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Sample records for black liquor combustion

  1. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))

    1993-04-01

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  2. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Siistonen, H.; Heikkinen, T.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (author)

  3. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  4. Research on combustion of black-liquor drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black liquor, the major by-product of the kraft process for production of pulp, is one of the most important industrial fuels. It is burned in recovery boilers in the form of large spray drops (mm), with the objective of simultaneous recovery of heat and chemicals (sodium and sulfur). Even though black-liquor combustion in boilers has been practised for over half a century, research efforts toward improvement of combustion efficiency and abatement of environmental emissions are much more recent. The present paper addresses a specific aspect of that research, namely, elucidation of processes which occur during combustion of black-liquor drops in boiler-gas streams. The paper (a) gives a brief description of the kraft process, (b) reviews the experimental and theoretical (modeling) research advances on combustion of kraft-liquor drops during the 1980s and 1990s, (c) re-examines the results of an earlier combustion study in which black-liquor drops were observed in free flight at temperatures near those in recovery boilers, and (d) recommends input for the modeling of in-flight combustion of kraft-liquor drops in recovery boilers. (author)

  5. Formation of fuel NOx during black-liquor combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel NOx and thermal NOx were measured in combustion gases from black liquors in two laboratory furnaces. Combustion at 950 C in air (8% O2) produced NOx concentrations of 40-80ppm. Combustion at 950 C in synthetic air containing no nitrogen (21% 02 in Ar) produced the same result, demonstrating that all of the NOx produced during combustion at 950 C was fuel NOx. Formation of fuel NOx increased moderately with increasing temperature in the range of 800-1,000 C, but temperature sensitivity of fuel NOx was much less than that of thermal NOx. The results imply that the major source of NOx in recovery furnace emissions is the fuel NOx in recovery furnace formed by conversion of liquor-bound nitrogen during combustion. This is consistent with thermal NOx theory, which postulates that black-liquor combustion temperatures are too low to generate significant amounts of thermal NOx

  6. Influence of the chemical composition on the combustion properties of kraft black liquor; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Siistonen, H.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (orig.)

  7. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Ligniinifraktion vaikutus mustalipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Rantanen, K.; Ekman, J.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find relationships between the structure of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties (pyrolysis time, char burning time, and swelling) of softwood and hardwood kraft black liquors. In this conjunction, pine and birch chips, as well as their two mixtures (the mass ratios of pine chips to birch chips were 80:20 and 60:40), were delignified by conventional kraft pulping. In each cook series, a liquor sample was withdrawn at certain time intervals to obtain liquor samples with different chemical composition. The black liquors obtained were analyzed with respect to the content of lignin and `lignin monomers`, but also the molecular-mass distribution and the mass average molecular mass of lignin were made. In addition, the dissolved lignin was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Further data on the chemical structures of lignin in black liquors were obtained by identifying various degradation products formed from this material during oxidative (CuO oxidation) and pyrolytic treatments. Several correlations between the `structural parameters` of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties of black liquor were found. These correlations were significant especially in the case of pine cook. The results revealed many findings which are, together with the earlier data, useful for a better understanding of the thermochemical behavior of different kraft black liquors during combustion in a recovery furnace. (author)

  8. New black liquor combustion characteristics III; Mustalipeaen uudet poltto-ominaisuudet III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Forssen, M.; Backman, R.; Enestam, S.; Lauren, T.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The main purposes in this work is to: 1. Compare black liquor combustion characterization results to recovery boiler experiences. 2. Study the mechanisms of sodium release in black liquor combustion In the first part results from black liquor combustion characterization tests developed by Aabo Akademi University will be compared to experiences at four Finnish kraft recovery boilers. When comparing the laboratory data to the compiled field data emphasis will be put on the behavior of the black liquor during burning, the release of sodium and potassium, the melting behavior of the deposits and the NO and SO{sub 2} emissions. The main purpose in the second part of the work is to study the release mechanisms of sodium from black liquor char during combustion. Sodium is mainly released from the char by the mechanism where the molten sodiumcarbonate reacts with the char carbon. The study is divided into four subtasks and is performed mainly by conducting experiments in laboratory scale devices: (1) Sodium release during char reactions is studied for different liquors by analyzing the amount of sodium remaining in char after different holding times in a hot inert atmosphere. (2) A DTA/TGA apparatus is used to study in isothermal conditions the char reactions on prepyrolyzed char. (3) The effect of the form of sodium on the sodium release during char reactions. Black liquors added with different sodium salts (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}S sekae NaCl) are used in experiments as in subtask 1. (4) Sodium release during combustion (2-5 % O{sub 2}) of single black liquor particles

  9. Form transition of sodium during combustion of black liquor coal slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Ze-quan; CAO Xin-yu; ZHOU Jun-hu; LIU Jian-zhong; CHENG Jun; CEN Ke-fa

    2008-01-01

    Several typical ash samples from a 0.25 MW test furnace fired black liquor coal slurry were selected for investigation. The phases and compounds containing sodium in ash samples were acquired from X-ray diffraction analyses. As well, detailed analyses of the amounts of major mineral elements along thickness gradients of representative ash samples were carried out. The elements, including Na, Si, Al, S and Cl were analyzed by the advanced electron probe microanalyzer equipment, which provid evidence and interpretation for the analytical results of XRD. The findings indicate that the occurrence form of sodium has experi-enced important changes during the combustion of black liquor coal slurry, which translated into nepheline, thenardite, sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, sodium silicoaluminate, hauyne and other phases containing sodium, from NaOH, Na2CO3 and Na2S in raw fuel. Of all the sodium compounds, nepheline, thenardite and sodium sulfate are the most important forms of Na in solid com-bustion residues. Such a transformation of Na during the combustion of black liquor coal slurry resulted in a considerable impact on ash deposition and is not only different from the raw coal and papermaking black liquors, but is also affected by local circum-stances in the combustion furnace. Amounts of Na, S and Cl in ash deposits from low temperature zones were larger than those from high temperature zones. Our findings should provide important theoretical instructions for industrial applications of black liquor coal slurry.

  10. New black liquor combustion characteristics II; Mustalipeaen uudet poltto-ominaisuudet II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Backman, R.; Bostroem, S.; Forssen, M.; Uusikartano, T. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In an earlier study (LIEKKI 2, Y 17), the combustion characteristics of 17 liquors of different origin were studied by four laboratory tests. These tests were (1) single droplet burning, (2) single droplet pyrolysis, (3) pressurized gasification, and (4) calculation of melting properties of inorganic carryover particles. The study showed that there are big differences between liquors of different origin. These differences strongly affect the combustion properties, i.e. pyrolysis and burning times, swelling, and fouling tendency of heat transfer surfaces. The objective for the present research project was to investigate the reasons why some properties affect the combustion behavior more than others. The project is partly complementary to the previous study, partly a more detailed study of some of the phenomena observed earlier. The work constitutes of the following studies: (1) further study of several more liquors by the same methods, (2) pyrolysis swelling in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at two temperatures, 700 deg C and 900 deg C, (3) effect of heat treatment black liquors, (4) effect of addition of sodium compounds to a virgin black liquor, (5) data treatment and correlations, (6) nitrogen oxide formation tendency. (author)

  11. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  12. Gasification of black liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  13. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  14. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF BLACK LIQUOR STEAM GASIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Shri Ramaswamy Mail; Hua-Jiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    Pulp and paper mills represent a major platform for the use of abundant, renewable forest-based biomass as raw material. The pulping processes produce a large amount of black liquor solids, which is currently burnt in a conventional Tomlinson recovery boiler for recovery of energy and inorganic chemicals. This combustion technology can recover chemicals with good efficiency, and steam and power can be produced for the mills. However, Black Liquor Gasification (BLG) can be used to substitute f...

  15. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

  16. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  17. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

    1987-10-01

    Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  18. Kraft black liquor delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

    1990-02-01

    Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

  20. Binding and desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor in biocoalbriquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejoon; Lu, Guoqing; Li, Tianji; Sadakata, Masayoshi

    2002-04-01

    To control pollutant emissions from coal combustion in some developing countries, biocoalbriquette, an artificially produced solid fuel, was developed. Both the breaking strength and production costs of the biocoalbriquette have become essentially the most important factors in popularizing it in these countries. To increase the breaking strength and decrease the production costs, it is proposed in this study to use pulp black liquor, a byproduct from the pulp production industry, as a binder. The influences of pulp black liquor on the briquetting and combustion characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, the desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor were also evaluated through combustion experiments. The study results show that the briquetting pressure has a limited effect on the breaking strength. An increase in the briquetting pressure yields greater breaking strength of up to the 50 MPa. Above 50 MPa, the breaking strength changes very little with the briquetting pressure. The use of pulp black liquor has had a greater effect on increasing the breaking strength than on changing the briquetting pressure and also on improving the combustion characteristics of the biocoalbriquette. On the other hand, pulp black liquor has some desulfurization capabilities. When used as a binder, it not only increases the breaking strength and decreases the necessary briquetting pressure, but it also improves some characteristics of the combustion and reduces the pollutants emission. PMID:11999073

  1. Release model for black liquor droplet; Mustalipeaepisaran vapautumismalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The release of sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulphur from black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification is studied by modelling work. A model for drying, pyrolysis and swelling of black liquor has been developed earlier. A submodel for the release of sulphur, which takes place at temperatures below 500 deg C has been incorporated to this model. A previous model for the combustion and gasification of char particles has been further developed to account for the effect of sodium, potassium and chlorine. A model for the release of these components as function of time has been developed. (orig.)

  2. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  3. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

  4. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  5. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  6. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  7. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  8. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  9. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  10. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  11. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  12. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  13. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  14. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  15. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M.; Backman, P.; Ek, P.; Hulden, S.T.; Kullberg, M.; Sorvari, V.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  16. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  17. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; T'ien, James S.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY)) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  18. In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Alan Sinquefield

    2005-10-01

    Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

  19. Experiments on black liquor splashplate nozzle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, K.

    1996-12-31

    The performance of a throttled black liquor splashplate nozzle was studied in this work. A series of industrial-scale experiments were performed using mass flow rate as a variable at a fixed temperature. The experiments were carried out in a spraying chamber next to the recovery boiler with real mill liquor. The disintegration process of the liquor sheet was videotaped for analyzing. The mass flow rate distribution was measured with a collector. The liquor drops produced by the nozzle were videotaped and measured with a video image analysis technique. The industrial-scale experiments were afterwards repeated on a small scale in the laboratory environment which made it possible to study the liquid sheet disintegration process thoroughly. The small-scale experiments were carried out with a solution of water and glycerol and a splashplate nozzle of approximately one tenth the size of full-scale nozzle. The whole liquid sheet and close-up exposures of the plate area were videotaped. However, the videotaping equipment (camera and objective) were not capable of observing the very thin and transparent liquid sheet. The mass flow rate distribution was measured with steps of 2.5 deg from the plate centerline with a collector device. The drop sizes were measured from various sheet angles with Malvern Particle Sizer and a phase Doppler particle anemometer (Aerometrics). The modeling was based on dimensional analysis. The objective was to compare these two experimental settings and to find out whether small-scale experiments can be used in predicting the spraying characteristics in the full-scale. It was also of interest to test the measured black liquor drop sizes against drop size correlations obtained from the literature. (31 refs.)

  20. Large scale experiments and modeling of black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Per

    2011-07-01

    Biomass gasification could provide a basis for increased electricity and engine fuel production from a renewable source in the pulp and paper industry. This work focuses on the largest byproduct available at the pulp mills, black liquor. Black liquor is a mixture of spent cooking chemicals, dissolved lignin, dissolved carbohydrates and a small portion of inorganic compounds found in the wood. The conventional technology to recover the cooking chemicals and the chemical energy as heat is combustion in large boilers. Here, gasification could be an alternative, replacing or complementing the boilers. The gasification technology produces a combustible gas that can be cleaned to produce electricity in a gas turbine/engine or, be synthesized into valuable chemicals or liquid engine fuels. The technology has been demonstrated in development scale since 2005 and appears to be promising. Still, commercial plants have not yet been built. This thesis focuses on the understanding of the oxygen blown, pressurized, entrained flow, black liquor gasification technology. The main goals have been to increase the understanding about the dominating mechanisms in black liquor gasification and to develop an engineering tool that can be used to design and optimize, pressurized, entrained flow, black liquor gasifiers. To accomplish these goals gas samples were extracted from the gasification reactor using a gas sampling probe that was developed within this work. Gas samples were also collected downstream the quench located underneath the reactor and the results were compared. Finally, an existing numerical model was developed so it can predict the behavior of the black liquor gasifier within reasonable accuracy. Even though the actual mechanisms in the reactor and quench are very complex it appears that they can be described with relatively simple global mechanisms. The main gas components are dictated by the water gas shift reaction. At the outlet of the reactor the gas composition is

  1. Assessment of the release of atomic Na from a burning black liquor droplet using quantitative PLIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The Environment Institute, School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The Environment Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The quantitative measurement of atomic sodium (Na) release, at high concentration, from a burning black liquor droplet has been demonstrated using a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique, corrected for fluorescence trapping. The local temperature of the particle was measured to be approximately 1700 C, at a height of 10 mm above a flat flame burner. The PLIF technique was used to assess the temporal release of atomic Na from the combustion of black liquor and compare it with the Na concentration in the remaining smelt. A first-order model was made to provide insight using a simple Plug Flow Reactor model based on the independently measured concentration of residual Na in the smelt as a function of time. This model also required the dilution ratio of the combustion products in the flat flame entrained into the plume gas from the black liquor particle to be estimated. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the peak concentration of atomic Na from the combustion of the black liquor droplets is around 1.4 ppm; (ii) very little atomic Na is present during the drying, devolatilisation or char combustion stages; and (iii) the presence of atomic Na during smelt phase dominates over that from the other combustion stages. (author)

  2. Catalytic mechanism of sodium compounds in black liquor during gasification of coal black liquor slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal black liquor slurry (CBLS) was composed of coal and black pulping liquor, which has plenty of sodium compounds, lignin and cellulose. The sodium compounds have a catalytic effect on the gasification process of coal black liquor slurry, while lignin and cellulose enhance the heat value. Alkali-catalyzed gasification experiments of CBLS and CWS (coal water slurry) are investigated on the thermobalance and fixed bed reactor. The residues of the gasification of CBLS and CWS are analyzed by XRD, SEM and FT-IR. It is found that many micro- and mesopores and zigzag faces exist in the surface of the CBLS coke, which play a key role in the catalytic gasification. Sodium can enhance the reaction potential, weaken the bond of C-O and improve the gasification reaction rate. XRD results show that sodium aluminum silicate and nepheline are the main crystal components of the CBLS and CWS. The C-O stretching vibration peak in the 1060 cm-1 band in the CBLS shifts to 995.65 cm-1 in the CBLS coke after partial gasification. This means that the energy of the C-O stretching vibration in the CBLS carbon matrix decreases, so the structure of the carbon matrix is more liable to react with an oxygen ion or hydroxide ion. The amplitude of the C-O stretching vibration peak is augmented step by step due to the ground-excited level jump of the C-O band

  3. Final technical report. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a black liquor recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Markham; Joseph Cosgrove; David Marran; Jorge Neira; Chad Nelson; Peter Solomon

    1999-05-31

    This project developed and tested advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instruments for process monitoring of black liquor recovery boilers. The state-of-the-art FT-IR instruments successfully operated in the harsh environment of a black liquor recovery boiler and provided a wealth of real-time process information. Concentrations of multiple gas species were simultaneously monitored in-situ across the combustion flow of the boiler and extractively at the stack. Sensitivity to changes of particulate fume and carryover levels in the process flow were also demonstrated. Boiler set-up and operation is a complex balance of conditions that influence the chemical and physical processes in the combustion flow. Operating parameters include black liquor flow rate, liquor temperature, nozzle pressure, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air, boiler excess oxygen and others. The in-process information provided by the FT-IR monitors can be used as a boiler control tool since species indicative of combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, methane) and pollutant emissions (sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid and fume) were monitored in real-time and observed to fluctuate as operating conditions were varied. A high priority need of the U.S. industrial boiler market is improved measurement and control technology. The sensor technology demonstrated in this project is applicable to the need of industry.

  4. Entrained Flow Black Liquor Gasification - Detailed Experiments and Mathematical Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Per (Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)), e-mail: per.carlsson@etcpitea.se

    2009-07-01

    Black liquor, a by-product from the Kraft pulping process is a highly viscous fluid consisting of approximately 30% water, 30 % alkali salts and 40 % combustible material. The alkali salts originating from the pulp making process need to be recovered in order for the pulp mill to be economical and to satisfy environmental regulation. Currently, the recovery takes place in large boilers called Tomlinson recovery boilers. However, a more energy efficient way to recover the chemicals could be via gasification in a pressurized, entrained flow, high temperature gasifier. To demonstrate this technology a development plant (DP1) was built in 2005 by the technology vendor Chemrec. Since then, the plant has been running for more than 10,000 h and frequently been updated and optimized. As steps towards commercialization and scale-up different computational models of varying sophistication are used as design and optimization tools for the process. Still, the engineering tools can only provide sensible predictions if they are properly validated and verified. This thesis is concerned with validation of a comprehensive mathematical model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) describing the gasification reactor and experimental investigations of the process characteristics in the DP1 gasifier. Paper A describes the system design and methodology for high temperature gas sampling during pressurized black liquor gasification. In this work a water-cooled gas sampling probe is installed in the hot part of the DP1 gasification reactor and several gas samples are withdrawn and analyzed. The experimentally obtained data in Paper A are then used as validation data for the CFD-model described in Paper B. In Paper C the obtained data from Paper A are thoroughly analyzed and the influence of reactor operation on producer gas composition is determined. In Paper D black liquor sprays from a gas assisted nozzle is experimentally investigated using high speed photography. Furthermore, the

  5. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  6. ON THE BLACK LIQUOR AND RECYCLE COOKING OF AS-AQ STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiqiang Shi; Beihai He; Bingyue Liu

    2004-01-01

    Thick black liquor, thin black liquor and solid state sodium hydroxide are added to the liquor treated by sulfur dioxide, then the blended liquor is used to recycle cooking of straw pulp. The black liquor,separated liquor and pulp of every cycles are analyzed respectively. Result shows that the content of lignin and organism in recycle black liquor and separated liquor increases faster in the first three cycles and then continues to increase slowly till four or five times, after that it trends to a stable state. The main organism separated from waste liquor of AS-AQ treated by sulfur dioxide is alkali-lignin,above 50% of total lignin in black liquor. The yield of pulp made from recycle cooking is steady, the hardness of pulp has a great improvement with recycle cooking. The brightness of pulp reduces correspondingly before bleaching, and after bleaching the brightness of pulp is relatively high and steady at the same sodium hypo chlorite dosage.

  7. Drop formation of black liquor spraying; Mustalipeaen pisaroituminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelholm, C.J.; Kankkunen, A.; Nieminen, K.; Laine, J.; Miikkulainen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Lab. of Energy Technology and Environmental Protection

    1997-10-01

    Black liquor is a spent liquor of the pulp and paper industry. It is burned in kraft recovery boilers for chemical and energy recovery. The high dry solids content and viscosity of black liquor require a high spraying temperature. This affects the performance of the boiler. Kraft recovery boiler deposit formation, emissions and chemical recovery are strongly affected by the drop size and the velocity of the black liquor spray formed by a splashplate nozzle. The sheet breakup mechanism is studied with a system based on a video and image-analysis. The drop size of mill-scale nozzles was measured also with an image-analysis-system. Measurements were carried out in a spray test chamber. The sheet breakup mechanism and drop size tests were carried out both below and over the boiling point of black liquor. Special attention was paid to the effect of flashing on drop formation. Temperature increase normally decreases drop size. In the temperature where the wavy-sheet disintegration changes to perforated-sheet disintegration the drop size increases. Spray velocity rises when the temperature is increased above the boiling point. (orig.)

  8. Utilization of black liquor as concrete admixture and set retarder aid

    OpenAIRE

    Samar A. El-Mekkawi; Ibrahim M. Ismail; Mohammed M. El-Attar; Alaa A. Fahmy; Samia S. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of black liquor, produced by the pulp and paper industry in Egypt, as a workability aid and set retarder admixture has been investigated. This approach may help eliminate the environmentally polluting black liquor waste. It also provides a low cost by-product, which can be widely used in the construction industry. The properties of black liquor and its performance on concrete at two different ratios of water to cement have been studied. The results revealed that black liquor f...

  9. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  10. Mass and Energy Balances for Black Liquor Gasification with Borate Autocausticization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arosenius, Anna-Karin

    2007-01-15

    Gasification of black liquor is considered to be a promising alternative technique for recovery of black liquor in kraft pulping. Compared to the conventional recovery process, i.e. combustion of black liquor in a recovery boiler, the primary advantage of gasification is the potential to produce biofuels and chemicals. The causticizing demand is though higher for the gasification technology. If the existing lime kiln can not handle the extra load, partial borate autocausticizing may be an alternative. In this work, the energy balance for a kraft pulp mill using black liquor gasification and partial borate autocausticization is compared with a mill using gasification and extended lime causticizing and also with a mill having a conventional recovery cycle. Additionally, the chemical costs for the partial borate autocausticizing is compared to the investment cost of the larger lime kiln. Mass and energy balances are based on the updated reference mill in the MISTRA Research Program, 'The Eco-Cyclic Pulp Mill', producing 2000 ADt of pulp per day. The results show that less energy is released to steam production in a gasifier than in a recovery boiler and instead energy is released in chemical form in the produced syn gas. Using partial borate autocausticizing, the demand of external energy is lowered in the lime kiln compared to extended lime causticization. The borate autocausticization, taking place in the gasifier with black liquor as energy source, only demands a third of the energy saved in the lime kiln. On the other hand the chemical costs for the borate autocausticization exceeds the investment cost for a larger lime kiln after five years.

  11. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  12. Catalytic effect of black liquor on the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Xiuli; Zhou, ZhiJie; Wang, Fuchen [Kay Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2010-05-15

    CO{sub 2} gasification of petroleum coke using black liquor as a catalyst was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) under temperatures 1223-1673 K at ambient pressure to evaluate the effect of black liquor loading on petroleum coke gasification. It was found that the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke was improved greatly by black liquor. The gasification reactivity was affected by different loading methods in the order: wet grinding > dry grinding > physical impregnation > dry mix. The catalytic activity of black liquor was higher than that of pure alkali metal. The effect of temperature on the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke was changed by black liquor. The reactivity reaches its maximum at 1573 K. The reactivity of petroleum coke was found higher than that of Shenfu coal when black liquor loading is 5 wt.% (of petroleum coke), clearly demonstrating that black liquor could be an effective catalyst for petroleum coke gasification. (author)

  13. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is

  14. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Lignin Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Kraft and Sulphite Black Liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Duarte; Cecília Baptista; Nuno Gil; Hélio Faustino

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds present in industrial black liquors obtained from the two cooking processes (kraft and sulphite) used in Portugal to produce Eucalyptus globulus pulp was evaluated. The black liquors treated at several pH values were extracted with ethyl acetate. Phenolic fractions were further separated by liquid chromatography of the crude extracts of kraft liquor at pH = 6 and sulphite liquor at the original pH. Total phenolic content was determined in ter...

  16. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of alkaline black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Changqing; Guo, Liejin; Chen, Yunan; Lu, Youjun [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China)

    2010-07-01

    Black liquor was gasified continuously in supercritical water successfully and the main gaseous products were H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} with little amount of CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The increase of the temperature and the decrease of the flow rate and black liquor concentration enhanced SCWG of black liquor. The change of the system pressure had limited influence on the gasification effect. The maximal COD removal efficiency of 88.69 % was obtained at the temperature of 600 C. The pH values of the aqueous residue were all decreased to the range of 6.4{proportional_to}8 while the pH value of cooling effluence below 360 C increased to about 11 and the sodium content was much higher than that in the aqueous residue. The reaction rate for COD degradation in supercritical water was obtained by assuming pseudo first order reaction. And the activation energy and pre-exponential for COD removal in SCWG were 74.38kJ/mol and 1.11 x 10{sup 4} s{sup -1} respectively. (orig.)

  17. Process stability for chemical recovery units: Which black liquor firing control strategies enhance stability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, D.T.; Frederickson, J.O.; Andrews, J.R. [James River Corp., Berlin, NH (United States). Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Black liquor firing control strategies strive to buffer chemical recovery units (CRU) from changes in kraft pulp mill process. The importance of firing control strategy has increased recently with the trend to link concentrators directly to CRU liquor headers to ensure minimal liquor storage. Four control strategies were evaluated: (1) black liquor nozzle pressure, (2) black liquor volumetric flow, (3) black liquor solids mass flow, and (4) energy flow control. The variation between the base case and the four different control strategies was evaluated by changes in six process parameters, i.e., pressure, velocity, solids mass flow, energy released, droplet diameter, and droplet evaporative load. Results indicated that for non-fouling units, the energy release strategy provided the best stability. For fouling units, the choice was less obvious; none of the evaluated control strategies ranked consistently best. Liquor header (nozzle) pressure control proved to be least desirable. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry by acidification and reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-bo; MU Huan-zhen; HUANG Yan-chu

    2003-01-01

    Two different kinds of black liquor from the papermaking industry were treated by acidification and reuse. The experimental parameters and conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicated that the treatment process mentioned in this article is an effective process for the treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry. By the treatment, the solid materials in black liquor are transferred into two by-products and the other components are reused or evaporated. Thus, no wastewater except some condensation water would be discharged in pulping process and the problem of pollution of black liquor would be effectively solved.

  19. Treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry by acidification and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bo; Mu, Huan-Zhen; Huang, Yan-Chu

    2003-09-01

    Two different kinds of black liquor from the papermaking industry were treated by acidification and reuse. The experimental parameters and conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicated that the treatment process mentioned in this article is an effective process for the treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry. By the treatment, the solid materials in black liquor are transferred into two by-products and the other components are reused or evaporated. Thus, no wastewater except some condensation water would be discharged in pulping process and the problem of pollution of black liquor would be effectively solved. PMID:14562934

  20. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  1. ON THE BLACK LIQUOR AND RECYCLE COOKING OF AS-AQ STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaiqiangShi; BeihaiHe; BingyueLiu

    2004-01-01

    Thick black liquor, thin black liquor and solid state sodium hydroxide are added to the liquor treated by sulfur dioxide, then the blended liquor is used to recycle cooking of straw pulp. The black liquor, separated liquor and pulp of every cycles are analyzed respectively. Result shows that the content of lignin and organism in recycle black liquor and separated liquor increases faster in the first three cycles and then continues to increase slowly till four or five times, after that it trends to a stable state. The main organism separated fi'om waste liquor of AS-AQ treated by sulfur dioxide is alkali-lignin,above 50% of total lignin in black liquor. The yield of pulp made fi'om recycle cooking is steady, the hardness of pulp has a great improvement with recycle cooking. The brightness of pulp reduces correspondingly before bleaching, and after bleaching the brightness of pulp is relatively high and steady at the same sodium hypo chlorite dosage.

  2. Study on the changes of physical and chemical properties for the black liquor of straw plug induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The black liquor of straw plug was treated by electron beam or γ-ray radiation. The relationship between the viscosity of the black liquor of straw plug and the radiation beam type, the irradiated dose, the temperature of the black liquor at irradiation time and the concentration of the solid state matter in the black liquor was investigated. The result shows that the radiation treatment makes the organic big molecular of the black liquor decomposed, the environmental loading factor of the black liquor reduced; after an irradiation of 20 kGy, the viscosity of the black liquor of straw plug with 30% solid state matter is reduced by 50%, the property of vaporization is obviously improved, but the calorific value of the black liquor has almost no change

  3. The kinetics of the gasification of black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Tobias; Theliander, Hans; Wintoko, Joko [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Forest Products and Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Within the project, a special equipment has been manufactured in order to perform gasification experiments on single black liquor droplets. There are possibilities with the equipment to dynamically measure the weight of the droplet as well as its center temperature. Furthermore, some key gases (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}) are continuously measured. It is also possible to follow the gasification stages visually through a glass window. Parallel with this, a mathematical model has been developed to describe the gasification. It consists of both reaction kinetics and transport phenomenon. As a first step, the temperature profile was modeled and after that the model has been expanded to describe the swelling.

  4. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  5. Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

    1995-10-01

    This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which bums the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

  6. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guangzai Nong; Zongwen Zhou; Shuangfei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents) consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas...

  7. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor. PMID:17092702

  8. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  9. Black liquor fractionation for biofuels production - a techno-economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesfun, Sennai; Lundgren, Joakim; Grip, Carl-Erik; Toffolo, Andrea; Nilsson, Rasika Lasanthi Kudahettige; Rova, Ulrika

    2014-08-01

    The hemicelluloses fraction of black liquor is an underutilized resource in many chemical pulp mills. It is possible to extract and separate the lignin and hemicelluloses from the black liquor and use the hemicelluloses for biochemical conversion into biofuels and chemicals. Precipitation of the lignin from the black liquor would consequently decrease the thermal load on the recovery boiler, which is often referred to as a bottleneck for increased pulp production. The objective of this work is to techno-economically evaluate the production of sodium-free lignin as a solid fuel and butanol to be used as fossil gasoline replacement by fractionating black liquor. The hydrolysis and fermentation processes are modeled in Aspen Plus to analyze energy and material balances as well as to evaluate the plant economics. A mathematical model of an existing pulp and paper mill is used to analyze the effects on the energy performance of the mill subprocesses. PMID:24950095

  10. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzai Nong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. Therefore, the recovery ratios of elemental sodium and biomass solids are 80.4% and 76%, respectively. Treating black liquor by electrolysis is an environmentally friendly technology that can, in particular, be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black liquor recovery.

  11. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors. Interim report No.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has conducted a systematic collection data of properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics. Complete data, except for some density data, has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at a total of 25 different pulping conditions that cover the entire range used for commercial pulping. In addition, complete data has been collected for some mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors made at 16 different pulping conditions and some mill liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. While it has not proven to be possible to include research for comprehensive correlations for properties for liquors from other species, we have shown that the behavior of liquors made from other species is similar to that which has been explored extensively for Slash Pine liquors. This report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  12. Study of the reduction of particle emissions and borate black liquor gasification in bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, Sylvain

    2004-11-01

    zone of the boiler. The results from the simulations were validated against measurements. The temperature field was well described and the velocity field was predicted with acceptable accuracy. Chemical reactions were not included in these simulations. Turbulence was modelled using the RNG k-{epsilon} model, which is relatively easy to use. This thesis also performs a study on a new model of black liquor gasification with borate autocausticizing, which has the potential to improve the production performance of pulp mills. The earlier model from Jansson did not have the efficiency expected, and was found unacceptable as a means of replacing the lime cycle. The new process has a real advantage compared to earlier borate autocausticizing processes; it can theoretically be led either on a full scale or as a part of the process to an ordinary causticizing and with moderate borate setting. The booster gasifier is studied. The material and energy balance is formulated for a sulphate- recycling block with this process and is compared with the conventional techniques. The results of the usual black liquor gasification were very close to reality and very promising. Regarding the black liquor gasification with borate, lack of data for the orthoborate, like the Gibbs free energy, did not enable good accuracy of the results. The model is so far a good start in black liquor gasification, but it needs to be improved as soon as some new data are available.

  13. Numerical modelling of the CHEMREC black liquor gasification process. Conceptual design study of the burner in a pilot gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Magnus

    2001-02-01

    The work presented in this report is done in order to develop a simplified CFD model for Chemrec's pressurised black liquor gasification process. This process is presently under development and will have a number of advantages compared to conventional processes for black liquor recovery. The main goal with this work has been to get qualitative information on influence of burner design for the gas flow in the gasification reactor. Gasification of black liquor is a very complex process. The liquor is composed of a number of different substances and the composition may vary considerably between liquors originating from different mills and even for black liquor from a single process. When a black liquor droplet is gasified it loses its organic material to produce combustible gases by three stages of conversion: Drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. In the end of the conversion only an inorganic smelt remains (ideally). The aim is to get this smelt to form a protective layer, against corrosion and heat, on the reactor walls. Due to the complexity of gasification of black liquor some simplifications had to be made in order to develop a CFD model for the preliminary design of the gasification reactor. Instead of modelling droplets in detail, generating gas by gasification, sources were placed in a prescribed volume where gasification (mainly drying and pyrolysis) of the black liquor droplets was assumed to occur. Source terms for the energy and momentum equations, consistent with the mass source distribution, were derived from the corresponding control volume equations by assuming a symmetric outflow of gas from the droplets and a uniform degree of conversion of reactive components in the droplets. A particle transport model was also used in order to study trajectories from droplets entering the reactor. The resulting model has been implemented in a commercial finite volume code (AEA-CFX) through customised Fortran subroutines. The advantages with this simple

  14. Modeling and field observations of char bed processes in black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engblom, M.

    2010-07-01

    The char bed plays an important role in kraft black liquor combustion. Stable operation of the char bed promotes efficient and safe operation of the black liquor recovery boiler. It also plays a crucial role in the recovery of the pulping chemicals. Char bed operation involves controlling the char bed size and shape. Mathematical modeling based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) haas been applied to recovery boilers for increased insights into the recovery furnace processes and to aid in the design of new boilers. So far, all CED-based char bed models reported in literature have used a fixed bed shape. This imposes restrictions on simulation of char bed burning by not considering inherently occurring changes in bed shape. In this thesis, a CED -based recovery furnace model is further developed to predict changes in bed shape. The new model is used in simulation of existing recovery boilers. The predictions of bed shape are compared with observations from real boilers. The furnace model is capable of correctly simulating the overall response of the char bed size to operational changes. This confirms the current quantitative overall understanding of char bed burning. In addition to modeling, visual observations of the char bed processes were made in this work. The observations provide validation data concerning the physical behavior of the char bed, and the findings from the observations can be used in further development of char bed models. Modeling and simulations of fundamental laboratory scale char bed experiments reported in literature are also carried out. The simulations complement the experimental data by providing detailed insights into gas phase reactions that can occur inside the gas boundary layer above a char bed. (orig.)

  15. A Constructed Alkaline Consortium and Its Dynamics in Treating Alkaline Black Liquor with Very High Pollution Load

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chunyu; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Xia; Feng, Jinhui; Zhao, Liping; Xu, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD) pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial com...

  16. Optical properties of black liquor and refractometric methods for monitoring the solid residue concentration in sulfate cellulose production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, N. P.; Lapshov, S. N.; Mayorov, E. E.; Sherstobitova, A. S.; Yaskov, A. D.

    2012-07-01

    Measurements of the refractive index, its temperature dependence, and the optical transmission of black liquors produced during sulfate pulping are reported for soluble solid residue concentrations up to k ≅ 60 %. The design features of a commercial refractometer for monitoring the concentration of black liquor are examined briefly. A procedure is proposed for laboratory calibration of commercial sensors that employs black liquor solutions in highly refractive organic liquids as reference samples.

  17. Synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification process using direct causticization with CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification system. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive lime kiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show large SNG production potential at significant energy efficiency (58%). ► Substantial CO2 capture potential plus CO2 reductions from natural gas replacement. ► Significant transport fuel replacement especially in Sweden and Europe. -- Abstract: Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from dry black liquor gasification (DBLG) system is an attractive option to reduce CO2 emissions replacing natural gas. This article evaluates the energy conversion performance of SNG production from oxygen blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) black liquor gasification process with direct causticization by investigating system integration with a reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The direct causticization process eliminates use of energy intensive lime kiln that is a main component required in the conventional black liquor recovery cycle with the recovery boiler. The paper has estimated SNG production potential, the process energy ratio of black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG, and quantified the potential CO2 abatement. Based on reference pulp mill capacity, the results indicate a large potential of SNG production (about 162 MW) from black liquor but at a cost of additional biomass import (36.7 MW) to compensate the total energy deficit. The process shows cold gas energy efficiency of about 58% considering black liquor and biomass import as major energy inputs. About 700 ktonnes per year of CO2 abatement i.e. both possible CO2 capture and CO2 offset from bio-fuel use replacing natural gas, is estimated. Moreover, the SNG production offers a significant fuel replacement in transport sector especially in countries with large pulp and paper industry e.g. in Sweden, about 72% of motor gasoline and 40% of total motor fuel could be replaced.

  18. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and

  19. Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

    2006-06-29

    with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the

  20. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has been conducted over this last period so as to systematically collect data on properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics very carefully by methods that have developed during this program. Complete data has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at different pulping conditions. In addition, data has been collected for mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to. pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. In the near future, we fully expect to accomplish our goal of developing generalized correlations relating physical properties of Slash Pine kraft black liquors to liquor composition. This interim report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  1. Promoted slurryability of petroleum coke-water slurry by using black liquor as an additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Xiuli; Zhou, Zhijie; Wang, Fuchen [Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Kang, Wanzhong [School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to prepare the petroleum coke-water slurry with a maximal coke mass fraction and the superior slurry natures using black liquor as an additive. The variations of rheological properties, contact angle, fluidity, stability and zeta potential of the coke-water slurry with different black liquor dosages were investigated. It was observed that the addition of a black liquor dosage around 1.0 wt.% of the petroleum coke remarkably improved the rheological properties, fluidity and stability of the slurry, and the slurry could hold a mass of petroleum coke as high as 70 wt.%, with the superior apparent viscosity, fluidity and stability available for practical utilization. (author)

  2. Preparation of adhesive for bamboo plywood using concentrated papermaking black liquor directly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Adhesive for bamboo plywood prepared directly using lignin existing in the black liquor as a kind of material replacing phenol was proposed on the basis of the same structural properties of lignin and phenol. The results indicate that the reaction time of black liquor methylating is 30 min, when the ratio of alkali to formaldehyde is controlled at approximately 0.20, decomposition rate of formaldehyde is the lowest and the effect of black liquor methylating is the best, the optimal molar ratio of phenol: formaldehyde to NaOH to H2O of preparing phenolic resin is liquor to phenolic resin, all terms of performance of black liquor phenolic resin are excellent and satisfy the requirement. All terms of performance of bamboo plywood prepared using this technique are better than that of excellent bamboo plywood of national criteria. Using this technique, the cost is depressed by 28.69% without altering the traditional adhesive producing technique flow, and without using additional equipment.

  3. Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

    2010-03-02

    Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. “syngas”) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950°C), but was limited to pressures below

  4. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornetti, Micheal [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States); Freeman, Douglas [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States)

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  5. Black liquor devolatilization and swelling - a detailed droplet model and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present results from a new detailed physical model for single black liquor droplet pyrolysis and swelling, and validate them against experimental data from a non-oxidizing environment using two different reactor configurations. In the detailed model, we solve for the heat transfer and gas phase mass transfer in the droplet and thereby, the intra-particle gas-char and gas-gas interactions during drying and devolatilization can be studied. In the experimental part, the mass change, the swelling behaviour, and the volume fraction of larger voids, i.e. cenospheres in the droplets were determined in a non-oxidizing environment. The model gave a good correlation with experimental swelling and mass loss data. Calculations suggest that a considerable amount of the char can be consumed before the entire droplet has experienced the devolatilization and drying stages of combustion. Char formed at the droplet surface layer is generally consumed by gasification with H2O flowing outwards from the droplet interior. The extent of char conversion during devolatilization and the rate of devolatilization are greatly affected by swelling and the formation of larger voids in the particle. The more the particle swells and the more homogeneous the particle structure is, the larger is the conversion of char at the end of devolatilization

  6. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  7. Estimation of Theaflavins (TF) and Thearubigins (TR) Ratio in Black Tea Liquor Using Electronic Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuli, Amitava; Pal, Abhra; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyya, Rajib; Tamuly, Pradip; Gogoi, Nagen

    2011-09-01

    Quality of black tea is generally assessed using organoleptic tests by professional tea tasters. They determine the quality of black tea based on its appearance (in dry condition and during liquor formation), aroma and taste. Variation in the above parameters is actually contributed by a number of chemical compounds like, Theaflavins (TF), Thearubigins (TR), Caffeine, Linalool, Geraniol etc. Among the above, TF and TR are the most important chemical compounds, which actually contribute to the formation of taste, colour and brightness in tea liquor. Estimation of TF and TR in black tea is generally done using a spectrophotometer instrument. But, the analysis technique undergoes a rigorous and time consuming effort for sample preparation; also the operation of costly spectrophotometer requires expert manpower. To overcome above problems an Electronic Vision System based on digital image processing technique has been developed. The system is faster, low cost, repeatable and can estimate the amount of TF and TR ratio for black tea liquor with accuracy. The data analysis is done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Multiple Discriminate Analysis (MDA). A correlation has been established between colour of tea liquor images and TF, TR ratio. This paper describes the newly developed E-Vision system, experimental methods, data analysis algorithms and finally, the performance of the E-Vision System as compared to the results of traditional spectrophotometer.

  8. Comparison of pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified black liquor with stand-alone production from gasified biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When gasified black liquor is used for hydrogen production, significant amounts of biomass must be imported. This paper compares two alternative options for producing hydrogen from biomass: (A) pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified back liquor; and (B) stand-alone production of hydrogen from gasified biomass. The comparison assumes that the same amount of biomass that is imported in Alternative A is supplied to a stand-alone hydrogen production plant and that the gasified black liquor in Alternative B is used in a black liquor gasification combined cycle (BLGCC) CHP unit. The comparison is based upon equal amounts of black liquor fed to the gasifier, and identical steam and power requirements for the pulp mill. The two systems are compared on the basis of total CO2 emission consequences, based upon different assumptions for the reference energy system that reflect different societal CO2 emissions reduction target levels. Ambitions targets are expected to lead to a more CO2-lean reference energy system, in which case hydrogen production from gasified black liquor (Alternative A) is best from a CO2 emissions' perspective, whereas with high CO2 emissions associated with electricity production, hydrogen from gasified biomass and electricity from gasified black liquor (Alternative B) is preferable. (author)

  9. Effect of pulping variables on enthalpy of kraft black liquors: Empirical predictive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-07-01

    The effects of pulping variables on enthalpy of slash pine kraft black liquors from a 2{sup k} + 2k + 1 (k = 4) central composite design pulping experiments that were performed in a large pilot scale digester have been studied. The four cooling variables were effective alkali, sulfidity, cooking temperature, and time at temperature. In all cases, the white liquor was adjusted to a causticizing efficiency of 85% and a reduction of 93% with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The enthalpy of these liquors was determined over wide ranges of temperature and solids concentrations using a Setaram C-80 calorimeter. In this work, previous models for enthalpy-concentration relations were used to perform a systematic study on the effects of pulping conditions on enthalpy and to develop statistically based quantitative models for enthalpy as a function of pulping variables. These results are presented, and their utility is discussed.

  10. Life cycle greenhouse gases and non-renewable energy benefits of kraft black liquor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fossil fuel benefits of black liquor recovery are analyzed. These benefits are due to the production of energy that can be used in the pulping process or sold, and the recovery of the pulping chemicals that would otherwise need to be produced from other resources. The fossil GHG emissions and non-renewable energy consumption of using black liquor in the kraft recovery system are approximately 90% lower than those for a comparable fossil fuel-based system. Across all scenarios, the systems relying on black liquor solids achieve a median reduction of approximately 140 kg CO2 eq./GJ of energy produced, compared to the systems relying on fossil fuels to provide the same energy and pulping chemical production functions. The benefits attributable to the recovery of pulping chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit. Applied to the total production of kraft pulp in the U.S., the avoided emissions are equivalent to the total Scopes 1 and 2 emissions from the entire U.S. forest products industry. These results do not depend on the accounting method for biogenic carbon (because biogenic CO2 emissions are the same for the systems compared) and the results are valid across a range of assumptions about the displaced fossil fuel, the GHG-intensity of the electricity grid, the fossil fuels used in the lime kiln, and the level of cogeneration at pulp and paper mills. The benefits occur without affecting the amount of wood harvested or the amount of chemical pulp produced. -- Highlights: ► Black liquor, a by-product of kraft pulping, represents about half of the energy used in the paper industry. ► The greenhouse gases (GHG) benefits of black liquor recovery compared to an equivalent fossil fuel system were analyzed. ► The GHG emissions of the black liquor system are approximately 90% lower than those for the fossil fuel system. ► The benefits from the recovery of the chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit.

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Lignin Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Kraft and Sulphite Black Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Duarte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds present in industrial black liquors obtained from the two cooking processes (kraft and sulphite used in Portugal to produce Eucalyptus globulus pulp was evaluated. The black liquors treated at several pH values were extracted with ethyl acetate. Phenolic fractions were further separated by liquid chromatography of the crude extracts of kraft liquor at pH = 6 and sulphite liquor at the original pH. Total phenolic content was determined in terms of gallic acid equivalents (Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, and the antioxidant activity in the crude extracts at several pH values and in the separated fractions was measured using the DPPH test for radical scavenging capacity. The total phenolic content of crude extracts and separated fractions ranged from 92.7 to 181.6 and from 91.6 to 1,099.6 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the antioxidant activity index (AAI ranged from 2.20 to 3.41 and from 2.21 to 11.47 respectively, showing very strong antioxidant activity in all studied cases. The fractions separated by column chromatography were submitted to mass spectrometry analysis and the results were compared to others in the literature of natural products, mainly from Eucalyptus, and the characteristic bands of functional groups were identified by 1H-NMR and FTIR. These methods allowed the identification of 17 phenolic compounds.

  12. Comparison of Refractory Performance in Black Liquor Gasifiers and a Smelt Test System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior laboratory corrosion studies along with experience at the black liquor gasifier in New Bern, North Carolina, clearly demonstrate that serious material problems exist with the gasifier's refractory lining. Mullite-based and alumina-based refractories used at the New Bern facility suffered significant degradation even though they reportedly performed adequately in smaller scale systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's involvement in the failure analysis, and the initial exploration of suitable replacement materials, led to the realization that a simple and reliable, complementary method for refractory screening was needed. The development of a laboratory test system and its suitability for simulating the environment of black liquor gasifiers was undertaken. Identification and characterization of corrosion products were used to evaluate the test system as a rapid screening tool for refractory performance and as a predictor of refractory lifetime. Results from the test systems and pl ants were qualitatively similar

  13. Black liquor and the hangover effect: fish assemblage recovery dynamics following a pulse disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle R. Piller; Geheber, Aaron D

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic perturbations impact aquatic systems causing wide-ranging responses, from assemblage restructuring to assemblage recovery. Previous studies indicate the duration and intensity of disturbances play a role in the dynamics of assemblage recovery. In August 2011, the Pearl River, United States, was subjected to a weak black liquor spill from a paper mill which resulted in substantial loss of fish in a large stretch of the main channel. We quantified resilience and recovery of fish a...

  14. Lignin Prepared by Ultrafiltration of Black Liquor : Investigation of Solubility, Viscosity, and Ash Content

    OpenAIRE

    Giummarella, Nicola; Lindgren, Christofer; Lindström, Mikael; Henriksson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Technical lignin, which can be potentially obtained in large amounts as a by-product from kraft pulping, represents a potential resource for manufacturing fuels and chemicals. Upgrading of lignin, by lowering its molecular weight, is a valuable alternative to precipitation from black liquor, which occurs in the Lignoboost process. The solubility properties of Lignoboost lignin and filtered lignin in a number of technically feasible solvents were compared, and it was found that both lignins we...

  15. Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills

    OpenAIRE

    Naqvi, Muhammad Raza

    2012-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of the biomass worldwide including bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern mills have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to poly-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and pa...

  16. ANALYSIS ON COMPOSITION OF FOULANTS FROM ALKALINE WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR AND DISCUSSION ON ITS FORMING MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuan Jia

    2004-01-01

    Analysis on foulants shows that: the elements(except for C, H and O) in foulants formed during evaporating alkaline wheat straw black liquor are Si,Ca, K, Na, Mg and Al; Si and Ca account for about 36% of the weight of foulants; The organic ingredients amout to about 20% of the foulant;Rhodesite (Ca,K,Na)8Si16O40 @llH2O is the main composition in foulants.The fouling mechanism of wheat black liquor is quite different from that of soft/hard wood black liquor,because the content of Si inside wheat straw black liquor is much more than that of soft/hard wood black liquor. Complex chemical reactions occur when evaporating wheat straw black liquor. The author considers that colloid H2SiO3 plays an important role in the process. The minerals produced by reactions between H2SiO3, with anion charges and positive ions, such as Ca2+, K+, Na+, etc. Further investigation on the process should be done.The fractal theory is used to analyze the fouling geometric texture. The fractal dimension values D of foulants are also calculated.

  17. ANALYSIS ON COMPOSITION OF FOULANTS FROM ALKALINE WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR AND DISCUSSION ON ITS FORMING MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuanJia

    2004-01-01

    Analysis on foulants shows that: the elements (except for C, H and O) in foulants formed during evaporating alkaline wheat straw black liquor are Si,Ca, K, Na, Mg and AI; Si and Ca account for about 36% of the weight of foulants, The organic ingredients about to about 20% of the foulant; Rhodesite (Ca,K,Na)8Si16O40 ·11H2O is the main composition in foulants. The fouling mechanism of wheat black liquor is quite different from that of soft/hard wood black liquor, because the content of Si inside wheat straw black liquor is much more than that of soft/hard wood black liquor. Complex chemical reactions occur when evaporating wheat straw black liquor. The author considers that colloid H2SiO3 plays an important role in the process. The minerals produced by reactions between H2SiO3, with anion charges and positive ions, such as Ca2-, K-, Na-, etc. Further investigation on the process should be done. The fractal theory is used to analyze the fouling geometric texture. The fractal dimension values D of foulants are also calculated.

  18. New Advanced Technology on Waste Resourcelization of the Black Pulping Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi; HAN Yuan-yuan; ZHANG Dong-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Combining the characteristics of the black pulping liquor that contains a lot of lignin and other biomass resources, the technology of comprehensive waste utilization is employed. The reconstructive preparation of modified urea-formaldehyde glue by adding black pulping liquor and the application in extruding the medium density fibre board using this modified urea-formaldehyde glue is researched. Results show that when applying the preparation technology that alkaline reaction and then weak acid reaction, the appropriate preparation process is as follows: the adding urea process is divided into three stages (proportion 2∶1∶1); the pH value is 8.0, and the reaction time is 40min in the addition reaction stage; the pH value will be naturally reduced to 3.5-5.0, and the reaction time is 45min in the aggregation reaction stage; the pH value is 8.0 in the urea complement stage. And the optimal condition of the reconstructive preparation the modified urea-formaldehyde glue is adding the condensed black pulping liquor after hydroxymethylation in the beginning of polycondensation reaction by 5% proportion. The application in extruding medium density fibre board with this modified urea-fosmaldehyde glue is proved feasible.

  19. Green chemicals from pulp production black liquor by partial wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddassar, Hassan Raja; Melin, Kristian; de Villalba Kokkonen, Daniela; Riera, Gerard Viader; Golam, Sarwar; Koskinen, Jukka

    2015-11-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, more sustainable sources of energy, fuel and chemicals are needed. Biomass side streams such as black liquor, which is a by-product of pulp production, has the potential to be used for this purpose. The aim of the study was the production of carboxylic acids, such as lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid, from kraft and non-wood black liquor. The processes studied were partial wet oxidation (PWO) and catalytic partial wet oxidation (CPWO). The results show that the yield of carboxylic acid is higher when treated by PWO than the results from CPWO at temperatures of 170 °C and 230 °C. The results shows that the PWO process can increase the yield of carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids in black liquor, reduce lignin content and decrease pH, which makes further separation of the acids more favourable. The hydroxy acids are valuable raw materials for biopolymers, and acetic acid and formic acid are commonly used chemicals conventionally produced from fossil feedstock. PMID:26377325

  20. Evaluation of treated black liquor used as dispersant of concentrated coal-water slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingsong Zhou; Qian Kong; Bing Pan; Xueqing Qiu; Dongjie Yang; Hongming Lou [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering

    2010-03-15

    The paper making waste liquor is a great water pollution source and much work has been done over the years to overcome this challenge. We present here a solution of black liquor used as dispersant of coal-water slurry (abbreviated as CWS) following chemical treatment. The treated black liquor (abbreviated as TBL) is used to prepare CWS for three bituminous coals, and the factors influencing its dispersing ability and the properties of CWS are investigated. The results show that the increasing sulfonating agent and formaldehyde dosage increase the sulfonic group content while reducing the molecular weight of TBL. The comparison with a naphthalene dispersant shows that TBL has a similar or better dispersing ability, and the large quantity of sulfonic groups engrafted in lignin molecules and the markedly increase of molecular weight are considered the key reason for the excellent performance of TBL. Moreover, the change of the molecular configuration from globular to flocculent in solution observed by TEM is also considered as an important reason for the excellent dispersing effect of TBL for CWS. 25 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. High-speed interferometric measurement and visualization of the conversion of a black liquor droplet during laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycksam, Henrik; Sjödahl, Mikael; Gren, Per; Öhman, Marcus; Gebart, Rikard

    2012-11-01

    Black liquor is a mix of organic and inorganic materials that is left after the kraft pulping process. In a modern pulp mill the pulping chemicals and the energy in the black liquor is recovered and used in the pulping cycle by burning the black liquor in a recovery burner. An alternative to the recovery boiler is to gasify the black liquor to produce an energy rich synthesis gas that can be upgraded into synthetic fuels or chemicals. Characterization of black liquor has mostly been done under conditions that are relevant for recovery boilers but the conditions in a gasifier differ significantly from this. In particular the droplets are much smaller and the heating rates are much higher. This paper presents an optical interferometric technique that has the potential to produce data under relevant conditions for gasification. In the paper, results are measured at atmospheric conditions and with relatively low heating rate. However, the method can be applied also for pressurized conditions and at heating rates that are only limited by the frame rate of the digital camera that is used to capture the transient event when the droplets are heated. In the paper the dynamic properties of the gas ejected from and the swelling during conversion of a single droplet are measured.

  2. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining

  3. Protocol Development for the Carbohydrate Quantification in Black Liquor with Brix Refractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Arnab; Putatunda, Sirsha; Sen, Dwaipayan; Sarkar, Ankur; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-07-01

    Present work is a proposed methodology to quantify carbohydrates even at its trace level in black liquor (BL) in the presence of lignosulphonates (LS) using brix refractometer. Primarily, the detection accuracy was validated with the simulated solutions resembling BL used in the present work. A factor, resembling the weight fraction of LS and inorganics, was multiplied with the brix degree obtained for the simulated solution to convert it into the brix reading for a sole carbohydrate present in the solution along with other chemicals. It was found that the accuracy level of measuring carbohydrate was within ±1-2 % of the actual.

  4. THREE -PHASE CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED EVAPORATOR FOR WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR EVAPORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuanJia

    2004-01-01

    A novel vapor-liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed evaporator, meaning for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling, is applied to wheat straw black liquor, which is the primary pollutant in China's papermaking industry. It is treated by alkali recovery, in which evaporation is a key process. The experimental results show that the vapor-liquid-solid three-phase boiling heat transfer coefficient is enhanced by 20%-40% than that of vapor-liquid two-phase boiling flow, also, the novel evaporator exhibits an excellent function of fouling prevention.

  5. THREE -PHASE CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED EVAPORATOR FOR WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR EVAPORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuan Jia

    2004-01-01

    A novel vapor-liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed evaporator, meaning for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling, is applied to wheat straw black liquor, which is the primary pollutant in China′s papermaking industry. It is treated by alkali recovery,in which evaporation is a key process. The experimental results show that the vapor-liquid-solid three-phase boiling heat transfer coefficient is enhanced by 20% ~40% than that of vapor-liquid two-phase boiling flow, also, the novel evaporator exhibits an excellent function of fouling prevention.

  6. Carbon distribution in char residue from gasification of kraft black liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The char residue yields and the total carbon and carbonate content were measured for dry black liquor solids after pyrolysis or gasification in a laminar entrained-flow reactor. The experimental conditions were 700-1000 deg. C in N2,CO2/N2 or water vapor/N2 at 1 bar total pressure, for residence times from 0.3 to 1.7 s. Fixed carbon yields, when measured at the same particle residence time, decreased with increasing reactor temperature. CO2 and water vapor diminished the char carbon significantly at temperatures above 800 deg. C, compared with pyrolysis in N2. Water vapor oxidized the char carbon more rapidly than did CO2. At 1000 deg. C, the reactions of carbon with sulfate and carbonate became faster, resulting in a smaller difference between carbon conversion rates in the different gas environments. By the end of devolatilization, the amount of carbonate in the char had changed very little at 700-800 deg. C. After devolatilization, carbonate was formed more rapidly at higher temperatures. The presence of CO2 or water vapor increased the formation of carbonate. In the presence of these gases, more carbonate was measured at all temperatures and residence times. The maximum carbonate measured in the char was 16% of the carbon in the black liquor solids, as compared to 4.4% in the original dry liquor solids. Under most conditions, the carbonate, as a fraction of carbon input, first increased to a constant, temperature-independent value and then decreased

  7. A constructed alkaline consortium and its dynamics in treating alkaline black liquor with very high pollution load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial community was found accidentally in a black liquor storing pool in a paper pulp mill of China. The community was effective in pH decreasing, color and COD removing from the high alkaline and high COD black liquor. FINDINGS: Thirty-eight strains of bacteria were isolated from the black liquor storing pool, and were grouped as eleven operational taxonomy units (OTUs using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles (RAPD. Eleven representative strains of each OTU, which were identified as genera of Halomonas and Bacillus, were used to construct a consortium to treat black liquor with a high pH value of 11.0 and very high COD pollution load of 142,600 mg l(-1. After treatment by the constructed consortium, about 35.4% of color and 39,000 mg l(-1 (27.3% COD(cr were removed and the pH decreased to 7.8. 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis suggested a two-stage treatment mechanism to elucidate the interspecies collaboration: Halomonas isolates were important in the first stage to produce organic acids that contributed to the pH decline, while Bacillus isolates were involved in the degradation of lignin derivatives in the second stage under lower pH conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tolerance to the high alkaline environment and good controllability of the simple consortium suggested that the constructed consortium has good potential for black liquor

  8. Material Characterization and Analysis for Selection of Refractories Used in Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2010-01-01

    Black liquor gasification provides the pulp and paper industry with a technology which could potentially replace recovery boilers with equipment that could reduce emissions and, if used in a combined cycle system, increase the power production of the mill allowing it to be a net exporter of electrical power. In addition, rather than burning the syngas produced in a gasifier, this syngas could be used to produce higher value chemicals or fuels. However, problems with structural materials such as the refractory lining of the reactor vessel have caused unplanned shutdowns and resulted in component replacement much sooner than originally planned. Through examination of exposed materials, laboratory corrosion tests and cooperative efforts with refractory manufacturers, many refractory materials issues in high-temperature black liquor gasification have been addressed and optimized materials have been selected for this application. In this paper, an updated summary of the characterization and analysis techniques used for refractory screening and selection will be discussed along with characteristic results from these methods which have led to the selection of optimized materials for both the hot-face and back-up linings used in this application.

  9. [Preparation of spherical lignin cation adsorption resin with black pulping liquor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Hua; Zou, Jin-Guang; Hong, Shu-Nan; Zeng, Zhen-Ou

    2005-09-01

    Spherical lignin cation adsorption resin was obtained by two-step method with black liquor of paper mill and characterized by the Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Firstly, the spherical lignin beads were prepared with black liquor of paper mill by applying reverse-phase suspension polymerization technique, and the preparation conditions were also optimized. The suitable conditions include 200 r/min of stirring speed, 90 degrees C of reaction temperature, 1.0 h of reaction time and use epoxy chloropropane (1.5% by weight of lignin) as cross-linking agent, the ideal volume ratio between oil phase and water phase was 3:1 by using kerosene oil as disperse phase, and the perfect dispersant agent was Tween 80 (3% by weight of lignin). Secondly, the spherical lignin cation adsorption resin was developed by grafting the acrylamide onto the back-bone of the spherical lignin beads. The best concentration of acrylamide was 0.72 mol/L at ambient temperature for 2.0 h, and the ideal initiator system was the Fenton reagent of H2O2/Fe2+. Under the above conditions, the ion exchange capacity of the prepared resin could reach 1.640 5 mmol/g. PMID:16366482

  10. System aspects of black liquor gasification - Consequences for both industry and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The pulp and paper industry consumes large quantities of biofuels (mainly bark and black liquor) to satisfy process requirements. Biomass is however a limited resource, and biofuel usage should therefore be as effective as possible. Modern pulp mills and integrated pulp and paper mills have excess fuel compared to the amounts needed to satisfy the process steam demand. The excess fuel is often used for cogeneration of electric power in CHP units. For integrated pulp and paper mills, this usually requires import of supplementary fuel to the plant. For market pulp mills, the excess internal biofuel quantities are sufficient to also allow electric power generation in condensing power plant units. If biofuel availability at a reasonable price is limited, import/export to, from a mill changes the amount of such biofuel available to alternative users. The goal of this thesis is to compare different mill powerhouse technologies and CHP plant configurations (including conventional recovery boiler technology and black liquor gasification technology) in order to identify the technology and CHP plant configuration that can produce the most electric power output from a given fuel resource for a given process steam demand. Different process steam demand levels for different representative mill types are considered. The comparison accounts for increased/decreased electricity production in an alternative energy system when biofuel is imported/exported to/from from the mill. The alternative energy system considered includes a district heating system with CHP capacity and natural gas fired combined cycle power plant capacity. The results show that black liquor gasification is in all cases considered an attractive powerhouse recovery cycle technology compared to conventional recovery boiler technology. If the marginal electric power generation efficiency for biofuel exported to the reference alternative energy system is 49%, excess mill internal biofuel should be used on mill

  11. Numerical modeling of counter-current condensation in a Black Liquor Gasification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressurized Entrained flow High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification is a novel technique to recover the inorganic chemicals and available energy in black liquor originating from kraft pulping. The gasifier has a direct quench that quickly cools the raw syngas when it leaves the hot reactor by spraying the gas with a water solution. As a result, the raw syngas becomes saturated with steam. Typically the gasifier operates at 30 bar which corresponds to a dew point of about 235 °C and a steam concentration in the saturated syngas that is about 3 times higher than the total concentration of the other species in the syngas. After the quench cooler the syngas is passed through a counter-current condenser where the raw syngas is cooled and most of the steam is condensed. The condenser consists of several vertical tubes where reflux condensation occurs inside the tubes due to water cooling of the tubes on the shell-side. A large part of the condensation takes place inside the tubes on the wall and results in a counterflow of water driven by gravity through the counter current condenser. In this study a computational fluid dynamics model is developed for the two-phase fluid flow on the tube-side of the condenser and for the single phase flow of the shell-side. The two-phase flow was treated using an Euler–Euler formulation with closure correlations for heat flux, condensation rate and pressure drop inside the tubes. The single-phase model for the shell side uses closure correlations for the heat flux and pressure drop. Predictions of the model are compared with results from experimental measurements in a condenser used in a 3 MW Black Liquor Gasification development plant. The results are in good agreement with the limited experimental data that has been collected in the experimental gasifier. However, more validation data is necessary before a definite conclusion can be drawn about the predictive capability of the code. -- Highlights: • A multi-phase model for a

  12. Bio-refinery system integrated with pulp and paper mills using black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Muhammad

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass energy utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of biomass worldwide that include bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern pulp and paper industries have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to co-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and paper products. There is a potential to export electricity or bio-fuels by improving today's existing chemical pulp and paper mills integrating gasification technology.The present study evaluates the energy conversion performance of integrated black liquor gasification (BLG) within the chemical pulp mills in comparison with conventional pulp mill energy system. The objective is to investigate and compare various BLG technologies and bio-fuel production routes. The comparison is performed to identify the advantageous route based on system performance indicators e.g. bio-fuel production potential, fuel to product efficiency (FTPE), biomass import, overall system thermal energy efficiency, on-site CO{sub 2} reduction using carbon capture, and potential CO{sub 2} offsets from bio-fuel use in transport sector.The study on a variety of BLG configurations shows promising results for potential bio-fuel production offering significant contributions toward fossil fuel savings, emission reductions, and improved energy security. Methanol, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and dimethyl ether (DME) show promising features as potential fuel candidates. The comparative results show significantly larger bio-fuel production potential of black liquor conversion to SNG from catalytic hydrothermal gasification than DME, methanol or SNG production from the dry BLG (DBLG) and Chemrec BLG (CBLG) systems. The energy ratio of SNG production from the CHG system is higher than DME and

  13. Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Agrawal

    2004-09-07

    The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

  14. Effectiveness of coagulation and acid precipitation processes for the pre-treatment of diluted black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anurag; Mishra, I M; Chand, S

    2010-08-15

    The effectiveness of coagulation (using aluminium-based chemicals and ferrous sulfate) and acid precipitation (using H(2)SO(4)) processes for the pre-treatment of diluted black liquor obtained from a pulp and paper mill is reported. Commercial alum was found to be the most economical among all the aluminium and ferrous salts used as a coagulant. A maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (ca. 63%) and colour reduction (ca. 90%) from the wastewater (COD = 7000 mg l(-1)) at pH 5.0 was obtained with alum. During the acid precipitation process, at pH clarifier-thickener unit. High heating values and large biomass fraction of the solid residues can encourage the fuel users to use this waste derived sludge as a potential renewable energy source. PMID:20430523

  15. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis of black-liquor lignin by co-feeding with different plastics in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Xiao, Rui; Nie, Jianlong; Jin, Baosheng; Shao, Shanshan; Xiao, Guomin

    2015-09-01

    Catalytic co-pyrolysis of black-liquor lignin and waste plastics (polyethylene, PE; polypropylene PP; polystyrene, PS) was conducted in a fluidized bed. The effects of temperature, plastic to lignin ratio, catalyst and plastic types on product distributions were studied. Both aromatic and olefin yields increased with increasing PE proportion. Petrochemical yield of co-pyrolysis of PE and lignin was LOSA-1 > spent FCC > Gamma-Al2O3 > sand. The petrochemical yield with LOSA-1 is 43.9% which is more than two times of that without catalyst. The feedstock for co-pyrolysis with lignin is polystyrene > polyethylene > polypropylene. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of black-liquor lignin with PS produced the maximum aromatic yield (55.3%), while co-pyrolysis with PE produced the maximum olefin yield (13%). PMID:26011693

  17. Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

  18. Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Muhammad R.

    2012-07-01

    Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of the biomass worldwide including bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern mills have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to poly-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and paper products. There is a potential to export electricity or bio-fuels by improving energy systems of existing chemical pulp mills by integrating gasification technology. The present study investigates bio-fuel alternatives from the dry black liquor gasification (BLG) system with direct causticization and direct methane production from the catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system. The studied systems are compared with bio-fuel alternatives from the Chemrec BLG system and the improvements in the energy systems of the pulp mill are analyzed. The results are used to identify the efficient route based on system performance indicators e.g. material and energy balances to compare BLG systems and the conventional recovery boiler system, potential biofuel production together with biomass to biofuel conversion efficiency, energy ratios, potential CO{sub 2} mitigation combining on-site CO{sub 2} reduction using CO{sub 2} capture and potential CO{sub 2} offsets from biofuel use, and potential motor fuel replacement. The results showed that the dry BLG system for synthetic natural gas (SNG) production offers better integration opportunities with the chemical pulp mill in terms of overall material and energy balances. The biofuel production and conversion efficiency are higher in the CHG system than other studied configurations but at a cost of larger biomass import. The dry BLG system for SNG production achieved high biomass to biofuel efficiency and considerable biofuel production

  19. System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthetic gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Circulating fluidized bed system for black liquor gasification with direct causticization. ► Effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on gasification are studied. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive limekiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show 10% higher SNG production from O2 blown system than air blown system. ► SNG production is higher in O2 blown system than air blown system. - Abstract: The black liquor gasification based bio-fuel production at chemical pulp mill is an attractive option to replace conventional recovery boilers increasing system energy efficiency. The present paper studies circulating fluidized bed system with direct causticization using TiO2 for the gasification of the black liquor to the synthesis gas. The advantage of using direct causticization is the elimination of energy-intensive lime kiln which is an integral part of the conventional black liquor recovery system. The study evaluates the effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on the fluidized bed gasification system, the synthesis gas composition, and the downstream processes for the synthesis gas conversion to the synthetic natural gas (SNG). The results showed higher synthetic natural gas production potential with about 10% higher energy efficiency using oxygen blown gasification system than the air blown system. From the pulp mill integration perspective, the material and energy balance results in better integration of air blown system than the oxygen blown system, e.g. less steam required to be generated in the power boiler, less electricity import, and less additional biomass requirement. However, the air blown system still requires a significant amount of energy in terms of the synthesis gas handling and gas upgrading using the nitrogen rejection system

  20. Penentuan Kadar Logam Kadmium Cd ) Dan Logam Zinkum ( Zn ) Dalam Black Liquor Pada Industri Pulp Proses Kraft Dari Toba Pulp Lestari Dengan Metode Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom ( Ssa)

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of Cadmium ( Cd ) and Zinkum ( Zn ) in Black liquor of pulp kraft proces Toba Pulp Lestari ( TPL ) Has been carried out. The sample was taken from tank strong Black Liquor in a purposif. Nitrace acid was used in the destruction of the liquor and then analysed with Atomic Absorption Spectrofometry method (SSA) at 228,80 nm wavelength of Cadmium and 213,90 nm wavelength of Zincum. From the researce it was found that the concent of Cadmium ( Cd ) and Zincum ( Zn ) were 3.5 mg/L and ...

  1. Mechanism on microwave-assisted acidic solvolysis of black-liquor lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chengjian; Feng, Chunguang; Liu, Qian; Shen, Dekui; Xiao, Rui

    2014-06-01

    Microwave-assisted degradation of black-liquor lignin with formic acid was studied, concerning the product yield and distribution of phenolic compounds against reaction temperature (110-180°C) and reaction time (5-90 min). The liquid product consisting of bio-oil 1 and bio-oil 2, achieved the maxima yield of 64.08% at 160°C and 30 min (bio-oil 1: 9.69% and bio-oil 2: 54.39%). The chemical information of bio-oil 1 and bio-oil 2 were respectively identified by means of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), while the solid residue was analyzed by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). A possible mechanism was proposed for the microwave-assisted acidic solvolysis of lignin, specifying the kinetic relationship among the primary cracking of lignin, repolymerization of the oligomers and formation of solid residue. PMID:24747392

  2. Mechanical Design of Steel Tubing for Use in Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taljat, B.; Zacharaia, T.; Wang, X.; Kesier, J.; Swindeman, R.; Hubbard, C.

    1999-05-26

    Finite element models were developed for thermal-mechanical analysis of black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes. Residual stresses in boiler floors due to various manufacturing processes were analyzed. The modeling results were verified by X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements at room temperature on as-manufactured tubes as well as tubes after service. The established finite element models were then used to evaluate stress conditions during boiler operation. Using these finite element models, a parametric response surface study was performed to investigate the influence of material properties of the clad layer on stresses in the floor tubes during various boiler operating conditions, which yielded a generalized solution of stresses in the composite tube floors. The results of the study are useful for identifying the mechanisms of cracking experienced by recovery boilers. Based on the results of the response surface study, a recommendation was made for more suitable materials in terms of the analyzed mechanical properties. Alternative materials and manufacturing processes are being considered to improve the resistance to cracking and the in-service life of composite tubes. To avoid numerous FE stress-strain analyses of composite tubes made of different material combinations, a response surface study was performed that considered two essential mechanical properties of the clad material - coefficient of thermal expansion and yield stress - as independent variables. The response surface study provided a generalized solution of stresses in the floor in terms of the two selected parameters.

  3. Electrochemical degradation of acidified reed pulp black liquor with three-dimensional electrode reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 叶晟; 柴立元; 王云燕; 舒余德; 尤翔宇

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical degradation of reed pulp black liquor containing lignin pretreated by acidification method was investigated using a three-dimensional electrode reactor. Using activated carbon as particle electrode, the effects of pH value, reaction temperature, electrolysis time and current on residual concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) were discussed in detail. The optimal conditions were obtained: pH 2.5, influent flow rate of 200 mL/min, 25 °C, 300 mA and 2 h of electrolysis time, and the removal efficiency of TOC maintains at 35.57 %. The results of the electrochemical method indicate that •OH radicals are produced in activated carbon anode in the electrolysis process and then adsorbed on the activated carbon surface. Microcell consists of •OH radicals and the absorbed lignin. With the microcell reaction, the lignin is degraded, while the anodic polarized curve illustrates that the lignin is obviously oxidized in the anode. The contributions of direct and indirect electrolyses to the TOC removal ratio are about 50%, respectively.

  4. A win-win technique of stabilizing sand dune and purifying paper mill black-liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hanjie; Penning de Vries FRITS; JIN Yongcan

    2009-01-01

    The principle and technique were reported here to produce lignin-based sand stabilizing material (LSSM) using extracted lignin from black liquor of straw paper mills. Field tests by using LSSM to stabilize and green sand dunes started in 2002. The field experiment was carried out in August 2005 when the newly formed plant community was 3 years old. The results from the comprehensive field experiment demonstrated that unlike polyvinyl acetate or foamed asphalt commonly used for dune stabilization, LSSM was plant-friendly material and could be used in combination with seeding and planting of desert species. By the help of LSSM, the desert species (i.e., Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq. and Artemisia desertorum Spreng. etc.) could be used to form community in 2-3 yeas and to stabilize sand dune effectively. The newly formed community was sustainable under an extremely dry climate conditions. The organic matter and total nitrogen in the soil increased significantly as the community were formed, while the change in P and K contents of the soil was negligible.

  5. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase Ia - Low-temperature gasifier evaluation. Final report, November 1, 1995--October 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southards, W.T.; Blude, J.D.; Dickinson, J.A. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This project, conducted under The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-94GO10002/A002, was part of a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies that improve the energy efficiency and economics of chemical process recovery in the pulp and paper industry. The approach taken was to consider two major alternatives in two phases. Phase I, conducted previously, considered means to improve pulp mill recovery boilers using high-solids advanced combustion of black liquor; while this project, Phase la, considered means to recover kraft pulping mill process chemicals by low-temperature black liquor gasification. The principal steps previously proposed in this program were: (1) Evaluate these two technologies, high-solids advanced combustion and gasification, and then select a path forward using the more promising of these two options for future work. (2) Design and construct a pilot-scale unit based on the selected technology, and using that unit, develop the precompetitive data necessary to make commercialization attractive. (3) Develop and deploy a first-of-a-kind (FOAK) commercial unit in a kraft pulp mill. Phase I, which evaluated the high-solids advanced combustion option, was concluded in 1995. Results of that project phase were reported previously. This report describes the work conducted in Phase Ia. The work is described in Sections 1 through 4 and six appendices provide additional detail.

  6. Black liquor and the hangover effect: fish assemblage recovery dynamics following a pulse disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Kyle R; Geheber, Aaron D

    2015-06-01

    Anthropogenic perturbations impact aquatic systems causing wide-ranging responses, from assemblage restructuring to assemblage recovery. Previous studies indicate the duration and intensity of disturbances play a role in the dynamics of assemblage recovery. In August 2011, the Pearl River, United States, was subjected to a weak black liquor spill from a paper mill which resulted in substantial loss of fish in a large stretch of the main channel. We quantified resilience and recovery of fish assemblage structure in the impacted area following the event. We compared downstream (impacted) assemblages to upstream (unimpacted) assemblages to determine initial impacts on structure. Additionally, we incorporated historic fish collections (1988-2011) to examine impacts on assemblage structure across broad temporal scales. Based on NMDS, upstream and downstream sites generally showed similar assemblage structure across sample periods with the exception of the 2 months postdischarge, where upstream and downstream sites visually differed. Multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) indicated significant seasonal variation among samples, but found no significant interaction between impacted and unimpacted assemblages following the discharge event. However, multivariate dispersion (MVDISP) showed greater variance among assemblage structure following the discharge event. These results suggest that 2 months following the disturbance represent a time period of stochasticity in regard to assemblage structure dynamics, and this was followed by rapid recovery. We term this dynamic the "hangover effect" as it represents the time frame from the cessation of the perturbation to the assemblage's return to predisturbance conditions. The availability and proximity of tributaries and upstream refugia, which were not affected by the disturbance, as well as the rapid recovery of abiotic parameters likely played a substantial role in assemblage recovery. This study not only demonstrates

  7. Multi-Response Optimization via Desirability Functionfor the Black Liquor DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Fitrianto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment that was conducted to examine the advanced oxidation of the black liquor effluent obtained from the pulp and paper industry using the dark Fenton reaction in a lab-scale experiment based on Central Composite Design. The three factors along with their range values in that experiment were temperature (298; 333, K, H2O2 concentration (29.4; 58.8, mM, and Fe(II concentration (0.36; 8.95, mM. The range of the factors were examine at fixed phase pH=3. Three response variables studied in the experiment, namely, COD removal after 90 min(%, UV254 removal after 90 min(aromatic content,%, and UV280 removal after 90 min (lignin content, %. The most widespread application of the RSM is in the situation where input variables potentially influence some quality characteristics of a process. Due to the fact that the experiment has several response variables, we employed a desirability function approach to optimize the responses simultaneously at one best setting of available factors. The resulted simultaneous optimization of an experiment is, in fact, the real situation where the experimenter should deal with since in an experiment, there is certainly a single input setting. After analyzing the data, both separated for each response variable and simultaneous for all response variables provided the same terms (factors which are significantly contribute to the quadratic model (H2O2 and Fe(II concentration. Nevertheles, they produced different factor settings. Through desirability function approach, we found that the best settings are 46.84 mM and 6.771 mM of H2O2 and Fe(II concentration, respectively. Those setting can be obtained at desirability function’s value of 0.782.

  8. Causes and solutions for cracking of coextruded and weld overlay floor tubes in black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Taljat, B.; Wang, X.L. [and others

    1998-09-01

    Cracking of coextruded, black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes is both a safety and an economic issue to mill operators. In an effort to determine the cause of the cracking and to identify a solution, extensive studies, described in this and three accompanying papers, are being conducted. In this paper, results of studies to characterize both the cracking and the chemical and thermal environment are reported. Based on the results described in this series of papers, a possible mechanism is presented and means to lessen the likelihood of cracking or to totally avoid cracking of floor tubes are offered.

  9. 黑液成分分析及溶出木素的测定%Componential Analysis of Black Liquor and Determining of Dissohtion Lignin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春敬; 刘玉

    2012-01-01

    The composition of black liquor was analyzed, then dissolved lignin was separated by fractionation with acidulation precipitation, and the UV lignin was quantified by UV analysis. The result showed that UV lignin is more than 90% of the total lignin in the black liquor. In other words, using acidulation precipitation can separate lignin from the black liquor is completely feasible.%对黑液的成分进行分析。利用改进酸析法分级分离析出黑液中的木素,并用紫外法对酸析后黑液中的木素进行定量分析。实验结果表明,酸析木素占黑液中总木素的比例可达90%以上,证明应用此法分离黑液中的木素是可行的。

  10. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry Kraft recovery boilers. Final report, Phase 1, Volume 1: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The objectives are to develop a preliminary design of a recovery furnace simulator; evaluate the economics of high-solids; and delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies to improve chemical recovery.

  11. Increasing the lignin yield of the Alkaline Polyol Pulping process by treating black liquor with laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Norman; Hundt, Martin; Schapals, Tino

    2016-03-01

    The Alkaline Polyol Pulping process separates cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass by dissolving lignin to a great extent. Due to the pulping conditions the dissolved lignin depolymerises and only 75% can be precipitated. To increase this amount, a 24 h reaction of laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila with lignin dissolved in black liquor of the AlkaPolP process was investigated. The influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and partial oxygen pressure was examined in a batch stirred tank reactor using a Box-Behnken factorial design. Due to the enzymatic reaction the lignin polymerises which results in an enhanced lignin precipitation. The addition of a mediator improves the polymerisation but decreases the amount of precipitable lignin. The influence of the parameters on precipitation yield and molecular mass can sufficiently be described with a second-order model and optimum conditions can be assessed. FT-IR spectra of the obtained lignins revealed that its typical phenolic structure is preserved. PMID:26722808

  12. Optimization the soda-AQ process for cellulose pulp production and energy content of black liquor from L. leucocephala K360.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, M J; García, J C; Díaz, M J; Garrote, G; López, F

    2012-09-01

    A commercial variety of Leucaena leucocephala K360 was used for pulp production and papermaking employing the soda-anthraquinone process. Also, the chemical and energy contents of the resultant black liquors were determined to simultaneously optimize: pulp and paper production and energy generation. A process temperature of (185°C), an operating time of (120 min) and an active alkali concentration of (21%) provided sheets of paper with good strength (tensile index of 12.12 Nm/g, burst index of 0.38 kPa m(2)/g, tear index of 1.29 mN m(2)/g and a Kappa number of 20.5) and black liquor with a greater calorific value (14.1 MJ/kg) than that obtained with higher active alkali concentrations. However, reducing the active alkali concentration to a level in the low operation range led to less marked degradation of cellulose and allowed paper sheets with good properties to be obtained and energy to be optimally produced from the black liquor. PMID:22789829

  13. Catalytic oxidative treatment of diluted black liquor at mild conditions using copper oxide/cerium oxide catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anurag; Mishra, Indra M; Chand, Shri

    2008-02-01

    Wet-air oxidation of diluted black liquor (chemical oxygen demand [COD] approximately 3250 to 14 500 mg/L) was performed at mild operating conditions (temperature = 388 to 423 K and total pressure = 0.6 MPa) in the presence of heterogeneous 60% copper oxide (CuO)/ 40% cerium oxide (CeO2) catalyst. Maximum COD reduction of 77.3% was obtained at 423 K at pH 3.0, which was marginally higher than that obtained at 413 K temperature (77.1%). In the acidic environment (pH < or = 3), most of the COD was removed in the form of settleable solids during the transient heating of the wastewater from room temperature to the desired one. The solid residue obtained after the reaction has a heating value of 20.1 MJ/kg, which is comparable with that of Indian coal. Thermal degradation kinetic determination suggested that thermal characteristics of the solid residue are well represented by a power law model with Agarwal and Sivasubramanian approximation (Safi et al., 2004). PMID:18330223

  14. Pyrolysis and auto-gasification of black liquor in presence of ZnO: An integrated process for Zn/ZnO nanostructure production and bioenergy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a new process for valorisation of black liquor into gases that are used to reduce ZnO and promote zinc nanosheet synthesis, besides energy generation. During the black liquor pyrolysis and auto-gasification, gases evolve, especially carbon monoxide, and promote ZnO reduction with Zn(v) release. The metal is condensed yielding zinc nanosheets, with partial surface re-oxidation in presence of carbon dioxide. The process was investigated at the micro scale using thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA) and the gases evolved were analysed by FTIR spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The process was also studied in laboratory scale using a tubular electric furnace. The black liquor/ZnO mixture was placed at the quartz tube and the sample was heated to 900 °C at 10 °C/min, and the temperature was held at 900 °C for 1 h. The nanostructures growth was catalyst-free, without pressure reduction or a template, at temperatures lower than those required in the classical carbothermal reduction of ZnO with fossil carbon. The nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). One mechanism was presented in an attempt to explain the synthesis of Zn/ZnO nanosheets that are crystalline. This green and innovative process has potential use at the industry due to its operational conditions, low costs and technological importance of Zn and ZnO nanostructures. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Black liquor and ZnO mixture were submitted to a heat treatment until 900 °C. ► The black liquor suffered pyrolysis and auto-gasification. ► ZnO is reduced by CO yielding Znv, that is condensed generating Zn/ZnO nanosheets. ► The nanostructures are characterized and a mechanism of reactions is presented. ► The new process can produce energy and nanostructures in large scale.

  15. Laccase-initiated cross-linking of lignocellulose fibres using a ultra-filtered lignin isolated from kraft black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegir, G; Bussini, D; Antonsson, S; Lindström, M E; Zoia, L

    2007-12-01

    In this work, the effect of Trametes pubescens laccase (TpL) used in combination with a low-molecular-weight ultra-filtered lignin (UFL) to improve mechanical properties of kraft liner pulp and chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp was studied. UFL was isolated by ultra-filtration from the kraft cooking black liquor obtained from softwood pulping. This by-product from the pulp industry contains an oligomeric lignin with almost twice the amount of free phenolic moieties than residual kraft pulp lignin. The reactivity of TpL on UFL and kraft pulp was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. Laccase was shown to polymerise UFL and residual kraft pulp lignin in the fibres, seen by the increase in their average molecular weight and in the case of UFL as a decrease in the amount of phenolic hydroxyls. The laccase initiated cross-linking of lignin, mediated by UFL, which gives rise to more than a twofold increase in wet strength of kraft liner pulp handsheets without loosing other critical mechanical properties. Hence, this could be an interesting path to decrease mechano-sorptive creep that has been reported to lessen in extent as wet strength is given to papers. The laccase/2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) mediator system showed a greater increase in wet tensile strength of the resulting pulp sheets than the laccase/UFL system. However, other mechanical properties such as dry tensile strength, compression strength and Scott Bond internal strength were negatively affected by the laccase/ABTS system. PMID:17955195

  16. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of high photocatalytic activity and stable Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers for photocatalytic degradation of black liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Long, Qiyi; Yin, Chao

    2014-11-01

    The TiO2 fiber was prepared by using cotton fiber as a template, and then Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers were synthesized via in situ Ag3PO4 particles onto the surface of TiO2 fiber. Their structure and physical properties were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra (PL). SEM analysis indicated that the well-defined surface morphology of natural cotton fiber was mostly preserved in TiO2 and Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers. Compared with TiO2 fiber, the absorbance wavelengths of Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers were apparently red shifted and the PL intensities revealed a significant decrease. By using the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor as a model reaction, the visible light and ultraviolet light catalytic efficiencies of TiO2, Ag3PO4 and Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers were evaluated. The reaction results showed that Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers had stronger photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability in repeated and long-term applications. Therefore, the prepared Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers could act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor, which suggested their promising applications. It was proposed that the •OH radicals played the leading role in the photocatalytic degradation of the black liquor by Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers system.

  18. Bio-refinery system in a pulp mill for methanol production with comparison of pressurized black liquor gasification and dry gasification using direct causticization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) for bio-fuel or electricity production at the modern pulp mills is a field in continuous evolution and the efforts are considerably driven by the climate change, fuel security, and renewable energy. This paper evaluates and compares two BLG systems for methanol production: (i) oxygen blown pressurized thermal BLG; and (ii) dry BLG with direct causticization, which have been regarded as the most potential technology candidates for the future deployment. A key objective is to assess integration possibilities of BLG technologies with the reference Kraft pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) pulp/day replacing conventional recovery cycle. The study was performed to compare the systems’ performance in terms of potential methanol production, energy efficiency, and potential CO2 reductions. The results indicate larger potential of black liquor conversion to methanol from the pressurized BLG system (about 77 million tonnes/year of methanol) than the dry BLG system (about 30 million tonnes/year of methanol) utilizing identical amount of black liquor available worldwide (220 million tDS/year). The potential CO2 emissions reduction from the transport sector is substantially higher in pressurized BLG system (117 million tonnes/year CO2 reductions) as compared to dry BLG system (45 million tonnes/year CO2 reductions). However, the dry BLG system with direct causticization shows better results when considering consequences of additional biomass import. In addition, comparison of methanol production via BLG with other bio-refinery products, e.g. hydrogen, dimethyl ether (DME) and bio-methane, has also been discussed.

  19. Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill

  20. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  1. The Potentials for Integration of Black Liquor Gasification with Gas Fired Paper Drying Processes - A Study from the Energy Cost Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, Kristian; Stenstroem, Stig [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-09-15

    To improve the process economics for gas fired paper drying processes, such as the air impingement dryer or the Yankee dryer, alternative gaseous fuels to replace natural gas and propane should be considered. This gaseous fuel should preferably be renewable and suitable to fire a gas turbine cycle for combined heat and power generation. One such fuel could be the product gas from black liquor gasification. In this work the possibilities for integration of the black liquor gasification process with the paper drying process were assessed based on overall energy costs for an integrated pulp and paper model mill, using computer modelling. The model mill included both the pulp and paper producing processes, and the paper mill included two paper machines; one conventional multicylinder dryer producing fine paper and one gas fired Yankee dryer producing tissue. Three different configurations of the combined heat and power plant were evaluated at a fixed pulp and paper production rate. The study was performed by computer modelling, using a modular simulation tool developed for energy use and cost analysis for the pulp and paper industry in the software entitled Extend. From this study it can be concluded that the product gas from black liquor gasification is a possible fuel to be used in gas fired paper drying processes, such as the Yankee dryer. The thermodynamic properties of the syngas from oxygen-blown, high-temperature gasifiers are very similar to those of natural gas and propane. In addition to being a renewable fuel, the use of syngas instead of fossil fuels would lead to reduced energy costs for the mill. In the case of installing a small gasification plant for production of enough syngas to replace the natural gas in the Yankee dryer hood the total energy costs would be reduced by approximately 10 MSEK/year. This would probably not be sufficient to justify the investment cost for the gasification process, insofar as the installation not simultaneously increases

  2. Novel technology of resource recovery from reed black liquor%芦苇浆造纸黑液资源化处理新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫春; 尤翔宇; 王云燕; 赵静; 柴立元; 舒余德

    2012-01-01

    A novel process was proposed to treat reed black liquor: desilication-acidification-three-dimensional electrolysis-causticization-reuse in pulp making. The precipitation method was used to remove silicon by adding Ca(OH)2. The residual concentration of silicon decreases from 6.68 g/L to 0.12 g/L and the removal rate of silicon is maintained at 98.2%. Lignin was recovered by acidulation-precipitation after the addition of sulfuric acid. The residual concentration of CODCr can be reduced from 220.648 g/L to 54.179 g/L and its removal rate is maintained at 75.45%. 8.5 g lignin was recovered from 100 mL black liquor. Based on the analysis of FTIR, EDX and SEM, it is found that the structure of lignin consists mainly of syringyl monomers and hydroxyl groups, and the lignin particles are not fibrous but granular. The reed pulp black liquor pretreated by acidification method was treated by electrolysis with a three-dimensional electrode reactor. The removal rate of TOC is maintained at 35.57% and the residual concentration of CODCr can be reduced to 36.761 g/L. Then, causticization was adopted to recovery residual alkali from the black liquor, which can be reused in the paper mill. After causticization, the concentration of effective alkali is 8.30 g/L and the causticization rate of the solution is about 78.60%, the residual concentration of CODcr in the black liquor is further reduced to 33.085 g/L and the removal rate of TOC is 9.99%.%针对芦苇浆造纸产生的浓缩黑液的特点,提出了黑液脱硅—酸析回收木质素—三维电极电解—苛化回收NaOH-出水返回生产的工艺流程.采用Ca(OH)2沉淀法去除黑液中的SiO2,黑液中硅含量由6.68 g/L降至0.12g/L,脱硅率为98.20%;黑液脱硅后加入H2SO4去除COD并回收木质素,CODCr由220.648 g/L降至54.179 g/L左右,脱除率达到75.45%,每100mL黑液可回收8.5 g木质素.FTIR、SEM和EDX的分析结果表明:酸析木质素结构以紫丁香基和对羟基的单体结构为

  3. The use of biomass energy in the pulp and paper industry and the prospects for black liquor gasification combined cycle generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world production of paper and paperboard products, which increased 3.3% per year since 1980, reached 243 million tonnes in 1991 and is expected to continue to grow by about 2.5% per year over the next decade. Consumption levels in 1990 ranged from 2.8 kg per capita in India to 313 kg per capita in the United States. The biggest producers of pulp are the United States, Canada and the Scandinavian countries, but much of the expansion of pulp production capacity is taking place in countries such as Brazil, Chile and Indonesia. The pulp and paper industry has always relied on biomass as a fuel source to meet process energy demands. Kraft pulping is the most common process accounting for about two thirds of world wood pulp production. Energy recovered from burning black liquor, a lignin-rich by-product, in a chemicals recovery boiler typically provides most of the on-site demand for heat and electricity in a modem kraft pulp mill. Another important fuel source is bark and wood waste generated at the mill. Aging recovery boilers in industrialized countries and increasing electricity/heat demand ratios are stimulating interest in alternative co-generation technologies. Most of the interest in new biomass and black liquor co-generation technologies focuses on those that would utilize gas turbines rather than steam turbines. Gas turbines are generally characterized by higher electricity/heat ratios than steam turbines, as well as lower unit capital costs. With the black liquor and biomass gasification technologies that are now being developed and demonstrated, the energy needs of an energy-efficient kraft pulp mill could be met and 40-50 MW of baseload power would be available for export. Using, in addition, currently unused logging residues for fuel would increase that potential. The pulp and paper industry is likely to be an important early market for advanced biomass-based cogeneration technology owing to its access to biomass fuels and the potential for co

  4. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  5. 催化湿式氧化预处理造纸黑液%Pretreatment of Black Liquor by Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董振海; 李利敏; 闫海生; 于姗姗; 李秀珍; 毕延文

    2011-01-01

    采用连续式固定床反应器,利用自制稀土类复合金属氧化物催化剂对草浆造纸黑液进行了催化湿式氧化(CWAO)预处理研究.通过正交实验确定了最佳工艺条件为:进水COD 40 800 mg/L,空速0.8h-1,反应温度260℃,反应压力6.5 MPa.在此最佳条件下进行实验,COD去除率达90%.经CWAO工艺处理后,草浆造纸黑液的可生化性显著提高,BOD5/COD由0.11提高至0.62.在1 000 h CWAO连续实验中,自制稀土类复合金属氧化物催化剂显示出较高催化活性和较好的稳定性.%The black liquor from straw pulp paper-making was pretreated by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) in the continuous fixed bed reactor with self-made rare earth oxide catalyst. The optimum process conditions determined by the orthogonal tests are as follows: influent COD 40 800 mg/L,space velocity 0. 8 h-1 .reaction temperature 260℃, reaction pressure 6. 5 Mpa. Under these conditions, the COD removal rate is 90%. The biodegradability of the treated black liquor is significantly improved with BOD5/COD increased from 0. 11 to 0. 62. During 1 000 h of the CWAO continuous experiment, the catalytic activity and stability of the self-made rare earth oxide catalyst are good.

  6. 造纸黑液和煤泥制备水煤浆的技术研究%TECHNOLOGY STUDY ON PREPARING COAL WATER MIXTURE BY USING SLIME AND PAPER-MAKING BLACK LIQUOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李效其; 任瑞鹏; 吕永康

    2012-01-01

    将干燥的块状煤泥研磨至不同粒度的煤粉,与造纸黑液按一定比例配制成水煤浆,考察其综合性能指标.当黑液添加量为7.2%,煤粉粒度小于160目时,制备的水煤浆浓度为67.44%,流动性为A级,稳定性达到20 d保持良好.改变黑液的pH值,研究其配制的水煤浆,发现废液pH对水煤浆的成浆性没有太大的影响.由于造纸黑液中含有大量有机质,因此还可提高同等条件下水煤浆的燃烧热值.利用GB 213-87测定所制备水煤浆的恒容高位发热量为21.63 MJ/kg,低位发热量为15 MJ/kg.%Based on the character of high ash and large amount of moisture in the coal slime, and hard to handle of the actual situation of black liquor for paper making which contains abundant organism, it is an useful attempt by using dry method to make water coal mixture both as the raw material. The water coal mixture is made from powdered coal of different particle size which abrading the dry nubby coal slime and black liquor for paper making by a certain percentage in order to research the indicator of comprehensive performance. When the add content of black liquid is 7. 2% and the particle size of powdered coal is less than 160 mesh, the concentration of water coal mixture is 67. 44% , liquidity will be A grade and the stability will retain almost 20 d in good condition. The experiment results indicate that the pH value of waste almost has no effect on the slurry-ability of water coal slime if the pH value of black liquid is changed to research the prepared of water coal slime. Due to the black liquid of paper making contains large amount of or ganic matter, therefore, it can also improve the combustion heat value of water coal slime under the same conditions. The constant-volume high heat of the prepared water coal slime is 21. 63 MJ/kg, low heat is 15 MJ/kg, which is measured by GB 213-87.

  7. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  8. Preparation of Concrete Water-reducer by Oxidation and Sulfomethylation of Bamboo Pulping Black Liquor%竹浆黑液氧化-磺甲基化制备混凝土减水剂研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何贵萍; 吕思宁; 刘一山; 周建; 何强

    2011-01-01

    对碱法竹浆黑液进行氧化-磺甲基化改性,制备了可用作混凝士减水剂的磺化木素,并研究了该产品的水溶性和表面活性,探讨了其作为减水剂在水泥浆中的应用性能.结果表明,氧化-磺甲基化处理能有效改善碱法竹浆黑液中木素的水溶性,提高其表面活性.%Lignosulfonate was prepared as water-reducer via oxidation and sulfomethylation of bamboo alkaline-pulping black liquor. Results indicated that the water-solubility and surfactivity of lignin in black liquor can be effectively improved through the modification. The prepared lignosulfonate can be employed as a cost-effectively water-reducer in concrete industry, since it can reduce cement slurry viscosity so as to increase the fluidity by means of dispersing cement slurry floc and releasing the bound water. This work shows great significance in pollution prevention and the reuse of black liquor.

  9. Sulphur distribution during air gasification of kraft black liquor solids in a fluidized bed of TiO{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, L. [BC Research Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Van Heiningen, A.R.P. [Main Univ., Orono, ME (United States)

    1999-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine if kraft black liquor (KBL) gasification is a viable alternative for conventional kraft recovery, and to evaluate the sulphur distribution during gasification of KBL in the presence of TiO{sub 2}. KBL gasification can be combined with direct causticization by TiO{sub 2} to prevent smelt formation, minimize sodium emission and to eliminate the lime causticizing cycle. However, the presence of TiO{sub 2} should theoretically lead to the complete volatilization of the sulphur in KBL mostly as H{sub 2}S and Na{sub 2}S. Experiments were conducted at 700 to 900 degrees C in a pilot fluidized bed system. The bed residual solids were analyzed for sulphite, sulphate, thiosulphate and sulphide using various techniques. Results showed that Na{sub 2}S was not found in the KBL solids but Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} content was high probably because of oxidation of NA{sub 2}S during drying. It was suggested that thermal cracking of CH{sub 3}SH and (CH{sub 3}) {sub 2}S is the major cause for H{sub 2}S generation. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. CO{sub 2} emission balances for different black liquor gasification biorefinery concepts for production of electricity or second-generation liquid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Karin; Harvey, Simon [Department of Energy and Environment/Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) is currently being developed as an alternative technology for energy and chemical recovery at chemical pulp mills. This study examines how different assumptions regarding systems surrounding the pulp mill affect the CO{sub 2} emission balances for different BLG concepts. The syngas from the gasification process can be used for different applications; this study considers production of renewable motor fuels and electricity generation. Both a market pulp mill and an integrated pulp and paper mill are considered as host mill for the BLG plant. Furthermore, the consequences of limited availability of biomass are shown, i.e., increasing the use of biomass in a mill is not necessarily CO{sub 2}-neutral. The results show that the potential to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by introducing BLG is generally much higher for a market pulp mill than for an integrated pulp and paper mill. Electricity generation from the syngas is favoured when assuming high grid electricity CO{sub 2} emissions whereas motor fuel production is favoured when assuming low grid electricity CO{sub 2} emissions. When considering the consequences of limited availability of biomass, the CO{sub 2} emission balances are strongly affected, in some cases changing the results from a decrease to an increase of the CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  11. Detection of irradiated liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D-2,3-butanediol is formed by irradiation processes in irradiated liquors. This radiolytic product is not formed in unirradiated liquors and its presence can therefore be used to identify whether a liquor has been irradiated or not. The relation meso/dl∼1 for 2,3-butanediol and the amount present in irradiated liquors may therefore be used as an indication of the dose used in the irradiation. (author)

  12. 造纸黑液中碱木素的提取及其在石化工业中的应用%The application of alkali lignin from black liquor in petroleum industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立波; 赵长征

    2012-01-01

    主要介绍了碱木素的提取,碱木素的结构特性和反应性能。详细阐述了碱木素在石化工业中的应用及其它应用前景。%The application of alkali lignin from black liquor in petroleum industry was summarized. The extraction procedure, structure characteristics and reaction performance forward alkali lignins were introduced. The use of alkali lignin in petroleum industry was elaborated in detail. Going forward, the alkali lignin will be used in many trade.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of high photocatalytic activity and stable Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers for photocatalytic degradation of black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Li, E-mail: 50647698@qq.com; Long, Qiyi; Yin, Chao

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers were prepared via in situ Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} particles onto the surface of TiO{sub 2} fiber. • Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers have stronger catalytic activity and excellent chemical stability. • Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor. - Abstract: The TiO{sub 2} fiber was prepared by using cotton fiber as a template, and then Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers were synthesized via in situ Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} particles onto the surface of TiO{sub 2} fiber. Their structure and physical properties were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra (PL). SEM analysis indicated that the well-defined surface morphology of natural cotton fiber was mostly preserved in TiO{sub 2} and Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers. Compared with TiO{sub 2} fiber, the absorbance wavelengths of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers were apparently red shifted and the PL intensities revealed a significant decrease. By using the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor as a model reaction, the visible light and ultraviolet light catalytic efficiencies of TiO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers were evaluated. The reaction results showed that Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers had stronger photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability in repeated and long-term applications. Therefore, the prepared Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers could act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor, which suggested their promising applications. It was proposed that the • OH radicals played the leading role in the photocatalytic degradation of the black liquor by Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} fibers system.

  14. A Technique Research on Disposing Alkali Pulp-making Black Liquor with Bagasse by Recovery and Recycle Suitability%碱法蔗渣制浆黑液循环处理技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆环珍; 杨问波; 姚春丽; 黄衍初; 何艳明; 王建平; 袁庆波; 江渝

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism and technique to treat black liquor from alkali pulp-making with bagasse was studied. The result shows that this technique is more applicability. By this way, pulping black liquor can be disposed overall. Two utility products will be recovered and the liquid will be recycled to pulping at the same time. The materials of acidification will be translated into pulping reagent and reused to pulp-making. The properties of the pulp and paper reused the liquid are all right.%对碱法蔗渣制浆黑液良性循环处理技术路线及原理进行研究。研究结果表明,此技术路线可行,制浆黑液将被全部处理,同时实现了液体回用和回收两种实用价值好的产品目标。处理黑液所用的酸化剂转化为制浆药液成分回用于制浆蒸煮,得到的浆、纸性能良好。

  15. Viscosity of black liquor project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrall, G.A.

    1998-06-01

    The discussion of magnetic resonance in this report is confined to nuclides with a spin quantum number of 1/2. Included is a basic discussion of magnetic resonance; magnetic resonance relaxation and viscosity; and rhometers and viscometers. Many other effects are ignored for the sake of clarity.

  16. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  17. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  18. Application of microwave induced combustion in closed vessels for carbon black-containing elastomers decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid digestion procedure for the determination of Al, Fe, Mn, Sr and Zn in carbon black-containing elastomers (30%) has been developed using sample combustion in closed quartz vessels. Microwave radiation was used for ignition. Combustion takes place in the presence of oxygen under pressure using ammonium nitrate (50 μl of 6 mol l-1) as aid for ignition. Samples of nitrile-butadiene rubber and ethylenepropylene-diene monomer were decomposed. A quartz device was used simultaneously as a sample holder and for the protection of vessel cap. The influence of the absorption solution (nitric acid or water) and the necessity of an additional reflux step were evaluated. Determination of Al, Fe, Mn, Sr and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A reference method (ASTM D 4004-06) based on conventional dry ashing and flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used for comparison (Mn and Zn). Results were also compared to those obtained by using wet acid digestion in closed systems. Concentrated and diluted (4 mol l-1) nitric acid, with 5 min of reflux after the combustion, gave best recoveries for all analytes (from 97 to 101%). For dry ashing quantitative recoveries were found only for Zn whereas for Al, Fe, Mn and Sr the recoveries were only 14, 37, 72 and 37%, respectively. With the proposed procedure the residual carbon content was below 0.5% and further determination of analytes was feasible with only the combustion step (for Fe a reflux with diluted HNO3 was necessary). Complete sample digestion is obtained in less time using the proposed procedure than with other procedures and no concentrated acids were necessary

  19. Black and brown carbon fractal aggregates from combustion of two fuels widely used in Asian rituals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incense sticks and mustard oil are the two most popular combustion fuels during rituals and social ceremonies in Asian countries. Given their widespread use in both closed and open burning activities, it is important to quantify the spectral radiative properties of aerosols emitted from the combustion of both fuels. This information is needed by climate models to assess the impact of these aerosols on radiative forcing. In this study, we used a 3-wavelength integrated photoacoustic-nephelometer – operating simultaneously at 405, 532 and 781 nm – to measure the optical coefficients of aerosols emitted from the laboratory combustion of mustard oil lamp and two types of incense sticks. From the measured optical coefficients at three wavelengths, time-varying single scattering albedo (SSA), absorption Ångström exponent (AAE), and scattering Ångström exponent (SAE) were calculated. For incense smoke particles, the time-averaged mean AAE values were found to be as high as 8.32 (between 405 and 532 nm) and 6.48 (between 532 and 781 nm). This spectrally-varying characteristic of AAE indicates that brown carbon – a class of organic carbon which strongly absorbs solar radiation in the blue and near ultraviolet – is the primary component of incense smoke aerosols. For aerosols emitted from the burning of mustard oil lamp, the time-averaged mean AAE values were ∼1.3 (between 405 and 781 nm) indicating that black carbon (BC) is the primary constituent. Scanning electron microscopy combined with image processing revealed the morphology of incense smoke aerosols to be non-coalescing and weakly-bound aggregates with a mean two-dimensional (2-d) fractal dimension (Df)=1.9±0.07, while the mustard oil smoke aerosols had typical fractal-like BC aggregate morphology with a mean 2-d Df=1.85±0.09. -- Highlights: ► Incense and mustard oil burning aerosols characterized by 3-wavelength photoacoustic spectroscopy and nephelometery, and electron microscopy. ► Brown carbon

  20. Perspectives for the electricity surplus generation at the paper and cellulose segment through the gasification of black liquor; Perspectivas para a geracao de excedentes de eletricidade no segmento de papel e celulose atraves da gaseificacao de lixivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mail: velazquez@mackenzie.com.br; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [CENBIO - Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa, Sao Paulo, Sp (Brazil)]. E-mail: suani@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The pulp/paper segment is enclosed enters the most energointensive of the industrial sector. Its industries generate great part of the energy that consume from by-products of the process, but still are not self-sufficient. On the other hand, the difficulties of the industrial sector to the availability energy guarantee are well known, due to lack of trustworthiness of the electricity transmission and distribution. In this context, the increase of the self generation of electricity in the segment's plants certainly would go to collaborate for bigger flexibility in the Brazilian energy matrix, not only for the option of Demand Side Management, but even for the possibility of electricity excesses generation, as it is considered in this study. Thus, this work presents an economic and technique analysis of the energy cogeneration and the generation of electricity excesses in the pulp and paper segment and cellulose using more efficient technologies (although in development), as the black liquor gasification. The perspectives for the use of black liquor gasification systems and coupling of this unit to a gas turbine (BLGCC) are studied, with exploitation of the exhaustion gases in cogeneration systems. One is about technology in development phase in the industrialized countries and that it allows high conversion efficiency. They are, also, calculated the excesses generation costs, by means of the thermo economy, on the basis of the exergy concept, the most adjusted methodology to analyze cogeneration processes. Despite the biggest efficiency, the exceeding electricity, in some of the studied configurations, presented generation costs that do not reveal competitive with the sale's price of electricity, defined for the PROINFA, leaving evident the necessity of other mechanisms that make possible the implementation of new technologies, as the incorporation of the external factors and the carbon credits discouragement of the generation costs. In the pulp and paper

  1. Density separation of combustion-derived soot and petrogenic graphitic black carbon: Quantification and isotopic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The black carbon continuum is composed of a series of carbon-rich components derived from combustion or metamorphism and characterized by contrasting environmental behavior and susceptibility to oxidation. In this work, we present a micro-scale density fractionation method that allows isolating the small quantities of soot-like and graphitic material usually found in natural samples. Organic carbon and δ13C mass balance calculations were used to quantify the relative contributions of the two fractions to thermally-stable organic matter from a series of aquatic sediments. Varying proportions of soot-like and graphitic material were found in these samples, with large variations in δ13C signatures suggesting important differences in their origin and/or dynamics in the environment.

  2. Black carbon in the Arctic: the underestimated role of gas flaring and residential combustion emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic haze is a seasonal phenomenon with high concentrations of accumulation-mode aerosols occurring in the Arctic in winter and early spring. Chemistry transport models and climate chemistry models struggle to reproduce this phenomenon, and this has recently prompted changes in aerosol removal schemes to remedy the modeling problems. In this paper, we show that shortcomings in current emission data sets are at least as important. We perform a 3 yr model simulation of black carbon (BC with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model is driven with a new emission data set ("ECLIPSE emissions" which includes emissions from gas flaring. While gas flaring is estimated to contribute less than 3% of global BC emissions in this data set, flaring dominates the estimated BC emissions in the Arctic (north of 66° N. Putting these emissions into our model, we find that flaring contributes 42% to the annual mean BC surface concentrations in the Arctic. In March, flaring even accounts for 52% of all Arctic BC near the surface. Most of the flaring BC remains close to the surface in the Arctic, so that the flaring contribution to BC in the middle and upper troposphere is small. Another important factor determining simulated BC concentrations is the seasonal variation of BC emissions from residential combustion (often also called domestic combustion, which is used synonymously in this paper. We have calculated daily residential combustion emissions using the heating degree day (HDD concept based on ambient air temperature and compare results from model simulations using emissions with daily, monthly and annual time resolution. In January, the Arctic-mean surface concentrations of BC due to residential combustion emissions are 150% higher when using daily emissions than when using annually constant emissions. While there are concentration reductions in summer, they are smaller than the winter increases, leading to a systematic increase of

  3. Chemical treatment of liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquor, which may contain heavy metal species, e.g. U or Pu, is passed along a pipeline provided with a cascade of fluidic mixing devices for adding a reagent or reagents. Pipeline sections are disposed downstream of mixing devices dimensioned so that the liquor and reagent(s) are afforded a residence time for reaction as they flow through it. The mixed liquor/reagent(s) are then fed into a settling vessel from which part of the contents is fed to a centrifugal separator to effect liquid/solid separation. A proportion of the solid separated is recycled back to the cascaded mixing pipeline to provide nuclei to enhance precipitation and/or increase concentration of a constituent, such as a floc-forming agent, used in the treatment of the liquor. (author)

  4. Black carbon and fine particle emissions in Finnish residential wood combustion: Emission projections, reduction measures and the impact of combustion practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolahti, Mikko; Karvosenoja, Niko; Tissari, Jarkko; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Sippula, Olli; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    2016-09-01

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) is a major source of black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 emissions in Finland. Making a robust assessment of emissions on a national level is a challenge due to the varying heater technologies and the effect of users' combustion practices. In this paper we present an update of the emission calculation scheme for Finnish RWC, including technology-specific emission factors based on national measurements. Furthermore, we introduce a transparent method to assess the impact of poor combustion practices on emissions. Using a Finnish emission model, we assessed the emissions in 2000, 2010 and 2030, as well as the cost-efficiency of potential emission reduction measures. The results show that RWC is the biggest source of both PM2.5 and BC emissions in Finland, accounting for 37% and 55% of the total respective emissions. It will also remain the biggest source in the future, and it's role may become even more pronounced if wood consumption continues to increase. Sauna stoves cause the most emissions and also show the biggest potential for emission reductions. Informational campaigns targeted to improve heater users' combustion practices appear as a highly cost-efficient measure, although their impact on country-level emissions was estimated to be relatively limited.

  5. DETERMINACIÓN DE FENOLES TOTALES EN DERIVADOS LÍGNICOS OBTENIDOS DEL “LICOR NEGRO” COMO ALTERNATIVA DE PRODUCCIÓN // DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOL DERIVATIVES OBTAINED FROM LIGNIN "BLACK LIQUOR" AS ALTERNATIVE TO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José López Villalobos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is an industrial waste being worthless in papermaking byproduct of black liquor obtained from the pulping process in some Venezuelan plants. The black liquor is obtained from the Kraft pulping process to extract lignin sulphite by acid precipitation and quantify the amount of total phenols in such lignin products used in this study. Spectrophotometry Molecular absorption in the UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR region were used to carry out these study techniques. The products obtained in the study had the same signs than commercial lignin (LA, along with the extracted lignin present little degradation HCl, confirmed by infrared spectra. Also, the amount of total phenols was quantified in derivative lignin obtained using the Folin-Ciocalteu. In the sulphite process extracted lignin with acetic acid derivative contains more phenols, and in the Kraft process, the derivative lignin extracted with fewer nitric acid present. The amount of total phenolics present in these derivatives are good for making antiseptics, detergents, nylon, resin and many industrial products. // RESUMEN La lignina es un subproducto del licor negro obtenido del proceso de despulpado en algunas plantas de Venezuela, siendo un desecho industrial que carece de valor en la fabricación de papel. En este estudio se utilizó el licor negro obtenido de los procesos de pulpado Kraft y Sulfito para extraer la lignina mediante precipitaciones ácidas y cuantificar la cantidad de fenoles totales en dichos productos lígnicos. Para llevar a cabo este estudio, se utilizaron las técnicas de Espectrofotometría de Absorción Molecular en la región UV-Visible y la Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo (FTIR. Los productos obtenidos en el estudio presentaron señales similares que la lignina comercial (LA, además la lignina extraída con HCl presentó poca degradación, corroborado por los espectros infrarrojos. Asimismo, se cuantificó la cantidad de fenoles totales en los

  6. Análisis Termodinámico de un Sistema de Cogeneración con Gasificación del Licor Negro Thermodynamic Analysis of a Cogeneration System with Black Liquor Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el análisis termodinámico de un proceso de cogeneración de energía con gasificación del licor negro, utilizando balances de exergía para identificar y cuantificar las principales irreversibilidades presentes. Se realizó una simulación del proceso de cogeneración con un simulador comercial, a partir de la cual fue posible realizar el balance de exergía del sistema. Se evaluó la influencia de la composición de los gases obtenidos en el gasificador sobre las pérdidas exergéticas en el proceso. Las condiciones operacionales del gasificador de licor negro que contribuyen a reducir la concentración de estos compuestos responsables de las pérdidas de exergía, son la baja temperatura (700°C y la baja presión (200 kPa. El análisis mostró útil para determinar de viabilidad técnica del proceso alternativo de generación de energía a través de la gasificación del licor negro.This work presents a thermodynamic analysis of a cogeneration energy process with black liquor gasification obtained in pulp and paper industries, using exergy balances to identify and quantify the main irreversibilities in the process. The cogeneration process was analyzed using a commercial simulator from which it was possible to develop the exergy balance. The influence of the composition of the gases produced in the gasifier over the exergy losses in the process was evaluated. The most appropriated operating conditions in the gasifier to reduce the concentration of these components, which are responsible for the exergy losses are the low temperature (700 ºC and the low pressure (200 kPa. The analysis showed to be useful to determine the technical viability of this alternative process of energy generation using black liquor gasification.

  7. Black Liquor Treatment Project of Guizhou Pulp and Paper Making Factory%对贵州制浆造纸厂“黑液”治理方案的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁媛; 李皖; 曾祥钦

    2001-01-01

    According to the local conditions and the comparison between different proposals,the reclaiming of rough lignin by acid settlement and the reuse of processed lignin are adopted as the most economically effcient project to treat the black liquor pollution.A primary estimate shows that a recovery of 1000 kg of rough lignin will bring 100 renminbi yuan of net income to the enterprise,not including the economic benefits from the usage of the processed lignin.The relevant technology is based on the production and experiments,so it is completely feasible.%从贵州省情出发,通过方案比较,采取酸沉析回收粗木素治理黑液、木素改性再利用方案,黑液的污染将得到有效治理,而且还将获得新的经济效益。初步估算:每回收1吨粗木素可净增效益100元,粗木素改性利用后还可以产生新的经济效益,这对促进地方经济持续发展和社会稳定都很有意义。方案中的有关技术都有生产和生产性中试基础,方案具备可行性。

  8. Pomegranate liquor preparation and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Galego, Ludovina; Leticia M. Estevinho; Silva, José Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) liquor has been produced for several centuries in the south of Portugal, mainly in the mountain areas. The “Assaria” variety is the preferred cultivar due to its organoleptic properties and high arils to peel ratio. Wild pomegranates are also widely distributed but, despite the health benefits that have been associated to the fruits, they continue to be unappreciated for consumption. Liquor preparation is a very good alternative for wild pomegranate fruits...

  9. Potentialities of spinal liquor scanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that spinal liquor scanography is a harmless and informative method for the examination of patients, permitting to detect injury foci for spinal cord tumours in 90% cases, for acute injuries of the vertebral column and spinal cord in 89.5% cases, for herniation of nucleus pulposus in 81% cases. The method of spinal liquor scanography can be used in neurology and neurosurgery to select the method of treatment and to evaluate its efficiency

  10. Improvement of linerboard compressive strength by hot-pressing and addition of recovered lignin from spent pulping liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Saidan Motasem N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of addition of precipitated lignin, from spent pulping black liquor, to a wet single-ply linerboard handsheet followed by hot-pressing at different temperatures, on the improvement of its compressive strength. Linerboard handsheets for testing the effect of lignin addition were prepared so that the lignin-modified sheets would have the same basis weights as the control handsheets. Both the commercial and the black liquor lign...

  11. Denitrification mechanism in combustion of biocoal briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejoon; Li, Tianji

    2005-02-15

    Pulp black liquor (PBL), an industrial waste from paper production, has been previously shown to be an effective binder and denitrification agent for coal briquettes. This study investigated the denitrification mechanism of PBL in both the volatile combustion and char combustion stages of coal briquettes. X-ray diffraction and ion chromatography were used to analyze the residual ashes of combustion. The exhaust gas was analyzed by a flue gas analysis system and a Q-mass spectrometry system. The denitrification mechanism of PBL in the volatile combustion stage was found to result from the emission of NH3. The denitrification of PBL in the char combustion stage was associated with the NaOH contained in PBL. The direct reaction of NaOH with NO gas was examined, and some interesting phenomena were observed. Pure carbon or pure NaOH showed only limited reaction with NO. However, the mixture of NaOH and carbon (NaOH + C) significantly enhanced the reaction. This mixture increased the NO removal up to 100%. Subsequently, denitrification lasted for a long time period, with about 25% of NO removal. The pyrolysis characteristic of NaNO3, a compound resulting from denitrification, was also affected by the presence of carbon. In the presence of carbon, the NOx emission resulting from the pyrolysis of NaNO3 was reduced by a factor of 6. Since the denitrification phenomena appeared only in the absence of oxygen, a model of oxygen distribution in a burning coal briquette was employed to explain the reactions occurring in real combustion of coal briquettes. PMID:15773493

  12. 27 CFR 26.318 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.318 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles not conforming...

  13. Desilication of spent liquors derived from alkaline pulping of non-wood plant fibres. Compendium on low- and non-waste technology. Addendum. Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-02-22

    Removal of silica from spent liquors of alkaline non-wood plant fiber pulping. When using non-wood annual plant as raw material for pulping a considerable amount of silica (SiO2) is carried into the process, which prohibits recycling of the quick lime to the causticizing process. The desilication of the black liquor requires steam boiler flue gas as the only reagent. Precipitated matter is separated from the liquor by means of conventional mechanical systems.

  14. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely...

  15. 25 CFR 140.18 - Intoxicating liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intoxicating liquors. 140.18 Section 140.18 Indians....18 Intoxicating liquors. No trader shall use or permit to be used his premises for any unlawful... manufacture, sale, gift, transportation, drinking or storage of intoxicating liquors or beverages in...

  16. Reconstructing historical changes in combustion patterns by means of black carbon and PAH evaluation in dated sediments from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation history of combustion products from the metropolitan area around Guanabara Bay was evaluated using black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as indicators. BC concentration varied between 0.23 and 0.51%, with an increasing mass accumulation tendency over the last 118 years, whereas a decrease in the values of the ratio BC/organic carbon was observed in the upper sediment layers, probably reflecting the enhancement of bay's eutrophication process in the last 30 years. Higher concentrations of pyrolytic PAH were observed between 1925 and 1976, being consistent with the subsequent deforestation, urbanization, and industrialization that occurred in the Guanabara basin in the period. These PAHs were best characterized by the BFl/(BFl+BePy) diagnostic ratio. The data obtained allowed the characterization of the main events that influenced the combustion patterns in the region: burning of biomass and fossil fuel, economic crisis of 1970 and 1990 and the introduction of ethanol in the Brazilian energetic matrix. (author)

  17. Determinations of Se in white liquor and leach liquor by ICP-AES%电感耦合等离子发射光谱(ICP-AES)测定白酒及浸提液中Se

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高薇; 王莹; 张鲜; 张鹤小

    2012-01-01

    对白酒及浸提液进行分析,为人们饮用芝麻酒提供科学依据。微波消解方法消化样品,白酒浸泡黑芝麻,浸提其中的Se元素,应用ICP-AES法测定浸提液中Se元素的含量。黑芝麻中Se的回收率为97.5%,相对标准偏差为1.45%。黑芝麻中丰富的Se元素,经过白酒的浸泡,使白酒中Se元素含量更高,与普通的白酒相比,更具有营养价值。黑芝麻酒是一种简单自制的保健酒,其药用及保健价值应引起人们的广泛关注。%Analysis white liquor and leach liquor, for people drank sesame liquor provide the scientific basis. The samples were digested in the microwave systerm, soak black sesame in white liquor, recover Se from it. ICP-AES was applied to the determination of the content of Se in leach liquor. The recovery rate of the method is 97.5% and relative standard deviation is 1.45%. We soaked the black sesame which have aburdant content of element Se in the liquor in order to increase the content of element Se. And this kind of liquor has more nutritional value compared to the ordinary liquor. Black sesame liquor is one kind of simple homemade health wine.its value of medical and health should be aroused wide attention.

  18. Measurements of black and organic carbon emission factors for household coal combustion in China: implication for emission reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjun; Zhi, Guorui; Feng, Yanli; Liu, Dongyan; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2009-12-15

    Household coal combustion is considered as the greatest emission source for black carbon (BC) and an important source for organic carbon (OC) in China. However, measurements on BC and OC emission factors (EF(BC) and EF(OC)) are still scarce, which result in large uncertainties in emission estimates. In this study, a detailed data set of EF(BC) and EF(OC) for household coal burning was presented on the basis of 38 coal/stove combination experiments. These experiments included 13 coals with a wide coverage of geological maturity which were tested in honeycomb-coal-briquette and raw-coal-chunk forms in three typical coal stoves. Averaged values of EF(BC) are 0.004 and 0.007 g/kg for anthracite in briquette and chunk forms and 0.09 and 3.05 g/kg for bituminous coal, respectively; EF(OC) are 0.06 and 0.10 g/kg for anthracite and 3.74 and 5.50 g/kg for bituminous coal in both forms, respectively. Coal maturity was found to be the most important influencing factor relative to coal's burning forms and the stove's burning efficiency, and when medium-volatile bituminous coals (MVB) are excluded from use, averaged EF(BC) and EF(OC) for bituminous coal decrease by 50% and 30%, respectively. According to these EFs, China's BC and OC emissions from the household sector in 2000 were 94 and 244 gigagrams (Gg), respectively. Compared with previous BC emission estimates for this sector (e.g., 465 Gg by Ohara et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2007, 7, 4419-4444), a dramatic decrease was observed and was mainly attributed to the update of EFs. As suggested by this study, if MVB is prohibited as household fuel together with further promotion of briquettes, BC and OC emissions in this sector will be reduced by 80% and 34%, respectively, and then carbonaceous emissions can be controlled to a large extent in China. PMID:20000546

  19. Sulphate removal from uraniferous liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for the recovery of uranium from liquor resulting from the attack of sulphur containing uraniferous ores by an alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is claimed. An ion exchange resin is used to separate the uranium from the solution of sodium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and sodium sulphate. The ion exchange resin is then eluted with a solution of ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate to provide an eluate containing ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and ammonium sulphate. The eluate is heated to boiling to convert the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate to ammonium uranate and/or diuranate. Ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor are released. The precipitated ammonium uranate and/or diuranate is separated from the remaining liquor and calcined to give uranium trioxide

  20. Automatic sampling of radioactive liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the latest techniques in sampling radioactive liquors in an Irradiated Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Previously to obtain a sample from these liquors operators were involved at the point of sampling, the transport of samples in shielded containers to the laboratories and at the offloading of the samples at the laboratory. Penetration of the radioactive containments occurred at the sampling point and again in the laboratory, these operations could lead to possible radioactive contamination. The latest design consists of a Sample Bottle Despatch Facility Autosampler units, Pneumatic Transfer System and Receipt Facility which reduces considerably operator involvement, provides a safe rapid transport system and minimises any possibility of radioactive contamination. The system can be made fully automatic and ease of maintenance has been ensured by the design

  1. Automatic sampling of radioactive liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the latest techniques in sampling radioactive liquors in an Irradiated Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Previously to obtain a sample from these liquors operators were involved at the point of sampling, the transport of samples in shielded containers to the laboratories and at the offloading of the samples at the laboratory. Penetration of the radioactive containments occurred at the sampling point and again in the laboratory, these operations could lead to possible radioactive contamination. The latest design consists of a Sample Bottle Despatch Facility Autosampler units, Pneumatic Transfer System and Receipt Facility which reduces considerably operator involvement, provides a safe rapid transport system and minimises any possibility of radioactive contamination. The system can be made fully automatic and ease of maintenance has been ensured by the design. (author)

  2. Automatic sampling of radioactive liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest techniques in sampling radioactive liquors in an Irradiated Fuel Reprocessing Plant are described. Previously to obtain a sample from these liquors operators were involved at the point of sampling, the transport of samples in shielded containers to the laboratories and at the offloading of the samples at the laboratory. Penetration of the radioactive containments occurred at the sampling point and again in the laboratory; these operations could lead to possible radioactive contamination. The latest design consists of a Sample Bottle Despatch Facility Autosampler units, Pneumatic Transfer System and Receipt Facility which reduces considerably operator involvement, provides a safe rapid transport system and minimises any possibility of radioactive contamination. The system can be made fully automatic and ease of maintenance has been ensured by the design. (author)

  3. Radiation chemistry of liquors: Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the yield and distribution of 2, 3-butanediol isomers formed during the irradiation of liquors have been investigated and compared with that of the isomers in some ordinary liquors. It has been found that some commercial liquors also contain 2, 3-butanediol, but there is difference in the distribution of their optical isomers. 2, 3-butanediol is in the forms of meso and dl for irradiated liquor and its ratio (meso/dl) = 1. In commercial liquors, 2, 3-butanediol is in the forms of meso and 1 and its ratio (meso/l) ≤ 0.5. G(2, 3-butanediol) values have been determined in various systems. For liquid ethanol saturated with N2 G(2, 3-butanediol) = 2.23, 1.46 for the irradiated liquor sample-1 without oxygen and 0.35 for the liquor specimen-1 irradiated under the condition of limited air supply. The results show that (1) the soluble oxygen in liquor can inhibit the formation of 2, 3-butanediol; (2) the other compositions in the liquor can compete with ethanol molecules in reacting with active species(H, e2q- OH etc.) and form some unknowns. Therefore, the attention must be paid to the hygienic satefy of those unknowns in the irradiated liquor

  4. 27 CFR 26.319 - Used liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Used liquor bottles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.319 Used liquor bottles. The appropriate TTB officer may pursuant...

  5. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of used liquor... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  6. 27 CFR 26.44 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor dealer registration... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE... Recordkeeping § 26.44 Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping. Every person bringing liquors into...

  7. 27 CFR 26.210 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor dealer registration... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE... Recordkeeping § 26.210 Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping. Every person bringing liquors into...

  8. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors. 26.110 Section 26.110 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  9. 27 CFR 27.208 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.208 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles, not conforming to...

  10. LIEKKI and JALO: Combustion and fuel conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Thomas M.; Renz, Ulrich; Sarofim, Adel F.

    LIEKKI and JALO are well conceived and structured programs designed to strengthen Finland's special needs in combustion and gasification to utilize a diversity of fuels, increase the ratio of electrical to heat output, and to support the export market. Started in 1988, these two programs provide models of how universities, Technical research center's laboratories (VTT's), and industry can collaborate successfully in order to achieve national goals. The research is focused on long term goals in certain targeted niche areas. This is an effective way to use limited resources. The niche areas were chosen in a rational manner and appear to be appropriate for Finland. The LIEKKl and JALO programs have helped pull together research efforts that were previously more fragmented. For example, the combustion modeling area still appears fragmented. Individual project objectives should be tied to program goals at a very early stage to provide sharper focusing to the research. Both the LIEKKl and JALO programs appear to be strongly endorsed by industry. Industrial members of the Executive Committees were very supportive of these programs. There are good mechanisms for technology transfer in place, and the programs provide opportunities to establish good interfaces between industrial people and the individual researchers. The interest of industry is shown by the large number of applied projects that are supported by industry. This demonstrates the relevancy of the programs. There is a strong interaction between the JALO program and industry in black liquor gasification.

  11. Design of special facility for liquor irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design principle, physical scheme, technological process, construction and safety features of a special facility used for irradiating liquors is briefly described. 0.925 x 1015 Bq cobalt source is used and the irradiation capacity for liquors approaches 10 t per day. The facility bears advantages of simple in construction, easy to operate, safe, reliable and efficient in source utilization

  12. PYROLIGNEOUS LIQUOR PRODUCED FROM ACACIA MEARNSII DE WILD WOOD UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina M. Furtado; Aline dos Santos Stolz; Fernanda L. Pinto; Angela B. D. Moura; Fernando Dal Pont Morisso; Ana Paula Pitarelo; Luiz Pereira Ramos; Carin von Mühlen; Izabel C. Riegel-Vidotti

    2015-01-01

    Acacia mearnsii de Wild (black wattle) is one of the most important trees planted in Southern Brazil for tannin extraction and charcoal production. The pyrolysis of the black wattle wood used for obtaining charcoal is performed in brick ovens, with the gas fraction being sent directly into the environment. The present study examines the condensable compounds present in the liquor produced from black wattle wood at different thermal degradation conditions, using gas chromatography coupled with...

  13. Reconstructing historical changes in combustion patterns by means of black carbon and PAH evaluation in dated sediments from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauad, Cristiane R.; Wagener, Angela de L. R.; Farias, Cassia de O.; Carreira, Renato S.; Godoy, Jose M.; Scofield, Arthur de L., E-mail: angela@puc-rio.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (LABMAM/PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica. Lab. de Estudos Marinhos e Ambientais; Ruiz, Naira M. S.; Menezes, Sonia M.C. de [Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Crisogono [Laboratory of Geomicrobiology, ETH/Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-15

    The accumulation history of combustion products from the metropolitan area around Guanabara Bay was evaluated using black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as indicators. BC concentration varied between 0.23 and 0.51%, with an increasing mass accumulation tendency over the last 118 years, whereas a decrease in the values of the ratio BC/organic carbon was observed in the upper sediment layers, probably reflecting the enhancement of bay's eutrophication process in the last 30 years. Higher concentrations of pyrolytic PAH were observed between 1925 and 1976, being consistent with the subsequent deforestation, urbanization, and industrialization that occurred in the Guanabara basin in the period. These PAHs were best characterized by the BFl/(BFl+BePy) diagnostic ratio. The data obtained allowed the characterization of the main events that influenced the combustion patterns in the region: burning of biomass and fossil fuel, economic crisis of 1970 and 1990 and the introduction of ethanol in the Brazilian energetic matrix. (author)

  14. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refilling of liquor... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.201 Refilling of liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled...

  15. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of refilled liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for...

  16. 27 CFR 27.209 - Used liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Used liquor bottles. 27..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.209 Used liquor bottles. The appropriate TTB officer may pursuant to letterhead...

  17. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  18. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Persons...

  19. LIEKKI 2 - Combustion and gasification research programme 1993- 1998. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The six-year Combustion and Gasification Research Programme LIEKKI 2 (1993-1998) was oriented towards research serving the development of energy production technologies based on combustion and gasification. The programme was divided into six research areas: 1. Modelling of the furnace processes (39 projects); 2. Chemistry of gaseous emission components (28); 3. Particle behaviour, ash, aerosols (42); 4. New combustion and gasification technologies (27); 5. Black liquor (33) and 6. Conventional combustion technologies, waste incineration (19). The main aim of the research has been to develop new, more efficient and environmentally friendly techniques. The development of conventional combustion technology has also been an important part of the programme. Another important goal has been to maintain and develop maintain the competence of the research organisations in the combustion area and to intensify their collaboration. Concerning its research contents and its objectives LIEKKI 2, like its forerunner, has not been fuel-specific. The programme has investigated the thermal conversion of oil, gas, black liquor, and coal as well as that of peat, biofuels, and various waste materials, and it has further advanced the know-how concerning the utilisation of these fuels. This approach differs from the usual fuel-specific differentiation, which, for instance, IEA (International Energy Agency) and EU have applied in their research activities. This approach seems in retrospect to have been the right choice. It has been appropriate to stimulate co-operation between parties who would not seek co-operation spontaneously. One example of this is the development of a steelmaking process by a Finnish steel manufacturer under the LIEKKI programme. The programme has also provided synergetic advantages to the development of the recovery boiler processes of the pulp industry. Assessing the impact of the programme is a matter of many facets. The six-year research work and a total

  20. Radiation chemistry of liquor: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the concentrate of liquor made from dried sweet potato on the proliferation of tetrahymena pyriformis has been studied. The toxicity of d-2,3-butanediol and ethanol have also been investigated by the tetrahymena pyriformis and it has been found that they did not produce the effect on the propagation of the cell up to 250 and 1000 ppm, separately. The unirradiated concentrate of the different batch liquors all appear more or less inhibition on the proliferation of tetrahymena pyriformis. The effect is more remarkable for the concentrate of the irradiated liquors and is strengthened as increase of adsorbed dose. It shows that the toxicity of the concentrate of the irradiated liquor to tetrahymena pyriformis may be related to the quality of the dried sweet potato used and the formation of radiolytic products with higher boiling point

  1. Radiation chemistry of liquors: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of peroxide has been studied in the liquors and the model systems of ethanol aqueous solution under gamma irradiatioin. The G values of peroxide in irradiated liqour and ethanol systems have been gotten from the initial linear part of the curve. They are 1.0-3.6 for the different liquors and 3.6 for 60% ethanol aqueous solution respectively. It has been shown that oxygen plays an important role in the formation of peroxide. It has also been found that peroxide is rather stable in some liquors and its content remains higher up to 6-7 ppm after storage of 20 days. So, it is a urgent task to provide a H2O2 safety limit in the irradiated liquors

  2. Intercomparison of Measurement Techniques for Black or Elemental Carbon Under Urban Background Conditions in Wintertime: Influence of Biomass Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Reisinger, Peter; Wonaschutz, Anna; Hitzenberger, Regina; Petzold, Andreas; Bauer, Heidi; Jankowski, Nicole; Puxbaum, Hans; Chi, Xuguang; Maenhaut, Willy

    2008-01-01

    A generally accepted method to measure black carbon (BC) or elemental carbon (EC) still does not exist. An earlier study in the Vienna area comparing practically all measurement methods in use in Europe gave comparable BC and EC concentrations under summer conditions (Hitzenberger et al., 2006a).Undersummerconditions, Diesel traffic is the major source for EC or BC in Vienna. Under winter conditions, space heating (also with biomass as fuel) is another important source (Caseiro et al., 2007)....

  3. Effects of volatile coatings on the morphology and optical detection of combustion-generated black carbon particles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambha, Ray P.; Dansson, Mark Alex; Schrader, Paul E.; Michelsen, Hope A.

    2013-09-01

    We have measured time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (LII) from combustion-generated mature soot extracted from a burner and (1) coated with oleic acid or (2) coated with oleic acid and then thermally denuded using a thermodenuder. The soot samples were size selected using a differential mobility analyser and characterized with a scanning mobility particle sizer, centrifugal particle mass analyser, and transmission electron microscope. The results demonstrate a strong influence of coatings particle morphology and on the magnitude and temporal evolution of the LII signal. For coated particles higher laser fluences are required to reach LII signal levels comparable to those of uncoated particles. This effect is predominantly attributable to the additional energy needed to vaporize the coating while heating the particle. LII signals are higher and signal decay rates are significantly slower for thermally denuded particles relative to coated or uncoated particles, particularly at low and intermediate laser fluences.

  4. Alcohol Sales Dropped After Maryland Raised Liquor Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158297.html Alcohol Sales Dropped After Maryland Raised Liquor Tax Study finding suggests the tactic could help ... 6 percent to 9 percent in 2011, and liquor sales subsequently fell 5 percent, the study found. ...

  5. When is meconium stained liquor actually bile stained vomit?

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, D.M.; Burge, D M

    1988-01-01

    Three babies said to have had 'meconium stained liquor' were subsequently found never to have passed meconium. The green discoloured liquor was the result of bilious vomiting in utero secondary to intestinal obstruction.

  6. Quality properties Of Vietnamese cocoa liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Diem Phuong; Van Durme, Jim; Van de Walle, Davy; Phan, Thi Thanh Que; Nguyen Phuc, Cat-Hanh; Phan, DN; Dewettinck, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam (VN) is an emerging country targeting cocoa as a potential industrial domain. It is however still unclear how the quality of VN cocoa liquors can be positioned in the world cocoa supply. Three VN cocoa liquors exhibiting high to intermediate acidity (pH: 4.7 – 5.2) were selected to produce dark chocolate (48.0% sugar, 17.6% cocoa solids, 34.0% cocoa butter and 0.4% lecithin). A comparison study was conducted to investigate the difference between VN and Ghanaian (GH; pH: 5.6) dark choc...

  7. 27 CFR 19.633 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TTB officer if the bottles are found to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5; (2) Be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements...

  8. 27 CFR 31.32 - Wholesale dealer in liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors. 31.32 Section 31.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.32 Wholesale dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided...

  9. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)...

  10. 27 CFR 26.314 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... officer to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5; (2) Be distinctive; (3) Be suitable for their... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...

  11. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Rico who ship wine to the United States shall comply with the formula requirements of 27 CFR part 240... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas...

  12. Otobasal liquor fistula causing recurrent bacterial meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral subarachnoid space scintigraphy today still is the modality of choice for detection of a liquorrea or a liquor fistula, especially in the case of a recurrent menengitis of unclear origin. This diagnostic method yielded the results required in the case reported for efficient and successful surgical treatment. (orig./CB)

  13. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO2 removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO2 from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO2 into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results

  14. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum incu

  15. Radiation chemistry of liquor: Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of pH and ethenol concentration on the formation of peroxide has been studied. Hydrogen peroxide (92%) and organic peroxide (8%) are produced when the liquor is irradiated in the range of pH from 4 to 9 but no organic peroxide at the pH less than 2.5 and in the aqueous solution of ethanol over a wide concentrations of ethanol. G(H2O2) and G (total peroxide) are equal to 3.6 ± 0.3 and 2.9 ± 0.2 for 0.2% (V/V) aqueous solution of ethanol and the liquor containing 0.2% ethanol and 4.3 ± 0.1 and 3.6 ± 0.3 for 57% aqueous solution of ethanol and the liquor (containing 57% ethanol), respectively. Over a wide ethanol concentration range, there is no organic peroxide in the irradiated aqueous solution of ethanol. It shows that organic peroxide does not formed from ethanol and it could result from the other composition radicals in the liquor

  16. Eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Antunes Schiave Germano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Liquoric fistula (LF is defined as the communication of the subarachnoid space with the external environment, which main complication is the development of infection in the central nervous system. We reported the case of a patient with non-traumatic eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele (congenital lesion, which main clinical manifestation was unilateral eyelid edema. Her symptoms and clinical signs appeared in adulthood, which is uncommon. The patient received surgical treatment, with complete resolution of the eyelid swelling. In conclusion, eyelid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF fistula is a rare condition but with great potential deleterious to the patient. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral eyelid edema, and surgical treatment is almost always mandatory.

  17. Imidacloprid in processed tea and tea liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANYAL N.; HAZRA D.; PAL R.; SOMCHAUDHURY A.K.; CHOWDHURY A.

    2006-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a newly introduced broad-spectrum chloronicotinyl insecticide and will find its way in agricultural production, particularly in Asia. However, information on the fate of imidacloprid in crop plants is lacking. The degradation of imidacloprid in processed CTC tea and tea liquor was investigated in the present study in which imidacloprid was applied at recommended application rate (30.0 g a.i./ha) and twice the recommended application rate (60.0 g a.i./ha) for three consecutive seasons. Imidacloprid was rapidly dissipated in processed tea following first order reaction kinetics at all application rates and had half-lives of 0.91~1.16 d with the residue in tea liquor found to be below detectable limit on 3rd day samples. The study revealed that imidacloprid is safe for human consumption and will not pose any residual toxicity problem.

  18. Reduction in Ammonium Ions in Sludge Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Šlajūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquor rejected from the centrifugation of the digested sludge can contain the concentrations of ammonium ions up to 1750 mg/L. These loads are usually returned to the intake of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP without additional treatment and can have a negative impact on biological wastewater and/or sludge treatment processes, e.g. phosphorus and nitrogen removal. This article deals with the use of naturally obtained sorbent, zeolite, in batch and column test procedure for removing ammonium from the rejected liquor. This research study was carried out using different sizes of zeolite particles: 0.8–1.6 mm and 1.6–2.5 mm. The highest efficiency of ammonium removal (up to 98 % was achieved by applying the zeolite particles of 0.8–1.6 mm.Article in Lithuanian

  19. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Claims Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands...

  20. 27 CFR 19.639 - Use and resale of liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use and resale of liquor... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Liquor Bottle Requirements § 19.639 Use and resale of liquor bottles. No proprietor shall use any...

  1. 27 CFR 19.638 - Disposition of stocks of liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquor bottles. 19.638 Section 19.638 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Liquor Bottle Requirements § 19.638 Disposition of stocks of liquor bottles. When a...

  2. Characteristics of Gouda cheese supplemented with fruit liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hee Young; Yang, Chul Ju; Choi, Kap Seong; Bae, Inhyu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the quality characteristics of Gouda cheeses supplemented with fruit liquor (Prunusmume or Cornus officinalis). Fruit liquor was supplemented to Gouda cheeses during preparation. Changes in chemical composition, lactic acid bacterial population, pH, water-soluble nitrogen, sensory characteristics, and proteolysis were monitored in the prepared ripened cheese. The electrophoresis patterns of cheese proteins, fruit liquor functional component concen...

  3. Compost liquor bioremediation using waste materials as biofiltration media.

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, A. J.; Tyrrel, Sean F.

    2005-01-01

    Compost liquor results from the percolation of precipitation through composting waste; the release of liquids from high moisture content feedstocks; and as a result of runoff from hard surfaces and machinery. This research aimed to establish the potential for waste materials to act as media for low-cost compost liquor biofilters. Six types of potential biofilter media were packed into experimental biofilters (1 m long x 0.11 m diameter) and irrigated with compost liquor (organic loading rate ...

  4. Black carbon in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Van Breugel, P.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of black carbon were determined for a number of marine sediments. A comparison of black carbon based on thermal oxidation and hot concentrated nitric acid pretreatments revealed that the latter significantly overestimates combustion derived carbon phases. Black carbon accounts for abo

  5. Characterisation of fuels for advanced pressurised combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Hupa, M.; Backman, P.; Forssen, M.; Karlsson, M.; Kullberg, M.; Sorvari, V.; Uusikartano, T. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group; Nurk, M. [Tallinskij Politekhnicheskij Inst., Tallinn (Estonia)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of the research was to determine a set of fuel characteristics which quantify the behaviour of a fuel in a typical pressurised combustor or gasifier environment, especially in hybrid processes such as second generation PFBC. One specific aspect was to cover a wide range of fuels, including several coal types and several grades of peat and biomasses: 7 types of coal, 2 types of peat, 2 types of wood, 2 types of black liquor, Estonian oil shale and Venezuelan Orimulsion were studied. The laboratory facilities used are a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor (PTGR), a pressurised grid heater (PGH) and an atmospheric entrained flow quartz tube reactor, with gas analysis, which can be operated as a fixed bed reactor. A major part of the work was related to fuel devolatilisation in the PGH and sequential devolatilisation and char gasification (with carbon dioxide or steam) in the PTGR. The final part of that work is reported here, with the combustion of Estonian oil shale at AFBC or PFBC conditions as additional subject. Devolatilisation of the fuels at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen while monitoring gaseous exhausts, followed by ultimate analysis of the chars has been reported earlier. Here, results on the analysis of the reduction of NO (with and without CO) on chars at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed reactor are reported. Finally, a comparison is given between experimental results and direct numerical simulation with several computer codes, i.e. PyroSim, developed at TU Graz, Austria, and the codes Partikkeli, Pisara and Cogas, which were provided by VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae

  6. Imidacloprid in processed tea and tea liquor*

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal, N.; Hazra, D.; Pal, R; Somchaudhury, A.K.; Chowdhury, A.

    2006-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a newly introduced broad-spectrum chloronicotinyl insecticide and will find its way in agricultural production, particularly in Asia. However, information on the fate of imidacloprid in crop plants is lacking. The degradation of imidacloprid in processed CTC tea and tea liquor was investigated in the present study in which imidacloprid was applied at recommended application rate (30.0 g a.i./ha) and twice the recommended application rate (60.0 g a.i./ha) for three consecutive ...

  7. 27 CFR 27.204 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such bottles are found by the appropriate TTB officer to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for...

  8. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5.46 Section 5.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill...

  9. Leaching uraniferous ores with carbonated liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alkaline carbonate, and optionally bicarbonate solution containing an oxidising agent is used in the leaching of a uraniferous ore. The process is carried out under concentration, temperature and pressure conditions which cause solubilisation of the uranium present in the ore. Uranium alkaline carbonate and, if present, bicarbonate, are present in solution at a concentration close to the limit of solubility at the attack temperature. The solid and liquid phases resulting from the attack operation are separated, the reactants in the liquid are readjusted, and the liquid is recycled to the ore attack operation. The attack is carried out at a temperature lower than 300 deg. C. and the suspension collected after the attack operation is cooled to a temperature higher than 40 deg. C. The uranium is maintained in a state of saturation and is then precipitated in the attack medium. The solid phase is treated with an aqueous liquor to recover the residual liquor resulting from the attack operation and to redissolve the precipitated uranium compound. The solid and liquid fractions are separated

  10. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  11. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew [Sellafield Ltd, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  12. Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Larry L.

    2008-06-09

    This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt

  13. Recovery of molybdenum from uranium liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some uranium ores contain enough molybdenum to make the recovery of molybdenum from uranium-bearing process streams attractive. Most past attempts have been unsuccessful because of uranium contamination of the product. Uranium-bearing liquors are usually passed over an activated charcoal bed to selectively remove molybdenum, and the char is regenerated by passing a sodium hydroxide solution through it to remove most of the molybdenum. This molybdenum strip solution generally contains in excess of 500 ppm U3O8. If the char bed is selectively stripped of uranium first with an aqueous solution of pH less than about 5.5, the molybdenum subsequently stripped from the bed contains substantially less than 500 ppm U3O8

  14. Generation of methane from textile desizing liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opwis, Klaus; Mayer-Gall, Thomas; Schollmeyer, Eckhard [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V., Krefeld (Germany); Dammer, Christoph; Titscher, Tanja; Nickisch-Hartfiel, Anna [Hochschule Niederrhein, Frankenring, Krefeld (Germany); Gruen, Oliver; Spurk, Christoph [OeKOBiT GmbH, Foehren (Germany); Schloderer, Christine; Koeppe, Axel [Textilveredlung an der Wiese, Loerrach (Germany); Doerfler, Christian; Bachus, Herbert [CHT R. Beitlich GmbH, Bismarckstr, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    A new strategy for the biological transformation of sugar-containing wastewaters from the textile desizing process to biogas was developed. Here, industrial liquors were separated from the following washing step by squeezing the impregnated fabrics after desizing. These waters exhibit a chemical oxygen demand of 40 g/L and allow a direct use in microbial biogas reactors without further treatment or accumulation. After reaching balanced conditions, the microbes continuously produce biogas. Moreover, the chemical oxygen demand can be reduced up to 75%. This new technology seems to be practicable and even attractive for small- and medium-sized enterprises with an annual cotton production down to 2000 t. At this stage, a reliable eco-balance of the overall process is still pending. Further investigations will be carried out soon. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. 27 CFR 19.634 - Receipt and storage of liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 31.263. Liquor bottles, including those of less than 200 ml capacity, shall be stored in a safe... liquor bottles. 19.634 Section 19.634 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and...

  16. Nitrogen removal from the saline sludge liquor by electrochemical denitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Li, XY; Chan, KY; Xie, ZM

    2006-01-01

    Sludge liquor from the sludge dewatering process has a high ammonia content. In the present study, a lab-scale electrochemical (EC) system with a pair of Ti electrode plates was used for treating the sludge centrate liquor of digested wastewater sludge with a NH4 + - N content of around 500 mg/L. The sludge liquor had a high salinity due to seawater being used for toilet flushing in Hong Kong. The results show that the EC process is highly effective for denitrification of the saline sludge li...

  17. Pengaruh Total Solid Dan Total Alkali Aktif Pada Black Liqour (Lindi Hitam) Terhadap Kualitas Pulp Yang Dihasilkan Evaporator PT. Toba Pulp Lestari, Tbk Porsea

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, Rinto Pagabe

    2016-01-01

    Has made observations about the effect of a solid, solid total and total active alkali to black liquor in an effort to produce pulp that meets the quality standards in the cooking process in the evaporator unit, PT. Toba Pulp Lestari, Tbk Porsea. To obtain total solid and the desired total active alkali to black liquor can be arranged in the cooking process in the evaporator unit. Where more viscous black substance liquor cooker is better also the quality of the pulp produced by the evaporat...

  18. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Total Alkali Aktif Terhadap % Sulfiditas Dalam White Liquor Pada Proses Recaustisizing Di PT. Toba Pulp Lestari, Tbk Porsea

    OpenAIRE

    Sebul Manullang

    2009-01-01

    White Liquor adalah liquor yang diperoleh dari reaksi green liquor dengan CaO( kapur tohor), melalui proses recaustisizing yang terjadi pada caustisizer. White Liquor inilah yang akan digunakan sebagai bahan utama pemasak kayu pada unit digester. Sebelum White Liquor digunakan , perlu untuk mengontrol kualitas white liquor tersebut. Parameter yang dianalisa dalam white liquor adalah Total Aktif Alkali(TAA) dan Sulfiditas(S). Target Total Aktif Alkali yang diinginkan adalah 98 gpl – 108 gpl, s...

  19. Development of a auto-loading system for radioisotope liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A loading system with computer distant control for radioisotope liquor is developed. It's arm to avoid close operating to the radioactive in the radioisotope liquor. Microcontroller is used as control center, step motor and peristaltic pump as manipulator in this system. The product process is performed with real-time measurement and control. The system has many function including data storage, data query, printing, operator information management, et al. (authors)

  20. Will the Ban on Liquor Sales To Juveniles Be Effective?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Retailers are not allowed to sell alcohol to juveniles and signs advertising this must be clearly shown in supermarkets and liquor stores. This is according to Article 19 of the Regulations on Management of Alcohol Circulation, which was put into practice on January 1. The provision marks the second time in 2005 that the tightening up of liquor sales was written into the law. The first occasion was a provision in the Regulations on Retail Sales

  1. Computational Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  2. Simulating Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, G.; Schwarz, C.; Stiesch, G.; Otto, F.

    The content spans from simple thermodynamics of the combustion engine to complex models for the description of the air/fuel mixture, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation considering the engine periphery of petrol and diesel engines. Thus the emphasis of the book is on the simulation models and how they are applicable for the development of modern combustion engines. Computers can be used as the engineers testbench following the rules and recommendations described here.

  3. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  4. Microbial Community Composition Associated with Maotai Liquor Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hongxun; Liu, Xiu

    2016-06-01

    The solid-state fermentation state of Chinese Maotai liquor involves the interaction of several complex microbial communities leading to the generation of the most complex liquor fermentation system in the world and contributes to the unique flavor and aroma of the liquor. In this study, total DNA was extracted from 3 fermented grain samples (FG1, FG2, and FG3) and 12 environmental samples, including Daqu (DA1, DA2, DA3, and DA4), cellar mud (CS1, CS2, and CS3), soil (SL1 and SL2), air (A1 and A2), and sorghum (SH), and the 16S and 18S rRNA genes were amplified. The distribution of typical microorganisms in the samples was analyzed using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, while quantitative PCR amplification of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer genes was performed to estimate the microbial abundance present in each sample. The results indicated that Daqu was the primary source of bacteria, followed by the air, soil, and sorghum samples, while the majority of the fungi responsible for Maotai liquor fermentation were from Daqu and sorghum. Highest bacterial concentrations were found in fermented grains, followed by Daqu and sorghum, while the highest fungal concentrations were found in Daqu, followed by sorghum and an air sample from outside the liquor production area. The findings of this study may provide information regarding the mechanisms responsible for flavor development in Maotai liquor, and may be used to further optimize the traditional art of making liquor. PMID:27122124

  5. Combustion detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpi, R. L.; Nealy, J. E.; Grose, W. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A device has been developed for generating a rapid response signal upon the radiation-emitting combustion reaction of certain gases in order to provide a means for the detection and identification of such reaction and concurrently discriminate against spurious signals. This combustion might be the first stage of a coal mine explosion process, and thereby this device could provide a warning of the impending explosion in time to initiate quenching action. This device has the capability of distinguishing between the light emitted from a combustion reaction and the light emitted by miners' lamps, electric lamps, welding sparks or other spurious events so that the quenching mechanism is triggered only when an explosion-initiating combustion occurs.

  6. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Cassano; Carmela Conidi; René Ruby-Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total solub...

  7. Structural characterization of Kraft lignins from different spent cooking liquors by 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three Kraft lignins isolated from black liquors of several paper pulp mills of the North of Spain and Portugal were structurally characterized by using monodimensional (1H and 13C) and bidimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry. From the latter, 13C–1H heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) were employed. Lignins from black liquors are usually burned for power generation. Nevertheless, they could become high value added products within a biorefinery context. In that case, a good understanding of their structure is a prior step to transform them. From all the NMR techniques studied, HSQC has risen as the most powerful tool in lignin characterization. Kraft cooking conditions and the type of wood seem to be the main factors that determine the differences observed in the lignins. All the samples have shown an important decrease in the number of β–O–4′ linkages, due to the Kraft process, and resinol has become the most resistant linkage to the process. Moreover, all samples seem to be mainly linked to a one polysaccharide: xylan. Several parameters like S/G ratio, portion of phenolic and aliphatic hydroxyls, amount of aromatic protons and other structural aspects were also estimated. - Highlights: • Lignins from three Kraft spent liquors were obtained by acid precipitation. • Structural characterization of the dissolved lignins was performed by NMR. • Wood source and pulping conditions determine the lignin characteristics. • Kraft process implies cleavage of β–O–4 linkages and survival of resinol linkages. • Comparison of the samples would aid decisions on its future revalorization

  8. Application of Deuterium NMR Analysis for the Differentiation of Korean and Foreign Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, G.C.; Lee, S.G. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    The {sup 2}H NMR analysis was used to determine the relative deuterium contents at the position of methyl and methylene in ethyl alcohols. Four different liquors manufactured in Korea clearly showed different R values from those of foreign liquors. These R values for the Korean liquors could be used to distinguish a adulteration. (author). 10 refs., 1 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. 75 FR 62853 - Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Liquor Control Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... Liquor Control Ordinance of the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony. The enactment of this Ordinance allows the Wal-Mart Superstore to sell liquor on tribal lands, which will general millions of dollars in sales...

  10. 78 FR 15037 - Bishop Paiute Tribe-Liquor Control Ordinance No. 2012-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Bishop Paiute Tribe--Liquor Control Ordinance No. 2012-07 AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Liquor Control Ordinance No... consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the Bishop Paiute Tribe. The land is trust land and...

  11. 77 FR 39731 - Swinomish Indian Tribal Community-Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Swinomish Indian Tribal Community--Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization... publishes Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and License Code for the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor...

  12. 27 CFR 19.773 - Daily record of wholesale liquor dealer and taxpaid storeroom operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquor dealer and taxpaid storeroom operations. 19.773 Section 19.773 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Other Records § 19.773 Daily record of wholesale liquor dealer and...

  13. 77 FR 74025 - Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria-Liquor Control Statute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria--Liquor Control Statute AGENCY: Bureau of... Rancheria--Liquor Control Statute (Ordinance). The Ordinance regulates and controls the sale, consumption and possession of liquor within the Graton Rancheria's Indian country. This Ordinance will...

  14. 76 FR 4366 - Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... extent permitted by law shall preempt any tax imposed on such liquor sales by the State of California... Bureau of Indian Affairs Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control Law AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes Liquor Control Law No. LB-06-08 of the...

  15. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline... where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  16. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  17. LAND TREATMENT FIELD STUDIES. VOLUME 6. INORGANIC PICKLING LIQUOR WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment site for the management of an inorganic pickling liquor waste. The waste is spread on the site as a 20% solids sludge. Sulfate and iron are known to be major waste constituents. The organi...

  18. 75 FR 75694 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... notice FR Doc. 2010-26695, beginning on page 65373 in the issue of October 22, 2010, make the following... was published in the Federal Register on November 11, 1953 (18 FR 7178 (1953). This Ordinance further... Bureau of Indian Affairs Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance Correction AGENCY: Bureau of...

  19. Clinical value of 111/u-DTPA liquor fistula diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So far, there have been only a few publications on liquor fistula diagnosis using 111In-DTPA. Studies in this field are still in the experimental stage, and a standard method is not available. In consequence, the author's findings cannot be directly compared with other publications. (orig./MG)

  20. Anaerobic biodegradation of spent sulphite liquor in a UASB reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantsch, T.G.; Angelidaki, Irini; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye;

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of fermented spent sulphite liquor, SSL, which is produced during the manufacture of sulphite pulp, was investigated. SSL contains a high concentration of lignin products in addition to hemicellulose and has a very high COD load (173 g COD l1). Batch experiments with...

  1. Novel maqui liquor using traditional pacharán processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Calín-Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Diego A; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-04-15

    Pacharán is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.), that has been historically produced in Navarra (Northern Spain). On the other hand, Chilean native maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) now under increasing study because of its potential health benefits, is not widely known. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry (MBL), characterising its bioactive and volatile composition, antioxidant capacity, sensory quality, and compare it to traditional pacharán (SBP). The results showed that MBL had attractive colour, exhibited higher anthocyanin content and retention during maceration, higher antioxidant capacity, presented similar aroma profile and showed optimal sensory characteristics. Therefore, MBL can be an acceptable new liquor, with better quality characteristics and higher anthocyanin content and retention than pacharán, as well as with great scores in sensory analysis and consumer acceptance, offering a new and tasty beverage for future liquor manufacturing. PMID:25466148

  2. 75 FR 65373 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... on November 11, 1953 (18 FR 7178 (1953)). This amendment further regulates and controls the sale... (1983), the Secretary of the Interior shall certify and publish in the Federal Register notice of... and porter. 1.1.7. ``Package'' means any container or receptacle used for holding liquor....

  3. Bubble Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  4. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance......-styled references to, among other things, the culturally and ideologically effervescent interwar-period have made me curious as to what alternative possibilities – for instance ‘emancipation’ – a comparative analysis might disclose concerning the visual rhetoric of black. Thus, in conclusion, it is briefly...

  5. Combustion apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, S.; Mitsudomi, H.

    1984-04-17

    A new burner provides the high temperatures required in the manufacture of high-grade china and artificial jewels by using air enriched with oxygen through an oxygen permselective membrane. Operators can vary the combustion air quantity and oxygen content as needed. Three flow paths arranged coaxially from a radially inner position to outside the burner supply it with the fuel, oxygen-enriched air, and combustion air. Each line is equipped with a control valve to allow variation in the furnace's heating power.

  6. 78 FR 4431 - Santee Sioux Nation-Title XXI-Alcohol, Chapter 1.-Santee Sioux Nation Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... certify and publish in the Federal Register notice of adopted liquor ordinances for the purpose of... devoted to sale of liquor. 6. ``Malt Liquor'' means beer, strong beer, ale, stout and porter. 7. ``Nation...: 1. To publish and enforce rules and regulations governing liquor on the Reservation; 2. To...

  7. Turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  8. Penentuan Konsentrasi Total Alkali Aktif dan Sulfiditas dalam White Liquor pada Proses Recausticizing PT. Toba Pulp Lestari, Tbk Porsea

    OpenAIRE

    Juliani, Eva

    2015-01-01

    White Liquor is liquor which is derived from green liquor with CaO (burnt lime), by recaustisizing process in caustisizer. This white liquor will use as wood cooking in digester unit. Before white liquor used, require to control the quality of white liquor. Parameter which analysis in white liquor is total active alkali (TAA), and Sulfidity (%). Total goals of active alkali wanted is 95 g/l- 110 g/l,white goals of sulfidity is 20 %-29%. From this perception have result that total active alkal...

  9. Studies on synthesis of alumina nanopowder from synthetic Bayer liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedure for synthesis of alumina nanopowder from Bayer liquor (synthetic sodium aluminate solution) is investigated. Cooling, ageing and then addition of 3 ml/l Tiron (1,2-dihydroxy-3,5-benzene disulfonic acid disodium salt) to the supersaturated liquor affect purity and fineness of the nanopowder product. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analyses indicate that purity of the alumina nanopowder increases with the aging time. Experimental observations show that highly pure alumina nanopowders could be produced by direct calcination of cold gelatinous sodium aluminate solution followed by careful washing at a Tiron concentration of 3 ml/l NaOH

  10. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  11. Marketing Strategy of Imported Beers before Liquor Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sinee Sankrusme

    2012-01-01

    These are the case study analysis of imported beer companies: the C.V.S Syndicate Company and the TIS Worldwide Marketing (1997) Company. The purpose of the study is to analyze marketing strategy and marketing mix of imported beers before liquor liberalization in 2000. The qualitative and descriptive approaches to the case study analysis used standard research methodology. The results of the study indicated (1) Marketing strategy depended on the economic situation, (2) The company’s marketing...

  12. Utilization of maltose enriched spent grains liquor for xanthan production

    OpenAIRE

    Dodić Jelena M.; Vučurović Damjan G.; Grahovac Jovana A.; Dodić Siniša N.; Popov Stevan D.; Jokić Aleksandar I.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris under aerobic conditions on spent grains liquor based cultivation media containing four different amounts of maltose. All four experiments were performed simultaneously, so that all stages of the biotechnological process would be carried out under identical conditions. In addition to the cultivation parameters (pH value, contents of dissolved oxygen, reducing sugars and assimilable nitrogen, turbidity and trickling ...

  13. PYROLIGNEOUS LIQUOR PRODUCED FROM ACACIA MEARNSII DE WILD WOOD UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Furtado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mearnsii de Wild (black wattle is one of the most important trees planted in Southern Brazil for tannin extraction and charcoal production. The pyrolysis of the black wattle wood used for obtaining charcoal is performed in brick ovens, with the gas fraction being sent directly into the environment. The present study examines the condensable compounds present in the liquor produced from black wattle wood at different thermal degradation conditions, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Branches of black wattle were thermally degraded at controlled ambient and temperature conditions. Overall, a higher variety of compounds were obtained under atmospheric air pressure than under synthetic air pressure. Most of the tentatively identified compounds, such as carboxylic acids, phenols, aldehydes, and low molecular mass lignin fragments, such as guayacol, syringol, and eugenol, were products of lignin thermoconversion. Substituted aromatic compounds, such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and 2-methoxy-4-propeny-phenol, were also identified. At temperatures above 200 ºC, furan, 2-acetylfuran, methyl-2-furoate, and furfural, amongst others, were identified as polysaccharide derivatives from cellulose and hemicellulose depolymerization. This study evidences the need for adequate management of the condensable by-products of charcoal production, both for economic reasons and for controlling their potential environmental impact.

  14. Disturbances of the liquor circulation: differential diagnosis of the hydrocephalus by radionuclide scintigraphy, pneumoencephalography and determination of the liquor pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a special case of communicating hydrocephalus with disturbed resorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Because of the therapeutic consequences, NPH must be clearly differentiated from cerebral atrophy with compensatory increase of the liquor and from hydrocephalus with well-balanced cerebrospinal fluid. NPH is indicated by: excessive pressure rise after artificial volume load on the liquor space in spinal infusion tests; in the X-ray picture, an internal hydrocephalus; an acute-angled corpus callosum, and a progressive ventricular enlargement following in the pneumoencephalography; ventricular reflux with stasis in radionuclide cisternography. In some limiting cases, the diagnosis can be facilitated by a quantitative functional study of the dynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid with the aid of radionuclides. The biological half-life of 131I albumin is doubled when the resorption of the cerebrospinal fluid is disturbed. (orig.)

  15. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S1 x S2. We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  16. Rheological characterization of mixed liquor in a submerged membrane bioreactor: Interest for process management

    OpenAIRE

    Van Kaam, Romuald; Anne-Archard, Dominique; Alliet-Gaubert, Marion; Albasi, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Rheological analyses of a submerged membrane bioreactor mixed liquor were performed in the aim of characterizing the mixed liquor present in the bioreactor and thus proposing a process management. These analyses pointed out that the mixed liquor was characterized by its viscoplastic property, which leads to a possible restructuring ability when a shear stress lower than the yield stress is applied. As the shear stress in the bioreactor is essentially generated by coarse bubbles, specific expe...

  17. The histogram as basis for the quantification of the intracranial liquor compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports about a CT method for the quantification of intracranial liquor components under the consideration of the computer-tomographically established histogram curve. After determining the threshold value between liquor and the other density values, the area portion is put as integral of the density interval for liquor in relation to the integral of the summation curve. Here a percentage indication of the liquor-dense portions referred to the overall intracranial space in the individual layer is possible. This method can be realized clinically within a relatively short period and provides in single examinations and in follow-up examinations of cerebro-atrophic processes reliable findings. (orig.)

  18. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  19. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m²·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m²·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  20. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids, whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP. Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar, coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  1. Uranium recovery from acid leach liquors: Ix or Sx?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various technologies for uranium recovery from sulphuric acid leach solutions were compared. Although the main consideration was the economics (Capex, recovery and Opex) of the various technologies and associated unit operations, other factors, such as flexibility, reliability, ease of operation, fire risk, stability with regards to feed flow variations, and feed solids content, would also need to be considered in the overall analysis. The design basis used for the comparison was a production rate or 200 kg/h U3O8 over a solution concentration range of 40 to 1500 mg/L U3O8. The technologies to be compared included Resin-in-pulp (RIP), Fixed-bed Ion Exchange (FBIX), Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX, e.g. NIMCIX), and Solvent Extraction (Sx) using Bateman Pulsed Columns (BPC) and Bateman Settlers. Countercurrent Decantation (CCD) and clarification would be required for the Sx and FBIX technologies. The preliminary economic evaluation indicated that a flowsheet, comprising RIP for bulk uranium extraction and upgrade, followed by Sx, employing the BPC for purification of the RIP eluate stream, was the most economic option at leach liquor concentrations below 900 mg/L. Above 900 mg/L the economic evaluation suggested that CCDs followed by Sx in the BPC was the most economical processing option. For applications where the ore is abrasive and not amenable to RIP, due to the rate of resin consumption, Paste Thickeners to remove the bulk of the solids, followed by RIP, was found to be the most economic processing option at leach liquor concentrations below 200 mg/L. However, for leach liquor concentrations above 200 mg/L, a CCD-circuit followed by Sx using BPC was again the most economic favourable route

  2. Preparation of nuclear grade uranium oxide from Jaduguda leach liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been conducted on pilot plant scale for solvent extraction of uranium from sulphuric acid leach liquor for Jaduguda uranium ore using Alamine-336 in kerosene as extractant and Isodecanol as modifier. A solvent extraction set up of 10 litre/min. capacity, having 4 stages each for extraction and stripping, was used. The uranium was recovered by stripping with 1M sodium chloride solution. The MDU precipitated from strip solution contained 85% U3O8. Since NFC has planned to set up its plant at Turamdih and a proposal was also made to integrate the process flow sheet of UCIL and NFC, it was decided to have a detailed studies on the production of nuclear grade uranium oxide from leach liquor. The work was done in line with the eluex process adopting one more stage of solvent extraction, i.e. after leaching in sulphuric acid and filtration, the clarified solution at pH of about 2 was processed through ion exchange system for extraction of uranium. The uranium was eluted with sulphuric acid. From the eluted solution uranium was again extracted with Alamine-336 in kerosene. Isodecanol was used as modifier. The stripping was done with ammonium nitrate-nitric acid, which is not a common practice. From the nitrate solution uranium was again extracted with TBP in kerosene and stripped with acidified water. From this strip solution ammonium diuranate was precipitated and ignited to uranium oxide. A parallel work was also conducted by extracting uranium directly from leach liquor by Alamine-336 and processing further as mentioned above. In both the cases, the uranium oxide produced contained the same percentage (99.8%) of U3O8. (author). 7 refs

  3. Extraction-atomic-absorption determination of vanadium in salt liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extraction-atomic-absorption method to determine 0.1-0.8 mg/l vanadium in salt liquors containing 300 g/l NaCl is developed. To separate the basis extraction concentrating with hydroxyquinoline solution in chloroform with subsequent reextraction of vanadium at pH 9.4 is used. Results of vanadium determination in the salt liquer are as follows: vanadium determined x=0.22 mg/l, n=10, ssub(x)=0.045 mg/l, confidence range (at α=0.95)-(0.22+-0.03) mg/l, relative standard deviation is 0.20

  4. Oxidizing attack process of uranium ore by a carbonated liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous process for digesting a uraniferous ore by oxidation with a recycling aqueous liquor containing alkaline carbonates and bicarbonates in solution as well as uranium in a concentration close to its solubility limit at digestion temperature, and of recuperation of the precipitated uranium within the solid phase remaining after digestion. The digestion is carried out by spraying oxygen into the hot reactional medium in order not only to permit oxidation of the uranium and its solubilization but also to ensure that the sulphides of impurities and organic substances present in the ore are oxidized

  5. Removal of vat and disperse dyes from residual pad liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Vera; Ojstršek, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of three wastewater treatment techniques, coagulation/flocculation, adsorption and ultrafiltration, has been studied for the removal of vat and disperse dyes from residual pad liquors. Three inorganic coagulants Al2(SO4)3 18H2O, FeSO4 7H2O, FeCl3 6H2O and commercial cationic flocculant, as individuals and in combination, were tested for the coagulation/flocculation methods. Granular activated carbon was used as an adsorbent in the adsorption technique. Ultrafiltration was perfo...

  6. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  7. THE LIGNIN CONTENT IN BLACK LIQUID OF STRAW AS-AQ BY ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaiqiangShi; BingyueLiu; XingqiangLi; LongquanXu; BeihaiHe

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of lignin content in black liquid of straw AS-AQ by ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV) is discussed in this paper. Different dilution multiple and contrast solutions have an effect on the measured results of the lignin content by UV. The calculation method for the absorption coefficient and thes canning spectrum property of liquor acidified by SO are introduced in this paper.

  8. 78 FR 54670 - Miami Tribe of Oklahoma-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... container or receptacle used for holding liquor. (j) Public Place. Includes state or county or tribal or... Ordinance, on Miami Tribe of Oklahoma Trust Land, and sells it, whether in the original container or not... 1. Any room, house, building, vehicle, structure, or other place where liquor or alcoholic...

  9. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology.

  10. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ...This notice publishes the Secretary's certification of the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun Lake) Liquor Control Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale, and consumption of liquor within the tribal lands. The tribal lands are located in Indian Country and this Ordinance allows for possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within their......

  11. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  12. Radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of pathology of the liquor system in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide cisternograhy (RCG) was performed in 78 children with different forms of hydrocephaus: external, internal (ventricular) and obstructive. Radiological signs were determined by spatial-time distribution of a radiopharmaceutical over the liquor pathways. Morphological and liquorodynamic disorders (liquor circulation and resorption disorders) served as a basis for the differentiation of hydrocephalus forms

  13. 75 FR 51102 - Liquor Ordinance of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    .... Correction In the Federal Register of July 27, 2010, in FR Doc. 2010-18319, on page 44011, in the first and... Bureau of Indian Affairs Liquor Ordinance of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes; Correction AGENCY: Bureau... published a document in the Federal Register of July 27, 2010, concerning the Liquor Ordinance of...

  14. Male Readership Differences in Liquor Magazine Ads Employing Nonsensical and Sexual Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined the attention getting value of nonsensical and sexual humor used in liquor advertisements to determine if one was more effective than the other in attracting male magazine readers. Thirty-two Starch-scored liquor ads taken from 1976 and 1977 issues of "Time,""Newsweek," and "Sports Illustrated" were analyzed by three male readers.…

  15. Certification Becomes Important for the I Quality; and Safety Supervision of the Chinese Liquor Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The end of 2007, over 200 unit products of more than 80 Chinese firms have passed the quality grade certification for liquor products. These products involve distilled spirits, beer, wine, yellow wine, fruit syrup wine and others, and cover over 80% of the national top-branded liquor products.

  16. 27 CFR 31.61 - Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouse receipts. 31.61 Section 31.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.61 Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts. A single sale of distilled spirits, wines, or beer, or a single sale of one or more warehouse receipts...

  17. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. 31.75 Section 31.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Places Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in...

  18. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.B.; Cai, X.L.; Chen, C.H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ye, X.C., E-mail: yexuchu@njtech.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  19. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...This notice publishes the amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Reservation. The land is trust land and this Ordinance allows for the possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of......

  20. 76 FR 77549 - Lummi Nation-Title 20-Code of Laws-Liquor Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Lummi Nation--Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...--Code of Laws--Liquor Code. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of... this Code allows for the possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within the Lummi...

  1. A prospective clinical study of feto-maternal outcome in pregnancies with abnormal liquor volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutwa J. Chavda

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: A good clinical examination can pick up most subjects of abnormal liquor volume. Abnormal liquor volumes are associated with increased maternal morbidity and adverse perinatal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 181-184

  2. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production

  3. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  4. SPENT SULPHITE LIQUOR FOR CULTIVATION OF AN EDIBLE RHIZOPUS SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Ferreira,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Spent sulphite liquor, the major byproduct from the sulphite pulp production process, was diluted to 50% and used for production of an edible zygomycete Rhizopus sp. The focus was on production, yield, and composition of the fungal biomass composition. The fungus grew well at 20 to 40°C, but 32°C was found to be preferable compared to 20 and 40°C in terms of biomass production and yield (maximum of 0.16 g/g sugars, protein content (0.50-0.60 g/g, alkali-insoluble material (AIM (ca 0.15 g/g, and glucosamine content (up to 0.30 g/g of AIM. During cultivation in a pilot airlift bioreactor, the yield increased as aeration was raised from 0.15 to 1.0 vvm, indicating a high demand for oxygen. After cultivation at 1.0 vvm for 84 h, high yield and production of biomass (up to 0.34 g/g sugars, protein (0.30-0.50 g/g, lipids (0.02-0.07 g/g, AIM (0.16-0.28 g/g, and glucosamine (0.22-0.32 g/g AIM were obtained. The fungal biomass produced from spent sulphite liquor is presently being tested as a replacement for fishmeal in feed for fish aquaculture and seems to be a potential source of nutrients and for production of glucosamine.

  5. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Yao; Bin Yi; Caihong Shen; Fei Tao; Yumin Liu; Zhixin Lin; Ping Xu

    2015-01-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, t...

  6. Kinetics and compensation effects during steam gasification of Fujian anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Ju; Zhang Ji-yu; Zhong Xue-qing [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China). Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-08-15

    Catalytic steam gasification kinetics of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst was investigated in an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analyzer under ambient pressure. Coal conversions versus reaction time with different viscose liquor concentrations (0-12% NaOH) were measured at the temperature range from 850 to 950{sup o}C. The research shows that the viscose liquor can greatly improve the gasification rate and carbon conversion. The Loading Saturation Level (LSL) of the viscose liquor within the experimental conditions was also determined. The catalytic steam gasification reaction can be well fitted by a shrinking-core model (SCM) and the reaction rate constants are obtained. The kinetic analysis indicates that the catalytic gasification exhibits a prominent compensation effect between the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor. The kinetic equation including the compensation effects for the catalytic steam gasification of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst is presented. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. The relationship between black carbon concentration and black smoke: A more general approach

    OpenAIRE

    Heal, Mathew R.; Quincey, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The black carbon (BC) component of ambient particulate matter is an important marker for combustion sources and for its impact on human health and radiative forcing. Extensive data archives exist for the black smoke metric, the historic measure of ambient particle darkness. An expression presented in earlier publications (Quincey, 2007; Quincey et al., 2011) for estimating BC concentrations from traditional black smoke measurements is shown to have limitations that can be addressed by using a...

  8. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control. 430.03 Section 430... practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control... Liquor, Soap, and Turpentine Service: Any process vessel, storage tank, pumping system, evaporator,...

  9. 78 FR 15970 - Cedarville Rancheria-Liquor Licensing Ordinance of the Cedarville Rancheria, Ordinance No. 2012-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Cedarville Rancheria--Liquor Licensing Ordinance of the Cedarville Rancheria... publishes the Liquor Licensing Ordinance of the Cedarville Rancheria, Ordinance No. 2012-05. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of...

  10. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  11. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  12. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  13. Global cloud condensation nuclei influenced by carbonaceous combustion aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.; Pöschl, U.; Rap, A.; Forster, P. M.

    2011-09-01

    Black carbon in carbonaceous combustion aerosol warms the climate by absorbing solar radiation, meaning reductions in black carbon emissions are often perceived as an attractive global warming mitigation option. However, carbonaceous combustion aerosol can also act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) so they also cool the climate by increasing cloud albedo. The net radiative effect of carbonaceous combustion aerosol is uncertain because their contribution to CCN has not been evaluated on the global scale. By combining extensive observations of CCN concentrations with the GLOMAP global aerosol model, we find that the model is biased low (normalised mean bias = -77 %) unless carbonaceous combustion aerosol act as CCN. We show that carbonaceous combustion aerosol accounts for more than half (52-64 %) of global CCN with the range due to uncertainty in the emitted size distribution of carbonaceous combustion particles. The model predicts that wildfire and pollution (fossil fuel and biofuel) carbonaceous combustion aerosol causes a global mean cloud albedo aerosol indirect effect of -0.34 W m-2, with stronger cooling if we assume smaller particle emission size. We calculate that carbonaceous combustion aerosol from pollution sources cause a global mean aerosol indirect effect of -0.23 W m-2. The small size of carbonaceous combustion particles from fossil fuel sources means that whilst pollution sources account for only one-third of the emitted mass they cause two-thirds of the cloud albedo aerosol indirect effect that is due to carbonaceous combustion aerosol. This cooling effect must be accounted for, along with other cloud effects not studied here, to ensure that black carbon emissions controls that reduce the high number concentrations of fossil fuel particles have the desired net effect on climate.

  14. Second law comparison of oxy-fuel combustion and post-combustion carbon dioxide separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To define 2nd law efficiency targets for novel separation technologies, a simplified model of a power plant with two forms of CO2 capture was developed. In this investigation, oxy-fuel combustion and post-combustion CO2 separation were compared on an exergetic basis. Using exergy balances and black-box models of power plant components, multiple scenarios were run to determine the impact of plant configuration and separation unit efficiency on overall plant performance. Second law efficiency values from the literature were used to set the baseline performance of various CO2 separation configurations. Assumed advances in 2nd law efficiency were used to determine the potential for overall system performance improvement. It was found that the 2nd law efficiency of air separation must reach a critical value before the thermodynamics of oxy-fuel combustion become favorable. Changes in operating equivalence ratio significantly move the tipping-point between post-combustion and oxy-fuel strategies

  15. Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owais, Ashour [Suez Canal Univ., Suez (Egypt). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.

    2012-11-15

    Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor obtained from secondary lead slag leached in hydrochloric acid is the main aim of this work. The resulted lead chloride solution (leachate) containing 2.2 wt.-% Pb and 1.24 wt.-% HCl was electrowon in an electrolytic cell containing one graphite plate as inert anode and two lead sheets as starting permanent cathodes. Different electrolysis parameters such as current density, electrolyte temperature and electrolyte stirring rate were studied. As indicated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses, fine and pure (100 % Pb) powders with a dispersed and needle-like shape were formed with cathodic current efficiency up to 67.9 % and electrical energy demand ranges from 0.809 to 4.998 kWh/kg Pb with productivity up to 2.63 g/Ah. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of Algorithms for an Electronic Nose in Identifying Liquors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-biao Shi; Tao Yu; Qun Zhao; Yang Li; Yu-bin Lan

    2008-01-01

    When the electronic nose is used to identify different varieties of distilled liquors, the pattern recognition algorithm is chosen on the basis of the experience, which lacks the guiding principle. In this research, the different brands of distilled spirits were identified using the pattern recognition algorithms (principal component analysis and the artificial neural network). The recognition rates of different algorithms were compared. The recognition rate of the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) is the highest. Owing to the slow convergence speed of the BPNN, it tends easily to get into a local minimum. A chaotic BPNN was tried in order to overcome the disadvantage of the BPNN. The convergence speed of the chaotic BPNN is 75.5 times faster than that of the BPNN.

  17. ON-SITE PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM KRAFT BLACK LIQUOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot plant was designed and constructed to produce char via the St. Regis hydropyrolysis kraft chemical recovery process and to produce activated carbon from the char. This report includes discussion of laboratory and prepilot work, the pilot plant, and presents operating resu...

  18. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-12-31

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench

  19. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-06-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench

  20. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Feng; Yi, Bin; Shen, Caihong; Tao, Fei; Liu, Yumin; Lin, Zhixin; Xu, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, thus demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed method over those reported in previous studies. A total of 320 compounds were common to all 18 types of Luzhoulaojiao liquor studied here, and 13 abundant and potentially bioactive compounds were further quantified. The results indicated that the high-performance method presented here is well suited for the detection and identification of compounds in liquors. This study also contributes to enriching our knowledge of the contents of Chinese liquors.

  1. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  2. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretic to increase urine flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other products, black tea is used for weight loss. In foods, ...

  3. THE PRODUCTION OF ORANGE PRESS LIQUOR SPIRIT: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    J. O. FERREIRA; H. ROÇAFA JUNIOR; J. B. FARIA

    2008-01-01

    The orange juice industry produces, at the end of the residue extraction, a by-product called orange press liquor. Considering its high content of soluble solids and the large volume of the liquor produced in Brazilian orange juice plants, an earlier study was conducted on the technical viability of using orange press liquor as raw material for a new distilled bevera...

  4. State-Specific Liquor Excise Taxes and Retail Prices in Eight U.S. States, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B.; Williams, Rebecca S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in eight states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. We made 6,042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, we examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. We find that excis...

  5. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  6. State-specific liquor excise taxes and retail prices in 8 US states, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B; Williams, Rebecca S; Jernigan, David H

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in 8 states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. The authors made 6042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, the authors examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. The authors find that excise taxes do increase the price of alcohol, but states are not taking advantage of this opportunity to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24159914

  7. Impacts of Combustion Conditions and Photochemical Processing on the Light Absorption of Biomass Combustion Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, J; Eriksson, A C; Nielsen, I Elbæk; Malmborg, V Berg; Ahlberg, E; Andersen, C; Lindgren, R; Nyström, R; Nordin, E Z; Brune, W H; Svenningsson, B; Swietlicki, E; Boman, C; Pagels, J H

    2015-12-15

    The aim was to identify relationships between combustion conditions, particle characteristics, and optical properties of fresh and photochemically processed emissions from biomass combustion. The combustion conditions included nominal and high burn rate operation and individual combustion phases from a conventional wood stove. Low temperature pyrolysis upon fuel addition resulted in "tar-ball" type particles dominated by organic aerosol with an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 2.5-2.7 and estimated Brown Carbon contributions of 50-70% to absorption at the climate relevant aethalometer-wavelength (520 nm). High temperature combustion during the intermediate (flaming) phase was dominated by soot agglomerates with AAE 1.0-1.2 and 85-100% of absorption at 520 nm attributed to Black Carbon. Intense photochemical processing of high burn rate flaming combustion emissions in an oxidation flow reactor led to strong formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol, with no or weak absorption. PM1 mass emission factors (mg/kg) of fresh emissions were about an order of magnitude higher for low temperature pyrolysis compared to high temperature combustion. However, emission factors describing the absorption cross section emitted per kg of fuel consumed (m(2)/kg) were of similar magnitude at 520 nm for the diverse combustion conditions investigated in this study. These results provide a link between biomass combustion conditions, emitted particle types, and their optical properties in fresh and processed plumes which can be of value for source apportionment and balanced mitigation of biomass combustion emissions from a climate and health perspective. PMID:26561964

  8. Application of Mechanical Vapour Recompression (MVR) in Pulping Waste Liquor Evaporation%机械蒸汽再压缩(MVR)技术在制浆废液蒸发中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云松; 胡海军; 张丹

    2013-01-01

    以制浆废液为研究对象,提出了机械蒸汽再压缩(MVR)技术与多效蒸发相结合的组合蒸发工艺,并以化学浆黑液及化机浆废水的蒸发为例,比较了组合蒸发与多效蒸发两种工艺.%This paper studies the evaporation technique of pulping waste liquor, and puts forward a new evaporation process which combines mechanical vapour recompression (MVR) and multi-effect evaporation technology. With the evaporation of chemical pulping black liquor & APMP effluent as examples, the two process of combined evaporation and multi-effect evaporation are compared.

  9. Artificial neural network based modelling of internal combustion engine performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boruah, Dibakor; Thakur, Pintu Kumar; Baruah, Dipal

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to quantify the applicability of artificial neural network as a black-box model for internal combustion engine performance. In consequence, an artificial neural network (ANN) based model for a four cylinder, four stroke internal combustion diesel engine has been developed on the basis of specific input and output factors, which have been taken from experimental readings for different load and engine speed circumstances. The input parameters that have been used to create...

  10. Properties of Combustion Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    New series of reports: First report lists data from combustion of ASTM Jet A fuel and dry air; second report presents tables and figures for combustion-gas properties of natural-gas fuel and dry air, and equivalent ratios.

  11. Combustion of Fractal Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Sotolongo, Oscar; Lopez, Enrique

    1994-01-01

    The advantages of introducing a fractal viewpoint in the field of combustion is emphasized. It is shown that the condition for perfect combustion of a collection of drops is the self-similarity of the distribution.

  12. Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  13. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  14. Pengaruh Strenght White Liquor Terhadap Kappa Number Pada Proses Pemasakan Di Digester Unit Fiber Line Di PT. Toba Pulp Lestari, TbK-Sosorladang

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, Yenni Sugiarti

    2011-01-01

    White liquor is the cooking liquid used in the cooking process at digester in PT, Toba Pulp Lestari. Strenght white liquor greatly affect the delignification process of lignin removal process set fort in the numbers of kappa. Hight strenght white liquor, lower of kappa number and lower strenght white liquor, more difficult to eliminate the lignin. Strenght white liquor optimal analysis to each the kappa number target is 105,7 g/l.

  15. Liquor Law Liability on the College Campus: When Are We Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Steven M.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews legislation and court litigation dealing with liquor law liability on the college campus and presents some risk prevention recommendations for administrators, including becoming familiar with the law and reviewing student life policies that pertain to drinking. (JAC)

  16. LIQUOR AND BEVERAGE CONSUMPTION IN CHINA:A CENSORED DEMAND SYSTEM APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Fang, Cheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper estimated the Liquor and Beverage Consumption based on a Chinese survey data. The results showed that beer consumption has been relatively stable during the past 10 years. However, there exists large potential wine market in china.

  17. Stress Analysis and Evaluation of Piping System in Uranium Liquor Critical Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The piplines of the piping system in the uranium liquor critical facility are very thin, so the piping rigidity is bad, the measuring cylinders piping system (Fig. 1) connects the vessel the pump and the rigid

  18. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  19. 75 FR 23289 - Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... members shall not accept gratuity, compensation, or other things of value from any Liquor producer..., but not limited to, a determination that the applicant is of good character and reputation and...

  20. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth T...

  1. Study of Airing Way of Fermented Grain in Brewing of Luzhou-flavor Liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Long; Ying-ying Ma; Hui-bo Luo; Zong-hua Ao; Jian-gang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Effects of different airing way of fermented grains on the physical and chemical indicators, uniformity, of unfermented grain and pits fermentation of Luzhou-flavor liquor were studied in this study. The results indicated that as the way of mechanization airing, the machine airing way absolutely more meets the technology demand on the production of Luzhou-flavor liquor than the airing on-field and airing on-bed. Furthermore, it not only benefits for the stability and uniformity of fermented g...

  2. Pubs in Public Life: A Place for Liquor Spaces in the City of Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Vancouver liquor licensing bylaws has been described by members of the media, industry, government and general public as overly restrictive, especially in the areas of hours ofservice, geographical distribution and the cultural diversity ofpublic liquor spaces. According to the City of Vancouver, the objective of city stewardship is to provide for the social, economic and physical well-being of citizens. A consultation of both academic research and the Vancouver community suggests that public...

  3. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. 11.6 Section 11.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. (a)...

  4. A prospective clinical study of feto-maternal outcome in pregnancies with abnormal liquor volume

    OpenAIRE

    Rutwa J. Chavda; Hardev B. Saini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evaluating feto-maternal outcome in pregnancies with abnormal liquor volume. Methods: 200 pregnant subjects between 20 and 42 weeks of gestation, who were clinically suspected to have an abnormal amniotic fluid volume (oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios) were subjected to ultrasonographic (USG) assessment of amniotic fluid index. The subjects were closely monitored during pregnancy, labour and puerperium. Results: Ultrasonically, abnormal liquor volume was confirmed in 90-93...

  5. Computed tomographic volumetry of cerebral liquor by semiautomatic contour recognition and gray value histogram analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program (VAC, Siemens) using selfmade, anthropomorphous phantomas to measure semiautomatically the volume of the cerebral liquor in CT scans of the whole skull was tested. Cerebral tissue was simulated by ellipsoid bodies made from Agar and Nal which were placed in a human skull. Volumes of the ventricular and subarachnoidal liquor could be defined arbitrarily. A correlation coefficient of r>=0.9 using a slice thickness of 1-5 mm was found (thickness 8 mm: r=0.75). The volume of the cerebral liquor was underestimated by 25-68%. Separate measurements of the ventricular and subarachnoidal liquor spaces showed a high accuracy of the measurements done in the ventricles (r=0.997, y=0.996x-1). The volume of the subarachnoidal liquor was not detected completely due to partial volume effects which were seen especially in the basal and apical scans. The program VAC is useful for the semiautomatic measurement of the volume of the ventricles. The assessment of the subarachnoidal liquor is limited to semiquantitative results. (orig./MG)

  6. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cassano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS content of 10 g·100 g−1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF up to 32 g TSS 100 g−1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g−1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g−1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF. The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

  7. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenchley, D. L.; Bomelburg, H. J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  8. The transport of plutonium nitrate liquor in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PFR fuel cycle reasons for plutonium nitrate liquor transport are discussed, identifying the pre 1980 'one litre' bottle associated with nuclear R and D activities and then the 250 litre PUNIT transport container to support the PFR fuel cycle. The PUNIT vessel design is discussed, addressing, in particular, the need for clean filling and criticality design features together with the identification of the IAEA transport regulations criteria and the late 1970s testing programme -the full scale drop tests and the model fire tests. Radiolysis is discussed together with the need for inert gas padding. The filling facility and operation are then outlined together with the fissile material accountancy requirements. The shipments and emergency arrangements are then described drawing attention to time and weather constraints. The risk assessment is discussed, together with reference to the Competent Authority (DoT) 'authorisation' and any constraints. A history of the amount of material transferred is then given - relating that to the reprocessing plant operations since 1980. The most satisfactory performance over 12 years is noted. (author)

  9. Anaerobic biodegradation of spent sulphite liquor in a UASB reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantsch, T.G.; Angelidaki, Irini; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye;

    2002-01-01

    with diluted SSL and pretreated SSL indicated a potential of 12–22 l methane per litre SSL, which corresponds to 0.13–0.22 l methane ðg VSÞ1 and COD removal of up to 37%. COD removal in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB, reactor ranged from10% to 31% at an organic loading rate, OLR, of 10–51 g...... ðl dÞ1 and hydraulic retention time from 3.7 to 1.5 days. The biogas productivity was 3 l ðlreactor dÞ1, with a yield of 0.05 l gas ðg VSÞ1. These results suggest that anaerobic digestion in UASB reactors may provide a new alternative for the treatment of SSL to other treatment strategies......Anaerobic biodegradation of fermented spent sulphite liquor, SSL, which is produced during the manufacture of sulphite pulp, was investigated. SSL contains a high concentration of lignin products in addition to hemicellulose and has a very high COD load (173 g COD l1). Batch experiments...

  10. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. PMID:27262718

  11. Fine crystallization purification of mother liquors for the growth of α-LiIO3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems encountered in the additional purification of mother liquors and the possibility of optimizing this process, using mother liquor for the crystal growth of lithium iodate, α-LiIO3, as a model system, are reviewed. The ability of some crystals, e.g., those of hexagonal lithium iodate, to absorb cation impurities from the mother liquor during growth, confirmed by experimental evidence, is used to develop a process for controlled fine purification of mother liquors. Using crystallization onto monocrystal plates of the same composition as the macro component in solution, one can achieve the desired purity of the mother liquor in terms of cation microimpurities. A routine procedure is proposed for calculating the desired degree of crystallization (using known values of λ), which makes it possible to achieve essentially any purity of mother liquors in terms of cation microimpurities

  12. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  13. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  14. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  15. Surface Layer Properties of Dough Liquor Components: Are They Key Parameters in Gas Retention in Bread Dough?

    OpenAIRE

    Primo Martin, C.; Hamer, R J; Jongh, de, J

    2006-01-01

    Gas cell stability during bread making is controlled by both surface and bulk properties. This paper is focused on studying the surface properties of the water-soluble phase of the dough, the dough liquor (with and without lipids), as well as the composition of the air/water interface. Using infrared reflection measurements, we showed that in lipid-poor liquor, proteins are the dominant species present at the air/water interface. With complete liquor (including the lipids), a mixed interface ...

  16. Are black holes totally black?

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A

    2014-01-01

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  17. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  18. Carbon black vs. black carbon and other airborne materials containing elemental carbon: Physical and chemical distinctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particles containing elemental carbon (EC) are currently at the forefront of scientific and regulatory scrutiny, including black carbon, carbon black, and engineered carbon-based nanomaterials, e.g., carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and graphene. Scientists and regulators sometimes group these EC-containing particles together, for example, interchangeably using the terms carbon black and black carbon despite one being a manufactured product with well-controlled properties and the other being an undesired, incomplete-combustion byproduct with diverse properties. In this critical review, we synthesize information on the contrasting properties of EC-containing particles in order to highlight significant differences that can affect hazard potential. We demonstrate why carbon black should not be considered a model particle representative of either combustion soots or engineered carbon-based nanomaterials. Overall, scientific studies need to distinguish these highly different EC-containing particles with care and precision so as to forestall unwarranted extrapolation of properties, hazard potential, and study conclusions from one material to another. -- Highlights: •Major classes of elemental carbon-containing particles have distinct properties. •Despite similar names, carbon black should not be confused with black carbon. •Carbon black is distinguished by a high EC content and well-controlled properties. •Black carbon particles are characterized by their heterogenous properties. •Carbon black is not a model particle representative of engineered nanomaterials. -- This review demonstrates the significant physical and chemical distinctions between elemental carbon-containing particles e.g., carbon black, black carbon, and engineered nanomaterials

  19. INDUCTION OF LABOUR WITH VAGINAL MISOPROSTOL AND INCIDENCE OF MECONIUM STAINED LIQUOR AND FETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Mani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM Induction of labour with low dose of misoprostol and detecting the incidence of meconium stained liquor and foetal outcome. DESIGN Prospective randomized control trail conducted at Niloufer Maternity and Children Hospital from January 2013 to September 2014. PARTICIPANTS 150 pregnant women requiring induction of labour. METHODS The women were divided into 2 groups based on BISHOP score as favorable and unfavorable cervix group. Induction delivery interval, number of misoprostol doses, incidence of meconium stained liquor, NICU admission and APGAR score. RESULTS Among the outcomes compared between unfavorable and favorable cervix groups induction delivery interval, number of misoprostol doses and incidence of meconium stained liquor was more in unfavorable cervix group and ‘p’ value was statistically significant. Long induction delivery interval and higher number of misoprostol doses were associated with higher incidence of meconium stained liquor in primi gravida with unfavorable cervix group. CONCLUSION Misoprostol is an effective priming and labour inducing agent, which fulfils all the criteria of an ideal inducing agent. Though incidence of meconium stained liquor is higher in misoprostol induced labour among women with unfavorable cervix, the foetal outcome seems to be very good.

  20. Imbibition-displacement of an aqueous interstitial liquor by an organic fluid containing a surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbibition was investigated as a method of assisting the removal of interstitial liquor from the salt cake contained in the Hanford underground storage tanks. In this application, imbibition would be the displacement of the interstitial liquor from the salt cake by a heavy organic containing a surfactant. Preliminary studies with a salt cake liquor system formed from NaNO3 alone indicated that a surfactant-tetrachloroethylene system could displace 75 percent of the interstitial liquor. Further investigations were carried out with a sale cake--liquor system containing NaNO3, NaNO2, NaAlO2, and NaOH. Twenty-seven surfactants and two heavy organics, carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene, were tested. In one test, an anionic surfactant and tetrachloroethylene gave promising results with the latter salt cake; however, these results could not be duplicated. All other surfactants tested gave unsatisfactory results. The presence of NaOH in the salt cake recipe seems to increase the interfacial tension of the interstitial liquid-organic fluid system. Investigations of chemical and radiation stability, corrosion aspects, and ease of removability from the tanks of the heavy organic systems revealed t

  1. Chemical and physical properties of high-yield alkaline sulfite green liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, N.J.; Norman, J.C. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States). Natural and Applied Sciences)

    1993-11-01

    The majority of sodium sulfite pulping liquor recovery systems are based on the reductive burning of the spent liquor, followed by acidification of the resulting smelt solution by CO[sub 2]. This study investigated a number of the physical and chemical properties of the resulting green liquor which might be relevant to the optimum design of this type of sulfite and carbonate recovery system for an alkaline sulfite high-yield process. CO[sub 2] gas does generate H[sub 2]S when bubbled through green liquor; however, a large amount of solid soon is formed. Continuing the flow leads to increased amounts of H[sub 2]S, but the ratio of H[sub 2]S to CO[sub 2] remains less than 1.0. Solutions more highly concentrated in Na[sub 2]S absorb relatively more CO[sub 2], regardless of the ratios of H[sub 2]S to CO[sub 2] in the initial gas stream. The percentage of H[sub 2]S released increases with increasing Na[sub 2]S concentration. Stripping the green liquor with inert gas, steam, or vacuum does not improve the H[sub 2]S removal efficiency. The maximum CO[sub 2] pressure can be generated by decomposing pure 6 M NaHCO[sub 3]. If the starting material is a bicarbonate/carbonate mixture, conversion is incomplete and a portion of the NaHCO[sub 3] forms a dead load.

  2. Laser Induced Fluorescence For Measurement Of Lignin Concentrations In Pulping Liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, J. J.; Semerjian, H. G.; Biasca, K. L.; Attala, R.

    1988-11-01

    Laser excited fluorescence of pulping liquors was investigated for use in the pulp and paper industry for process measurement and control applications. Liquors from both mill and laboratory cooks were studied. A Nd-YAG pumped dye laser was used to generate the excitation wavelength of 280 nm; measurements were also performed using a commercially available fluorometer. Measurements on mill pulping liquors gave strong signals and showed changes in the fluorescence intensity during the cook. Absorption spectra of diluted mill liquor samples showed large changes during the cook. Samples from well controlled and characterized laboratory cooks showed fluorescence to be linear with concentration over two decades with an upper limit of approximately 1000 ppm dissolved lignin. At the end of these cooks a possible chemical change was indicated by an increase in the observed fluorescence intensity. Results indicate that lignin concentrations in pulping liquors can be accurately determined with fluorescence in the linear optical region over a greater dynamic range than absorption spectroscopy. Laser induced fluorescence may also provide an indication of chemical changes occurring in the lignin structure during a cook.

  3. Changes in procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in cocoa procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting were studied by heating up cocoa liquor of fermented beans containing 58 g kg-1 of polyphenols and the same liquor which was enriched with crude polyphenols, extracted from freeze-dried unfermented cocoa beans to a final concentration of 170 g kg-1. The liquors were roasted at 120 OC for 15, 25, 35 and 45 min with three replications. Result of the study showed that cocoa bean polyphenol was resistant against high temperature during heating of cocoa liquor 120 OC for up to 45 min. The resistance was stronger with the unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol than with fermented cocoa. High temperature promoted a small quantity of monomers up to pentamers of the fermented cocoa bean polyphenol to polymerize into higher oligomers, but did not with unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol. These results imply that the problem of lack in cocoa flavor in terms high astringency and bitterness due to high polyphenol content cannot be overcome by the application of high temperature during chocolate processing, meanwhile cocoa bean polyphenol could still give beneficial as an antioxidant even after high temperature application.Key words: Cocoa bean, polyphenol, procyanidin, tannin, roasting, antioxidant, flavor, astringency.

  4. A field experimental study of lignin sand stabilizing material (LSSM) extracted from spent-liquor of straw pulping paper mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Han-jie; LI Jing; LU Xiao-zhen; JIN Yong-can

    2005-01-01

    A new technique was introduced for sand stabilization and re-vegetation by use of lignin sand stabilizing material( LSSM). LSSM is a reconstructed organic compound with lignin as the most dominant component from the extracts of black-liquor issued by straw pulp paper mills. Unlike the polyvinyl acetate or foamed asphalt commonly used for dune stabilization, the new material is plant-friendly and can be used with virescence actions simultaneously. The field experimental study was conducted since 2001 in China' s Northwest Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and has been proved that LSSM is effective in stabilizing the fugitive dunes, making the arenaceous plants survive and the bare dune vegetative. The advisable solution concentration is 2% and the optimal field spraying quantity is 2.5 L/m2. The soil nutrients of the stabilized and greened dune, such as organic matter, available phosphorous and total nitrogen are all increased compared with the control treatment, which is certainly helpful to the growth of arenaceous plants. The technique is worthwhile to be popularized because it is provided not only a new method for desertification control but also an outlet for cleaning contaminants issued from the straw paper mills.

  5. Combustion-derived substances in deep basins of Puget Sound: Historical inputs from fossil fuel and biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reconstructions of 250 years historical inputs of two distinct types of black carbon (soot/graphitic black carbon (GBC) and char-BC) were conducted on sediment cores from two basins of the Puget Sound, WA. Signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also used to support the historical reconstructions of BC to this system. Down-core maxima in GBC and combustion-derived PAHs occurred in the 1940s in the cores from the Puget Sound Main Basin, whereas in Hood Canal such peak was observed in the 1970s, showing basin-specific differences in inputs of combustion byproducts. This system showed relatively higher inputs from softwood combustion than the northeastern U.S. The historical variations in char-BC concentrations were consistent with shifts in climate indices, suggesting an influence of climate oscillations on wildfire events. Environmental loading of combustion byproducts thus appears as a complex function of urbanization, fuel usage, combustion technology, environmental policies, and climate conditions. - Research highlights: → We reconstructed the historical inputs of GBC and char-BC in Puget Sound, WA, USA. → Temporal trend of GBC was linked to human activities (urbanization, fuel usage). → Temporal trend of char-BC was more likely driven by regional climate oscillations. → Historical trends of combustion byproducts show the geographical heterogeneities. - Temporal trend of GBC was directly linked to human activities, while the input of char-BC in Puget Sound was more likely driven by regional climate oscillations.

  6. Flame Acceleration Tests with Hydrogen Combustions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the domestic and foreign regulations, a detonation or DDT (deflagration to detonation transition) by a hydrogen combustion should be prohibited to occur in a containment of a nuclear power plant. A hydrogen control in the IRWST(Incontainment Refueling Water Storage Tank) under a severe accident still remains a debatable issue to be solved in APR1400. The characteristics of the hydrogen flame in the IRWST expected during the station black-out (SBO) and total loss of feed water (LOFW) accidents have been evaluated based on a sigma-lambda criteria from the simulation results by the numerical codes such as GASFLOW. And it was found that hydrogen mixture was non-flammable most of the accident time when the non-condensed steam was released into the free volume of the IRWST, but there existed a small period of time with a high possibility of a flame acceleration during the SBO accident because most of the steam discharged from sparger was well condensed. Therefore, detail analysis and experiment of the hydrogen flame should be required to fix a DDT possibility by the hydrogen combustion in the IRWST of the APR1400. Most experiments on the hydrogen combustion have been limited only to straight pipes or channels. However, the hydrogen flame acceleration phenomena in the IRWST with a closed annular path may be different from those in the straight path in respect to a centrifugal force and degree of freedom in flame propagation etc. So, an experiment of hydrogen combustion in a closed annular chamber is needed to find out the geometrical effect on the flame propagation and to validate the numerical results. KAERI has been performing the experiments of the hydrogen combustion in the IRWST. As the fist stage, flame acceleration tests with the hydrogen combustions are studied preliminarily for a circular straight pipe to confirm the characteristics hydrogen flame propagation, and to evaluate flame detection systems

  7. Black market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way for states and subnational groups to acquire material, knowledge and equipment necessary to build a nuclear weapon or device are illegal transactions. These were singular in the past and did not cause the development of a nuclear black market. But all necessary components of a functioning black market exist. Therefore the further spread and extension of the use of nuclear power would enhance the threat of a nuclear black market, if the trade and use of specific nuclear material is not abandoned worldwide. (orig.)

  8. Municipal waste combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers the proceedings of the second annual International Specialty Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion. Topics covered include: combustion; refuse derived fuel plants; ash characterization; flue gas cleaning; ash disposal; environmental effects; risk and quality assurance; mercury control; sampling; regulations

  9. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  10. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers

  11. Combustion of coffee husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger, M.; Hartge, E.-U.; Werther, J. [Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Chemical Engineering 1, Hamburg (Germany); Ogada, T.; Siagi, Z. [Moi Univ., Dept. of Production Engineering, Eldoret (Kenya)

    2001-05-01

    Combustion mechanisms of two types of coffee husks have been studied using single particle combustion techniques as well as combustion in a pilot-scale fluidized bed facility (FBC), 150 mm in diameter and 9 m high. Through measurements of weight-loss and particle temperatures, the processes of drying, devolatilization and combustion of coffee husks were studied. Axial temperature profiles in the FBC were also measured during stationary combustion conditions to analyse the location of volatile release and combustion as a function of fuel feeding mode. Finally the problems of ash sintering were analysed. The results showed that devolatilization of coffee husks (65-72% volatile matter, raw mass) starts at a low temperature range of 170-200degC and takes place rapidly. During fuel feeding using a non water-cooled system, pyrolysis of the husks took place in the feeder tube leading to blockage and non-uniform fuel flow. Measurements of axial temperature profiles showed that during under-bed feeding, the bed and freeboard temperatures were more or less the same, whereas for over-bed feeding, freeboard temperatures were much higher, indicating significant combustion of the volatiles in the freeboard. A major problem observed during the combustion of coffee husks was ash sintering and bed agglomeration. This is due to the low melting temperature of the ash, which is attributed to the high contents of K{sub 2}O (36-38%) of the coffee husks. (Author)

  12. Lectures on combustion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burstein, S.Z.; Lax, P.D.; Sod, G.A. (eds.)

    1978-09-01

    Eleven lectures are presented on mathematical aspects of combustion: fluid dynamics, deflagrations and detonations, chemical kinetics, gas flows, combustion instability, flame spread above solids, spark ignition engines, burning rate of coal particles and hydrocarbon oxidation. Separate abstracts were prepared for three of the lectures. (DLC)

  13. Precipitation of uranium by hydrogen peroxide from the liquor of Xiamatang uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Chemical precipitation process of recovering uranium from the leaching liquor of uranium ore was investigated. The process includes primarily precipitation of iron with lime, preprocessing of the slurry of iron hydroxide and precipitation of uranium with H2O2. The leaching liquor is neutralized by lime milk to pH 3.7 for precipitating iron hydroxide. The precipitated slurry is recycled to leaching process for recovering uranium in it after being flocculated and pre-processed. It can avoid the filter of the slurry of iron bydroxide. H2O2 is used to precipitate uranium in the leaching liquor free of iron, and the pH of process for uranium precipitation is adjusted to 3.5 by adding MgO slurry. It is shown in the results that lime, H2O2 and MgO can be used to obtain the uranium peroxide product containing over 65% uranium without environmental pollution

  14. Exploration on trickle leaching of uranium ore by refreshed liquor of bacterial oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the adaptation of the domesticated thiobacillus ferroxidans to the trickle leaching conditions of uranium ore. When the bacterial leaching liquor through multiple cycles of oxidation and regeneration was used to return to the trickle leaching, the following results were obtained: the extraction rate was more than 95%, the acid consumption was saved by 30%, and the consumed 2.0% pyrolusite (MnO240%) was eliminated. The following problems are discussed: the basic principle, process and some factors influencing the process of the trickle leaching of uranium ore using regenerated liquor of bacterial oxidation, counter-current trickle leaching mode, oxidation and regeneration techniques of bacterial leaching liquor and other technological problems on the process of uranium extraction by thiobacillus ferroxidans

  15. Behaviour of rare platinum metals during precipitation from chloride solutions by sulfur liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfide precipitation of ruthenium, rhodium and iridium for their supplementary extraction from chloride solutions is studied. The behaviour of rare platinum metals (RPM) under the action on their chloride solutions of sulfer liquor mainly consisting of NaSsub(x) polysulfides, is related to the formation of sulfides and soluble thiosalts. The ratio of the forms depends on pH value. In the series Ir-Rh-Ru the tendency for sulfide formation increases, and thiosalt stability decreases. The treatment of the solutions by sulfur liquor with subsequent correction of pH value permits to extract RPM into precipitate quite completely, at that, RPM residual concentration in mother liquor does not exceed 0.5-0.7 mg/l. It is pointed out, that under the conditions studied only ruthenium is precipitated quantitatively, for which the following parameters can be considered optimal: 80-100 deg C, pH=1-2, the process duration 60-90 min

  16. ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER FABRIC IN CYANIDE LEACHING LIQUOR OF GOLD ORES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXiaozhen

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption capacity of ACFF in cyanide leaching liquor of gold ores was studied with cyanide leaching liquor of gold ores,containing various kinds of ions.The adsorbed leaching liquor was analyzed by atomic emission spectroscopy and colorimetric method.The contents of various kinds. of ions in ACFF were determined with X-ray photoctron spectroscopy.ACFF not only adsorbed gold but also adsorbed arsenic,nickel,zinc,calcium,sulphur,bismuth,copper,iron,silver and cyanide,anion.Atomic percentage of C and those of O,N,Zn,Fe increase and decrease respectively with the increase of the layer depth,while those of Ca,Au,Ag keep constant.

  17. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway. PMID:25920225

  18. An acoustic technique for the determination of liquor level in tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, development and application of a prototype suitable for the measurement of liquor levels in tanks is described. The technique involves directing an acoustic pulse down a constraining tube to the liquor surface and measuring the time of return of the reflected pulse. Using the equipment it is possible to determine the position of a solid surface with a total error of less than 1 mm. The prototype instrument was used to measure the volume of liquors contained in rectangular slab tanks used for accountancy purposes at Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. The total error obtained in an individual measurement of volume was less than 0.2 litres (95% confidence limits). The instrument may be used as a replacement for a Pneumercator system in existing installations. (author)

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING THE FIRST STAGE DIGESTION OF FORAGES USING FAECAL LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Solangi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the effect of duration of incubation on the digestibility with the aim to reduce the time of incubation of the first stage digestion. This could be achieved if method for improving the potency of faecal liquor is evolved and verified. To estimate the time required to complete digestion of forages, triplicate samples of ryegrass and two varieties of straw were incubated in the faecal liquor for digestion for the periods of 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 34, 48, 58, 72, 80 or 96 hours. It was observed that the incubation time required to complete digestion in faecal liquor for ryegrass and straw was 58 and 96 hours, respectively. The rate of digestion was maximal from 9 to 48 hours during which time approximately 1.11 mg/hour were solublised.

  20. Anaerobic treatment of thermal sludge conditioning liquor with granular sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal sludge conditioning liquor was successfully treated by a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic hybrid system with an effective volume of 10.4 m3. The reactor was similar to the HYAN reactor in Lakeview but without a recirculation system. A gas-solid separator was installed above a filter packed with polypropylene pall rings. The organic loading rate was increased stepwise to 30 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m3·d. The hydraulic retention time was only 6 hours at the target loading rate. More than 70% of soluble COD in the influent was removed, even at an organic loading as high as 30 kg COD/m3·d. Soluble 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) removal efficiency at the loading rate exceeded 95%. Volatile fatty acids concentration in the effluent was consistently less than 60 mg/L after the day when stable treatment had been obtained. The methane production fluctuated between 0.3 and 0.4 L/g COD removed. The inside of the reactor consisted of two zones, a sludge blanket zone with less than 1% solids concentration and a sludge bed zone with 4-7% solids concentration. Although the reactor was seeded with an anaerobically digested sludge, granular sludge was produced in the reactor. The ratio of granules to the solids remaining in the reactor increased to approximately 70% at the end of the experiments. Most of the granules had diameters of less than 1 mm and their settling velocity was 0.6 cm/s or more. The granules were composed of bacteria like Methanothrix according to SEM observations. The methane production rate was between 0.8 and 1.1 kg methane as COD/kg SS·d in an acetate solution. According to substrates distribution in the reactor and tracer tests, the bed zone in the reactor worked similarly to a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Evaluation of soluble COD removal rates in the reactor indicated that the rate could be simulated by a Monod type reaction. 10 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs

  1. THE LIGNIN CONTENT IN BLACK LIQUID OF STRAW AS-AQ BY ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiqiang Shi; Bingyue Liu; Xingqiang Li; Longquan Xu; Beihai He

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of lignin content in black liquid of straw AS-AQ by ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV)is discussed in this paper. Different dilution multiple and contrast solutions have an effect on the measured results of the lignin content by UV. The calculation method for the absorption coefficient and the scanning spectrum property of liquor acidified by SO2 are introduced in this paper.

  2. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  3. 75 FR 39969 - Liquor Control Ordinance for the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point Arena...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Liquor Control Ordinance for the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Liquor Control Ordinance of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the...

  4. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions...

  5. Investigation of boron extraction process with aid magnesium hydroxide from mother liquor of boron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions of boron - magnesium concentrate preparation from mother liquor by coprecipitation of borate - ions by magnesium hydroxide are investigated. It is shown that boron - magnesium concentrate and products of its heat treatment at 100 - 500 deg C in water are dissolved partially, and in ammonium citrate - practically completely. Suppositions are made on the composition of the product prepared, on the the structure of its crystal lattice and the processes taking place in it during heat treatment. The conclusion is made on the perspectiveness of processing of mother liquor of boron industry for boron - magnesium concentrate

  6. A contractor's approach to engineering process plant for radioactive liquor processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of personnel from damaging sources of radiation is the overriding consideration which influences the fundamental design of plant for processing active liquors in the Nuclear Industry. The conventional design procedures of the Chemical Plant Contractor have therefore to be modified to meet the specific technology and additional safety requirements. Ways in which the added factor of radiation influences the design philosophy for Nuclear Plant compared to conventional Chemical Plant are described. Design philosophy is demonstrated by design studies for active liquor storage and evaporation plant. (author)

  7. Succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant Escherichia coli strain

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Honghui; Pan, Jiachuan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Nan; Jie ZHANG; Li, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Succinic acid (1,4-butanedioic acid) is identified as one of important building-block chemicals. Xylose mother liquor is an abundant industrial residue in xylitol biorefining industry. In this study, xylose mother liquor was utilized to produce succinic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli strain SD121, and the response surface methodology was used to optimize the fermentation media. The optimal conditions of succinic acid fermentation were as follows: 82.62 g L−1 total initial sugars, 42.27 ...

  8. Investigation of the process of sulphite cooking liquor penetration into wood by radioisotope methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of bisulfite cooking liquors labelled with 22Na, 45Ca or 35S into pine wood of various moisture content was investigated. Model cubic blocks of wood were impreganted at the temperature of 1100C and afterwards cut to thin layers. The layers activity was measured by means of scintillation of Geiger-Mueller counters. The calcium and sulfur arrangement was investigated by means of contact autoradiographic method. The content of cooking liquor components in wood was calculated on the basis of radiometric measurement results. (author)

  9. Improvement to treatment processes of alkaline leaching liquors of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process for treating alkaline leaching liquors of uranium ores, the characteristics of which include: - an operation to neutralize at least a fraction of these liquors by an acid in conditions leading to the decarbonation of the said fraction, - where required, joining the neutralized and non neutralized fractions, - adding lime to the mixture of the two fractions in an amount and under conditions giving rise to the precipitation of virtually all the uranium in solution, - separating the precipitate formed constituting a calcic pre-concentrate of the surface floating solution

  10. A contractors's approach to engineering process plant for radioactive liquor processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of personnel from damaging sources of radiation is the overriding consideration which influences the fundamental design of plant for processing active liquors in the Nuclear Industry. The conventional design procedures of the Chemical Plant Contractor have therefore to be modified to meet the specific technology and additional safety requirements. This paper describes ways in which the added factor of radiation influences the design philosophy for Nuclear Plant compared to conventional Chemical Plant. The design philosophy is demonstrated by design studies for active liquor storage and evaporation plant. (author)

  11. Ion-exchange preparation of high-purity vanadium acid from industrial liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of investigations on production of special-purity vanadium acid and vanadium oxide directly from process solutions (technical grade liquors) using ionites are presented. Potentiality of thorough purification of vanadium(5) oxide, when producing vanadium acid on the KU-2 cationite with subsequent purification on anionite, is shown. On the basis of the results obtained a principle flowsheet of ion-exchange production of high-purity vanadium(5) oxide from industrial liquors has been developed. 2 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  12. A portable liquor monitoring system using a PC-based chromatic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach is described for discriminating between different liquors with a portable system based upon chromatic monitoring. It uses a webcam–computer combination in a robust manner and has the potential for making cursory assessments in the field. The behaviour of the system has been investigated using subsidiary measurements with a spectrometer, from which the repeatability of test results has been assessed. It is shown that the webcam–computer system can provide useful referencing to reduce the influence of system artefacts and so yield good discrimination between different liquors without the use of a spectrometer

  13. ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER FABRIC IN CYANIDE LEACHING LIQUOR OF GOLD ORES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption capacity of ACFF in cyanide leaching liquor of gold ores was studied withcyanide leaching liquor of gold ores, containing various kinds of ions. The adsorbed leaching liquorwas analyzed by atomic emission spectroscopy and colorimetric method. The contents of variouskinds of ions in ACFF were determined with X-ray photoctron spectroscopy. ACFF not onlyadsorbed gold but also adsorbed arsenic, nickel, zinc, calcium, sulphur, bismuth, copper, iron. silverand cyanide anion. Atomic percentage of C and those of O, N, Zr, Fe increase and decreaserespectively with the increase of the layer depth, while those of Ca, Au, Ag keep constant.

  14. Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, E.; Arnell, M.; Flores-Alsina, X.;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to model the dynamics and validate the results of nitrous oxide (N2O)emissions from three Swedish nitrifying/denitrifying, nitritation and anammox systems treating real anaerobic digester sludge liquor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 is extended to describe N2O......) a moving-bed biofilm reactor. Results show that the calibrated model is partly capable of reproducing the behaviour of N2O as well as the nitritation/nitrification/denitrification dynamics. However, the results emphasize that additional work is required before N2O emissions from sludge liquor treatment...

  15. Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, E.; Arnell, M.; Flores-Alsina, X.;

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to model the dynamics and validate the results of nitrous oxide (N2O)emissions from three Swedish nitrifying/denitrifying, nitritation and anammox systems treating real anaerobic digester sludge liquor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 is extended to describe N2O......) a moving-bed biofilm reactor. Results show that the calibrated model is partly capable of reproducing the behaviour of N2O as well as the nitritation/nitrification/denitrification dynamics. However, the results emphasize that additional work is required before N2O emissions from sludge liquor treatment...

  16. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S. M.; Xu, M. L.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Yang, M. Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100–400 MPa 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese “Junchang” liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p aging process of Chinese liquor. However, HP treatment caused a slight increase in solid content, which might be somewhat undesirable. Sensory evaluation results confirmed that favorable changes in color and flavor of Chinese liquor were induced by HP treatment; however, overall gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential.

  17. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. 30.63 Section 30.63... TREASURY LIQUORS GAUGING MANUAL Prescribed Tables § 30.63 Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. When the weight or proof of a quantity...

  18. Test plan for non-radioactive testing of vertical calciner for development of direct denitration conversion of Pu-bearing liquors to stable, storage solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium-bearing liquors, including ANL scrap liquors, will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those liquors to stable, storable PuO2-rich solids. This test plan is to test with non-radioactive stand-in materials to demonstrate adequate performance of the vertical calciner and ancillary equipment

  19. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  20. Post-Digestion Liquor Treatment in the Method Combining Chemical Precipitation with Reverse Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuglarz Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to develop an effective treatment of post-digestion liquors highly-loaded with biogenic and organic substances. The scope of the research project encompassed: mesophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS as well as the treatment of post-digestion liquors, coming from the most appropriate HRT value of 25 days, in the process of ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite precipitation targeted at ammonia nitrogen binding and a subsequent reverse osmosis (RO process. It was established that the method combining chemical precipitation and high-pressure filtration ensures a high degree of contaminants removal allowing for a direct release of treated liquors into the natural reservoir. However, in order to decrease the residual NH4+ concentration (6.1 mg NH4+/dm3 in the purified post-digestion liquors below the level allowing for a direct release to the natural reservoir, it turned out to be necessary to apply increased molar ratio of magnesium and phosphates (Mg:NH4+: PO43-= 1.5:1:1.5.

  1. The Readership of Liquor Ads Employing Appeals to Affiliation, Achievement, and Product-Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined whether advertising appeals based on product affiliation, achievement, and attributes would account for differences in male readership of liquor advertisements. The investigation focused on the relationship between the content of alcholic beverage advertisements and attention engagement, the first state in consumer information…

  2. Solvent extraction of uranium from lean grade acidic sulfate leach liquor with alamine 336 reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the solvent extraction studies carried out on an acidic low assay uranium bearing leach liquor generated during sulfuric acid leaching of a refractory uranium ore using alamine 336-isodecenol-kerosene reagent combine. The leach liquor has a U3O8 content of about 270 mg/L, free acidity 2.4 N H2SO4 and total dissolved solids concentration of 260 g/L. Process parameteric variation studies indicated strong influence of free acidity of the leach liquor, alamine 336 concentration and aqueous to organic phase ratio on the extraction efficiency of uranium. An extraction efficiency of about 95% was achieved when the free acidity of leach liquor was 1 N H2SO4 or lower, using 2% (v/v) alamine 336 at ambient temperature with an aqueous to organic phase ratio of 1:1. The loading capacity under these conditions was 1.2 g/L of U3O8. About 98% of the uranium values could be stripped from the loaded organic using 1 N NaCl in 0.2 N H2SO4. The solvent extraction studies aided in developing a suitable process flowsheet for treating refractory uranium ores which need high acidity during leaching and relatively lower acidity for purification by solvent extraction. (author)

  3. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1996-11-05

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  4. High temperature attack of ores by a liquor containing essentially a soluble bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New process for high temperature oxidizing digestion of ores containing at least one metal in the uranium, vanadium and molybdenum group, by an aqueous liquor containing sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in the presence of free oxygen insufflated into the reaction medium

  5. The precipitation of radioactive radium-226 from acidic chloride leach liquors with barium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional barium chloride (BaClsub(2)) precipitation has been effective in the 99+ percent removal of radium-226 as radium-barium sulphate [RaBa(SOsub(4))sub(2)] sludge, from HCl liquors produced by laboratory and pilot leaches of Canadian uranium ores. Radium-226, due to its low-level radiation characteristics, is removed as it has been identified as an environmental and long-term health problem. The formation of the RaBa(SOsub(4))sub(2) sludge was aided due to adequate sulphate (SOsub(4)) concentrations in the HCl pilot liquors produced. Recyclable Rasup(226) concentrations of about 66 pCi/L, in treated effluents, will cost about 1/10 that of effluents below federal environmental guidelines of 10 pCi Rasup(226)/L. Toxic barium (Ba) will potentially build up in effluents as recyclable Rasup(226) concentrations around 66 pCi/L. Barium, in addition to being added to liquors as BaClsub(2) precipitant, is present in the radioactive ore and HCl leach liquors

  6. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Sheng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women, aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v alcohol of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P<0.05. Serum uric acid (P=0.004 for TFL, P=0.001 for TCL, glucose (P<0.001 for TFL, P<0.001 for TCL and endothelial adhesion molecules (P<0.05 were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered.

  7. 76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Colorado River Indian Tribes--Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2... amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor, Section 2-403(12). The... Indian Tribal Council adopted this amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code,...

  8. 75 FR 44011 - Liquor Ordinance of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ..., 463 U.S. 713 (1983), the Secretary of the Interior shall certify and publish in the Federal Register... of this title, any such beverage, including ale, stout, and porter, containing more than 3.2% alcohol... furtherance of this Liquor Ordinance, shall have the following powers and duties: a. To publish and...

  9. THE PRODUCTION OF ORANGE PRESS LIQUOR SPIRIT: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. FERREIRA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The orange juice industry produces, at the end of the residue extraction, a by-product called orange press liquor. Considering its high content of soluble solids and the large volume of the liquor produced in Brazilian orange juice plants, an earlier study was conducted on the technical viability of using orange press liquor as raw material for a new distilled beverage, with promising results. With a view to increasing efficiency and possibly attracting investments in the growing international market for new and exotic beverages, the aim of the present study was to optimize the orange press liquor spirit process and to evaluate the economic aspects of its production. The results showed that this process can yield a good quality beverage, comparable to the sugar cane spirit cachaça and other similar products, as well as having economic advantages and potential for immediate further growth, without extra investment costs.

  10. 77 FR 34981 - Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Act of August 15, 1953, Public Law 83-277, 67 Stat. 586, 18 U.S.C... taxation of liquor within the Tribe's Indian Country in conformity with any compact between the Tribe and... enumerated authority under Article VII, Sec. 1(a) to enact a comprehensive law and order code, which...

  11. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  12. Combustion Technology Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Lewis' High Speed Research (HSR) Propulsion Project Office initiated a targeted outreach effort to market combustion-related technologies developed at Lewis for the next generation of supersonic civil transport vehicles. These combustion-related innovations range from emissions measurement and reduction technologies, to diagnostics, spray technologies, NOx and SOx reduction of burners, noise reduction, sensors, and fuel-injection technologies. The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center joined forces to assist Lewis' HSR Office in this outreach activity. From a database of thousands of nonaerospace firms considered likely to be interested in Lewis' combustion and emission-related technologies, the outreach team selected 41 companies to contact. The selected companies represent oil-gas refineries, vehicle/parts suppliers, and manufacturers of residential furnaces, power turbines, nonautomobile engines, and diesel internal combustion engines.

  13. Combustion gas scrubbing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, D.A.; Ellison, W.; Wilhelm, J.H.

    1979-04-03

    In a cooperative combination of two scrubbing systems, the first scrubbing system operates upon combustion gases with an aqueous solution to remove hydrogen chloride gas and other chlorine components. The second scrubbing system subsequently operates upon the combustion gases with a sodium-base solution to absorb sulfur oxides. The products of the two scrubbing systems are treated in combination to form a material for disposal and to generate the aqueous scrubbing solution for the chloride scrubbing system.

  14. Combustion theory and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Buckmaster, J; Clavin, Paul; Liñán Martínez, Amable; Matalon, M.; Peters, N; Sivashinsky, G.; Williams, F. A.

    2005-01-01

    In honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the Combustion Institute, we are asked to assess accomplishments of theory in combustion over the past fifty years and prospects for the future. The title of our article is chosen to emphasize that development of theory necessarily goes hand-in-hand with specification of a model. Good conceptual models underlie successful mathematical theories. Models and theories are discussed here for deflagrations, detonations, diffusion flames, ignition, propellant ...

  15. Combustion within Porous Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, Ulrich; Shepherd, Joseph E.; Unal, Cetin

    1998-01-01

    Flammable gases (primarily hydrogen and nitrous oxide but also ammonia and methane) are continuously being generated within the waste contained in the tank farms at Hanford Site. Some portions of the waste are porous and conceivably, a combustion event could occur within the waste due to accidental ignition. This has been postulated as a potential hazard since deflagrations and detonations are observed in laboratory experiments to propagate through combustible gases in porous materials, or ...

  16. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  17. Automatic Method for Controlling the Iodine Adsorption Number in Carbon Black Oil Furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Zečević, N.

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous of different inlet process factors in carbon black oil furnaces which must be continuously and automatically adjusted, due to stable quality of final product. The most important six inlet process factors in carbon black oil-furnaces are:1. volume flow of process air for combustion2. temperature of process air for combustion3. volume flow of natural gas for insurance the necessary heat for thermal reaction of conversionthe hydrocarbon oil feedstock in oil-furnace carbon blac...

  18. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  19. Significance of the combined tests application in serum and liquor of patients with suspected neurosyphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Mihailo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tertiary syphilis develops in 8-40% of untreated patients. It is most commonly manifested in the form of neurosyphilis, which can be asymptomatic taking the form of tabes dorsalis or progressive paralyze. Nowadays, in the developed countries, progressive paralyze is a rather rare disease, although the incidence of this disease has been rising within the last decades. Case report. We reported a 74-year-old male with the clinical image of dementia showing psychotic symptoms. On cytobiochemical examination of cerebrospinal liquor, hyperproteinorhacmia of 0.70 g/l with the normal number of cells was revealed. Computed tomography of the brain showed the marked cortical cerebral and cerebellar reduction changes with multiple ischemic lesions. Within a routine examination of patients with demention, we performed serologic reactions to syphilis out of which the Veneral Disease Researc Laboratory (VDRL test in serum and liquor was unreactive, while the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPNA test in serum and liquor was positive. Positivity in serum and liquor was additionally confirmed by the Western blot method and fluoroscent treponema antibody (FTA test. The treatment with benzathine fenylpenicilline 2.4 g once weekly resulted in significant improving the psychotic symptoms of the disease even after two weeks. Conclusion. This case report showed that within the differential diagnostics in patients with demention or psychotic disorder it is obligatory to consider syphilis of the nervous system, as well as to apply a combination of various tests which, besides the typical liquor findings, significantly improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Such approach is especially important regarding the fact that neurosyphilis can remain clinically quite asymptomatic for a long period, which could lead to late therapy, while, on the contrary, an adequate and timely treatment can contribute to a significant recovery of any patients.

  20. Effect of CO Combustion Promoters on Combustion Air Partition in FCC under Nearly Complete Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 罗雄麟; 许锋

    2014-01-01

    With CO combustion promoters, the role of combustion air flow rate for concerns of economics and control is important. The combustion air is conceptually divided to three parts:the air consumed by coke burning, the air consumed by CO combustion and the air unreacted. A mathematical model of a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit, which includes a quantitative correlation of CO heterogeneous combustion and the amount of CO combustion promoters, is introduced to investigate the effects of promoters on the three parts of combustion air. The results show that the air consumed by coke burning is almost linear to combustion air flow rate, while the air consumed by CO combustion promoters tends to saturate as combustion air flow rate increases, indicating that higher air flow rate can only be used as a manipulated variable to control the oxygen content for an economic concern.

  1. Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables: common test methods part 4-1: methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds – resistance to environmental stress cracking – measurement of the melt flow index – carbon black and/or mineral filler content measurement in polyethylene by direct combustion – measurement of carbon black content by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) – assessment of carbon black dispersion in polyethylene using a microscope

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Specifies the test methods to be used for testing polymeric insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables for power distribution and telecommunications including cables used on ships. Gives the methods for measurements of the resistance to environmental stress cracking, for wrapping test after thermal ageing in air, for measurement of melt flow index and for measurement of carbon black and/or mineral filler content, which apply to PE and PP coumpounds, including cellular compounds and foam skin for insulation.

  2. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  3. Process for the hot oxidized attack on a uraniferous ore by a concentrated alkaline liquor with simultaneous uranium precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a continuous process for the oxidizing attack of a uraniferous ore by means of an aqueous recycling liquor which contains in a dissolved state alkaline carbonate and bicarbonate and uranium at a concentration close to the limit of solubility thereof at the temperature of the attack operation. The uranium which is precipitated in the course of the attack operation is collected within the solid phase which remains after attack. By redissolution in a suitable aqueous liquor and separation from the sterile materials, a uraniferous liquor is obtained

  4. Separation of Fe (III) ions from acidic leach liquor of metasummatite Saghand ore by anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferric ions in dilute acidic leach liquor of uranium ore of Saghand were separated by anion exchange resins. In this research, a simulated solution similar to the actual leach liquor of Saghand was prepared. The simulated solution which was containing chloride and ferric ions. rare earth elements, and some other impurities was treated by different types of Dowex anion exchange resins for ferric ions removal. It appeared that hydrochloric acidic concentration, resin types and particle sizes have a great impact on ferric ions adsorption. Dowex 1 X 4 (200-400 mesh) has the best adsorption of 91% in simulated solution and 79% in actual leach liquor of uranium ore of Saghand respectively

  5. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S. M.; Xu, M. L.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Yang, M. Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100–400 MPa 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese “Junchang” liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential.

  6. Promotion of Chinese Liquor Principle is a Need for the Development of China Liquor Industry-review on Chinese Liquor Principle VII%弘扬中华酒道是我国酒业发展的需要--七论中华酒道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵玉

    2013-01-01

    The formation of Chinese liquor principle, its practice and development in Dalian were introduced. The relationship between Chinese liquor principle and alcoholic liquor marketing is briefly explained. It is regarded that alcoholic beverage culture is priceless, and a lubricant of the sustainable development of liquor industry. It is also tremendous and valuable assets as well as and an inexhaustible source of wisdom for liquor industry. Therefore, efforts should be made to promote Chinese liquor principle in order to promote China liquor industry.%介绍了中华酒道的形成及在大连的实践和发展,简单说明了中华酒道与酒类营销的关系,并认为酒文化是无价之宝,是维持酒业持续发展的润滑剂,是酿酒行业巨大而宝贵的无形资产,是酒业取之不竭的智慧源泉,因此,应努力弘扬中华酒道,以促进我国酒业发展。

  7. Comparative analysis of black carbon in soils

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Michael W I; Skjemstad, Jan O.; Czimczik, Claudia I.; Glaser, Bruno; Prentice, Ken M; Gelinas, Yves; Thomas A.J. Kuhlbusch

    2001-01-01

    Black carbon (BC), produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and vegetation, occurs ubiquitously in soils and sediments. BC exists as a continuum from partly charred material to highly graphitized soot particles, with no general agreement on clear-cut boundaries of definition or analysis. In a comparative analysis, we measured BC forms in eight soil samples by six established methods. All methods involved removal of the non-BC components from the sample by thermal or chemical means or...

  8. Combustion and regulation; Combustion et reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was organized after the publication of the French by-law no 2010 relative to combustion installations and to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. Five topics were discussed during the conference: the new regulations, their content, innovations and modalities of application; the means of energy suppliers to face the new provisions and their schedule; the manufacturers proposals for existing installations and the new equipments; the administration control; and the impact of the new measures on exploitation and engineering. Twenty papers and 2 journal articles are reported in these proceedings. (J.S.)

  9. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  10. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  11. Flow of Hydrolysed Polyacrylamide Mother Liquor through Filter Bag: Detecting the Effects of Formulation and Process Properties on Pressure Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Ming Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM mother liquor is mainly used to extract oil. The HPAM solution is needed to filter the impurity using a bag filter before it is injected into the oil well. Therefore, the pressure drop of HPAM mother liquor must be less than 0.02 MPa in the processing of impurity filtration. The influence factors on pressure drop need to be researched. In this work, the computational fluid dynamics program (CFD was used to research some key influence factors on pressure drop, such as porosity, outlet pressure of filter, inlet flow rate and viscosity of mother liquor. The simulation results indicated that with increasing porosity, outlet pressure, inlet flow rate and mother liquor viscosity, the pressure drop had increased after flowing through the filter bag.

  12. Method of artifical neural network for the prediction of coal spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J.; Wang, X. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1997-03-01

    A prediction model of artificial neutral network for coal spontaneous combustion is established. Using BP (Black Propagation) algorithm, its prediction software is compiled. A set of samples are used to train the prediction model and the validation of the model is made on the basis of the prediction results for the `unknown` samples. The model and the software have been used for predicting the spontaneous combustion danger of the 3-upper coal in Nantun Coal Mine. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  14. Studies in combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  15. Guidelines for liquir diagnostics and catalogue of methologies of the German Association for liquor diagnostics and clinical neurochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pragmantic guide for liquor diagnostics is focussed on the questions arising during clinical every day life including expert recommendations concerning the selection of diagnostic methodologies. The guidelines are considered as an expert consens between scientists and clinicians to be used as rational basis for a high-quality and simultaneously cost-efficient liquor diagnostics. The catalogue of methodologies is supposed to bridge from the clinician to the laboratory scientist describing sample preparation techniques, chemical processes and their significance within clinical diagnostics

  16. Uranium adsorption from the sulphuric acid leach liquor containing more chlorides with cation-exchange resin SL-406

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of uranium adsorption was studied from the sulphuric acid leach liquor of a uranium ore containing more chlorides with cation-exchange resin SL-406. The influence of some factors on uranium adsorption was investigated. It was shown that the resin possesses better selectivity, stability and higher capacity. It can be effectively used to recovery uranium from leach liquors of uranium ores containing more chlorides

  17. Flow of Hydrolysed Polyacrylamide Mother Liquor through Filter Bag: Detecting the Effects of Formulation and Process Properties on Pressure Drop

    OpenAIRE

    Zi-Ming Feng; Xin Fang; Huan-Huan Ding

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM) mother liquor is mainly used to extract oil. The HPAM solution is needed to filter the impurity using a bag filter before it is injected into the oil well. Therefore, the pressure drop of HPAM mother liquor must be less than 0.02 MPa in the processing of impurity filtration. The influence factors on pressure drop need to be researched. In this work, the computational fluid dynamics program (CFD) was used to research some key influence factors on pr...

  18. MODIFICATION OF JACK PINE TMP LONG FIBERS BY ALKALINE PEROXIDE – PART 1. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FIBERS AND SPENT LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Han

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to improve the quality of jack pine TMP long fibers, particularly with respect to the strength properties, by alkaline peroxide treatment. This paper reports the chemical characteristics of the treated long fibers and the spent liquors originating from various treatments. It was observed that, in comparison with hydrogen peroxide, the alkalinity of the treatment solutions had a greater influence on most fibre characteristics and spent liquor properties.

  19. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie; Xu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientali...

  20. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  1. Combuster. [low nitrogen oxide formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, R. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A combuster is provided for utilizing a combustible mixture containing fuel and air, to heat a load fluid such as water or air, in a manner that minimizes the formation of nitrogen oxide. The combustible mixture passes through a small diameter tube where the mixture is heated to its combustion temperature, while the load fluid flows past the outside of the tube to receive heat. The tube is of a diameter small enough that the combustible mixture cannot form a flame, and yet is not subject to wall quench, so that combustion occurs, but at a temperature less than under free flame conditions. Most of the heat required for heating the combustible mixture to its combustion temperature, is obtained from heat flow through the walls of the pipe to the mixture.

  2. Relationship Between Liquor Yield, Plant Capacity Increases, and Energy Savings in Alumina Refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Weer, Peter-Hans

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of alumina trihydrate precipitation and controlling parameters, and the methods and technologies affecting liquor yield/productivity in alumina refining, have been described in several publications [e.g., Refs. Alamdari et al. ( Light Metals 1998, pp. 133-137, 1998), Moretto and Power ( Proc. 1990 Alumina Quality Workshop, Perth, Australia, pp. 154-165, 1990)]. However, the relationship between increasing liquor yield, on the one hand, and plant production capacity increases and related energy savings, on the other, has been under-emphasized. This article addresses this issue and provides estimates of plant production capacity increases and steam and power energy savings as a function of precipitation yield increases resulting from the implementation of plant adaptations. Conclusions are that increasing precipitation yield in an alumina refinery results overall in a significant improvement of project economics and interestingly improves a refinery's direct and indirect environmental performance, thus, addressing two of the three "pillars" of sustainable development (economic, environmental, and social).

  3. Synergistic extraction of uranium from acidic sulfate leach liquor using D2EHPA mixed with TOPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium extraction from sulfate leach liquor acid by D2EHPA and TOPO mixture in kerosene was investigated. The effect of different factors affecting the extraction mechanism such as sulfate leach liquor acid, D2EHPA and TOPO concentrations and temperature have been studied. The mathematical treatment for the obtained date suggested that the composition of synergistic extraction species is (UO2(D)2T). The logarithm of the apparent equilibrium constant, log Kex, of synergistic extraction reaction has been evaluated, to be 3.35 ± 0.1. The effect of temperature on extraction process was investigated and the apparent values of the thermodynamics parameters (∆H, ∆G and ∆S) were 38.2 kJ/mol, -19.1 kJ/mol and 192.5 J/mol respectively. (author)

  4. Continuous water determination in NPK fertilizer liquor by controlling neutron moisture gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle is described of the neutron method for measuring fertilizer liquor moisture. The method is based on the slowing-down of fast neutrons in their transport through matter. The experimental neutron moisture gage system consists of a measuring sensor and an electronic evaluation unit. The sensor consists of an 241Am-Be fast neutron source having an activity of 11.1x109 Bq and of a proportional thermal neutron detector containing boron fluoride. The detector current signal is amplified by a preamplifier and is supplied by means of a coaxial cable to the input of the electronic evaluation unit. The variation is graphically shown of pulse rate with changes in fertilizer liquor moisture. (J.B.)

  5. The leakage of radioactive liquor into the ground, British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Windscale, 15 March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 15 March 1979 radioactive liquor of recent origin was confirmed to be present in the ground adjacent to the Buffer Storage Plant Building B212 at the Windscale and Calder Works in Cumbria of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. BNFL's initial investigations to identify the source of this leakage were closely followed by an investigation carried out by HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate into how control of the radioactive liquor came to be lost and whether there had been any breaches of licence conditions or of the requirements of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974. This report presents the findings of these investigations and concludes by outlining the actions taken and the requirements placed on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (author)

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium(VI) in bacterial leach liquors using arsenazo-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly sensitive and precise spectrophotometric method for the direct determination of uranium(VI) in bacterial leach liquors, obtained by the action of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans, from low-grade sandstone uranium ores, has been developed. Arsenazo-III formed an intense pink-violet complex at pH 2·0±0·1, which showed maximum absorption at 655 nm. Interference due to different metal ions, such as Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn and Zr, was successfully masked by diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid without inhibiting the formation of the uranium(VI)-arsenazo-III complex. This method was also found suitable for detecting low levels of uranium(VI) in mine waters, acid leach liquors and tailings liquids. The results obtained were found to be in close agreement with the values determined by fluorometric and indirect spectrophotometric methods. (author)

  7. Pre-desilication and digestion of gibbsitic bauxite with lime in sodium aluminate liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-lin; Yu, Hai-yan; Dong, Kai-wei; Tu, Gan-feng; Bi, Shi-wen

    2012-11-01

    The effect of lime on the pre-desilication and digestion of gibbsitic bauxite in synthetic sodium aluminate liquor at different temperatures was investigated. The bauxite is comprised of gibbsite, aluminogoethite, hematite, kaolin, quartz, and minor boehmite. Lime increases the desilication efficiency of the bauxite during the pre-desilication process by promoting the conversion of sodalite and cancrinite to hydrogarnet. Desilication reactions during the digestion process promoted by lime result in the loss of Al2O3 entering the red mud, but the amount of aluminogoethite-to-hematite conversion promoted by lime leads to the increase of aluminogoethitic Al2O3 entering the digested liquor. The alumina digestion rate at 245°C is higher than that at 145°C due to the more pronounced conversion of aluminogoethite to hematite. The soda consumption during the digestion process decreases due to lime addition, especially at higher temperatures.

  8. Experimental Research on Removing Suspended Solids and Ammonium Ions from Sludge Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasparas Gražinskas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the processes of removing suspended solids and ammonium ions from sludge liquor. Experimental research was carried out at the Water Management Department laboratory of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University applying an experimental bench made of filters equipped with the zeolites of a different fraction and other appliances. Laboratory testing looked at the use of natural sorbent zeolite for removing ammonium ions from sludge liquor mixing liquid with powdered zeolite and filtering through zeolite filter media. Research was carried out employing the particles of zeolite 1.0–1.5 mm; 2.0–2.5 mm; 2.5–3.15 mm in diameter. The highest efficiency of removing ammonium ions reached 76% and was obtained using zeolite particles 2.0–2.5 mm in diameter.

  9. EFFECT OF LIGNIN ON ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF HARDWOOD AFTER GREEN LIQUOR AND SULFURIC ACID PRETREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douyong Min,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Red maple, sweet gum, trembling aspen, red alder, and Eucalyptus globulus samples were pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid and green liquor before enzymatic saccharification. Substrates showed different levels of delignification and sugar recovery, depending on the applied pretreatments and the syringaldehyde/vanillin ratio (S/V. Three major conclusions were drawn in this research. First, lignin is the greatest contributor to recalcitrance of hardwood to enzymatic saccharification. Second, a high S/V ratio is a useful indicator of high delignification during a pretreatment process. Third, green liquor pretreatment is a promising pretreatment method because of a high delignification degree and sugar recovery. In addition, xylan also contributes to the recalcitrance of hardwoods toward enzymatic saccharification.

  10. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  11. NATO Workshop on Soot in Combustion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Prado, G

    1983-01-01

    Our interest in Mulhouse for carbon black and soot began some 30 years ago when J.B. Donnet developed the concept of surface chemistry of carbon and its involvement in interactions with gas, liquid and solid phases. In the late sixties, we began to study soot formation in pyrolytic systems and later on in flames. The idea of organ1z1ng a meeting on soot formation originated some four or five years ago, through discussions among Professor J.B. Howard, Dr. A. D'Alessio and ourselves. At that time the scientific community was becoming aware of the necessity to strictly control soot formation and emission. Being involved in the study of surface properties of carbon black as well as of formation of soot, we realized that the combustion community was not always fully aware of the progress made by the physical-chemists on carbon black. Reciprocally, the carbon specialists were often ignoring the research carried out on soot in flames. One objective of this workshop was to stimulate discussions between these two scie...

  12. Combustion Engine Identification and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Serrano, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is system identification and control of two different internal combustion engines, Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) engine and a more conventional Combustion Ignited (CI) diesel engine. The control of both engines is aimed to emission reduction and to increase the eficiency. There is an introduction to the internal combustion engine, as well as theory used about system identification and Model Predictive Control (MPC). A physical model of a PPC en...

  13. Inhibition and deactivation effects in catalytic wet oxidation of high-strength alcohol-distillery liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkacemi, K.; Larachi, F.; Hamoudi, S.; Turcotte, G.; Sayari, A. [Laval Univ., Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1999-06-01

    The removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) from raw high-strength alcohol-distillery waste liquors was evaluated using three different treatments: thermolysis (T), noncatalytic wet oxidation (WO), and solid-catalyzed wet oxidation (CWO). The distillery liquors (TOC = 22,500 mg/l, sugars = 18,000 mg/l, and proteins = 13,500 mg/l) were produced by alcoholic fermentation of enzymatic hydrolyzates from steam-exploded timothy grass. TOC-abatement studies were conducted batchwise in a stirred autoclave to evaluate the influence of the catalyst (7:3, MnO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2} mixed oxide), oxygen partial pressure (0.5--2.5 MPa), and temperature (453--523 K) on T, WO, and CWO processes. Although CWO outperformed T and WO, TOC conversions did not exceed {approximately}60% at the highest temperature used. Experiments provided prima facie evidence for a gradual fouling of the catalyst and a developing inhibition in the liquors which impaired deep TOC removals. Occurrence of catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits was proven experimentally through quantitative and qualitative experiments such as elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Inhibition toward further degradation of the liquors was ascribed to the occurrence of highly stable antioxidant intermediates via the Maillard reactions between dissolved sugars and proteins. A lumping kinetic model involving both reaction inhibition by dissolved intermediates and catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits was proposed to account for the distribution of carbon in the liquid, solid, and the vapor phases.

  14. Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor generated from leather industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) generated in Tannery. • Copper coating on electrode surface and horizontal mounting of electrodes for ERSL treatment. • Electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants under high saline condition. • The treated solution may be evaporated to dryness to get NaCl salt for hide/skin preservation. -- Abstract: The organic and suspended solids present in soak liquor, generated from leather industry, demands treatment. The soak liquor is being segregated and evaporated in solar evaporation pans/multiple effect evaporator due to non availability of viable technology for its treatment. The residue left behind in the pans/evaporator does not carry any reuse value and also faces disposal threat due to the presence of high concentration of sodium chloride, organic and bacterial impurities. In the present investigation, the aqueous evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) was treated by electrochemical oxidation. Graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite systems were used in electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL. Among these, graphite/graphite system was found to be effective over SS304/graphite system. Hence, the optimised conditions for the electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL using graphite/graphite system was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). The mass transport coefficient (km) was calculated based on pseudo-first order rate kinetics for both the electrode systems (graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite). The thermodynamic properties illustrated the electrochemical oxidation was exothermic and non-spontaneous in nature. The calculated specific energy consumption at the optimum current density of 50 mA cm−2 was 0.41 kWh m−3 for the removal of COD and 2.57 kWh m−3 for the removal of TKN

  15. INDUCTION OF LABOUR WITH VAGINAL MISOPROSTOL AND INCIDENCE OF MECONIUM STAINED LIQUOR AND FETAL OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Indira Mani; Ratnakumari; Chaitanya Sravanth

    2016-01-01

    AIM Induction of labour with low dose of misoprostol and detecting the incidence of meconium stained liquor and foetal outcome. DESIGN Prospective randomized control trail conducted at Niloufer Maternity and Children Hospital from January 2013 to September 2014. PARTICIPANTS 150 pregnant women requiring induction of labour. METHODS The women were divided into 2 groups based on BISHOP score as favorable and unfavorable cervix group. Induction deli...

  16. Biocontrol of geosmin-producing Streptomyces spp. by two Bacillus strains from Chinese liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yan; Wu, Qun; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-16

    Streptomyces spp. producing geosmin have been regarded as the most frequent and serious microbial contamination causing earthy off-flavor in Chinese liquor. It is therefore necessary to control the Streptomyces community during liquor fermentation. Biological control, using the native microbiota present in liquor making, appears to be a better solution than chemical methods. The objective of this study was to isolate native microbiota antagonistic toward Streptomyces spp. and then to evaluate the possible action mode of the antagonists. Fourteen Bacillus strains isolated from different Daqu (the fermentation starter) showed antagonistic activity against Streptomyces sampsonii, which is one of the dominant geosmin producers. Bacillus subtilis 2-16 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1-45 from Maotai Daqu significantly inhibited the growth of S. sampsonii by 57.8% and 84.3% respectively, and effectively prevented the geosmin production in the simulated fermentation experiments (inoculation ratio 1:1). To probe the biocontrol mode, the ability of strain 2-16 and 1-45 to produce antimicrobial metabolites and to reduce geosmin in the fermentation system was investigated. Antimicrobial substances were identified as lipopeptides by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF MS) and in vitro antibiotic assay. In addition, strains 2-16 and 1-45 were able to remove 45% and 15% of the geosmin respectively in the simulated solid-state fermentation. This study highlighted the potential of biocontrol, and how the use of native Bacillus species in Daqu could provide an eco-friendly method to prevent growth of Streptomyces spp. and geosmin contamination in Chinese liquor fermentation. PMID:27161758

  17. Development of hydrometallurgical leaching liquor regeneration process by capture of CO2 from pyrometallurgical flue gas

    OpenAIRE

    Wylock, Christophe; Antunano, Nestor; Arias, Pedro Luis; Haut, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    The steelmaking industry that uses electric arc furnaces (EAF) generates as its main residue EAF dust, which must be treated to recycle Zn, Pb and other metals to prevent environmental impacts. Waelz process is the most common technology for this purpose, generating concentrates of Zn and Pb oxides (called Waelz oxides). One of their many applications is the Zn production in Imperial Smelting furnaces. This work deals with the development of a regeneration process of leaching liquors used in ...

  18. EFFECT OF BORIC ACID ON THE EXTRACTION OF BASTNASITE LEACHING LIQUOR BY CYANEX 923

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IntroductionIt is known that bastnasite is one of the mainsources of cerium. Bac it is still a problem forhydrometallurgy of bastnasite because of large amountof fluorine in the ore. Fltiorine in the bastnasiteleaching liquor forms precipitation with trivalent rareearths and leads to emulsion. So several roastingprocesses of bastnasite with alkali have been putforward and chelants have been added tO eliminate theinfluence of fluorinell-4]. The general chelant is boricacid. One new process with Cyanex 923151...

  19. Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor generated from leather industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boopathy, R.; Sekaran, G., E-mail: ganesansekaran@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) generated in Tannery. • Copper coating on electrode surface and horizontal mounting of electrodes for ERSL treatment. • Electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants under high saline condition. • The treated solution may be evaporated to dryness to get NaCl salt for hide/skin preservation. -- Abstract: The organic and suspended solids present in soak liquor, generated from leather industry, demands treatment. The soak liquor is being segregated and evaporated in solar evaporation pans/multiple effect evaporator due to non availability of viable technology for its treatment. The residue left behind in the pans/evaporator does not carry any reuse value and also faces disposal threat due to the presence of high concentration of sodium chloride, organic and bacterial impurities. In the present investigation, the aqueous evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) was treated by electrochemical oxidation. Graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite systems were used in electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL. Among these, graphite/graphite system was found to be effective over SS304/graphite system. Hence, the optimised conditions for the electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL using graphite/graphite system was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). The mass transport coefficient (k{sub m}) was calculated based on pseudo-first order rate kinetics for both the electrode systems (graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite). The thermodynamic properties illustrated the electrochemical oxidation was exothermic and non-spontaneous in nature. The calculated specific energy consumption at the optimum current density of 50 mA cm{sup −2} was 0.41 kWh m{sup −3} for the removal of COD and 2.57 kWh m{sup −3} for the removal of TKN.

  20. A Fuzzy Multi-attribute Decision Making Method for Sensory Evaluation of Tea Liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Haiping Ren; Wanzhen Liu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a new sensory evaluation method of tea liquor. Sensory data are usually expressed with linguistic terms, which are more suitable than crisp numbers under this situation. The proposed evaluation method firstly transforms the linguistic terms into triangular fuzzy numbers and then develops an evaluation method based on the concept of TOPSIS. To illustrate the feasibility and practicability of the proposed method, an applied example is given to verify the new ...

  1. The Effect of Iron Salt on Anaerobic Digestion and Phosphate Release to Sludge Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ofverstrom

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron salts are used at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs for several reasons: for removing chemical phosphorus, preventing from struvite formation and reducing the content of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in biogas. Anaerobic digestion is a common scheme for sludge treatment due to producing biogas that could be used as biofuel. Laboratory analysis has been carried out using anaerobic digestion model W8 (Armfield Ltd, UK to investigate any possible effect of adding FeCl3 on the anaerobic digestion of primary sludge (PS and waste activated sludge (WAS mixture as well as on releasing phosphates to digested sludge liquor. The obtained results showed that FeCl3 negatively impacted the anaerobic digestion process by reducing the volume of produced biogas. Fe-dosed sludge (max produced 30% less biogas. Biogas production from un-dosed and Fe-dosed sludge (min was similar to the average of 1.20 L/gVSfed. Biogas composition was not measured during the conducted experiments. Phosphorus content in sludge liquor increased at an average of 38% when digesting sludge without ferric chloride dosing. On the contrary, phosphate content in sludge liquor from digested Fe-dosed sludge decreased by approx. 80%.

  2. Performance of mice in discrimination of liquor odors: behavioral evidence for olfactory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Noboru; Okuhara, Keisuke; Kuroda, Akio; Kato, Junichi; Ohtake, Hisao

    2008-03-01

    We examined performance of mice in discrimination of liquor odors by Y-maze behavioral assays. Thirsty mice were initially trained to choose the odor of a red wine in the Y-maze. After successful training (>70% concordance for each trained mouse), the individual mice were able to discriminate the learned red wine from other liquors, including white wine, rosé wine, sake, and plum liqueur. However, when the mice were tested to distinguish fine differences between 2 brands of red wine, their performance significantly varied among the individual trained mice. Among 10 mice tested, 2 mice were able to discriminate between the red wines (>75% concordance) whereas 6 mice failed to distinguish between them (50-67% concordance, where chance could be assumed to be 50%). More importantly, 2 other mice exhibited lower than 30% concordance, indicating that they were more attracted to the nonrewarded red wine compared with the learned one. This result suggested that the individual mice directed attention to different subsets of volatile components emanating from the rewarded red wine, when they were trained to choose the liquor odor in the Y-maze. Selective attention of mice was also observed in Y-maze behavioral assays using the mixtures of 3 or less pure odorants. Additionally, we also observed that the olfactory attention of mice could be modified through their learning experiences. PMID:18178544

  3. Uranium and thorium determination in Santa Quiteria liquor by ICP-OES analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedro Junior, A.; Rezende, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Leonel M.; Ferreira, Elizabeth de Massena, E-mail: apjunior@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mineral source of Itataia located in Santa Quiteria (Ceara/Brazil) is a phosphorus uraniferous one, where uranium occurs in collophanite (fluoroapatite) form. Phosphate minerals of the apatite family make possible the uses of uranium as a byproduct. The sulfuric leaching of the phosphate rock in order to obtain phosphoric acid also permits uranium recovery. Thus, the liquor coming from the leaching contains high levels of phosphoric acid as well as elements like Mg, Fe, U, Zr, Th and some rare earths in significant concentrations. The direct determination of U and Th content of this liquor is essential to a rapid response in the uranium separation and purification together process by solvent extraction, aiming its use for commercial purposes, as nuclear industry fuel. In this study U and Th were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP-OES) in several samples of liquor, in high concentrations of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in environment. Several ratios of U/Th and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} concentrations were studied, in order to find the optimal conditions for the direct determination of U and Th, without need to prior separation. (author)

  4. Pretreatment of spent sulphite liquor via ultrafiltration and nanofiltration for bio-based succinic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateraki, Chrysanthi; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Kookos, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2016-09-10

    Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been employed to evaluate the simultaneous production of lignosulphonates and bio-based succinic acid using the bacterial strains Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Ultrafiltration with membranes of 10, 5 and 3kDa molecular weight cut-off results in significant losses of lignosulphonates (26-50%) in the permeate stream, while nanofiltration using membrane with 500Da molecular weight cut-off results in high retention yields of lignosulphonates (95.6%) in the retentate stream. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures using permeates from ultrafiltrated SSL resulted in similar succinic acid concentration (27.5g/L) and productivity (0.4g/L/h) by both strains. When permeates from nanofiltrated SSL were used, the strain B. succiniciproducens showed the highest succinic acid concentration (33.8g/L), yield (0.58g per g of consumed sugars) and productivity (0.48g/L/h). The nanofiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor could lead to the production of 306.3kg of lignosulphonates and 52.7kg of succinic acid, whereas the ultrafiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor using a 3kDa membrane could result in the production of 237kg of lignosulphonates and 71.8kg of succinic acid when B. succiniproducens is used in both cases. PMID:27374402

  5. Uranium and thorium determination in Santa Quiteria liquor by ICP-OES analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral source of Itataia located in Santa Quiteria (Ceara/Brazil) is a phosphorus uraniferous one, where uranium occurs in collophanite (fluoroapatite) form. Phosphate minerals of the apatite family make possible the uses of uranium as a byproduct. The sulfuric leaching of the phosphate rock in order to obtain phosphoric acid also permits uranium recovery. Thus, the liquor coming from the leaching contains high levels of phosphoric acid as well as elements like Mg, Fe, U, Zr, Th and some rare earths in significant concentrations. The direct determination of U and Th content of this liquor is essential to a rapid response in the uranium separation and purification together process by solvent extraction, aiming its use for commercial purposes, as nuclear industry fuel. In this study U and Th were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP-OES) in several samples of liquor, in high concentrations of H3PO4 in environment. Several ratios of U/Th and H3PO4 concentrations were studied, in order to find the optimal conditions for the direct determination of U and Th, without need to prior separation. (author)

  6. Coal combustion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  7. Xylitol production from xylose mother liquor: a novel strategy that combines the use of recombinant Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Xylose mother liquor has high concentrations of xylose (35%-40%) as well as other sugars such as L-arabinose (10%-15%), galactose (8%-10%), glucose (8%-10%), and other minor sugars. Due to the complexity of this mother liquor, further isolation of xylose by simple method is not possible. In China, more than 50,000 metric tons of xylose mother liquor was produced in 2009, and the management of sugars like xylose that present in the low-cost liquor is a problem. Results We designed a novel strategy in which Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa were combined and used to convert xylose in this mother liquor to xylitol, a product of higher value. First, the xylose mother liquor was detoxified with the yeast C. maltosa to remove furfural and 5-hydromethylfurfural (HMF), which are inhibitors of B. subtilis growth. The glucose present in the mother liquor was also depleted by this yeast, which was an added advantage because glucose causes carbon catabolite repression in B. subtilis. This detoxification treatment resulted in an inhibitor-free mother liquor, and the C. maltosa cells could be reused as biocatalysts at a later stage to reduce xylose to xylitol. In the second step, a recombinant B. subtilis strain with a disrupted xylose isomerase gene was constructed. The detoxified xylose mother liquor was used as the medium for recombinant B. subtilis cultivation, and this led to L-arabinose depletion and xylose enrichment of the medium. In the third step, the xylose was further reduced to xylitol by C. maltosa cells, and crystallized xylitol was obtained from this yeast transformation medium. C. maltosa transformation of the xylose-enriched medium resulted in xylitol with 4.25 g L-1·h-1 volumetric productivity and 0.85 g xylitol/g xylose specific productivity. Conclusion In this study, we developed a biological method for the purification of xylose from xylose mother liquor and subsequent preparation of xylitol by C. maltosa-mediated biohydrogenation of xylose

  8. Xylitol production from xylose mother liquor: a novel strategy that combines the use of recombinant Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Mingguo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylose mother liquor has high concentrations of xylose (35%-40% as well as other sugars such as L-arabinose (10%-15%, galactose (8%-10%, glucose (8%-10%, and other minor sugars. Due to the complexity of this mother liquor, further isolation of xylose by simple method is not possible. In China, more than 50,000 metric tons of xylose mother liquor was produced in 2009, and the management of sugars like xylose that present in the low-cost liquor is a problem. Results We designed a novel strategy in which Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa were combined and used to convert xylose in this mother liquor to xylitol, a product of higher value. First, the xylose mother liquor was detoxified with the yeast C. maltosa to remove furfural and 5-hydromethylfurfural (HMF, which are inhibitors of B. subtilis growth. The glucose present in the mother liquor was also depleted by this yeast, which was an added advantage because glucose causes carbon catabolite repression in B. subtilis. This detoxification treatment resulted in an inhibitor-free mother liquor, and the C. maltosa cells could be reused as biocatalysts at a later stage to reduce xylose to xylitol. In the second step, a recombinant B. subtilis strain with a disrupted xylose isomerase gene was constructed. The detoxified xylose mother liquor was used as the medium for recombinant B. subtilis cultivation, and this led to L-arabinose depletion and xylose enrichment of the medium. In the third step, the xylose was further reduced to xylitol by C. maltosa cells, and crystallized xylitol was obtained from this yeast transformation medium. C. maltosa transformation of the xylose-enriched medium resulted in xylitol with 4.25 g L-1·h-1 volumetric productivity and 0.85 g xylitol/g xylose specific productivity. Conclusion In this study, we developed a biological method for the purification of xylose from xylose mother liquor and subsequent preparation of xylitol by C. maltosa

  9. Combustion calorimetry experimental chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sunner, Stig

    1979-01-01

    Combustion Calorimetry deals with expertise knowledge concerning the calorimetry of combustion reactions of an element or compound. After defining the use of units and physical constants, the book discusses the basic principles of combustion calorimetry and the various instruments and calorimeters used in the experiments to measure operations concerning temperatures and its time variations. One paper discusses the theory and design criteria of combustion calorimeter calibration. Another paper discusses the results obtained from a combustion calorimeter after it has measured the energy or entha

  10. Heat regenerative external combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1993-10-01

    A heat regenerative external combustion engine is disclosed. The engine includes fuel inlet means which extends along the exhaust passage and/or combustion chamber in order to preheat the fuel, To provide for preheating by gases in both the combustion chamber and the exhaust passage, the combustion chamber is arranged annularly around the drive shaft and between the cylinders. This configuration also is advantageous in that it reduces the noise of combustion. The engine of the invention is particularly well-suited for use in a torpedo.

  11. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Glarborg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Most fossil fuels contain sulphur and also biofuels and household waste have a sulphur content. As a consequence sulphur species will often be present in combustion processes. In this paper the fate and influence of fuel sulphur species in combustion will be treated. First a description of the...... sulphur compounds in fossil fuels and the possibilities to remove them will be given. Then the combustion of sulphur species and their influence on the combustion chemistry and especially on the CO oxidation and the NOx formation will be described. Finally the in-situ removal of sulphur in the combustion...

  12. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Intan Kusumaningrum*; C. Hanny Wijaya 2); Feri Kusnandar3); Misnawi; Ariza Budi Tunjung Sari

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME), followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O) with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF) method. A total of 28 ar...

  13. Clinical MRI study of influence of unfavourable factors during ante natal period on state of liquor-containing brain spaces in fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI investigations of the fetal brain spaces containing liquor were carried out in 150 high risk pregnant women and 50 healthy pregnant women (controls) with 32-34 weeks gestation. The dependence between the degree of changes in the liquor-containing spaces and the degree of the ante natal unfavourable factors was determined in high-risk pregnant women. The presence of risk factors not always caused pathological changes in the fetal liquor-containing spaces

  14. The aerosol radiative effects of uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodros, John K.; Cucinotta, Rachel; Ridley, David A.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-06-01

    Open, uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste is a potentially significant source of aerosol; however, this aerosol source is not generally included in many global emissions inventories. To provide a first estimate of the aerosol radiative impacts from domestic-waste combustion, we incorporate the Wiedinmyer et al. (2014) emissions inventory into GEOS-Chem-TOMAS, a global chemical-transport model with online aerosol microphysics. We find domestic-waste combustion increases global-mean black carbon and organic aerosol concentrations by 8 and 6 %, respectively, and by greater than 40 % in some regions. Due to uncertainties regarding aerosol optical properties, we estimate the globally averaged aerosol direct radiative effect to range from -5 to -20 mW m-2; however, this range increases from -40 to +4 mW m-2 when we consider uncertainties in emission mass and size distribution. In some regions with significant waste combustion, such as India and China, the aerosol direct radiative effect may exceed -0.4 W m-2. Similarly, we estimate a cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect of -13 mW m-2, with a range of -4 to -49 mW m-2 due to emission uncertainties. In the regions with significant waste combustion, the cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect may exceed -0.4 W m-2.

  15. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  16. Synergistic extraction of uranium from Korean black shale ore leach liquors using amine with phosphorous based extractant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synergistic extraction of uranium using amine combined with phosphorous based extractant systems was described. The present study focused on the continuous extraction processing of uranium to form precipitation under higher pH conditions and higher aqueous phase ratios. To address this, synergistic extraction studies were carried out with P-based extractants as synergists and investigations were done with better pairs with an amine-based extractant system. Finally, all of the developed synergistic extraction methodologies were compared with each other. This showed that Alamine 336 and D2EHPA was the best pair for uranium extraction, offering as much separation as possible from other associated metals. (author)

  17. Xylitol production from xylose mother liquor: a novel strategy that combines the use of recombinant Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Mingguo; Lv Jiyang; Wang Ben; Cheng Hairong; Lin Shuangjun; Deng Zixin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Xylose mother liquor has high concentrations of xylose (35%-40%) as well as other sugars such as L-arabinose (10%-15%), galactose (8%-10%), glucose (8%-10%), and other minor sugars. Due to the complexity of this mother liquor, further isolation of xylose by simple method is not possible. In China, more than 50,000 metric tons of xylose mother liquor was produced in 2009, and the management of sugars like xylose that present in the low-cost liquor is a problem. Results We d...

  18. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  19. Combustion science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction and Review of Thermodynamics Introduction Combustion Terminology Matter and Its Properties Microscopic Overview of Thermodynamics Conservation of Mass and Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics The Second Law of Thermodynamics Summary Stoichiometry and Thermochemistry of Reacting Systems Introduction Overall Reactions Gas Analyses Global Conservation Equations for Reacting Systems Thermochemistry Summary Appendix Reaction Direction and Equilibrium Introduction Reaction Direction and Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Relations Vant Hoff Equation Adi

  20. Combustion powered linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  1. Catalytic Coanda combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J.D.; Smith, A.G.; Kopmels, M.

    1992-09-16

    A catalytic reaction is enhanced by the use of the Coanda effect to maximise contact between reactant and catalyst. A device utilising this principle comprises a Coanda surface which directs the flow of fuel from a slot to form a primary jet which entrains the surrounding ambient air and forms a combustible mixture for reaction on a catalytic surface. The Coanda surface may have an internal or external nozzle which may be axi-symmetric or two-dimensional. (author)

  2. Emissions from RDF combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the emissions from refuse derived fuel (RDF) combustion. The disposal of refuse has during the last years been a matter of increasing concern for many municipalities. The environment options for waste disposal has not been focusing much. This means that first the waste generation must be reduced. Then recycling of a portion of the waste must be considered before a solution with combustion of waste is chosen. Two methods are currently in use for the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) which are the mass burning of unprocessed MSW and RDF. The RDF product consists of the burnable organic fraction of raw MSW. In contrast to mass burning systems, the RDF-system is pre-processing the raw MSW to make a more homogeneous fuel product. By processing the MSW, it is possible to recover RDF and other materials. The RDF process is a low cost approach to resource recovery. RDF is a merchant fuel, and can be used in existing boilers alone or as a supplement to conventional fuels as oil and coal. It is important that the RDF processing technology and RDF quality matches the energy user requirements. The RDF-processing-systems is of great importance to the RDF quality. The paper shows the different steps in the RDF process. 4 refs., 15 figs

  3. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  4. Internal combustion piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.

    1977-07-01

    Current worldwide production of internal combustion piston engines includes many diversified types of designs and a very broad range of sizes. Engine sizes range from a few horsepower in small mobile units to over 40,000 brake horsepower in large stationary and marine units. The key characteristics of internal combustion piston engines considered appropriate for use as prime movers in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are evaluated. The categories of engines considered include spark-ignition gas engines, compression-ignition oil (diesel) engines, and dual-fuel engines. The engines are evaluated with respect to full-load and part-load performance characteristics, reliability, environmental concerns, estimated 1976 cost data, and current and future status of development. The largest internal combustion piston engines manufactured in the United States range up to 13,540 rated brake horsepower. Future development efforts are anticipated to result in a 20 to 25% increase in brake horsepower without increase in or loss of weight, economy, reliability, or life expectancy, predicated on a simple extension of current development trends.

  5. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  6. Development of flameless combustion; Desarrollo de la combustion sin flama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Sauceda, M. Leonardo; Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime Gonzalo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: 8344afc@prodigy.net.mx; jgonzalo@servidor.unam.mx

    2010-11-15

    The paper intends contribute to global warming mitigation joint effort that develops technologies to capture the CO{sub 2} produced by fossil fuels combustion and to reduce emission of other greenhouse gases like the NO{sub x}. After reviewing existing combustion bibliography is pointed out that (a) touches only partial aspects of the collective system composed by Combustion-Heat transfer process-Environment, whose interactions are our primary interest and (b) most specialists think there is not yet a clearly winning technology for CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper the study of combustion is focused as integrated in the aforementioned collective system where application of flameless combustion, using oxidant preheated in heat regenerators and fluent gas recirculation into combustion chamber plus appropriated heat and mass balances, simultaneously results in energy saving and environmental impact reduction. [Spanish] El trabajo pretende contribuir al esfuerzo conjunto de mitigacion del calentamiento global que aporta tecnologias para capturar el CO{sub 2} producido por la combustion de combustibles fosiles y para disminuir la emision de otros gases invernadero como NOx. De revision bibliografica sobre combustion se concluye que (a) trata aspectos parciales del sistema compuesto por combustion-proceso de trasferencia de calor-ambiente, cuyas interacciones son nuestro principal interes (b) la mayoria de especialistas considera no hay todavia una tecnologia claramente superior a las demas para captura y almacenaje de CO{sub 2}. Se estudia la combustion como parte integrante del mencionado sistema conjunto, donde la aplicacion de combustion sin flama, empleando oxidante precalentado mediante regeneradores de calor y recirculacion de gases efluentes ademas de los balances de masa y energia adecuados, permite tener simultaneamente ahorros energeticos e impacto ambiental reducido.

  7. Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, July 1993--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, A.D.; Kwon, T.M.

    1993-12-01

    Regeneration of the Fe{sup II}-EDTA scrubbing liquors for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in flue gas involves removing the nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) compounds accumulated in the liquor. In this paper, the authors investigated a simple regeneration process which selectively precipitates the N-S compounds as potassium salts and then hydrolyzes them to yield ammonium/potassium sulfate as a marketable byproduct. They believe this is the first report on precipitation and hydrolysis characteristics of the N-S compounds in actual waste scrubbing liquor. Precipitation of the N-S compounds was achieved by adding K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the scrubbing liquor. Effects of the amount of added K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the amount of removed N-S compounds, precipitated crystals, and the potassium left over in the scrubbing liquor were studied. Hydrolysis of the precipitated N-S compounds to ammonium sulfate was performed in a sulfuric acid environment. Effects of acidity, concentration of N-S compounds, and temperature on the hydrolysis are discussed. Analysis of the observed hydrolysis pattern showed that the reaction proceeded following first order kinetics in terms of N-S compound concentration.

  8. Utilisation aspects of ashes and green liquor dregs from an integrated semichemical pulp and board mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manskinen, K.

    2013-09-01

    This thesis investigated the properties of bottom and fly ashes originating from a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (120 MW) using two different fuel mixtures (i.e. Fuel mixture A: coal, wood and peat; and B: wood and peat) and of the green liquor dregs originating from the associated semichemical pulp and board mill in relation to the potential utilisation of these residues from various aspects. The total concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg in the bottom ashes were lower than the maximum allowable concentrations for these elements in forest fertilisers. The total Ca concentrations in bottom ashes A (2.4%; d.w.) and B (3.4%; d.w.) were lower than the legal requirement of 6.0% (d.w.) for ash used as a forest fertiliser. The total Ca concentrations in fly ashes A (6.4%; d.w.) and B (11.0%; d.w.) were higher than the minimum limit value of 6.0% (d.w.), but the concentration of As in fly ashes A (46.9 mg/kg d.w.) and B (41.3 mg/kg; d.w.) exceeded the maximum limit value of 40 mg/kg (d.w.). Only bottom ash B could be used as a forest fertiliser, provided some additional Ca is used. The bottom ashes both fulfilled the Finnish regulations on waste recovery in earth construction. Due to the elevated total concentration of PAH (23 mg/kg; d.w.) and extractable concentrations of Mo (3.9 mg/kg; d.w.) and Se (0.2 mg/kg; d.w.) in fly ash A, this residue cannot be used in covered structures. Due to the elevated concentration of PAH (90 mg/kg; d.w.) in fly ash B, this residue cannot be used in covered and paved structures. However, the utilisation of these residues as an earth construction agent is still possible, but an environmental permit would be required. According to the sequential extraction studies, extractable concentrations of most of the elements in the fly ash A were higher than those in the bottom ash A. The extractability of various elements, both in the bottom and fly ashes A, varied widely. Most of the elements did not occur as readily soluble and

  9. Qualitative determination of carbon black in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Bermudez, E; Belai, N; Harp, B Petigara; Yakes, B J; Barrows, J N

    2012-01-01

    Carbon black (C.I. 77266) is an insoluble pigment produced by the partial combustion of hydrocarbons. The pigment is known by several synonyms, including vegetable carbon, lamp black and carbon ash, that correspond to the raw materials and methods used for its production. Vegetable carbon (E153) is permitted for use in colouring food in the European Union. The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has not approved the use of any type of carbon black for colouring food, although the agency batch certifies the pigment as D&C Black No. 2 for use in colouring certain cosmetics. Since carbon black (as vegetable carbon) may be present in food products offered for import into the United States, the USFDA's district laboratories need a qualitative analytical method for determining its presence. We have developed an extraction method for this purpose. A sample is broken down and dissolved with nitric acid. The resulting solution is filtered and treated with hydrochloric acid to dissolve any black iron oxide also present as a colour additive. A black residue remaining on the filter paper indicates the presence of carbon black in the food. We confirmed the presence of carbon black in residues from several standards and food products using Raman spectroscopy. The limit of detection for this method is 0.0001%. PMID:22035229

  10. Post combustion in converter steelmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghbasilasie, H.; Holappa, L.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this work is to study the fundamentals of post combustion and the effect of different process parameters on the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) in converter steelmaking process. The PCR and HTE have been determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE. Based on enthalpy considerations, post combustion of CO gas is regarded as one of the most effective means of increasing the heat supply to the BOP. The thermodynamic study of gas-metal-slag reactions gives the limiting conditions for post combustion inside the converter reactor. Different process parameters influencing both thermodynamic equilibria and kinetic conditions can greatly affect the post combustion ratio. Different features of converter processes as well smelting reduction processes utilizing post combustion have been reviewed. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 26 refs.

  11. Hydrothermal Conversion of Neutral Sulfite Semi-Chemical Red Liquor into Hydrochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Gamgoum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrochar was produced from neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC red liquor as a possible bio-based solid fuel for use in power generation facilities. Hydrothermal conversion (HTC experiments were conducted using a fixed liquor-to-water volume ratio of 1:8 and reaction time of 3 h. Solutions were processed using different chemical additives, pH and temperature conditions to determine the optimum conditions required for producing a high energy content solid fuel. The hydrochar samples produced were analyzed by ultimate, thermogravimetric (TGA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analyses to determine physicochemical properties that are important for utilization as a fuel. The residual process liquids were also analyzed to better understand the effect of HTC process conditions on their properties. It was determined that the optimum conditions for producing a solid fuel was at a reaction temperature of 250 °C, in the presence of acetic acid at pH 3. The maximum energy content (HHV of the hydrochar produced from red liquor at this condition was 29.87 MJ/kg, and its ash content was 1.12 wt.%. This result reflects the effect of increasing reaction temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of the hydrochar. The increase of HTC temperature significantly reduces the ash content of the hydrochar, leads to a significant increase in the carbon content of the hydrochar, and a reduction in both the oxygen and hydrogen content. These effects suggests an increase in the degree of condensation of the hydrochar products, and consequently the formation of a high energy content material. Based on TGA and FTIR analyses, hydrochars prepared at high HTC temperature showed lower adsorbed moisture, hemicellulose and cellulose contents, with enrichment in content of higher temperature volatiles, such as lignin.

  12. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies in the...

  13. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  14. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  15. Automatic analysis of uranium-bearing extracts in amine solvent extraction plants processing sulfate leach liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumentation based on continuous segmented flow analysis is suggested for the control of uranium loading in the amine phase of solvent extraction processing sulfate leach liquors. It can be installed with relatively little capital outlay and operational costs are expected to be low. The uranium(VI) in up to 60 samples of extract (proportional 0.1 to 5 g l-1 U) per hour can be determined. Application of spectrophotometry to the analysis of various process streams is discussed and it is concluded that it compares favourably in several important respects with the use of alternative techniques. (orig.)

  16. Studies on solar flat plate collector evaporation systems for tannery effluent (soak liquor)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SRITHAR K.; MANIA.

    2006-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer analysis of an incompressible, laminar boundary layer over solar flat plate collector evaporation systems for tannery effluent (soak liquor) is investigated. The goveming equations are solved for various liquid to air velocity ratios. Profiles of velocity, temperature and concentration as well as their gradients are presented. The heat transfer and mass transfer coefficients thus obtained are used to evaluate mass of water evaporated for an inclined fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP)solar flat plate collector (FPC) with and without cover. Comparison of these results with the experimental performance shows encouraging trend of good agreement between them.

  17. Pulsating combustion - Combustion characteristics and reduction of emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Annika

    1999-11-01

    In the search for high efficiency combustion systems pulsating combustion has been identified as one of the technologies that potentially can meet the objectives of clean combustion and good fuel economy. Pulsating combustion offers low emissions of pollutants, high heat transfer and efficient combustion. Although it is an old technology, the interest in pulsating combustion has been renewed in recent years, due to its unique features. Various applications of pulsating combustion can be found, mainly as drying and heating devices, of which the latter also have had commercial success. It is, however, in the design process of a pulse combustor, difficult to predict the operating frequency, the heat release etc., due to the lack of a well founded theory of the phenomenon. Research concerning control over the combustion process is essential for developing high efficiency pulse combustors with low emissions. Natural gas fired Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been the experimental objects of this study. In order to investigate the interaction between the fluid dynamics and the chemistry in pulse combustors, laser based measuring techniques as well as other conventional measuring techniques have been used. The experimental results shows the possibilities to control the combustion characteristics of pulsating combustion. It is shown that the time scales in the large vortices created at the inlet to the combustion chamber are very important for the operation of the pulse combustor. By increasing/decreasing the time scale for the large scale mixing the timing of the heat release is changed and the operating characteristics of the pulse combustor changes. Three different means for NO{sub x} reduction in Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been investigated. These include exhaust gas recirculation, alteration of air/fuel ratio and changed inlet geometry in the combustion chamber. All used methods achieved less than 10 ppm NO{sub x} emitted (referred to stoichiometric

  18. The modes of gaseous combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Rubtsov, Nickolai M

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of contemporary problems in combustion science, namely flame propagation, detonation and heterophaseous combustion based on the works of the author. The current problems in the area of gas combustion, as well as the methods allowing to calculate and estimate limiting conditions of ignition, and flame propagation on the basis of experimental results are considered. The book focuses on the virtually inaccessible works of Russian authors and will be useful for experienced students and qualified scientists in the area of experimental studies of combustion processes.

  19. Active Combustion Control Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, research into active combustion control has yielded impressive results in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities and widening the...

  20. Mathematical Modeling in Combustion Science

    CERN Document Server

    Takeno, Tadao

    1988-01-01

    An important new area of current research in combustion science is reviewed in the contributions to this volume. The complicated phenomena of combustion, such as chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer, and gaseous flows, have so far been studied predominantly by experiment and by phenomenological approaches. But asymptotic analysis and other recent developments are rapidly changing this situation. The contributions in this volume are devoted to mathematical modeling in three areas: high Mach number combustion, complex chemistry and physics, and flame modeling in small scale turbulent flow combustion.