measurement techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low detection limits were achieved; 1.8 Bq/kg (Quantulus), 2 Bq/kg (ICP-MS) and 3.5 Bq/kg (TriCarb).

  7. Modular-block complex on preparation and processing of oil slurry, spilled and raw petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The use of non-serial small petroleum equipment for development of remote and low output petroleum deposit, collection and processing of spilled petroleum is urgent issue. Joint-stock company Montazhengineering developed and mastered production of small modular-block complexes for preparation and processing of petroleum. The complex can include the following modules: preparation of raw petroleum for getting commodity petroleum; petroleum processing installation for getting gas, diesel fuel and black oil; installation for refining of nafta; installation for cleaning petroleum products from mercaptans; installation for getting basic oil; installation for getting bitumen and mastic; installation for processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Each of modules can work separately and in various combinations depending on input and necessary assortment of commodity petroleum. One of urgent ecological problem in Kazakhstan petroleum-processing regions is large number barns with spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Their processing will allow to solve the ecological and economical problems. Processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry in developed installations it's possible to get commodity petroleum and petroleum products

  8. Heterogeneous ice slurry flow and concentration distribution in horizontal pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jihong; Zhang, Tengfei; Wang, Shugang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A Mixture CFD model is applied to describe heterogeneous ice slurry flow. • The ice slurry rheological behavior is considered piecewise. • The coupled flow and concentration profiles in heterogeneous slurry flow is acquired. • The current numerical model achieves good balance between precision and universality. -- Abstract: Ice slurry is an energy-intensive solid–liquid mixture fluid which may play an important role in various cooling purposes. Knowing detailed flow information is important from the system design point of view. However, the heterogeneous ice slurry flow makes it difficult to be quantified due to the complex two phase flow characteristic. The present study applies a Mixture computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on different rheological behavior to characterize the heterogeneous ice slurry flow. The Mixture CFD model was firstly validated by three different experiments. Then the validated Mixture CFD model was applied to solve the ice slurry isothermal flow by considering the rheological behavior piecewise. Finally, the numerical solutions have displayed the coupled flow information, such as slurry velocity, ice particle concentration and pressure drop distribution. The results show that, the ice slurry flow distribution will appear varying degree of asymmetry under different operating conditions. The rheological behavior will be affected by the asymmetric flow distributions. When mean flow velocity is high, Thomas equation can be appropriate for describing ice slurry viscosity. While with the decreasing of mean flow velocity, the ice slurry behaves Bingham rheology. As compared with experimental pressure drop results, the relative errors of numerical computation are almost within ±15%. The Mixture CFD model is validated to be an effective model for describing heterogeneous ice slurry flow and could supply plentiful flow information

  9. Method of transporting radioactive slurry-like wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, K; Yusa, H; Sugimoto, Y

    1975-06-30

    The object is to prevent blockage of a transporting tube to positively and effectively transport radioactive slurry wastes. A method of transporting radioactive slurry-like wastes produced in an atomic power plant, wherein liquid wastes produced in the power plant are diluted to form into a driving liquid, by which said radioactive slurry-like wastes are transported within the pipe, and said driving liquid is recovered as the liquid waste.

  10. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  11. System and method for continuous solids slurry depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Thomas Frederick; Steele, Raymond Douglas; Cordes, Stephen Michael

    2017-07-11

    A system includes a first pump having a first outlet and a first inlet, and a controller. The first pump is configured to continuously receive a flow of a slurry into the first outlet at a first pressure and to continuously discharge the flow of the slurry from the first inlet at a second pressure less than the first pressure. The controller is configured to control a first speed of the first pump against the flow of the slurry based at least in part on the first pressure, wherein the first speed of the first pump is configured to resist a backflow of the slurry from the first outlet to the first inlet.

  12. State of the art on phase change material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Ziad; Delahaye, Anthony; Huang Li; Trinquet, François; Fournaison, Laurence; Pollerberg, Clemens; Doetsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A bibliographic study on PCM slurries. ► Clathrate Hydrate slurry, Microencapsulated PCM Slurry, shape-stabilized PCM slurries and Phase Change Material Emulsions. ► Formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfers properties and applications of these four PCS systems. ► The use of thermal energy storage and distribution based on PCM slurries can improve the refrigerating machine performances. - Abstract: The interest in using phase change slurry (PCS) media as thermal storage and heat transfer fluids is increasing and thus leading to an enhancement in the number of articles on the subject. In air-conditioning and refrigeration applications, PCS systems represent a pure benefit resulting in the increase of thermal energy storage capacity, high heat transfer characteristics and positive phase change temperatures which can occur under low pressures. Hence, they allow the increase of energy efficiency and reduce the quantity of thermal fluids. This review describes the formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfer properties and applications of four PCS systems: Clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS), Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials Slurry (MPCMS), shape-stabilized PCM slurries (SPCMSs) and Phase Change Material Emulsions (PCMEs). It regroups a bibliographic summary of important information that can be very helpful when such systems are used. It also gives interesting and valuable insights on the choice of the most suitable PCS media for laboratory and industrial applications.

  13. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO 3 solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO 3 solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s

  14. Disturbances of the liquor circulation: differential diagnosis of the hydrocephalus by radionuclide scintigraphy, pneumoencephalography and determination of the liquor pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmeister, U.; Boerner, W.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    1976-01-01

    Normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a special case of communicating hydrocephalus with disturbed resorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Because of the therapeutic consequences, NPH must be clearly differentiated from cerebral atrophy with compensatory increase of the liquor and from hydrocephalus with well-balanced cerebrospinal fluid. NPH is indicated by: excessive pressure rise after artificial volume load on the liquor space in spinal infusion tests; in the X-ray picture, an internal hydrocephalus; an acute-angled corpus callosum, and a progressive ventricular enlargement following in the pneumoencephalography; ventricular reflux with stasis in radionuclide cisternography. In some limiting cases, the diagnosis can be facilitated by a quantitative functional study of the dynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid with the aid of radionuclides. The biological half-life of 131 I albumin is doubled when the resorption of the cerebrospinal fluid is disturbed. (orig.) [de

  15. Disturbances of the liquor circulation: differential diagnosis of the hydrocephalus by radionuclide scintigraphy, pneumoencephalography and determination of the liquor pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrmeister, U; Boerner, W [Wuerzburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Neurologische Klinik; Wuerzburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Abt.)

    1976-06-01

    Normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a special case of communicating hydrocephalus with disturbed resorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Because of the therapeutic consequences, NPH must be clearly differentiated from cerebral atrophy with compensatory increase of the liquor and from hydrocephalus with well-balanced cerebrospinal fluid. NPH is indicated by: excessive pressure rise after artificial volume load on the liquor space in spinal infusion tests; in the x-ray picture, an internal hydrocephalus; an acute-angled corpus callosum, and a progressive ventricular enlargement following in the pneumoencephalography; ventricular reflux with stasis in radionuclide cisternography. In some limiting cases, the diagnosis can be facilitated by a quantitative functional study of the dynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid with the aid of radionuclides. The biological half-life of /sup 131/I albumin is doubled when the resorption of the cerebrospinal fluid is disturbed.

  16. Technical Development of Slurry Three-Dimensional Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cho-Pei; Hsu, Huang-Jan; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the technical development of slurry three-dimensional printer (3DP) which based on photo-polymerization and constrained surface method. Basically, slurry consists of ceramic powder, resin and photo-initiator. The light engines for solidifying the photo-curable slurry can be classified as laser, liquid crystal panel (LCD), digital light processing (DLP). The slurry can be reacted and solidified by selective ray according to the reaction spectrum of photo-initiator. Ceramic powder used in this study is zirconia oxide. Experimental results show that ceramic particle size affects the viscosity of slurry severely resulting in low accuracy and the occurrence of micro crack in the layer casting procedure. Therefore, the effect of particle size on the curability and accuracy of built green part is discussed. A single dental crown is proposed to be fabricated by these three light engines as a benchmark for comparison. In addition, the cost and the limitation are compared in the aspect of dental crown fabrication. Consequently, the lowest cost is LCD-type slurry 3DP system. DLP-type slurry 3DP can produce green body with the fastest fabrication time. The volumetric error of sintered part that made by these three fabrication methods is similar because the composition of slurry is the same.

  17. Drag reduction of dense fine-grained slurries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Štern, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2010), s. 261-270 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : kaolin slurry * drag reduction * experimental investigation * peptization * slurry rheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2010

  18. Cattle slurry on grassland - application methods and nitrogen use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalor, S.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cattle slurry represents a significant resource on grassland-based farming systems. The objective of this thesis was to investigate and devise cattle slurry application methods and strategies that can be implemented on grassland farms to improve the efficiency with which nitrogen (N) in

  19. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes

  20. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination...

  1. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daftaribesheli, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different

  2. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  3. Enhanced treatment of refinery soils with open-system slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, J.W.; Lee, M.K.; Horn, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    Refinery site cleanups of residual hydrocarbons arising from long-term operations have become a concern. Because contaminated soil has been generated over many years from spills of many types of materials, it is often difficult to identify the actual spilled material. Because many of these materials are weathered, the less degradable fractions can predominate, creating a challenge for bioremedial process solutions. Open-system slurry reactors were run with an aged refinery soil after a 6-month period of field bioremediation in which 23% TPH removal resulted. The open system (a system where the liquid medium was replaced daily and the solids were retained in the reactor for 2 weeks) achieved 60 to 80% total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal based on the initial, prefield bioremediation soil concentration. A process concept twice as effective as other bioremediation schemes has been devised that takes advantage of the formation and removal of small black particulate solids in an open or continuous slurry reactor configuration. These small black particles are chemically or biologically produced in the open system and with their small size and low density are easily elutriated from the bioreactor as the liquid medium is changed. A statistically designed experiment has determined optimal values of nutrients, temperature, and mixing

  4. PYROLIGNEOUS LIQUOR PRODUCED FROM ACACIA MEARNSII DE WILD WOOD UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Furtado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mearnsii de Wild (black wattle is one of the most important trees planted in Southern Brazil for tannin extraction and charcoal production. The pyrolysis of the black wattle wood used for obtaining charcoal is performed in brick ovens, with the gas fraction being sent directly into the environment. The present study examines the condensable compounds present in the liquor produced from black wattle wood at different thermal degradation conditions, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Branches of black wattle were thermally degraded at controlled ambient and temperature conditions. Overall, a higher variety of compounds were obtained under atmospheric air pressure than under synthetic air pressure. Most of the tentatively identified compounds, such as carboxylic acids, phenols, aldehydes, and low molecular mass lignin fragments, such as guayacol, syringol, and eugenol, were products of lignin thermoconversion. Substituted aromatic compounds, such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and 2-methoxy-4-propeny-phenol, were also identified. At temperatures above 200 ºC, furan, 2-acetylfuran, methyl-2-furoate, and furfural, amongst others, were identified as polysaccharide derivatives from cellulose and hemicellulose depolymerization. This study evidences the need for adequate management of the condensable by-products of charcoal production, both for economic reasons and for controlling their potential environmental impact.

  5. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.134 Section 122.134 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a...

  6. Yeast community associated with the solid state fermentation of traditional Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan

    2013-09-02

    Yeasts are the most important group of microorganisms contributing to liquor quality in the solid-state fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor. There occurred a complex yeast community structure during this process, including stages of Daqu (the starter) making, stacking fermentation on the ground and liquor fermentation in the pits. In the Daqu making stage, few yeast strains accumulated. However, the stacking fermentation stage accumulated nine yeast species with different physio-biochemical characteristics. But only four species kept dominant until liquor fermentation, which were Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, implying their important functions in liquor making. The four species tended to inhabit in different locations of the stack and pits during stacking and liquor fermentation, due to the condition heterogeneity of the solid-state fermentation, including the different fermentation temperature profiles and oxygen density in different locations. Moreover, yeast population was much larger in the upper layer than that in the middle and bottom layers in liquor fermentation, which was in accordance with the profile of reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production. This was a systematical investigation of yeast community structure dynamics in the Maotai-flavor liquor fermentation process. It would be of help to understand the fermentative mechanism in solid-state fermentation for Maotai-flavor liquor. © 2013.

  7. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids, whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP. Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar, coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  8. Uranium recovery from acid leach liquors: Ix or Sx?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tonder, D.; Kotze, M.

    2007-01-01

    Various technologies for uranium recovery from sulphuric acid leach solutions were compared. Although the main consideration was the economics (Capex, recovery and Opex) of the various technologies and associated unit operations, other factors, such as flexibility, reliability, ease of operation, fire risk, stability with regards to feed flow variations, and feed solids content, would also need to be considered in the overall analysis. The design basis used for the comparison was a production rate or 200 kg/h U 3 O8 over a solution concentration range of 40 to 1500 mg/L U 3 O8. The technologies to be compared included Resin-in-pulp (RIP), Fixed-bed Ion Exchange (FBIX), Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX, e.g. NIMCIX), and Solvent Extraction (Sx) using Bateman Pulsed Columns (BPC) and Bateman Settlers. Countercurrent Decantation (CCD) and clarification would be required for the Sx and FBIX technologies. The preliminary economic evaluation indicated that a flowsheet, comprising RIP for bulk uranium extraction and upgrade, followed by Sx, employing the BPC for purification of the RIP eluate stream, was the most economic option at leach liquor concentrations below 900 mg/L. Above 900 mg/L the economic evaluation suggested that CCDs followed by Sx in the BPC was the most economical processing option. For applications where the ore is abrasive and not amenable to RIP, due to the rate of resin consumption, Paste Thickeners to remove the bulk of the solids, followed by RIP, was found to be the most economic processing option at leach liquor concentrations below 200 mg/L. However, for leach liquor concentrations above 200 mg/L, a CCD-circuit followed by Sx using BPC was again the most economic favourable route

  9. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K

    2015-06-08

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB.

  10. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. Power

  11. The denitration of simulated fast reactor highly active liquor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, C.J.; Ford, L.H.; Blatts, N.

    1981-01-01

    A short series of tests have been made with simulated HAL containing representative concentrations of palladium and phosphate ion. The information obtained has been confirmed in a small scale continuous denitration plant. These cases of four stirred pot reactors arranged in cascade. One possible advantage of this plant would be the low mean acidity in the first stage compared to the feed material which would limit to some extent the violence of the reaction. This would lead to a lower rate of gas evolution and may permit operation even with liquors where foaming is a problem. (DG)

  12. Oxidizing attack process of uranium ore by a carbonated liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, Pierre; Nicolas, Francois.

    1981-01-01

    A continuous process for digesting a uraniferous ore by oxidation with a recycling aqueous liquor containing alkaline carbonates and bicarbonates in solution as well as uranium in a concentration close to its solubility limit at digestion temperature, and of recuperation of the precipitated uranium within the solid phase remaining after digestion. The digestion is carried out by spraying oxygen into the hot reactional medium in order not only to permit oxidation of the uranium and its solubilization but also to ensure that the sulphides of impurities and organic substances present in the ore are oxidized [fr

  13. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  14. Ice slurries; Les coulis de glace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The safety and environmental problems linked with the use of refrigerants (toxicity, flammability, ozone layer, greenhouse effect) are the object of numerous research works in order to reduce their harmful impact in the case of accidental situation. The use of 'coldness carriers' is particularly justified in the case of industrial refrigerating facilities involving long loops and important quantities of refrigerating fluids. The use of single-phase 'coldness carriers' is a very old technique which encounters a revival today with researches in progress about the use of two-phase (liquid-solid) compounds named ice-slurries. This book takes stock of the status of this research work in a practical and exhaustive way. (J.S.)

  15. Regulatory controls and slurry fracture injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M. B.; Bilak, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The technological and regulatory framework necessary for the safe operation of solid waste disposal using slurry fracture injection (SFI) in Saskatchewan and Alberta was studied. Seven current SFI sites were used as the source of experience. Regular audits of volumes, continuous pressure recording, careful deformation monitoring and analysis, and repeated evaluation of reservoir properties were considered to be the essential features. In the case of toxic wastes, microseismic monitoring and regular well interference or tracer tests might be additional measures used to increase confidence in the containment method. Given the recent introduction of SFI technology, guarding against over-regulation was recommended to allow SFI to operate under the most effective operating conditions, and to preserve its attractiveness as an environmentally attractive and safe waste disposal alternative. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Drilling mud and cement slurry rheology manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    This book is not primarily concerned with theory. Its basic approach is practical. It has attempted to present a logical treatment which will be easy to apply in practice. As a result, certain computing methods were omitted, and precision sometimes has to be sacrificed to simplicity. However, no apology is made for the use of such approximations; in fact, any attempt at rigor would be doomed to failure, in view of the many inherent factors which do not lend themselves to quantitative treatment. Chapter 1: deals with fundamental concepts. Chapter 2: refers to the general principles involved in determining rheological parameters of drilling fluids and cement slurries. Chapter 3: relates to practical methods for using the results obtained in the first two Chapters, in units employed on the worksite. It is primarily intended for technicians called upon to make ''hydraulic'' computations during drilling. Chapter 4: contains several examples.

  17. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  18. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy's, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period

  19. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  20. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  1. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples

  2. Evaluation of plant available nitrogen in concentrated pig slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.; Comas, J.; Pujola, M.

    2009-01-01

    In Northeast Spin the expansion of the pig industry has brought as a result the production of vast amounts of pig slurry that exceeds field crops fertilization needs and consequently has contributed to the environmental deterioration of the region particularly ground water with NO 3 pollution. Under such circumstances, it is needed to treat and/or export pig slurry. During the last year the implantation of cogeneration plants that take advantage of the surplus of energy to produce concentrate pig slurry by water evaporation that could easily transported. (Author)

  3. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 μm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam...... physical protection against leaching of bromide was reflected by 60.2% of the bromide tracer was recovered in the effluent after injection, compared with 80.6% recovery after surface application. No effect of slurry injection was observed in the loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Our findings point to soil...

  4. Use of radiation-induced polymers in cement slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.; Gogarty, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    Water loss from cement slurries is reduced by incorporating within a cement slurry a polymer obtained as a product of radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide and/or methacrylamide and acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and/or alkali metal salts thereof. The polymerization is preferably carried out in 10-60 percent aqueous monomer solution with gamma radiation. The aqueous monomer solution preferably contains 25-99 percent acrylamide and 75-1 percent sodium acrylate. The polymer can be present in concentration of about 0.001 to about 3.0 weight percent, based on the aqueous phase of the slurry

  5. Physical properties of highly active liquor containing molybdate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnett, B.; Ward, T.; Roberts, R.; Cheeseright, J.

    2016-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield produces a nitric acid based Highly Active Liquor (HAL) waste. The liquor, containing fission products and process additives, is concentrated in an evaporator in order to reduce the volume and is then stored in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs) prior to vitrification. Caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) is precipitated during the evaporation process and can convert to zirconium molybdate (ZM) during storage. During Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the HASTs, it is expected that their highly active content will be reduced by repeated cycles of washing using nitric acid and other reagents. Initial washings are likely to have a chemical composition comparable to concentrated HAL, becoming more dilute during the wash-out process. It is expected that the wash-out process will also recover significant quantities of molybdate solids (ZM, CPM or a mixture) from the HASTs. In order to determine the processing challenges from such washings during POCO, the physical properties of varying concentrations of non-active HAL simulants containing molybdate solids have recently been measured by the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory. The following measurements are presented and discussed: Particle size distribution; Density; Settling behaviour of solids; Voidage of settled sediment beds; Viscosity; Yield stress; And influence of ZM morphology on physical properties. (authors)

  6. D-Xylose from waste liquors of a viscose process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T; Mimura, M

    1977-12-14

    D-Xylose was prepared in good yields by neutralizing alkali waste liquors containing hemicellulose (I) with inorganic acids, dialyzing to remove salts hydrolyzing with acids, fermenting to decompose hexose, decolorizing, concentrating to < 15% sugars, treating with alcohols to precipitate oligosugars, removing the precipitate, and crystalizing. Thus, 1 kg waste liquor containing 27 g I was neutralized with 5% HCl, dialyzed at 15/sup 0/ for 48 h with parchment paper, concentrated at 40/sup 0/ to give a 500 g solution containing 7% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, boiled for 3 h, neutralized with BaCO/sub 3/, mixed with 10 g yeast at pH 5.4 to 5.8 (filtrate) fermented at 35/sup 0/ for 12 h, filtered, decolorized, concentrated at 40/sup 0/ to > 80 g mixed with EtOH to give a precipitate, filtered, concentrated to 17 g syrup, and mixed with AcOH to obtain 7.2 g D-Xylose.

  7. Physical properties of highly active liquor containing molybdate solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, B.; Ward, T.; Roberts, R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Cheeseright, J. [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield produces a nitric acid based Highly Active Liquor (HAL) waste. The liquor, containing fission products and process additives, is concentrated in an evaporator in order to reduce the volume and is then stored in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs) prior to vitrification. Caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) is precipitated during the evaporation process and can convert to zirconium molybdate (ZM) during storage. During Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the HASTs, it is expected that their highly active content will be reduced by repeated cycles of washing using nitric acid and other reagents. Initial washings are likely to have a chemical composition comparable to concentrated HAL, becoming more dilute during the wash-out process. It is expected that the wash-out process will also recover significant quantities of molybdate solids (ZM, CPM or a mixture) from the HASTs. In order to determine the processing challenges from such washings during POCO, the physical properties of varying concentrations of non-active HAL simulants containing molybdate solids have recently been measured by the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory. The following measurements are presented and discussed: Particle size distribution; Density; Settling behaviour of solids; Voidage of settled sediment beds; Viscosity; Yield stress; And influence of ZM morphology on physical properties. (authors)

  8. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  9. De kristallisatie-methode bij het onderzoek van de liquor cerebro-spinalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittermans, Aafko Willinge

    1941-01-01

    Ongeveer twaalfhonderd liquores zijn volgens een in de kliniek nog weinig bekende zeer eenvoudige methode van onderzoek van den Roemeenschen Hoogleraar TOMESCO onderzocht. Deze methode berust op het beoordeelen van het kristalbeeld dat ontstaat bij het indampen van druppels sterk verdunde liquor

  10. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  11. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology.

  12. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.B.; Cai, X.L.; Chen, C.H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ye, X.C., E-mail: yexuchu@njtech.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  13. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.B.; Cai, X.L.; Chen, C.H.; Ye, X.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production

  14. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  15. 77 FR 74025 - Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria-Liquor Control Statute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Statute reads as follows: Chapter One--Introduction Section: 1.1 Authority. This Statute is enacted... viability of tribal enterprises. 1.3 Short Title. This Statute shall be known and cited as the ``Liquor..., currently prohibits the introduction of liquor into Indian country, except in accordance with State law and...

  16. 76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article... Code, Article 2, Liquor by Ordinance No. 10-03 on December 13, 2010. This notice is published in...

  17. Discrimination of Chinese Sauce liquor using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Su-Qin; Li, Chang-Wen; Wei, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao

    2006-11-01

    We applied the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification method to obtain the IR characteristic fingerprints of so-called Chinese Sauce liquor (Moutai liquor and Kinsly liquor) and a counterfeit Moutai. These fingerprints can be used for the identification and discrimination of similar liquor products. The comparison of their conventional IR spectra, as the first step of identification, shows that the primary difference in Sauce liquor is the intensity of characteristic peaks at 1592 and 1225 cm -1. The comparison of the second derivative IR spectra, as the second step of identification, shows that the characteristic absorption in 1400-1800 cm -1 is substantially different. The comparison of 2D-IR correlation spectra, as the third and final step of identification, can discriminate the liquors from another direction. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the discrimination of a counterfeit Moutai from the genuine Sauce liquor. The success of the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification to provide a rapid and effective method for the identification of Chinese liquor suggests the potential extension of this technique to the identification and discrimination of other wine and spirits, as well.

  18. A process for producing lignin and volatile compounds from hydrolysis liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazraie, Tooran; Zhang, Yiqian; Tarasov, Dmitry; Gao, Weijue; Price, Jacquelyn; DeMartini, Nikolai; Hupa, Leena; Fatehi, Pedram

    2017-01-01

    Hot water hydrolysis process is commercially applied for treating wood chips prior to pulping or wood pellet production, while it produces hydrolysis liquor as a by-product. Since the hydrolysis liquor is dilute, the production of value-added materials from it would be challenging. In this study, acidification was proposed as a viable method to extract (1) furfural and acetic acid from hot water hydrolysis liquor and (2) lignin compounds from the liquor. The thermal properties of the precipitates made from the acidification of hydrolysis liquor confirmed the volatile characteristics of precipitates. Membrane dialysis was effective in removing inorganic salts associated with lignin compounds. The purified lignin compounds had a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 180-190 °C, and were thermally stable. The results confirmed that lignin compounds present in hot water hydrolysis liquor had different characteristics. The acidification of hydrolysis liquor primarily removed the volatile compounds from hydrolysis liquor. Based on these results, a process for producing purified lignin and precipitates of volatile compounds was proposed.

  19. Studies on the antimicrobial effect of corn steep liquor on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROFIAT

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... The antimicrobial effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) was investigated over a five day period. The pH and titrable acidity of the liquor were determined, while the antimicrobial effect on some diarrhoea causing organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteriditis, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio.

  20. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...... from slurry separation and phosphorus (P) fertilizer production from recycling of the ash. Manure fibre has a positive calorific value and may be used as a CO2-neutral fuel for combustion. The ashes from combustion are rich in P, an essential fertilizer compound. The study is based on samples of animal...

  1. Kinetics and compensation effects during steam gasification of Fujian anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Ju; Zhang Ji-yu; Zhong Xue-qing [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China). Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-08-15

    Catalytic steam gasification kinetics of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst was investigated in an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analyzer under ambient pressure. Coal conversions versus reaction time with different viscose liquor concentrations (0-12% NaOH) were measured at the temperature range from 850 to 950{sup o}C. The research shows that the viscose liquor can greatly improve the gasification rate and carbon conversion. The Loading Saturation Level (LSL) of the viscose liquor within the experimental conditions was also determined. The catalytic steam gasification reaction can be well fitted by a shrinking-core model (SCM) and the reaction rate constants are obtained. The kinetic analysis indicates that the catalytic gasification exhibits a prominent compensation effect between the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor. The kinetic equation including the compensation effects for the catalytic steam gasification of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst is presented. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Properties of sodium lignosulfonate as dispersant of coal water slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dongjie; Qiu, Xueqing; Zhou, Mingsong; Lou, Hongming

    2007-01-01

    In order to use lignosulfonates (a by-product of pulp and paper processes) as an effective dispersant of coal water slurry five purified sodium lignosulfonate (SL) samples with different molecular weights were prepared by fractionation using ultrafiltration and dialysis. The effect of SL on the apparent viscosity of coal water slurry (CWS) was investigated. The adsorption behavior of the SL on the coal water interface has much greater effect on the viscosity of coal water slurry. The higher adsorption amount and compact adsorption film of SL on the coal surface help reduce the viscosity of CWS, and the zeta potential is also an important factor, which is influenced by the sulfonic and carboxyl group contents of the lignosulfonate molecule. Furthermore, the SL with its molecular weight ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 has both a higher adsorbed amount and zeta potential on the coal surface and the best effect on reducing the viscosity of the coal water slurry

  3. Effect of flotation on preparation of coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to study the effect of flotation reagents on the properties of coal-water slurry, a sub-bituminous coal was cleaned via either forward flotation or reverse flotation. The froth product from the forward flotation, obtained with the use of diesel oil and MIBC, and the tailings of the reverse flotation, carried out with dextrin-tannic acid depressants and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride collector, were used in the preparation of coal-water slurries. It was shown that while it was possible to obtain the coal-water slurry with a high-solids content from the coal rendered hydrophilic (tailings from the coal reverse flotation), in the case of the hydrophobic product (froth product from the forward flotation) a dispersing agent was required to obtain the coal-water slurry of the same high-solids content.

  4. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate......This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving...... the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises...

  5. Progress on radioactive waste slurry incineration with oxygen and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.; Hayashi, M.; Oda, I.; Nonaka, N.; Kuwayama, K.; Shigeta, T.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive waste (radwaste) slurry generated from the nuclear power plant operation, such as spent ion-exchange resins (powdered, bead), fire-retardant oils including phosphate ester and concentrated laundry (by the wet method) liquid waste, has been stored in an untreated condition on the plant site. Recently, since the Condensate Filter Demineralizer (CFD) has been applied in advanced BWR plants, the discharged volume of untreated spent powered resin slurry has been increasing steadily. TEE and NCE have been developing an effective new volume reduction system to treat this radwaste slurry based on an innovative incineration concept. The new system is called the IOS process, the feature of which is incineration with oxygen and steam admixture instead of conventional air. The IOS process, which consists mainly of high heat load incineration with slurry atomization, and combustion gas cooling and condensation by the wet method, has several advantages which are summarized in this paper

  6. Effects of ancestral populations on entrepreneurial founding and failure: private liquor stores in Alberta, 1994--2003

    OpenAIRE

    Glen Dowell; Robert J. David

    2011-01-01

    Until 1993, all liquor stores in the Canadian province of Alberta were government owned and run. In the fall of 1993, the provincial government exited liquor retailing, all government stores were shut down, and entrepreneurs were allowed to open private liquor stores. In this article, we take advantage of this abrupt regulatory change in the Alberta liquor-retailing industry to address two related issues that have received little empirical attention. First, we investigate how an ancestral pop...

  7. A study on the treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Moon, J.S.; Jung, K.J.

    1998-12-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries with anionic flocculants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake

  8. A study on the treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Moon, J.S.; Jung, K.J

    1998-12-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries with anionic flocculants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake.

  9. Improved system for pumping slurry of gel explosives into boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, T K; Clay, R B; Udy, L L

    1967-05-16

    A method is described for injecting an explosive slurry into a borehole containing water. The slurry is heavier than water and is pumped through the tubing to a depth close to the bottom of the well. Injection is continued until all water has been displaced above the lower end of the tubing. This type of immiscible displacement results in substantially no mixing between the water and the explosive. (15 claims)

  10. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    OpenAIRE

    Daftaribesheli, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different properties and extremely different reaction behaviour even if the same Ziegler-Natta (ZN) catalyst is used? Generally, it is known that the reason can be found in the differences of local condition...

  11. Investigation of aqueous slurries as fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical and experimental studies were carried out to assess the feasibility of using an aqueous slurry, with lithium in its solid component, to meet the tritium breeding, cooling, and shielding requirements of a controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR). The numerical studies were designed to demonstrate the theoretical ability of a conceptual slurry blanket to breed adequate tritium to sustain the CTR. The experimental studies were designed to show that the tritium retention characteristics of likely solid components for the slurry were conducive to adequate tritium recovery without the need for isotopic separation. The numerical portion of this work consisted in part of using ANISN, a one-dimensional finite difference neutron transport code, to model the neutronic performance of the slurry blanket concept. The parameters governing tritium production and retention in a slurry were computed and used to modify the results of the ANISN computer runs. The numerical work demonstrated that the slurry blanket was only marginally capable of breeding sufficient tritium without the aid of a neutron multiplying region. The experimental portion of this work consisted of several neutron irradiation experiments, which were designed to determine the retention abilities of LiF particles

  12. Environmental consequences of future biogas technologies based on separated slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn M

    2011-07-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises the whole slurry life cycle, including the flows bypassing the biogas plant. This study includes soil carbon balances and a method for quantifying the changes in yield resulting from increased nitrogen availability as well as for quantifying mineral fertilizers displacement. Soil carbon balances showed that between 13 and 50% less carbon ends up in the soil pool with the different biogas alternatives, as opposed to the reference slurry management.

  13. Effect of lapping slurry on critical cutting depth of spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhan-kui; Wang, Zhuan-kui; Zhu, Yong-wei; Su, Jian-xiu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Measured spinel wafers’ hardness and crack length in different slurries. • Evaluated the softened layer thickness in different slurries. • Discussed the effect of slurries on critical cutting depth of spinel. - Abstract: The critical cutting depth for lapping process is very important because it influences the mode of material removal. In this paper, a serial of microscopic indentation experiments were carried out for measuring spinel wafers’ hardness and crack length in different lapping slurries. Their critical cutting depth and fracture toughness were calculated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was also employed to study the surface chemical composition and softened layer thickness of wafers in different slurries. Experimental results indicate that the softened layers of spinel wafers are formed due to the corrosion of lapping slurries, which leads to a lower hardness and a larger fracture toughness of samples, and increases the critical cutting depth. Among them, the critical cutting depth in ethylene glycol solution is the largest and up to 21.8 nm. The increase of critical cutting depth is helpful to modify the surface quality of the work-piece being lapped via ductile removal mode instead of brittle fracture mode

  14. Experimental study on the rheological behaviour of coal ash slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa K.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the rheological behaviour of fly ash (FA slurry without and with the addition of bottom ash (BA and BA slurry without and with the addition of FA. The FA slurries exhibited Bingham behaviour at solid mass concentrations ranging from 60–65% and mixing proportions from 10– 40%. A substantial reduction in yield stress was observed except for mixing proportion of 40% on which the yield stress and viscosity were increased drastically for all solid concentrations. Hence, it can be concluded that the yield stress and viscosity of FA slurry were very much influenced by adding BA up to the mixing proportion of 30%. The rheological behaviour of BA slurries with and without the addition of FA in proportions of 10–50% was investigated and exhibited Newtonian behaviours for solid mass concentrations ranging from 30–50% without and with the addition of FA. The viscosity increases with increasing the solid concentrations and proportion of FA. Based on these experimental data, a correlation was developed to predict the relative viscosity of BA slurries as a function of solid volume fraction and FA mass proportion of 0–50% and the RMSE and R2 values showed good agreement between the experimental and the predicted data.

  15. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who has...

  16. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  17. Fixation Of Mo In Uranium Leach Liquor By Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainar, S.; Guswita, A.; Erni, R.A.; Susilaningtyas

    1996-01-01

    The use of activated carbon for Mo fixation by bulk system is reported. Several factors influencing the fixation process were examined, including contact time, carbon particle size, carbon porosity and the effect of other elements present in Mo containing solutions. Experimental data showed that an adsorption equilibrium of Mo on of activated carbon and 0,85 to 1,18 mm of carbon particle size under forced-convection mass transfer in 100 ml solution that contains + 0,56 m mol of Mo and +. 0,25 m mol Of U was reached after 6 hours period. Under those conditions, about 0,50 m mol of Mo and 0,026 m mol of U were adsorbed into carbon. High concentration of rare earth elements decreased Mo adsorption, hence, the use of activated carbon was not effective to separate Mo from the digestion liquor of Rirang are where Mo was adsorbed, into the carbon + 34,5 %

  18. Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owais, Ashour [Suez Canal Univ., Suez (Egypt). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.

    2012-11-15

    Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor obtained from secondary lead slag leached in hydrochloric acid is the main aim of this work. The resulted lead chloride solution (leachate) containing 2.2 wt.-% Pb and 1.24 wt.-% HCl was electrowon in an electrolytic cell containing one graphite plate as inert anode and two lead sheets as starting permanent cathodes. Different electrolysis parameters such as current density, electrolyte temperature and electrolyte stirring rate were studied. As indicated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses, fine and pure (100 % Pb) powders with a dispersed and needle-like shape were formed with cathodic current efficiency up to 67.9 % and electrical energy demand ranges from 0.809 to 4.998 kWh/kg Pb with productivity up to 2.63 g/Ah. (orig.)

  19. Anaerobic biodegradation of spent sulphite liquor in a UASB reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantsch, T.G.; Angelidaki, Irini; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of fermented spent sulphite liquor, SSL, which is produced during the manufacture of sulphite pulp, was investigated. SSL contains a high concentration of lignin products in addition to hemicellulose and has a very high COD load (173 g COD l1). Batch experiments...... ðl dÞ1 and hydraulic retention time from 3.7 to 1.5 days. The biogas productivity was 3 l ðlreactor dÞ1, with a yield of 0.05 l gas ðg VSÞ1. These results suggest that anaerobic digestion in UASB reactors may provide a new alternative for the treatment of SSL to other treatment strategies...... such as incineration. Although the total COD reduction achieved is limited, bioenergy is produced and readily biodegradable matter is removed causing less load on post-treatment installations. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. A simple biofilter for treatment of pig slurry in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, S G; Mathanpaal, G; Dass, G T

    2005-03-01

    On commercial pig production farms in South East (SE) Asia, the liquid effluent is often discharged into rivers. The discharge is a hazard to the environment and to the health of people using water from the river either for consumption or for irrigation. Therefore, a simple percolation biofilter for treatment of the liquid effluent was developed. Pig slurry was treated in test-biofilters packed with different biomass for the purpose of selecting the most efficient material, thereafter the efficiency of the biofilter was examined at farm scale with demo biofilters using the most efficient material. The effect of using "Effective Microorganisms" (EM) added to slurry that was treated with biofilter material mixed with Glenor KR+ was examined. Slurry treatment in the test-biofilters indicated that rice straw was better than coconut husks, wood shavings, rattan strips and oil palm fronds in reducing BOD. Addition of EM and Glenor KR+ to slurry and biofilter material, respectively, had no effect on the temperature of the biofilter material or on the concentrations of organic and inorganic components of the treated slurry. The BOD of slurry treated in test biofilters is reduced to between 80 and 637 mg O2 I(-1) and in the demo biofilter to between 3094 and 3376 mg O2 l(-1). The concentration of BOD in the effluent is related to the BOD in the slurry being treated and the BOD concentration in slurry treated in test biofilters was lower than BOD of slurry treated in demo biofilters. The demo biofilter can reduce BOD to between 52 an 56% of the original value, and TSS, COD (chemical oxygen demand) and ammonium (NH4+) to 41-55% of the original slurry. The treated effluent could not meet the standards for discharge to rivers. The composted biofilter material has a high content of nitrogen and phosphorus; consequently, the fertilizer value of the compost is high. The investments costs were 123 US dollar per SPP which has to be reduced if this method should be a treatment option

  1. New microbial resource: microbial diversity, function and dynamics in Chinese liquor starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhong; Yi, Zhuolin; Jin, Yanling; Zhao, Yonggui; He, Kaize; Liu, Dayu; Zhao, Dong; He, Hui; Luo, Huibo; Zhang, Wenxue; Fang, Yang; Zhao, Hai

    2017-11-06

    Traditional Chinese liquor (Baijiu) solid state fermentation technology has lasted for several thousand years. The microbial communities that enrich in liquor starter are important for fermentation. However, the microbial communities are still under-characterized. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing technology was applied to comprehensively analyze the microbial diversity, function and dynamics of two most-consumed liquor starters (Jiang- and Nong-flavor) during production. In total, 315 and 83 bacterial genera and 72 and 47 fungal genera were identified in Jiang- and Nong-flavor liquor starter, respectively. The relatively high diversity was observed when the temperature increased to 70 and 62 °C for Jiang- and Nong-flavor liquor starter, respectively. Some thermophilic fungi have already been isolated. Microbial communities that might contribute to ethanol fermentation, saccharification and flavor development were identified and shown to be core communities in correlation-based network analysis. The predictively functional profile of bacterial communities showed significant difference in energy, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and the degradation of aromatic compounds between the two kinds of liquor starters. Here we report these liquor starters as a new functionally microbial resource, which can be used for discovering thermophilic and aerobic enzymes and for food and feed preservation.

  2. Aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor produced with Bacillus licheniformis by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Wu, Q; Xu, Y

    2013-07-01

    The potential of Bacillus licheniformis as a starter culture for aroma concentration improvement in the fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavour liquor was elucidated. The volatile compounds produced by B. licheniformis were identified by GC-MS, in which C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds were the main ingredients. The strains B. licheniformis (MT-6 and MT-15) produced more volatile compound concentrations, mainly C4 compounds, than the type strain of B. licheniformis (ATCC 14580) at the fermentation temperature of 55°C. Meanwhile, more volatile compound concentrations were produced by B. licheniformis in solid-state fermentation than in submerged state fermentation. Thus, the strains MT-6 and MT-15 were used as the Bacillus starter culture for investigating Moutai-flavour liquor production. The distilled liquor inoculated with Bacillus starter culture was significantly different from the liquor without inoculum. This was particularly evident in the fore-run part of the distilled sample which was inoculated with Bacillus starter culture, where volatile compounds greatly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the distilled liquor with Bacillus starter culture showed improved results in sensory appraisals. These results indicated that B. licheniformis was one of the main species influencing the aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor. This is the first report of an investigation into the effect of Bacillus starter cultures on the flavour features of Moutai-flavour liquor, which verified that Bacillus licheniformis can enhance aroma concentration in Moutai-flavour liquor. Bacillus starter culture brought C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds to the liquor, which gave a better result in sensory appraisals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Precipitation and valorisation of lignin in South African kraft mill black liquor - first stages: Poster

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the pulp and paper industry is in decline due to a number of factors such as high production costs, the growing utilization of electronic media that compete with print media and books, as well as pressure for the industry to be more...

  4. Modelling Sulfonation Kinetics On The Sodium Lignosulphonate Synthesis From Black Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapsoro Aruno Aji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant is a compound that has the ability to lower the interfacial tension between the face of two phases (liquid. The need of surfactant has increased along with the development of the industrial sector. One example is sodium lignosulfonat (SLS which is useful to improve oil acquisition in its application for EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery. SLS is a result of the reaction between lignin, NaHSO3 (bisulfite and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. The purpose of this research is to determining the reaction mechanism and determining the value of the reaction rate constant (k. The sulphonation kinetics of lignin was carried out in various temperature (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90°C. From this research obtained a positive (linear response between sulfonation temperature against reaction rate constants. The lowest k values obtained k50 = 2,05 x 10-4 minute-1 and the highest one is k90= 3,35 x 10-4. From graphycally calculation obtained the value of A is 0,015 and the energy activation (Ea is-11,708 kJ/mol with R2 = 95,69%. The correlation of the temperature influence to the constant of reaction rate espressed in arhenius equation as follows : k = 0,015 exp (-1408,3/T

  5. Precipitation and valorisation of lignin obtained from South African Kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, Mpho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (NMR), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). SEC data revealed a narrow molecular weight distribution with a small polydispersity index in the lignin sample – all desirable features...

  6. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  7. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  8. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  9. Effects of Pig Slurry Application and Crops on Phosphorus Content in Soil and the Chemical Species in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandro De Conti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry rates and plant cultivation can modify the soil phosphorus (P content and distribution of chemical species in solution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total P, available P and P in solution, and the distribution of chemical P species in solution, in a soil under longstanding pig slurry applications and crop cultivation. The study was carried out in soil columns with undisturbed structure, collected in an experiment conducted for eight years in the experimental unit of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, Santa Maria (RS. The soil was an Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico (Typic Hapludalf, subjected to applications of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha-1 pig slurry. Soil samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-60 cm, before and after black oat and maize grown in a greenhouse, for the determination of available P, total P and P in the soil solution. In the solution, the concentration of the major cations, anions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and pH were determined. The distribution of chemical P species was determined by software Visual Minteq. The 21 pig slurry applications increased the total P content in the soil to a depth of 40 cm, and the P extracted by Mehlich-1 and from the solution to a depth of 30 cm. Successive applications of pig slurry changed the balance between the solid and liquid phases in the surface soil layers, increasing the proportion of the total amount of P present in the soil solution, aside from changing the chemical species in the solution, reducing the percentage complexed with Al and increasing the one complexed with Ca and Mg in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm. Black oat and maize cultivation increased pH in the solution, thereby increasing the proportion of HPO42- and reducing H2PO4- species.

  10. Detoxification of a lignocellulosic biomass slurry by soluble polyelectrolyte adsorption for improved fermentation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brian; Squillace, Phillip; Gilcrease, Patrick C; Menkhaus, Todd J

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the detoxification of a dilute acid pretreated Ponderosa pine slurry using the polyelectrolyte polyethyleneimine (PEI). The addition of polyelectrolyte to remove enzymatic and/or fermentation inhibitory compounds, that is, acetic acid, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), was performed either before or after enzymatic hydrolysis to determine the optimal process sequence. Negligible acetic acid, glucose, and xylose were removed regardless of where in the process the polymer addition was made. Maximum furfural and HMF separation was achieved with the addition of PEI to a clarified pre-enzymatic hydrolysis liquor, which showed that 88.3% of furfural and 66.4% of HMF could be removed. On the other hand, only 23.1% and 13.4% of furfural and HMF, respectively, were removed from a post-enzymatic hydrolysis sample; thus, the effects of enzymes, glucose, and wood solids on inhibitor removal were also investigated. The presence of solid particles >0.2 µm and unknown soluble components <10 kDa reduced inhibitory compound removal, but the presence of elevated glucose levels and enzymes (cellulases) did not affect the separation. The fermentability of detoxified versus undetoxified hydrolysate was also investigated. An ethanol yield of 92.6% of theoretical was achieved with Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting the detoxified hydrolyzate, while no significant ethanol was produced in the undetoxified hydrolyzate. These results indicate that PEI may provide a practical alternative for furan removal and detoxification of lignocellolosic hydrolysates, and that application before enzymatic hydrolysis minimizes separation interferences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Predicting wear of hydrotransport pipelines in oil sand slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, J.; Lu, B.; Wolodko, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kiel, D. [Coanda Research and Development Corp., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An overview of erosion and corrosion methods and techniques was presented. Wear to pipelines is influenced by slurry flow and chemistry; solids loading; and electrochemical interactions. While several experimental techniques have been developed to rank the performance of different pipeline materials, experiments do not currently provide accurate quantitative prediction of pipeline wear in the field. Rotating cylinder electrodes (RCE) and jet impingement methods are used to study the effect of flow velocity on corrosion rate. Slurry pot erosion-corrosion testers are used to rank materials for use in more dilute, less turbulent slurries. Coriolois slurry erosion testers are used to rank the erosion resistance of different pipeline materials. A pilot-scale flow loop is now being constructed by the Alberta Research Council (ARC) in order to replicate wet erosion phenomena in oil sands applications. The flow loop will be used to simulate the field conditions of oil sands pipelines and develop predictive wear data and models. Coulombic shear stress and characteristic wall velocities have been determined using a 2-layer model designed to represent flow as 2 distinct layers. To date, the flow loop pilot study has demonstrated that wear rates in smaller diameter flow loops are not significantly different than larger diameter field installations. Preliminary calculations have demonstrated that the flow loop can be used to accurately simulate the hydrodynamics and wear typically experienced in field slurry flows. 67 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. Methane Fermentation of Slurry with Chemical and Biological Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smurzyńska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of proper slurry management is primarily present in intensive livestock production. Industrialized livestock farms generate enormous quantities of manure droppings in a livestock-litter-free system. The traditional management of slurry is made by using it as a fertilizer. Alternative techniques used for neutralizing the detrimental effect of slurry are based on the use of chemical and biological additives, as well as by introducing aerobic environment through aerobic or anaerobic digestion, leading to methane fermentation. In the experiment, cattle manure was used, which came from the Przybroda farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Poznan. The aim of the study was to determine the biogas yield of slurry using the chemical and biological additive available on the Polish market. Mesophilic and thermophilic fermentation was used for the indication of the effectiveness of the employed fermentation process. The slurry was supplemented by a biological and chemical additive, i.e. effective microorganisms and – PRP, respectively. The experiment allowed to achieve a higher biogas yield during the use of effective microorganisms.

  13. Gas migration through cement slurries analysis: A comparative laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Velayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cementing is an essential part of every drilling operation. Protection of the wellbore from formation fluid invasion is one of the primary tasks of a cement job. Failure in this task results in catastrophic events, such as blow outs. Hence, in order to save the well and avoid risky and operationally difficult remedial cementing, slurry must be optimized to be resistant against gas migration phenomenon. In this paper, performances of the conventional slurries facing gas invasion were reviewed and compared with modified slurry containing special gas migration additive by using fluid migration analyzer device. The results of this study reveal the importance of proper additive utilization in slurry formulations. The rate of gas flow through the slurry in neat cement is very high; by using different types of additives, we observe obvious changes in the performance of the cement system. The rate of gas flow in neat class H cement was reported as 36000 ml/hr while the optimized cement formulation with anti-gas migration and thixotropic agents showed a gas flow rate of 13.8 ml/hr.

  14. Numerical Investigation of Ice Slurry Flow in a Horizontal Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, K. S.; Pratihar, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    In the last decade, phase changing material slurry (PCMS) gained much attention as a cooling medium due to its high energy storage capacity and transportability. However the flow of PCM slurry is a complex phenomenon as it affected by various parameters, i.e. fluid properties, velocity, particle size and concentration etc.. In the present work ice is used as a PCM and numerical investigation of heterogeneous slurry flow has been carried out using Eulerian KTGF model in a horizontal pipe. Firstly the present model is validated with existing experiment results available in the literature, and then model is applied to the present problem. Results show that, flow is almost homogeneous for ethanol based ice slurry with particle diameter of 0.1 mm at the velocity of 1 m/s. It is also found that ice particle distribution is more uniform at higher velocity, concentration of ice and ethanol in slurry. Results also show that ice concentration increases on the top of the pipe, and the effect of particle wall collision is more significant at higher particle diameter.

  15. WITHDRAWN: Amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus

    2009-01-21

    Amnioinfusion aims to prevent or relieve umbilical cord compression during labour by infusing a solution into the uterine cavity. It is also thought to dilute meconium when present in the amniotic fluid and so reduce the risk of meconium aspiration. However, it may be that the mechanism of effect is that it corrects oligohydramnios (reduced amniotic fluid), for which thick meconium staining is a marker. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor on perinatal outcome. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (October 2001) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Issue 3, 2001) were searched. Randomised trials comparing amnioinfusion with no amnioinfusion for women in labour with moderate or thick meconium-staining of the amniotic fluid. Eligibility and trial quality were assessed by one reviewer. Twelve studies, most involving small numbers of participants, were included. Under standard perinatal surveillance, amnioinfusion was associated with a reduction in the following: heavy meconium staining of the liquor (relative risk 0.03, 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.15); variable fetal heart rate deceleration (relative risk 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 0.88); and reduced caesarean section overall (relative risk 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.97). No perinatal deaths were reported. Under limited perinatal surveillance, amnioinfusion was associated with a reduction in the following: meconium aspiration syndrome (relative risk 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.48); neonatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (relative risk 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.56) and neonatal ventilation or intensive care unit admission (relative risk 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.79); there was a trend towards reduced perinatal mortality (relative risk 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 1.06). Amnioinfusion is associated with improvements in perinatal outcome

  16. Protozoan predation in soil slurries compromises determination of contaminant mineralization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.; Brandt, Kristian K.; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Soil suspensions (slurries) are commonly used to estimate the potential of soil microbial communities to mineralize organic contaminants. The preparation of soil slurries disrupts soil structure, however, potentially affecting both the bacterial populations and their protozoan predators. We studied the importance of this “slurry effect” on mineralization of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, 14 C-labelled), focussing on the effects of protozoan predation. Mineralization of MCPA was studied in “intact” soil and soil slurries differing in soil:water ratio, both in the presence and absence of the protozoan activity inhibitor cycloheximide. Protozoan predation inhibited mineralization in dense slurry of subsoil (soil:water ratio 1:3), but only in the most dilute slurry of topsoil (soil:water ratio 1:100). Our results demonstrate that protozoan predation in soil slurries may compromise quantification of contaminant mineralization potential, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low and their growth is controlled by predation during the incubation period. - Highlights: ► We studied the protozoan impact on MCPA mineralization in soil slurries. ► Cycloheximide was used as protozoan inhibitor. ► Protozoa inhibited MCPA mineralization in dilute topsoil slurry and subsoil slurry. ► Mineralization potentials may be underestimated when using soil slurries. - Protozoan predation may strongly bias the quantification of mineralization potential when performed in soil slurries, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low such as in subsoil or very dilute topsoil slurries.

  17. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  18. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  19. Efficiency of 72h- fermented corn waste liquor as a potential source for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okafor

    tests. Equal concentrations of the LAB isolates at their determined peak ... Key Words: Probiotics, Lactic acid bacteria, Fermentation, Corn waste-liquor. ... diary products, decaying plants, intestinal tract and mucous membranes of animals and ...

  20. Evaluating the Intoxicating Degree of Liquor Products with Combinations of Fusel Alcohols, Acids, and Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of fusel alcohols on the intoxicating degree of liquor products, formulated liquors (FLs were prepared by blending 1-propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol with ethanol, organic acids, and corresponding ethyl esters to simulate the formula of traditional Chinese liquors. The prepared FLs were submitted for evaluation of their intoxicating degree (ID. The results showed that the fusel alcohols had a biphasic effect on the IDs of the FLs, depending on the comprehensive coordination of the characteristic minor components. The importance of the suitable ratio of alcohols/acids/esters (RAAE on the IDs was also revealed. Under an optimal ratio level, the fusel alcohols exhibited negligible effects on the IDs of the FLs. Moreover, the ratio of isoamyl alcohol to isobutanol (IA/IB showed a strong positive correlation to the IDs of the FLs. This study lays a foundation for the potential application in producing low-ID liquor.

  1. Evaluating the Intoxicating Degree of Liquor Products with Combinations of Fusel Alcohols, Acids, and Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jia; Tian, Xiao-Fei; He, Song-Gui; Wei, Yun-Lu; Peng, Bin; Wu, Zhen-Qiang

    2018-05-23

    To investigate the effects of fusel alcohols on the intoxicating degree of liquor products, formulated liquors (FLs) were prepared by blending 1-propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol with ethanol, organic acids, and corresponding ethyl esters to simulate the formula of traditional Chinese liquors. The prepared FLs were submitted for evaluation of their intoxicating degree (ID). The results showed that the fusel alcohols had a biphasic effect on the IDs of the FLs, depending on the comprehensive coordination of the characteristic minor components. The importance of the suitable ratio of alcohols/acids/esters (RAAE) on the IDs was also revealed. Under an optimal ratio level, the fusel alcohols exhibited negligible effects on the IDs of the FLs. Moreover, the ratio of isoamyl alcohol to isobutanol (IA/IB) showed a strong positive correlation to the IDs of the FLs. This study lays a foundation for the potential application in producing low-ID liquor.

  2. A review of liquor transfer systems for use in nuclear reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1982-01-01

    Liquor pumping systems for use in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are described. Comparison of the operating characteristics and system constants are made between the air lift/Vacuum Operated Slug Lift, power fluidics and ejector pump systems. (author)

  3. Treatment of soak liquor and bioelectricity generation in dual chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, Kuppusamy; Narenkumar, Jayaraman; Selvi, Adikesavan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Babujanarthanam, Ranganathan; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2018-02-08

    The discharge of untreated soak liquor from tannery industry causes severe environmental pollution. This study is characterizing the soak liquor as a substrate in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) for remediation along with electricity generation. The dual chamber MFC was constructed and operated. Potassium permanganate was used as cathode solution and carbon felt electrode as anodic and cathodic material, respectively. The soak liquor was characterized by electrochemical studies viz., cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and polarization studies, respectively. The removal percentage of protein, lipid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured before and after treatment with MFC. The results of MFC showed a highest current density of 300 mA/cm 2 and a power density of 92 mW/m 2 . The removal of COD, protein, and lipid were noted as 96, 81, and 97% respectively during MFC process. This MFC can be used in tannery industries for treating soak liquor and simultaneous electricity generation.

  4. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian [Marietta, GA; Chai, Xin Sheng [Atlanta, GA; Zhu, Junyoung [Marietta, GA

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  5. 77 FR 34981 - Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... person who resides, conducts business, engages in a business transaction, receives benefits from the... liquor, wine, and beer, at a rate determined to be fair and equitable by the Board through independent...

  6. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  7. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  8. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer

  9. Radioactive waste slurry dehydrating and drum filling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, Toshio; Abe, Kazuaki; Hasegawa, Akira

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device for simultaneously filling and dehydrating radioactive waste in a waste can without the necessity of a special device for dehydration. Constitution: This device includes a radioactive waste storage tank, a pump for supplying the waste from the tank to a can, a drain tube having a filter at the lower end and installed displaceable in the axial direction of the can, and a drain pump. The slurry stored in the radioactive waste storage tank is supplied by the pump to the can, and the feedwater in the slurry is removed by another pump through a drain pipe having a filter which does not pass solid content from the can. Accordingly, as the slurry is filled in the can, the feedwater contained therein is removed. Consequently, it can simultaneously dehydrate and fill the dehydrated waste in the can. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Fast and Efficient Dehydration Process for Waste Drilling Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, slurry system was converted to colloid from fluid with the colloidization of high polymer coagulants with high viscosity. The solid-liquid separation of the waste slurry was realized by the process of chemical colloidal gel breaking, coagulation function, acidification gelout. In addition, the surface morphology of slurry cake was investigated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. The results indicate that mud separation effect is decides on the type of flocculants, gel breaker. The solid content of mud cake increases from 40.5% to 77.5% when A-PA and H20 are employed as the flocculants, gelout, with the dosage of zero point four grams and zero point five grams.

  12. Pubs in Public Life: A Place for Liquor Spaces in the City of Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Vancouver liquor licensing bylaws has been described by members of the media, industry, government and general public as overly restrictive, especially in the areas of hours ofservice, geographical distribution and the cultural diversity ofpublic liquor spaces. According to the City of Vancouver, the objective of city stewardship is to provide for the social, economic and physical well-being of citizens. A consultation of both academic research and the Vancouver community suggests that public...

  13. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The evaporation of viscose process liquors: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, R

    1984-01-01

    A program of work aimed at producing designs for an energy efficient process for the evaporation of water from viscose process liquors has been completed. The process uses mechanical vapor recompression in conjunction with a thin plastic heat transfer surface. A bench laboratory evaporation rig was built to prove the technical viability of the process. This was followed by the construction of a research plant at a viscose production site. The capacity of this plant was 100 to 150 kg/h of water evaporated. The construction and operation of a plastic heat exchanger with thin walled plastic tubes was achieved with considerable success. The lining of the concrete containment vessel proved more difficult, and the technique employed may not be the best for commercial units. Heat transfer coefficients of up to 550 Wm/sup -2/ K/sup -1/ were measured on the research plant. These agreed well with results obtained from a mathematical model developed for the process. An optimum design for a commercial unit has been costed and the financial parameters determined. Courtaulds considers that the construction of a demonstration plant is justified. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  15. The transport of plutonium nitrate liquor in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, T.R.; Wilson, D.; Bancroft, M.; Higson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The PFR fuel cycle reasons for plutonium nitrate liquor transport are discussed, identifying the pre 1980 'one litre' bottle associated with nuclear R and D activities and then the 250 litre PUNIT transport container to support the PFR fuel cycle. The PUNIT vessel design is discussed, addressing, in particular, the need for clean filling and criticality design features together with the identification of the IAEA transport regulations criteria and the late 1970s testing programme -the full scale drop tests and the model fire tests. Radiolysis is discussed together with the need for inert gas padding. The filling facility and operation are then outlined together with the fissile material accountancy requirements. The shipments and emergency arrangements are then described drawing attention to time and weather constraints. The risk assessment is discussed, together with reference to the Competent Authority (DoT) 'authorisation' and any constraints. A history of the amount of material transferred is then given - relating that to the reprocessing plant operations since 1980. The most satisfactory performance over 12 years is noted. (author)

  16. Startup of a Joule-heated glass melter with a graphite slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.L.; Routt, K.R.; Porter, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical equations and physical and electrical property data of various graphite slurries for starting up a glass melter. An application test is also included to demonstrate the graphite slurry startup technique

  17. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF A NITROGEN HETEROCYCLIC HERBICIDE IN ANOXIC AQUIFER SLURRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the metabolic fate of bromacil in anaerobic aquifer slurries held under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, or methanogenic conditions. Liquid chromatograhy-mass spectrometry of the slurries confirmed that bromacil was debrominated under methanogenic conditions but was not...

  18. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  19. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for ground water contamination as compared to application of raw slurry.......The potential for transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a four week period......, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method although recovery rates were low (liquid slurry leached 73% and 90% more oocysts compared with columns with injected and surface applied raw slurry, respectively...

  20. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cassano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS content of 10 g·100 g−1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF up to 32 g TSS 100 g−1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g−1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g−1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF. The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

  1. Recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquor by an integrated membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Ruby-Figueroa, René

    2014-08-11

    Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS) content of 10 g·100 g-1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) up to 32 g TSS 100 g-1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g-1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD) apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g-1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF). The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

  2. Computed tomographic volumetry of cerebral liquor by semiautomatic contour recognition and gray value histogram analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschammler, A.; Middendorf, C.; Luedinghausen, M. v.; Wittenberg, G.; Krahe, T.

    1996-01-01

    A program (VAC, Siemens) using selfmade, anthropomorphous phantomas to measure semiautomatically the volume of the cerebral liquor in CT scans of the whole skull was tested. Cerebral tissue was simulated by ellipsoid bodies made from Agar and Nal which were placed in a human skull. Volumes of the ventricular and subarachnoidal liquor could be defined arbitrarily. A correlation coefficient of r>=0.9 using a slice thickness of 1-5 mm was found (thickness 8 mm: r=0.75). The volume of the cerebral liquor was underestimated by 25-68%. Separate measurements of the ventricular and subarachnoidal liquor spaces showed a high accuracy of the measurements done in the ventricles (r=0.997, y=0.996x-1). The volume of the subarachnoidal liquor was not detected completely due to partial volume effects which were seen especially in the basal and apical scans. The program VAC is useful for the semiautomatic measurement of the volume of the ventricles. The assessment of the subarachnoidal liquor is limited to semiquantitative results. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Technical report on treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Jo, Eun Sung; Park, Seung Kook; Jung, Ki Jung

    1999-06-01

    By literature survey, this report deals with the technology on typical pre-treatment and filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste, produced during the operation of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor, and produced during the decommission/decontamination of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor. It is reviewed pre-treatment procedure, both physical and chemical that optimise the dewatering characteristics, and also surveyed types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. Dewatering operations and devises on filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste are also analysed. (author)

  4. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  5. Slurry Coating System Statement of Work and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The Slurry Coating System will be used to coat crystals with a polymer to support Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) research and development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The crystals will be suspended in water in a kettle. A polymer solution is added, temperature of the kettle is raised and aggregates of the crystals and polymer form. The slurry is heated under vacuum to drive off the solvents and slowly cooled while mixing to room temperature. The resulting aggregates are then filtered and dried. The performance characteristics and fielding constraints define a unique set of requirements for a new system. This document presents the specifications and requirements for the system.

  6. Corrosion behavior of austempered ductile iron (ADI) in iron ore slurry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion behavior of austempered ductile iron (ADI) in iron ore slurry was studied as a function of the microstructure developed by austempering at 380 and 300°C for different exposure time in the slurry. The corrosion rates of the ADI balls immersed in the iron ore slurry was determined using weight loss method.

  7. Effects of acidifying pig diets on emissions of ammonia, methane and sulfur from slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    and feces were collected separately from twenty-four pigs fed one of four diets (Control, +BA, +CaCl2, +BA+CaCl2) in metabolic cages, and mixed as slurry. During 103 days of storage, all acidifying diets consistently reduced pH in the slurry by 0.4 - 0.6 units. There was a strong relationship between slurry...

  8. Effects of different treatments of cattle slurry manure on water-extractable phosphorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cattle slurry manure applied to land increases the risk of phosphorus (P) movement to surface waters, which may lead to eutrophication. The water-extractable fraction of P in slurry manure is correlated with P concentration in runoff from soils amended with slurry smanure, and thus is an effective

  9. Draught requirement of trailing foot and shallow injection equipment for applying slurry to grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Hendriks, J.L.G.; Vermeulen, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Surface spreading of slurry leads to the inevitable emission of ammonia into the environment. Injection of slurry on grassland reduces these emissions. However, injection of slurry by deep working injector tines with goose foot chisels (wings) requires high draught forces. This type of injection has

  10. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  11. Agronomic valuing of slurry for management in common

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, M.; Estevez, M. D.; Faz, A.; Olivares, A. B.; Climent, V.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the intensification of livestock production and the concentration of holdings in specific areas, has disrupted the balance between production and utilization of swine waste in agriculture. given the volume of slurry generated in Murcia, and the total cultivable area and considering the legislation, RD 261/1996, which allows a maximum application of 170 kg N/ha year in areas designated as vulnerable, it is estimated that to implement the slurry generated in the region in a year, would require only half the arable land devoted to irrigation. In this way, this study has included detailed monitoring of the effect of the application of ping slurry at a concentration recommended on the properties and chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, water and plant to determine the influence of slurry on the reserve of organic matter in each of these crops, as well as contaminated soils, through the creation of a pilot system for managing livestock waste in accordance with preventive measures that allow for their optimal use, without risk of contamination for the system water-soil-plant. (Author 6 refs.

  12. Mineralenconcentraten uit dierlijke mest = Mineral concentrates from animal slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, P.; Buisonjé, de F.E.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 6 pilot production plants of mineral concentrates from animal manure were monitored, with the aim of gathering additional data on the chemical composition of the raw slurry and the end products. Beside that a literature review was executed to reveal the biological degradability of

  13. Design and construction of a deep slurry trench barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deming, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    A 24 m (80 ft) deep slurry trench surrounding a former chromium manufacturing facility on the Patapsco River in Baltimore, Maryland was constructed in 1995 to contain groundwater and site Soils, and to reduce the volume of groundwater extracted to maintain an inward gradient. In 1992, an embankment made of crushed stone was constructed in the Patapsco River to make land for barrier construction outboard of the bulkheads, and to protect the barrier. Stability of the slurry-supported trench excavation in the embankment required construction from an elevated work platform. An extended reach backhoe was used to excavate the deep slurry trench and to clean the trench bottom. Soil-Bentonite backfill was prepared at a central mixing area and transported by truck to the perimeter barrier. A synthetic membrane was inserted partially into the backfill for connection to a multimedia cap, and for redundancy and erosion control in the tidal zone. Hydraulic testing of the aquitard contained by the barrier demonstrated excellent performance of the barrier and bottom closure. Detailed definition of subsurface conditions and the closure stratum was necessary for the design and successful construction of the barrier, and is recommended for comparable slurry trench construction projects

  14. Radioactive slurry waste treatment (2) - surfactants dose effects on filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake

  15. Developing Archetypal Machines for a Sequence of Food- Slurry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This current work is targeted at developing various archetypal machines for the improvement of the production of these food slurries. Three prototype machines have been developed and discussed in this paper, namely, the suction sieving machine, the vibration sieving machine and the continuous flow multi-stage milling ...

  16. Automated injection of slurry samples in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, M.H.F.M.; Hulsman, M.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of injectors are described for introducing solid samples as slurries in flow analysis systems. A time-based and a volume-based injector based on multitube solenoid pinch valves were built, both can be characterized as hydrodynamic injectors. Reproducibility of the injections of dispersed

  17. Rheokinetic Analysis of Hydroxy Terminated Polybutadiene Based Solid Propellant Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K Mahanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure kinetics of propellant slurry based on hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB and toluene diisocyanate (TDI polyurethane reaction has been studied by viscosity build up method. The viscosity (ɳ–time (t plots conform to the exponential function ɳ = aebt, where a & b are empirical constants. The rate constants (k for viscosity build up at various shear rate (rpm, evaluated from the slope of dɳ/dt versus ɳ plots at different temperatures, were found to vary from 0.0032 to 0.0052 min-1. It was observed that the increasing shear rate did not have significant effect on the reaction rate constants for viscosity build up of the propellant slurry. The activation energy (Eɳ, calculated from the Arrhenius plots, was found to be 13.17±1.78 kJ mole-1, whereas the activation enthalpy (∆Hɳ* and entropy (∆Sɳ* of the propellant slurry, calculated from Eyring relationship, were found to be 10.48±1.78 kJ mole-1 and –258.51± 5.38 J mole-1K-1, respectively. The reaction quenching temperature of the propellant slurry was found to be -9 ° C, based upon the experimental data. This opens up an avenue for a “freeze-and-store”, then “warm-up and cast”, mode of manufacturing of very large solid rocket propellant grains.

  18. The effect of slurry rheology on cold cap formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, D.D.; Hrma, P.

    1991-01-01

    Yield stress, viscosity, and flow distance were measured on three simulated nuclear waste feeds at different temperatures and oxide loadings. Hydroxide, formate, and frit feeds, to produce glass of identical composition, were tested. Application of the results to a slurry fed waste glass melter is discussed

  19. A layered model for inclined pipe flow of settling slurry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan; Kesely, Mikoláš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 333, June (2018), s. 317-326 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-14271S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : inclined pipe * settling slurry * pressure drop * flow stratification * laboratory loop Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  20. Debris flow rheology: Experimental analysis of fine-grained slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    The rheology of slurries consisting of ≤2-mm sediment from a natural debris flow deposit was measured using a wide-gap concentric-cylinder viscometer. The influence of sediment concentration and size and distribution of grains on the bulk rheological behavior of the slurries was evaluated at concentrations ranging from 0.44 to 0.66. The slurries exhibit diverse rheological behavior. At shear rates above 5 s−1 the behavior approaches that of a Bingham material; below 5 s−1, sand exerts more influence and slurry behavior deviates from the Bingham idealization. Sand grain interactions dominate the mechanical behavior when sand concentration exceeds 0.2; transient fluctuations in measured torque, time-dependent decay of torque, and hysteresis effects are observed. Grain rubbing, interlocking, and collision cause changes in packing density, particle distribution, grain orientation, and formation and destruction of grain clusters, which may explain the observed behavior. Yield strength and plastic viscosity exhibit order-of-magnitude variation when sediment concentration changes as little as 2–4%. Owing to these complexities, it is unlikely that debris flows can be characterized by a single rheological model.

  1. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  2. Impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesions in apoE-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdekhasti, Narges; Brandsch, Corinna; Hirche, Frank; Kühn, Julia; Schloesser, Anke; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Huebbe, Patricia; Wolffram, Siegfried; Rimbach, Gerald; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-10-15

    Cocoa polyphenols are thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, cocoa-containing foods may have significant health benefits. Here, we studied the impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesion development and plaque composition in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout mice were assigned to two groups and fed a Western diet that contained 250 g/kg of either chocolate liquor or a polyphenol-free isoenergetic control paste for 16 weeks. In addition to fat, protein, and fibers, the chocolate liquor contained 2 g/kg of polyphenols. Compared with the control group, mice fed the chocolate liquor had larger plaque areas in the descending aorta and aortic root, which were attributed to a higher mass of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and collagen. Vascular lipid deposits and calcification areas did not differ between the two groups. The aortic tissue level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA was 5-fold higher in the mice fed chocolate liquor than in the control mice. Chocolate-fed mice exhibited an increased hepatic saturated to polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio than the controls. Although the chocolate liquor contained 14 µg/kg of vitamin D 2 , the chocolate liquor-fed mice did not have measurable 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 in the serum. These mice even showed a 25% reduction in the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 compared with the control mice. Overall, present data may contribute to our understanding how chocolate constituents can impact vascular lesion development. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. Social capital, the miniaturisation of community and consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-12-01

    To study the impact of social participation, trust and the miniaturisation of community, i.e. high social participation/low trust, on consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. The Scania 2000 public health survey is a cross-sectional, postal questionnaire study. A total of 13,604 persons aged 18-80 years were included. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between the social capital variables and illegal alcohol consumption. The multivariate analyses analysed the importance of confounders (age, country of origin, education and economic stress) on the differences in consumption of homemade and smuggled liquor according to the social capital variables. A 28.2% proportion of all men and 14.9% of all women had consumed homemade liquor during the past year. The proportions who had consumed smuggled liquor during the past year were even higher, 40.1% among men and 21.4% among women. Both forms of illegal alcohol consumption were significantly positively associated with social participation and negatively associated with trust. The miniaturisation of community category, i.e. high social participation/low trust, had significantly higher risks of consumption during the past year of the consumption of both forms of illegally provided alcohol compared to the high social capital (high social participation/high trust) category, while the low social participation/high trust category had significantly lower risks. High social participation combined with low trust is positively associated with consumption of illegally provided alcohol. The results have implications for alcohol prevention programs, because structural/social factors that may hinder information and norms concerning illegal alcohol have been identified in this study.

  4. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental alertness as well as learning, memory, and information processing skills. It is also used for treating headache; ... of carbamazepine. Since black tea contains caffeine, in theory taking black tea with carbamazepine might decrease the ...

  5. Slurry erosion induced surface nanocrystallization of bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiulin; Wu, Jili; Pi, Jinghong; Cheng, Jiangbo; Shan, Yiping; Zhang, Yingtao

    2018-05-01

    Microstructure evolution and phase transformation of metallic glasses (MGs) could occur under heating condition or mechanical deformation. The cross-section of as-cast Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 MG rod was impacted by the solid particles when subjected to erosion in slurry flow. The surface microstructure was observed by XRD before and after slurry erosion. And the stress-driven de-vitrification increases with the increase of erosion time. A microstructure evolution layer with 1-2 μm thickness was formed on the topmost eroded surface. And a short range atomic ordering prevails in the microstructure evolution layer with crystalline size around 2-3 nm embedded in the amorphous matrix. The XPS analysis reveals that most of the metal elements in the MG surface, except for Cu, were oxidized. And a composite layer with ZrO2 and Al2O3 phases were formed in the topmost surface after slurry erosion. The cooling rate during solidification of MG has a strong influence on the slurry erosion induced nanocrystallization. And a lower cooling rate favors the surface nanocrystallization because of lower activation energy and thermo-stability. Finally, the slurry erosion induced surface nanocrystallization and microstructure evolution result in surface hardening and strengthening. Moreover, the microstructure evolution mechanisms were discussed and it is related to the cooling rate of solidification and the impact-induced temperature rise, as well as the combined effects of the impact-induced plastic flow, inter-diffusion and oxidation of the metal elements.

  6. Aerosols generated by spills of viscous solutions and slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Hodgson, W.H.

    1986-12-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous solutions and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of solution was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous solutions of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as solution viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying solution also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous solutions, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 μm, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0

  7. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs

  8. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  9. Sorption of 17b-Estradiol to Pig Slurry Separates and Soil in the Soil-Slurry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    to agricultural soils, to different size fractions of pig slurry separates, and to soils amended with each size fraction to simulate conditions in the soil–slurry environment. A crude fiber fraction (SS1) was prepared by sieving (solids removed by an on-farm separation process. Three other size...... fractions (SS2 > SS3 > SS4) were prepared from the liquid fraction of the separated slurry by sedimentation and centrifugation. Sorption experiments were conducted in 0.01 mol L−1 CaCl2 and in natural pig urine matrix. Sorption in 0.01 mol L−1 CaCl2 was higher than that in pig urine for all solids used....... Sorption of E2 to soil increased with its organic carbon content for both liquid phases. The solid–liquid partition coefficients of slurry separates were 10 to 30 times higher than those of soils, but the organoic carbon normalized partition coefficient values, reflecting sorption per unit organic carbon...

  10. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  11. Leaf absorption of atmospheric ammonia emitted from pig slurry applied beneath the canopy of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjedde Sommer, S.; Jensen, E.S.; Kofoed Schjoerring, J.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption of volatilized ammonia after application of slurry onto the soil surface (sand) between rows of a wheat crop was studied in two experiments. The slurry was labelled with 15 N-NH 4 . During seven days the accumulated gaseous N loss from the slurry varied from 6.9 to 11.1 g N m -2 . In April ammonia losses from slurry applied beneath a 5 cm high wheat crop were equal to losses from slurry applied to a fallow, but 2.2% of the lost atmospheric ammonia was taken up by the leaves. In May ammonia loss from slurry applied between the rows of a 43 cm high crop was reduced by 6% compared to the loss from fallow, because of a reduced transfer of ammonia from the slurry to the air. Of the emitted ammonia 3.3% was absorbed by the canopy. (au)

  12. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry.

  13. Development of blueberry liquor: influence of distillate, sweetener and fruit quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ilda; Lopes, Daniel; Delgado, Teresa; Canas, Sara; Anjos, Ofélia

    2018-02-01

    In this work different formulations of blueberry liquor were tested and characterised based on their physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Three factors were evaluated: the distillate used to produce the liquor (wine spirit or grape marc spirit); the sweetener (white sugar or honey) and the fruit quantity (two doses). For each liquor, pH, total acidity, dry soluble solids content, dry extract, alcoholic strength, reducing sugars, colour intensity, methanol content, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols were determined. Sensory tests were carried out with a trained panel. The three factors studied significantly influenced the physico-chemical features of the liquors, being the quantity of fruit the most discriminating factor, except for the volatile compounds which were mainly influenced by the distillate. As regards the sensory analysis, it was found that the most appreciated liquor was that prepared with wine spirit, sugar and a lower dose of blueberry, and the less appreciated formulation was the one made with grape marc spirit, honey and a lower quantity of blueberry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Xu, Hairong; Eke, Ahizechukwu C

    2014-01-23

    Amnioinfusion is thought to dilute meconium present in the amniotic fluid and so reduce the risk of meconium aspiration. To assess the effects of amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor on perinatal outcome. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 December 2013). Randomised trials comparing amnioinfusion with no amnioinfusion for women in labour with moderate or thick meconium staining of the amniotic fluid. Three review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality, and extracted data. Fourteen studies of variable quality (4435 women) are included.Subgroup analysis was performed for studies from settings with limited facilities to monitor the baby's condition during labour and intervene effectively, and settings with standard peripartum surveillance.Settings with standard peripartum surveillance: there was considerable heterogeneity for several outcomes. There was no significant reduction in the primary outcomes meconium aspiration syndrome, perinatal death or severe morbidity, and maternal death or severe morbidity. There was a reduction in caesarean sections (CSs) for fetal distress but not overall. Meconium below the vocal cords diagnosed by laryngoscopy was reduced, as was neonatal ventilation or neonatal intensive care unit admission, but there was no significant reduction in perinatal deaths or other morbidity. Planned sensitivity analysis excluding trials with greater risk of bias resulted in an absence of benefits for any of the outcomes studied.Settings with limited peripartum surveillance: three studies were included. In the amnioinfusion group there was a reduction in CS for fetal distress and overall; meconium aspiration syndrome (three studies, 1144 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.52); perinatal mortality (three studies, 1151 women; RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.53) and neonatal ventilation or neonatal intensive care unit admission. In one of the studies, meconium

  15. Advanced computational model for three-phase slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2001-10-01

    In the second year of the project, the Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is further developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. An experimental set for studying a two-dimensional bubble column is also developed. The operation of the bubble column is being tested and diagnostic methodology for quantitative measurements is being developed. An Eulerian computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column is also being developed. The liquid and bubble motions are being analyzed and the results are being compared with the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Further progress was also made in developing a thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion. The balance laws are obtained and the constitutive laws are being developed. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also establish the

  16. Nutrient losses from cattle co-digestate slurry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Perazzolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among environmental issues related to intensive livestock activity, emissions to air from manure management are of increasing concern. Thus the knowledge of the effect of treatment application on subsequent emissions from manure is required to assess the environment impact of management solutions. This work addresses the effect of anaerobic digestion and phase separation on emissions during storage by studying nitrogen losses from lab-scale stores and field pilot-scale stores of a co-digestate cattle slurry and its respective separated fractions. Lab-scale experiment was carried in temperature-controlled room where each fraction (untreated, separated liquid and separated solid was stored in duplicate for a period of 32 days in 30 L vessel. Pilot-scale experiment was carried out both during the cold season and during warm season for 90 days of storage. In both experimentations samples of the manure were analysed periodically for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total ammonia nitrogen, dry matter and volatile solids and pH. These analyses allow estimating nitrogen losses in different storage conditions. Effects of mechanical separation and season were assessed by ANOVA (Wilcoxon test, P<0.05. In temperature controlled conditions nitrogen losses measured account for 13% and 26% of TKN for unseparated and separated slurries respectively. In field conditions during cold season nutrient losses were limited. On average unseparated and separated slurries lost respectively 6.8% and 12.6% of their initial TKN content. Much higher were the TKN losses from the slurries examined in warm season where losses raised up to 40% of the initial TKN content. Generally mechanical separation increases nutrient losses, but the differences were not significant in field conditions. The results highlighted that nutrient losses, in particular the nitrogen ones, can be considerable especially during summer storage. The latter, in case of separated slurries, are mainly related

  17. Advanced computational model for three-phase slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2000-11-01

    In the first year of the project, solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Progress was also made in analyzing the gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures. An Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is being developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of gas liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian particle tracking procedure to analyze the particle motions. Progress was also made in developing a rate dependent thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows in a state of turbulent motion. The new model includes the effect of phasic interactions and leads to anisotropic effective phasic stress tensors. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The formulation of a thermodynamically consistent model for chemically active multiphase solid-fluid flows in a turbulent state of motion was also initiated. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also to establish the material parameters of the model. (2) To provide experimental data for phasic fluctuation and mean velocities, as well as the solid volume fraction in the shear flow devices. (3) To develop an accurate computational capability incorporating the new rate-dependent and anisotropic model for analyzing reacting and

  18. An acoustic technique for the determination of liquor level in tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.; Jones, T.L.

    1980-02-01

    The design, development and application of a prototype suitable for the measurement of liquor levels in tanks is described. The technique involves directing an acoustic pulse down a constraining tube to the liquor surface and measuring the time of return of the reflected pulse. Using the equipment it is possible to determine the position of a solid surface with a total error of less than 1 mm. The prototype instrument was used to measure the volume of liquors contained in rectangular slab tanks used for accountancy purposes at Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. The total error obtained in an individual measurement of volume was less than 0.2 litres (95% confidence limits). The instrument may be used as a replacement for a Pneumercator system in existing installations. (author)

  19. Exploration on trickle leaching of uranium ore by refreshed liquor of bacterial oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shian; Huang Xiangfu; Fan Baotuan

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the adaptation of the domesticated thiobacillus ferroxidans to the trickle leaching conditions of uranium ore. When the bacterial leaching liquor through multiple cycles of oxidation and regeneration was used to return to the trickle leaching, the following results were obtained: the extraction rate was more than 95%, the acid consumption was saved by 30%, and the consumed 2.0% pyrolusite (MnO 2 40%) was eliminated. The following problems are discussed: the basic principle, process and some factors influencing the process of the trickle leaching of uranium ore using regenerated liquor of bacterial oxidation, counter-current trickle leaching mode, oxidation and regeneration techniques of bacterial leaching liquor and other technological problems on the process of uranium extraction by thiobacillus ferroxidans

  20. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg

  1. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage. [Eight alternative processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study. (DLC)

  2. Toxicity to rainbow trout of spent still liquors from the distillation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, D W.M.

    1962-01-01

    From a survey of the literature on the toxicity of ammonium salts, phenol, cyanide, and sulphide to rainbow trout, and from determinations of the toxicity of sodium thiocyanate and sodium thiosulphate, it is postulated that the toxicity of spent still liquors from the distillation of coal should be due mainly to their content of ammonia and monohydric phenols. This is confirmed by experiments showing that the toxicity of an equivalent mixture of ammonium chloride and phenol is nearly as great as that of a spent liquor from a gas works, and that phenol is almost as toxic as mixtures of the monohydric phenols known to be present in such liquors. Experiments on the effect of pH value, hardness, dissolved-oxygen concentration and temperature on the threshold concentration of monohydric phenols are described and compared with similar data for ammonia. Experiments with ammonia and phenols suggest that a mixture of these substances is at its threshold concentration when AS/AT/+PS/PT=I,AS and PS being the concentrations of un-ionized ammonia and monohydric phenols in solution and AT and PT being the threshold concentrations of these substances when tested individually in the same dilution water. A method based on these experiments for predicting the toxicity of ammonia-phenol mixtures from the chemical composition of their solutions is described, and evaluated against laboratory determinations of the toxicity of spent liquors from a coke oven, and against the death or survival of trout held captive in a stream polluted with spent liquor from a gas works. It is concluded that the correspondence between the predicted and observed toxicities is good enough for the method to be used as a basis for assessing whether trout could live in a stream to which a particular spent still liquor was discharged, or when deciding what treatment the effluent should receive to make it safe for such fish after discharge.

  3. High temperature oxidation of slurry coated interconnect alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa Helen

    with this interaction mechanism mainly give a geometrical protection against oxidation by blocking oxygen access at the surface of the oxide scale. The protecting effect is gradually reduced as the oxide scale grows thicker than the diameter of the coating particles. Interaction mechanism B entails a chemical reaction...... scale. The incorporated coating particles create a geometrical protection against oxidation that should not loose their effect after the oxide scale has grown thicker than the diameter of the coating particles. The two single layer coatings consisting of (La0.85Sr0.15)MnO3 + 10% excess Mn, LSM, and (La0......In this project, high temperature oxidation experiments of slurry coated ferritic alloys in atmospheres similar to the atmosphere found at the cathode in an SOFC were conducted. From the observations possible interaction mechanisms between the slurry coatings and the growing oxide scale...

  4. Preparation of coal slurries deposited in ground settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Blaschke

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the hard coal washing process, considerable quantities of coal slimes are generated. They belong to grain size classes below 1, 0 mm (with the majority of grains below 0,035 mm and are often sold in order to prepare blends for the power generation. It is assessed that in Poland about 11 mln tons of such slimes were deposited. The slimes of a low ash content can be exploited and sold. The slime of high ash content must be washed. In Poland there is one coal preparation plant for slurries. The article describes the technology and presents the results of a simplified economic analysis of exploitation of the slurries and their washing.

  5. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.

    2013-06-14

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  6. Design of a new abrasive slurry jet generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. C.; Shi, L. L.; Guo, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    With the advantages of a low system working pressure, good jet convergence and high cutting quality, abrasive slurry jet (ASJ) has broad application prospects in material cutting and equipment cleaning. Considering that the generator plays a crucial role in ASJ system, the paper designed a new type ASJ generator using an electric oil pump, a separate plunger cylinder, and a spring energized seal. According to the determining of structure shape, size and seal type, a new ASJ generator has been manufactured out and tested by a series of experiments. The new generator separates the abrasive slurry from the dynamic hydraulic oil, which can improve the service life of the ASJ system. And the new ASJ system can reach 40 MPa and has good performance in jet convergence, which deserves to popularization and application in materials machining.

  7. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.; Karagoz, A.; Ozdemir, Z.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chen, Long

    2013-01-01

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  8. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO 2 from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide [Ba(OH) 2 ] or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ]. Such a process would be applied to scrub 14 CO 2 from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH) 2 slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH) 2 . Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated

  9. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol measurements were conducted above a half-scale air sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry. Three aerosol size fractions were measured at three sampling heights at three different sparging rates using a filter based ambient air sampling technique. Aerosol concentrations in the head space above the closed tank demonstrated a wide range, varying between 97 ?g m-3 for PM2.5 and 5650 ?g m-3 for TSP. The variation in concentrations was a function of sampling heights, size fraction and sparging rate. Measured aerosol entrainment coefficients showed good agreement with existing entrainment models. The models evaluated generally over predicted the entrainment, but were within a factor of two of the measured entrainment. This indicates that the range of applicability of the models may be extendable to include sparged slurries with Bingham plastic rheological properties

  10. A contractor's approach to engineering process plant for radioactive liquor processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braide, W.M.; Fletcher, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    Protection of personnel from damaging sources of radiation is the overriding consideration which influences the fundamental design of plant for processing active liquors in the Nuclear Industry. The conventional design procedures of the Chemical Plant Contractor have therefore to be modified to meet the specific technology and additional safety requirements. Ways in which the added factor of radiation influences the design philosophy for Nuclear Plant compared to conventional Chemical Plant are described. Design philosophy is demonstrated by design studies for active liquor storage and evaporation plant. (author)

  11. A contractors's approach to engineering process plant for radioactive liquor processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braide, W.M.; Fletcher, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    Protection of personnel from damaging sources of radiation is the overriding consideration which influences the fundamental design of plant for processing active liquors in the Nuclear Industry. The conventional design procedures of the Chemical Plant Contractor have therefore to be modified to meet the specific technology and additional safety requirements. This paper describes ways in which the added factor of radiation influences the design philosophy for Nuclear Plant compared to conventional Chemical Plant. The design philosophy is demonstrated by design studies for active liquor storage and evaporation plant. (author)

  12. Ion-exchange preparation of high-purity vanadium acid from industrial liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajdakhmedov, U.A.; Arslanov, Sh.S.; Vulikh, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The results of investigations on production of special-purity vanadium acid and vanadium oxide directly from process solutions (technical grade liquors) using ionites are presented. Potentiality of thorough purification of vanadium(5) oxide, when producing vanadium acid on the KU-2 cationite with subsequent purification on anionite, is shown. On the basis of the results obtained a principle flowsheet of ion-exchange production of high-purity vanadium(5) oxide from industrial liquors has been developed. 2 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  13. Investigation of boron extraction process with aid magnesium hydroxide from mother liquor of boron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balapanova, B.S.; Zhajmina, R.E.; Serazetdinov, D.Z.

    1988-01-01

    Conditions of boron - magnesium concentrate preparation from mother liquor by coprecipitation of borate - ions by magnesium hydroxide are investigated. It is shown that boron - magnesium concentrate and products of its heat treatment at 100 - 500 deg C in water are dissolved partially, and in ammonium citrate - practically completely. Suppositions are made on the composition of the product prepared, on the the structure of its crystal lattice and the processes taking place in it during heat treatment. The conclusion is made on the perspectiveness of processing of mother liquor of boron industry for boron - magnesium concentrate

  14. An oilwell cement slurry additivated with bisphenol diglycidil ether/isophoronediamine-Kinetic analysis and multivariate modelings at slurry/HCl interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestari, Antonio R.; Vieira, Eunice F.S.; Tavares, Andrea M.G.; Andrade, Marcos A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of zonal isolation in oilwell cementing operations leads to safety and environmental problems. The use of new cement slurries can help to solve this problem. In this paper, an epoxy-modified cement slurry was synthesized and characterized. The features of the modified slurries were evaluated in relation to a standard cement slurry (w/c = 0.50). A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the slurries was carried out using cubic molds. The Avrami kinetic model appears to be the most efficient in describing kinetic isotherms obtained from 25 to 55 deg. C. Type of slurry, HCl concentration and temperature effects were also evaluated in HCl adsorption onto cement slurries considering a 2 3 full factorial design. From the statistical analysis, it is inferred that the factor 'HCl concentration' has shown a profound influence on the numerical values of the Avrami kinetic constants. However, the best statistical fits were found using binary and tertiary interactive effects. It was found that the epoxy-modified cement slurry presents a good potential to be used in environmental-friendly oilwell operations.

  15. Slurry growth: the characterization of a unique phenomenon at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Slurry growth, unique to the Hanford Site, is a significant increase in the volume of waste contained in a waste storage tank without the addition of new waste. Slurry growth is caused by gas entrapment within waste slurries which causes the slurry to swell, like bread dough. The surface of the slurry rises until either gas pressure is great enough or the weight of the slurry over the gases is great enough to cause the surface of the slurry to collapse. The gases causing slurry growth are generated from decomposition of organics present in high-level nuclear waste (HEDTA, EDTA, GLY). Predominant gases are H 2 , N 2 , N 2 O, NO/sub x/, and CO 2 . More gas is generated, and at a faster rate, as the temperature increases. Slurry growth, although not completely eliminated, is being safely and effectively controlled. The parameters affecting slurry growth have been defined, and predictive equations have been established. The knowledge gained through laboratory experiments contributes to continued safe and efficient high-level waste management practices at the Hanford Site

  16. Rheological properties of concentrated alumina slurries: influence of ph and dispersant agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewais, E.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the ph, the electrolyte concentrations and the rheological properties of high concentrated alumina slurries in aqueous medium is of great importance because it is considered to be the key to control the stability of the slurries from flocculation. Zeta potential of alumina slurries with and without Duramax C (dispersant agent) as a function of ph was studied. Two ph around the zero point of charge of alumina slurries were selected for the investigation of rheological properties. The rheological properties of aqueous alumina slurries with respect to different parameters, e.g.: viscosity, elastic modulus (storage modulus G) and viscous modulus (loss modulus G), were investigated. Viscosity measurements of the slurries as a function of Duramax C content at both ph 8.4 and 9.4) were used to determine the state of slurries. Three states of slurries, termed flocculated, partially de flocculated and fully de flocculated, were selected for further investigation. The viscosity of the three slurries at both ph as a function of shear rate was determined. Fully de flocculated slurry shows Newtonian behavior at all shear rates at both tested ph compared by the partial de flocculated and flocculated system. Results of investigation of G and G at ph of 9.4 as a function of applied stress explored the critical stress

  17. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Popovic, Olga

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative...... indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis...... of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw...

  18. Effect of alkaline slurry on the electric character of the pattern Cu wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yi; Liu Yuling; Liu Xiaoyan; He Yangang; Wang Liran; Zhang Baoguo

    2011-01-01

    For process integration considerations, we will investigate the impact of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) on the electrical characteristics of the pattern Cu wafer. In this paper, we investigate the impacts of the CMP process with two kinds of slurry, one of which is acid slurry of SVTC and the other is FA/O alkaline slurry purchased from Tianjin Jingling Microelectronic Material Limited. Three aspects were investigated: resistance, capacitance and leakage current. The result shows that after polishing by the slurry of FA/O, the resistance is lower than the SVTC. After polishing by the acid slurry and FA/O alkaline slurry, the difference in capacitance is not very large. The values are 0.1 nF and 0.12 nF, respectively. The leakage current of the film polished by the slurry of FA/O is 0.01 nA, which is lower than the slurry of SVTC. The results show that the slurry of FA/O produced less dishing and oxide loss than the slurry of SVTC. (semiconductor technology)

  19. Piston membrane pumps for slurries transport; Kolbenmembranpumpen fuer den Schlammtransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechmann, F. [Abel GmbH und Co. KG, Buechen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    As raw materials prices are rising, ore and coal mines in remote parts of the world have become profitable. Local infrastructures in these regions are not comparable with Europe. There are no rods or railways, and pipelines must be constructed parallel to rivers through deserts, mountains and rainforests. As a rule, pipelines do not follow favourable geological conditions but are constructed along the shortest possible rout to the nearest port or the nearest processing plant. Slurries are transported by pumping. (orig.)

  20. Radioactive slurry waste treatment (1) - flucculant dose effects on filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    During the past four decades, the radioactive slurry liquid waste(RSLW) is produced by operation of TRIGA Mark - II and III research reactors, producing radioisotopes and studying on RI utilization. Vacuum filtration of RSLW and flocculated RSLW with cationic, anionic and nonionic flocculants has been investigated. Test results show that critical dose of flocculant is obtained by the estimation of settling rate, cake moisture content and specific cake residence

  1. Putting the coal slurry pipelines to the test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauermann, H B

    1978-03-01

    This paper deals with the advantages and disadvantages of coal slurry pipelines and describes coal slurry tests undertaken in three test circuits with 100, 200 and 250 mm diameter pipes. The test results from the test circuits were used to scale-up pressure gradients to larger pipe diameters. The construction and installation of hydraulic transport pipelines is simple and requires a minimum of space. The crossing of rivers, roads, railways or any other obstacles is comparatively easy. The operation, supervision and maintenance of a pipeline is simple since any pipeline can be easily adapted for fully automatic control. For this reason manpower requirements are small resulting in only small increases in operating costs during the life of a pipeline. This is an attractive feature in any economy troubled by inflationary trends. In transporting a commodity such as coal the quantities handled are usually large and the distances are long. The profitability of hydraulic transportation systems benefits from such operating conditions. Even though the various components of a slurry transport system, such as the slurrying facilities at the mine end and the dewatering facilities at the utilization end, are complex, their reliability is high. Against the advantages, the following limitations can be visualized: It is practically impossible to transport solids other than those for which the pipeline was designed; in this regard, road and rail transportation is more versatile. The solids throughput through a pipeline cannot be economically increased beyond its design throughput. Pipelining involves the use of fluids, in most cases water, which in some instances may not be readily available.

  2. Process for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-10-25

    A process is described for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry, substantially aqueous. The composition consists essentially of a suspension of an inorganic oxygen salt for furnishing oxygen in a fluid matrix. This fluid matrix consists of a lower aliphatic glycol (ethylene, diethylene, propylene, dipropylene) thickened with one of the polysaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose) or mixtures of them. The composition should have a density below 1.8 g per cu cm. (5 claims)

  3. Atomization of JP-10/B4C gelled slurry fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmi, John David

    1992-01-01

    The atomization of a gelled boron slurry fuel using two commercially available airblast atomizers was studied at atmospheric pressure in non-reacting flow. The atomization of water was also characterized for comparison. Each atomizer was operated at two different liquid mass flow rates and several air/ fuel ratios. Drop size distribution was measured using a Malvern 2600 HSD Laser Diffraction Particle Sizer, Drop sizes acceptable for use in ramjet combustors could be obtained f...

  4. Design of agitation systems in Bingham slurries by pilot simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    A method was required to determine the optimum agitator speed needed to produce overall motion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) high-level waste slurries in remote process cell vessels. Project schedule and limited process space required an accurate determination of agitator horsepower and size without the benefit of full-scale testing. The small scale testing of unique clear rheologically similar fluid is described along with tests and scale-up procedures. 2 refs., 3 figs

  5. 78 FR 4431 - Santee Sioux Nation-Title XXI-Alcohol, Chapter 1.-Santee Sioux Nation Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... the sale and distribution of liquor and beer products on all properties within the limits of the... accommodations for the sale of liquor by the glass and for consumption on the premises. 3. ``Beer'' means any alcoholic beverage obtained by the alcoholic fermentation of an infusion or decoction of pure hops, or pure...

  6. Size effects on acid bisulfite pretreatment efficiency: multiple product yields in spent liquor and enzymatic digestibility of pretreated solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalan Liu; Jinwu Wang; Michael P. Wolcott

    2017-01-01

    Currently, feedstock size effects on chemical pretreatment performance were not clear due to the complexity of the pretreatment process and multiple evaluation standards such as the sugar recovery in spent liquor or enzymatic digestibility. In this study, we evaluated the size effects by various ways: the sugar recovery and coproduct yields in spent liquor, the...

  7. Alcoholic Beverages Obtained from Black Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Darias-Martín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Black mulberry (Morus nigra is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the edges of the ravine. The inhabitants of these islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, El Hierro and Lanzarote collect the fruit and prepare homemade beverages for medicinal purposes. Numerous authors have reported that type II diabetes mellitus can be controlled by taking a mixture containing black mulberry and water. Apart from that, this fruit has been used for the treatment of mouth, tongue and throat inflammations. In this study we present some characteristics of black mulberry juice (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, citric acid, lactic acid, polyphenols, anthocyanins, the potassium etc. and alcoholic beverages (alcoholic grade, pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, tannins, phenols etc. obtained from black mulberry. Moreover, we have studied the quality of liquors obtained from black mulberry in Canary Islands.

  8. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J.; McFarland, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period

  9. Surfactant mediated slurry formulations for Ge CMP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. Bahar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, slurry formulations in the presence of self-assembled surfactant structures were investigated for Ge/SiO2 CMP applications in the absence and presence of oxidizers. Both anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS) and cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-C12TAB) micelles were used in the slurry formulations as a function of pH and oxidizer concentration. CMP performances of Ge and SiO2 wafers were evaluated in terms of material removal rates, selectivity and surface quality. The material removal rate responses were also assessed through AFM wear rate tests to obtain a faster response for preliminary analyses. The surfactant adsorption characteristics were studied through surface wettability responses of the Ge and SiO2 wafers through contact angle measurements. It was observed that the self-assembled surfactant structures can help obtain selectivity on the silica/germanium system at low concentrations of the oxidizer in the slurry. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  10. Automation of the second iron ore slurry pipeline from Samarco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Juliana M.; Fonseca, Mario L.; Drumond, Pablo P.; Barbosa, Sylvio [IHM Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The second iron ore slurry pipeline from Samarco was build to attend the Third Pellet Plant Project, which includes a new Concentration Plant at Germano-MG and a third Pellet Plant at Ubu-ES. It has 396km of extension and links the two plants by pulping the iron ore slurry prepared at Germano Unit. This works aims to present the iron ore slurry pipeline with emphasis on the automation architecture for the supervision and control system, interconnect throughout the pipe extension by fiber optics. The control system is composed of ControlLogix CLP's at the pulping and valve station and Micrologix CLP's at the pressure and cathodic protection monitoring points, totalizing 19 PLC's. The supervisory system was developed using the Wonderware IAS 3.0 suite, including the supervisory software InTouch 9.5 and the integrated ArchestrA IDE, and is composed of two data servers in redundancy and nine operation stations. The control and supervision system is interconnect through and Ethernet network using fiber optics and multiplexer modules (GE JungleMux) for voice, data and video. Among the expected results, it can be highlighted the sequence automation, greater process data availability (real and historical) and greater facility for the operation and detection of failures. (author)

  11. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  13. Very low conductivity self-hardening slurry for permanent enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallard, G.

    1997-01-01

    Attapulgite clay and ground blast furnace slag cement can form a low solids slurry which, after setting and curing, exhibits very low permeability and substantial strength. Compared to better known cement bentonite slurries, the conductivity is 3 orders of magnitude lower and the strength is four times higher at a similar solids content. Coefficients of permeability have been measured in the 10 -10 cm/sec. range. As a containment barrier, no chemical compound has had detrimental effects on the integrity of the material. Compatibility with leachates at a pH under 2 has been demonstrated. Compared to leachable Ordinary Portland Cement and to bentonite gel shrinkage in the presence of certain organic compounds, the attapulgite clay and the selected slag cement behave as remarkably inert. A number of successful applications as vertical barriers, trenched and by the vibrated beam method, have been installed at remedial sites. Applications by jet grouting have been implemented under utilities to provide continuity. The potential for placement of such materials to form horizontal barriers by jet grouting or frac-grouting/mud jacking techniques, offers the possibility of creating complete enclosures in soils. The purely mineral nature of these slurries ensures long term chemical stability necessary for permanent containment

  14. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  15. In-situ study of the thermal properties of hydrate slurry by high pressure DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Brun, F.; Erbeau, N. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2008-07-01

    Knowing the enthalpy of hydrate slurry is very essential for energy balance and industrial applications. No direct measurement processes had been developed in this field in the past time. A new experimental method with special device has been developed to carry out on-line measurement of the thermal properties for hydrate slurry under dynamic conditions. With this special device, it is possible to deliver the hydrate slurry to the high pressure DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) directly from the production tank or pipes. Thermal data acquisition will be performed afterwards by DSC. The investigated conditions were at pressure of 30 bar and temperature of {approx}+7 {sup o}C. The dissociation enthalpy of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry was about 54 kJ/kg, corresponding 10.8% of solid fraction. The on-line measurement results for CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry give a good tendency to apply this phase change slurry to the industrial refrigeration process. (author)

  16. Analysis of high-level radioactive slurries as a method to reduce DWPF turnaround times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.; Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Hay, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) samples as slurries rather than as dried or vitrified samples is an effective way to reduce sample turnaround times. Slurries can be dissolved with a mixture of concentrated acids to yield solutions for elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Slurry analyses can be performed in eight hours, whereas analyses of vitrified samples require up to 40 hours to complete. Analyses of melter feed samples consisting of the DWPF borosilicate frit and either simulated or actual DWPF radioactive sludge were typically within a range of 3--5% of the predicted value based on the relative amounts of sludge and frit added to the slurry. The results indicate that the slurry analysis approach yields analytical accuracy and precision competitive with those obtained from analyses of vitrified samples. Slurry analyses offer a viable alternative to analyses of solid samples as a simple way to reduce analytical turnaround times

  17. Enhancing protein to extremely high content in photosynthetic bacteria during biogas slurry treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anqi; Zhang, Guangming; Meng, Fan; Lu, Pei; Wang, Xintian; Peng, Meng

    2017-12-01

    This work proposed a novel approach to achieve an extremely high protein content in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) using biogas slurry as a culturing medium. The results showed the protein content of PSB could be enhanced strongly to 90% in the biogas slurry, which was much higher than reported microbial protein contents. The slurry was partially purified at the same time. Dark-aerobic was more beneficial than light-anaerobic condition for protein accumulation. High salinity and high ammonia of the biogas slurry were the main causes for protein enhancement. In addition, the biogas slurry provided a good buffer system for PSB to grow. The biosynthesis mechanism of protein in PSB was explored according to theoretical analysis. During biogas slurry treatment, the activities of glutamate synthase and glutamine synthetase were increased by 26.55%, 46.95% respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of storage time and straw content of cattle slurry on the mineralization of nitrogen and carbon in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Animal slurries are stored for a variable period of time before application in the field. The effect of cattle slurry storage time and temperature on the subsequent mineralization of C and N in soil was studied under laboratory conditions. Urine and faeces from a dairy cow were sampled separately...... and mixed to a slurry. After 4 weeks of storage under anaerobic conditions at 15 degrees C, the NH4+ N content exceeded the original urinary N content of the slurry; the NH4+ content increased only slightly during the following 16 weeks of storage. After 4 weeks of storage, the proportion of slurry C...... in volatile fatty acids (VFA) amounted to 10% and increased to 15% after 20 weeks. Straw addition to the slurry caused an increase of VFA-C in stored slurry, but had a negligible influence on the proportion of slurry N in the form of NH4+. Slurries subjected to different storage conditions were added...

  19. Characterization of volatile compounds in Fen-Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van-Diep, L.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.Y.; Han, B.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Fen-Daqu is a saccharifying agent and fermentation starter for the production of Chinese liquor Fen (alcoholic spirit) and Fen traditional vinegar. The volatile compounds produced at seven incubation steps were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS. A total of 83 major volatile compounds were identified,

  20. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell distilled...

  1. Effect of Microbial Interaction on Urea Metabolism in Chinese Liquor Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Qun; Lin, Jianchun; Cui, Kaixiang; Du, Rubin; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Urea is the primary precursor of the carcinogen ethyl carbamate in fermented foods. Understanding urea metabolism is important for controlling ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor as a model system, we used metatranscriptome analysis to investigate urea metabolism in spontaneous food

  2. 76 FR 4366 - Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ..., of liquor, as herein defined. Section 4.4. Beer. Any beverage obtained by the alcoholic fermentation..., which is commonly produced by the fermentation, or distillation of grain, starch, molasses or sugar, or... four percent (4%) of alcohol by weight shall be referred to as ``strong beer''. Section 4.5. Gaming...

  3. 75 FR 23289 - Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... defined in this Ordinance. (b) ``Beer'' means any beverage obtained by the alcoholic fermentation of an... percent of Alcohol by weight shall be referred to as ``strong Beer.'' (c) ``Gaming Facility'' means a... herein defined (Alcohol, Spirits, Wine and Beer), and all fermented spirituous, vinous, or malt liquor or...

  4. 75 FR 62853 - Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... ordinance. (iii) ``Beer'' shall mean any beverage obtained by the alcoholic fermentation of any infusion or... alcohol, hydrated oxide or ethyl, or spirit or wine, which is commonly produced by the fermentation or... under Section V. (vi) ``Licensee'' shall mean the person or entity authorized to sell Liquor, Beer or...

  5. Post-Digestion Liquor Treatment in the Method Combining Chemical Precipitation with Reverse Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuglarz Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to develop an effective treatment of post-digestion liquors highly-loaded with biogenic and organic substances. The scope of the research project encompassed: mesophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS as well as the treatment of post-digestion liquors, coming from the most appropriate HRT value of 25 days, in the process of ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite precipitation targeted at ammonia nitrogen binding and a subsequent reverse osmosis (RO process. It was established that the method combining chemical precipitation and high-pressure filtration ensures a high degree of contaminants removal allowing for a direct release of treated liquors into the natural reservoir. However, in order to decrease the residual NH4+ concentration (6.1 mg NH4+/dm3 in the purified post-digestion liquors below the level allowing for a direct release to the natural reservoir, it turned out to be necessary to apply increased molar ratio of magnesium and phosphates (Mg:NH4+: PO43-= 1.5:1:1.5.

  6. Effect of storage conditions on the shelf life of locally distilled liquor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was to determine the presence and levels of certain contaminants in akpeteshie from the various sources and to determine effects of ambient temperature, refrigeration, pasteurization and pasteurization in combination with low temperature for the liquor stored for seven weeks. The contaminant ...

  7. Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, E.; Arnell, M.; Flores-Alsina, X.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to model the dynamics and validate the results of nitrous oxide (N2O)emissions from three Swedish nitrifying/denitrifying, nitritation and anammox systems treating real anaerobic digester sludge liquor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 is extended to describe N2O...

  8. ROLE OF TRANSCERVICAL AMNIOINFUSION IN LABOUR COMPLICATED WITH THICK MECONIUM STAINED LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuragamayi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is to evaluate the effectiveness of amnio infusion in cases of thick and particulate meconium stained liquor to reduce the incidence of fetal distress and meconium aspiration syndrome in neonates and compare neonatal outcome with control group . METHODS: A prospective comparative case control study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and gynecology, Government General Hospital, Kakinada. A total of 100 cases of labour complicated with thick meconium stained liquor were studied of which in 50 cases Transcervical Amnioinfusion was given and remaining 50 cases without amnioinfusion were taken as controls. The statistical analysis of neonatal outcome was done by Chi square test analysis of variance and paired t test. Liquor to reduce the incidence of fetal distress and meconium aspiration syndrome in neonates and compare neonatal. RESULTS: Operative interventions for fetal distress were significantly less in infusion group (p7 were observed in more cases of infusion group with significant difference in control group. Use of resuscitative measures for neonates were relatively more in control group with higher incidence of meconium at and below vocal cords (p <0.01. In amnioinfusion group, admissions in NICU were less (p <0.01 CONCLUSION : Transcervical amnioinfusion during labour is a safe, simple, inexpensive and effective procedure in improving the obstetric and perinatal outcome in patients labouring with thick meconium stained liquor

  9. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Sheng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women, aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v alcohol of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P<0.05. Serum uric acid (P=0.004 for TFL, P=0.001 for TCL, glucose (P<0.001 for TFL, P<0.001 for TCL and endothelial adhesion molecules (P<0.05 were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered.

  10. The Readership of Liquor Ads Employing Appeals to Affiliation, Achievement, and Product-Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined whether advertising appeals based on product affiliation, achievement, and attributes would account for differences in male readership of liquor advertisements. The investigation focused on the relationship between the content of alcholic beverage advertisements and attention engagement, the first state in consumer information…

  11. 78 FR 15037 - Bishop Paiute Tribe-Liquor Control Ordinance No. 2012-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ..., purchase, gift, adjudication, executive order, Act of Congress, or other means of acquisition. .05 ``Tribal.../alcohol purchased on or off Tribal Lands is prohibited. Any person who is not licensed pursuant to this ordinance and who purchases liquor/alcoholic beverages on or off Tribal Lands and sells it on Tribal Lands...

  12. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael Thomas; Browntaylor, Didra; Bluthenthal, Ricky Neville

    2006-05-01

    Our objective is to estimate the relative price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, hard liquor, and a combined group of all other alcoholic beverages. Three hundred and twenty-nine alcohol consumers (mostly male) in South-Central Los Angeles answered a series of questions pertaining to expected consumption responses to hypothetical price increases. We found that based on a 10% price increase, the mean price elasticity of demand (% change in quantity demanded / % change in price) was -0.79 for MLB drinkers, -1.14 for regular beer drinkers, -1.11 for hard liquor drinkers, and -1.69 for the combined group of all other drinkers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the personal characteristics significantly related to being a MLB drinker were older age, not working, being homeless, and a daily drinker. Daily (or nearly daily) drinkers were more likely to be married, earning lower incomes, and hard liquor drinkers. This study is the first to investigate the price elasticity of demand for MLB drinkers and other heavy alcohol consumers in poor urban neighborhoods of the US. Future research can use the methods from this pilot study to more rigorously examine and compare the price sensitivity among heavy drinking groups.

  13. Succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant Escherichia coli strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghui; Pan, Jiachuan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2014-11-02

    Succinic acid (1,4-butanedioic acid) is identified as one of important building-block chemicals. Xylose mother liquor is an abundant industrial residue in xylitol biorefining industry. In this study, xylose mother liquor was utilized to produce succinic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli strain SD121, and the response surface methodology was used to optimize the fermentation media. The optimal conditions of succinic acid fermentation were as follows: 82.62 g L -1 total initial sugars, 42.27 g L -1 MgCO 3 and 17.84 g L -1 yeast extract. The maximum production of succinic acid was 52.09 ± 0.21 g L -1 after 84 h with a yield of 0.63 ± 0.03 g g -1 total sugar, approaching the predicted value (53.18 g L -1 ). It was 1.78-fold of the production of that obtained with the basic medium. This was the first report on succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant E. coli strains with media optimization using response surface methodology. This work suggested that the xylose mother liquor could be an alternative substrate for the economical production of succinic acid by recombinant E. coli strains.

  14. Adopting local alcohol policies: a case study of community efforts to regulate malt liquor sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Patricia A; Nelson, Toben F; Toomey, Traci L; Shimotsu, Scott T; Hannan, Peter J; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2012-01-01

    To learn how the local context may affect a city's ability to regulate alcohol products such as high-alcohol-content malt liquor, a beverage associated with heavy drinking and a spectrum of nuisance crimes in urban areas. An exploratory, qualitative case study comparing cities that adopted policies to restrict malt liquor sales with cities that considered, but did not adopt policies. Nine large U.S. cities in seven states. City legislators and staff, alcohol enforcement personnel, police, neighborhood groups, business associations, alcohol retailers, and industry representatives. Qualitative data were obtained from key informant interviews (n = 56) and media articles (n = 360). The data were coded and categorized. Similarities and differences in major themes among and across Adopted and Considered cities were identified. Cities faced multiple barriers in addressing malt liquor-related problems, including a lack of enforcement tools, alcohol industry opposition, and a lack of public and political will for alcohol control. Compared to cities that did not adopt malt liquor sales restrictions, cities that adopted restrictions appeared to have a stronger public mandate for a policy and were less influenced by alcohol industry opposition and lack of legislative authority for alcohol control. Strategies common to successful policymaking efforts are discussed. Understanding the local context may be a critical step in winning support for local alcohol control policies.

  15. Mystery shopping and alcohol sales: do supermarkets and liquor stores sell alcohol to underage customers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Prinsen, Sander

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Dutch national policy regarding alcohol and youth relies on retailers’ willingness to refuse to sell alcohol to underage customers. This study examined unobtrusively whether supermarkets and liquor stores do indeed comply with the legal age restrictions for alcohol sales. - Methods: A

  16. Replacement of soybean meal with maize steep liquor in the diets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ferreira

    2015-12-14

    Dec 14, 2015 ... meal with maize steep liquor at 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% on a dry matter ... daily gain, hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, hot carcass yield and ... remove impurities and separate the germ, gluten, starch and peel (USDA, 2010). ... are transferred to macerator tanks, which receive water with SO2 for ...

  17. Solvent extraction of uranium from lean grade acidic sulfate leach liquor with alamine 336 reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadevi, G.; Sreenivas, T.; Navale, A.S.; Padmanabhan, N.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the solvent extraction studies carried out on an acidic low assay uranium bearing leach liquor generated during sulfuric acid leaching of a refractory uranium ore using alamine 336-isodecenol-kerosene reagent combine. The leach liquor has a U 3 O 8 content of about 270 mg/L, free acidity 2.4 N H 2 SO 4 and total dissolved solids concentration of 260 g/L. Process parameteric variation studies indicated strong influence of free acidity of the leach liquor, alamine 336 concentration and aqueous to organic phase ratio on the extraction efficiency of uranium. An extraction efficiency of about 95% was achieved when the free acidity of leach liquor was 1 N H 2 SO 4 or lower, using 2% (v/v) alamine 336 at ambient temperature with an aqueous to organic phase ratio of 1:1. The loading capacity under these conditions was 1.2 g/L of U 3 O 8 . About 98% of the uranium values could be stripped from the loaded organic using 1 N NaCl in 0.2 N H 2 SO 4 . The solvent extraction studies aided in developing a suitable process flowsheet for treating refractory uranium ores which need high acidity during leaching and relatively lower acidity for purification by solvent extraction. (author)

  18. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... ethyl alcohol, hydrated oxide of ethyl, or spirit of wine, commonly produced by the fermentation or... benefit of the Tribe. (j) ``Tribe'' means the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians of... and wine shall be purchased from distributors licensed by the Michigan Liquor Control Commission. (f...

  19. Spectroscopic determination of anthraquinone in kraft pulping liquors using a membrane interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    X.S. Chai; X.T. Yang; Q.X. Hou; J.Y. Zhu; L.-G. Danielsson

    2003-01-01

    A spectroscopic technique for determining AQ in pulping liquor was developed to effectively separate AQ from dissolved lignin. This technique is based on a flow analysis system with a Nafion membrane interface. The AQ passed through the membrane is converted into its reduced form, AHQ, using sodium hydrosulfite. AHQ has distinguished absorption characteristics in the...

  20. 78 FR 54670 - Miami Tribe of Oklahoma-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... operations on Miami Tribe of Oklahoma Trust Land. The enactment of a tribal ordinance governing liquor and... continued operation and strengthening of the tribal government and the delivery of tribal government... dining rooms of hotels, restaurants, theaters, gaming facilities, entertainment centers, stores, garages...

  1. THE PRODUCTION OF ORANGE PRESS LIQUOR SPIRIT: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. FERREIRA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The orange juice industry produces, at the end of the residue extraction, a by-product called orange press liquor. Considering its high content of soluble solids and the large volume of the liquor produced in Brazilian orange juice plants, an earlier study was conducted on the technical viability of using orange press liquor as raw material for a new distilled beverage, with promising results. With a view to increasing efficiency and possibly attracting investments in the growing international market for new and exotic beverages, the aim of the present study was to optimize the orange press liquor spirit process and to evaluate the economic aspects of its production. The results showed that this process can yield a good quality beverage, comparable to the sugar cane spirit cachaça and other similar products, as well as having economic advantages and potential for immediate further growth, without extra investment costs.

  2. High temperature attack of ores by a liquor containing essentially a soluble bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, Pierre; Nicolas, Francois; Bosca, Bernard.

    1978-01-01

    New process for high temperature oxidizing digestion of ores containing at least one metal in the uranium, vanadium and molybdenum group, by an aqueous liquor containing sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in the presence of free oxygen insufflated into the reaction medium [fr

  3. The effect of particle size and concentration on the flow properties of a homogeneous slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M.A.; Crowe, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the effects of particle size and concentration on the velocity distribution in the fully developed flow of a homogeneous slurry. The slurry consisted of chloroform and silica gel with matched index of refraction to enable Laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements through the mixture. Slurries with two particle sizes and solids concentration up to 30% by volume were studied. Measurements were made over a Reynolds number range of 1,200 to 30,000

  4. Effect of plastic viscosity and yield value on spray characteristics of magnesium-slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, George M

    1957-01-01

    Magnesium slurries were sprayed onto a sheet of paper from an air-atomizing injector. Drop sizes and distributions were then determined from photomicrographs. Four different surface-active additives were used in preparing the slurries to give plastic viscosities between 0.22 and 0.51 poise and yield values between 150 and 810 dynes-cm(exp 2). It was found that there was no significant variation in the spray characteristics of these slurries when tested under the same conditions.

  5. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  6. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  7. Anaerobic digestion as a slurry management strategy : a consequential life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H.; Petersen, B.M. [Southern Denmark Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology

    2010-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of slurry represents an environmental opportunity for both slurry management and renewable energy production in countries with high animal density. This study evaluated the environmental impacts of 4 biogas production alternatives in which slurry was the only input in the process, without supplementary addition of easily degradable carbon. This was achieved by exposing the slurry to different separation technologies. The biomass mixture input for biogas production included solid fraction from slurry separation as well as raw slurry, proportioned in order to achieve economical methane yield. The separation processes considered in this study were mechanical separation; mechanical separation combined with the addition of flocculants; and mechanical separation combined with a thermal treatment. Four biogas alternatives were compared to a reference slurry management scenario, notably to use the slurry as a fertilizer without prior treatment. The modelling was based on Danish conditions and used the consequential life cycle assessment methodology. The produced biogas was used for production of heat and power and the degassed slurry was used as an organic fertilizer.

  8. Development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt% on sedimentation ratios, drain times and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  9. The development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F; Evans, G O; Harrell, P A; Whitehurst, B M

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents, and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt.% on sedimentation ratios, drain times, and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  10. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Flow velocity analysis for avoidance of solids deposition during transport of Hanford tank waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This engineering analysis calculates minimum slurry transport velocities intended to maintain suspensions of solid particulate in slurries. This transport velocity is also known as the slurry flow critical velocity. It is not universally recognized that a transfer line flow velocity in excess of the slurry critical velocity is a requirement to prevent solids deposition and possible line plugging. However, slurry critical velocity seems to be the most prevalent objective measure to prevent solids deposition in transfer lines. The following critical velocity correlations from the literature are investigated: Durand (1953), Spells (1955), Sinclair (1962), Zandi and Gavatos (1967), Babcock (1968), Shook (1969), and Oroskar and Turian (1980). The advantage of these critical velocity correlations is that their use is not reliant upon any measure of bulk slurry viscosity. The input parameters are limited to slurry phase densities and mass fractions, pipe diameter, particle diameter, and viscosity of the pure liquid phase of the slurry. Consequently, the critical velocity calculation does not require determination of system pressure drops. Generalized slurry properties can, therefore, be recommended if the slurry can be adequately described by these variables and if the liquid phase viscosity is known. Analysis of these correlations are presented, indicating that the Oroskar and Turian (1980) models appear to be more conservative for smaller particulate sizes, typically those less than 100 microns diameter. This analysis suggests that the current Tank Farms waste compatibility program criteria may be insufficient to prevent particulate solids settling within slurry composition ranges currently allowed by the waste compatibility program. However, in order to relate a critical velocity associated with a certain slurry composition to a system limit, a means of relating the system capabilities to the slurry composition must be found. Generally, this means expressing the bulk

  12. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs

  13. Vitrification of SRP waste by a slurry-fed ceramic melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level waste (HLW) can be vitrified by feeding a slurry, instead of a calcine, to a joule-heated ceramic melter. Potential advantages of slurry feeding include (1) use of simpler equipment, (2) elimination of handling easily dispersed radioactive powder, (3) simpler process control, (4) effective mixing, (5) reduced off-gas volume, and (6) cost savings. Assessment of advantages and disadvantages of slurry feeding along with experimental studies indicate that slurry feeding is a promising way of vitrifying waste

  14. Flavor Profile of Chinese Liquor Is Altered by Interactions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Kong, Yu; Xu, Yan

    2016-01-15

    The flavor profile of Chinese liquor is the result of the metabolic activity of its microbial community. Given the importance of the microbial interaction, a novel way to control the liquor's flavor is by regulating the composition of the community. In this study, we efficiently improved the liquor's flavor by perturbing the intrinsic microbial metabolism with extrinsic microbes. We first constructed a basic microbial group (intrinsic) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Issatchenkia orientalis and added special flavor producers (extrinsic), Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces servazzii, to this intrinsic group. Upon the addition of the extrinsic microbes, the maximum specific growth rates of S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis increased from 6.19 to 43.28/day and from 1.15 to 14.32/day, respectively, but that of W. anomalus changed from 1.00 to 0.96/day. In addition, most volatile compounds known to be produced by the extrinsic strains were not produced. However, more esters, alcohols, and acids were produced by S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis. Six compounds were significantly different by random forest analysis after perturbation. Among them, increases in ethyl hexanoate, isobutanol, and 3-methylbutyric acid were correlated with S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis, and a decrease in geranyl acetone was correlated with W. anomalus. Variations in ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethanol might be due to the varied activity of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae. This work showed the effect of the interaction between the intrinsic and extrinsic microbes on liquor flavor, which would be beneficial for improving the quality of Chinese liquor. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Significance of the combined tests application in serum and liquor of patients with suspected neurosyphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Mihailo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tertiary syphilis develops in 8-40% of untreated patients. It is most commonly manifested in the form of neurosyphilis, which can be asymptomatic taking the form of tabes dorsalis or progressive paralyze. Nowadays, in the developed countries, progressive paralyze is a rather rare disease, although the incidence of this disease has been rising within the last decades. Case report. We reported a 74-year-old male with the clinical image of dementia showing psychotic symptoms. On cytobiochemical examination of cerebrospinal liquor, hyperproteinorhacmia of 0.70 g/l with the normal number of cells was revealed. Computed tomography of the brain showed the marked cortical cerebral and cerebellar reduction changes with multiple ischemic lesions. Within a routine examination of patients with demention, we performed serologic reactions to syphilis out of which the Veneral Disease Researc Laboratory (VDRL test in serum and liquor was unreactive, while the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPNA test in serum and liquor was positive. Positivity in serum and liquor was additionally confirmed by the Western blot method and fluoroscent treponema antibody (FTA test. The treatment with benzathine fenylpenicilline 2.4 g once weekly resulted in significant improving the psychotic symptoms of the disease even after two weeks. Conclusion. This case report showed that within the differential diagnostics in patients with demention or psychotic disorder it is obligatory to consider syphilis of the nervous system, as well as to apply a combination of various tests which, besides the typical liquor findings, significantly improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Such approach is especially important regarding the fact that neurosyphilis can remain clinically quite asymptomatic for a long period, which could lead to late therapy, while, on the contrary, an adequate and timely treatment can contribute to a significant recovery of any patients.

  16. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  17. Washington State Spirits Privatization: How Satisfied were Liquor Purchasers Before and After, and by Type of Retail Store in 2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Williams, Edwina; Kerr, William C; Subbaraman, Meenakshi S; Ye, Yu

    2017-11-27

    In 2012 Washington State ended a wholesale/retail monopoly on liquor, permitting sale of spirits in stores with > 10,000 square feet. Implementation resulted in average price increases, but also five times the stores selling liquor. As part of a privatization evaluation, we studied pre-post and between-store-type purchase experiences. A 2010 Washington State Liquor Control Board (LCB) survey of liquor purchasers (n = 599), and the 2014 baseline of a repeated telephone survey (1,202 residents; n = 465 purchasers), each included 10 LCB questions on satisfaction with purchase experiences, each attribute with graded response scale A = 4 to D = 1 and F (0 = fail). Analyses used t-tests for satisfaction differences by time and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for 2014 between-store satisfaction-level differences. Five purchase features were rated more favorably after privatization (ps convenience, store hours, and prices (though price rated lowest both times); selection offered, courtesy, and checkout speed were unaltered, and number of staff and staff knowledge declined (both p convenience favored grocery and drug stores, and price satisfaction favored wholesale (Costco) stores, with staff knowledge highest at liquor stores. Satisfaction with liquor purchases increased after privatization for half the consumer experiences. Availability (location convenience and store hours) was important to liquor purchasers. Such results are relevant to sustained support for the policy of privatizing spirits retail monopolies.

  18. Metatranscriptomics Reveals the Functions and Enzyme Profiles of the Microbial Community in Chinese Nong-Flavor Liquor Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese liquor is one of the world's best-known distilled spirits and is the largest spirit category by sales. The unique and traditional solid-state fermentation technology used to produce Chinese liquor has been in continuous use for several thousand years. The diverse and dynamic microbial community in a liquor starter is the main contributor to liquor brewing. However, little is known about the ecological distribution and functional importance of these community members. In this study, metatranscriptomics was used to comprehensively explore the active microbial community members and key transcripts with significant functions in the liquor starter production process. Fungi were found to be the most abundant and active community members. A total of 932 carbohydrate-active enzymes, including highly expressed auxiliary activity family 9 and 10 proteins, were identified at 62°C under aerobic conditions. Some potential thermostable enzymes were identified at 50, 62, and 25°C (mature stage. Increased content and overexpressed key enzymes involved in glycolysis and starch, pyruvate and ethanol metabolism were detected at 50 and 62°C. The key enzymes of the citrate cycle were up-regulated at 62°C, and their abundant derivatives are crucial for flavor generation. Here, the metabolism and functional enzymes of the active microbial communities in NF liquor starter were studied, which could pave the way to initiate improvements in liquor quality and to discover microbes that produce novel enzymes or high-value added products.

  19. 'The ones that turn up are the ones that are responsible': Key stakeholders perspectives on liquor accords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ashlee; Miller, Peter; Droste, Nicolas; McFarlane, Emma; Martino, Florentine; Palmer, Darren

    2016-05-01

    Liquor accords were introduced as an intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm in and around licensed venues. There have been very few evaluations of the accords, made all the more difficult given the multitude of measures that are often implemented under their banner. This study provides perspectives on the effectiveness of the liquor accords from key stakeholders who were involved in the strategy. In-depth interviews were conducted with 97 key stakeholders as part of a larger study, of which 46 spoke about the effectiveness of liquor accords. Responses were analysed using thematic analysis. Stakeholders reported the greatest benefit of liquor accords to be their ability to improve communication. Many stakeholders recognised the need for mandatory attendance and discussed whether the accords are a waste of time of resources. Stakeholders did not generally view liquor accords as effective means of reducing alcohol-related harm. There was a lack of positive feedback about liquor accords provided by stakeholders, indicating a clear need to better understand the role of liquor accords, and what they aim to achieve. Responsive regulation theory suggests that the dual roles of communication and intervention are confused, leading to some of the inherent problems with accords. The role and aims of liquor accords need to be clearly defined. The findings suggest that separating the communication and regulatory functions from accords will lead to a clearer role for accords, and interventions and regulation might be better placed in the hands of regulators and enforcement. [Curtis A, Miller P, Droste N, McFarlane E, Martino F, Palmer D. 'The ones that turn up are the ones that are responsible': Key stakeholders perspectives on liquor accords. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:273-279]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

  1. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita; Veith, Tamie L; Laegdsmand, Mette

    2016-12-15

    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha -1 and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h -1 after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO 3 -N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO 3 -N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of E. coli was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly

  2. It's sensible to mix your own slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1990-05-01

    Slurry explosives have not made the gains in the market expected of them, possibly due to the extra handling required at the mine site. One Peabody Coal Co. mine has built its own inexpensive setup that blends emulsions with Anfo to the desired ratio before loading the blend into Anfo trucks. Another mine is using a salvaged cement mixer to mix up its own batches of water gels, which are then mixed with Anfo. Both approaches result in blends that can be specialized for different areas of a mine to expand drill patterns, increase fragmentation and gain additional movements for blast casting. 2 figs.

  3. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  4. Relationships among slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions at different types of commercial Spanish pig farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becaccia, A.; Ferrer, P.; Ibañez, M.A.; Estellés, F.; Rodríguez, C.; Moset, V.; Blas, C. de; Calvet, P.; García-Rebollar, P.

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse several factors of variation of slurry composition and to establish prediction equations for potential methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Seventy-nine feed and slurry samples were collected at two seasons (summer and winter) from commercial pig farms sited at two Spanish regions (Centre and Mediterranean). Nursery, growing-fattening, gestating and lactating facilities were sampled. Feed and slurry composition were determined, and potential CH4 and NH3 emissions measured at laboratory. Feed nutrient contents were used as covariates in the analysis. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated as a predicting tool for slurry composition and potential gaseous emissions. A wide variability was found both in feed and slurry composition. Mediterranean farms had a higher pH (p<0.001) and ash (p=0.02) concentration than those located at the Centre of Spain. Also, type of farm affected ether extract content of the slurry (p=0.02), with highest values obtained for the youngest animal facilities. Results suggested a buffer effect of dietary fibre on slurry pH and a direct relationship (p<0.05) with fibre constituents of manure. Dietary protein content did not affect slurry nitrogen content but decreased (p=0.003) total and volatile solids concentration. Prediction models of potential NH3 emissions (R2=0.89) and CH4 yield (R2=0.61) were obtained from slurry composition. Predictions from NIRS showed a high accuracy for most slurry constituents (R2>0.90) and similar accuracy of prediction of potential NH3 and CH4 emissions (R2=0.84 and 0.68, respectively) to models using slurry characteristics, which can be of interest to estimate emissions from commercial farms and establish mitigation strategies or optimize biogas production. (Author)

  5. The CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry; Le coulis de glace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Eicher, S.; Brun, F. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Sari, O.; Hu, J. [Clean Cooling Solutions, spin off of University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec Ltd, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2007-12-15

    A new, very promising refrigerant was developed, which could be used in industrial processes as well as air conditioners: the CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry. Replacing hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC refrigerants has a high priority, due to the strong negative environmental impact of these fluids. New refrigerants have to be environment friendly, non-inflammable, cheap and made of natural materials. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries and/or a mixture of ice slurry and CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry meet these requirements. The University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland in Yverdon, together with industrial partners, investigated the properties of such slurries. The slurries were created using the Coldeco process: the refrigerating fluid is directly injected into the liquid brine. The evaporation of the refrigerating fluid cools the liquid down to its freezing point and homogeneously distributed small crystals appear in the liquid. A test rig was built to measure the physical and chemical properties of the slurries obtained in this way. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries have a higher energy storage capacitance (500 kJ/kg) than ice slurries (333 kJ/kg). The production of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries in large quantities in a continuous process was demonstrated. The solid particle concentration was 10%, the pressure amounted to 30 bar and the temperature 2 to 4 {sup o}C. Such slurries can be pumped and circulated in pipe networks. Stainless steel is the appropriate material for such networks. However, the main advantage of the new refrigerant will be, according to the authors, a reduced energy consumption compared to traditional refrigerating cycles: the difference between the temperature required by the user and the refrigerant temperature is reduced, thanks to the use of the latent heat in the new process.

  6. [Study on the Recognition of Liquor Age of Gujing Based on Raman Spectra and Support Vector Regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-xiang; Wang, Hai-yan; Wang, Hu; Zhang, Zheng-yong; Liu, Jun

    2016-03-01

    It is an important and difficult research point to recognize the age of Chinese liquor rapidly and exactly in the field of liquor analyzing, which is also of great significance to the healthy development of the liquor industry and protection of the legitimate rights and interests of consumers. Spectroscopy together with the pattern recognition technology is a preferred method of achieving rapid identification of wine quality, in which the Raman Spectroscopy is promising because of its little affection of water and little or free of sample pretreatment. So, in this paper, Raman spectra and support vector regression (SVR) are used to recognize different ages and different storing time of the liquor of the same age. The innovation of this paper is mainly reflected in the following three aspects. First, the application of Raman in the area of liquor analysis is rarely reported till now. Second, the concentration of studying the recognition of wine age, while most studies focus on studying specific components of liquor and studies together with the pattern recognition method focus more on the identification of brands or different types of base wine. The third one is the application of regression analysis framework, which cannot be only used to identify different years of liquor, but also can be used to analyze different storing time, which has theoretical and practical significance to the research and quality control of liquor. Three kinds of experiments are conducted in this paper. Firstly, SVR is used to recognize different ages of 5, 8, 16 and 26 years of the Gujing Liquor; secondly, SVR is also used to classify the storing time of the 8-years liquor; thirdly, certain group of train data is deleted form the train set and put into the test set to simulate the actual situation of liquor age recognition. Results show that the SVR model has good train and predict performance in these experiments, and it has better performance than other non-liner regression method such

  7. An Enhanced Factor Analysis of Performance Degradation Assessment on Slurry Pump Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Slurry pumps, such as oil sand pumps, are widely used in industry to convert electrical energy to slurry potential and kinetic energy. Because of adverse working conditions, slurry pump impellers are prone to suffer wear, which may result in slurry pump breakdowns. To prevent any unexpected breakdowns, slurry pump impeller performance degradation assessment should be immediately conducted to monitor the current health condition and to ensure the safety and reliability of slurry pumps. In this paper, to provide an alternative to the impeller health indicator, an enhanced factor analysis based impeller indicator (EFABII is proposed. Firstly, a low-pass filter is employed to improve the signal to noise ratios of slurry pump vibration signals. Secondly, redundant statistical features are extracted from the filtered vibration signals. To reduce the redundancy of the statistic features, the enhanced factor analysis is performed to generate new statistical features. Moreover, the statistic features can be automatically grouped and developed a new indicator called EFABII. Data collected from industrial oil sand pumps are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is able to track the current health condition of slurry pump impellers.

  8. On-farm impact of cattle slurry manure management on biological soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of dairy cattle slurry management on soil biota, soil respiration and nitrogen (N) mineralization were evaluated in a farm trial across 12 farms and a field experiment on 2 farms located in a dairy farming area in the north of the Netherlands. The slurry management consisted of slit

  9. The impact of slurry application technique on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera, J.

    2011-01-01

    Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilized soils are generally estimated using emission factors. However, the emission factors for N2O emission of applied slurry are not well quantified. The effect of slurry application technique on N2O emission was quantified in field experiments in the

  10. Semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy prepared by electromagnetic stirring and Sc, Zr additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-wen Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Slurry preparation is one of the most critical steps for semisolid casting, and its primary goal is to prepare slurry with uniformly distributed fine globules. In this work, electromagnetic stirring (EMS and the addition of Sc and Zr elements were used to prepare semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy in a large diameter slurry maker. The effects of different treatments on the microstructure, composition and their radial homogeneity were investigated. The results show that, compared to the slurry without any treatment, large volume slurry with finer and more uniform microstructure can be obtained when treated by EMS, Sc, or Zr additions individually. EMS is more competent in the microstructural and chemical homogenization of the slurry while Sc and Zr additions are more excellent in its microstructural refinement. The combined treatment of EMS, Sc and Zr produces premium 7A04 aluminum alloy slurry with uniformly distributed fine α-Al globules and composition. The interaction mechanism between EMS and Sc and Zr additions was also discussed.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of cement slurries additives with epoxy resins - kinetics, thermodynamic and calorimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Andrade Junior, M.A.S.; Cestari, A.R.; Vieira, E.F.S.

    2010-01-01

    Cement has been used in the world, presenting a wide versatility. However, due to its chemical nature, it is subject to several types of chemical damages, especially for agents of acidic nature. With the purpose of increase its life-time, new cement slurries have been modified with the addition of specific additives. The objective of this work is to modify cement slurries with epoxy resins, which promote higher resistance of those materials in relation to acid attacks. Three cement slurries were synthesized with epoxy resins and a standard slurries, which was composed by cement and water. After 30 days of hydration, the samples were characterized by XDR, FTIR and thermal analysis (TG and DSC). The hydration processes of the cement slurries were studied by heat-conduction microcalorimetry. A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the new slurries were performed by the batch methodology at 25, 35, 45 e 55 deg C. It was verified that the addition of the polymers delayed the processes of hydration of the slurries, decreasing the flow of heat released as a function of the amount of added resin and, increased the resistance of those slurries to the acid attack. (author)

  12. The influence of adsorption capacity on enhanced gas absorption in activated carbon slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstvoogd, R.D.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1990-01-01

    The enhanced absorption of gases in aqueous activated carbbon slurries of fine particles is studied with a non-steady-state absorption model, taking into account the finite adsorption capacity of the carbon particles. It has been found that, for the different gas/activated carbon slurry systems

  13. Upland and wetland vegetation establishment on coal slurry in northern Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeel, V.A.; Nawrot, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Since the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory's (CWRL) Mined Land Reclamation Program's first establishment of a wetland on slurry in 1976, industry, state, and federal agency interest in reclamation alternatives for inactive slurry has increased. CWRL has been involved in pre-reclamation site characterization and monitoring for inactive slurry impoundments throughout Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Washington. Geochemical site characterization of three slurry impoundments at the AECI Bee Veer Mine located near Macon, Missouri began in April 1990. A substrate sampling grid was established for all slurry impoundments with a centerline orientated parallel to the discharge to decant flow pattern. Surface (0--6 in.) and subsurface (30--36 in.) slurry samples were collected annually and analyzed for acid-base balance, immediate acidity macro- and micro-nutrients, potential phytotoxic metallic ions and salts, and texture. Water table elevations and water quality were monitored quarterly from shallow (≤12 ft.) piezometers. General reclamation plans included annual (3 years) incremental limestone amendments (35--50 tons/acre) and direct vegetation establishment. Cool and warm season grasses dominate vegetation cover in upland habitats (slurry cell RDA1) while wetland habitats (palustrine emergent seasonally-permanently inundated) have been established in slurry cells (RDA2 and RDA3). Isolated hot spots continue to be amended with limestone and supplemental vegetation establishment is scheduled

  14. Redistribution and persistence of microorganisms and steroid hormones after soil-injection of swine slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, Tina B.; Forslund, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B (phage 28B), Escherichia coli, steroid hormones and other slurry components (water, volatile solids, chloride and mineral N) determined in and around the injection slit. The two experiments at Silstrup and Estrup differed with respect to slurry solid content (6.3 vs. 0...

  15. Development of ultra-lightweight slurries with high compressive strength for use in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Danilo; Fernandes, Thiago; Santos, Reened [Halliburton Energy Services Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Formations with low fracture gradients or depleted reservoirs often lead to difficult oil well cementing operations. Commonly employed cement slurries (14.0 to 15.8 lb/gal), generate an equivalent circulating density (ECD) higher than the fracture gradient and ultimately lead to formation damage, lost circulation and a decreased top of cement. Given the high price of oil, companies are investing in those and other wells that are difficult to explore. Naturally, lightweight cement slurries are used to reduce the ECD (10.0 to 14.0 lb/gal), using additives to trap water and stabilize the slurry. However, when the density reaches 11.0 lb/gal, the increase in water content may cause a change in characteristics. The focus of this study is extreme cases where it is necessary to employ ultra-lightweight cement slurries (5.5 to 10.0 lb/gal). Foamed slurries have been widely used, and the objective is to set an alternative by developing cement slurries containing uncompressible microspheres, aiming for a density of 7.5 lb/gal as well as high compressive strength. Another benefit in contrast to preparing foamed cement slurries is that there is no requirement for special equipment in the field. Routine laboratory tests such as fluid-loss control, sedimentation, thickening time, free water, compressive strength, and rheology (at room and high temperatures) were performed. Thus, it was concluded that the proposed cement slurries can be used in oil wells. (author)

  16. Effects of slurry application methods on soil faunal communities in permanent grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van P.C.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of two slurry manure application methods, broadcasting manure slurry (MB) and manure slit injection (SMI), on soil faunal communities 1 week and 4 or 5 weeks after application in the spring of 2002 and the summer of 2003. No effect on total numbers of Enchytraeidae and

  17. ABSORPTION OF GASES INTO ACTIVATED CARBON WATER SLURRIES IN A STIRRED CELL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TINGE, JT; DRINKENBURG, AAH

    A surface-aerated stirred cell with a flat liquid surface was used to investigate the absorption of propane and ethene gas into slurries of activated carbon and water. Slurries with a solids concentration up to 4% by weight and particle diameters up to 565-mu-m were used. The experimental mass

  18. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    and screw press on average produced approximately 220l [CH4]kg-1 [VS]. Initial methane production can be described using a first-order kinetic model. The average rate constant for manure fibres was 0.030d-1 and for pig slurry 0.071d-1, showing that pig slurry is digested much faster than manure fibres....

  19. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    -available sulfate form. Microbial sulfate reduction during storage of acidified pig slurry was limited, presumably due to initial pH effects and a limitation in the availability of easily degradable organic matter. Sulfide accumulation was observed during storage but the sulfide levels in acidified slurry did...

  20. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  1. Microbial examination of anaerobic sludge adaptation to animal slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moset, V; Cerisuelo, A; Ferrer, P; Jimenez, A; Bertolini, E; Cambra-López, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the microbial population of anaerobic sludge digesters during the adaptation to pig slurry (PS) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qualitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the relationship between microbial parameters and sludge physicochemical composition and methane yield was examined. Results showed that the addition of PS to an unadapted thermophilic anaerobic digester caused an increase in volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, a decrease in removal efficiency and CH4 yield. Additionally, increases in total bacteria and total archaea were observed using qPCR. Scanning electron micrographs provided a general overview of the sludge's cell morphology, morphological diversity and degree of organic matter degradation. A change in microbial morphotypes from homogeneous cell morphologies to a higher morphological diversity, similar to that observed in PS, was observed with the addition of PS by SEM. Therefore, the combination of qPCR and SEM allowed expanding the knowledge about the microbial adaptation to animal slurry in thermophilic anaerobic digesters.

  2. Slurry-phase biodegradation of weathered oily sludge waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín-Ramírez, C; Okoh, A I; Morales, D; Mayolo-Deloisa, K; Quintero, R; Trejo-Hernández, M R

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the biodegradation of a typical oily sludge waste (PB401) in Mexico using several regimes of indigenous microbial consortium and relevant bioremediation strategies in slurry-phase system. Abiotic loss of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the PB401 was insignificant, and degradation rates under the various treatment conditions ranged between 666.9 and 2168.7 mg kg(-1) day(-1) over a 15 days reaction period, while viable cell count peaked at between log(10)5.7 and log(10)7.4 cfu g(-1). Biostimulation with a commercial fertilizer resulted in 24% biodegradation of the TPH in the oily waste and a corresponding peak cell density of log(10)7.4 cfu g(-1). Addition of non-indigenous adapted consortium did not appear to enhance the removal of TPH from the oily waste. It would appear that the complexities of the components of the alkylaromatic fraction of the waste limited biodegradation rate even in a slurry system.

  3. Rheology of corn stover slurries during fermentation to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanchari; Epps, Brenden; Lynd, Lee

    2017-11-01

    In typical processes that convert cellulosic biomass into ethanol fuel, solubilization of the biomass is carried out by saccharolytic enzymes; however, these enzymes require an expensive pretreatment step to make the biomass accessible for solubilization (and subsequent fermentation). We have proposed a potentially-less-expensive approach using the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum, which can initiate fermentation without pretreatment. Moreover, we have proposed a ``cotreatment'' process, in which fermentation and mechanical milling occur alternately so as to achieve the highest ethanol yield for the least milling energy input. In order to inform the energetic requirements of cotreatment, we experimentally characterized the rheological properties of corn stover slurries at various stages of fermentation. Results show that a corn stover slurry is a yield stress fluid, with shear thinning behavior well described by a power law model. Viscosity decreases dramatically upon fermentation, controlling for variables such as solids concentration and particle size distribution. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the changes in the physical properties of biomass during fermentation by a thermophilic bacterium.

  4. Recycling Pig Slurry Solid Fraction Compost as a Sound Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the physical and acoustical properties of compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction (SF in order to assess the potential to recycle this agricultural waste as a sound absorber. The compacts were obtained by compression. The physical parameters investigated were bulk density, durability, and particle size distribution. The acoustical features of the compacts were studied with an impedance tube device in order to verify the acoustic absorption coefficient. Two composts were prepared: pig SF compost without a bulking agent (SSFC and pig SF compost with wood chips as a bulking agent (WCC. The study’s results indicated that compost particles dimension played a key role in the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts: the smaller the particles, the higher the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts. The densification process increased the bulk density of the investigated composts up to 690 kg m−3 for SSFC and 660 kg m−3 for WWC, with, respectively, medium (77.9% and low (66.5% durability. The addition of woody bulking agent significantly reduced the absorption coefficient: the best results, in terms of potential use as a sound absorber, were observed for compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction without the addition of wood chips.

  5. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J.; Adams, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to open-quotes activateclose quotes the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers

  6. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions

  7. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-01-01

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined

  8. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brad G

    2006-08-01

    Previous bench-scale experiments have provided data necessary for the development of empirical models that describe aerosol entrainment from bubble bursting. However, previous work has not been extended to non-Newtonian liquid slurries. Design of a waste treatment plant on the Hanford Site in Washington required an evaluation of the applicability of these models outside of their intended range. For this evaluation, aerosol measurements were conducted above an air-sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry possessing Bingham plastic rheological properties. Three aerosol-size fractions were measured at three sampling heights and for three different sparging rates. The measured entrainment was compared with entrainment models. One model developed based on bench-scale air-water experiments agreed well with measured entrainment. Another model did not agree well with the measured entrainment. It appeared that the source of discrepancy between measured and modeled entrainment stemmed from application beyond the range of data used to develop the model. A possible separation in entrainment coefficients between air-water and steam-water systems was identified. A third entrainment model was adapted to match experimental conditions and fit a posteri to the experimental data, resulting in a modified version that resulted in estimated entrainment rates similar to the first model.

  9. An Experimental Study of Portland Cement and Superfine Cement Slurry Grouting in Loose Sand and Sandy Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Weijing Yao; Jianyong Pang; Yushan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Grouting technology is widely applied in the fields of geotechnical engineering in infrastructure. Loose sand and sandy soil are common poor soils in tunnel and foundation treatments. It is necessary to use superfine cement slurry grouting in the micro-cracks of soil. The different effectiveness of Portland cement slurry and superfine cement slurry in sandy soil by the laboratory grouting experiment method were presented in this paper. The grouting situations of superfine cement slurry inject...

  10. Experimental investigation of combustion of biomass slurry in an oil fired furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, S.V. [Mechanical Dept., M.S. Ramaiah Inst. of Tech., Bangalore (India); Shankapal, S.R. [M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bangalore (India)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental investigation of combustion of biomass slurry in an oil fired furnace was carried out using pulverized coconut shell (CSP), LDO and water. The effect of equivalence ratio on the slurry composition, calorific value and the effect of exhaust gas percentage are presented. The calorific value of the biomass slurry increases with equivalence ratio initially, attains a peak value and then decreases with the increase in equivalence ratio. It is also observed that with the increase in composition of biomass slurry, the cost of the fuel and the percentage emission of CO decreases. It was found that CSP up to a blend of 20% was more convenient to be used as a slurry fuel in the furnace. (orig.)

  11. Spread of Hepatitis E virus from pig slurry to the water environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Forslund, Anita; Breum, Solvej Østergaard

    Objectives: Spread of pig slurry as an organic fertilizer is commonly used in Danish agriculture. The slurry is spread untreated so pathogens able to survive in slurry tanks will be widely distributed in the environment. The objective of this study was to examine if hepatitis E virus (HEV), which......), and hence could present a risk for virus transmission to wildlife and shellfish. We tested the presence of HEV in water drained from a test field where slurry from a Danish pig farm had been applied and in mussels from different regions in Denmark with fields in close proximity. Methods: Slurry from......). In addition, samples of water collected from wells located along the field and groundwater. Archived mussels from different regions in Denmark were included in the study. Virus was concentrated from water using Poly Ethylene Glycol precipitation and virus from the digestive tissue of the mussels was extracted...

  12. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of surface modified SS410 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarendra, H. J.; Pratap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Punitha Kumara, M. S.; Rajath, H. C.; Ranjith, H.; Shubhatunga, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    Slurry erosion and combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings are studied and compared with the as-received martensitic stainless steel material. 70Ni-Cr coatings are deposited on SS 410 material through plasma thermal spray process. The synergy effect of the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of plasma thermal spray coatings were investigated in a slurry pot tester in the presence of bluff bodies known as Cavitation Inducers. Results showed the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of martensitic stainless steel - 410 can be improved by plasma thermal spray coating. It is observed that the plasma spray coated specimens are better erosion resistant than the as- received material, subjected to erosion test under similar conditions. As-received and the surface modified steels are mechanically characterized for its hardness, bending. Morphological studies are conducted through scanning electron microscope.

  13. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Garg, Rahul [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  14. Investigation of ESEM/EDX to measure liquor penetration and diffusion in Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grzeskowiak, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (ESEM/EDX) was optimised to measure the penetration and diffusion of cooking liquor into Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping. The moisture content...

  15. Analysis of Illicit Liquor by Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC-MS): A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punia, Bhupinder Singh; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Sharma, Rakesh Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Illicit liquors are illegally manufactured to evade taxes and represent the majority of unrecorded liquors in developing countries. Because there are no standards, the composition of illicit liquors varies greatly from sample to sample. In the current study, we analyzed the volatile components of 27 different illicit liquors via samples collected from various locations in the northern region of India. Ethanol content varied drastically and methanol was not present in any of the samples. The components found can be categorized into different groups, namely alcohols, esters, acids, nitrogen-containing components, ketones, and aldehydes. Some components-such as 1-propanol; 1-pentanol; 1-butanol; d-limonene; phenylethyl alcohols; anethole; and decanoic, octanoic, and pentanoic acids-were frequently encountered.

  16. Flow of Hydrolysed Polyacrylamide Mother Liquor through Filter Bag: Detecting the Effects of Formulation and Process Properties on Pressure Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Ming Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM mother liquor is mainly used to extract oil. The HPAM solution is needed to filter the impurity using a bag filter before it is injected into the oil well. Therefore, the pressure drop of HPAM mother liquor must be less than 0.02 MPa in the processing of impurity filtration. The influence factors on pressure drop need to be researched. In this work, the computational fluid dynamics program (CFD was used to research some key influence factors on pressure drop, such as porosity, outlet pressure of filter, inlet flow rate and viscosity of mother liquor. The simulation results indicated that with increasing porosity, outlet pressure, inlet flow rate and mother liquor viscosity, the pressure drop had increased after flowing through the filter bag.

  17. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-05

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PCR-DGGE analysis of the microbial communities in three different Chinese "Baiyunbian" liquor fermentation starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaomao; Hu, Yuanliang; Yan, Nanfeng; Huang, Yingna; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumiao

    2014-08-01

    A systematic investigation was performed on the bacterial, Bacillus, fungal, and yeast communities of the three types of Daqu (mechanically prepared, manually prepared, and mixed prepared) used in Baiyunbian Company by reconditioning PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The DGGE results showed that the microbes in the three types of Daqu were mainly thermotolerant and thermophilic microbes, and the most dominant bacterial species were Bacillus and Virgibacillus, followed by Lactobacillus and Trichococcus. Furthermore, the dominant fungi were found to be molds, such as Rasamsonia, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus, and the dominant yeasts were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Pichia anomala, and Debaryomyces hansenii. In general, the three types of Daqu showed slight differences in microbial communities, and the Shannon indexes (H') of the manually prepared and mechanically prepared Daqu were similar. The results suggest that mechanically prepared Daqu can replace manually prepared Daqu in liquor production, and this research provides useful information for liquor production and process improvement.

  19. Determination of thorium and uranium isotopes in the mining lixiviation liquor samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis Júnior, Aluísio de Souza; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani Guedes, E-mail: reisas@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The alpha spectrometric analysis refers to determination of thorium and uranium isotopes in the mining lixiviation liquor samples. The analytical procedure involves sample preparation steps for rare earth elements, thorium and uranium separation using selective etching with hydrofluoric acid and further radiochemical separation of these using TRU chromatographic resins (Eichrom Industries Inc. USA) besides electroplating of the isolated radionuclides. An isotopic tracer is used to determine the overall chemical yield and to ensure traceability to a national standard. The results are compared to results obtained for the same samples by Becquerel laboratory. We improved the method looking for reproducibility and isotopes isolation as required by alpha spectrometry and the method showing effective in analysis of mining liquor. (author)

  20. Determination of thorium and uranium isotopes in the mining lixiviation liquor samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Júnior, Aluísio de Souza; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani Guedes

    2017-01-01

    The alpha spectrometric analysis refers to determination of thorium and uranium isotopes in the mining lixiviation liquor samples. The analytical procedure involves sample preparation steps for rare earth elements, thorium and uranium separation using selective etching with hydrofluoric acid and further radiochemical separation of these using TRU chromatographic resins (Eichrom Industries Inc. USA) besides electroplating of the isolated radionuclides. An isotopic tracer is used to determine the overall chemical yield and to ensure traceability to a national standard. The results are compared to results obtained for the same samples by Becquerel laboratory. We improved the method looking for reproducibility and isotopes isolation as required by alpha spectrometry and the method showing effective in analysis of mining liquor. (author)