WorldWideScience

Sample records for black hole mass

  1. Point mass Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Firouzjaee, Javad T

    2016-01-01

    Real black holes in the universe are located in the expanding accelerating background which are called the cosmological black holes. Hence, it is necessary to model these black holes in the cosmological background where the dark energy is the dominant energy. In this paper, we argue that most of the dynamical cosmological black holes can be modeled by point mass cosmological black holes. Considering the de Sitter background for the accelerating universe, we present the point mass cosmological background in the cosmological de Sitter space time. Our work also includes the point mass black holes which have charge and angular momentum. We study the mass, horizons, redshift structure and geodesics properties for these black holes.

  2. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  3. Black Hole Masses are Quantized

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Mukhanov, Slava

    2011-01-01

    We give a simple argument showing that in any sensible quantum field theory the masses of black holes cannot assume continuous values and must be quantized. Our proof solely relies on Poincare-invariance of the asymptotic background, and is insensitive to geometric characteristics of black holes or other peculiarities of the short distance physics. Therefore, our results are equally-applicable to any other localized objects on asymptotically Poincare-invariant space, such as classicalons. By adding a requirement that in large mass limit the quantization must approximately account for classical results, we derive an universal quantization rule applicable to all classicalons (including black holes) in arbitrary number of dimensions. In particular, this implies, that black holes cannot emit/absorb arbitrarily soft quanta. The effect has phenomenological model-independent implications for black holes and other classicalons that may be created at LHC. We predict, that contrary to naive intuition, the black holes a...

  4. Black hole interior mass formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We argue by explicit computations that, although the area product, horizon radii product, entropy product, and irreducible mass product of the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are universal, the surface gravity product, the surface temperature product and the Komar energy product of the said horizons do not seem to be universal for Kerr-Newman black hole spacetimes. We show the black hole mass formula on the Cauchy horizon following the seminal work by Smarr [Phys Rev Lett 30:71 (1973), Phys Rev D 7:289 (1973)] for the outer horizon. We also prescribe the four laws of black hole mechanics for the inner horizon. A new definition of the extremal limit of a black hole is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Black-hole masses of distant quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview of the methods commonly used to determine or estimate the black hole mass in quiescent or active galaxies is presented and it is argued that the use of mass-scaling relations is both a reliable and the preferred method to apply to large samples of distant quasars. The method uses...... that the black hole masses are very large, of order 1 to 10 billion solar masses, even at the highest redshifts of 4 to 6. The black holes must build up their mass very fast in the early universe. Yet they do not grow much larger than that: a maximum mass of about 10 billion solar masses is also observed....... Preliminary mass functions of active black holes are presented for several quasar samples, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Finally, common concerns related to the application of the mass scaling relations, especially for high redshift quasars, are briefly discussed....

  6. Central black hole masses of galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊军辉

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the stellar velocity dispersions in the host galaxies are used to estimate the central black hole masses for a sample of elliptical galaxies. We find that the central black hole masses are in the range of 10(5.5-9.5) M(○). Based on the estimated masses in this paper and those by Woo & Urry (2002) and the measured host galaxy absolute magnitude,a relation, log(MBH/M(○)) = -(0.25 ± 4.3 × 10-3)MR + (2.98 4 0.208) is found for central black hole mass and the host galaxy magnitude. Some discussions are presented.

  7. The Primordial Black Hole Mass Range

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    We investigate Primoridal Black Hole (PBH) formation by which we mean black holes produced in the early universe during radiation domination. After discussing the range of PBH mass permitted in the original mechanism of Carr and Hawking, hybrid inflation with parametric resonance is presented as an existence theorem for PBHs of arbitrary mass. As proposed in arXiv:1510.00400, PBHs with many solar masses can provide a solution to the dark matter problem in galaxies. PBHs can also explain dark matter observed in clusters and suggest a primordial origin for supermassive black holes in galactic cores.

  8. The primordial black hole mass range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate Primordial Black Hole (PBH) formation by which we mean black holes produced in the early Universe during radiation domination. After discussing the range of PBH mass permitted in the original mechanism of Carr and Hawking, hybrid inflation with parametric resonance is presented as an existence theorem for PBHs of arbitrary mass. As proposed in arXiv:1510.00400, PBHs with many solar masses can provide a solution to the dark matter problem in galaxies. PBHs can also explain dark matter observed in clusters and suggest a primordial origin for Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs) in galactic cores.

  9. Entropy of Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    Observational searches for Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (IMBHs), defined to have masses between 30 and 300,000 solar masses, provide limits which allow up to ten percent of what is presently identified as halo dark matter to be in the form of IMBHs. These concentrate entropy so efficiently that the halo contribution can be bigger than the core supermassive black hole. Formation of IMBHs is briefly discussed.

  10. Some Aspects of Intermediate mass black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaram, C; Arun, Kenath

    2007-01-01

    There is a lot of current astrophysical evidence and interest in intermediate mass black holes, ranging from a few hundred to several thousand solar masses. The active galaxy M82 and the globular cluster in M31, for example, are known to host such objects. Here we discuss several aspects of intermediate mass black holes such as their expected luminosity, spectral nature of radiation, associated jets, etc. We also discuss possible scenarios for their formation including the effects of dynamica...

  11. Desperately Seeking Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    Observational searches for Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs), defined to have masses between 30 and 300,000 solar masses, provide limits which allow up to ten percent of what is presently identified as halo dark matter to be in the form of IMBHs. These concentrate entropy so efficiently that the halo contribution can be bigger than the core supermassive black hole. Formation of IMBHs is briefly discussed.

  12. Estimating Black Hole Masses of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xue-Bing Wu; F. K. Liu; M. Z. Kong; R. Wang; J. L. Han

    2011-03-01

    Estimating black hole masses of blazars is still a big challenge. Because of the contamination of jets, using the previously suggested size–continuum luminosity relation can overestimate the broad line region (BLR) size and black hole mass for radio-loud AGNs, including blazars. We propose a new relation between the BLR size and emission line luminosity and present evidences for using it to get more accurate black hole masses of radio-loud AGNs. For extremely radio-loud AGNs such as blazars with weak/absent emission lines, we suggest the use of fundamental plane relation of their elliptical host galaxies to estimate the central velocity dispersions and black hole masses, if their velocity dispersions are not known but the host galaxies can be mapped. The black hole masses of some well-known blazars, such as OJ 287, AO 0235+164 and 3C 66B are obtained using these two methods and the – relation. The implications of their black hole masses on other related studies are also discussed.

  13. The AGN Black Hole Mass Database

    CERN Document Server

    Bentz, Misty C

    2014-01-01

    The AGN Black Hole Mass Database is a compilation of all published spectroscopic reverberation-mapping studies of active galaxies. We have created a public web interface, where users may get the most up-to-date black hole masses from reverberation mapping for any particular active galactic nucleus (AGN), as well as obtain the individual measurements upon which the masses are based and the appropriate references. While the database currently focuses on the measurements necessary for black hole mass determinations, we also plan to expand it in the future to include additional useful information, such as host-galaxy characteristics. New reverberation mapping results will also be incorporated into the database as they are published in peer-refereed journals.

  14. Mass inflation inside black holes revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass inflation phenomenon implies that black hole interiors are unstable due to a back-reaction divergence of the perturbed black hole mass function at the Cauchy horizon. The mass inflation was initially derived by using the generalized Dray–’t Hooft–Redmount (DTR) relation in the linear approximation of the Einstein equations near the perturbed Cauchy horizon of the Reissner–Nordström black hole. However, this linear approximation for the DTR relation is improper for the highly nonlinear behavior of back-reaction perturbations at the black hole horizons. An additional weak point in the standard mass inflation calculations is in a fallacious using of the global Cauchy horizon as a place for the maximal growth of the back-reaction perturbations instead of the local inner apparent horizon. It is derived the new spherically symmetric back-reaction solution for two counter-streaming light-like fluxes near the inner apparent horizon of the charged black hole by taking into account its separation from the Cauchy horizon. In this solution the back-reaction perturbations of the background metric are truly the largest at the inner apparent horizon, but, nevertheless, remain small. The back reaction, additionally, removes the infinite blue-shift singularity at the inner apparent horizon and at the Cauchy horizon. (paper)

  15. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jenny E

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism. PMID:23250434

  16. The Mass Quantum and Black Hole Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, B

    1999-01-01

    We give a method in which a quantum of mass equal to twice the Planck mass arises naturally. Then using Bose-Einstein statistics we derive an expression for the black hole entropy which physically tends to the Bekenstein-Hawking formula.

  17. Looking for Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    A discussion of the entropy of the universe leads to the suggestion of very many intermediate-mass black holes between thirty and three hundred thousand solar masses in the halo. It is consistent with observations on wide binaries as well as microlensing and considerations of disk stability that such IMBHs constitute all cold dark matter

  18. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Jenny E.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents our ongoing search for the elusive "intermediate-mass" black holes. These would bridge the gap between the approximately ten solar mass "stellar-mass" black holes that are the end-product of the life of a massive star, and the "supermassive" black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses found at the centers of massive galaxies. The discovery of black holes with intermediate mass is the key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from...

  19. Orientation and quasar black hole mass estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Brotherton, Michael S; Runnoe, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a sample of 386 radio-loud quasars with z < 0.75 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in order to investigate orientation effects on black hole mass estimates. Orientation is estimated using radio core dominance measurements based on FIRST survey maps. Black hole masses are estimated from virial-based scaling relationships using H-beta, and compared to the stellar velocity dispersion (sigma_*), predicted using the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of [O III] 5007, which tracks mass via the M-sigma_* relation. We find that the FWHM of Hbeta correlates significantly with radio core dominance and biases black hole mass determinations that use it, but that this is not the case for sigma_* based on [O III] 5007. The ratio of black hole masses predicted using orientation-biased and unbiased estimates, which can be determined for radio-quiet as well as radio-loud quasars, is significantly correlated with radio core dominance. Although there is significant scatter, this mass ratio calculated in th...

  20. Theoretical reevaluations of black hole mass -- bulge mass relation - I. Influences of the seed black hole mass

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakata, Hikari; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Makiya, Ryu; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Enoki, Motohiro; Oogi, Taira; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.

    2016-01-01

    We show influences of the mass of seed black holes on black hole mass -- bulge mass relation at z ~ 0 by using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation combined with large cosmological N-body simulations. We constrain our model to reproduce observed properties of galaxies at z ~ 0. Similar to other semi-analytic models, we place a seed black hole immediately after a galaxy forms. When we set the seed black hole mass to 10^5 M_sun, we find that the model result becomes inconsistent with recen...

  1. Estimation of Black Hole Masses from Steep Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ye Chen; Zhi-Fu Chen; Yi-Ping Qin; You-Bing Li

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we employ a sample of 185 steep-spectrum radio quasars (SSRQs) to estimate their black hole masses from broad emission lines. Our black hole masses are compared with the virial black hole masses estimated by Shen (2010). We find that there is a large deviation between the two kinds of values if the black hole masses are estimated from broad emission line of CIV. However, both values are in agreement if the black hole masses are estimated from broad emission line of MgII or H.

  2. Measurement of Black Hole Mass Radio-Loud Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheng-Yue Su; Z.-F. Chen; R.-L. He; C.-H. Zhang; T.-T. Wang

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we construct a sample of 1585 radio-loud quasars to measure their black hole masses using broad emission lines. We compare our black hole masses with the virial black hole masses measured by Shen et al. (2010).We find that there is a large deviation between them if our black hole mass is measured from the CIV broad emission line. Whereas, if our black hole mass is measured from broad emission line of Mg II or H, both the values are consistent.

  3. Theoretical reevaluations of black hole mass -- bulge mass relation - I. Influences of the seed black hole mass

    CERN Document Server

    Shirakata, Hikari; Okamoto, Takashi; Makiya, Ryu; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Enoki, Motohiro; Oogi, Taira; Kobayashi, Masakazu A R

    2016-01-01

    We show influences of the mass of seed black holes on black hole mass -- bulge mass relation at z ~ 0 by using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation combined with large cosmological N-body simulations. We constrain our model to reproduce observed properties of galaxies at z ~ 0. Similar to other semi-analytic models, we place a seed black hole immediately after a galaxy forms. When we set the seed black hole mass to 10^5 M_sun, we find that the model result becomes inconsistent with recent observational results of black hole mass -- bulge mass relation for dwarf galaxies. Namely, the model predicts that bulges with ~ 10^9 M_sun harbor black holes more massive than observed. On the other hand, when we employ seed black holes with 10^3 M_sun or randomly choose their masses in the range of 10^{3-5} M_sun, the black hole mass -- bulge mass relation obtained from these models are consistent with observational results including dispersions. We find that to obtain more stringent restrictions of the mass of seed ...

  4. Mechanism for the Suppression of Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S. G.; Samarchenko, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    A model for the formation of supermassive primordial black holes in galactic nuclei with the simultaneous suppression of the formation of intermediate-mass black holes is presented. A bimodal mass function for black holes formed through phase transitions in a model with a "Mexican hat" potential has been found. The classical motion of the phase of a complex scalar field during inflation has been taken into account. Possible observational manifestations of primordial black holes in galaxies an...

  5. Final Mass and Spin of Merged Black Holes and the Golden Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Healy, James; Matzner, Richard A; Shoemaker, Deirdre M

    2009-01-01

    We expand our recent study of scattering/hyperbolic mergers of equal mass black holes to include spinning holes and to consider a broader range of initial orbital angular momentum. These encounters are plunge coalescences aimed at minimizing angular momentum radiation losses during the merger, thus maximizing the final spin of the merged black hole. For the optimal case of initial black holes with spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum, we find that the final spin of the black hole can reach a maximum spin a/M_h = 0.98 when extrapolated to maximal spinning merging black holes. We also find that as one approaches the merger/no-merger threshold the encounters produce a golden black hole whose mass M_h/M and spin a/M_h depend on the total initial spin of the merging black holes but not on the initial orbital angular momentum configuration. Furthermore, solutions approaching the golden black hole limit track a spiral in the mass-spin plane of parameters of the final black hole.

  6. A Quintet of Black Hole Mass Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Gultekin, Kayhan; Gebhardt, Karl; Lauer, Tod R; Pinkney, Jason; Aller, M C; Bender, Ralf; Dressler, Alan; Faber, S M; Filippenko, Alexei V; Green, Richard; Ho, Luis C; Kormendy, John; Siopis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    We report five new measurements of central black hole masses based on STIS and WFPC2 observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and on axisymmetric, three-integral, Schwarzschild orbit-library kinematic models. We selected a sample of galaxies within a narrow range in velocity dispersion that cover a range of galaxy parameters (including Hubble type and core/power-law surface density profile) where we expected to be able to resolve the galaxy's sphere of influence based on the predicted value of the black hole mass from the M-sigma relation. We find masses in units of 10^8 solar masses for the following galaxies: NGC 3585, M_BH = 3.4 (+1.5, -0.6); NGC 3607, M_BH = 1.2 (+0.4, -0.4); NGC 4026, M_BH = 2.1 (+0.7, -0.4); and NGC 5576, M_BH = 1.0 (+0.5, -0.3), all significantly excluding M_BH = 0. For NGC 3945, M_BH = 0.09 (+0.17, -0.21), which is significantly below predictions from M-sigma and M-L relations and consistent with M_BH = 0, though the presence of a double bar in this galaxy may present problems for...

  7. Final mass and maximum spin of merged black holes and the golden black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results on the mass and spin of the final black hole from mergers of equal mass, spinning black holes. The study extends over a broad range of initial orbital configurations, from direct plunges to quasicircular inspirals to more energetic orbits (generalizations of Newtonian elliptical orbits). It provides a comprehensive search of those configurations that maximize the final spin of the remnant black hole. We estimate that the final spin can reach a maximum spin a/Mh≅0.99±0.01 for extremal black hole mergers. In addition, we find that, as one increases the orbital angular momentum from small values, the mergers produce black holes with mass and spin parameters (Mh/M,a/Mh) spiraling around the values (M-circumflexh/M,a-circumflex/Mh) of a golden black hole. Specifically, (Mh-M-circumflexh)/M∝e±Bφcosφ and (a-a-circumflex)/Mh∝e±Cφsinφ, with φ a monotonically growing function of the initial orbital angular momentum. We find that the values of the parameters for the golden black hole are those of the final black hole obtained from the merger of a binary with the corresponding spinning black holes in a quasicircular inspiral.

  8. Systematic Errors in Black Hole Mass Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Compilations of stellar- and gas-dynamical measurements of supermassive black holes are often assembled without quantifying systematic errors from various assumptions in the dynamical modeling processes. Using a simple Monte-Carlo approach, I will discuss the level to which different systematic effects could bias scaling relations between black holes and their host galaxies. Given that systematic errors will not be eradicated in the near future, how wrong can we afford to be?

  9. Intermediate mass black holes in AGN disks: I. Production & Growth

    OpenAIRE

    McKernan, B.; Ford, K. E. S.; Lyra, W.; Perets, H. B.

    2012-01-01

    Here we propose a mechanism for efficiently growing intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in disks around supermassive black holes. Stellar mass objects can efficiently agglomerate when facilitated by the gas disk. Stars, compact objects and binaries can migrate, accrete and merge within disks around supermassive black holes. While dynamical heating by cusp stars excites the velocity dispersion of nuclear cluster objects (NCOs) in the disk, gas in the disk damps NCO orbits. If gas damping domi...

  10. Black hole mass decreasing due to phantom energy accretion

    OpenAIRE

    Babichev, E.; Dokuchaev, V.; Eroshenko, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Solution for a stationary spherically symmetric accretion of the relativistic perfect fluid with an equation of state $p(\\rho)$ onto the Schwarzschild black hole is presented. This solution is a generalization of Michel solution and applicable to the problem of dark energy accretion. It is shown that accretion of phantom energy is accompanied with the gradual decrease of the black hole mass. Masses of all black holes tend to zero in the phantom energy universe approaching to the Big Rip.

  11. Central black hole mass determination for blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yu-Hai; Fan Jun-Hui; Huang Yong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we use a method to determine some basic parameters for the (r)-ray loud blazars. The parameters include the central black mass (M), the boosting factor (δ), the propagation angle (φ), the distance along the axis to the site of the (r)-ray production (d). A sample including 32 (r)-ray loud blazars with available variability time scaleshas been used to discuss the above properties. In this method, the (r)-ray energy, the emission size and the property of the accretion disc determine the absorption effect. If we take the intrinsic(γ)-ray luminosity to be λ Times the Eddington luminosity, I.e. Lin(r) =λLedd, then we have the following results: the mass of the black hole is in the range of (0.59 - 67.99) ⊙ (λ= 1.0) or (0.90 - 104.13) ⊙ (λ = 0.1); the boosting factor (δ) in the range of 0.16 - 2.09(λ=1.0) or 0.24 - 2.86 (λ=0.1); the angle (φ) in the range of 9.53 (λ =1.0) or 7.36°=0.1); and the distance (d/Rg) in the range of 22.39 - 609.36 (λ= 1.0) or 17.54 - 541.88 (λ = 0.1).

  12. Central black hole mass determination for blazers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we use a method to determine some basic parameters for the γ-ray loud blazars. The parameters include the central black mass (M), the boosting factor (δ), the propagation angle (Φ), the distance along the axis to the site of the γ-ray production (d). A sample including 32 γ-ray loud blazars with available variability time scales has been used to discuss the above properties. In this method, the γ-ray energy, the emission size and the property of the accretion disc determine the absorption effect. If we take the intrinsic γ-ray luminosity to be λ times the Eddington luminosity, i.e. Lγin = λLEdd, then we have the following results: the mass of the black hole is in the range of (0.59 – 67.99) × 107Msun (λ = 1.0) or (0.90 – 104.13) × 107Msun (λ = 0.1); the boosting factor (δ) in the range of 0.16 – 2.09(λ = 1.0) or 0.24 – 2.86 (λ = 0.1); the angle (Φ) in the range of 9.53° – 73.85° (λ = 1.0) or 7.36° – 68.89° (λ = 0.1); and the distance (d/Rg) in the range of 22.39 – 609.36 (λ = 1.0) or 17.54 – 541.88 (λ = 0.1)

  13. Initial mass function of intermediate mass black hole seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, A; Yue, B; Schleicher, D R G

    2014-01-01

    We study the Initial Mass Function (IMF) and host halo properties of Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBH, 10^{4-6} Msun) formed inside metal-free, UV illuminated atomic cooling haloes (virial temperature T_vir > 10^4 K) either via the direct collapse of the gas or via an intermediate Super Massive Star (SMS) stage. We achieve this goal in three steps: (a) we derive the gas accretion rate for a proto-SMS to undergo General Relativity instability and produce a direct collapse black hole (DCBH) or to enter the ZAMS and later collapse into a IMBH; (b) we use merger-tree simulations to select atomic cooling halos in which either a DCBH or SMS can form and grow, accounting for metal enrichment and major mergers that halt the growth of the proto-SMS by gas fragmentation. We derive the properties of the host halos and the mass distribution of black holes at this stage, and dub it the "Birth Mass Function"; (c) we follow the further growth of the DCBH due to accretion of leftover gas in the parent halo and compute the...

  14. From X-ray binaries to quasars black holes on all mass scales black holes on all mass scales

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, L C; Maccarone, T J

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together contributions from many of the world's leading authorities on black hole accretion. The papers within represent part of a new movement to make use of the relative advantages of studying stellar mass and supermassive black holes and to bring together the knowledge gained from the two approaches. The topics discussed here run the gamut of the state of the art in black hole observational and theoretical work-variability, spectroscopy, disk-jet connections, and multi-wavelength campaigns on black holes are all covered. Reprinted from ASTROPHYSICS AND SPACE SCIENCE, 300:1-3 (2005)

  15. Accretion onto the First Stellar Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Marcelo A; Abel, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The first stars in the universe, forming at redshifts z>15 in minihalos with masses of order 10^6 Msun, may leave behind black holes as their remnants. These objects could conceivably serve as "seeds" for much larger black holes observed at redshifts z~6. We study the growth of the remnant black holes through accretion including for the first time the emitted accretion radiation with adaptive mesh refinement cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. The effects of photo-ionization and heating dramatically affect the accretion flow from large scales, resulting in negligible mass growth of the black hole. We compare cases with the accretion luminosity included and neglected to show that the accretion radiation drastically changes the environment within 100 pc of the black hole, where gas temperatures are increased by an order of magnitude. The gas densities are reduced and further star formation in the same minihalo prevented for the two hundred million years of evolution we followed. These calculation...

  16. Black-Hole Bombs and Photon-Mass Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Berti, Emanuele; Ishibashi, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Generic extensions of the standard model predict the existence of ultralight bosonic degrees of freedom. Several ongoing experiments are aimed at detecting these particles or constraining their mass range. Here we show that massive vector fields around rotating black holes can give rise to a strong superradiant instability which extracts angular momentum from the hole. The observation of supermassive spinning black holes imposes limits on this mechanism. We show that current supermassive blac...

  17. Effects of nonzero neutrino masses on black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the consequences of nonzero neutrino masses for black holes evaporating by the emission of Hawking radiation. We find that the evolution of small, hot, black holes may be unaffected (if neutrinos are Majorana particles) or may show an increase in neutrino luminosity and a decrease in lifetime by up to a factor of 1.85 (if neutrinos are Dirac particles). However, for sufficiently large (e.g., stellar mass) black holes, neutrino emission is largely or entirely suppressed, resulting in a decrease in emitted power and an increase in lifetime by up to a factor of 7.5

  18. Vacum Black Hole Mass Formula Is a Vanishing Noether Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUXiao-Ning; HUANGChao-Guang; 等

    2002-01-01

    The Noether current and its variation relation with respect to diffeomorphism invariance of gravitational theories have been derived from the horizontal variation and vertical-horizontal bi-variation of the Lagrangian,respectively.For Einstein's GR in the stationary,axisymmetric black holes,the mass formula in vacuum can be derived from this Noether current although it definitely vanishes.This indicates that the mass formula of black holes is a vanishing Noether charge in this case.The first law of black hole thermodynamics can also be derived from the variation relation of this vanishing Noether current.

  19. The dependence of quasar variability on black hole mass

    CERN Document Server

    Wold, M; Shang, Z

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the dependence of quasar variability on fundamental physical parameters like black hole mass, we have matched quasars from the QUEST1 Variability Survey with broad-lined objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The matched sample contains approximately 100 quasars, and the Sloan spectra are used to estimate black hole masses and bolometric luminosities. Variability amplitudes are measured from the QUEST1 light curves. We find that black hole mass correlates with several measures of the variability amplitude at the 99% significance level or better. The correlation does not appear to be caused by obvious selection effects inherent to flux-limited quasar samples, host galaxy contamination or other well-known correlations between quasar variability and luminosity/redshift. We evaluate variability as a function of rest-frame time lag using structure functions, and find further support for the variability--black hole mass correlation. The correlation is strongest for time lags of the order...

  20. On the black hole mass decomposition in nonlinear electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jonas P. [ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara (Italy); Dip. di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, 28 Av. de Valrose, 06103 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J. [ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara (Italy); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, Avenida Treze de Maio, 2081, Benfica, Fortaleza/CE, CEP 60040-531 (Brazil); ICRANet-Rio, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-180 (Brazil); Rueda, Jorge A. [ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara (Italy); Dip. di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ICRANet-Rio, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-180 (Brazil); Ruffini, R. [ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara (Italy); Dip. di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ICRANet-Rio, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-180 (Brazil); Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, 28 Av. de Valrose, 06103 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

    2014-06-27

    In the weak field limit of nonlinear Lagrangians for electrodynamics, i.e. theories in which the electric fields are much smaller than the scale (threshold) fields introduced by the nonlinearities, a generalization of the Christodoulou–Ruffini mass formula for charged black holes is presented. It proves that the black hole outer horizon never decreases. It is also demonstrated that reversible transformations are, indeed, fully equivalent to constant horizon solutions for nonlinear theories encompassing asymptotically flat black hole solutions. This result is used to decompose, in an analytical and alternative way, the total mass-energy of nonlinear charged black holes, circumventing the difficulties faced to obtain it via the standard differential approach. It is also proven that the known first law of black hole thermodynamics is the direct consequence of the mass decomposition for general black hole transformations. From all the above we finally show a most important corollary: for relevant astrophysical scenarios nonlinear electrodynamics decreases the extractable energy from a black hole with respect to the Einstein–Maxwell theory. Physical interpretations for these results are also discussed.

  1. On the black hole mass decomposition in nonlinear electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the weak field limit of nonlinear Lagrangians for electrodynamics, i.e. theories in which the electric fields are much smaller than the scale (threshold) fields introduced by the nonlinearities, a generalization of the Christodoulou–Ruffini mass formula for charged black holes is presented. It proves that the black hole outer horizon never decreases. It is also demonstrated that reversible transformations are, indeed, fully equivalent to constant horizon solutions for nonlinear theories encompassing asymptotically flat black hole solutions. This result is used to decompose, in an analytical and alternative way, the total mass-energy of nonlinear charged black holes, circumventing the difficulties faced to obtain it via the standard differential approach. It is also proven that the known first law of black hole thermodynamics is the direct consequence of the mass decomposition for general black hole transformations. From all the above we finally show a most important corollary: for relevant astrophysical scenarios nonlinear electrodynamics decreases the extractable energy from a black hole with respect to the Einstein–Maxwell theory. Physical interpretations for these results are also discussed

  2. Estimates of AGN Black Hole Mass and Minimum Variability Timescale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Zhong Xie; Luo-En Chen; Huai-Zhen Li; Li-Sheng Mao; Hong Dai; Zhao-Hua Xie; Li Ma; Shu-Bai Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Black hole mass is one of the fundamental physical parameters of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), for which many methods of estimation have been proposed.One set of methods assumes that the broad-line region (BLR) is gravitationally bound by the central black hole potential, so the black hole mass can be estimated from the orbital radius and the Doppler velocity. Another set of methods assumes the observed variability timescale is determined by the orbital timescale near the innermost stable orbit around the Schwarzschild black hole or the Kerr black hole,or by the characteristic timescale of the accretion disk. We collect a sample of 21AGNs, for which the minimum variability timescales have been obtained and their black hole masses (Mσ) have been well estimated from the stellar velocity dispersion or the BLR size-luminosity relation. Using the minimum variability timescales we estimated the black hole masses for 21 objects by the three different methods,the results are denoted by Ms, Mk and Md, respectively. We compared each of them with Mσ individually and found that: (1) using the minimum variability timescale with the Kerr black hole theory leads to small differences between Mσand Mk, none exceeding one order of magnitude, and the mean difference between them is about 0.53 dex; (2) using the minimum variability timescale with the Schwarzschild black hole theory leads to somewhat larger difference between Mσ and Ms: larger than one order of magnitude for 6 of the 21 sources, and the mean difference is 0.74 dex; (3) using the minimum variability timescale with the accretion disk theory leads to much larger differences between Mσ and Md, for 13of the 21 sources the differences are larger than two orders of magnitude; and the mean difference is as high as about 2.01 dex.

  3. The bulge luminosity for low-mass black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yanfei; Ho, Luis

    2011-01-01

    We study the scaling between bulge magnitude and central black hole (BH) mass in galaxies with virial BH masses 10^7 solar mass. Specfically, bulges span a much wider range of bulge luminosity, and on average the luminosity is larger, at fixed black hole mass. The trend holds both for the active galaxies from Bentz et al. and the inactive sample of Gultekin et al. and cannot be explained by differences in stellar populations, as it persists when we use dynamical bulge masses. Put another way, the ratio between bulge and BH mass is much larger than $\\sim 1000$ for our sample. This is consistent with recent suggestions that black hole mass does not scale with the pseudobulge luminosity. The low-mass scaling relations appear to flatten, consistent with predictions from Volonteri & Natarajan for massive seed BHs.

  4. Redshift Evolution in Black Hole-Bulge Relations: Testing CIV-based Black Hole Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Jenny E; Ludwig, Randi R

    2009-01-01

    We re-examine claims of redshift evolution in black hole-bulge scaling relations based on lensed quasars. In particular, we refine the black hole mass estimates using measurements of Balmer lines from near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with Triplespec at Apache Point Observatory. In support of previous work, we find a large scatter between Balmer and UV line widths, both MgII 2796, 2803 and CIV 1548, 1550. There is tentative evidence that CIII] 1909, despite being a blend of multiple transitions, may correlate well with MgII, although a larger sample is needed for a real calibration. Most importantly, we find no systematic changes in the estimated BH masses for the lensed sample based on Balmer lines, providing additional support to the interpretation that black holes were overly massive compared to their host galaxies at high redshift.

  5. The mass formula for an exotic BTZ black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Baocheng

    2016-01-01

    An exotic Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole has an angular momentum larger than its mass in three dimension (3D), which suggests the possibility that cosmic censorship could be violated if angular momentum is extracted by the Penrose process. In this paper, we propose a mass formula for the exotic BTZ black hole and show no violation of weak cosmic censorship in the gedanken process above by understanding properly its mass formula. Unlike the other black holes, the total energy of the exotic BTZ black hole is represented by the angular momentum instead of the mass, which supports a basic point of view that the same geometry should be determined by the same energy in 3D general relativity whose equation of motion can be given either by normal 3D Einstein gravity or by exotic 3D Einstein gravity. However, only the mass of the exotic black hole is related to the thermodynamics and other forms of energy are "dumb", which is consistent with the earlier thermodynamic analysis about exotic black holes.

  6. The mass formula for an exotic BTZ black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baocheng

    2016-04-01

    An exotic Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole has an angular momentum larger than its mass in three dimension (3D), which suggests the possibility that cosmic censorship could be violated if angular momentum is extracted by the Penrose process. In this paper, we propose a mass formula for the exotic BTZ black hole and show no violation of weak cosmic censorship in the gedanken process above by understanding properly its mass formula. Unlike the other black holes, the total energy of the exotic BTZ black hole is represented by the angular momentum instead of the mass, which supports a basic point of view that the same geometry should be determined by the same energy in 3D general relativity whose equation of motion can be given either by normal 3D Einstein gravity or by exotic 3D Einstein gravity. However, only the mass of the exotic black hole is related to the thermodynamics and other forms of energy are "dumb", which is consistent with the earlier thermodynamic analysis about exotic black holes.

  7. The evolution of black-hole mass and angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    King, A R

    1999-01-01

    We show that neither accretion nor angular momentum extraction are likely to lead to significant changes in the mass M_1 or angular momentum parameter a_* of a black hole in a binary system with realistic parameters. Current values of M_1 and a_* therefore probably reflect those at formation. We show further that sufficiently energetic jet ejection powered by the black hole's rotational energy can stabilize mass transfer in systems with large adverse mass ratios, and even reduce the mass transfer rate to the point where the binary becomes transient.

  8. Precise Black Hole Masses From Megamaser Disks: Black Hole-Bulge Relations at Low Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, J E; Kim, M; Kuo, C Y; Braatz, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Condon, J J; Lo, K Y; Henkel, C; Reid, M J

    2010-01-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of effort to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M_BH> 10^8 M_sun) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L< L* galaxies. This study transcends prior limitations to probe BHs that are an order of magnitude lower in mass, using BH mass measurements derived from the dynamics of H_2O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al. (2010), yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B&C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the DIS spe...

  9. Mass of Rotating Black Holes in Gauged Supergravities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, W; Pope, C N

    2006-01-01

    The masses of several recently-constructed rotating black holes in gauged supergravities, including the general such solution in minimal gauged supergravity in five dimensions, have until now been calculated only by integrating the first law of thermodynamics. In some respects it is more satisfactory to have a calculation of the mass that is based directly upon the integration of a conserved quantity derived from a symmetry principal. In this paper, we evaluate the masses for the newly-discovered rotating black holes using the conformal definition of Ashtekar, Magnon and Das (AMD), and show that the results agree with the earlier thermodynamic calculations. We also consider the Abbott-Deser (AD) approach, and show that this yields an identical answer for the mass of the general rotating black hole in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. In other cases we encounter discrepancies when applying the AD procedure. We attribute these to ambiguities or pathologies of the chosen decomposition into background...

  10. Formation Scenarios for Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M. Coleman

    2003-01-01

    Black holes with hundreds to thousands of solar masses are more massive than can be formed from a single star in the current universe, yet the best candidates for these objects are not located in gas-rich environments where gradual accretion could build up the mass. Three main formation scenarios have been suggested in the literature: that intermediate-mass black holes are the remnants of the first, metal-poor, stars; that they result from direct collisions in young stellar clusters; or that ...

  11. Cosmological Evolution of Supermassive Black Holes: Mass Functions and Spins

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yan-Rong; Ho, Luis C

    2012-01-01

    We derive the mass function of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) over the redshift range 0mass functions of field galaxies. Applying this mass function, combined with the bolometric luminosity function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), into the the continuity equation of SMBH number density, we explicitly obtain the mass-dependent cosmological evolution of the radiative efficiency for accretion. We suggest that the accretion history of SMBHs and their spins evolve in two distinct regimes: an early phase of prolonged accretion, plausibly driven by major mergers, during which the black hole spins up, then switching to a period of random, episodic accretion, governed by minor mergers and internal secular processes, during which the hole spins down. The transition epoch depends on mass, mirroring other evidence for "cosmic downsizing" in the AGN population.

  12. Towards Precision Supermassive Black Hole Masses using Megamaser Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch, Remco C E van den; Braatz, James A; Constantin, Anca; Kuo, Cheng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Megamaser disks provide the most precise and accurate extragalactic supermassive black hole masses. Here we describe a search for megamasers in nearby galaxies using the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We focus on galaxies where we believe that we can resolve the gravitational sphere of influence of the black hole and derive a stellar or gas dynamical measurement with optical or NIR observations. Since there are only a handful of super massive black holes (SMBH) that have direct black hole mass measurements from more than one method, even a single galaxy with a megamaser disk and a stellar dynamical black hole mass would provide necessary checks on the stellar dynamical methods. We targeted 87 objects from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Massive Galaxy Survey, and detected no new maser disks. Most of the targeted objects are elliptical galaxies with typical stellar velocity dispersions of 250 km/s and distances within 130 Mpc. We discuss the implications of our non-detections, whether they imply a threshold X-ray lumi...

  13. Minimum black hole mass from colliding Gaussian packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the formation of a black hole in the collision of two Gaussian packets. Rather than following their dynamical evolution in detail, we assume a horizon forms when the mass function for the two packets becomes larger than half the flat areal radius, as it would occur in a spherically symmetric geometry. This simple approximation allows us to determine the existence of a minimum black hole mass solely related to the width of the packets. We then comment on the possible physical implications, both in classical and quantum physics, and models with extra spatial dimensions. (orig.)

  14. Gravitational Radiation of Binaries Coalescence into Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑾; 仲元红; 潘宇

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the gravitation waveforms of binaries coalescence into intermediate mass black holes (about 30 times of the solar mass). We focus on the non-spinning intermediate mass black hole located less than 100 Mpc from earth. By comparing two simulation waveforms (effective one body numerical relativity waveform (EOBNR), phenomenological waveform), we discuss the relationship between the effective distance and frequency; and through analyzing large amounts of data in event, we find that the phenomenological waveform is much smoother than EOBNR waveform, and has higher accuracy at the same effective distance.

  15. On the origin of black hole spin in high-mass black hole binaries: Cygnus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Axelsson, Magnus; Davies, Melvyn B; Levan, Andrew J; Ryde, Felix

    2010-01-01

    To date, there have been several detections of high-mass black hole binaries in both the Milky Way and other galaxies. For some of these, the spin parameter of the black hole has been estimated. As many of these systems are quite tight, a suggested origin of the spin is angular momentum imparted by the synchronous rotation of the black hole progenitor with its binary companion. Using Cygnus X-1, the best studied high-mass black hole binary, we investigate this possibility. We find that such an origin of the spin is not likely, and our results point rather to the spin being the result of processes during the collapse.

  16. Depleted galaxy cores and dynamical black hole masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow cores in bright, massive galaxies are commonly thought to be the result of scouring of stars by mergers of binary supermassive black holes. Past investigations have suggested correlations between the central black hole mass and the stellar light or mass deficit in the core, using proxy measurements of M BH or stellar mass-to-light ratios (Y). Drawing on a wealth of dynamical models which provide both M BH and Y, we identify cores in 23 galaxies, of which 20 have direct, reliable measurements of M BH and dynamical stellar mass-to-light ratios (Y*,dyn). These cores are identified and measured using Core-Sérsic model fits to surface brightness profiles which extend out to large radii (typically more than the effective radius of the galaxy); for approximately one-fourth of the galaxies, the best fit includes an outer (Sérsic) envelope component. We find that the core radius is most strongly correlated with the black hole mass and that it correlates better with total galaxy luminosity than it does with velocity dispersion. The strong core-size-M BH correlation enables estimation of black hole masses (in core galaxies) with an accuracy comparable to the M BH-σ relation (rms scatter of 0.30 dex in log M BH), without the need for spectroscopy. The light and mass deficits correlate more strongly with galaxy velocity dispersion than they do with black hole mass. Stellar mass deficits span a range of 0.2-39 M BH, with almost all (87%) being <10 M BH; the median value is 2.2 M BH.

  17. Effective photon mass from black-hole formation

    CERN Document Server

    Emelyanov, Slava

    2016-01-01

    We compute the value of effective photon mass $m_\\gamma$ at one-loop level in QED due to the formation of small spherically symmetric black hole in asymptotically flat spacetime. This effect is associated with the modification of electron/positron propagator during matter collapse. Physical manifestations of black-hole environment are compared with those of hot neutral plasma. We estimate the distance to the nearest black hole from the upper bound on $m_\\gamma$ obtained in the Coulomb-law test. We also find that corrections to electron mass $m_e$ and fine structure constant $\\alpha$ at one-loop level in QED are negligibly small in the weak gravity regime.

  18. Mass and free energy of Lovelock black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Ray, Sourya, E-mail: kastor@physics.umass.edu, E-mail: ray@cecs.cl, E-mail: traschen@physics.umass.edu [Centro de Estudios Cientoficos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

    2011-10-07

    An explicit formula for the ADM mass of an asymptotically AdS black hole in a generic Lovelock gravity theory is presented, identical in form to that in Einstein gravity, but multiplied by a function of the Lovelock coupling constants and the AdS curvature radius. A Gauss' law-type formula relates the mass, which is an integral at infinity, to an expression depending instead on the horizon radius. This and other thermodynamic quantities, such as the free energy, are then analyzed in the limits of small and large horizon radius, yielding results that are independent of the detailed choice of Lovelock couplings. In even dimensions, the temperature diverges in both limits, implying the existence of a minimum temperature for black holes. The negative free energy of sufficiently large black holes implies the existence of a Hawking-Page transition. In odd dimensions, the temperature still diverges for large black holes, which again have negative free energy. However, the temperature vanishes as the horizon radius tends to zero and sufficiently small black holes have positive specific heat.

  19. Tidal disruption of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling ultra-close encounters between a white dwarf and a spinning, intermediate mass black hole requires a full general relativistic treatment of gravity. This paper summarizes results from such a study. Our results show that the disruption process and prompt accretion of the debris strongly depend on the magnitude and orientation of the black hole spin. On the other hand, the late-time accretion onto the black hole follows the same decay, Ṁ ∝  t−5/3, estimated from Newtonian gravity disruption studies. The spectrum of the fallback material peaks in the soft X-rays and sustains Eddington luminosity for 1–3 yrs after the disruption. The orientation of the black hole spin has also a profound effect on how the outflowing debris obscures the central region. The disruption produces a burst of gravitational radiation with characteristic frequencies of ∼3.2 Hz and strain amplitudes of ∼10−18 for galactic intermediate mass black holes.

  20. Evaporation of nonzero rest mass particles from a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytic expressions for the transmission coefficient and the emission and the absorption rates for scalar particles with mass and a chargeless, nonrotating black hole are calculated by using Jacobian elliptic functions and integrals in the Jeffreys--Wentzel--Kramers--Brillouin (JWKB) approximation

  1. Determining Central Black Hole Masses in Distant Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    An empirical relationship, of particular interest for studies of high redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars, between the masses of their central black-holes and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) parameters measured in single-epoch AGN spectra is presented. This relationship is calibrated...... black-hole demographics at high redshift as well as to statistically study the fundamental properties of AGNs. The broad line region size - luminosity relationship is key to the calibrations presented here. The fact that its intrinsic scatter is also the main source of uncertainty in the calibrations...

  2. Super-massive black hole mass scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Alister W; Schombert, James

    2014-01-01

    Using black hole masses which span 10^5 to 10^(10) solar masses, the distribution of galaxies in the (host spheroid stellar mass)-(black hole mass) diagram is shown to be strongly bent. While the core-Sersic galaxies follow a near-linear relation, having a mean M_(bh)/M_(sph) mass ratio of ~0.5%, the Sersic galaxies follow a near-quadratic relation: M_bh~M_sph^(2.22+\\-0.58). This is not due to offset pseudobulges, but is instead an expected result arising from the long-known bend in the M_(sph)-sigma relation and the log-linear M_(bh)-sigma relation.

  3. The large-mass limit of cloudy black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between black holes and fundamental fields has attracted much attention over the years from both physicists and mathematicians. In this paper we study {\\it analytically} a physical system which is composed of massive scalar fields linearly coupled to a rapidly-rotating Kerr black hole. Using simple arguments, we first show that the coupled black-hole-scalar-field system may possess stationary bound-state resonances (stationary scalar `clouds') in the bounded regime $1<\\mu/m\\Omega_{\\text{H}}<\\sqrt{2}$, where $\\mu$ and $m$ are respectively the mass and azimuthal harmonic index of the field, and $\\Omega_{\\text{H}}$ is the angular velocity of the black-hole horizon. We then show explicitly that these two bounds on the dimensionless ratio $\\mu/m\\Omega_{\\text{H}}$ can be saturated in the asymptotic $m\\to\\infty$ limit. In particular, we derive a remarkably simple analytical formula for the resonance mass spectrum of the stationary bound-state scalar clouds in the regime $M\\mu\\gg1$ of large field ...

  4. Black Hole Mass Estimates of Radio Selected Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Oshlack, Alicia; Webster, Rachel; Whiting, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    The black hole (BH) mass in the centre of AGN has been estimated for a sample of radio-selected flat-spectrum quasars to investigate the relationship between BH mass and radio properties of quasars. We have used the virial assumption with measurements of the H$\\beta$ FWHM and luminosity to estimate the central BH mass. In contrast to previous studies we find no correlation between BH mass and radio power in these AGN. We find a range in BH mass similar to that seen in radio-quiet quasars from...

  5. The Correlations of Jet Power with Black Hole Mass and Spin in Radio Loud Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang; Hao-jing, Zhang; Xiong, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    The formation of jets is closely related with the black hole mass and black hole spin, to study the correlations of jet power with the black hole mass and black hole spin is of significant importance for understanding the jet formation and structure. We have collected 65 radio loud quasars from the literature. The sample includes 35 Steep Spectrum Radio Quasars (SSRQs) and 30 Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) with the redshifts ranging from about zero to two. We present here the correlation analysis of jet power with the black hole mass and back hole spin based on the sample data. Our conclusions are as follows: (1) The black hole mass has a strong correlation with the jet power; (2) The black hole spin is also strongly correlated with the jet power, especially for the magnetic field strength B = BEDD, where BEDD is the Eddington magnetic field strength, and the correlation coefficient is higher than that between black hole mass and jet power; (3) There are certain differences between the distributions of spin data of SSRQs and FSRQs; (4) This study has further confirmed that the jet energy is related not only with the black hole mass, but also with the spin energy of the black hole. The formation of black hole jet may be very possibly resulted by the joint effect of black hole mass and black hole spin. These results are consistent with the previous results obtained by other methods.

  6. Dynamical black hole masses of BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Plotkin; S. Markoff; S.C. Trager; S.F. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    We measure black hole masses for 71 BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts out to z∼ 0.4. We perform spectral decompositions of their nuclei from their host galaxies and measure their stellar velocity dispersions. Black hole masses are then derived from the black hole mass -

  7. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Liu, Yan-Chun; Zhu, Qiao

    2014-02-01

    In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole.

  8. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole. (authors)

  9. Mass loss from advective accretion disc around rotating black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Aktar, Ramiz; Nandi, Anuj

    2015-01-01

    We examine the properties of the outflowing matter from an advective accretion disc around a spinning black hole. During accretion, rotating matter experiences centrifugal pressure supported shock transition that effectively produces a virtual barrier around the black hole in the form of post-shock corona (hereafter, PSC). Due to shock compression, PSC becomes hot and dense that eventually deflects a part of the inflowing matter as bipolar outflows because of the presence of extra thermal gradient force. In our approach, we study the outflow properties in terms of the inflow parameters, namely specific energy (${\\mathcal E}$) and specific angular momentum ($\\lambda$) considering the realistic outflow geometry around the rotating black holes. We find that spin of the black hole ($a_k$) plays an important role in deciding the outflow rate $R_{\\dot m}$ (ratio of mass flux of outflow and inflow), in particular, $R_{\\dot m}$ is directly correlated with $a_k$ for the same set of inflow parameters. It is found that ...

  10. Simulating the growth of Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Pacucci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that a population of Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) of mass $M_\\bullet \\approx 10^{4-5} \\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$ might form at high ($z > 10$) redshift by different processes. Such objects would represent the seeds out of which $z > 6$ Super-Massive Black Holes (SMBHs) grow. We numerically investigate the radiation-hydrodynamic evolution governing the growth of such seeds via accretion of primordial gas within their parent dark matter halo of virial temperature $T_{vir} \\sim 10^4 \\, \\mathrm{K}$. We find that the accretion onto a Direct Collapse Black Hole (DCBH) of initial mass $M_0=10^5 \\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$ occurs at an average rate $\\dot{M}_{\\bullet} \\simeq 1.35 \\, \\dot{M}_{Edd} \\simeq 0.1 \\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot} \\, yr^{-1}}$, is intermittent (duty-cycle $ < 50\\%$) and lasts $\\approx 142 \\, \\mathrm{Myr}$; the system emits on average at super-Eddington luminosities, progressively becoming more luminous as the density of the inner mass shells, directly feeding the central obj...

  11. Intermediate Mass Black Holes: Their Motion and Associated Energetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sivaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of current astrophysical evidence and interest in intermediate mass black holes (IMBH, ranging from a few hundred to several thousand solar masses. The active galaxy M82 and the globular cluster G1 in M31, for example, are known to host such objects. Here, we discuss several aspects of IMBH such as their expected luminosity, spectral nature of radiation, and associated jets. We also discuss possible scenarios for their formation including the effects of dynamical friction, and gravitational radiation. We also consider their formation in the early universe and also discuss the possibility of supermassive black holes forming from mergers of several IMBH and compare the relevant time scales involved with other scenarios.

  12. Measuring a Black Hole's Mass with Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    Who needs humans? Robotic observations made by telescopes in the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT) have tracked variability in the active galaxy Arp 151 over 200 days. These observations have proven to be enough information to estimate the mass of the black hole at the galaxys center.Mapping EchoesMeasuring the masses of supermassive black holes is notoriously difficult. Except in the few cases where were able to resolve actual objects orbiting around the supermassive black hole (for instance, in the case of the black hole at the center of the Milky Way), our estimates of black-hole mass must come from indirect measurements.One clever approach is called reverberation mapping. In an active galactic nucleus (AGN), continuum emission from the black holes accretion disk photoionizes gas clouds in the nearby broad-line region, causing the clouds to emit light. In reverberation mapping, we track the time lag between variability in the disks continuum emission and the clouds broad-line emission, obtaining a distance scale. Combining this information with a velocity (provided by the broad-line width) allows us to infer the enclosed mass in this case, that of the black hole.So whats the catch? Getting this information requires a lot of man-hours and telescope-hours, because AGN need to be observed over long periods of time to see the variability and the lags needed to make these inferences. This is where LCOGT comes in.Robotic NetworkArp 151 light curves. The top panel shows the continuum emission from the disk; the remaining panels show various emission lines from the broad-line-region clouds. The variability of the line emission lags slightly behind that of the continuum emission. [Valenti et al. 2015]LCOGT is a completely robotic telescope network. Everything from the scheduling to the telescope alignment is done without human involvement. Because of this feature, the LCOGT is an ideal facility for conducting time-intensive observations of AGN

  13. The black hole mass function derived from local spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present our determination of the nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass function for spiral galaxies in the local universe, established from a volume-limited sample consisting of a statistically complete collection of the brightest spiral galaxies in the southern (δ < 0°) hemisphere. Our SMBH mass function agrees well at the high-mass end with previous values given in the literature. At the low-mass end, inconsistencies exist in previous works that still need to be resolved, but our work is more in line with expectations based on modeling of black hole evolution. This low-mass end of the spectrum is critical to our understanding of the mass function and evolution of black holes since the epoch of maximum quasar activity. The sample is defined by a limiting luminosity (redshift-independent) distance, DL = 25.4 Mpc (z = 0.00572) and a limiting absolute B-band magnitude, MB=−19.12. These limits define a sample of 140 spiral galaxies, with 128 measurable pitch angles to establish the pitch angle distribution for this sample. This pitch-angle distribution function may be useful in the study of the morphology of late-type galaxies. We then use an established relationship between the logarithmic spiral arm pitch angle and the mass of the central SMBH in a host galaxy in order to estimate the mass of the 128 respective SMBHs in this volume-limited sample. This result effectively gives us the distribution of mass for SMBHs residing in spiral galaxies over a lookback time, tL ≤ 82.1 h67.77−1 Myr and contained within a comoving volume, VC = 3.37 × 104 h67.77−3 Mpc3. We estimate that the density of SMBHs residing in spiral galaxies in the local universe is ρ=5.54−2.73+6.55 × 104 h67.773 M☉ Mpc–3. Thus, our derived cosmological SMBH mass density for spiral galaxies is ΩBH=4.35−2.15+5.14 × 10–7 h67.77. Assuming that black holes grow via baryonic accretion, we predict that 0.0020−0.0010+0.0023 h67.773 % of the universal baryonic inventory (

  14. An intermediate-mass black hole candidate in M51?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, H. M.

    2016-05-01

    We present the current results of an investigation into M51 ULX-7, using archival data from XMM-Newton, Chandra and NuSTAR, and optical and radio data from HST and VLA. The source has a consistently hard power-law X-ray spectrum and high short-term variability. This is unusual variability behaviour for a ULX, as we would expect highly variable ULXs to have soft energy spectra. The power spectrum features a break at ˜ 10-3 Hz, from low frequency spectral index α=0.1 to high frequency spectral index α=0.8, analogous to the low frequency break found in power spectra of black holes accreting in the low/hard state. We do not observe a corresponding high frequency break, however taking the white noise level as a frequency lower limit of the break, we can calculate a black hole mass upper limit of 9.12×104 M⊙, assuming that the ULX is in the low/hard state. While there is no radio detection, we find a flux density upper limit of 87 μJy/beam. Using the X-ray/radio fundamental plane, we calculate a black hole mass upper limit of 1.95×105 M⊙. Therefore, this ULX is consistent with being an IMBH accreting in the low/hard state.

  15. Intermediate mass black holes in AGN disks: I. Production & Growth

    CERN Document Server

    McKernan, B; Lyra, W; Perets, H B

    2012-01-01

    Here we propose a mechanism for efficiently growing intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in disks around supermassive black holes. Stellar mass objects can efficiently agglomerate when facilitated by the gas disk. Stars, compact objects and binaries can migrate, accrete and merge within disks around supermassive black holes. While dynamical heating by cusp stars excites the velocity dispersion of nuclear cluster objects (NCOs) in the disk, gas in the disk damps NCO orbits. If gas damping dominates, NCOs remain in the disk with circularized orbits and large collision cross-sections. IMBH seeds can grow extremely rapidly by collisions with disk NCOs at low relative velocities, allowing for super-Eddington growth rates. Once an IMBH seed has cleared out its feeding zone of disk NCOs, growth of IMBH seeds can become dominated by gas accretion from the AGN disk. However, the IMBH can migrate in the disk and expand its feeding zone, permitting a super-Eddington accretion rate to continue. Growth of IMBH seeds via N...

  16. On the masses of black-holes in radio-loud quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Minfeng; Cao, Xinwu; Jiang, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    The central black-hole masses of a sample of radio-loud quasars are estimated by using the data of $H_{\\beta}$ line-width and the optical continuum luminosity. The vast majority of the quasars in this sample have black-hole masses larger than $10^{8} M_{\\odot}$, while a few quasars may contain relatively smaller black-holes. We found a significant anti-correlation between the radio-loudness and the central black-hole mass. It might imply that the jet formation is governed by the black-hole mass.

  17. Mass of Kerr-Newman black holes in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, M.; Compère, G.; Oliveri, R.; Vandevoorde, N.

    2016-07-01

    The explicit solution for a Kerr-Newman black hole immersed in an external magnetic field, sometimes called the Melvin-Kerr-Newman black hole, has been derived by Ernst and Wild in 1976. In this paper, we clarify the first law and Smarr formula for black holes in a magnetic field. We then define the unique mass which is integrable and reduces to the Kerr-Newman mass in the absence of magnetic field. This defines the thermodynamic potentials of the black hole. Quite strikingly, the mass coincides with the standard Christodoulou-Ruffini mass of a black hole as a function of the entropy, angular momentum and electric charge.

  18. The Mass of Kerr-Newman Black Holes in an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Astorino, M; Oliveri, R; Vandevoorde, N

    2016-01-01

    The explicit solution for a Kerr-Newman black hole immersed in an external magnetic field, sometimes called the Melvin-Kerr-Newman black hole, has been derived by Ernst and Wild in 1976. In this paper, we clarify the first law and Smarr formula for black holes in a magnetic field. We then define the unique mass which is integrable and reduces to the Kerr-Newman mass in the absence of magnetic field. This defines the thermodynamic potentials of the black hole. Quite strikingly, the mass coincides with the standard Christodoulou-Ruffini mass of a black hole as a function of the entropy, angular momentum and electric charge.

  19. Searching for intermediate-mass black holes with gravitational microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kains, Noé; Bramich, Dan; Sahu, Kailash C.; Calamida, Annalisa

    2016-06-01

    Despite a lot of indirect observational evidence, no intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) has been detected unambiguously so far. A clear detection would shed light on the possible role of IMBHs in the formation of supermassive black holes, and on the evolution of Galaxies. This could be achieved with gravitational microlensing. We present the results of simulations to estimate the expected astrometric microlensing rates by IMBHs in globular clusters, and show that microlensing has the potential to detect signals that can be unambiguously attributed to an IMBH in several Galactic globular clusters. We also discuss the implication of our simulations for archival studies with available Hubble Space Telescope data, and the impact of JWST and WFIRST on possible future detections.

  20. Black Holes: Physics and Astrophysics - Stellar-mass, supermassive and primordial black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.

    2004-01-01

    I present an elementary primer of black hole physics, including its general relativity basis, all peppered with astrophysical illustrations. Following a brief review of the process stellar collapse to a black hole, I discuss the gravitational redshift, particle trajectories in gravitational fields, the Schwarzschild and Kerr solutions to Einstein's equations, orbits in Schwarzschild and in Kerr geometry, and the dragging of inertial frames. I follow with a brief review of galactic X-ray binar...

  1. The mass of the black hole in 3C 273

    OpenAIRE

    Paltani, S.; Turler, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we apply the reverberation method to determine the mass of the black hole in 3C273 from the Ly a and C iv emission lines using archival IUE observations. Following the standard assumptions of the method, we find a maximum-likelihood estimate of the mass of 6.59 10^9 Mo, with a 1 sigma confidence interval 5.69-8.27 10^9 Mo. This estimate is more than one order of magnitude larger than that obtained in a previous study using Balmer lines. We reanalyze the optical data and show tha...

  2. The mass of the black hole in 3C 273

    CERN Document Server

    Paltani, S

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we apply the reverberation method to determine the mass of the black hole in 3C273 from the Ly a and C iv emission lines using archival IUE observations. Following the standard assumptions of the method, we find a maximum-likelihood estimate of the mass of 6.59 10^9 Mo, with a 1 sigma confidence interval 5.69-8.27 10^9 Mo. This estimate is more than one order of magnitude larger than that obtained in a previous study using Balmer lines. We reanalyze the optical data and show that the method applied to the Ha, Hb, and Hg Balmer lines produce mass estimates lower by a factor 2.5, but already much larger than the previous estimate derived from the same lines. The finding of such a high mass in a face-on object is a strong indication that the gas motion is not confined to the accretion disk. The new mass estimate makes 3C273 accreting with an accretion rate about six times lower than the Eddington rate. We discuss the implications of our result for the broad-line-region size and black-hole mass vs l...

  3. Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Baragoya, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Belletoile, A; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet-Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglia, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chelkowski, S; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clark, D E; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Del Pozzo, W; del Prete, M; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Diaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endroczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gaspar, M E; Gemme, G; Geng, R; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; Gonzalez, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, N; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Ha, T; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kranz, O; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Krolak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, J; Li, T G F; Liguori, N; Lindquist, P E; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Luan, J; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lundgren, A P; Macdonald, E; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marandi, A; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Marka, S; Marka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McKechan, D J A; McWilliams, S; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Mori, T; Morriss, S R; Mosca, S; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Muller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Necula, V; Nelson, J; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nishizawa, A; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Page, A; Pagliaroli, G; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Peiris, P; Pekowsky, L; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Phelps, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pietka, M; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Pold, J; Postiglione, F; Prato, M; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Quetschke, V; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Racz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rakhmanov, M; Rankins, B; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Redwine, K; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, C; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosinska, D; Rover, C; Rowan, S; Rudiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sainathan, P; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Santamaria, L; Santiago-Prieto, I; Santostasi, G; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R L; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Sintes, A M; Skelton, G R; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Soto, J; Speirits, F C; Sperandio, L; Stefszky, M; Stein, A J; Stein, L C; Steinert, E; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S E; Stroeer, A S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sung, M; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Taffarello, L; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, J R; Taylor, R; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Thuring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C; Torrie, C I; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tseng, K; Ugolini, D; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasuth, M; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Veltkamp, C; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A; Villar, A E; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vitale, S; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Wan, Y; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Wanner, A; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Williams, R; Willke, B; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, K; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yeaton-Massey, D; Yoshida, S; Yu, P; Yvert, M; Zadrozny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100--450 solar masses and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88+88 solar masses, for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc^3 per Myr at the 90% confidence level.

  4. Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100-450 solar Mass and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88 + 88 solar Mass , for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc(exp 3) per Myr at the 90% confidence level.

  5. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  6. Radio Detections During Two State Transitions of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole HLX-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (approx. 3 to 20 solar masses) as well as supermassive black holes (approx.. 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (approx. 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) Solar Mass), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between approx. 9 × 10(exp 3) Solar Mass and approx. 9 × 10(exp 4) Solar Mass.

  7. Mergers of accreting stellar-mass black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Hiromichi; Gouda, Naoteru

    2016-01-01

    We present post-Newtonian $N$-body simulations on mergers of accreting stellar-mass black holes (BHs), where such general relativistic effects as the pericentre shift and gravitational wave emission are taken into consideration. To elucidate the key physics that regulates mergers of BHs, the dynamical friction and the mass accretion by ambient gas are incorporated. We consider a system composed of ten black holes with initial mass of $30~M_\\odot$. As a result, we show that mergers of accreting stellar-mass BHs are classified into four types: a gas drag-driven, an interplay-driven, a three body-driven, or an accretion-driven merger. We find that BH mergers proceed before significant mass accretion, even if the accretion rate is $\\sim10$ Eddington accretion rate, and then all BHs can merge into one heavy BH. More specifically, using the simulation results for a wide range of parameters, we derive a critical accretion rate ($\\dot{m}_{\\rm c}$), below which the BH growth is promoted faster by mergers: $\\dot{m}_{\\r...

  8. Powerful, Rotating Disk Winds from Stellar-mass Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Kaastra, J.; Kallman, T.; King, A. L.; Proga, D.; Raymond, J.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of ionized X-ray disk winds observed in the Fe K band of four stellar-mass black holes observed with Chandra, including 4U 1630-47, GRO J1655-40, H 1743-322, and GRS 1915+105. High-resolution photoionization grids were generated in order to model the data. Third-order gratings spectra were used to resolve complex absorption profiles into atomic effects and multiple velocity components. The Fe XXV line is found to be shaped by contributions from the intercombination line...

  9. Stellar and Intermediate-Mass Black Holes in the Milky Way and Nearby Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of high resolution X-ray telescopes, the ability to identify extragalactic black holes has greatly enhanced our understanding of massive compact objects, as we are no longer limited to the rather meager Milky Way black hole population. The greatly increased numbers have opened up opportunities to find new modes of compact object accretion and potentially long-sought evidence for intermediate-mass black holes. In this lecture series, the current state of knowledge of stellar- and intermediate-mass black holes is reviewed, particularly in regards to black hole populations in external galaxies.

  10. Are black holes totally black?

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A

    2014-01-01

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  11. Dynamical black hole masses of BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, R. M.; Markoff, S.; Trager, S. C.; Anderson, S. F.

    2011-01-01

    We measure black hole masses for 71 BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts out to z similar to 0.4. We perform spectral decompositions of their nuclei from their host galaxies and measure their stellar velocity dispersions. Black hole masses are then derived from the black h

  12. Dynamical Black Hole Masses of BL Lac Objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Trager, Scott C.; Anderson, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    We measure black hole masses for 71 BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with redshifts out to z ∼ 0.4. We perform spectral decompositions of their nuclei from their host galaxies and measure their stellar velocity dispersions. Black hole masses are then derived from the black hol

  13. BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES AND RAPID GROWTH OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN LUMINOUS z ∼ 3.5 QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new near-infrared (IR) observations of the Hβ λ4861 and Mg II λ2798 lines for 32 luminous quasars with 3.2 < z < 3.9 using the Palomar Hale 200 inch telescope and the Large Binocular Telescope. We find that the Mg II FWHM is well correlated with the Hβ FWHM, confirming itself as a good substitute for the Hβ FWHM in the black hole mass estimates. The continuum luminosity at 5100 Å well correlates with the continuum luminosity at 3000 Å and the broad emission line luminosities (Hβ and Mg II). With simultaneous near-IR spectroscopy of the Hβ and Mg II lines to exclude the influences of flux variability, we are able to evaluate the reliability of estimating black hole masses based on the Mg II line for high redshift quasars. With the reliable Hβ line based black hole mass and Eddington ratio estimates, we find that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in our sample have black hole masses 1.90 × 109 M ☉ ≲ M BH ≲ 1.37 × 1010 M ☉, with a median of ∼5.14 × 109 M ☉ and are accreting at Eddington ratios between 0.30 and 3.05, with a median of ∼1.12. Assuming a duty cycle of 1 and a seed black hole mass of 104 M ☉, we show that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in this sample can grow to their estimated black hole masses within the age of the universe at their redshifts

  14. BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES AND RAPID GROWTH OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN LUMINOUS z ∼ 3.5 QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Wenwen; Wu, Xue-Bing [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fan, Xiaohui; Green, Richard [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wang, Ran [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Bian, Fuyan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2015-02-01

    We present new near-infrared (IR) observations of the Hβ λ4861 and Mg II λ2798 lines for 32 luminous quasars with 3.2 < z < 3.9 using the Palomar Hale 200 inch telescope and the Large Binocular Telescope. We find that the Mg II FWHM is well correlated with the Hβ FWHM, confirming itself as a good substitute for the Hβ FWHM in the black hole mass estimates. The continuum luminosity at 5100 Å well correlates with the continuum luminosity at 3000 Å and the broad emission line luminosities (Hβ and Mg II). With simultaneous near-IR spectroscopy of the Hβ and Mg II lines to exclude the influences of flux variability, we are able to evaluate the reliability of estimating black hole masses based on the Mg II line for high redshift quasars. With the reliable Hβ line based black hole mass and Eddington ratio estimates, we find that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in our sample have black hole masses 1.90 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} ≲ M {sub BH} ≲ 1.37 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, with a median of ∼5.14 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and are accreting at Eddington ratios between 0.30 and 3.05, with a median of ∼1.12. Assuming a duty cycle of 1 and a seed black hole mass of 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, we show that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in this sample can grow to their estimated black hole masses within the age of the universe at their redshifts.

  15. Shedding light on the black hole mass spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Spera, Mario; Mapelli, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The mass spectrum of stellar black holes (BHs) is highly uncertain. Theoretical models of BH formation strongly depend on the efficiency of stellar winds of the progenitor star and on the supernova (SN) explosion mechanism. We discuss the BH mass spectrum we obtain using SEVN, a new public population-synthesis code that includes up-to-date stellar-wind prescriptions and several SN explosion models. Our models indicate a sub-solar metallicity environment for the progenitors of the gravitational wave source GW150914. We show that our models predict substantially larger BH masses (up to ~100 Msun) than other population synthesis codes, at low metallicity. In this proceeding, we also discuss the impact of pair-instability SNe on our previously published models.

  16. The mass of the black hole in LMC X-3

    CERN Document Server

    Val-Baker, A K F; Negueruela, I

    2016-01-01

    New high resolution, optical spectroscopy of the high mass X-ray binary LMC X-3, shows the spectral type of the donor star changes with phase due to irradiation by the X-ray source. We find the spectral type is likely to be B5V, and only appears as B3V when viewing the heated side of the donor. Combining our measurements with those previously published, and taking into account the effects of X-ray irradiation, results in a value for the donor star radial velocity semi-amplitude of 256.7 +/- 4.9 km/s. We find the mass of the black hole lies in the range 9.5 - 13.6 solar masses.

  17. An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole Candidate in M51?

    CERN Document Server

    Earnshaw, H M

    2015-01-01

    We present the current results of an investigation into M51 ULX-7, using archival data from XMM-Newton, Chandra and NuSTAR, and optical and radio data from HST and VLA. The source has a consistently hard power-law X-ray spectrum and high short-term variability. This is unusual variability behaviour for a ULX, as we would expect highly variable ULXs to have soft energy spectra. The power spectrum features a break at ~1e-3 Hz, from low frequency spectral index alpha=0.1 to high frequency spectral index alpha=0.8, analogous to the low frequency break found in power spectra of black holes accreting in the low/hard state. We do not observe a corresponding high frequency break, however taking the white noise level as a frequency lower limit of the break, we can calculate a black hole mass upper limit of 9.12e4 solar masses, assuming that the ULX is in the low/hard state. While there is no radio detection, we find a flux density upper limit of 87 micro-Jy/beam. Using the X-ray/radio fundamental plane, we calculate a...

  18. LOW-MASS AGNs AND THEIR RELATION TO THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF BLACK HOLE ACCRETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We put active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with low-mass black holes on the fundamental plane of black hole accretion—the plane that relates X-ray emission, radio emission, and mass of an accreting black hole—to test whether or not the relation is universal for both stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. We use new Chandra X-ray and Very Large Array radio observations of a sample of black holes with masses less than 106.3 M ☉, which have the best leverage for determining whether supermassive black holes and stellar-mass black holes belong on the same plane. Our results suggest that the two different classes of black holes both belong on the same relation. These results allow us to conclude that the fundamental plane is suitable for use in estimating supermassive black hole masses smaller than ∼107 M ☉, in testing for intermediate-mass black holes, and in estimating masses at high accretion rates

  19. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-01

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes. PMID:22158244

  20. Phantom Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, C. J.; Zhang, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    The exact solutions of electrically charged phantom black holes with the cosmological constant are constructed. They are labelled by the mass, the electrical charge, the cosmological constant and the coupling constant between the phantom and the Maxwell field. It is found that the phantom has important consequences on the properties of black holes. In particular, the extremal charged phantom black holes can never be achieved and so the third law of thermodynamics for black holes still holds. ...

  1. Critical collapse and the primordial black hole initial mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Green, A M; Green, Anne M; Liddle, Andrew R

    1999-01-01

    It has normally been assumed that primordial black holes (PBHs) always form with mass approximately equal to the mass contained within the horizon at that time. Recent work studying the application of critical phenomena in gravitational collapse to PBH formation has shown that in fact, at a fixed time, PBHs with a range of masses are formed. We use the excursion set formalism to compute the PBH initial mass function, allowing for PBH formation at a range of horizon masses, for two forms of the density perturbation spectrum. First we examine power-law spectra with $n>1$, where PBHs form on small scales. We find that, in the limit where the number of PBHs formed is small enough to satisfy the observational constraints on their initial abundance, the mass function approaches that found by Niemeyer and Jedamzik under the assumption that all PBHs form at a single horizon mass. Second, we consider a flat perturbation spectrum with a spike at a scale corresponding to horizon mass $\\sim 0.5 M_{\\odot}$, and compare th...

  2. BlackCAT: A catalogue of stellar-mass black holes in X-ray transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Santana, J. M.; Casares, J.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Bauer, F. E.; Martínez-Pais, I. G.; Russell, D. M.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: During the last ~50 years, the population of black hole candidates in X-ray binaries has increased considerably, with 59 Galactic objects being detected in transient low-mass X-ray binaries, as well as a few in persistent systems (including ~5 extragalactic binaries). Methods: We collect near-infrared, optical, and X-ray information spread over hundreds of references to study the population of black holes in X-ray transients as a whole. Results: We present the most updated catalogue of black hole transients. This contains X-ray, optical, and near-infrared observations, together with their astrometric and dynamical properties. The catalogue provides new and useful information in both statistical and observational parameters and provides a thorough and complete overview of the black hole population in the Milky Way. Analysing the distances and spatial distribution of the observed systems, we estimate a total population of ~1300 Galactic black hole transients. This means that we have only discovered less than ~5% of the total Galactic distribution. The complete version of this catalogue will be continuously updated at http://www.astro.puc.cl/BlackCAT and in the Virtual Observatory, including finding charts and data in other wavelengths.Tables A.1 to A.4 are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A61

  3. Production of high stellar-mass primordial black holes in trapped inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Shu-Lin; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2016-01-01

    Trapped inflation has been proposed to provide a successful inflation with a steep potential. We discuss the formation of primordial black holes in the trapped inflationary scenario. We argue that primordial black holes are naturally produced in a trapped inflation. In particular, we have given an inflaton potenial with which particle production can induce large non-Gaussian curvature perturbation that leads to the formation of high stellar-mass primordial black holes. These primordial black holes could be the dark matter observed by the LIGO detectors through a binary black-hole merger.

  4. Running-Mass Inflation Model and Primordial Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Drees, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the question whether the running-mass inflation model allows the formation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) that are sufficiently long-lived to serve as candidates for Dark Matter. We incorporate recent cosmological data, including the WMAP 7-year results. Moreover, we include ``the running of the running'' of the spectral index of the power spectrum, as well as the renormalization group ``running of the running'' of the inflaton mass term. Our analysis indicates that formation of sufficiently heavy, and hence long-lived, PBHs still remains possible in this scenario. As a by-product, we show that the additional term in the inflaton potential still does not allow significant negative running of the spectral index.

  5. Production of high stellar-mass primordial black holes in trapped inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Shu-Lin; Lee, Wolung; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2016-01-01

    Trapped inflation has been proposed to provide a successful inflation with a steep potential. We discuss the formation of primordial black holes in the trapped inflationary scenario. We argue that primordial black holes are naturally produced in a trapped inflation. In particular, we have given an inflaton potenial with which particle production can induce large non-Gaussian curvature perturbation that leads to the formation of high stellar-mass primordial black holes. These primordial black ...

  6. Do ULXs Really Contain Intermediate-mass Black Holes?

    CERN Document Server

    Mineshige, K V S; Kawaguchi, T; Mineshige, Kiki Vierdayanti & Shin; Ebisawa, Ken; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro

    2006-01-01

    It still remains an open question if the Ultraluminous X-ray Sources (ULXs) really contain intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). To settle down this vital issue, we have carefully investigated the XMM-Newton EPIC spectra of the four ULXs which were claimed as strong candidates of IMBHs by several authors. We first tried fitting by the standard spectral model of disk blackbody (DBB) + power-law (PL), finding good fits to all the data, in agreement with others. We, however, find that the PL component dominates the DBB component at ~ 0.3 to 10 keV. Thus, the black hole parameters derived solely from the minor DBB component are questionable. Next, we tried to fit the same data by the ``p-free disk model'' without the PL component, assuming the effective temperature profile of $T_{\\rm eff} \\propto r^{-p}$ where $r$ is the disk radius. Interestingly, in spite of one less free model parameters, we obtained similarly good fits with much higher innermost disk temperatures, $1.8 < kT_{\\rm in} < 3.2$ keV. More im...

  7. Calculating the mass fraction of primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reinspect the calculation for the mass fraction of primordial black holes (PBHs) which are formed from primordial perturbations, finding that performing the calculation using the comoving curvature perturbation Rc in the standard way vastly overestimates the number of PBHs, by many orders of magnitude. This is because PBHs form shortly after horizon entry, meaning modes significantly larger than the PBH are unobservable and should not affect whether a PBH forms or not—this important effect is not taken into account by smoothing the distribution in the standard fashion. We discuss alternative methods and argue that the density contrast, Δ, should be used instead as super-horizon modes are damped by a factor k2. We make a comparison between using a Press-Schechter approach and peaks theory, finding that the two are in close agreement in the region of interest. We also investigate the effect of varying the spectral index, and the running of the spectral index, on the abundance of primordial black holes

  8. Dark matter annihilation around intermediate mass black holes: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation and evolution of black holes (BHs) inevitably affects the distribution of dark and baryonic matter in the neighborhood of the BH. These effects may be particularly relevant around Supermassive and Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs), the formation of which can lead to large dark matter (DM) overdensities, called spikes and mini-spikes, respectively. Despite being larger and more dense, spikes evolve at the very centers of galactic halos, in regions where numerous dynamical effects tend to destroy them. Mini-spikes may be more likely to survive, and they have been proposed as worthwhile targets for indirect DM searches. We review here the formation scenarios and the prospects for detection of mini-spikes, and we present new estimates for the abundances of mini-spikes to illustrate the sensitivity of such predictions to cosmological parameters and uncertainties regarding the astrophysics of BH formation at high redshift. We also connect the IMBHs scenario to the recent measurements of cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra by the PAMELA, ATIC, H.E.S.S. and Fermi collaborations.

  9. Structure and Mass Absorption of Hypothetical Terrestrial Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    VanDevender, A. P.; VanDevender, J. Pace

    2011-01-01

    The prospect of mini black holes, either primordial or in planned experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, interacting with the earth motivate us to examine how they may be detected and the scope of their impact on the earth. We propose that the more massive of these objects may gravitationally bind matter without significant absorption. Since the wave functions of gravitationally bound atoms orbiting a black hole are analogous to those of electrons around a nucleus, we call such an object t...

  10. Stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, Rob; Belloni, Tomaso

    2012-08-01

    We review the likely population, observational properties, and broad implications of stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources. We focus on the clear empirical rules connecting accretion and outflow that have been established for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems in the past decade and a half. These patterns of behavior are probably the keys that will allow us to understand black hole feedback on the largest scales over cosmological time scales. PMID:22859481

  11. The Black Hole Mass Function Derived from Local Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Benjamin L; Johns, Lucas; Shields, Douglas W; Hartley, Matthew T; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia; Seigar, Marc S; Lacy, Claud H S

    2014-01-01

    We present our determination of the nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass function for spiral galaxies in the Local Universe, established from a volume-limited sample consisting of a statistically complete collection of the brightest spiral galaxies in the Southern Hemisphere. Our SMBH mass function agrees well at the high-mass end with previous values given in the literature. At the low-mass end, inconsistencies exist in previous works that still need to be resolved, but our work is more in line with expectations based on modeling of SMBH evolution. This low-mass end of the spectrum is critical to our understanding of the mass function and evolution of SMBHs since the epoch of maximum quasar activity. A luminosity distance $\\leq$ 25.4 $Mpc$ and an absolute B-band magnitude $\\leq$ -19.12 define the sample. These limits define a sample of 140 spiral galaxies, with 128 measurable pitch angles to establish the pitch angle distribution for this sample. This pitch angle distribution function may be useful in...

  12. Black Hole Mass Estimates and Rapid Growth of Supermassive Black Holes in Luminous $z \\sim$ 3.5 Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Zuo, Wenwen; Fan, Xiaohui; Green, Richard; Wang, Ran; Bian, Fuyan

    2014-01-01

    We present new near-infrared (IR) observations of the H$\\beta\\ \\lambda4861$ and MgII $\\lambda2798$ lines for 32 luminous quasars with $3.2black hole mass estimates. The continuum luminosity at 5100 \\AA\\ well correlates with the continuum luminosity at 3000 \\AA\\ and the broad emission line luminosities (H$\\beta$ and MgII). With simultaneous near-IR spectroscopy of the H$\\beta$ and MgII lines to exclude the influences of flux variability, we are able to evaluate the reliability of estimating black hole masses based on the MgII line for high redshift quasars. With the reliable H$\\beta$ line based black hole mass and Eddington ratio estimates, we find that the $z\\sim3.5$ quasars in our sample have black hole masses $1.90\\times10^{9} M_{\\odot} \\lesssim M_{\\rm B...

  13. BlackCAT: A catalogue of stellar-mass black holes in X-ray transients

    CERN Document Server

    Corral-Santana, Jesus M; Munoz-Darias, Teo; Bauer, Franz E; Martinez-Pais, Ignacio G; Russell, David M

    2015-01-01

    During the last ~50 years, the population of black hole candidates in X-ray binaries has increased considerably with 59 Galactic objects detected in transient low-mass X-ray binaries, plus a few in persistent systems (including ~5 extragalactic binaries). We collect near-infrared, optical and X-ray information spread over hundreds of references in order to study the population of black holes in X-ray transients as a whole. We present the most updated catalogue of black hole transients, which contains X-ray, optical and near-infrared observations together with their astrometric and dynamical properties. It provides new useful information in both statistical and observational parameters providing a thorough and complete overview of the black hole population in the Milky Way. Analysing the distances and spatial distribution of the observed systems, we estimate a total population of ~1300 Galactic black hole transients. This means that we have already discovered less than ~5% of the total Galactic distribution. T...

  14. EDDINGTON-LIMITED ACCRETION AND THE BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION AT REDSHIFT 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present discovery observations of a quasar in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) at redshift z = 6.44. We also use near-infrared spectroscopy of nine CFHQS quasars at z ∼ 6 to determine black hole masses. These are compared with similar estimates for more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars to investigate the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity. We find a strong correlation between Mg II FWHM and UV luminosity and that most quasars at this early epoch are accreting close to the Eddington limit. Thus, these quasars appear to be in an early stage of their life cycle where they are building up their black hole mass exponentially. Combining these results with the quasar luminosity function, we derive the black hole mass function at z = 6. Our black hole mass function is ∼104 times lower than at z = 0 and substantially below estimates from previous studies. The main uncertainties which could increase the black hole mass function are a larger population of obscured quasars at high redshift than is observed at low redshift and/or a low quasar duty cycle at z = 6. In comparison, the global stellar mass function is only ∼102 times lower at z = 6 than at z = 0. The difference between the black hole and stellar mass function evolution is due to either rapid early star formation which is not limited by radiation pressure as is the case for black hole growth or inefficient black hole seeding. Our work predicts that the black hole mass-stellar mass relation for a volume-limited sample of galaxies declines rapidly at very high redshift. This is in contrast to the observed increase at 4 < z < 6 from the local relation if one just studies the most massive black holes.

  15. Novel Approach to the Dark Matter Problem: Primordial Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    A discussion at a Scientific American level of the idea that the constituents of the dark mater in galactic halos are primordial intermediate-mass black holes with masses between ten and one hundred thousand times the solar mass.

  16. Serching for intermediate mass black holes: understanding the data first

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchini, Paolo; van de Ven, Glenn; Schinnerer, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The detection of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in globular clusters has been hotly debated, with different observational methods delivering different outcomes for the same object. In order to understand these discrepancies, we construct detailed mock integral field spectroscopy (IFU) observations of globular clusters, starting from realistic Monte Carlo cluster simulations. The output is a data cube of spectra in a given field-of-view that can be analyzed in the same manner as real observations and compared to other (resolved) kinematic measurement methods. We show that the main discrepancies arise because the luminosity-weighted IFU observations can be strongly biased by the presence of a few bright stars that introduce a scatter in velocity dispersion measurements of several km/s. We show that this intrinsic scatter can prevent a sound assessment of the central kinematics, and therefore should be fully taken into account to correctly interpret the signature of an IMBH.

  17. Searching for intermediate mass black holes: understanding the data first

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Paolo; Norris, Mark; van de Ven, Glenn; Schinnerer, Eva

    2016-02-01

    The detection of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in globular clusters has been hotly debated, with different observational methods delivering different outcomes for the same object. In order to understand these discrepancies, we construct detailed mock integral field spectroscopy (IFU) observations of globular clusters, starting from realistic Monte Carlo cluster simulations. The output is a data cube of spectra in a given field-of-view that can be analyzed in the same manner as real observations and compared to other (resolved) kinematic measurement methods. We show that the main discrepancies arise because the luminosity-weighted IFU observations can be strongly biased by the presence of a few bright stars that introduce a scatter in velocity dispersion measurements of several km s-1. We show that this intrinsic scatter can prevent a sound assessment of the central kinematics, and therefore should be fully taken into account to correctly interpret the signature of an IMBH.

  18. Supermassive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Calibration of the Black Hole Mass-Velocity Dispersion Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura; Merritt, David;

    2004-01-01

    We calibrate reverberation-based black hole masses in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by using the correlation between black hole mass, M, and bulge/spheroid stellar velocity dispersion, sigma. We use new measurements of sigma for 6 AGNs and published velocity dispersions for 10 others......, in conjunction with improved reverberation mapping results, to determine the scaling factor required to bring reverberation-based black hole masses into agreement with the quiescent galaxy M-sigma relationship. The scatter in the AGN black hole masses is found to be less than a factor of 3. The current...

  19. A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE MASS AND THE TOTAL GRAVITATIONAL MASS OF THE HOST GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the correlation between the mass of a central supermassive black hole (SMBH) and the total gravitational mass of the host galaxy (M tot). The results are based on 43 galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses from the Sloan Lens ACS Surveys (SLACS) Survey whose black hole masses were estimated through two scaling relations: the relation between black hole mass and Sersic index (M bh-n) and the relation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion (M bh-σ*). We use the enclosed mass within R 200, the radius within which the density profile of the early type galaxy exceeds the critical density of the universe by a factor of 200, determined by gravitational lens models fitted to Hubble Space Telescope imaging data, as a tracer of the total gravitational mass. The best-fit correlation, where M bh is determined from M bh-σ* relation, is log(M bh) = (8.18 ± 0.11) + (1.55 ± 0.31)(log(M tot)-13.0) over 2 orders of magnitude in M bh. From a variety of tests, we find that we cannot reliably infer a connection between M bh and M tot from the M bh-n relation. The M bh-M tot relation provides some of the first, direct observational evidence to test the prediction that SMBH properties are determined by the halo properties of the host galaxy.

  20. The masses and spins of neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars represent extremes in gravity, density, and magnetic fields. They therefore serve as key objects in the study of multiple frontiers of physics. In addition, their origin (mainly in core-collapse supernovae) and evolution (via accretion or, for neutron stars, magnetic spindown and reconfiguration) touch upon multiple open issues in astrophysics. In this review, we discuss current mass and spin measurements and their reliability for neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes, as well as the overall importance of spins and masses for compact object astrophysics. Current masses are obtained primarily through electromagnetic observations of binaries, although future microlensing observations promise to enhance our understanding substantially. The spins of neutron stars are straightforward to measure for pulsars, but the birth spins of neutron stars are more difficult to determine. In contrast, even the current spins of stellar-mass black holes are challenging to measure. As we discuss, major inroads have been made in black hole spin estimates via analysis of iron lines and continuum emission, with reasonable agreement when both types of estimate are possible for individual objects, and future X-ray polarization measurements may provide additional independent information. We conclude by exploring the exciting prospects for mass and spin measurements from future gravitational wave detections, which are expected to revolutionize our understanding of strong gravity and compact objects

  1. Evolution of massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Volonteri, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I'll discuss black hole formation processes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and how massive black hole evolve in a hierarchical Universe...

  2. Constraining the Black Hole Mass Spectrum with Gravitational Wave Observations I: The Error Kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Danny C.; Plowman, Joseph E.; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tsuruta, Sachiko; Larson, Shane L.

    2009-01-01

    Many scenarios have been proposed for the origin of the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) that are found in the centres of most galaxies. Many of these formation scenarios predict a high-redshift population of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), with masses M• in the range 102≲M•≲ 105 M⊙. A powerful way to observe these IMBHs is via gravitational waves the black holes emit as they merge. The statistics of the observed black hole population should, in principle, allow us to discriminate betw...

  3. THE (BLACK HOLE)-BULGE MASS SCALING RELATION AT LOW MASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Alister W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Scott, Nicholas [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported on the occurrence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) containing undermassive black holes relative to a linear scaling relation between black hole mass (M {sub bh}) and host spheroid stellar mass (M {sub sph,} {sub *}). However, dramatic revisions to the M {sub bh}-M {sub sph,} {sub *} and M {sub bh}-L {sub sph} relations, based on samples containing predominantly inactive galaxies, have recently identified a new steeper relation at M {sub bh} ≲ (2-10) × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}, roughly corresponding to M {sub sph,} {sub *} ≲ (0.3-1) × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. We show that this steeper, quadratic-like M {sub bh}-M {sub sph,} {sub *} relation defined by the Sérsic galaxies, i.e., galaxies without partially depleted cores, roughly tracks the apparent offset of the AGN having 10{sup 5} ≲ M {sub bh}/M {sub ☉} ≲ 0.5 × 10{sup 8}. That is, these AGNs are not randomly offset with low black hole masses, but also follow a steeper (nonlinear) relation. As noted by Busch et al., confirmation or rejection of a possible AGN offset from the steeper M {sub bh}-M {sub sph,} {sub *} relation defined by the Sérsic galaxies will benefit from improved stellar mass-to-light ratios for the spheroids hosting these AGNs. Several implications for formation theories are noted. Furthermore, reasons for possible under- and overmassive black holes, the potential existence of intermediate mass black holes (<10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), and the new steep (black hole)-(nuclear star cluster) relation, M{sub bh}∝M{sub nc}{sup 2.7±0.7}, are also discussed.

  4. THE (BLACK HOLE)-BULGE MASS SCALING RELATION AT LOW MASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several recent papers have reported on the occurrence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) containing undermassive black holes relative to a linear scaling relation between black hole mass (M bh) and host spheroid stellar mass (M sph, *). However, dramatic revisions to the M bh-M sph, * and M bh-L sph relations, based on samples containing predominantly inactive galaxies, have recently identified a new steeper relation at M bh ≲ (2-10) × 108 M ☉, roughly corresponding to M sph, * ≲ (0.3-1) × 1011 M ☉. We show that this steeper, quadratic-like M bh-M sph, * relation defined by the Sérsic galaxies, i.e., galaxies without partially depleted cores, roughly tracks the apparent offset of the AGN having 105 ≲ M bh/M ☉ ≲ 0.5 × 108. That is, these AGNs are not randomly offset with low black hole masses, but also follow a steeper (nonlinear) relation. As noted by Busch et al., confirmation or rejection of a possible AGN offset from the steeper M bh-M sph, * relation defined by the Sérsic galaxies will benefit from improved stellar mass-to-light ratios for the spheroids hosting these AGNs. Several implications for formation theories are noted. Furthermore, reasons for possible under- and overmassive black holes, the potential existence of intermediate mass black holes (<105 M ☉), and the new steep (black hole)-(nuclear star cluster) relation, Mbh∝Mnc2.7±0.7, are also discussed

  5. Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Spaans, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.

  6. On a general class of regular rotating black holes based on a smeared mass distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Larranaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the behavior of a new general class of rotating regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the existence of a fundamental minimal length cures the well-known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation, since we find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero, so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole whose mass and size depends on the value of the fundamental length and on the rotation parameter of the black hole. We also study the geodesic structure in these spacetimes and calculate the shadows that these black holes produce.

  7. The Masses of Black Holes with Wolf-Rayet Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Silas; Steiner, James F.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Binder, Breanna A.; Yang, Jun; Cappallo, Rigel

    2016-04-01

    Black Holes with Wolf-Rayet companions represent a channel for forming the most massive stellar BHs. The recent, stunning LIGO detection of the gravitational wave signature from a merging stellar BH binary points to the importance of understanding the progenitor systems formation and evolution. The BH+WR binary IC 10 X-1 holds important clues to the puzzle, by helping establish the upper observed BH mass and pointing to an association between maximum possible BH mass and low metallicity environments. However, securing dynamical mass determiniations for WR+BH binaries appears to be complicated by interaction between the radiation field of the BH and the stellar wind. This causes a substantial change to our understanding of IC 10 X-1, and by extension to the mass distribution of BH binaries. A high precision ephemeris derived from a decade of Chandra/XMM X-ray timing observations, when combined with the optical RV curve, reveals a surprizing simultenaity of mid X-ray eclipse and the maximum blueshift velocity of He II emission lines. The optical emission lines appear to originate in a shielded sector of the WR star's stellar wind which escapes total X-ray ionization by the compact object. Unravelling this projection effect is necessary to obtain the system's true mass function. Complementary Chandra, XMM and NuStar datasets offer new insights into the mass and spin of the BH, and the structure of the photo-ionized wind. We will discuss possible routes toward the mass function in BH+WR binaries via multi-wavelength observations, and the additional leverage provided by further constraining the orbital period derivative.

  8. Evidence for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2003-06-20

    Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138

  9. Effects of critical collapse on primordial black-hole mass spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehnel, Florian [Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Department of Physics, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Rampf, Cornelius [University of Portsmouth, Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Sandstad, Marit [Stockholm University, Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-02-15

    Certain inflationary models as well as realisations of phase transitions in the early Universe predict the formation of primordial black holes. For most mass ranges, the fraction of matter in the form of primordial black holes is limited by many different observations on various scales. Primordial black holes are assumed to be formed when overdensities that cross the horizon have Schwarzschild radii larger than the horizon. Traditionally it was therefore assumed that primordial black-hole masses were equal to the horizon mass at their time of formation. However, detailed calculations of their collapse show that primordial black holes formed at each point in time should rather form a spectrum of different masses, obeying critical scaling. Though this has been known for more than 15 years, the effect of this scaling behaviour is largely ignored when considering predictions for primordial black-hole mass spectra. In this paper we consider the critical collapse scaling for a variety of models which produce primordial black holes, and find that it generally leads to a shift, broadening and an overall decrease of the mass contained in primordial black holes. This effect is model and parameter dependent and cannot be contained by a constant rescaling of the spectrum; it can become important and should be taken into account when comparing to observational constraints. (orig.)

  10. Effects of critical collapse on primordial black-hole mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain inflationary models as well as realisations of phase transitions in the early Universe predict the formation of primordial black holes. For most mass ranges, the fraction of matter in the form of primordial black holes is limited by many different observations on various scales. Primordial black holes are assumed to be formed when overdensities that cross the horizon have Schwarzschild radii larger than the horizon. Traditionally it was therefore assumed that primordial black-hole masses were equal to the horizon mass at their time of formation. However, detailed calculations of their collapse show that primordial black holes formed at each point in time should rather form a spectrum of different masses, obeying critical scaling. Though this has been known for more than 15 years, the effect of this scaling behaviour is largely ignored when considering predictions for primordial black-hole mass spectra. In this paper we consider the critical collapse scaling for a variety of models which produce primordial black holes, and find that it generally leads to a shift, broadening and an overall decrease of the mass contained in primordial black holes. This effect is model and parameter dependent and cannot be contained by a constant rescaling of the spectrum; it can become important and should be taken into account when comparing to observational constraints. (orig.)

  11. Mass and Angular Momentum of Black Holes in Three Dimensional Gravity Theories with First Order Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, Soonkeon

    2016-01-01

    We apply the Wald formalism to obtain masses and angular momenta of black holes in three dimensional gravity theories using first order formalism. Wald formalism suggests mass and angular momentum of black hole as an integration of some charge variation form at its boundary. The action of the three dimensional gravity theories can be represented by the form including some auxiliary fields. As well-known examples we have calculated mass and angular momentum of some black holes in topologically massive gravity and new massive gravity theories using first order formalism. We have also calculated mass and angular momentum of BTZ black hole and new type black hole in minimal massive gravity theory with the action represented by first order formalism.

  12. A Note on Physical Mass and the Thermodynamics of AdS-Kerr Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    McInnes, Brett

    2015-01-01

    As with any black hole, asymptotically anti-de Sitter Kerr black holes are described by a small number of parameters, including a "mass parameter" $M$ that reduces to the AdS-Schwarzschild mass in the limit of vanishing angular momentum. In sharp contrast to the asymptotically flat case, the horizon area of such a black hole increases with the angular momentum parameter $a$ if one fixes $M$; this appears to mean that the Penrose process in this case would violate the Second Law of black hole thermodynamics. We show that the correct procedure is to fix not $M$ but rather the "physical" mass $E=M/(1-a^2/L^2)^2$; this is motivated by the First Law. For then the horizon area decreases with $a$. We recommend that $E$ always be used as the mass: for example, in attempts to "over-spin" AdS-Kerr black holes.

  13. A note on physical mass and the thermodynamics of AdS-Kerr black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Brett; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-11-01

    As with any black hole, asymptotically anti-de Sitter Kerr black holes are described by a small number of parameters, including a ``mass parameter'' M that reduces to the AdS-Schwarzschild mass in the limit of vanishing angular momentum. In sharp contrast to the asymptotically flat case, the horizon area of such a black hole increases with the angular momentum parameter a if one fixes M; this appears to mean that the Penrose process in this case would violate the Second Law of black hole thermodynamics. We show that the correct procedure is to fix not M but rather the ``physical'' mass E=M/(1-a2/L2)2 this is motivated by the First Law. For then the horizon area decreases with a. We recommend that E always be used as the mass in physical processes: for example, in attempts to ``over-spin'' AdS-Kerr black holes.

  14. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.; Tremonti, C. A.;

    2007-01-01

    We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3......We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3...

  15. THE BLACK HOLE MASS, STELLAR MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIO, AND DARK HALO IN M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We model the dynamical structure of M87 (NGC4486) using high spatial resolution long-slit observations of stellar light in the central regions, two-dimensional stellar light kinematics out to half of the effective radius, and globular cluster velocities out to eight effective radii. We simultaneously fit for four parameters: black hole mass, dark halo core radius, dark halo circular velocity, and stellar mass-to-light (M/L) ratio. We find a black hole mass of 6.4(±0.5) x 109 M sun (the uncertainty is 68% confidence marginalized over the other parameters). The stellar M/LV = 6.3 ± 0.8. The best-fit dark halo core radius is 14 ± 2 kpc, assuming a cored logarithmic potential. The best-fit dark halo circular velocity is 715 ± 15 km s-1. Our black hole mass is over a factor of 2 larger than previous stellar dynamical measures, and our derived stellar M/L ratio is two times lower than previous dynamical measures. When we do not include a dark halo, we measure a black hole mass and stellar M/L ratio that is consistent with previous measures, implying that the major difference is in the model assumptions. The stellar M/L ratio from our models is very similar to that derived from stellar population models of M87. The reason for the difference in the black hole mass is because we allow the M/L ratio to change with radius. The dark halo is degenerate with the stellar M/L ratio, which is subsequently degenerate with the black hole mass. We argue that dynamical models of galaxies that do not include the contribution from a dark halo may produce a biased result for the black hole mass. This bias is especially large for a galaxy with a shallow light profile such as M87, and may not be as severe in galaxies with steeper light profiles unless they have a large stellar population change with radius.

  16. The Effect of Pair-Instability Mass Loss on Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Belczynski, K; Gladysz, W; Ruiter, A J; Woosley, S; Wiktorowicz, G; Chen, H -Y; Bulik, T; O'Shaughnesy, R; Holz, D E; Fryer, C L; Berti, E

    2016-01-01

    Mergers of two stellar origin black holes are a prime source of gravitational waves and are under intensive investigations. One crucial ingredient in their modeling has so far been neglected. Pair-instability pulsation supernovae with associated severe mass loss may suppress formation of massive black holes, decreasing black hole merger rates for the highest black hole masses. The mass loss associated with pair-instability pulsation supernovae limits the Population I/II stellar-origin black hole mass to 50 Msun, in tension with earlier predictions that the maximum black hole mass could be as high as 100 Msun. Suppression of double black hole merger rates by pair-instability pulsation supernovae is negligible for our evolutionary channel. Our standard evolutionary model with inclusion of pair-instability pulsation supernovae and with pair-instability supernovae is fully consistent with the LIGO detections of black hole mergers: GW150914, GW151226 and LVT151012. The LIGO observations seem to exclude high (>400 ...

  17. Powerful, Rotating Disk Winds from Stellar-mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Kaastra, J; Kallman, T; King, A L; Proga, D; Raymond, J; Reynolds, C S

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of ionized X-ray disk winds observed in the Fe K band of four stellar-mass black holes observed with Chandra, including 4U 1630-47, GRO J1655-40, H 1743-322, and GRS 1915+105. High-resolution photoionization grids were generated in order to model the data. Third-order gratings spectra were used to resolve complex absorption profiles into atomic effects and multiple velocity components. The Fe XXV line is found to be shaped by contributions from the intercombination line (in absorption), and the Fe XXVI line is detected as a spin-orbit doublet. The data require 2-3 absorption zones, depending on the source. The fastest components have velocities approaching or exceeding 0.01c, increasing mass outflow rates and wind kinetic power by orders of magnitude over prior single-zone models. The first-order spectra require re-emission from the wind, broadened by a degree that is loosely consistent with Keplerian orbital velocities at the photoionization radius. This suggests that disk winds are ro...

  18. The Close Stellar Companions to Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    When embedded in dense cluster cores, intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) acquire close stellar or stellar-remnant companions. These companions are not only gravitationally bound, they tend to hierarchically isolate from other cluster stars through series of multibody encounters. In this paper, we study the demographics of IMBH companions in compact star clusters through direct $N$-body simulation. We study clusters initially composed of $10^5$ or $2\\times 10^5$ stars with IMBHs of 75 and 150 solar masses, and follow their evolution for 6-10 Gyr. A tight innermost binary pair of IMBH and stellar object rapidly forms. The IMBH has a companion with orbital semi-major axis at least three times tighter than the second-most bound object over 90% of the time. These companionships have typical periods of order years and are subject to cycles of exchange and destruction. The most frequently observed, long-lived pairings persist for $\\sim 10^7$ yr. The demographics of IMBH companions in clusters are diverse; they in...

  19. Dark matter haloes determine the masses of supermassive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, C M

    2009-01-01

    The energy and momentum deposited by the radiation from accretion onto the supermassive black holes (BHs) that reside at the centres of virtually all galaxies can halt or even reverse gas inflow, providing a natural mechanism for supermassive BHs to regulate their growth and to couple their properties to those of their host galaxies. However, it remains unclear whether this self-regulation occurs on the scale at which the BH is gravitationally dominant, on that of the stellar bulge, the galaxy, or that of the entire dark matter halo. To answer this question, we use self-consistent simulations of the co-evolution of the BH and galaxy populations that reproduce the observed correlations between the masses of the BHs and the properties of their host galaxies. We first confirm unambiguously that the BHs regulate their growth: the amount of energy that the BHs inject into their surroundings remains unchanged when the fraction of the accreted rest mass energy that is injected, is varied by four orders of magnitude....

  20. Intrinsic selection biases of ground-based gravitational wave searches for high-mass black hole-black hole mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next generation of ground-based gravitational wave detectors may detect a few mergers of comparable-mass M≅100-1000M·[''intermediate-mass'' (IMBH)] spinning black holes. Black hole spin is known to have a significant impact on the orbit, merger signal, and post-merger ringdown of any binary with non-negligible spin. In particular, the detection volume for spinning binaries depends significantly on the component black hole spins. We provide a fit to the single-detector and isotropic-network detection volume versus (total) mass and arbitrary spin for equal-mass binaries. Our analysis assumes matched filtering to all significant available waveform power (up to l=6 available for fitting, but only l≤4 significant) estimated by an array of 64 numerical simulations with component spins as large as S1,2/M2≤0.8. We provide a spin-dependent estimate of our uncertainty, up to S1,2/M2≤1. For the initial (advanced) LIGO detector, our fits are reliable for M(set-membership sign)[100,500]M· (M(set-membership sign)[100,1600]M·). In the online version of this article, we also provide fits assuming incomplete information, such as the neglect of higher-order harmonics. We briefly discuss how a strong selection bias towards aligned spins influences the interpretation of future gravitational wave detections of IMBH-IMBH mergers.

  1. Stochastic Correlation Model of Galactic Bulge Velocity Dispersions and Central Black Holes Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the cosmological model in which a part of the Universe \\Omega_h\\sim 10^-5 is in the form of primordial black holes with mass \\sim 10^5M_\\odot. These primordial black holes would be centers for growing protogalaxies which experienced multiple mergers with ordinary galaxies. This process of galaxies formation is accompanied by the merging of central black holes in the galactic nuclei. It is shown that recently discovered correlations between the central black holes and bulges of gal...

  2. Multiple stellar-mass black holes in globular clusters: theoretical confirmation

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Anna C.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2012-01-01

    While tens or hundreds of stellar-remnant black holes are expected to form in globular star clusters, it is still unclear how many of those will be retained upon formation, and how many will be ejected through subsequent dynamical interactions. No such black holes have been found in any Milky Way globular cluster until the recent discovery of stellar-mass black holes in the globular cluster M22 (NGC 6656) with now an estimated population of 5-100 black holes. We present a direct N-body model ...

  3. Quantum Black Holes as Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.

    1997-01-01

    In some respects the black hole plays the same role in gravitation that the atom played in the nascent quantum mechanics. This analogy suggests that black hole mass $M$ might have a discrete spectrum. I review the physical arguments for the expectation that black hole horizon area eigenvalues are uniformly spaced, or equivalently, that the spacing between stationary black hole mass levels behaves like 1/M. This sort of spectrum has also emerged in a variety of formal approaches to black hole ...

  4. Listening to the beat of a 400 solar-mass, middle-weight black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Accreting X-ray point sources with luminosities exceeding the Eddington limit of a 20 solar mass black hole are referred to as ultraluminous X-ray sources. The brightest of these have long been suspected to host intermediate-mass black holes (mass range of a few 100-1000 solar masses). On such object is M82 X-1, thought to be an intermediate-mass black hole because of its extremely high X-ray luminosity and variability characteristics, although some models suggested that its mass may be only of the order of 20 solar masses. The previous mass estimates were based on scaling relations which used low-frequency characteristic timescales which have large intrinsic uncertainties. In stellar-mass black holes we know that the high frequency quasi-periodic oscillations that occur in a 3:2 frequency ratio (100-450 Hz) are stable and scale inversely with black hole mass with a reasonably small dispersion. The discovery of such stable oscillations thus potentially offers an alternative and less ambiguous mass determination for intermediate-mass black holes, but has hitherto not been realized. I will discuss the discovery of stable, twin-peak (3:2 frequency ratio) X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations from M82 X-1 at the frequencies of 3.32 Hz and 5.07 Hz and how this helps overcome the systematic uncertainties present in previous studies. Assuming we can extend the stellar-mass relationship, I estimate its black hole mass to be 428+-105 solar masses. This work was recently published in Nature (DOI:10.1038/nature13710). I will also discuss future prospects of detecting more of such oscillations to weigh other intermediate-mass black hole candidates.

  5. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-01-01

    Observational work conducted over the last few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some are powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely-used correlations between black hole mass and the stellar velo...

  6. EFFECT OF A DARK MATTER HALO ON THE DETERMINATION OF BLACK HOLE MASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellar dynamical modeling is a powerful method to determine the mass of black holes in quiescent galaxies. However, in previous work the presence of a dark matter halo has been ignored in the modeling. Gebhardt and Thomas in 2009 showed that accounting for a dark matter halo increased the black hole mass of the massive galaxy M87 by a factor of two. We used a sample of 12 galaxies to investigate the effect of accounting for a dark matter halo in the dynamical modeling in more detail, and also updated the masses using improved modeling. The sample of galaxies possesses Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observations of stellar kinematics. Their black hole masses have been presented before, but without including a dark matter halo in the models. Without a dark halo, we find a mean increase in the estimated mass of 1.5 for the whole sample compared to previous results. We attribute this change to using a more complete orbit library. When we include a dark matter halo, along with the updated models, we find an additional increase in black hole mass by a factor of 1.2 in the mean, much less than for M87. We attribute the smaller discrepancy in black hole mass to using data that better resolve the black hole's sphere of influence. We redetermined the M.-σ* and M.-LV relationships using our updated black hole masses and found a slight increase in both normalization and intrinsic scatter.

  7. Observational Constraints on Quasar Black Hole Mass Distributions, Eddington Ratio Distributions, and Lifetimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.;

    2010-01-01

    I will present the black hole mass function (BHMF) of broad line quasars in the SDSS DR3. We employ a powerful Bayesian statistical technique that corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates. We find evidence that the most massive black hole appeared as quasars...... earlier in the universe, and that most quasars are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit. I will also present constraints on the quasar lifetime and maximum black hole mass, derived from the mass functions....

  8. Deforming regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have deformed regular black holes which possess a general mass term described by a function which generalizes the Bardeen and Hayward mass terms. Using linear constraints in the energy-momentum tensor, the solutions are either regular or singular. That is, with this approach, it is possible to generate singular black holes from regular black holes and vice versa. Moreover, contrary to the Bardeen and Hayward regular solutions, the regular deformed metrics may violate the weak energy condition despite the presence of the spherical symmetry. Some comments on accretion of deformed black holes in cosmological scenarios are made.

  9. Active galactic nucleus black hole mass estimates in the era of time domain astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Pancoast, Anna [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Malkan, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-20

    We investigate the dependence of the normalization of the high-frequency part of the X-ray and optical power spectral densities (PSDs) on black hole mass for a sample of 39 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with black hole masses estimated from reverberation mapping or dynamical modeling. We obtained new Swift observations of PG 1426+015, which has the largest estimated black hole mass of the AGNs in our sample. We develop a novel statistical method to estimate the PSD from a light curve of photon counts with arbitrary sampling, eliminating the need to bin a light curve to achieve Gaussian statistics, and we use this technique to estimate the X-ray variability parameters for the faint AGNs in our sample. We find that the normalization of the high-frequency X-ray PSD is inversely proportional to black hole mass. We discuss how to use this scaling relationship to obtain black hole mass estimates from the short timescale X-ray variability amplitude with precision ∼0.38 dex. The amplitude of optical variability on timescales of days is also anticorrelated with black hole mass, but with larger scatter. Instead, the optical variability amplitude exhibits the strongest anticorrelation with luminosity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our results for estimating black hole mass from the amplitude of AGN variability.

  10. Active galactic nucleus black hole mass estimates in the era of time domain astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the dependence of the normalization of the high-frequency part of the X-ray and optical power spectral densities (PSDs) on black hole mass for a sample of 39 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with black hole masses estimated from reverberation mapping or dynamical modeling. We obtained new Swift observations of PG 1426+015, which has the largest estimated black hole mass of the AGNs in our sample. We develop a novel statistical method to estimate the PSD from a light curve of photon counts with arbitrary sampling, eliminating the need to bin a light curve to achieve Gaussian statistics, and we use this technique to estimate the X-ray variability parameters for the faint AGNs in our sample. We find that the normalization of the high-frequency X-ray PSD is inversely proportional to black hole mass. We discuss how to use this scaling relationship to obtain black hole mass estimates from the short timescale X-ray variability amplitude with precision ∼0.38 dex. The amplitude of optical variability on timescales of days is also anticorrelated with black hole mass, but with larger scatter. Instead, the optical variability amplitude exhibits the strongest anticorrelation with luminosity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our results for estimating black hole mass from the amplitude of AGN variability.

  11. Calculating the mass spectrum of primordial black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Sam; Sasaki, Misao

    2014-01-01

    We reinspect the calculation for the mass fraction of primordial black holes (PBHs) which are formed from primordial perturbations, finding that performing the calculation using the comoving curvature perturbation $\\mathcal{R}_{c}$ in the standard way vastly overestimates the number of PBHs, by many orders of magnitude. This is because PBHs form shortly after horizon entry, meaning modes significantly larger than the PBH are unobservable and should not affect whether a PBH forms or not - this important effect is not taken into account by smoothing the distribution in the standard fashion. We discuss alternative methods and argue that the density contrast, $\\Delta$, should be used instead as super-horizon modes are damped by a factor $k^{2}$. We make a comparison between using a Press-Schechter approach and peaks theory, finding that the two are in close agreement in the region of interest. We also investigate the effect of varying the spectral index, and the running of the spectral index, on the abundance of ...

  12. A new mass scale, implications on black hole evaporation and holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burikham, Piyabut; Dhanawittayapol, Rujikorn; Wuthicharn, Taum

    2016-06-01

    We consider a new mass scale MT = (ℏ2Λ/G)1/3 constructed from dimensional analysis by using G, ℏ and Λ and discuss its physical interpretation. Based on the Generalized Uncertainty Relation, a black hole with age comparable to the universe would stop radiating when the mass reaches a new mass scale MT‧ = c(ℏ/G2Λ)1/3 at which its temperature corresponds to the mass MT. Black hole remnants could have masses ranging from a Planck mass to a trillion kilograms. Holography persists even when the uncertainty relation is modified to the Minimum Length Uncertainty Relation (MLUR). The remnant black hole entropy is proportional to the surface area of the black hole in unit of the Planck area in arbitrary noncompact dimensions.

  13. A new mass scale, implications on black hole evaporation and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Burikham, Piyabut; Wuthicharn, Taum

    2016-01-01

    We consider a new mass scale $M_{T}=(\\hbar^{2}\\sqrt{\\Lambda}/G)^{1/3}$ constructed from dimensional analysis by using $G$, $\\hbar$ and $\\Lambda$ and discuss its physical interpretation. Based on the Generalized Uncertainty Relation, a black hole with age comparable to the universe would stop radiating when the mass reaches a new mass scale $M'_{T}=c(\\hbar/G^{2}\\sqrt{\\Lambda})^{1/3}$ at which its temperature corresponds to the mass $M_{T}$. Black hole remnants could have masses ranging from a Planck mass to a trillion kilograms. Holography persists even when the uncertainty relation is modified to the Minimum Length Uncertainty Relation~(MLUR). The remnant black hole entropy is proportional to the surface area of the black hole in unit of the Planck area in arbitrary noncompact dimensions.

  14. A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2013-02-21

    The masses of the supermassive black holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionized-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects that have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black-hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC 4526, and obtain a best fit that requires the presence of a central dark object of 4.5(+4.2)(-3.1) × 10(8) solar masses (3σ confidence limit). With the next-generation millimetre-wavelength interferometers these observations could be reproduced in galaxies out to 75 megaparsecs in less than 5 hours of observing time. The use of molecular gas as a kinematic tracer should thus allow one to estimate black-hole masses in hundreds of galaxies in the local Universe, many more than are accessible with current techniques. PMID:23364690

  15. Quasar Black Hole Mass Estimates in the Era of Time Domain Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Malkan, Matthew; Pancoast, Anna; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of the normalization of the high-frequency part of the X-ray and optical power spectral densities (PSD) on black hole mass for a sample of 39 active galactic nuclei (AGN) with black hole masses estimated from reverberation mapping or dynamical modeling. We obtained new Swift observations of PG 1426+015, which has the largest estimated black hole mass of the AGN in our sample. We develop a novel statistical method to estimate the PSD from a lightcurve of photon co...

  16. Scale-invariant jet suppression across the black hole mass scale

    CERN Document Server

    Garofalo, David

    2016-01-01

    We provide a schematic framework for understanding observations of jet suppression in soft state black hole X-ray binaries based on the Blandford-Payne process and the net magnetic flux threading the black hole. Due to the geometrical thinness of soft state disks, mass-loading of field lines is ineffective compared to both geometrically thick disks as well as thin disks with greater black hole threading flux, a simple physical picture that allows us to understand the weakness of jets in radiatively efficient thin disks accreting in the prograde direction around high-spinning black holes. Despite a simplicity that forbids insights into the complexity of turbulent-driven evolution or the physics of the observed short-term time variability, we show how the breadth of this framework is such that it can serve as a coarse-grained foundation for understanding black hole accretion and jet formation across the mass scale.

  17. The Close Stellar Companions to Intermediate-mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Morgan; Trenti, Michele; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    When embedded in dense cluster cores, intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) acquire close stellar or stellar-remnant companions. These companions are not only gravitationally bound, but also tend to hierarchically isolate from other cluster stars through series of multibody encounters. In this paper we study the demographics of IMBH companions in compact star clusters through direct N-body simulations. We study clusters initially composed of 105 or 2 × 105 stars with IMBHs of 75 and 150 solar masses, and we follow their evolution for 6-10 Gyr. A tight, innermost binary pair of IMBH and stellar object rapidly forms. The IMBH has a companion with an orbital semimajor axis at least three times tighter than the second-most-bound object over 90% of the time. These companionships have typical periods on the order of years and are subject to cycles of exchange and destruction. The most frequently observed, long-lived pairings persist for ˜107 years. The demographics of IMBH companions in clusters are diverse: they include both main-sequence, giant stars and stellar remnants. Companion objects may reveal the presence of an IMBH in a cluster in one of several ways. The most-bound companion stars routinely suffer grazing tidal interactions with the IMBH, offering a dynamical mechanism to produce repeated flaring episodes like those seen in the IMBH candidate HLX-1. The stellar winds of companion stars provide a minimum quiescent accretion rate for IMBHs, with implications for radio searches for IMBH accretion in globular clusters. Finally, gravitational wave inspirals of compact objects occur with promising frequency.

  18. Establishing a relation between the mass and the spin of stellar-mass black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-08-01

    Stellar mass black holes (SMBHs), forming by the core collapse of very massive, rapidly rotating stars, are expected to exhibit a high density accretion disk around them developed from the spinning mantle of the collapsing star. A wide class of such disks, due to their high density and temperature, are effective emitters of neutrinos and hence called neutrino cooled disks. Tracking the physics relating the observed (neutrino) luminosity to the mass, spin of black holes (BHs) and the accretion rate (M) of such disks, here we establish a correlation between the spin and mass of SMBHs at their formation stage. Our work shows that spinning BHs are more massive than nonspinning BHs for a given M. However, slowly spinning BHs can turn out to be more massive than spinning BHs if M at their formation stage was higher compared to faster spinning BHs. PMID:23971549

  19. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes. PMID:27049949

  20. CIV Emission Line Properties and Systematic Trends in Quasar Black Hole Mass Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.

    2016-01-01

    Black-hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z > 2.1, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity-width of the CIV broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity-widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the CIV-emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries (`blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced...

  1. Black hole mass and binary model for BL Lac object OJ 287

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F. K.; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2002-01-01

    Recent intensive observations of the BL Lac object OJ 287 raise a lot of questions on the models of binary black holes, processing jets, rotating helical jets and thermal instability of slim accretion disks. After carefully analyzing their radio flux and polarization data, Valtaoja et al. (\\cite{valtaoja00}) propose a new binary model. Based on the black hole mass of $4 \\times 10^8 {\\rm M_\\odot}$ estimated with the tight correlations of the black hole masses and the bulge luminosity or centra...

  2. Dark matter and dark energy accretion onto intermediate-mass black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Pepe, C.; L. J. Pellizza; Romero, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we investigate the accretion of cosmological fluids onto an intermediate-mass black hole at the centre of a globular cluster, focusing on the influence of the parent stellar system on the accretion flow. We show that the accretion of cosmic background radiation and the so-called dark energy onto an intermediate-mass black hole is negligible. On the other hand, if cold dark matter has a nonvanishing pressure, the accretion of dark matter is large enough to increase the black hole ...

  3. Radio observations of NGC 6388: an upper limit on the mass of its central black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Cseh, D; Corbel, S; Kording, E; Coriat, M; Tzioumis, A; Lanzoni, B

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of deep radio observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) of the globular cluster NGC 6388. We show that there is no radio source detected (with a r.m.s. noise level of 27 uJy) at the cluster centre of gravity or at the locations of the any of the Chandra X-ray sources in the cluster. Based on the fundamental plane of accreting black holes which is a relationship between X-ray luminosity, radio luminosity and black hole mass, we place an upper limit of 1500 M_sun on the mass of the putative intermediate-mass black hole located at the centre of NGC 6388. We discuss the uncertainties of this upper limit and the previously suggested black hole mass of 5700 M_sun based on surface density profile analysis.

  4. Observational Evidence for Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Ramesh; McClintock, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have discovered two populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range 10^6 to 10^{10} solar masses, one each in the nucleus of every galaxy. There is strong circumstantial evidence that all these objects are true black holes with event horizons. The measured masses of supermassive black hole are strongly corr...

  5. Eddington-limited accretion and the black hole mass function at redshift 6

    CERN Document Server

    Willott, Chris J; Arzoumanian, Doris; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Crampton, David; Delorme, Philippe; Hutchings, John B; Omont, Alain; Reyle, Celine; Schade, David

    2010-01-01

    We present discovery observations of a quasar in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) at redshift z=6.44. We also use near-IR spectroscopy of nine CFHQS quasars at z~6 to determine black hole masses. These are compared with similar estimates for more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars to investigate the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity. We find a strong correlation between MgII FWHM and UV luminosity and that most quasars at this early epoch are accreting close to the Eddington limit. Thus these quasars appear to be in an early stage of their life cycle where they are building up their black hole mass exponentially. Combining these results with the quasar luminosity function, we derive the black hole mass function at z=6. Our black hole mass function is ~10^4 times lower than at z=0 and substantially below estimates from previous studies. The main uncertainties which could increase the black hole mass function are a larger population of obscured quasars at hig...

  6. Black holes and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for instance, the UK

  7. SUPER-CRITICAL GROWTH OF MASSIVE BLACK HOLES FROM STELLAR-MASS SEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider super-critical accretion with angular momentum onto stellar-mass black holes as a possible mechanism for growing billion-solar-mass black holes from light seeds at early times. We use the radiatively inefficient ''slim disk'' solution—advective, optically thick flows that generalize the standard geometrically thin disk model—to show how mildly super-Eddington intermittent accretion may significantly ease the problem of assembling the first massive black holes when the universe was less than 0.8 Gyr old. Because of the low radiative efficiencies of slim disks around non-rotating as well as rapidly rotating black holes, the mass e-folding timescale in this regime is nearly independent of the spin parameter. The conditions that may lead to super-critical growth in the early universe are briefly discussed

  8. Globular Clusters Hosting Intermediate-Mass Black Holes: No Mass-Segregation Based Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquato, Mario; Miocchi, Paolo; Won, Sohn Bong; Lee, Young-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Recently, both stellar mass segregation and binary fractions were uniformly measured on relatively large samples of Galactic globular clusters (GCs). Simulations show that both sizable binary-star populations and intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) quench mass segregation in relaxed GCs. Thus mass segregation in GCs with a reliable binary-fraction measurement is a valuable probe to constrain IMBHs. In this paper we combine mass-segregation and binary-fraction measurements from the literature to build a sample of 33 GCs (with measured core binary fractions), and a sample of 43 GCs (with binary-fraction measurements in the area between the core radius and the half-mass radius). Within both samples we try to identify IMBH-host candidates. These should have relatively low mass segregation, a low binary fraction (segregated (and show a larger binary fraction), confirming the theoretical expectation that the energy sources responsible for the large core are also quenching mass segregation.

  9. Constraining the formation of black-holes in short-period Black-Hole Low-Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Repetto, Serena

    2015-01-01

    The formation of stellar mass black holes is still very uncertain. Two main uncertainties are the amount of mass ejected in the supernova event (if any) and the magnitude of the natal kick the black hole receives at birth (if any). Repetto et al. (2012), studying the position of Galactic X-ray binaries containing black holes, found evidence for black holes receiving high natal kicks at birth. In this Paper we extend that study, taking into account the previous binary evolution of the sources as well. The seven short-period black-hole X-ray binaries that we use, are compact binaries consisting of a low-mass star orbiting a black hole in a period less than $1$ day. We trace their binary evolution backwards in time, from the current observed state of mass-transfer, to the moment the black hole was formed, and we add the extra information on the kinematics of the binaries. We find that several systems could be explained by no natal kick, just mass ejection, while for two systems (and possibly more) a high kick is...

  10. Rapid and Bright Stellar-mass Binary Black Hole Mergers in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Imre; Haiman, Zoltán; Márka, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, LIGO, found direct evidence of double black hole binaries emitting gravitational waves. Galactic nuclei are expected to harbor the densest population of stellar-mass black holes, accounting for as much as ~2% of the mass of the nuclear stellar cluster. A significant fraction (~30%) of these black holes can reside in binaries. We examine the fate of the black hole binaries in active galactic nuclei, which get trapped in the inner region of the accretion disk around the central supermassive black hole. We show that binary black holes can migrate into and then rapidly merge within the disk well within a Salpeter time. The binaries may also accrete a significant amount of gas from the disk, well above the Eddington rate. This could lead to detectable X-ray or gamma-ray emission, but would require hyper-Eddington accretion with a few % radiative efficiency, comparable to thin disks. We discuss implications for gravitational wave observations and black hole popul...

  11. Prospects for measuring supermassive black hole masses with future extremely large telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Tuan; Wright, Shelley A. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto M5S 3H4, ON (Canada); Barth, Aaron J.; Barton, Elizabeth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Simard, Luc [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Larkin, James E. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Moore, Anna M. [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent [TMT Observatory Corporation Instrumentation Department, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The next generation of giant-segmented mirror telescopes (>20 m) will enable us to observe galactic nuclei at much higher angular resolution and sensitivity than ever before. These capabilities will introduce a revolutionary shift in our understanding of the origin and evolution of supermassive black holes by enabling more precise black hole mass measurements in a mass range that is unreachable today. We present simulations and predictions of the observations of nuclei that will be made with the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the adaptive optics assisted integral-field spectrograph IRIS, which is capable of diffraction-limited spectroscopy from Z band (0.9 μm) to K band (2.2 μm). These simulations, for the first time, use realistic values for the sky, telescope, adaptive optics system, and instrument to determine the expected signal-to-noise ratio of a range of possible targets spanning intermediate mass black holes of ∼10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} to the most massive black holes known today of >10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. We find that IRIS will be able to observe Milky Way mass black holes out the distance of the Virgo Cluster, and will allow us to observe many more of the brightest cluster galaxies where the most massive black holes are thought to reside. We also evaluate how well the kinematic moments of the velocity distributions can be constrained at the different spectral resolutions and plate scales designed for IRIS. We find that a spectral resolution of ∼8000 will be necessary to measure the masses of intermediate mass black holes. By simulating the observations of galaxies found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, we find that over 10{sup 5} massive black holes will be observable at distances between 0.005 < z < 0.18 with the estimated sensitivity and angular resolution provided by access to Z-band (0.9 μm) spectroscopy from IRIS and the TMT adaptive optics system. These observations will provide the most accurate dynamical measurements of black hole masses to

  12. Prospects for measuring supermassive black hole masses with future extremely large telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next generation of giant-segmented mirror telescopes (>20 m) will enable us to observe galactic nuclei at much higher angular resolution and sensitivity than ever before. These capabilities will introduce a revolutionary shift in our understanding of the origin and evolution of supermassive black holes by enabling more precise black hole mass measurements in a mass range that is unreachable today. We present simulations and predictions of the observations of nuclei that will be made with the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the adaptive optics assisted integral-field spectrograph IRIS, which is capable of diffraction-limited spectroscopy from Z band (0.9 μm) to K band (2.2 μm). These simulations, for the first time, use realistic values for the sky, telescope, adaptive optics system, and instrument to determine the expected signal-to-noise ratio of a range of possible targets spanning intermediate mass black holes of ∼104 M ☉ to the most massive black holes known today of >1010 M ☉. We find that IRIS will be able to observe Milky Way mass black holes out the distance of the Virgo Cluster, and will allow us to observe many more of the brightest cluster galaxies where the most massive black holes are thought to reside. We also evaluate how well the kinematic moments of the velocity distributions can be constrained at the different spectral resolutions and plate scales designed for IRIS. We find that a spectral resolution of ∼8000 will be necessary to measure the masses of intermediate mass black holes. By simulating the observations of galaxies found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, we find that over 105 massive black holes will be observable at distances between 0.005 < z < 0.18 with the estimated sensitivity and angular resolution provided by access to Z-band (0.9 μm) spectroscopy from IRIS and the TMT adaptive optics system. These observations will provide the most accurate dynamical measurements of black hole masses to enable the study of the

  13. Spherically symmetric trapping horizons, the Misner-Sharp mass and black hole evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Alex B; Yeom, Dong-han

    2008-01-01

    Understood in terms of pure states evolving into mixed states, the possibility of information loss in black holes is closely related to the global causal structure of spacetime, as is the existence of event horizons. However, black holes need not be defined by event horizons, and in fact we argue that in order to have a fully unitary evolution for black holes, they should be defined in terms of something else, such as a trapping horizon. The Misner-Sharp mass in spherical symmetry shows very ...

  14. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J.; Greene, Jenny E.; Blakeslee, John P.; Janish, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day dormant descendants of this population of active black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central regio...

  15. Scale-invariant jet suppression across the black hole mass scale

    OpenAIRE

    Garofalo, David; Singh, Chandra B.

    2016-01-01

    We provide a schematic framework for understanding observations of jet suppression in soft state black hole X-ray binaries based on the Blandford-Payne process and the net magnetic flux threading the black hole. Due to the geometrical thinness of soft state disks, mass-loading of field lines is ineffective compared to both geometrically thick disks as well as thin disks with greater black hole threading flux, a simple physical picture that allows us to understand the weakness of jets in radia...

  16. A new mass scale, implications on black hole evaporation and holography

    OpenAIRE

    Burikham, Piyabut; Dhanawittayapol, Rujikorn; Wuthicharn, Taum

    2016-01-01

    We consider a new mass scale $M_{T}=(\\hbar^{2}\\sqrt{\\Lambda}/G)^{1/3}$ constructed from dimensional analysis by using $G$, $\\hbar$ and $\\Lambda$ and discuss its physical interpretation. Based on the Generalized Uncertainty Relation, a black hole with age comparable to the universe would stop radiating when the mass reaches a new mass scale $M'_{T}=c(\\hbar/G^{2}\\sqrt{\\Lambda})^{1/3}$ at which its temperature corresponds to the mass $M_{T}$. Black hole remnants could have masses ranging from a ...

  17. EXPLORING THE UNUSUALLY HIGH BLACK-HOLE-TO-BULGE MASS RATIOS IN NGC 4342 AND NGC 4291: THE ASYNCHRONOUS GROWTH OF BULGES AND BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, Akos; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Li, Zhiyuan; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Jones, Christine [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zhuravleva, Irina; Churazov, Eugene [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-str. 1, 85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Guo, Qi [Partner Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Schindler, Sabine, E-mail: abogdan@cfa.harvard.edu [Institut fuer Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-07-10

    We study two nearby early-type galaxies, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, that host unusually massive black holes relative to their low stellar mass. The observed black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are 6.9{sup +3.8}{sub -2.3}% and 1.9% {+-} 0.6%, respectively, which significantly exceed the typical observed ratio of {approx}0.2%. As a consequence of the exceedingly large black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are Almost-Equal-To 5.1{sigma} and Almost-Equal-To 3.4{sigma} outliers from the M{sub .}-M{sub bulge} scaling relation, respectively. In this paper, we explore the origin of the unusually high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratio. Based on Chandra X-ray observations of the hot gas content of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, we compute gravitating mass profiles, and conclude that both galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos, which extend well beyond the stellar light. The presence of dark matter halos around NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 and a deep optical image of the environment of NGC 4342 indicate that tidal stripping, in which {approx}> 90% of the stellar mass was lost, cannot explain the observed high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios. Therefore, we conclude that these galaxies formed with low stellar masses, implying that the bulge and black hole did not grow in tandem. We also find that the black hole mass correlates well with the properties of the dark matter halo, suggesting that dark matter halos may play a major role in regulating the growth of the supermassive black holes.

  18. EXPLORING THE UNUSUALLY HIGH BLACK-HOLE-TO-BULGE MASS RATIOS IN NGC 4342 AND NGC 4291: THE ASYNCHRONOUS GROWTH OF BULGES AND BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study two nearby early-type galaxies, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, that host unusually massive black holes relative to their low stellar mass. The observed black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are 6.9+3.8–2.3% and 1.9% ± 0.6%, respectively, which significantly exceed the typical observed ratio of ∼0.2%. As a consequence of the exceedingly large black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are ≈5.1σ and ≈3.4σ outliers from the M.-Mbulge scaling relation, respectively. In this paper, we explore the origin of the unusually high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratio. Based on Chandra X-ray observations of the hot gas content of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, we compute gravitating mass profiles, and conclude that both galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos, which extend well beyond the stellar light. The presence of dark matter halos around NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 and a deep optical image of the environment of NGC 4342 indicate that tidal stripping, in which ∼> 90% of the stellar mass was lost, cannot explain the observed high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios. Therefore, we conclude that these galaxies formed with low stellar masses, implying that the bulge and black hole did not grow in tandem. We also find that the black hole mass correlates well with the properties of the dark matter halo, suggesting that dark matter halos may play a major role in regulating the growth of the supermassive black holes.

  19. A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Timothy A; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo; 10.1038/nature11819

    2013-01-01

    The masses of the supermassive black-holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black-holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionised-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects which have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black-hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC4526, and obtain a best fit which requires the presence of a central dark-object of 4.5(+4.2-3.0)x10^8 Msun (3 sigma confidence limit). With next generation ...

  20. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  1. Searching for intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters with gravitational microlensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kains, N.; Bramich, D.M.; Sahu, K. C.; Calamida, A.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the potential of the gravitational microlensing method as a unique tool to detect unambiguous signals caused by intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters. We select clusters near the line of sight to the Galactic Bulge and the Small Magellanic Cloud, estimate the density of background stars for each of them, and carry out simulations in order to estimate the probabilities of detecting the astrometric signatures caused by black hole lensing. We find that for several cluster...

  2. Anti-proton and positron Cosmic Rays from Dark Matter annihilation around Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Lavalle, Julien

    2007-01-01

    Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) are candidates to seed the Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs), and some could still wander in the Galaxy. In the context of annihilating dark matter (DM), they are expected to drive huge annihilation rates, and could therefore significantly enhance the primary cosmic rays (CRs) expected from annihilation of the DM of the Galactic halo. In this proceeding (the original paper is Brun et al. 2007), we briefly explain the method to derive estimates of such exot...

  3. Massive particles' tunnelling radiation from the black hole with a mass-quadruple moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yi-Wen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we extend Zhang and Zhao's recent work to the black hole with a mass-quadruple moment. The behaviour of the tunnelling massive particles is investigated, and the emission rate at which massive particles tunnel across the event horizon of the black hole is calculated. The result is consistent with an underlying unitary theory, and takes the same functional form as that of a massless particle.

  4. Holography, mass area relation and discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lochan, Kinjalk

    2015-01-01

    The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigenspectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with holographic relation which tells that the entropy of the black hole can be obtained from the area of the horizon and they have a classical mass area relation. We show that...

  5. Estimates of black hole natal kick velocities from observations of low-mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ilya

    2016-02-01

    The birth kicks of black holes, arising from asymmetric mass ejection or neutrino emission during core-collapse supernovae, are of great interest for both observationally constraining supernova models and population-synthesis studies of binary evolution. Recently, several efforts were undertaken to estimate black hole birth kicks from observations of black hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We follow up on this work, specifically focusing on the highest estimated black hole kick velocities. We find that existing observations do not require black hole birth kicks in excess of approximately 80 km s-1, although higher kicks are not ruled out.

  6. Intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters: observations and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Gebhardt, Karl; Baumgardt, Holger; Kruijssen, Diederik; Noyola, Eva; Neumayer, Nadine; de Zeeuw, Tim; Feldmeier, Anja; van der Helm, Edwin; Pelupessy, Inti; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2016-02-01

    The study of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is a young and promising field of research. If IMBHs exist, they could explain the rapid growth of supermassive black holes by acting as seeds in the early stage of galaxy formation. Formed by runaway collisions of massive stars in young and dense stellar clusters, intermediate-mass black holes could still be present in the centers of globular clusters, today. Our group investigated the presence of intermediate-mass black holes for a sample of 10 Galactic globular clusters. We measured the inner kinematic profiles with integral-field spectroscopy and determined masses or upper limits of central black holes in each cluster. In combination with literature data we further studied the positions of our results on known black-hole scaling relations (such as M • - σ) and found a similar but flatter correlation for IMBHs. Applying cluster evolution codes, the change in the slope could be explained with the stellar mass loss occurring in clusters in a tidal field over its life time. Furthermore, we present results from several numerical simulations on the topic of IMBHs and integral field units (IFUs). We ran N-body simulations of globular clusters containing IMBHs in a tidal field and studied their effects on mass-loss rates and remnant fractions and showed that an IMBH in the center prevents core collapse and ejects massive objects more rapidly. These simulations were further used to simulate IFU data cubes. For the specific case of NGC 6388 we simulated two different IFU techniques and found that velocity dispersion measurements from individual velocities are strongly biased towards lower values due to blends of neighboring stars and background light. In addition, we use the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment (AMUSE) to combine gravitational physics, stellar evolution and hydrodynamics to simulate the accretion of stellar winds onto a black hole.

  7. THE RELATION BETWEEN BLACK HOLE MASS AND HOST SPHEROID STELLAR MASS OUT TO z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We combine Hubble Space Telescope images from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey with archival Very Large Telescope and Keck spectra of a sample of 11 X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei in the redshift range 1 sph,*) are derived from multi-filter surface photometry. Black hole masses (MBH) are estimated from the width of the broad Mg II emission line and the 3000 Å nuclear luminosity. Comparing with a uniformly measured local sample and taking into account selection effects, we find evolution in the form MBH/Msph,*∝(1 + z)1.96±0.55, in agreement with our earlier studies based on spheroid luminosity. However, this result is more accurate because it does not require a correction for luminosity evolution and therefore avoids the related and dominant systematic uncertainty. We also measure total stellar masses (Mhost,*). Combining our sample with data from the literature, we find MBH/Mhost,*∝(1 + z)1.15±0.15, consistent with the hypothesis that black holes (in the range MBH ∼ 108-9 M☉) pre-date the formation of their host galaxies. Roughly, one-third of our objects reside in spiral galaxies; none of the host galaxies reveal signs of interaction or major merger activity. Combined with the slower evolution in host stellar masses compared to spheroid stellar masses, our results indicate that secular evolution or minor mergers play a non-negligible role in growing both BHs and spheroids.

  8. The black hole mass-bulge mass correlation: bulges versus pseudo-bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the scaling relations between the supermassive black holes mass (M_bh) and the host bulge mass in elliptical galaxies, classical bulges, and pseudo-bulges. We use two-dimensional image analysis software BUDDA to obtain the structural parameters of 57 galaxies with dynamical M_bh measurement, and determine the bulge K-band luminosities (L_bul,K), stellar masses (M_s), and dynamical masses (M_d). The updated M_bh-L_bul,K, M_bh-M_s, and M_bh-M_d correlations for elliptical galaxies and classical bulges give M_bh~0.006M_s or 0.003M_d. The most tight relationship is log(M_bh/M_sun)=a+b log(M_d/10^11 M_sun), with a=8.46+/-0.05, b=0.90+/-0.06, and intrinsic scatter 0.27 dex. The pseudo-bulges follow their own relations, they harbor an order of magnitude smaller black holes than those in the same massive classical bulges, i.e. M_bh~0.0003M_s or 0.0002M_d. Besides the M_bh-\\sigma (bulge stellar velocity dispersion) relation, these bulge type dependent M_bh-M_bul scaling relations provide information for...

  9. Indication for an intermediate-mass black hole in the globular cluster NGC 5286 from kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Feldmeier, A; Neumayer, N; Kissler-Patig, M; Gebhardt, K; Baumgardt, H; Noyola, E; de Zeeuw, P T; Jalali, B

    2013-01-01

    Intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, 10^2-10^5 M_sun) fill the gap between stellar-mass black holes and supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Simulations have shown that IMBHs may form in dense star clusters, and therefore may still be present in these smaller stellar systems. We investigate the Galactic globular cluster NGC 5286 for indications of a central IMBH using spectroscopic data from VLT/FLAMES, velocity measurements from the Rutgers Fabry Perot at CTIO, and photometric data from HST. We run analytic spherical and axisymmetric Jeans models with different central black-hole masses, anisotropy, mass-to-light ratio, and inclination. Further, we compare the data to a grid of N-body simulations without tidal field. Additionally, we use one N-body simulation to check the results of the spherical Jeans models for the total cluster mass. Both the Jeans models and the N-body simulations favor the presence of a central black hole in NGC 5286 and our detection is at the 1- to 1.5-sigma level. From the spherical Je...

  10. Binary black hole mergers from globular clusters: Masses, merger rates, and the impact of stellar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carl L.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of GW150914, the binary black hole merger detected by Advanced LIGO, has the potential to revolutionize observational astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the Universe, we must compare these new observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. Expanding upon our previous work [C. L. Rodriguez, M. Morscher, B. Pattabiraman, S. Chatterjee, C.-J. Haster, and F. A. Rasio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 051101 (2015).], we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N -body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ejected black hole binaries and a cluster's mass and radius. With our improved treatment of stellar evolution, we find that globular clusters can produce a significant population of massive black hole binaries that merge in the local Universe. We explore the masses and mass ratios of these binaries as a function of redshift, and find a merger rate of ˜5 Gpc-3yr-1 in the local Universe, with 80% of sources having total masses from 32 M⊙ to 64 M⊙. Under standard assumptions, approximately one out of every seven binary black hole mergers

  11. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardle, Mark [Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics Research Centre and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad, E-mail: mark.wardle@mq.edu.au, E-mail: zadeh@northwestern.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2012-05-10

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H{sub 2}O masers. For initial cloud column densities {approx}< 10{sup 23.5} cm{sup -2} the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  12. A Scaling Relation Between Megamaser Disk Radius and Black Hole Mass in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditi...

  13. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H2O masers. For initial cloud column densities ∼23.5 cm–2 the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  14. Constraining the formation of black holes in short-period black hole low-mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Serena; Nelemans, Gijs

    2015-11-01

    The formation of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) is still very uncertain. Two main uncertainties are the amount of mass ejected in the supernova (SN) event (if any) and the magnitude of the natal kick (NK) the BH receives at birth (if any). Repetto et al., studying the position of Galactic X-ray binaries containing BHs, found evidence for BHs receiving high NKs at birth. In this paper, we extend that study, taking into account the previous binary evolution of the sources as well. The seven short-period BH X-ray binaries that we use are compact binaries consisting of a low-mass star orbiting a BH in a period less than 1 d. We trace their binary evolution backwards in time, from the current observed state of mass transfer, to the moment the BH was formed, and we add the extra information on the kinematics of the binaries. We find that several systems could be explained by no NK, just mass ejection, while for two systems (and possibly more) a high kick is required. So unless the latter have an alternative formation, such as within a globular cluster, we conclude that at least some BHs get high kicks. This challenges the standard picture that BH kicks would be scaled down from neutron star kicks. Furthermore, we find that five systems could have formed with a non-zero NK but zero mass ejected (i.e. no SN) at formation, as predicted by neutrino-driven NKs.

  15. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J.; Greene, Jenny E.; Blakeslee, John P.; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day ‘dormant’ descendants of this population of ‘active’ black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall—the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600—a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  16. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.;

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  17. Growing massive black holes through supercritical accretion of stellar-mass seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, A.; Haardt, F.; Dotti, M.; Fiacconi, D.; Mayer, L.; Madau, P.

    2016-03-01

    The rapid assembly of the massive black holes that power the luminous quasars observed at z ˜ 6-7 remains a puzzle. Various direct collapse models have been proposed to head-start black hole growth from initial seeds with masses ˜105 M⊙, which can then reach a billion solar mass while accreting at the Eddington limit. Here, we propose an alternative scenario based on radiatively inefficient supercritical accretion of stellar-mass holes embedded in the gaseous circumnuclear discs (CNDs) expected to exist in the cores of high-redshift galaxies. Our sub-pc resolution hydrodynamical simulations show that stellar-mass holes orbiting within the central 100 pc of the CND bind to very high density gas clumps that arise from the fragmentation of the surrounding gas. Owing to the large reservoir of dense cold gas available, a stellar-mass black hole allowed to grow at super-Eddington rates according to the `slim-disc' solution can increase its mass by three orders of magnitudes within a few million years. These findings are supported by simulations run with two different hydro codes, RAMSES based on the Adaptive Mesh Refinement technique and GIZMO based on a new Lagrangian Godunov-type method, and with similar, but not identical, sub-grid recipes for star formation, supernova feedback, black hole accretion and feedback. The low radiative efficiency of supercritical accretion flows are instrumental to the rapid mass growth of our black holes, as they imply modest radiative heating of the surrounding nuclear environment.

  18. On the law of error for mass fluctuations in black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on an assumed form that the entropy should take for black holes, the statistics for mass fluctuations are derived from Gauss's law of error. The normal density which results is not a limiting form of any type of physical statistics. The analysis shows that the temperature and mass may become negative while the heat capacities are positive. (author)

  19. The relation between black hole masses and Lorentz factors of the jet components in blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhou; Xin-Wu Cao

    2009-01-01

    We explore the relationship between black hole mass (MBH) and the motion of the jet components for a sample of blazars. The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) 2cm Survey and its continuation: Monitoring of Jets in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) have observed 278 radio-loud AGNs, of which 146 blazars have reliable measurements of their apparent velocities of the jet components. We calculate the minimal Lorentz factors for these sources from their measured apparent velocities, and their black hole masses ate estimated with their broad-line widths. A sig-nificant intrinsic correlation is found between black hole masses and the minimal Lorentz factors of the jet components. The Eddington ratio is only weakly correlated with the min-imal Lorentz factor, which may imply that the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne (BP) mechanism for the jet acceleration (at least) in blazars.

  20. Relations Between Central Black Hole Mass and Total Galaxy Stellar Mass in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Reines, Amy E

    2015-01-01

    Scaling relations between central black hole (BH) mass and host galaxy properties are of fundamental importance to studies of BH and galaxy evolution throughout cosmic time. Here we investigate the relationship between BH mass and host galaxy total stellar mass using a sample of 262 broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the nearby Universe (z < 0.055), as well as 81 galaxies with dynamical BH masses. The vast majority of our AGN sample is constructed using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy and searching for Seyfert-like narrow-line ratios and broad H-alpha emission. BH masses are estimated using standard virial techniques. We also include a small number of dwarf galaxies with total stellar masses M_stellar < 10^9.5 Msun and a sub-sample of the reverberation-mapped AGNs. Total stellar masses of all 343 galaxies are calculated in the most consistent manner feasible using color-dependent mass-to-light ratios. We find a clear correlation between BH mass and total stellar mass for the AGN host galax...

  1. Super-Critical Growth of Massive Black Holes from Stellar-Mass Seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Madau, Piero; Dotti, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We consider super-critical accretion with angular momentum onto stellar-mass black holes as a possible mechanism for growing billion-solar-mass holes from light seeds at early times. We use the radiatively-inefficient "slim disk" solution -- advective, optically thick flows that generalize the standard geometrically thin disk model -- to show how mildly super-Eddington intermittent accretion may significantly ease the problem of assembling the first massive black holes when the Universe was less than 0.8 Gyr old. Because of the low radiative efficiencies of slim disks around non-rotating as well as rapidly rotating holes, the mass e-folding timescale in this regime is nearly independent of the spin parameter. The conditions that may lead to super-critical growth in the early Universe are briefly discussed.

  2. Black holes in stellar-mass binary systems: expiating original spin?

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We investigate systematically whether accreting black hole systems are likely to reach global alignment of the black hole spin and its accretion disc with the binary plane. In low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) there is only a modest tendency to reach such global alignment, and it is difficult to achieve fully: except for special initial conditions we expect misalignment of the spin and orbital planes by ~1 radian for most of the LMXB lifetime. The same is expected in high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). A fairly close approach to global alignment is likely in most stellar-mass ultraluminous X-ray binary systems (ULXs) where the companion star fills its Roche lobe and transfers on a thermal timescale to a black hole of lower mass. These systems are unlikely to show orbital eclipses, as their emission cones are close to the hole's spin axis. This offers a potential observational test, as models for ULXs invoking intermediate-mass black holes do predict eclipses for ensembles of > ~10 systems. Recent observational wo...

  3. On the Black Hole - Bulge Mass Ratios in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We present estimated ratios of the central black hole mass to the bulgemass (Mbh/Mbulge) for 15 Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s). It is found thatNLS1s apparently have lower mass ratios: the average mass ratio is about 1 × 10-4with a spread of 2, which is one order of magnitude lower than for Broad Line AGNsand quiescent galaxies. This lower value, as compared to that established essentiallyfor all other types of galaxies, can be accounted for by an underestimation of theblack hole masses and an overestimation of the bulge masses in the NLS1s.

  4. Accretion onto Intermediate-mass Seed Black Holes in Primordial Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuexing

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the supermassive black holes that power the most distant quasars observed is largely unknown. One hypothesis is that they grew rapidly from intermediate-mass seeds (~100 M_sun) left by the first stars. However, some previous studies argued that accretion onto these black holes was too low to build up the mass due to strong suppression by radiative feedback. Here, we re-exam the accretion process of such a black hole embedded in a primordial gas cloud, by considering a wide range of physical and numerical parameters not explored before. We find that, while radiative heating and pressure indeed suppress accretion effectively, self-gravity of the gas eventually overcomes the feedback effects and boosts the accretion to the Eddington rate after one free-fall timescale of the cloud. Moreover, for a given black hole mass, there exists a critical density above which the accretion can reach Eddington limit. Furthermore, we find a universal correlation between black hole accretion rate and ambient gas de...

  5. The characteristic black hole mass resulting from direct collapse in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, M A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J C

    2013-01-01

    Black holes of a billion solar masses are observed in the infant universe a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. The direct collapse of protogalactic gas clouds in primordial halos with $\\rm T_{vir} \\geq 10^{4} K$ provides the most promising way to assemble massive black holes. In this study, we aim to determine the characteristic mass scale of seed black holes and the time evolution of the accretion rates resulting from the direct collapse model. We explore the formation of supermassive black holes via cosmological large eddy simulations (LES) by employing sink particles and following their evolution for twenty thousand years after the formation of the first sink. As the resulting protostars were shown to have cool atmospheres in the presence of strong accretion, we assume here that UV feedback is negligible during this calculation. We confirm this result in a comparison run without sinks. Our findings show that black hole seeds with characteristic mass of $\\rm 10^{5} M_{\\odot}$ are formed in the pr...

  6. The formation of black-holes in low-mass X-ray binaries

    OpenAIRE

    S. F. Portegies Zwart; Verbunt, F.; Ergma, E.

    1997-01-01

    We calculate the formation rates of low-mass X-ray binaries with a black hole. Both a semi-analytic and a more detailed model predict formation rates two orders of magnitude lower than derived from the observations. Solution of this conundrum requires either that stars with masses less than 20M$_\\odot$ can evolve into a black hole, or that stellar wind from a member of a binary is accompanied by a much larger loss of angular momentum than hitherto assumed.

  7. The orientation dependence of quasar single-epoch black hole mass scaling relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Runnoe, Jessie C.; Brotherton, Michael; Shang, Zhaohui; Wills, Beverley; DiPompeo, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Black hole masses are estimated for radio-loud quasars using several self-consistent scaling relationships based on emission-line widths and continuum luminosities. The emission lines used, H-beta, Mg II, and C IV, have different dependencies on orientation as estimated by radio core dominance. We compare differences in the log of black hole masses estimated from different emission lines and show that they depend on radio core dominance in the sense that core-dominated, jet-on objects have sy...

  8. No evidence for a low-mass black hole in Swift J1753.5-0127

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A. W.; Charles, P. A.; Casares, J.; Hernández Santisteban, J. V.

    2016-08-01

    We present high-resolution, time-resolved optical spectroscopy of the black hole X-ray transient Swift J1753.5-0127. Our optical spectra do not show features that we can associate with the companion star. However we do observe broad, double-peaked emission lines, typical of an accretion disc. We show that the mass of the compact object is likely >7.4 ± 1.2M⊙, much higher than previous suggestions of a low-mass (<5M⊙) black hole.

  9. Eddington-limited accretion and the black hole mass function at redshift 6

    OpenAIRE

    Willott, Chris J.; Albert, Loic; Arzoumanian, Doris; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Crampton, David; Delorme, Philippe; Hutchings, John B.; Omont, Alain; Reyle, Celine; Schade, David

    2010-01-01

    We present discovery observations of a quasar in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) at redshift z=6.44. We also use near-IR spectroscopy of nine CFHQS quasars at z~6 to determine black hole masses. These are compared with similar estimates for more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars to investigate the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity. We find a strong correlation between MgII FWHM and UV luminosity and that most quasars at this early epoch a...

  10. No evidence for a low-mass black hole in Swift J1753.5-0127

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, A W; Casares, J; Santisteban, J V Hernández

    2016-01-01

    We present high-resolution, time-resolved optical spectroscopy of the black hole X-ray transient Swift J1753.5-0127. Our optical spectra do not show features that we can associate with the companion star. However we do observe broad, double-peaked emission lines, typical of an accretion disc. We show that the mass of the compact object is likely $>7.4\\pm1.2M_{\\odot}$, much higher than previous suggestions of a low-mass ($<5M_{\\odot}$) black hole.

  11. The evanescence of rest masses and electric charge in black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Szabados, László B

    2016-01-01

    The classical Einstein-Standard Model system with conformally invariant coupling of the Higgs field to gravity is investigated in nearly Schwarzschild black holes. We show that, in the presence of Kantowski-Sachs symmetries, there is a finite critical value of the mean curvature such that on spacelike hypersurfaces with greater mean curvature the Higgs sector does not have any symmetry breaking vacuum state. Hence, according to the Standard Model of particle physics, the gauge and spinor fields do not have rest mass and electric charge. Therefore, particles falling into a nearly Schwarzschild black hole lose their mass and charge in the "reverse" Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism.

  12. X-ray and Radio Constraints on the Mass of the Black Hole in Swift J164449.3+573451

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, J.M.; Gultekin, K.

    2011-01-01

    Swift J164449.3+573451 is an exciting transient event, likely powered by the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole. The distance to the source, its transient nature, and high internal column density serve to complicate several means of estimating the mass of the black hole. Utilizing newly-refined relationships between black hole mass, radio luminosity, and X-ray luminosity, and de-beaming the source flux, a weak constraint on the black hole mass is obtained: log(M/Msun) = 5.5 +/...

  13. C IV emission-line properties and systematic trends in quasar black hole mass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.

    2016-09-01

    Black hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z ≳ 2.1, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity width of the C IV λ λ1548, 1550 broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the C IV emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries (`blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced by up to thousands of km s-1 to the blue. These blueshifts almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows, most likely originating in a disc wind. We have obtained near-infrared spectra, including the Hα λ6565 emission line, for 19 luminous (LBol = 46.5-47.5 erg s-1) Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars, at redshifts 2 2000 km s-1, the velocity widths appear to be dominated by non-virial motions. Black hole masses, based on the full width at half-maximum of the C IV emission line, can be overestimated by a factor of 5 at large blueshifts. A larger sample of quasar spectra with both C IV and H β, or Hα, emission lines will allow quantitative corrections to C IV-based black hole masses as a function of blueshift to be derived. We find that quasars with large C IV blueshifts possess high Eddington luminosity ratios and that the fraction of high-blueshift quasars in a flux-limited sample is enhanced by a factor of approximately 4 relative to a sample limited by black hole mass.

  14. Black holes in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review we shall concentrate on the application of the concept of black hole to different areas in astrophysics. Models in which this idea is involved are connected with basically two areas in astrophysics: a) The death of massive stars due to gravitational collapse. This process would lead to the formation of black holes with stellar masses (10-20 M sun). The detection of these kind of - objects is in principle possible, by means of studying the so-called X-ray binary system. b) Active nuclei of galaxies, including quasars as an extreme case. In this case, the best model available to explain the generation of the enormous amounts of energy observed as well as several other properties, is accretion into a supermassive black hole (106-1010 M sun) in the center. The problem of the origin of such black holes is related to cosmology. (author)

  15. Globular clusters hosting intermediate-mass black-holes: no mass-segregation based candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquato, Mario; Sohn, Bong Won; Lee, Young-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Recently, both stellar mass-segregation and binary-fractions were uniformly measured on relatively large samples of Galactic Globular Clusters (GCs). Simulations show that both sizeable binary-star populations and Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) quench mass-segregation in relaxed GCs. Thus mass-segregation in GCs with a reliable binary-fraction measurement is a valuable probe to constrain IMBHs. In this paper we combine mass-segregation and binary-fraction measurements from the literature to build a sample of 33 GCs (with measured core-binary fractions), and a sample of 43 GCs (with a binary fraction measurement in the area between the core radius and the half-mass radius). Within both samples we try to identify IMBH-host candidates. These should have relatively low mass-segregation, a low binary fraction (< 5%), and short (< 1 Gyr) relaxation time. Considering the core binary fraction sample, no suitable candidates emerge. If the binary fraction between the core and the half-mass radius is consid...

  16. Growing massive black holes through super-critical accretion of stellar-mass seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, A; Dotti, M; Fiacconi, D; Mayer, L; Madau, P

    2015-01-01

    The rapid assembly of the massive black holes that power the luminous quasars observed at $z \\sim 6-7$ remains a puzzle. Various direct collapse models have been proposed to head-start black hole growth from initial seeds with masses $\\sim 10^5\\,\\rm M_\\odot$, which can then reach a billion solar mass while accreting at the Eddington limit. Here we propose an alternative scenario based on radiatively inefficient super-critical accretion of stellar-mass holes embedded in the gaseous circum-nuclear discs (CNDs) expected to exist in the cores of high redshift galaxies. Our sub-pc resolution hydrodynamical simulations show that stellar-mass holes orbiting within the central 100 pc of the CND bind to very high density gas clumps that arise from the fragmentation of the surrounding gas. Owing to the large reservoir of dense cold gas available, a stellar-mass black hole allowed to grow at super-Eddington rates according to the "slim disc" solution can increase its mass by 3 orders of magnitudes within a few million y...

  17. Symbiotic starburst-black hole AGN; 1, Isothermal hydrodynamics of the mass-loaded ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, R J R; Perry, J J

    1999-01-01

    Compelling evidence associates the nuclei of active galaxies and massive starbursts. The symbiosis between a compact nuclear starburst stellar cluster and a massive black hole can self-consistently explain the properties of active nuclei. The young stellar cluster has a profound effect on the most important observable properties of active galaxies through its gravity, and by mass injection through stellar winds, supernovae and stellar collisions. Mass injection generates a nuclear ISM which flows under gravitational and radiative forces until it leaves the nucleus or is accreted onto the black hole or accretion disc. The radiative force exerted by the black hole--accretion disc radiation field is not spherically symmetric. This results in complex flows in which regions of inflow can coexist with high Mach number outflowing winds and hydrodynamic jets. We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic models of such nISM flows, which are highly complex and time variable. Shocked shells, jets and explosive bubbles are pr...

  18. Microlensing and dynamical constraints on primordial black hole dark matter with an extended mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of gravitational waves from mergers of $\\sim 10 \\, M_{\\odot}$ black hole binaries has stimulated interested in Primordial Black Hole dark matter in this mass range. Microlensing and dynamical constraints exclude all of the dark matter being in compact objects with a delta function mass function in the range $10^{-7} \\lesssim M/ M_{\\odot} \\lesssim 10^{5}$. However it has been argued that all of the dark matter could be composed of compact objects in this range with an extended mass function. We explicitly recalculate the microlensing and dynamical constraints for compact objects with an extended mass function which replicates the PBH mass function produced by inflation models. We find that the microlensing and dynamical constraints place conflicting constraints on the width of the mass function, and do not find a mass function which satisfies both constraints.

  19. A Population of Relic Intermediate-Mass Black Holes in the Halo of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Rashkov, Valery

    2013-01-01

    If "seed" central black holes were common in the subgalactic building blocks that merged to form present-day massive galaxies, then relic intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) should be present in the Galactic bulge and halo. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with black holes, and assess the size, properties, and detectability of the leftover population. The method assigns a black hole to the most tightly bound central particle of each subhalo at infall according to an extrapolation of the M_BH-sigma_* relation, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of Milky Way progenitor dwarfs and their holes in a cosmological "live" host from high redshift to today. We show that, depending on the minimum stellar velocity dispersion, sigma_m, below which central black holes are assumed to be increasingly rare, as many as ~2000 (sigma_m=3 km/s) or as few as ~70 (sigma_m=12 km/s) IMBHs may be left wandering in the halo of the M...

  20. Spin and mass of the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for exact determination of the masses and spins of black holes from the observations of quasi-periodic oscillations is discussed. The detected signal from the hot clumps in the accretion plasma must contain modulations with two characteristic frequencies: the frequency of rotation of the black hole event horizon and the frequency of the latitudinal precession of the clump’s orbit. Application of the method of two characteristic frequencies for interpretation of the observed quasi-periodic oscillations from the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center in the X-rays and in the near IR region yields the most exact, for the present, values of the mass and the spin (Kerr parameter) of the Sgr A* black hole: M = (4.2 ± 0.2) × 106M⊙ and a = 0.65 ± 0.05. The observed quasi-periodic oscillations with a period of about 11.5 min are identified as the black hole event horizon rotation period and those with a period of about 19 min are identified as the latitudinal oscillation period of the hot spot orbits in the accretion disk

  1. Spin and mass of the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dokuchaev, V. I., E-mail: dokuchaev@inr.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A new method for exact determination of the masses and spins of black holes from the observations of quasi-periodic oscillations is discussed. The detected signal from the hot clumps in the accretion plasma must contain modulations with two characteristic frequencies: the frequency of rotation of the black hole event horizon and the frequency of the latitudinal precession of the clump’s orbit. Application of the method of two characteristic frequencies for interpretation of the observed quasi-periodic oscillations from the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center in the X-rays and in the near IR region yields the most exact, for the present, values of the mass and the spin (Kerr parameter) of the Sgr A* black hole: M = (4.2 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 6}M{sub ⊙} and a = 0.65 ± 0.05. The observed quasi-periodic oscillations with a period of about 11.5 min are identified as the black hole event horizon rotation period and those with a period of about 19 min are identified as the latitudinal oscillation period of the hot spot orbits in the accretion disk.

  2. The Optical-UV Emissivity of Quasars: Dependence on Black Hole Mass and Radio Loudness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Francesco; Calderone, Giorgio; Knigge, Christian; Matthews, James; Buckland, Rachel; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof; Sivakoff, Gregory; Dai, Xinyu; Richardson, Kayleigh; Riley, Jack; Gray, James; La Franca, Fabio; Altamirano, Diego; Croston, Judith; Gandhi, Poshak; Hönig, Sebastian; McHardy, Ian; Middleton, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    We analyzed a large sample of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasar spectra at redshift 1.0 ≤ z ≤ 1.2 to compare the inferred underlying quasar continuum slopes (after removal of the host galaxy contribution) with accretion disk models. The latter predict redder (decreasing) α3000 continuum slopes ({L}ν \\propto {ν }α at 3000 Å) with increasing black hole mass, bluer α3000 with increasing luminosity at 3000 Å, and bluer α3000 with increasing spin of the black hole, when all other parameters are held fixed. We find no clear evidence for any of these predictions in the data. In particular, we find the following. (i) α3000 shows no significant dependence on black hole mass or luminosity. Dedicated Monte Carlo tests suggest that the substantial observational uncertainties in the black hole virial masses can effectively erase any intrinsic dependence of α3000 on black hole mass, in line with some previous studies. (ii) The mean slope α3000 of radio-loud sources, thought to be produced by rapidly spinning black holes, is comparable to, or even redder than, that of radio-quiet quasars. Indeed, although quasars appear to become more radio loud with decreasing luminosity, we still do not detect any significant dependence of α3000 on radio loudness. The predicted mean α3000 slopes tend to be bluer than in the data. Disk models with high inclinations and dust extinction tend to produce redder slopes closer to empirical estimates. Our mean α3000 values are close to the ones independently inferred at z < 0.5, suggesting weak evolution with redshift, at least for moderately luminous quasars.

  3. On the evolution of the intrinsic scatter in black hole versus galaxy mass relations

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschmann, M; Burkert, A; Naab, T; Genel, S; Somerville, R

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the evolution of the intrinsic scatter of black hole masses considering different implementations of a model in which black holes only grow via mergers. We demonstrate how merger driven growth affects the correlations between black hole mass and host bulge mass. The simple case of an initially log-normal distributed scatter in black hole and bulge masses combined with random merging within the galaxy population results in a decreasing scatter with merging generation/number as predicted by the Central-limit theorem. In general we find that the decrease in scatter {\\sigma} is well approximated by {\\sigma}merg(m) = {\\sigma}ini \\times (m + 1)^(-a/2) with a = 0.42 for a range of mean number of mergers m 100) we find a convergence to a = 0.61. This is valid for a wide range of different initial distributions, refill-scenarios or merger mass-ratios. Growth scenarios based on halo merger trees of a (100 Mpc)^3 dark matter LambdaCDM-simulation show a similar behaviour with a scatter decrease of ...

  4. Black Hole Masses of Intermediate-Redshift Quasars: Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Matthias; Grupe, Dirk; Komossa, S

    2009-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of ten luminous, intermediate redshift quasars observed with SofI at the NTT of ESO/La Silla. With these rest-frame optical spectra we probe the Hb -[OIII] emission line region. Using the standard scaling relation involving the width of the Hb line and the continuum luminosity, we measure black hole masses in the range of ~2x10^9 to 10^10 Msol. We also used SDSS spectra to probe MgII2798 and CIV1549 emission lines and used these for black hole mass measurements as well. The massive black holes we observe could not have grown by simple radiatively efficient accretion at the observed accretion rate starting from seeds of up to thousand solar masses. About 10% of the observed black hole mass must have been accumulated by earlier merger events and radiatively inefficient accretion. Radiatively efficient accretion would further grow these BHs to masses of several 10^9 Msol in 2 to 3 e-folding times i.e. in several 10^8yrs. The Hb-based Eddington luminosity ratios are in the range o...

  5. Unveiling a population of galaxies harboring low-mass black holes with X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, M; Greene, J E; Brandt, W N; Luo, B; Xue, Y Q; Capak, P; Kakazu, Y; Kartaltepe, J; Mainieri, V

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of three low-mass black hole candidates residing in the centers of low-mass galaxies at z<0.3 in the Chandra Deep Field - South Survey. These black holes are initially identified as candidate active galactic nuclei based on their X-ray emission in deep Chandra observations. Multi-wavelength observations are used to strengthen our claim that such emission is powered by an accreting supermassive black hole. While the X-ray luminosities are low at L_X ~ 10^40 erg s^-1 (and variable in one case), we argue that they are unlikely to be attributed to star formation based on H\\alpha or UV-fluxes. Optical spectroscopy with Keck/DEIMOS and VLT/FORS allows us to (1) measure accurate redshifts, (2) confirm their low stellar host mass, (3) investigate the source(s) of photo-ionization, and (4) estimate extinction. With stellar masses of M* < 3*10^9 M_\\sun determined from HST/ACS imaging, the host galaxies are among the lowest mass systems known to host actively accreting black holes. We estim...

  6. The Mass of the Black Hole in Arp 151 from Bayesian Modeling of Reverberation Mapping Data

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, Brendon J; Pancoast, Anna; Barth, Aaron J; Bennert, Vardha N; Bentz, Misty C; Filippenko, Alexei V; Greene, Jenny E; Malkan, Matthew A; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2011-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are believed to be ubiquitous at the centers of galaxies. Measuring their masses is extremely challenging yet essential for understanding their role in the formation and evolution of cosmic structure. We present a direct measurement of the mass of a black hole in an active galactic nucleus (Arp 151) based on the motion of the gas responsible for the broad emission lines. By analyzing and modeling spectroscopic and photometric time series, we find that the gas is well described by a disk or torus with an average radius of 3.99 +- 1.25 light days and an opening angle of 68.9 (+21.4, -17.2) degrees, viewed at an inclination angle of 67.8 +- 7.8 degrees (that is, closer to face-on than edge-on). The black hole mass is inferred to be 10^(6.51 +- 0.28) solar masses. The method is fully general and can be used to determine the masses of black holes at arbitrary distances, enabling studies of their evolution over cosmic time.

  7. MASS SEGREGATION IN NGC 2298: LIMITS ON THE PRESENCE OF AN INTERMEDIATE MASS BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical investigations have suggested the presence of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs, with masses in the 100-10000 Msun range) in the cores of some globular clusters (GCs). In this paper, we present the first application of a new technique to determine the presence or absence of a central IMBH in globular clusters that have reached energy equipartition via two-body relaxation. The method is based on the measurement of the radial profile for the average mass of stars in the system, using the fact that a quenching of mass segregation is expected when an IMBH is present. Here, we measure the radial profile of mass segregation using main-sequence stars for the globular cluster NGC 2298 from resolved source photometry based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST/ACS) data. NGC 2298 is one of the smallest galactic globular clusters, thus not only it is dynamically relaxed but also a single ACS field of view extends to about twice its half-light radius, providing optimal radial coverage. The observations are compared to expectations from direct N-body simulations of the dynamics of star clusters with and without an IMBH. The mass segregation profile for NGC 2298 is quantitatively matched to that inferred from simulations without a central massive object over all the radial range probed by the observations, that is from the center to about two half-mass radii. Profiles from simulations containing an IMBH more massive than ∼300-500 Msun (depending on the assumed total mass of NGC 2298) are instead inconsistent with the data at about 3σ confidence, irrespective of the initial mass function and binary fraction chosen for these runs. Our finding is consistent with the currently favored formation scenarios for IMBHs in GCs, which are not likely to apply to NGC 2298 due to its modest total mass. While providing a null result in the quest of detecting a central black hole in globular clusters, the data-model comparison carried out here demonstrates the feasibility of the

  8. Mass Segregation in NGC 2298: Limits on the Presence of an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquato, Mario; Trenti, Michele; De Marchi, Guido; Gill, Michael; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Miller, M. Coleman; Stiavelli, Massimo; van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2009-07-01

    Theoretical investigations have suggested the presence of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs, with masses in the 100-10000 M sun range) in the cores of some globular clusters (GCs). In this paper, we present the first application of a new technique to determine the presence or absence of a central IMBH in globular clusters that have reached energy equipartition via two-body relaxation. The method is based on the measurement of the radial profile for the average mass of stars in the system, using the fact that a quenching of mass segregation is expected when an IMBH is present. Here, we measure the radial profile of mass segregation using main-sequence stars for the globular cluster NGC 2298 from resolved source photometry based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST/ACS) data. NGC 2298 is one of the smallest galactic globular clusters, thus not only it is dynamically relaxed but also a single ACS field of view extends to about twice its half-light radius, providing optimal radial coverage. The observations are compared to expectations from direct N-body simulations of the dynamics of star clusters with and without an IMBH. The mass segregation profile for NGC 2298 is quantitatively matched to that inferred from simulations without a central massive object over all the radial range probed by the observations, that is from the center to about two half-mass radii. Profiles from simulations containing an IMBH more massive than ≈300-500 M sun (depending on the assumed total mass of NGC 2298) are instead inconsistent with the data at about 3σ confidence, irrespective of the initial mass function and binary fraction chosen for these runs. Our finding is consistent with the currently favored formation scenarios for IMBHs in GCs, which are not likely to apply to NGC 2298 due to its modest total mass. While providing a null result in the quest of detecting a central black hole in globular clusters, the data-model comparison carried out here demonstrates the feasibility of the

  9. Towards a Theory of Quantum Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Berezin, V.

    2001-01-01

    We describe some specific quantum black hole model. It is pointed out that the origin of a black hole entropy is the very process of quantum gravitational collapse. The quantum black hole mass spectrum is extracted from the mass spectrum of the gravitating source. The classical analog of quantum black hole is constructed.

  10. Mass Segregation in NGC 2298: limits on the presence of an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquato, Mario; De Marchi, Guido; Gill, Michael; Hamilton, Douglas P; Miller, M Coleman; Stiavelli, Massimo; van der Marel, Roeland P

    2009-01-01

    [abridged] Theoretical investigations have suggested the presence of Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs, with masses in the 100-10000 Msun range) in the cores of some Globular Clusters (GCs). In this paper we present the first application of a new technique to determine the presence or absence of a central IMBH in globular clusters that have reached energy equipartition via two-body relaxation. The method is based on the measurement of the radial profile for the average mass of stars in the system, using the fact that a quenching of mass segregation is expected when an IMBH is present. Here we measure the radial profile of mass segregation using main-sequence stars for the globular cluster NGC 2298 from resolved source photometry based on HST-ACS data. The observations are compared to expectations from direct N-body simulations of the dynamics of star clusters with and without an IMBH. The mass segregation profile for NGC 2298 is quantitatively matched to that inferred from simulations without a central mas...

  11. Intermediate Mass Black Hole Induced Quenching of Mass Segregation in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, Michael; Miller, M Coleman; van der Marel, Roeland; Hamilton, Douglas; Stiavelli, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    In many theoretical scenarios it is expected that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, with masses M ~ 100-10000 solar masses) reside at the centers of some globular clusters. However, observational evidence for their existence is limited. Several previous numerical investigations have focused on the impact of an IMBH on the cluster dynamics or brightness profile. Here we instead present results from a large set of direct N-body simulations including single and binary stars. These show that there is a potentially more detectable IMBH signature, namely on the variation of the average stellar mass between the center and the half-light radius. We find that the existence of an IMBH quenches mass segregation and causes the average mass to exhibit only modest radial variation in collisionally relaxed star clusters. This differs from when there is no IMBH. To measure this observationally requires high resolution imaging at the level of that already available from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for the cores of a ...

  12. Systematic Uncertainties in Black Hole Masses Determined from Single Epoch Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Dietrich, Matthias;

    2008-01-01

    We explore the nature of systematic errors that can arise in measurement of black hole masses from single-epoch spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by utilizing the many epochs available for NGC 5548 and PG1229+204 from reverberation mapping databases. In particular, we examine systematics due...

  13. Intermediate-mass black holes and ultraluminous X-ray sources in the Cartwheel ring galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapelli, M.; Moore, B.; Giordano, L.; Mayer, L.; Colpi, M.; Ripamonti, E.; Callegari, S.

    2008-01-01

    Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the Cartwheel galaxy show similar to 17 bright X-ray sources (greater than or similar to 5 x 10(38) erg s(-1)), all within the gas-rich outer ring. We explore the hypothesis that these X-ray sources are powered by intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) accreting

  14. Intermediate mass black holes in accreting binaries: formation, evolution and observational appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Portegies Zwart; J.D.M. Dewi; T.J. Maccarone

    2004-01-01

    We study the origin of the ultraluminous X-ray source M82 X-1 in the nearby starburst galaxy M82. This X-ray source is of particular interest as it is currently the best candidate for an intermediate mass black hole; it is associated with a 54mHz quasi-periodic oscillation with a relatively low (~1

  15. BLACK HOLE MASS LIMITS FOR OPTICALLY DARK X-RAY BRIGHT SOURCES IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of the black hole mass in bright X-ray sources of nearby galaxies is crucial to the understanding of these systems and their formation. However, the present allowed black hole mass range spans five orders of magnitude (10 Msun 5 Msun) with the upper limit obtained from dynamical friction arguments. We show that the absence of a detectable optical counterpart for some of these sources can provide a much more stringent upper limit. The argument is based only on the assumption that the outer regions of their accretion disks are a standard one. Moreover, such optically dark X-ray sources cannot be foreground stars or background active galactic nuclei, and hence must be accreting systems residing within their host galaxies. As a demonstration we search for candidates among the point-like X-ray sources detected with Chandra in 13 nearby elliptical galaxies. We use a novel technique to search for faint optical counterparts in the Hubble Space Telescope images whereby we subtract the bright galaxy light based on isophotal modeling of the surface brightness. We show that for six sources with no detectable optical emission at the 3σ level, their black hole masses MBH sun. In particular, an ultra-luminous X-ray source in NGC 4486 has MBH sun. We discuss the potential of this method to provide stringent constraints on the black hole masses, and the implications on the physical nature of these sources.

  16. Charge and mass effects on the evaporation of higher-dimensional rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the dynamics of discharge of a brane black hole in TeV gravity scenarios, we obtain the approximate electromagnetic field due to the charged black hole, by solving Maxwell's equations perturbatively on the brane. In addition, arguments are given for brane metric corrections due to backreaction. We couple brane scalar and brane fermion fields with non-zero mass and charge to the background, and study the Hawking radiation process using well known low energy approximations as well as a WKB approximation in the high energy limit. We argue that contrary to common claims, the initial evaporation is not dominated by fast Schwinger discharge.

  17. Radio observations of NGC 6388: an upper limit on the mass of its central black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Cseh, D.; Kaaret, P.; Corbel, S.; Kording, E.; Coriat, M.; Tzioumis, A.; Lanzoni, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of deep radio observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) of the globular cluster NGC 6388. We show that there is no radio source detected (with a r.m.s. noise level of 27 uJy) at the cluster centre of gravity or at the locations of the any of the Chandra X-ray sources in the cluster. Based on the fundamental plane of accreting black holes which is a relationship between X-ray luminosity, radio luminosity and black hole mass, we place an upper limit o...

  18. Evidence for an Intermediate Mass Black Hole in NGC 5408 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of correlated spectral and timing behavior in the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1. An approx. 100 ksec pointing with XMM/Newton obtained in January, 2008 reveals a strong 10 mHz QPO in the > 1 keV flux, as well as flat-topped, band limited noise breaking to a power law. The energy spectrum is again dominated by two components, a 0.16 keV thermal disk and a power-law with an index of approx. 2.5. These new measurements, combined with results from our previous January 2006 pointing in which we first detected QPOs, show for the first time in a ULX a pattern of spectral and temporal correlations strongly analogous to that seen in Galactic black hole sources, but at much higher X-ray luminosity and longer characteristic time-scales. We find that the QPO frequency is proportional to the inferred disk flux, while the QPO and broad-band noise amplitude (root mean squared, rms) are inversely proportional to the disk flux. Assuming that QPO frequency scales inversely with black hole mass at a given power-law spectral index we derive mass estimates using the observed QPO frequency - spectral index relations from five stellar-mass black hole systems with dynamical mass constraints. The results from all sources are consistent with a mass range for NGC 5408 X-1 from 1000 - 9000 Stellar mass. We argue that these are conservative limits, and a more likely range is from 2000 - 5000 Stellar mass. Moreover, the recent relation from Gierlinski et al. that relates black hole mass to the strength of variability at high frequencies (above the break in the power spectrum), and the variability plane results of McHardy et al. and Koerding et al., are also suggestive of such a. high mass for NGC 5408 X-1. Importantly, none of the above estimates appears consistent with a black hole mass less than approx. 1000 Stellar mass for NGC 5408 X-1. We argue that these new findings strongly support the conclusion that NGC 5408 X-1 harbors an

  19. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steven L Liebling

    2000-10-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  20. Hawking Radiation of Mass Generating Particles from Dyonic Reissner-Nordström Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalli, I.; Övgün, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Hawking radiation is considered as a quantum tunneling process, which can be studied in the framework of the Hamilton-Jacobi method. In this study, we present the wave equation for a mass generating massive and charged scalar particle (boson). In sequel, we analyse the quantum tunneling of these bosons from a generic 4-dimensional spherically symmetric black hole. We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to derive the radial integral solution for the classically forbidden action which leads to the tunneling probability. To support our arguments, we take the dyonic Reissner-Nordström black hole as a test background. Comparing the tunneling probability obtained with the Boltzmann formula, we succeed in reading the standard Hawking temperature of the dyonic Reissner-Nordström black hole.

  1. Hawking Radiation of Mass Generating Particles From Dyonic Reissner Nordstrom Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Sakalli, I

    2016-01-01

    The Hawking radiation is considered as a quantum tunneling process, which can be studied in the framework of the Hamilton-Jacobi method. In this study, we present the wave equation for a mass generating massive and charged scalar particle (boson). In sequel, we analyze the quantum tunneling of these bosons from a generic 4-dimensional spherically symmetric black hole. We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to derive the radial integral solution for the classically forbidden action which leads to the tunneling probability. To support our arguments, we take the dyonic Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole as a test background. Comparing the tunneling probability obtained with the Boltzmann formula, we succeed to read the standard Hawking temperature of the dyonic Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole.

  2. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Masses, Merger Rates, and the Impact of Stellar Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Rasio, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    Expanding upon our previous work (Rodriguez et al., 2015), we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N-body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ...

  3. The physics of the relativistic counter-streaming instability that drives mass inflation inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Andrew J S

    2008-01-01

    If you fall into a real astronomical black hole (choosing a supermassive black hole, to make sure that the tidal forces don't get you first), then you will probably meet your fate not at a central singularity, but rather in the exponentially growing, relativistic counter-streaming instability at the inner horizon first pointed out by Poisson & Israel (1990), who called it mass inflation. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear exposition of the physical cause and consequence of inflation in spherical, charged black holes. Inflation acts like a particle accelerator in that it accelerates cold ingoing and outgoing streams through each other to prodigiously high energies. Inflation feeds on itself: the acceleration is powered by the gravity produced by the streaming energy.

  4. Gravitational waves from scattering of stellar-mass black holes in galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Ryan M; Loeb, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Stellar mass black holes (BHs) are expected to segregate and form a steep density cusp around supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. We follow the evolution of a multi-mass system of BHs and stars by numerically integrating the Fokker-Planck energy diffusion equations for a variety of BH mass distributions. We find that the BHs ``self-segregate'', and that the rarest, most massive BHs dominate the scattering rate closest to the SMBH ( 0.9), and are therefore distinguishable from other binaries, which circularize before becoming detectable. We also show that eccentric mergers can be detected to larger distances and greater BH masses than circular mergers, up to ~700 M_sun. Future ground-based gravitational wave observatories will be able to constrain both the mass function of BHs and stars in galactic nuclei.

  5. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  6. A stellar-mass black hole population in the globular cluster NGC 6101?

    CERN Document Server

    Peuten, Miklos; Gieles, Mark; Gualandris, Alessia; Henault-Brunet, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Dalessandro et al. observed a similar distribution for blue straggler stars and main-sequence turn-off stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6101, and interpreted this feature as an indication that this cluster is not mass-segregated. Using direct N-body simulations, we find that a significant amount of mass segregation is expected for a cluster with the mass, radius and age of NGC 6101. Therefore, the absence of mass segregation cannot be explained by the argument that the cluster is not yet dynamically evolved. By varying the retention fraction of stellar-mass black holes, we show that segregation is not observable in clusters with a high black hole retention fraction (>50% after supernova kicks and >50% after dynamical evolution). Yet all model clusters have the same amount of mass segregation in terms of the decline of the mean mass of stars and remnants with distance to the centre. We also discuss how kinematics can be used to further constrain the presence of a stellar-mass black hole population an...

  7. A Population of Relic Intermediate-mass Black Holes in the Halo of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashkov, Valery; Madau, Piero

    2014-01-01

    If "seed" central black holes were common in the subgalactic building blocks that merged to form present-day massive galaxies, then relic intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) should be present in the Galactic bulge and halo. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with black holes, and assess the size, properties, and detectability of the leftover population. The method assigns a black hole to the most tightly bound central particle of each subhalo at infall according to an extrapolation of the M BH-σ* relation, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of Milky Way progenitor dwarfs and their holes in a cosmological "live" host from high redshift to today. We show that, depending on the minimum stellar velocity dispersion, σ m , below which central black holes are assumed to be increasingly rare, as many as ~2000 (σ m = 3 km s-1) or as few as ~70 (σ m = 12 km s-1) IMBHs may be left wandering in the halo of the Milky Way today. The fraction of IMBHs forced from their hosts by gravitational recoil is matter satellites that survived tidal stripping. Naked IMBHs typically constitute 40%-50% of the total and are more centrally concentrated. We show that, in the σ m = 12 km s-1 scenario, the clusters of tightly bound stars that should accompany naked IMBHs would be fainter than mV = 16 mag, spatially resolvable, and have proper motions of 0.1-10 mas yr-1. Their detection may provide an observational tool to constrain the formation history of massive black holes in the early universe.

  8. A population of relic intermediate-mass black holes in the halo of the Milky Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If 'seed' central black holes were common in the subgalactic building blocks that merged to form present-day massive galaxies, then relic intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) should be present in the Galactic bulge and halo. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with black holes, and assess the size, properties, and detectability of the leftover population. The method assigns a black hole to the most tightly bound central particle of each subhalo at infall according to an extrapolation of the M BH-σ* relation, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of Milky Way progenitor dwarfs and their holes in a cosmological 'live' host from high redshift to today. We show that, depending on the minimum stellar velocity dispersion, σ m, below which central black holes are assumed to be increasingly rare, as many as ∼2000 (σ m = 3 km s–1) or as few as ∼70 (σ m = 12 km s–1) IMBHs may be left wandering in the halo of the Milky Way today. The fraction of IMBHs forced from their hosts by gravitational recoil is ≲ 20%. We identify two main Galactic subpopulations, 'naked' IMBHs, whose host subhalos were totally destroyed after infall, and 'clothed' IMBHs residing in dark matter satellites that survived tidal stripping. Naked IMBHs typically constitute 40%-50% of the total and are more centrally concentrated. We show that, in the σ m = 12 km s–1 scenario, the clusters of tightly bound stars that should accompany naked IMBHs would be fainter than mV = 16 mag, spatially resolvable, and have proper motions of 0.1-10 mas yr–1. Their detection may provide an observational tool to constrain the formation history of massive black holes in the early universe.

  9. CIV Emission Line Properties and Systematic Trends in Quasar Black Hole Mass Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Coatman, Liam; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T

    2016-01-01

    Black-hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z > 2.1, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity-width of the CIV broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity-widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the CIV-emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries (`blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced by up to thousands of km/s to the blue. These blueshifts almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows, most likely originating in a disc wind. We have obtained near-infrared spectra, including the H$\\alpha$ emission line, for 19 luminous ($L_{Bol}$ = 46.5-47.5 erg/s) Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars, at redshifts 2 2000 km/s, the velocity-widths appear to be dominated by non-virial motions. Black-hole masses, based on the full width at half maximum of the CIV-emission line, can be overestimated by a factor of...

  10. Prospects for measuring supermassive black hole masses with future extremely large telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Do, Tuan; Barth, Aaron J; Barton, Elizabeth J; Simard, Luc; Larkin, James E; Moore, Anna M; Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of giant-segmented mirror telescopes ($>$ 20 m) will enable us to observe galactic nuclei at much higher angular resolution and sensitivity than ever before. These capabilities will introduce a revolutionary shift in our understanding of the origin and evolution of supermassive black holes by enabling more precise black hole mass measurements in a mass range that is unreachable today. We present simulations and predictions of the observations of nuclei that will be made with the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the adaptive optics assisted integral-field spectrograph IRIS, which is capable of diffraction-limited spectroscopy from $Z$ band (0.9 $\\mu$m) to $K$ band (2.2 $\\mu$m). These simulations, for the first time, use realistic values for the sky, telescope, adaptive optics system, and instrument, to determine the expected signal-to-noise ratio of a range of possible targets spanning intermediate mass black holes of $\\sim10^4$ \\msun to the most massive black holes known today of $>10^{10}...

  11. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, H.

    2016-06-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5 σ . The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3. 4-0.9+0.7×10-22 . The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2-3.7+8.3 M⊙ and 7. 5-2.3+2.3 M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 20.8-1.7+6.1 M⊙. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 44 0-190+180 Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.0 9-0.04+0.03. All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

  12. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5 $\\sigma$. The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of $3.4_{-0.9}^{+0.7} \\times 10^{-22}$. The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are $14.2_{-3.7}^{+8.3} M_{\\odot}$ and $7.5_{-2.3}^{+2.3} M_{\\odot}$ and the final black hole mass is $20.8_{-1.7}^{+6.1} M_{\\odot}$. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2....

  13. Synchrotron peak luminosity,black hole mass and Eddington ratio for SDSS flat-spectrum radio quasars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For a sample of 185 flat-spectrum radio quasars(FSRQs) constructed from the SDSS DR3 quasar catalog,we found a significant correlation between the synchrotron peak luminosity and both the black hole mass and Eddington ratio.This implies that the physics of its jet formation is not only tightly related with the black hole mass,but also with the accretion rate.We verify that the synchrotron peak luminosity can be a better indicator of jet emission than 5 GHz luminosity,through comparing the relationships between each of these two parameters and both black hole mass and Eddington ratio.The fundamental plane of black hole activity for our FSRQs is established as Lr ∝ L0x.80 ± 0.06 Mbh -0.04 ± 0.09 with a weak dependence on black hole mass,however,the scatter is significant.

  14. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  15. Unification of the Fundamental Plane and Super-Massive Black Holes Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch, Remco van den

    2016-01-01

    According to the Virial Theorem, all gravitational systems in equilibrium sit on a plane in the 3D parameter space defined by their mass, size and second moment of the velocity tensor. While these quantities cannot be directly observed, there are suitable proxies: the luminosity Lk, half-light radius Re and dispersion sigma_e. These proxies indeed lie on a very tight Fundamental Plane (FP). How do the black holes in the centers of galaxies relate to the FP? Their masses are known to exhibit no strong correlation with total galaxy mass, but they do correlate weakly with bulge mass (when present), and extremely well with the velocity dispersion through the Mbh = sigma_e^5.3 relation. These facts together imply that a tight plane must also exist defined by black hole mass, total galaxy mass and size. Here I show that this is indeed the case using a heterogeneous set of 225 black holes. The sample includes BHs from zero to 10 billion solar masses and host galaxies ranging from low surface brightness dwarfs, throu...

  16. Intermediate-mass black holes from Population III remnants in the first galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Taeho; Tanaka, Takamitsu L.; Perna, Rosalba; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-08-01

    We report the formation of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in suites of numerical N-body simulations of Population III remnant black holes (BHs) embedded in gas-rich protogalaxies at redshifts z ≳ 10. We model the effects of gas drag on the BHs' orbits, and allow BHs to grow via gas accretion, including a mode of hyper-Eddington accretion in which photon trapping and rapid gas inflow suppress any negative radiative feedback. Most initial BH configurations lead to the formation of one (but never more than one) IMBH in the centre of the protogalaxy, reaching a mass of 103-5 M⊙ through hyper-Eddington growth. Our results suggest a viable pathway to forming the earliest massive BHs in the centres of early galaxies. We also find that the nuclear IMBH typically captures a stellar-mass BH companion, making these systems observable in gravitational waves as extreme mass-ratio inspirals with eLISA.

  17. Constraining the quadrupole moment of stellar-mass black-hole candidates with the continuum fitting method

    OpenAIRE

    Bambi, Cosimo; Barausse, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Black holes in General Relativity are known as Kerr black holes and are characterized solely by two parameters, the mass $M$ and the spin $J$. All the higher multipole moments of the gravitational field are functions of these two parameters. For instance, the quadrupole moment is $Q=-J^2/M$, which implies that a measurement of $M$, $J$, and $Q$ for black hole candidates would allow one to test whether these objects are really black holes as described by General Relativity. While future gravit...

  18. Precession of orbits around the stellar-mass black hole in H 1743-322

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Accreting stellar-mass black holes often show a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in their X-ray flux with a period that slowly drifts from ~10s to ~0.05s, and an iron emission line in their X-ray spectrum. The iron line is generated by fluorescent re-emission, by the accretion disk, of X-ray photons originating in the innermost hot flow. The line shape is distorted by relativistic motion of the orbiting plasma and the gravitational pull of the black hole. The QPO arises from the immediate vicinity of the black hole, but its physical origin has long been debated. It has been suggested that the QPO originates via Lense-Thirring precession, a General Relativistic effect causing the inner flow to precess as the spinning black hole twists up the surrounding space-time. This predicts a characteristic rocking of the iron line between red and blue shift as the receding and approaching sides of the disk are respectively illuminated. I will talk about our observations of the black hole binary H 1743-322 in which the line energy varies in step with the ~4.5s QPO cycle, providing strong evidence that such QPOs originate via Lense-Thirring precession. This effect has previously been measured in our Solar System but our detection is in the strong field regime of General Relativity, at a precession rate 14 orders of magnitude faster than possible in the Earth's gravitational field. Our result enables the application of tomographic techniques to map the motion of matter in the strong gravity near black hole event horizons.

  19. Characterization and Modeling of Mass Segregation and Intermediate-Mass Black Holes in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, Roeland

    2011-10-01

    Studies of the dynamics and stellar populations of globular clusters are at the forefront of HST research. These two topics are deeply intertwined. Clusters experience an interplay of collisional processes that drive stars toward energy equipartition, thus segregating more massive stars to the core. In young clusters, this can even lead to the formation of intermediate-mass black holes {IMBHs}, which are of great astrophysical interest, although evidence for them continues to be disputed. Our recent HST{-supported} observational and theoretical studies indicate that equipartition in a cluster is not generally attained. Measurement of the actual mass segregation in clusters can yield significant insight into some of the most important cluster parameters, including the mass of any IMBH {which tends to quench mass segregation}. We have demonstrated this explictly on archival data of NGC2298 and M10. HST imaging {including parallel fields} exists in fact over large radial ranges for many globular clusters. This trove of information remains largely untapped, as studies generally focus on the cluster core. We propose here to rigorously quantify and model the mass segregation in all 66 Galactic globular clusters with suitable HST data. We will create CMDs, LFs, and MFs as function of radius, and will release the resulting Legacy data products to the community to enable a host of ancillary investigations. We will run N-body models to interpret the observed mass segregation in the sample clusters. Data-model comparisons will constrain the mass of any IMBHs, will identify IMBH-candidates for more targeted follow-up, and will shed new light on cluster structure and evolution.

  20. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Jens; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day dormant descendants of this population of active black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall - the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600 - a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 Mpc from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the ...

  1. Mass inflation in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld black holes: analytical scaling solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, P P

    2016-01-01

    We study the inner dynamics of accreting Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld black holes using the homogeneous approximation and taking charge as a surrogate for angular momentum. We show that there is a minimum of the accretion rate below which mass inflation does not occur, and we derive an analytical expression for this threshold as a function of the fundamental scale of the theory, the accretion rate, the mass, and the charge of the black hole. Our result explicitly demonstrates that, no matter how close Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is to general relativity, there is always a minimum accretion rate below which there is no mass inflation. For larger accretion rates, mass inflation takes place inside the black hole as in general relativity until the extremely rapid density variations bring it to an abrupt end. We derive analytical scaling solutions for the value of the energy density and of the Misner-Sharp mass attained at the end of mass inflation as a function of fundamental scale of the theory, the...

  2. Black holes and the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  3. Kinematic signature of an intermediate-mass black hole in the globular cluster NGC 6388

    CERN Document Server

    Lützgendorf, N; Noyola, E; Jalali, B; de Zeeuw, P T; Gebhardt, K; Baumgardt, H

    2011-01-01

    Intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) are of interest in a wide range of astrophysical fields. In particular, the possibility of finding them at the centers of globular clusters has recently drawn attention. IMBHs became detectable since the quality of observational data sets, particularly those obtained with HST and with high resolution ground based spectrographs, advanced to the point where it is possible to measure velocity dispersions at a spatial resolution comparable to the size of the gravitational sphere of influence for plausible IMBH masses. We present results from ground based VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy in combination with HST data for the globular cluster NGC 6388. The aim of this work is to probe whether this massive cluster hosts an intermediate-mass black hole at its center and to compare the results with the expected value predicted by the $M_{\\bullet} - \\sigma$ scaling relation. The spectroscopic data, containing integral field unit measurements, provide kinematic signatures in the center of the...

  4. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  5. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired BTZ black hole based on Lorentzian smeared mass distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Liu, Bo

    2012-11-01

    A noncommutative BTZ black hole is constructed in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In this black-hole model, the noncommutative smearing is obtained by replacing the point-like source term with a Lorentzian distribution. We mainly investigate the thermodynamical properties of this black hole, including Hawking temperature, entropy, heat capacity and free energy.

  6. The Effect of Variability on the Estimation of Quasar Black Hole Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhite, B C; Schneider, D P; Berk, D E Vanden

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the time-dependent variations of ultraviolet (UV) black hole mass estimates of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From SDSS spectra of 615 high-redshift (1.69 < z < 4.75) quasars with spectra from two epochs, we estimate black hole masses, using a single-epoch technique which employs an additional, automated night-sky-line removal, and relies on UV continuum luminosity and CIV (1549A) emission line dispersion. Mass estimates show variations between epochs at about the 30% level for the sample as a whole. We determine that, for our full sample, measurement error in the line dispersion likely plays a larger role than the inherent variability, in terms of contributing to variations in mass estimates between epochs. However, we use the variations in quasars with r-band spectral signal-to-noise ratio greater than 15 to estimate that the contribution to these variations from inherent variability is roughly 20%. We conclude that these differences in black hole mass estimates between...

  7. Constraints from Galaxy-AGN Clustering on the Correlation between Galaxy and Black Hole Mass at Redshifts 2

    CERN Document Server

    Adelberger, K L

    2005-01-01

    We use the clustering of galaxies around distant active-galactic nuclei to derive an estimate of the relationship between galaxy and black hole mass that obtained during the ancient quasar epoch, at redshifts 2 <~ z <~ 3, when giant black holes accreted much of their mass. Neither the mean relationship nor its scatter differs significantly from what is observed in the local universe, at least over the ranges of apparent magnitude (16 <~ G_AB <~ 26) and black-hole mass (10^6 <~ M_BH/M_sun <~ 10^10.5) that we are able to probe.

  8. The mass of the central black hole in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a reverberation-mapping program targeting NGC 5273, a nearby early-type galaxy with a broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN). Over the course of the monitoring program, NGC 5273 showed strong variability that allowed us to measure time delays in the responses of the broad optical recombination lines to changes in the continuum flux. A weighted average of these measurements results in a black hole mass determination of M BH = (4.7 ± 1.6) × 106 M ☉. An estimate of the size of the black hole sphere of influence in NGC 5273 puts it just at the limit of the resolution achievable with current ground-based large aperture telescopes. NGC 5273 is therefore an important future target for a black hole mass determination from stellar dynamical modeling, especially because it is the only nearby early-type galaxy hosting an AGN with a reverberation-based mass, allowing the best comparison for the masses determined from these two techniques.

  9. The Mass of the Central Black Hole in the Nearby Seyfert Galaxy NGC5273

    CERN Document Server

    Bentz, Misty C; Bazhaw, Craig; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R; Ou-Yang, Benjamin J; Anderson, Matthew; Jones, Jeremy; Norris, Ryan P; Parks, J Robert; Saylor, Dicy; Teems, Katherine G; Turner, Clay

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a reverberation-mapping program targeting NGC5273, a nearby early-type galaxy with a broad-lined active galactic nucleus. Over the course of the monitoring program, NGC5273 showed strong variability that allowed us to measure time delays in the responses of the broad optical recombination lines to changes in the continuum flux. A weighted average of these measurements results in a black hole mass determination of $M_{\\rm BH} = (4.7 \\pm 1.6) \\times 10^6$ M$_{\\odot}$. An estimate of the size of the black hole sphere of influence in NGC5273 puts it just at the limit of the resolution achievable with current ground-based large aperture telescopes. NGC5273 is therefore an important future target for a black hole mass determination from stellar dynamical modeling, especially because it is the only nearby early-type galaxy hosting an AGN with a reverberation-based mass, allowing the best comparison for the masses determined from these two techniques.

  10. The mass of the central black hole in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Horenstein, Daniel; Bazhaw, Craig; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Ou-Yang, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Matthew; Jones, Jeremy; Norris, Ryan P.; Parks, J. Robert; Saylor, Dicy; Teems, Katherine G.; Turner, Clay, E-mail: bentz@astro.gsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 600, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We present the results of a reverberation-mapping program targeting NGC 5273, a nearby early-type galaxy with a broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN). Over the course of the monitoring program, NGC 5273 showed strong variability that allowed us to measure time delays in the responses of the broad optical recombination lines to changes in the continuum flux. A weighted average of these measurements results in a black hole mass determination of M {sub BH} = (4.7 ± 1.6) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. An estimate of the size of the black hole sphere of influence in NGC 5273 puts it just at the limit of the resolution achievable with current ground-based large aperture telescopes. NGC 5273 is therefore an important future target for a black hole mass determination from stellar dynamical modeling, especially because it is the only nearby early-type galaxy hosting an AGN with a reverberation-based mass, allowing the best comparison for the masses determined from these two techniques.

  11. Searching for intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters with gravitational microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kains, N.; Bramich, D. M.; Sahu, K. C.; Calamida, A.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the potential of the gravitational microlensing method as a unique tool to detect unambiguous signals caused by intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters. We select clusters near the line of sight to the Galactic bulge and the Small Magellanic Cloud, estimate the density of background stars for each of them, and carry out simulations in order to estimate the probabilities of detecting the astrometric signatures caused by black hole lensing. We find that for several clusters, the probability of detecting such an event is significant with available archival data from the Hubble Space Telescope. Specifically, we find that M 22 is the cluster with the best chances of yielding an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) detection via astrometric microlensing. If M 22 hosts an IMBH of mass 105 M⊙, then the probability that at least one star will yield a detectable signal over an observational baseline of 20 years is ˜86 per cent, while the probability of a null result is around 14 per cent. For an IMBH of mass 106 M⊙, the detection probability rises to >99 per cent. Future observing facilities will also extend the available time baseline, improving the chance of detections for the clusters we consider.

  12. Universal charge-mass relation: From black holes to atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.co [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)

    2010-10-04

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis, introduced by Penrose forty years ago, is one of the corner stones of general relativity. This conjecture asserts that spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. The elimination of a black-hole horizon is ruled out by this principle because that would expose naked singularities to distant observers. We test the consistency of this prediction in a gedanken experiment in which a charged object is swallowed by a charged black hole. We find that the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture requires the existence of a charge-mass bound of the form q{<=}{mu}{sup 2/3}E{sub c}{sup -1/3}, where q and {mu} are the charge and mass of the physical system respectively, and E{sub c} is the critical electric field for pair-production. Applying this bound to charged atomic nuclei, one finds an upper limit on the number Z of protons in a nucleus of given mass number A: Z{<=}Z{sup *}={alpha}{sup -1/3}A{sup 2/3}, where {alpha}=e{sup 2}/h is the fine structure constant. We test the validity of this novel bound against the (Z,A)-relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsaecker semi-empirical mass formula.

  13. The black hole mass - stellar velocity dispersion relation of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Park, Songyoun; Park, Daeseong; Kim, Sang Chul

    2014-01-01

    Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) are arguably one of the key AGN subclasses in investigating the origin of the black hole mass - stellar velocity dispersion (M-sigma) relation because of their high accretion rate and significantly low black hole mass. Currently, it is under discussion whether present-day NLS1s offset from the M-sigma relation. Using the directly measured stellar velocity dispersion of 93 NLS1s at z<0.1, and black hole mass estimates based on the updated mass estimators, we investigate the M-sigma relation of NLS1s in comparison with broad-line AGNs. We find no strong evidence that the NLS1s deviates from the M-sigma relation, which is defined by reverberation-mapped type 1 AGNs and quiescent galaxies. However, there is a clear trend of the offset with the host galaxy morphology, i.e., more inclined galaxies toward the line-of-sight have higher stellar velocity dispersion, suggesting that the rotational broadening plays a role in measuring stellar velocity dispersion based on the sing...

  14. Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes of Unequal Mass: GRMHD Simulations Near Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Roman; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Pfeiffer, Harald, P.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simulations in general relativity of magnetized disks onto black hole binaries. We vary the binary mass ratio from 1:1 to 1:10 and evolve the systems when they orbit near the binary disk decoupling radius. We compare (surface) density profiles, accretion rates (relative to a single, non-spinning black hole), variability, effective alpha-stress levels and luminosities as functions of the mass ratio. We treat the disks in two limiting regimes: rapid radiative cooling and no radiative cooling. The magnetic field lines clearly reveal jets emerging from both black hole horizons and merging into one common jet at large distances. The magnetic fields give rise to much stronger shock heating than the pure hydrodynamic flows, completely alter the disk structure, and boost accretion rates and luminosities. Accretion streams near the horizons are among the densest structures; in fact, the 1:10 no-cooling evolution results in a refilling of the cavity. The typical effective temperature in the bulk of the disk is approx. 10(exp5) (M / 10(exp 8)M solar mass (exp -1/4(L/L(sub edd) (exp 1/4K) yielding characteristic thermal frequencies approx. 10 (exp 15) (M /10(exp 8)M solar mass) (exp -1/4(L/L (sub edd) (1+z) (exp -1)Hz. These systems are thus promising targets for many extragalactic optical surveys, such as LSST, WFIRST, and PanSTARRS.

  15. Direct Gravitational Imaging of Intermediate Mass Black Holes in Extragalactic Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Kaiki Taro; Silk, Joseph; Madau, Piero

    2013-01-01

    A galaxy halo may contain a large number of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses in the range of 10^{2-6} solar mass. We propose to directly detect these IMBHs by observing multiply imaged QSO-galaxy or galaxy-galaxy strong lens systems in the submillimeter bands with high angular resolution. The silhouette of an IMBH in the lensing galaxy halo would appear as either a monopole-like or a dipole-like variation at the scale of the Einstein radius against the Einstein ring of the dust-emitting region surrounding the QSO. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate a Milky Way-sized dark matter halo with black holes, and show that the surface mass density and number density of IMBHs have power-law dependences on the distance from the center of the host halo if smoothed on a scale of ~ 1 kpc. Most of the black holes orbiting close to the center are freely roaming as they have lost their dark matter hosts during infall due to tidal stripping. Next generation submillimeter telescopes wit...

  16. Relativistic mergers of black hole binaries have large, similar masses, low spins and are circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Chen, Xian

    2016-05-01

    Gravitational waves are a prediction of general relativity, and with ground-based detectors now running in their advanced configuration, we will soon be able to measure them directly for the first time. Binaries of stellar-mass black holes are among the most interesting sources for these detectors. Unfortunately, the many different parameters associated with the problem make it difficult to promptly produce a large set of waveforms for the search in the data stream. To reduce the number of templates to develop, one must restrict some of the physical parameters to a certain range of values predicted by either (electromagnetic) observations or theoretical modelling. In this work, we show that `hyperstellar' black holes (HSBs) with masses 30 ≲ MBH/M⊙ ≲ 100, i.e black holes significantly larger than the nominal 10 M⊙, will have an associated low value for the spin, i.e. a similar masses. We also address the distribution of the eccentricities of HSB binaries in dense stellar systems using a large suite of three-body scattering experiments that include binary-single interactions and long-lived hierarchical systems with a highly accurate integrator, including relativistic corrections up to O(1/c^5). We find that most sources in the detector band will have nearly zero eccentricities. This correlation between large, similar masses, low spin and low eccentricity will help to accelerate the searches for gravitational-wave signals.

  17. A Low-Mass Black Hole in the Nearby Seyfert Galaxy UGC 06728

    CERN Document Server

    Bentz, Misty C; Seals, James; Garcia, Karen; de Naray, Rachel Kuzio; Peters, Wesley; Anderson, Matthew D; Jones, Jeremy; Lester, Kathryn; Machuca, Camilo; Parks, J Robert; Pope, Crystal L; Revalski, Mitchell; Roberts, Caroline A; Saylor, Dicy; Sevrinsky, R Andrew; Turner, Clay

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a recent reverberation mapping campaign for UGC 06728, a nearby low-luminosity Seyfert 1 in a late-type galaxy. Nightly monitoring in the spring of 2015 allowed us to determine an H$\\beta$ time delay of $\\tau = 1.4 \\pm 0.8$ days. Combined with the width of the variable H$\\beta$ line profile, we determine a black hole mass of $M_{\\rm BH} = (7.1 \\pm 4.0) \\times 10^5$ M$_{\\odot}$. We also constrain the bulge stellar velocity dispersion from higher-resolution long slit spectroscopy along the galaxy minor axis and find $\\sigma_{\\star} = 51.6 \\pm 4.9$ km s$^{-1}$. The measurements presented here are in good agreement with both the $R_{\\rm BLR} - L$ relationship and the $M_{\\rm BH}-\\sigma_{\\star}$ relationship for AGNs. Combined with a previously published spin measurement, our mass determination for UGC 06728 makes it the lowest-mass black hole that has been fully characterized, and thus an important object to help anchor the low-mass end of black hole evolutionary models.

  18. The Black Hole - Bulge Mass Relation in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Läsker, Ronald; Seth, Anil; van de Ven, Glenn; Braatz, James A; Henkel, Christian; Lo, K Y

    2016-01-01

    We present HST images for nine megamaser disk galaxies with the primary goal of studying photometric BH-galaxy scaling relations. The megamaser disks provide the highest-precision extragalactic BH mass measurements, while our high-resolution HST imaging affords us the opportunity to decompose the complex nuclei of their late-type hosts in detail. Based on the morphologies and shapes of the galaxy nuclei, we argue that most of these galaxies' central regions contain secularly evolving components (pseudo-bulges), and in many cases we photometrically identify co-existing "classical" bulge components as well. Using these decompositions, we draw the following conclusions: (1) The megamaser BH masses span two orders of magnitude ($10^6$ -- $10^8 M_\\odot$) while the stellar mass of their spiral host galaxies are all $\\sim 10^{11} M_\\odot$ within a factor of three; (2) the BH masses at a given bulge mass or total stellar mass in the megamaser host spiral galaxies tend to be lower than expected, when compared to an ex...

  19. Constraining the quadrupole moment of stellar-mass black-hole candidates with the continuum fitting method

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2010-01-01

    Black holes in General Relativity are known as Kerr black holes and are characterized solely by two parameters, the mass $M$ and the spin $J$. All the higher multipole moments of the gravitational field are functions of these two parameters. For instance, the quadrupole moment is $Q=-J^2/M$, which implies that a measurement of $M$, $J$, and $Q$ for black hole candidates would allow one to test whether these objects are really black holes as described by General Relativity. While future gravitational-wave experiments will be able to test the Kerr nature of these objects with very high accuracy, in this paper we show that it is possible to put constraints on the quadrupole moment of stellar-mass black hole candidates by using presently available X-ray data of the thermal spectrum of their accretion disk.

  20. Megamaser Disks Reveal a Broad Distribution of Black Hole Mass in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Jenny E; Kim, Minjin; Laesker, Ronald; Goulding, Andy D; Gao, Feng; Braatz, James A; Henkel, Christian; Condon, James; Lo, Fred K Y; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We use new precision measurements of black hole masses from water megamaser disks to investigate scaling relations between macroscopic galaxy properties and supermassive black hole (BH) mass. The megamaser-derived BH masses span 10^6-10^8 M_sun, while all the galaxy properties that we examine (including stellar mass, central mass density, central velocity dispersion) lie within a narrow range. Thus, no galaxy property correlates tightly with M_BH in ~L* spiral galaxies. Of them all, stellar velocity dispersion provides the tightest relation, but at fixed sigma* the mean megamaser M_BH are offset by -0.6+/-0.1 dex relative to early-type galaxies. Spiral galaxies with non-maser dynamical BH masses do not show this offset. At low mass, we do not yet know the full distribution of BH mass at fixed galaxy property; the non-maser dynamical measurements may miss the low-mass end of the BH distribution due to inability to resolve the spheres of influence and/or megamasers may preferentially occur in lower-mass BHs.

  1. The central black hole masses for the γ-ray loud blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST) provides an increase in sensitivity and has detected rapid variability of gamma-ray sources.The variability time scales detected from the gamma-ray loud blazars by LAT and EGRET,and gamma-ray luminosity are used to estimate the central black hole masses.In this work,we find that the lower limits of central black hole masses are in a range of (0.3-24)×107M⊙,which are compared with those obtained by other authors.Our results are consistent with other authors’ results.Also,the Lorentz factor,Γ,and the propagation angle,θ,are obtained for 18 blazars for which superluminal motions are known.

  2. Microlens Masses From Astrometry and Parallax in Space-Based Surveys: From Planets to Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We show that space-based microlensing experiments can recover lens masses and distances for a large fraction of all events (those with individual photometric errors <~ 0.01 mag) using a combination of one-dimensional microlens parallaxes and astrometric microlensing. This will provide a powerful probe of the mass distributions of planets, black holes, and neutron stars, the distribution of planets as a function of Galactic environment, and the velocity distributions of black holes and neutron stars. While systematics are in principle a significant concern, we show that it is possible to vet against all systematics (known and unknown) using single-epoch precursor observations with the Hubble Space Telescope roughly 10 years before the space mission.

  3. Estimation of mass outflow rates from viscous relativistic accretion discs around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    We investigated flow in Schwarzschild metric, around a non-rotating black hole and obtained self-consistent accretion - ejection solution in full general relativity. We covered the whole of parameter space in the advective regime to obtain shocked, as well as, shock-free accretion solution. We computed the jet streamline using von - Zeipel surfaces and projected the jet equations of motion on to the streamline and solved them simultaneously with the accretion disc equations of motion. We found that steady shock cannot exist {for $\\alpha \\gsim0.06$} in the general relativistic prescription, but is lower if mass - loss is considered too. We showed that for fixed outer boundary, the shock moves closer to the horizon with increasing viscosity parameter. The mass outflow rate increases as the shock moves closer to the black hole, but eventually decreases, maximizing at some intermediate value of shock {location}. The jet terminal speed increases with stronger shocks, quantitatively speaking, the terminal speed of ...

  4. Detecting intermediate mass black holes in globular clusters with machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Mergers of stellar-mass black holes were recently observed in the gravitational wave window opened by LIGO. This puts the spotlight on dense stellar systems and their ability to create intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) through repeated merging. Unfortunately, attempts at direct and indirect IMBH detection in star clusters in the nearby universe have proven inconclusive as of now. Indirect detection methods attempt to constrain IMBHs through their effect on star cluster photometric and kinematic observables. They are usually based on looking for a specific, physically motivated signature. While this approach is justified, it may be suboptimal in its usage of the available data. Here I present a new indirect detection method, based on machine learning, that is unaffected by these restrictions. I reduce the scientific question whether a star cluster hosts an IMBH to a classification problem in the machine learning framework. I present preliminary results to illustrate how machine learning models are trained ...

  5. HST's hunt for intermediate-mass black holes in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Chanamé, Julio; Chandar, Rupali; Anderson, Jay; van der Marel, Roeland; Ford, Holland

    2009-01-01

    Establishing or ruling out, either through solid mass measurements or upper limits, the presence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) at the centers of star clusters would profoundly impact our understanding of problems ranging from the formation and long-term dynamical evolution of stellar systems, to the nature of the seeds and the growth mechanisms of supermassive black holes. While there are sound theoretical arguments both for and against their presence in today's clusters, observational studies have so far not yielded truly conclusive IMBH detections nor upper limits. We argue that the most promising approach to solving this issue is provided by the combination of measurements of the proper motions of stars at the centers of Galactic globular clusters and dynamical models able to take full advantage of this type of data set. We present a program based on HST observations and recently developed tools for dynamical analysis designed to do just that.

  6. The Mass of the Black Hole in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 4593 from Reverberation Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.;

    2006-01-01

    We present new observations leading to an improved black hole mass estimate for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 as part of a reverberation-mapping campaign conducted at the MDM Observatory. Cross-correlation analysis of the H_beta emission-line light curve with the optical continuum light curve...... reveals an emission-line time delay of 3.73 (+-0.75) days. By combining this time delay with the H_beta line width, we derive a central black hole mass of M_BH = 9.8(+-2.1)x10^6 M_sun, an improvement in precision of a factor of several over past results....

  7. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  8. Black hole's 1/N hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers

  9. Small black holes on cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find the metric of small black holes on cylinders, i.e. neutral and static black holes with a small mass in d-dimensional Minkowski space times a circle. The metric is found using an ansatz for black holes on cylinders proposed in J. High Energy Phys. 05, 032 (2002). We use the new metric to compute corrections to the thermodynamics which is seen to deviate from that of the (d+1)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. Moreover, we compute the leading correction to the relative binding energy which is found to be non-zero. We discuss the consequences of these results for the general understanding of black holes and we connect the results to the phase structure of black holes and strings on cylinders

  10. Hawking Radiation of Mass Generating Particles From Dyonic Reissner Nordstr\\"{o}m Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Sakalli, I.; Övgün, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Hawking radiation is considered as a quantum tunneling process, which can be studied in the framework of the Hamilton-Jacobi method. In this study, we present the wave equation for a mass generating massive and charged scalar particle (boson). In sequel, we analyze the quantum tunneling of these bosons from a generic 4-dimensional spherically symmetric black hole. We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to derive the radial integral solution for the classically forbidden action which leads...

  11. Myers–Perry black holes with scalar hair and a mass gap

    OpenAIRE

    Yves Brihaye; Carlos Herdeiro; Eugen Radu

    2014-01-01

    We construct a family of asymptotically flat, rotating black holes with scalar hair and a regular horizon, within five dimensional Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field doublet. These solutions are supported by rotation and have no static limit. They are described by their mass $M$, two equal angular momenta $J_1=J_2\\equiv J$ and a conserved Noether charge $Q$, measuring the scalar hair. For vanishing horizon size the solutions reduce to five dimensional boso...

  12. Mass inflation in a D dimensional Reissner-Nordstrom black hole: a hierarchy of particle accelerators ?

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino, P. P.; Hamilton, A. J. S.; Herdeiro, C. A. R.; Zilhão, M.

    2011-01-01

    We study the geometry inside the event horizon of perturbed D dimensional Reissner-Nordstrom-(anti) de Sitter type black holes showing that, similarly to the four dimensional case, mass inflation also occurs for D > 4. First, using the homogeneous approximation, we show that an increase of the number of spatial dimensions contributes to a steeper variation of the metric coefficients with the areal radius and that the phenomenon is insensitive to the cosmological constant in leading order. The...

  13. Massive Black Holes: formation and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Martin J.; Volonteri, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Observations have revealed us vast information on the population of local and distant black holes, but the detailed physical properties of these dark massive objects are still to be proven. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. We briefly review here the basic properties of the population of supermassive black holes,...

  14. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ∞≅2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  15. Central kinematics of the globular cluster NGC 2808: Upper limit on the mass of an intermediate-mass black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Gebhardt, Karl; Baumgardt, Holger; Noyola, Eva; Jalali, Behrang; de Zeeuw, P Tim; Neumayer, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Globular clusters are an excellent laboratory for stellar population and dynamical research. Recent studies have shown that these stellar systems are not as simple as previously assumed. With multiple stellar populations as well as outer rotation and mass segregation they turn out to exhibit high complexity. This includes intermediate-mass black holes which are proposed to sit at the centers of some massive globular clusters. Today's high angular resolution ground based spectrographs allow velocity-dispersion measurements at a spatial resolution comparable to the radius of influence for plausible IMBH masses, and to detect changes in the inner velocity-dispersion profile. Together with high quality photometric data from HST, it is possible to constrain black-hole masses by their kinematic signatures. We determine the central velocity-dispersion profile of the globular cluster NGC 2808 using VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy. In combination with HST/ACS data our goal is to probe whether this massive cluster hosts an int...

  16. THE BLACK HOLE MASS-GALAXY LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salviander, S.; Shields, G. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Bonning, E. W., E-mail: triples@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: shields@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: erin.bonning@emory.edu [Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the relationship between the mass of the central supermassive black hole, M {sub BH}, and the host galaxy luminosity, L {sub gal}, in a sample of quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We use composite quasar spectra binned by black hole mass and redshift to assess galaxy features that would otherwise be overwhelmed by noise in individual spectra. The black hole mass is calculated using the photoionization method, and the host galaxy luminosity is inferred from the depth of the Ca II H+K features in the composite spectra. We evaluate the evolution in the M {sub BH}-L {sub gal} relationship by examining the redshift dependence of Δ log M {sub BH}, the offset in M {sub BH} from the local M {sub BH}-L {sub gal} relationship. There is little systematic trend in Δ log M {sub BH} out to z = 0.8. Using the width of the [O III] emission line as a proxy for the stellar velocity dispersion, σ{sub *}, we find agreement of our derived host luminosities with the locally observed Faber-Jackson relation. This supports the utility of the width of the [O III] line as a proxy for σ{sub *} in statistical studies.

  17. THE BLACK HOLE MASS-GALAXY LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the relationship between the mass of the central supermassive black hole, M BH, and the host galaxy luminosity, L gal, in a sample of quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We use composite quasar spectra binned by black hole mass and redshift to assess galaxy features that would otherwise be overwhelmed by noise in individual spectra. The black hole mass is calculated using the photoionization method, and the host galaxy luminosity is inferred from the depth of the Ca II H+K features in the composite spectra. We evaluate the evolution in the M BH-L gal relationship by examining the redshift dependence of Δ log M BH, the offset in M BH from the local M BH-L gal relationship. There is little systematic trend in Δ log M BH out to z = 0.8. Using the width of the [O III] emission line as a proxy for the stellar velocity dispersion, σ*, we find agreement of our derived host luminosities with the locally observed Faber-Jackson relation. This supports the utility of the width of the [O III] line as a proxy for σ* in statistical studies

  18. Universal charge-mass relation: From black holes to atomic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis, introduced by Penrose forty years ago, is one of the corner stones of general relativity. This conjecture asserts that spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. The elimination of a black-hole horizon is ruled out by this principle because that would expose naked singularities to distant observers. We test the consistency of this prediction in a gedanken experiment in which a charged object is swallowed by a charged black hole. We find that the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture requires the existence of a charge-mass bound of the form $q\\leq\\mu^{2/3}E^{-1/3}_c$, where $q$ and $\\mu$ are the charge and mass of the physical system respectively, and $E_c$ is the critical electric field for pair-production. Applying this bound to charged atomic nuclei, one finds an upper limit on the number $Z$ of protons in a nucleus of given mass number $A$: $Z\\leq Z^*={\\alpha}^{-1/3}A^{2/3}$, where $\\alpha=e^2/\\hbar$ is the ...

  19. The Fundamental Plane of Accretion Onto Black Holes with Dynamical Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Gultekin, Kayhan; Miller, Jon M; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Markoff, Sera; Richstone, Douglas O; Rupen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Black hole accretion and jet production are areas of intensive study in astrophysics. Recent work has found a relation between radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity, and black hole mass. With the assumption that radio and X-ray luminosity are suitable proxies for jet power and accretion power, respectively, a broad fundamental connection between accretion and jet production is implied. In an effort to refine these links and enhance their power, we have explored the above relations exclusively among black holes with direct, dynamical mass-measurements. This approach not only eliminates systematic errors incurred through the use of secondary mass measurements, but also effectively restricts the range of distances considered to a volume-limited sample. Further, we have exclusively used archival data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory to best isolate nuclear sources. We find log(L_R) = (4.03 +/- 0.22) + (0.78 +/- 0.24) log(M_BH) + (0.68 +/- 0.11) log(L_X), in broad agreement with prior efforts. Owing to the nature o...

  20. Black holes and the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive blac...

  1. Discovery of a 12 billion solar mass black hole at redshift 6.3 and its challenge to the black hole/galaxy co-evolution at cosmic dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-08-01

    To date about 40 quasars with redshifts z>6 have been discovered. Each quasar harbors a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses. The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years after the Big Bang presents significant challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the black hole/galaxy co-evolution. I will report a recent discovery of an ultra-luminous quasar at redshift z=6.30, which has an observed optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z>6 quasars. With near-infrared spectroscopy, we obtain a black hole mass of about 12 billion solar masses, which is well consistent with the mass derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion. This ultra-luminous quasar with a 12 billion solar mass black hole at z>6 provides a unique laboratory to the study of the mass assembly and galaxy formation around the most massive black holes in the early Universe. It raises further challenges to the black hole/galaxy co-evolution in the epoch of cosmic reionization because the black hole needs to grow much faster than the host galaxy.

  2. What, no black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler has claimed that the inward flux of negative energy across the horizon which (according to the semi-classical approximation) accompanies the evaporation of a black hole would cause a solar mass black hole to evaporate in less than a second. It is shown that this claim is in error. (orig.)

  3. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)

  4. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  5. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  6. Black Hole Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Strominger, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ``infinite statist...

  7. A 5x10^9 Solar Mass Black Hole in NGC 1277 from Adaptive Optics Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Jonelle L; Gebhardt, Karl; Yıldırım, Akın; Richstone, Douglas O; Gültekin, Kayhan; Husemann, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 1277 is thought to host one of the largest black holes known, however the black hole mass measurement is based on low spatial resolution spectroscopy. In this paper, we present Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrometer observations assisted by adaptive optics. We map out the galaxy's stellar kinematics within ~440 pc of the nucleus with an angular resolution that allows us to probe well within the region where the potential from the black hole dominates. We find that the stellar velocity dispersion rises dramatically, reaching ~550 km/s at the center. Through orbit-based, stellar-dynamical models we obtain a black hole mass of (4.9 \\pm 1.6) x 10^9 Msun (1-sigma uncertainties). Although the black hole mass measurement is smaller by a factor of ~3 compared to previous claims based on large-scale kinematics, NGC 1277 does indeed contain one of the most massive black holes detected to date, and the black hole mass is an order of magnitude larger than expectations from the e...

  8. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J-D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hamilton, H; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y-M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magaña Zertuche, L; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O E S; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Hemberger, D; Kidder, L E; Lovelace, G; Ossokine, S; Scheel, M; Szilagyi, B; Teukolsky, S

    2016-06-17

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5σ. The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3.4_{-0.9}^{+0.7}×10^{-22}. The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2_{-3.7}^{+8.3}M_{⊙} and 7.5_{-2.3}^{+2.3}M_{⊙}, and the final black hole mass is 20.8_{-1.7}^{+6.1}M_{⊙}. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 440_{-190}^{+180}  Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.09_{-0.04}^{+0.03}. All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity. PMID:27367379

  9. Black-hole astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

  10. High-redshift quasars and the supermassive black hole mass budget: constraints on quasar formation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, J. M.; Somerville, R. S.; Fabian, A. C.

    2004-05-01

    We investigate the constraints on models of supermassive black hole (SMBH) and quasar formation obtainable from two recent observational developments: the discovery of luminous quasars at z~ 6, and estimates of the local mass density of SMBHs. If ~90 per cent of this mass was accreted at redshifts zjoint constraints pose a challenge for models, which must account for the observed luminous quasar population at z~ 6 within a very limited `mass budget'. We investigate a class of models based within the hierarchical structure formation scenario, in which major mergers lead to black hole formation and fuelling, and the resulting quasars shine at their Eddington-limited rate until their fuel is exhausted. We show that the simplest such model, in which a constant fraction of the gas within the halo is accreted in each major merger, cannot satisfy both constraints simultaneously. When this model is normalized to reproduce the number density of luminous quasars at z~ 6, the mass budget is grossly exceeded owing to an overabundance of lower-mass SMBHs. We explore a range of modifications to the simple model designed to overcome this problem. We show that both constraints can be satisfied if the gas accretion fraction scales as a function of the halo virial velocity. Similar scalings have been proposed in order to reproduce the local M•-σ relation. Successful models can also be constructed by restricting the formation of seed black holes to redshifts above zcrit~ 11.5 or to haloes above a velocity threshold vcrit~ 55 km s-1, or assuming that only a fraction of major mergers result in formation of a seed SMBH. We also briefly discuss the issue of trying to assume a `universal M•-σ relation' within the framework of simple Press-Schechter models, and further show that a fixed universal relation between SMBH mass and host halo mass is unlikely.

  11. Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-10-01

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50M(⊙) and 500M(⊙) and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ∼200M(⊙), where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100M(⊙) can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130M(⊙) or greater. PMID:26551801

  12. Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-10-01

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50 M⊙ and 500 M⊙ and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ˜200 M⊙, where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100 M⊙ can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130 M⊙ or greater.

  13. Observations of Relativistically Broadened Iron Kalpha Lines From Stellar Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, John

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of Doppler broadened and gravitationally redshifted iron emission lines from accreting black holes has been used to measure the inner radius of the optically thick disk (Rin). At high mass accretion rates, when the disk is at or close to the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO), a determination of Rin provides a constraint on the spin of the black hole. Measuring Rin can also provide information about whether the disk is truncated or not, and this is especially important for understanding the relationship between the disk and the steady jet in the hard state. Over the past few years, the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) has provided improved measurements due to its combination of bandpass (3-79 keV), good energy resolution, and high throughput. In this presentation, we discuss NuSTAR results for a number of stellar mass black holes (e.g., Cyg X-1, GX 339-4, and GRS 1739-278). While these observations have been successful in obtaining measurements of Rin, the improved spectra have also provided extra information about the source geometry and the inner disk inclination, which we will discuss.

  14. Relativistic mergers of black hole binaries have large, similar masses, low spins and are circular

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves are a prediction of general relativity, and with ground-based detectors now running in their advanced configuration, we will soon be able to measure them directly for the first time. Binaries of stellar-mass black holes are among the most interesting sources for these detectors. Unfortunately, the many different parameters associated with the problem make it difficult to promptly produce a large set of waveforms for the search in the data stream. To reduce the number of templates to develop, and hence speed up the search, one must restrict some of the physical parameters to a certain range of values predicted by either (electromagnetic) observations or theoretical modeling. This allows one to avoid the need to blindly cover the whole parameter space. In this work we show that "hyperstellar" black holes (HSBs) with masses $30 \\lesssim M_{\\rm BH}/M_{\\odot} \\lesssim 100$, i.e black holes significantly larger than the nominal $10\\,M_{\\odot}$, will have an associated low value for the spin, i.e...

  15. The Brown-York mass of black holes in Warped Anti-de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Giribet, Gastón

    2013-01-01

    We give a direct computation of the mass of black holes in Warped Anti-de Sitter space (WAdS) in terms of the Brown-York stress-tensor at the boundary. This permits to explore to what extent the holographic renormalization techniques can be applied to such type of deformation of AdS. We show that, despite some components of the boundary stress-tensor diverge and resist to be regularized by the introduction of local counterterms, the precise combination that gives the quasilocal energy density yields a finite integral. The result turns out to be in agreement with previous computations of the black hole mass obtained with different approaches. This is seen to happen both in the case of Topologically Massive Gravity and of the so-called New Massive Gravity. Here, we focus our attention on the latter. We observe that, despite other conserved charges diverge in the near boundary limit, the finite part in the large radius expansion captures the physically relevant contribution. We compute the black hole angular mom...

  16. A Measurement of the Black-Hole Mass in NGC 1097 using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Onishi, Kyoko; Sheth, Kartik; Kohno, Kotaro

    2015-01-01

    We present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby type-1 Seyfert galaxy \\object{NGC 1097} using Atacamma Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of dense gas kinematics. Dense molecular gas dynamics are traced with ${\\rm HCN} (J=1-0)$ and ${\\rm HCO^{+}} (J=1-0)$ emission lines. Assuming a host galaxy inclination of $46^{\\circ}$, we derive a SMBH mass, $M_{\\rm BH}=1.40^{+0.27}_{-0.32} \\times 10^{8}M_{\\odot}$, and an I-band mass to light ratio to be $5.14^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$, using ${\\rm HCN} (J=1-0)$. The estimated parameters are consistent between the two emission lines. The measured SMBH mass is in good agreement with the SMBH mass and bulge velocity dispersion relationship. Our result showcases ALMA's potential for deriving accurate SMBH masses, especially for nearby late-type galaxies. Larger samples and accurate SMBH masses will further elucidate the relationship between the black hole (BH) and host galaxy properties and constrain the coevolutionary growt...

  17. Slowly balding black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-10-01

    The “no-hair” theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively “frozen in” the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πcℏ), where Φ∞≈2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole’s magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  18. Anti-proton and positron cosmic rays from dark matter annihilation around intermediate mass black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) are candidates to seed the Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs), and some could still wander in the Galaxy. In the context of annihilating DM, they are expected to drive huge annihilation rates, and could therefore significantly enhance the primary cosmic rays (CRs) expected from annihilation of the DM of the Galactic halo. In this proceeding (the original paper is Brun et al. [Phys. Rev. D 76 (8) (2007) 083506]), we briefly explain the method to derive estimates of such exotic contributions to the p-bar and e+ CR spectra, and the associated statistical uncertainties connected to the properties of IMBHs. We find boost factors of order 104 to the exotic fluxes, but associated with very large statistical uncertainties

  19. The central engine of quasars and AGNs - Scaling to solar mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, D.

    1988-01-01

    The model of the previous paper (Ellison and Kazanas, hereafter EK) can be readily scaled to model systems with black holes 3-10 solar masses, such as those expected to exist in certain Galactic X-ray binaries. The model can account in a straightforward way for the bimodal behavior of Cyg X-1 and the other Galactic black hole candidates (White and Marshall 1984; White, et al., 1984). It is argued that the change in the spectrum with luminosity is due to the drastic increase of both the source compactness and luminosity with small changes in the accretion rate, and conversion of most of the energy into electron-positron pairs which render the source optically thick and modify its spectrum. It is also argued that similar effects may be observed in AGNs.

  20. Implications of intermediate mass black hole in globular cluster G1 on dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there has been growing evidence in favor of the presence of an intermediate mass black hole in the globular cluster G1, in Andromeda Galaxy. Under the assumption that formation of this globular cluster occurred within a dark matter halo, we explore whether the presence of a black hole could result in an observable gamma ray signal due to dark matter annihilation in this globular cluster. Starting from an initial Navarro-Frenk-White matter profile, with density parameters consistent with G1 observations, we find that indeed, if the spike in the density has been formed and has survived until the present, the signal could be observed by GLAST and current atmospheric Cerenkov telescope detectors

  1. Implications of the intermediate mass black hole in globular cluster G1 on dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there has been growing evidence in favor of the presence of an intermediate mass black hole in the globular cluster G1, in Andromeda Galaxy. Under the assumption that formation of this globular cluster occurred within a dark matter halo, we explore whether the presence of a black hole could result in an observable gamma ray signal due to dark matter annihilation in this globular cluster. Starting from an initial Navarro-Frenk-White matter profile, with density parameters consistent with G1 observations, we find that indeed, if the spike in the density has been formed and has survived until the present, the signal could be observed by GLAST and current atmospheric Cerenkov telescope detectors.

  2. The evolution of host mass and black hole mass in QSOs from the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Fine, S; Miller, L; Babic, A; Moore, D; Brewer, B; Sharp, R G; Boyle, B J; Shanks, T; Smith, R J; Outram, P J; Loaring, N S

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the mass of super-massive black holes (Mbh) in QSOs and the mass of the dark matter halos hosting them (Mdh). We measure the widths of broad emission lines (Mgii lambda 2798, Civ lambda 1549) from QSO composite spectra as a function of redshift. These widths are then used to determine virial black hole mass estimates. We compare our virial black hole mass estimates to dark matter halo masses for QSO hosts derived by Croom et al. (2005) based on measurements of QSO clustering. This enables us to trace the Mbh-Mdh relation over the redshift range z=0.5 to 2.5. We calculate the mean zero-point of the Mbh-Mdh relation to be Mbh=10^(8.4+/-0.2)Msun for an Mdh=10^(12.5)Msun. These data are then compared with several models connecting Mbh and Mdh as well as recent hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy evolution. We note that the flux limited nature of QSO samples can cause a Malmquist-type bias in the measured zero-point of the Mbh-Mdh relation. The magnitude of this bias depends on...

  3. Inference on gravitational waves from coalescences of stellar-mass compact objects and intermediate-mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haster, Carl-Johan; Wang, Zhilu; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Stevenson, Simon; Veitch, John; Mandel, Ilya

    2016-04-01

    Gravitational waves from coalescences of neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes into intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) of ≳100 solar masses represent one of the exciting possible sources for advanced gravitational-wave detectors. These sources can provide definitive evidence for the existence of IMBHs, probe globular-cluster dynamics, and potentially serve as tests of general relativity. We analyse the accuracy with which we can measure the masses and spins of the IMBH and its companion in intermediate-mass-ratio coalescences. We find that we can identify an IMBH with a mass above 100 M⊙ with 95 per cent confidence provided the massive body exceeds 130 M⊙. For source masses above ˜200 M⊙, the best measured parameter is the frequency of the quasi-normal ringdown. Consequently, the total mass is measured better than the chirp mass for massive binaries, but the total mass is still partly degenerate with spin, which cannot be accurately measured. Low-frequency detector sensitivity is particularly important for massive sources, since sensitivity to the inspiral phase is critical for measuring the mass of the stellar-mass companion. We show that we can accurately infer source parameters for cosmologically redshifted signals by applying appropriate corrections. We investigate the impact of uncertainty in the model gravitational waveforms and conclude that our main results are likely robust to systematics.

  4. Quantum strings and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume

    2001-01-01

    The transition between (non supersymmetric) quantum string states and Schwarzschild black holes is discussed. This transition occurs when the string coupling $g^2$ (which determines Newton's constant) increases beyond a certain critical value $g_c^2$. We review a calculation showing that self-gravity causes a typical string state of mass $M$ to shrink, as the string coupling $g^2$ increases, down to a compact string state whose mass, size, entropy and luminosity match (for the critical value $g_c^2 \\sim (M \\sqrt{\\alpha'})^{-1}$) those of a Schwarzschild black hole. This confirms the idea (proposed by several authors) that the entropy of black holes can be accounted for by counting string states. The level spacing of the quantum states of Schwarzschild black holes is expected to be exponentially smaller than their radiative width. This makes it very difficult to conceive (even Gedanken) experiments probing the discreteness of the quantum energy levels of black holes.

  5. Black Hole Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  6. The origin of compact galaxies with anomalously high black hole masses.

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, C.; Schaye, J.; Bower, R. G.; Crain, R. A.; Schaller, M.; Theuns, T.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of local galaxies harbouring supermassive black holes (BH) of anomalously high mass, MBH, relative to their stellar mass, M*, appear to be at odds with simple models of the co-evolution between galaxies and their central BHs. We study the origin of such outliers in a Λ cold dark matter context using the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. We find 15 ‘MBH(M*)-outlier' galaxies, defined as having MBH more than 1.5 dex above the median MBH(M*) relation in the simulation, ...

  7. The origin of compact galaxies with anomalously high black hole masses.

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, C; Schaye, J.; Bower, R. G.; Crain, R.A.; Schaller, M.; Theuns, T.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of local galaxies harbouring supermassive black holes (BHs) of anomalously high mass, M_BH, relative to their stellar mass, M_star, appear to be at odds with simple models of the co-evolution between galaxies and their central BHs. We study the origin of such outliers in a Lambda cold dark matter context using the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. We find 15 'M_BH(M_star)-outlier' galaxies, defined as having M_BH more than 1.5 dex above the median M_BH(M_star) relati...

  8. Evidence for Broad-Line Region Outflows and Their Impact on Black Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Assef, R. J.; Horne, K.;

    2012-01-01

    could not be fully and accurately interpreted from the 1D velocity-resolved reverberation signal. From the VDM, an outflow component to the emission remains possible but appears to be in addition to an underlying, disk-like BLR structure consistent in size with the measured reverberation lag. The black...... hole (BH) mass derived from this data is therefore secure from any uncertainties possibly derived from gravitationally unbound gas contributing to the emission. Additionally, we demonstrate that BLR emission from the C IV ¿1549 broad emission line can reliably be used as a virial BH mass estimator...

  9. Penrose inequalities and a positive mass theorem for charged black holes in higher dimension

    CERN Document Server

    de Lima, Levi Lopes; Lozório, Weslley; Silva, Juscelino

    2014-01-01

    We use the inverse mean curvature flow to establish Penrose-type inequalities for time-symmetric Einstein-Maxwell initial data sets which can be suitably embedded as a hypersurface in Euclidean space $\\mathbb R^{n+1}$, $n\\geq 3$. In particular, we prove a positive mass theorem for this class of charged black holes. As an application we show that the conjectured upper bound for the area in terms of the mass and the charge, which in dimension $n=3$ is relevant in connection with the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture, always holds under the natural assumption that the horizon is stable as a minimal hypersurface.

  10. Unification of the Fundamental Plane and Super-Massive Black Holes Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Remco van den

    2016-01-01

    According to the Virial Theorem, all gravitational systems in equilibrium sit on a plane in the 3D parameter space defined by their mass, size and second moment of the velocity tensor. While these quantities cannot be directly observed, there are suitable proxies: the luminosity Lk, half-light radius Re and dispersion sigma_e. These proxies indeed lie on a very tight Fundamental Plane (FP). How do the black holes in the centers of galaxies relate to the FP? Their masses are known to exhibit n...

  11. Bounds on the cosmological abundance of primordial black holes from diffuse sky brightness single mass spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Custodio, P S

    2002-01-01

    We constrain the mass abundance of unclustered primordial black holes (PBHs), formed with a simple mass distribution and subject to the Hawking evaporation and particle absorption from the environment. Since the radiative flux is proportional to the numerical density, an upper bound is obtained by comparing the calculated and observed diffuse background values, (similarly to the Olbers paradox in which point sources are considered) for finite bandwidths. For a significative range of formation redshifts the bounds are better than several values obtained by other arguments $\\Omega_{pbh} \\leq 10^{-10}$; and they apply to PBHs which are evaporating today.

  12. A linear mass Vaidya metric at the end of black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    O'Loughlin, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the near singularity region of the linear mass Vaidya metric for massless particles with non-zero angular momentum. In particular we look at massless geodesics with non-zero angular momentum near the vanishing point of a special subclass of linear mass Vaidya metrics. We also investigate this same structure in the numerical solutions for the scattering of massless scalars from the singularity. Finally we make some comments on the possibility of using this metric as a semi-classical model for the end-point of black hole evaporation.

  13. The Impact of the Uncertainty in Single-Epoch Virial Black Hole Mass Estimates on the Observed Evolution of the Black Hole - Bulge Scaling Relations

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN Yue; Kelly, Brandon C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent observations of the black hole (BH) - bulge scaling relations usually report positive redshift evolution, with higher redshift galaxies harboring more massive BHs than expected from the local relations. All of these studies focus on broad line quasars with BH mass estimated from virial estimators based on single-epoch spectra. Since the sample selection is largely based on quasar luminosity, the cosmic scatter in the BH-bulge relation introduces a statistical bias leading to on average...

  14. Inference on gravitational waves from coalescences of stellar-mass compact objects and intermediate-mass black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Haster, Carl-Johan; Berry, Christopher P L; Stevenson, Simon; Veitch, John; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves from coalescences of neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes into intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) of $\\gtrsim 100$ solar masses represent one of the exciting possible sources for advanced gravitational-wave detectors. These sources can provide definitive evidence for the existence of IMBHs, probe globular-cluster dynamics, and potentially serve as tests of general relativity. We analyse the accuracy with which we can measure the masses and spins of the IMBH and its companion in intermediate-mass ratio coalescences. We find that we can identify an IMBH with a mass above $100 ~ M_\\odot$ with $95\\%$ confidence provided the massive body exceeds $130 ~ M_\\odot$. For source masses above $\\sim200 ~ M_\\odot$, the best measured parameter is the frequency of the quasi-normal ringdown. Consequently, the total mass is measured better than the chirp mass for massive binaries, but the total mass is still partly degenerate with spin, which cannot be accurately measured. Low-frequency detector sen...

  15. The supermassive black hole mass - S\\'ersic index relations for bulges and elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Savorgnan, Giulia; Marconi, Alessandro; Sani, Eleonora; Hunt, Leslie K; Vika, Marina; Driver, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    Scaling relations between supermassive black hole mass, M_BH, and host galaxy properties are a powerful instrument for studying their coevolution. A complete picture involving all of the black hole scaling relations, in which each relation is consistent with the others, is necessary to fully understand the black hole-galaxy connection. The relation between M_BH and the central light concentration of the surrounding bulge, quantified by the S\\'ersic index n, may be one of the simplest and strongest such relations, requiring only uncalibrated galaxy images. We have conducted a census of literature S\\'ersic index measurements for a sample of 54 local galaxies with directly measured M_BH values. We find a clear M_BH - n relation, despite an appreciable level of scatter due to the heterogeneity of the data. Given the current M_BH - L_sph and the L_sph - n relations, we have additionally derived the expected M_BH - n relations, which are marginally consistent at the 2 sigma level with the observed relations. Ellipt...

  16. Myers-Perry black holes with scalar hair and a mass gap: unequal spins

    CERN Document Server

    Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen; Subagyo, Bintoro

    2015-01-01

    We construct rotating boson stars and Myers-Perry black holes with scalar hair (MPBHsSH) as fully non-linear solutions of five dimensional Einstein gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field. The MPBHsSH are, in general, regular on and outside the horizon, asymptotically flat, and possess angular momentum in a single rotation plane. They are supported by rotation and have no static limit. Such hairy BHs may be thought of as bound states of boson stars and singly spinning, vacuum MPBHs and inherit properties of both these building blocks. When the horizon area shrinks to zero, the solutions reduce to (in a single plane) rotating boson stars; but the extremal limit also yields a zero area horizon, as for singly spinning MPBHs. Similarly to the case of equal angular momenta, and in contrast to Kerr black holes with scalar hair, singly spinning MPBHsSH are disconnected from the vacuum black holes, due to a mass gap. We observe that for the general case, with two unequal angular momenta, the equi...

  17. A Stacked Search for Intermediate-mass Black Holes in 337 Extragalactic Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, J. M.; Nyland, K. E.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.

    2015-10-01

    Forbes et al. recently used the Hubble Space Telescope to localize hundreds of candidate star clusters in NGC 1023, an early-type galaxy at a distance of 11.1 Mpc. Old stars dominate the light of 92% of the clusters and intermediate-age stars dominate the light of the remaining 8%. Theory predicts that clusters with such ages can host intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses To investigate this prediction, we used 264 s of 5.5 GHz data from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to search for the radiative signatures of IMBH accretion from 337 candidate clusters in an image spanning 492″ (26 kpc) with a resolution of 0.″40 (22 pc). None of the individual clusters are detected, nor are weighted-mean image stacks of the 311 old clusters, the 26 intermediate-age clusters, and the 20 clusters with stellar masses The clusters thus lack radio analogs of HLX-1, a strong IMBH candidate in a cluster in the early-type galaxy ESO 243-49. This suggests that HLX-1 is accreting gas related to its cluster's light-dominating young stars. Alternatively, the HLX-1 phenomenon could be so rare that no radio analog is expected in NGC 1023. Also, using a formalism heretofore applied to star clusters in the Milky Way, the radio-luminosity upper limit for the massive-cluster stack corresponds to a 3σ IMBH mass of suggesting black hole mass fractions of

  18. Mid-Infrared Selected Quasars I: Virial Black Hole Mass and Eddington Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Y Sophia; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Fazio, Giovanni G; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Wilkes, Belinda J; Willmer, Christopher N A; Omont, Alain; Papovich, Casey

    2014-01-01

    We provide a catalog of 391 mid-infrared-selected (MIR, 24$\\mu$m) broad-emission-line (BEL, type 1) quasars in the 22 deg$^2$ SWIRE Lockman Hole field. This quasar sample is selected in the MIR from Spitzer MIPS with $S_{\\rm 24} > 400\\mu$Jy, jointly with an optical magnitude limit of r (AB) $ 19.1$. We then investigate the continuum luminosity and line profiles of these MIR quasars, and estimate their virial black hole masses and the Eddington ratios. The SMBH mass shows evidence of downsizing, though the Eddington ratios remain constant at $1 < z < 4$. Compared to point sources in the same redshift range, extended sources at $z < 1$ show systematically lower Eddington ratios. The catalog and spectra are publicly available online.

  19. Black holes sourced by a massless scalar

    CERN Document Server

    Cadoni, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    We construct asymptotically flat black hole solutions of Einstein-scalar gravity sourced by a nontrivial scalar field with 1/r asymptotic behaviour. Near the singularity the black hole behaves as the Janis-Newmann-Winicour-Wyman solution. The hairy black hole solutions allow for a consistent thermodynamical description. At large mass they have the same thermodynamical behaviour of the Schwarzschild black hole, whereas for small masses they differ substantially from the latter.

  20. Supermassive Black Holes and Their Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Colberg, Joerg M.; Di Matteo, Tiziana

    2008-01-01

    We make use of the first high--resolution hydrodynamic simulations of structure formation which self-consistently follows the build up of supermassive black holes introduced in Di Matteo et al. (2007) to investigate the relation between black holes (BH), host halo and large--scale environment. There are well--defined relations between halo and black hole masses and between the activities of galactic nuclei and halo masses at low redshifts. A large fraction of black holes forms anti--hierarchi...

  1. Black hole growth in hierarchical galaxy formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Malbon, R. K.; Baugh, C M; Frenk, C. S.; Lacey, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    We incorporate a model for black hole growth during galaxy mergers into the semi-analytical galaxy formation model based on Lambda-CDM proposed by Baugh et al. (2005). Our black hole model has one free parameter, which we set by matching the observed zeropoint of the local correlation between black hole mass and bulge luminosity. We present predictions for the evolution with redshift of the relationships between black hole mass and bulge properties. Our simulations reproduce the evolution of ...

  2. Dark mini-halos, micro-halos and intermediate-mass black holes in the solar neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaxies like the Milky Way may each be host to 103-104 intermediate mass black holes (102 solar mass - 103 solar mass) and 103 minihalos of 106 solar mass or 1015 microhalos of 10-6 solar mass. Our nearest micro/mini-halos or black holes might be only 0.3-3000 light years away. If dark matter is composed of self-annihilating neutralinos, then these substructures hold the promise of being detectable by next generation γ-ray detectors such as GLAST. (authors)

  3. Switching off black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusion of the back-reaction in the Hawking effect leads to the result that, if vector boson fields predominate in nature, then black holes stop evaporating when their mass reaches a non-vanishing limiting value. (author)

  4. THE BLACK HOLE MASS IN THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY NGC 6086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first direct measurement of the central black hole mass, M., in NGC 6086, the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) in A2162. Our investigation demonstrates for the first time that stellar-dynamical measurements of M. in BCGs are possible beyond the nearest few galaxy clusters. We observed NGC 6086 with laser guide star adaptive optics and the integral-field spectrograph (IFS) OSIRIS at the W. M. Keck Observatory and with the seeing-limited IFS GMOS-N at Gemini Observatory North. We combined the IFS data sets with existing major-axis kinematics and used axisymmetric stellar orbit models to determine M. and the R-band stellar mass-to-light ratio, M*/LR . We find M. = 3.6+1.7-1.1 x 109 Msun and M*/LR = 4.6+0.3-0.7 Msun Lsun-1 (68% confidence) from models using the most massive dark matter halo allowed within the gravitational potential of the host cluster. Models fitting only IFS data confirm M. ∼ 3 x 109 Msun and M*/LR ∼ 4 Msun Lsun-1, with weak dependence on the assumed dark matter halo structure. When data out to 19 kpc are included, the unrealistic omission of dark matter causes the best-fit black hole mass to decrease dramatically, to 0.6 x 109 Msun, and the best-fit stellar mass-to-light ratio to increase to 6.7 Msun L -1sun,R. The latter value is at further odds with stellar population studies favoring M*/LR ∼ 2 Msun L -1sun. Biases from dark matter omission could extend to dynamical models of other galaxies with stellar cores, and revised measurements of M. could steepen the empirical scaling relationships between black holes and their host galaxies.

  5. Mid-infrared-selected quasars. I. Virial black hole mass and eddington ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Y. Sophia; Elvis, Martin; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Wilkes, Belinda J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain [CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Willmer, Christopher N. A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Papovich, Casey, E-mail: ydai@caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We provide a catalog of 391 mid-infrared-selected (MIR; 24 μm) broad-emission-line (BEL; type 1) quasars in the 22 deg{sup 2} SWIRE Lockman Hole field. This quasar sample is selected in the MIR from Spitzer MIPS with S {sub 24} > 400 μJy, jointly with an optical magnitude limit of r (AB) < 22.5 for broad line identification. The catalog is based on MMT and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopy to select BEL quasars, extending the SDSS coverage to fainter magnitudes and lower redshifts, and recovers a more complete quasar population. The MIR-selected quasar sample peaks at z ∼ 1.4 and recovers a significant and constant (20%) fraction of extended objects with SDSS photometry across magnitudes, which were not included in the SDSS quasar survey dominated by point sources. This sample also recovers a significant population of z < 3 quasars at i > 19.1. We then investigate the continuum luminosity and line profiles of these MIR quasars, and estimate their virial black hole masses and the Eddington ratios. The supermassive black hole mass shows evidence of downsizing, although the Eddington ratios remain constant at 1 < z < 4. Compared to point sources in the same redshift range, extended sources at z < 1 show systematically lower Eddington ratios. The catalog and spectra are publicly available online.

  6. Mid-infrared-selected quasars. I. Virial black hole mass and eddington ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a catalog of 391 mid-infrared-selected (MIR; 24 μm) broad-emission-line (BEL; type 1) quasars in the 22 deg2 SWIRE Lockman Hole field. This quasar sample is selected in the MIR from Spitzer MIPS with S 24 > 400 μJy, jointly with an optical magnitude limit of r (AB) < 22.5 for broad line identification. The catalog is based on MMT and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopy to select BEL quasars, extending the SDSS coverage to fainter magnitudes and lower redshifts, and recovers a more complete quasar population. The MIR-selected quasar sample peaks at z ∼ 1.4 and recovers a significant and constant (20%) fraction of extended objects with SDSS photometry across magnitudes, which were not included in the SDSS quasar survey dominated by point sources. This sample also recovers a significant population of z < 3 quasars at i > 19.1. We then investigate the continuum luminosity and line profiles of these MIR quasars, and estimate their virial black hole masses and the Eddington ratios. The supermassive black hole mass shows evidence of downsizing, although the Eddington ratios remain constant at 1 < z < 4. Compared to point sources in the same redshift range, extended sources at z < 1 show systematically lower Eddington ratios. The catalog and spectra are publicly available online.

  7. Intermediate$-$mass black holes from Population III remnants in the first galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Taeho; Perna, Rosalba; Haiman, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    We report the formation of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in suites of numerical $N$-body simulations of Population III remnant black holes (BHs) embedded in gas-rich protogalaxies at redshifts $z\\gtrsim10$. We model the effects of gas drag on the BHs' orbits, and allow BHs to grow via gas accretion, including a mode of hyper-Eddington accretion in which photon trapping and rapid gas inflow suppress any negative radiative feedback. Most initial BH configurations lead to the formation of one (but never more than one) IMBH in the center of the protogalaxy, reaching a mass of $10^{3-5}\\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$ through hyper-Eddington growth. Our results suggest a viable pathway to forming the earliest massive BHs in the centers of early galaxies. We also find that the nuclear IMBH typically captures a stellar-mass BH companion, making these systems observable in gravitational waves as extreme mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) with \\textit{eLISA}.

  8. Simultaneous Ultraviolet and Optical Emission-line Profiles of Quasars: Implications for Black Hole Mass Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Luis C; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Greene, Jenny E; Ponti, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The X-shooter instrument on the VLT was used to obtain spectra of seven moderate-redshift quasars simultaneously covering the spectral range 3000 Ang to 2.5 microns. At z ~ 1.5, most of the prominent broad emission lines in the ultraviolet to optical region are captured in their rest frame. We use this unique dataset, which mitigates complications from source variability, to intercompare the line profiles of C IV 1549, C III] 1909, Mg II 2800, and Halpha and evaluate their implications for black hole mass estimation. We confirm that Mg II and the Balmer lines share similar kinematics and that they deliver mutually consistent black hole mass estimates with minimal internal scatter (< 0.1 dex) using the latest virial mass estimators. Although no virial mass formalism has yet been calibrated for C III], this line does not appear promising for such an application because of the large spread of its velocity width compared to lines of both higher and lower ionization; part of the discrepancy may be due to the di...

  9. Kicking massive black holes off clusters: Intermediate-mass ratio inspirals

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantinidis, Symeon; Kokkotas, Kostas D

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to supermassive and stellar-mass black holes (SBHs), the existence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses ranging between 100 and 10,000 Msun has not yet been confirmed. The main problem in the detection is that the innermost stellar kinematics of globular clusters (GCs), the natural loci to IMBHs, are very difficult to resolve. However, if IMBHs reside in the center of GCs, a possibility is that they interact dynamically with their enviroment. A binary formed with the IMBH and a compact object of the GC would naturally lead to a prominent source of gravitational radiation, detectable with future observatories. We run for the first time direct-summation integrations of GCs with an IMBH including the dynamical evolution of the IMBH with the stellar system and relativistic effects, such as energy loss in gravitational waves (GWs) and periapsis shift, and gravitational recoil. We find in one of our models an intermediate-mass ratio inspiral (IMRI), which leads to a merger with a recoiling ...

  10. A Stellar Dynamical Measurement of the Black Hole Mass in the Maser Galaxy NGC 4258

    CERN Document Server

    Siopis, Christos; Lauer, Tod R; Kormendy, John; Pinkney, Jason; Richstone, Douglas; Faber, S M; Tremaine, Scott; Aller, M C; Bender, Ralf; Bower, Gary; Dressler, Alan; Filippenko, Alexei V; Green, Richard; Ho, Luis C; Magorrian, John

    2008-01-01

    We determine the mass of the black hole at the center of the spiral galaxy NGC 4258 by constructing axisymmetric dynamical models of the galaxy. These models are constrained by high spatial resolution imaging and long-slit spectroscopy of the nuclear region obtained with the {\\em Hubble Space Telescope}, complemented by ground-based observations extending to larger radii. Our best mass estimate is $\\MBH = (3.3 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^7 \\MSun $ for a distance of 7.28 Mpc (statistical errors only). This is within 15% of $ (3.82\\pm 0.01) \\times 10^7 \\MSun$, the mass determined from the kinematics of water masers (rescaled to the same distance) assuming they are in Keplerian rotation in a warped disk. The construction of accurate dynamical models of NGC 4258 is somewhat compromised by an unresolved active nucleus and color gradients, the latter caused by variations in the stellar population and/or obscuring dust. These problems are not present in the $\\sim 30$ other black hole mass determinations from stellar dynamics...

  11. New signature of dark matter annihilations: Gamma rays from intermediate-mass black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the prospects for detecting gamma rays from dark matter (DM) annihilations in enhancements of the DM density (mini-spikes) around intermediate-mass black holes (IMBH) with masses in the range 102 · 6. Focusing on two different IMBH formation scenarios, we show that, for typical values of mass and cross section of common DM candidates, mini-spikes, produced by the adiabatic growth of DM around pregalactic IMBHs, would be bright sources of gamma rays, which could be easily detected with large field-of-view gamma-ray experiments such as GLAST, and further studied with smaller field-of-view, larger-area experiments like Air Cherenkov Telescopes CANGAROO, HESS, MAGIC, and VERITAS. The detection of many gamma-ray sources not associated with a luminous component of the Local Group, and with identical cutoffs in their energy spectra at the mass of the DM particle, would provide a potential smoking-gun signature of DM annihilations and shed new light on the nature of intermediate and supermassive black holes

  12. The X-ray Properties of Million Solar Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Plotkin, Richard M; Haardt, Francesco; Miller, Brendan P; Wood, Callum J L; Reines, Amy E; Wu, Jianfeng; Greene, Jenny E

    2016-01-01

    We present new Chandra X-ray observations of seven low-mass black holes (~1e6 Msun) accreting at low Eddington ratios between -2.0mass active galactic nuclei (AGN) to a total of 73 other low-mass AGN in the literature with published Chandra observations (with Eddington ratios extending from -2.0mass AGN in the distributions of their X-ray to ultraviolet luminosity ratios (aox), or in their X-ray spectral shapes. Furthermore, the aox distribution of low-L/Ledd AGN displays an X-ray weak tail that is also observed within high-L/Ledd objects. Our results indicate that between -2black holes. We examine the accuracy of current bolometric luminosity estimates for our low-L/Ledd objects with new Chandra obs...

  13. Bounding the mass of the graviton with gravitational waves: Effect of spin precessions in massive black hole binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Stavridis, Adamantios; Will, Clifford M.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of gravitational waves from massive binary black hole systems at cosmological distances can be used to search for a dependence of the speed of propagation of the waves on wavelength, and thereby to bound the mass of a hypothetical graviton. We study the effects of precessions of the spins of the black holes and of the orbital angular momentum on the process of parameter estimation using matched filtering of gravitational-wave signals vs. theoretical template waveforms. For the pr...

  14. Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stability of black holes, numerical simulations, collisions, the production of gravity waves, black hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation, quantum treatments of black holes, black holes in both higher and lower dimensions, and connections to nuclear and condensed matter physics. On the astronomical end, we also cover the physics of gas accretion onto black holes, relativistic jets, gravitationally red-shifted emission lines, evidence for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems and super-massive black holes at the centers...

  15. Binary black hole merger in the extreme-mass-ratio limit: a multipolar analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano

    2010-01-01

    Building up on previous work, we present a new calculation of the gravitational wave (GW) emission generated during the transition from quasi-circular inspiral to plunge, merger and ringdown by a binary system of nonspinning black holes, of masses $m_1$ and $m_2$, in the extreme mass ratio limit, $m_1 m_2\\ll(m_1+m_2)^2$. The relative dynamics of the system is computed {\\it without making any adiabatic approximation} by using an effective one body (EOB) description, namely by representing the binary by an effective particle of mass $\\mu=m_1 m_2/(m_1+m_2)$ moving in a (quasi-)Schwarzschild background of mass $M=m_1+m_2$ and submitted to an $\\O(\

  16. On the Correlation between Radio Properties and Black Hole Mass of Quasars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Guang Zhang; Ting-Gui Wang; You-Jun Lu

    2003-01-01

    The question whether the radio properties of quasars are related tothe mass of the central black hole or the accretion rate is important for our un-derstanding of the formation of relativistic jets, but no consensus has been reachedfrom statistical analyses. Using two large quasar samples, one radio-selected, oneoptical-selected, we re-examined these relations and find that previous differencesbetween radio- and optical- selected samples can be ascribed, at least partly, to theeffect of the narrow line component. All previous claimed correlations are muchweaker, if exist at all.

  17. Hawking Radiation of Dirac Particles in a Variable-mass Kerr Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Shuang-Qing, W; Shuang-Qing, Wu; Xu, Cai

    2001-01-01

    Hawking effect of Dirac particles in a variable-mass Kerr space-time is investigated by using method of the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation. The location and the temperature of event horizon of the non-stationary Kerr black hole are derived. It is shown that the temperature and the shape of event horizon depend not only on the time but also on the polar angle. However, our results demonstrate that the Fermi-Dirac spectrum displays a new spin-rotation effect which is absent from that of Bose-Einstein distribution.

  18. Hawking Radiation of Dirac Particles in a Variable-Mass Kerr Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shuang-Qing; CAI Xu

    2001-01-01

    The Hawking effect of Dirac particles in a variable-mass Kerr spacetime is investigated by using the method of the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation. The location and the temperature of the event horizon of the non-stationary Kerr black hole are derived. It is shown that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon depend not only on the time but also on the polar angle. However, our results demonstrate that the Fermi-Diracspectrum displays a residual term whichis absent from that of the Bose-Einstein distribution.

  19. Short Timescale AGN X-ray Variability with EXOSAT: Black hole mass and Normalised Variability Amplitude

    OpenAIRE

    McHardy, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    The old EXOSAT medium energy measurements of high frequency (HF) AGN power spectral normalisation are re-examined in the light of accurate black hole mass determinations which were not available when these data were first published (Green et al 1993). It is found that the normalised variability amplitude (NVA), measured directly from the power spectrum, is proportional to M^{beta} where beta ~ -0.54 +/- 0.08. As NVA is the square root of the power, these observations show that the normalisati...

  20. Black Hole Masses and Eddington Ratios at 0.3

    OpenAIRE

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Onken, Christopher A.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Gould, Andrew; Weinberg, David H.; Dietrich, Matthias; Cool, Richard; Dey, Arjun; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Floc'h, Emeric Le; Stern, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    We study the distribution of Eddington luminosity ratios, L_bol/L_edd, of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) discovered in the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). We combine H-beta, MgII, and CIV line widths with continuum luminosities to estimate black hole (BH) masses in 407 AGNs, covering the redshift range z~0.3-4 and the bolometric luminosity range L_bol~10^45-10^47 erg/s. The sample consists of X-ray or mid-infrared (24 micron) point sources with optical magnitude R

  1. Synthetic extinction maps around intermediate-mass black holes in Galactic globular clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Pepe, C.; Pellizza, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, much effort has been devoted to explain the discrepancy between the amount of intracluster medium (ICM) estimated from stellar evolution theories and that emerging from observations in globular clusters (GCs). One possible scenario is the accretion of this medium by an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) at the centre of the cluster. In this work, we aim at modelling the cluster colour-excess profile as a tracer of the ICM density, both with and without an IMBH. Compa...

  2. Gamma ray emitting globular clusters: Possible contribution from relativistic jets of intermediate mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrovich, Mikhail; Gnedin, Yuri; Silant'ev, Nikolai; Natsvlishvili, Tinatin; Buliga, Stanislava

    2016-05-01

    We developed a method that allows us to estimate the high energy gamma ray luminosity of intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) located in the central regions of globular clusters. Our calculations are based on the relation between the relativistic jet kinetic power and the luminosity of the gamma ray radiation that is produced by the jet itself. The power of a relativistic jet is determined via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism. Our calculations show that the contribution of the central IMBH in gamma ray luminosity is comparable with the contribution of the population of millisecond pulsars.

  3. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Sakellariadou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a signifi...

  4. On IC 10 X-1, the Most Massive Known Stellar-Mass Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2008-01-01

    IC 10 X-1 is a variable X-ray source in the Local Group starburst galaxy IC 10 whose optical counterpart is a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. Prestwich et al. (2007) recently proposed that it contains the most massive known stellar-mass black hole (23-34 M_sun), but their conclusion was based on radial velocities derived from only a few optical spectra, the most important of which was seriously affected by a CCD defect. Here we present new spectra of the WR star, spanning one month, obtained with the K...

  5. Intermediate-mass-ratio black-hole binaries: numerical relativity meets perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousto, Carlos O; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-05-28

    We study black-hole binaries in the intermediate-mass-ratio regime 0.01≲q≲0.1 with a new technique that makes use of nonlinear numerical trajectories and efficient perturbative evolutions to compute waveforms at large radii for the leading and nonleading (ℓ, m) modes. As a proof-of-concept, we compute waveforms for q=1/10. We discuss applications of these techniques for LIGO and VIRGO data analysis and the possibility that our technique can be extended to produce accurate waveform templates from a modest number of fully nonlinear numerical simulations. PMID:20867082

  6. Intermediate mass black holes and nearby dark matter point sources: a critical reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Torsten; Lavalle, Julien; Salati, Pierre

    2009-10-16

    Dark matter (DM) "minispikes" around intermediate mass black holes are sometimes quoted as one of the most promising targets for indirect DM searches. Here, we stress that existing cosmic ray data place severe constraints on the possibility to detect DM annihilation signals from these objects in gamma rays; observational prospects for neutrinos or charged cosmic rays seem even worse. Similar bounds severely constrain the possibility that the excess in the cosmic ray positron or electron flux recently reported by PAMELA/ATIC could be due to a nearby point source like a DM clump or minispike. PMID:19905686

  7. Neutron stars versus black holes: probing the mass gap with LIGO/Virgo

    CERN Document Server

    Littenberg, Tyson B; Coughlin, Scott; Kalogera, Vicky; Holz, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    The inspirals and mergers of binary systems comprised of black holes (BHs) and/or neutron stars (NSs) are expected to be abundant sources for ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. We assess the capabilities of Advanced LIGO and Virgo to measure component masses using inspiral waveform models which include spin-precession effects by studying a large ensemble of plausible GW sources. We make quantitative predictions for how well LIGO and Virgo will be able to distinguish between black holes and neutron stars and appraise the prospect of using LIGO/Virgo observations to definitively confirm, or reject, the existence of a putative "mass gap" between NSs ($m\\leq3\\ M_\\odot$) and BHs ($m\\geq 5\\ M_\\odot$). We find sources with the smaller mass component satisfying $m_2 \\lesssim1.5\\ M_\\odot$ to be unambiguously identified as containing at least one NS, while systems with $m_2\\gtrsim6\\ M_\\odot$ will be confirmed binary BHs. However, binary BHs with $m_2<5\\ M_\\odot$ (i.e., in the gap) cannot be distinguishe...

  8. Nova Sco and coalescing low mass black hole binaries as LIGO sources

    CERN Document Server

    Sipior, M S; Sipior, Michael S.; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2002-01-01

    Double neutron star binaries, analogous to the well known Hulse--Taylor pulsar PSR 1913+16, are guaranteed-to-exist sources of high frequency gravitational radiation detectable by LIGO. There is considerable uncertainty in the estimated rate of coalescence of such systems, with conservative estimates of ~1 per million years per galaxy, and optimistic theoretical estimates one or more magnitude larger. Formation rates of low-mass black hole-neutron star binaries may be higher than those of NS-NS binaries, and may dominate the detectable LIGO signal rate. We estimate the enhanced coalescence rate for BH-BH binaries due to weak asymmetric kicks during the formation of low mass black holes like Nova Sco, and find they may contribute significantly to the LIGO signal rate, possibly dominating the phase I detectable signals if the range of BH masses for which there is significant kick is broad enough. For a standard Salpeter IMF, assuming mild natal kicks, we project that the R6 merger rate of BH-BH systems is ~0.5,...

  9. Regulation of Black Hole Winds and Jets Across the Mass Scale

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ashley L; Raymond, John; Fabian, Andy C; Reynolds, Chris S; Gultekin, Kayhan; Cackett, Edward M; Allen, Steven W; Proga, Daniel; Kallman, Tim R

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the mechanical power generated by both winds and jets across the black hole mass scale. We begin with the study of ionized X-ray winds and present a uniform analysis using Chandra grating spectra. The high quality grating spectra facilitate the characterization of the outflow velocity, ionization and column density of the absorbing gas. We find that the kinetic power of the winds scales with increasing bolometric luminosity as log(L_wind) \\propto (1.57 \\pm 0.07) log(L_Bol). This means that SMBH may be more efficient than stellar-mass black holes in launching winds. In addition, the simplicity of the scaling may suggest common driving mechanisms across the mass scale. For comparison, we next examine jet production, estimating jet power based on the energy required to inflate local bubbles. The jet relation is log(L_Jet)\\propto (1.18\\pm0.24) log(L_Bol). The energetics of the bubble associated with Cygnus X-1 are particularly difficult to determine, and the bubble could be a background SNR....

  10. Searching for intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters with gravitational microlensing

    CERN Document Server

    Kains, N; Sahu, K C; Calamida, A

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the potential of the gravitational microlensing method as a unique tool to detect unambiguous signals caused by intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters. We select clusters near the line of sight to the Galactic Bulge and the Small Magellanic Cloud, estimate the density of background stars for each of them, and carry out simulations in order to estimate the probabilities of detecting the astrometric signatures caused by black hole lensing. We find that for several clusters, the probability of detecting such an event is significant with available archival data from the Hubble Space Telescope. Specifically, we find that M 22 is the cluster with the best chances of yielding an IMBH detection via astrometric microlensing. If M 22 hosts an IMBH of mass $10^5M_\\odot$, then the probability that at least one star will yield a detectable signal over an observational baseline of 20 years is $\\sim 86\\%$, while the probability of a null result is around $14\\%$. For an IMBH of mass $10^6M_\\odot$, the ...

  11. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project: Recalibrating Single-Epoch Virial Black Hole Mass Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Daeseong; Treu, Tommaso; Barth, Aaron J; Bentz, Misty C; Bennert, Vardha N; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V; Gates, Elinor; Greene, Jenny E; Malkan, Matthew A; Walsh, Jonelle

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the calibration and uncertainties of black hole mass estimates based on the single-epoch (SE) method, using homogeneous and high-quality multi-epoch spectra obtained by the Lick Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) Monitoring Project for 9 local Seyfert 1 galaxies with black hole masses < 10^8 M_sun. By decomposing the spectra into their AGN and stellar components, we study the variability of the single-epoch Hbeta line width (full width at half-maximum intensity, FWHM_Hbeta; or dispersion, sigma_Hbeta) and of the AGN continuum luminosity at 5100A (L_5100). From the distribution of the "virial products" (~ FWHM_Hbeta^2 L_5100^0.5 or sigma_Hbeta^2 L_5100^0.5) measured from SE spectra, we estimate the uncertainty due to the combined variability as ~ 0.05 dex (12%). This is subdominant with respect to the total uncertainty in SE mass estimates, which is dominated by uncertainties in the size-luminosity relation and virial coefficient, and is estimated to be ~ 0.46 dex (factor of ~ 3). By comparing the...

  12. The Mass of the Black Hole in the X-ray Binary Nova Muscae 1991

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jianfeng; McClintock, Jeffrey E; Hasan, Imran; Bailyn, Charles D; Gou, Lijun; Chen, Zihan

    2016-01-01

    The optical counterpart of the black-hole soft X-ray transient Nova Muscae 1991 has brightened by $\\Delta{V}\\approx0.8$ mag since its return to quiescence 23 years ago. We present the first clear evidence that the brightening of soft X-ray transients in quiescence occurs at a nearly linear rate. This discovery, and our precise determination of the disk component of emission obtained using our $simultaneous$ photometric and spectroscopic data, have allowed us to identify and accurately model archival ellipsoidal light curves of the highest quality. The simultaneity, and the strong constraint it provides on the component of disk emission, is a key element of our work. Based on our analysis of the light curves, and our earlier measurements of the mass function and mass ratio, we have obtained for Nova Muscae 1991 the first accurate estimates of its systemic inclination $i=43.2^{+2.1}_{-2.7}$ deg, and black hole mass $M=11.0^{+2.1}_{-1.4}\\ M_\\odot$. Based on our determination of the radius of the secondary, we es...

  13. A Reverberation-Based Black Hole Mass for MCG-06-30-15

    CERN Document Server

    Bentz, Misty C; Crenshaw, D Michael; Horne, Keith; Street, Rachel; Ou-Yang, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a reverberation campaign targeting MGC-06-30-15. Spectrophotometric monitoring and broad-band photometric monitoring over the course of 4 months in the spring of 2012 allowed a determination of a time delay in the broad H$\\beta$ emission line of $\\tau=5.3\\pm1.8$ days in the rest frame of the AGN. Combined with the width of the variable portion of the emission line, we determine a black hole mass of $M_{\\rm BH} = (1.6 \\pm 0.4) \\times 10^6$ M$_{\\odot}$. Both the H$\\beta$ time delay and the black hole mass are in good agreement with expectations from the $R_{\\rm BLR}$-$L$ and $M_{\\rm BH}-\\sigma_{\\star}$ relationships for other reverberation-mapped AGNs. The H$\\beta$ time delay is also in good agreement with the relationship between H$\\beta$ and broad-band near-IR delays, in which the effective BLR size is $\\sim 4-5$ times smaller than the inner edge of the dust torus. Additionally, the reverberation-based mass is in good agreement with estimates from the X-ray power spectral density bre...

  14. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  15. Quasistars: Accreting black holes inside massive envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Begelman, Mitchell C; Armitage, Philip J

    2007-01-01

    We study the structure and evolution of "quasistars," accreting black holes embedded within massive hydrostatic gaseous envelopes. These configurations may model the early growth of supermassive black hole seeds. The accretion rate onto the black hole adjusts so that the luminosity carried by the convective envelope equals the Eddington limit for the total mass. This greatly exceeds the Eddington limit for the black hole mass alone, leading to rapid growth of the black hole. We use analytic models and numerical stellar structure calculations to study the structure and evolution of quasistars. We derive analytically the scaling of the photospheric temperature with the black hole mass and envelope mass, and show that it decreases with time as the black hole mass increases. Once the photospheric temperature becomes lower than 10000 K, the photospheric opacity drops precipitously and the photospheric temperature hits a limiting value, analogous to the Hayashi track for red giants and protostars, below which no hy...

  16. Measuring intermediate mass black hole binaries with advanced gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Veitch, John; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms (SEOBNR) to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50 and 500 $M_\\odot$ and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ~200 $M_\\odot$, where the signal-to-noise-ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; (iv) sp...

  17. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  18. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)

  19. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Durban (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)

  20. Intermediate mass black holes in AGN discs - I. Production and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, B.; Ford, K. E. S.; Lyra, W.; Perets, H. B.

    2012-09-01

    Here we propose a mechanism for efficiently growing intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in discs around supermassive black holes. Stellar mass objects can efficiently agglomerate when facilitated by the gas disc. Stars, compact objects and binaries can migrate, accrete and merge within discs around supermassive black holes. While dynamical heating by cusp stars excites the velocity dispersion of nuclear cluster objects (NCOs) in the disc, gas in the disc damps NCO orbits. If gas damping dominates, NCOs remain in the disc with circularized orbits and large collision cross-sections. IMBH seeds can grow extremely rapidly by collisions with disc NCOs at low relative velocities, allowing for super-Eddington growth rates. Once an IMBH seed has cleared out its feeding zone of disc NCOs, growth of IMBH seeds can become dominated by gas accretion from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) disc. However, the IMBH can migrate in the disc and expand its feeding zone, permitting a super-Eddington accretion rate to continue. Growth of IMBH seeds via NCO collisions is enhanced by a pile-up of migrators. We highlight the remarkable parallel between the growth of IMBH in AGN discs with models of giant planet growth in protoplanetary discs. If an IMBH becomes massive enough it can open a gap in the AGN disc. IMBH migration in AGN discs may stall, allowing them to survive the end of the AGN phase and remain in galactic nuclei. Our proposed mechanisms should be more efficient at growing IMBH in AGN discs than the standard model of IMBH growth in stellar clusters. Dynamical heating of disc NCOs by cusp stars is transferred to the gas in an AGN disc helping to maintain the outer disc against gravitational instability. Model predictions, observational constraints and implications are discussed in a companion paper (Paper II).

  1. Mass and angular momentum of black holes in low-energy heterotic string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Jun-Jin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate conserved charges in the low-energy effective field theory describing heterotic string theory. Starting with a general Lagrangian that consists of a metric, a scalar field, a vector gauge field, together with a two-form potential, we derive off-shell Noether potentials of the Lagrangian and generalize the Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) formalism to the off-shell level by establishing one-to-one correspondence between the ADT potential and the off-shell Noether potential. It is proved that the off-shell generalized ADT formalism is conformally invariant. Then we apply the formulation to compute mass and angular momentum of the four-dimensional Kerr-Sen black hole and the five-dimensional rotating charged black string in the string frame without a necessity to transform the metrics into the Einstein frame.

  2. Mass and angular momentum of black holes in low-energy heterotic string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun-Jin

    2016-04-01

    We investigate conserved charges in the low-energy effective field theory describing heterotic string theory. Starting with a general Lagrangian that consists of a metric, a scalar field, a vector gauge field, together with a two-form potential, we derive off-shell Noether potentials of the Lagrangian and generalize the Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) formalism to the off-shell level by establishing one-to-one correspondence between the ADT potential and the off-shell Noether potential. It is proved that the off-shell generalized ADT formalism is conformally invariant. Then, we apply the formulation to compute mass and angular momentum of the four-dimensional Kerr-Sen black hole and the five-dimensional rotating charged black string in the string frame without a necessity to transform the metrics into the Einstein frame.

  3. Black hole statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather, they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ''infinite statistics'' which resembles that of distinguishable particles and is realized by a q deformation of the quantum commutation relations

  4. On Quantum Contributions to Black Hole Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Wheeler’s quantum foam on black hole growth are explored from an astrophysical per- spective. Quantum fluctuations in the form of mini (10−5 g) black holes can couple to macroscopic black holes and allow the latter to grow exponentially in mass on a time scale of 109 years. Consequent

  5. White holes and eternal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)

  6. White holes and eternal black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen D. H. Hsu

    2010-01-01

    We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi- thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal.

  7. Modelling aperiodic X-ray variability in black hole binaries as propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations: a short review

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Black hole binary systems can emit very bright and rapidly varying X-ray signals when material from the companion accretes onto the black hole, liberating huge amounts of gravitational potential energy. Central to this process of accretion is turbulence. In the propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations model, turbulence is generated throughout the inner accretion flow, causing fluctuations in the accretion rate. Fluctuations from the outer regions propagate towards the black hole, modulating the fluctuations generated in the inner regions. Here, I present the theoretical motivation behind this picture before reviewing the array of statistical variability properties observed in the light curves of black hole binaries that are naturally explained by the model. I also discuss the remaining challenges for the model, both in terms of comparison to data and in terms of including more sophisticated theoretical considerations.

  8. Modelling aperiodic X-ray variability in black hole binaries as propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations: A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    Black hole binary systems can emit very bright and rapidly varying X-ray signals when material from the companion accretes onto the black hole, liberating huge amounts of gravitational potential energy. Central to this process of accretion is turbulence. In the propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations model, turbulence is generated throughout the inner accretion flow, causing fluctuations in the accretion rate. Fluctuations from the outer regions propagate towards the black hole, modulating the fluctuations generated in the inner regions. Here, I present the theoretical motivation behind this picture before reviewing the array of statistical variability properties observed in the light curves of black hole binaries that are naturally explained by the model. I also discuss the remaining challenges for the model, both in terms of comparison to data and in terms of including more sophisticated theoretical considerations.

  9. Slowly balding black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    The "no hair" theorem, a key result in General Relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the "no hair" theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes $N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar)$, where $\\Phi_\\infty \\approx 2 \\pi^2 B_{NS} R_{NS}^3 /(P_{\\rm NS} c)$ is the initial magnetic flux through the hemisphere...

  10. Thermal corpuscular black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-06-01

    We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number N of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy m (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy ω >m ). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature in the continuum. We first find that, assuming the Hawking radiation is the leading effect of the internal scatterings, the corresponding N -particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M =N m and a Planckian distribution for E >M at the same Hawking temperature. From this collective state, we compute the partition function and obtain an entropy which reproduces the usual area law with a logarithmic correction precisely related with the Hawking component. By means of the horizon wave function for the system, we finally show the backreaction of modes with ω >m reduces the Hawking flux. Both corrections, to the entropy and to the Hawking flux, suggest the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass, if the black hole is in this particular quantum state.

  11. Mass Gap for Black-Hole Formation in Higher-Derivative and Ghost-Free Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Valeri P

    2015-07-31

    We study a spherical gravitational collapse of a small mass in higher-derivative and ghost-free theories of gravity. By boosting a solution of linearized equations for a static point mass in such theories we obtain in the Penrose limit the gravitational field of an ultrarelativistic particle. Taking a superposition of such solutions we construct a metric of a collapsing null shell in the linearized higher-derivative and ghost-free gravity. The latter allows one to find the gravitational field of a thick null shell. By analyzing these solutions we demonstrate that in a wide class of the higher dimensional theories of gravity as well as for the ghost-free gravity there exists a mass gap for mini-black-hole production. We also found conditions when the curvature invariants remain finite at r=0 for the collapse of the thick null shell. PMID:26274408

  12. A Polarimetric Method for Measuring Black Hole Masses in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Piotrovich, M Yu; Silant'ev, N A; Natsvlishvili, T M; Buliga, S D

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the broad emission line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGN) remains unclear. We test in this paper a flattened configuration model for BLR. The virial theorem, by taking into account the disc shape of BLR, allows us to get a direct connection between the mass of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and the inclination angle of the accretion flow. The inclination angle itself is derived from the spectropolarimetric data on broad emission lines using the theory for the generation of polarized radiation developed by Sobolev and Chandrasekhar. As the result, the new estimates of SMBH masses in AGN with measured polarization of BLR are presented. It is crucial that the polarimetric data allow also to determine the value of the virial coefficient that is essential for determining SMBH masses.

  13. A polarimetric method for measuring black hole masses in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrovich, M. Yu.; Gnedin, Yu. N.; Silant'ev, N. A.; Natsvlishvili, T. M.; Buliga, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    The structure of the broad emission line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGN) remains unclear. We test in this paper a flattened configuration model for BLR. The virial theorem, by taking into account the disc shape of BLR, allows us to get a direct connection between the mass of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and the inclination angle of the accretion flow. The inclination angle itself is derived from the spectropolarimetric data on broad emission lines using the theory for the generation of polarized radiation developed by Sobolev and Chandrasekhar. As the result, the new estimates of SMBH masses in AGN with measured polarization of BLR are presented. It is crucial that the polarimetric data allow also to determine the value of the virial coefficient that is essential for determining SMBH masses.

  14. Bounding the mass of the graviton with gravitational waves: Effect of spin precessions in massive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Stavridis, Adamantios

    2009-01-01

    Observations of gravitational waves from massive binary black hole systems at cosmological distances can be used to search for a dependence of the speed of propagation of the waves on wavelength, and thereby to bound the mass of a hypothetical graviton. We study the effects of precessions of the spins of the black holes and of the orbital angular momentum on the process of parameter estimation using matched filtering of gravitational-wave signals vs. theoretical template waveforms. For the proposed space interferometer LISA, we show that precessions, and the accompanying modulations of the gravitational waveforms, are effective in breaking degeneracies among the parameters being estimated, and effectively restore the achievable graviton-mass bounds to levels obtainable from binary inspirals without spin. For spinning, precessing binary black hole systems of equal masses (10^6 solar masses) at 3 Gpc, the bounds on the graviton Compton wavelength achievable are of the order of 5 X 10^{16} km.

  15. Multiscale mass transport in z ˜6 galactic discs: fuelling black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Joaquin; Escala, Andrés

    2016-08-01

    By using Adaptive Mesh Refinement cosmological hydrodynamic N-body zoom-in simulations, with the RAMSES code, we studied the mass transport processes on to galactic nuclei from high redshift up to z ˜6. Due to the large dynamical range of the simulations, we were able to study the mass accretion process on scales from ˜50 kpc to ˜few 1 pc. We studied the black hole (BH) growth on to the Galactic Centre in relation with the mass transport processes associated to both the Reynolds stress and the gravitational stress on the disc. Such methodology allowed us to identify the main mass transport process as a function of the scales of the problem. We found that in simulations that include radiative cooling and supernovae feedback, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) grows at the Eddington limit for some periods of time presenting ≈ 0.5 throughout its evolution. The α parameter is dominated by the Reynolds term, αR, with αR ≫ 1. The gravitational part of the α parameter, αG, has an increasing trend towards the Galactic Centre at higher redshifts, with values αG ˜1 at radii ≲ few 101 pc contributing to the BH fuelling. In terms of torques, we also found that gravity has an increasing contribution towards the Galactic Centre at earlier epochs with a mixed contribution above ˜100 pc. This complementary work between pressure gradients and gravitational potential gradients allows an efficient mass transport on the disc with average mass accretion rates of the order of ˜few 1 M⊙ yr-1. These levels of SMBH accretion rates found in our cosmological simulations are needed in all models of SMBH growth that attempt to explain the formation of redshift 6-7 quasars.

  16. Black-hole formation from stellar collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I review the end-state of massive stellar evolution, following the evolution of these massive stars from the onset of collapse through the formation of a compact remnant and the possible supernova or hypernova explosion. In particular, I concentrate on the formation of black holes from stellar collapse: the fraction of stars that form black holes, the black-hole mass distribution and the velocities these black-hole remnants may receive during their formation process

  17. Energy conservation for dynamical black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2004-01-01

    An energy conservation law is described, expressing the increase in mass-energy of a general black hole in terms of the energy densities of the infalling matter and gravitational radiation. For a growing black hole, this first law of black-hole dynamics is equivalent to an equation of Ashtekar & Krishnan, but the new integral and differential forms are regular in the limit where the black hole ceases to grow. An effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor is obtained, providing measures o...

  18. Will black holes eventually engulf the universe?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Moruno, Prado; Madrid, Jose A. Jimenez; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.

    2006-01-01

    The Babichev-Dokuchaev-Eroshenko model for the accretion of dark energy onto black holes has been extended to deal with black holes with non-static metrics. The possibility that for an asymptotic observer a black hole with large mass will rapidly increase and eventually engulf the Universe at a finite time in the future has been studied by using reasonable values for astronomical parameters. It is concluded that such a phenomenon is forbidden for all black holes in quintessential cosmological...

  19. Formation of Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Evidence shows that massive black holes reside in most local galaxies. Studies have also established a number of relations between the MBH mass and properties of the host galaxy such as bulge mass and velocity dispersion. These results suggest that central MBHs, while much less massive than the host (~ 0.1%), are linked to the evolution of galactic structure. In hierarchical cosmologies, a single big galaxy today can be traced back to the stage when it was split up in hundreds of smaller components. Did MBH seeds form with the same efficiency in small proto-galaxies, or did their formation had to await the buildup of substantial galaxies with deeper potential wells? I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I will discuss black hole formation processes for `seed' black holes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and possible observational tests of these scenarios.

  20. THE FORMATION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES FROM LOW-MASS POP III SEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of 109 M☉ black holes (BHs) in massive galaxies by z ∼ 7 is one of the great unsolved mysteries in cosmological structure formation. One theory argues that they originate from the BHs of Pop III stars at z ∼ 20 and then accrete at the Eddington limit down to the epoch of reionization, which requires that they have constant access to rich supplies of fuel. Because early numerical simulations suggested that Pop III stars were ∼>100 M☉, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds considered up to now were 100-300 M☉. However, there is a growing numerical and observational consensus that some Pop III stars were tens of solar masses, not hundreds, and that 20-40 M☉ BHs may have been much more plentiful at high redshift. However, we find that natal kicks imparted to 20-40 M☉ Pop III BHs during formation eject them from their halos and hence their fuel supply, precluding them from Eddington-limit growth. Consequently, SMBHs are far less likely to form from low-mass Pop III stars than from very massive ones.

  1. The Mass of the Black Hole in the Quasar PG 2130+099

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, C J; Bentz, M C; Denney, K D; Eastman, J D; Dietrich, M; Pogge, R W; Prieto, J L; De Poy, D L; Assef, R J; Atlee, D W; Bird, J; Eyler, M E; Peeples, M S; Siverd, R; Watson, L C; Yee, J C

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a recent reverberation-mapping campaign undertaken to improve measurements of the radius of the broad line region and the central black hole mass of the quasar PG 2130+099. Cross correlation of the 5100 angstrom continuum and H-beta emission-line light curves yields a time lag of 22.9 (+4.4 - 4.3) days, corresponding to a central black hole mass MBH= 3.8 (+/- 1.5) x 10^7 Msun. This value supports the notion that previous measurements yielded an incorrect lag. We re-analyzed previous datasets to investigate the possible sources of the discrepancy and conclude that previous measurement errors were apparently caused by a combination of undersampling of the light curves and long-term secular changes in the H-beta emission-line equivalent width. With our new measurements, PG 2130+099 is no longer an outlier in either the R-L or the MBH-Sigma relationships.

  2. Assisted Inspirals of Stellar Mass Black Holes Embedded in AGN Disks: Solving the "Final AU Problem"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas C.; Metzger, Brian D.; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-09-01

    We explore the evolution of stellar mass black hole binaries (BHBs) which are formed in the self-gravitating disks of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Hardening due to three-body scattering and gaseous drag are effective mechanisms that reduce the semi-major axis of a BHB to radii where gravitational waves take over, on timescales shorter than the typical lifetime of the AGN disk. Taking observationally-motivated assumptions for the rate of star formation in AGN disks, we find a rate of disk-induced BHB mergers (R ˜ 3 yr^{-1} Gpc^{-3}, but with large uncertainties) that is comparable with existing estimates of the field rate of BHB mergers, and the approximate BHB merger rate implied by the recent Advanced LIGO detection of GW150914. BHBs formed thorough this channel will frequently be associated with luminous AGN, which are relatively rare within the sky error regions of future gravitational wave detector arrays. This channel could also possess a (potentially transient) electromagnetic counterpart due to super-Eddington accretion onto the stellar mass black hole following the merger.

  3. Production of Hypervelocity Stars through Encounters with Stellar-Mass Black Holes in the Galactic Centre

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, R M; Leary, Ryan M. O'; Loeb, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    Stars within 0.1 pc of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the Galactic centre are expected to encounter a cluster of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) that have segregated to that region. Some of these stars will scatter off an orbiting BH and be kicked out of the Galactic centre with velocities up to \\~2000 km/s. We calculate the resulting ejection rate of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) by this process under a variety of assumptions, and find it to be comparable to the tidal disruption rate of binary stars by Sgr A*, first discussed by Hills (1998). Under some conditions, this novel process is sufficient to account for all the B-type HVSs observed in the halo, and to dominate the production rate of all HVSs with lifetimes much less than the relaxation time-scale at a distance ~2 pc from Sgr A* (>~2 Gyr). Since HVSs are produced by at least two unavoidable processes, the statistics of HVSs could reveal bimodal velocity and mass distributions, and can constrain the distribution of BHs and stars in the innermost 0....

  4. Do Circumnuclear Dense Gas Disks Drive Mass Accretion onto Supermassive Black Holes?

    CERN Document Server

    Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    We present a positive correlation between the mass of dense molecular gas ($M_{\\rm dense}$) of $\\sim 100$ pc scale circumnuclear disks (CNDs) and the black hole mass accretion rate ($\\dot{M}_{\\rm BH}$) in total 10 Seyfert galaxies, based on data compiled from the literature and an archive (median aperture $\\theta_{\\rm med}$ = 220 pc). A typical $M_{\\rm dense}$ of CNDs is 10$^{7-8}$ $M_\\odot$, estimated from the luminosity of the dense gas tracer, the HCN($1-0$) emission line. Because dense molecular gas is the site of star formation, this correlation is virtually equivalent to the one between nuclear star formation rate and $\\dot{M}_{\\rm BH}$ revealed previously. Moreover, the $M_{\\rm dense}-\\dot{M}_{\\rm BH}$ correlation was tighter for CND-scale gas than for the gas on kpc or larger scales. This indicates that CNDs likely play an important role in fueling black holes, whereas $>$kpc scale gas does not. To demonstrate a possible approach for studying the CND-scale accretion process with the Atacama Large Mill...

  5. Short Timescale AGN X-ray Variability with EXOSAT: Black hole mass and Normalised Variability Amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    McHardy, I M

    2012-01-01

    The old EXOSAT medium energy measurements of high frequency (HF) AGN power spectral normalisation are re-examined in the light of accurate black hole mass determinations which were not available when these data were first published (Green et al 1993). It is found that the normalised variability amplitude (NVA), measured directly from the power spectrum, is proportional to M^{beta} where beta ~ -0.54 +/- 0.08. As NVA is the square root of the power, these observations show that the normalisation of the HF power spectrum for this sample of AGN varies very close to inversely with black hole mass. Almost the same value of $\\beta$ is obtained whether the quasar 3C273 is included in the sample or not, suggesting that the same process that drives X-ray variability in Seyfert galaxies applies also to 3C273. These observations support the work of Gierlinski et al (2008) who show that an almost exactly linear anticorrelation is required if the normalisations of the HF power spectra of AGN and X-ray binary systems are t...

  6. Estimating Black Hole Masses in Quasars Using Broad Optical and UV Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, Paola

    2011-01-01

    We review past work using broad emission lines as virial estimators of black hole masses in quasars. Basically one requires estimates of the emitting region radius and virial velocity dispersion to obtain black hole masses. The three major ways to estimate the broad-line emitting region (BLR) radius involve: (1) direct reverberation mapping, (2) derivation of BLR radius for larger samples using the radius-luminosity correlation derived from reverberation measures, and (3) estimates of BLR radius using the definition of the ionization parameter solved for BLR radius (photoionization method). At low redshift (z < 0.7) FWHM H-beta serves as the most widely used estimator of virial velocity dispersion. FWHM H-beta can provide estimates for tens of thousands of quasars out to z ~ 3.8 (IR spectroscopy beyond z ~ 1). A new photoionization method also shows promise for providing many reasonable estimates of BLR radius via high S/N IR spectroscopy of the UV region 1300 -- 2000 A. FWHM MgII 2800 can serve as a surro...

  7. The mass density in black holes inferred from the X-ray background

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C

    1999-01-01

    The X-ray Background (XRB) probably originates from the integrated X-ray emission of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Modelling of its flat spectrum implies considerable absorption in most AGN. Compton down-scattering means that sources in which the absorption is Compton thick are unlikely to be major contributors to the background intensity so the observed spectral intensity at about 30 keV is little affected by photoelectric absorption. Assuming that the intrinsic photon index of AGN is 2, we then use the 30 keV intensity of the XRB to infer the absorption-corrected energy density of the background. Soltan's argument then enables us to convert this to a mean local density in black holes, assuming an accretion efficiency of 0.1 and a mean AGN redshift of 2. The result is within a factor of two of that estimated by Haehnelt et al from the optically-determined black hole masses of Magorrian et al. We conclude that there is no strong need for any radiatively inefficient mode of accretion for building the masses of...

  8. Primordial Planck mass black holes (PPMBHs) as candidates for dark matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed here that due to rapid cooling at the end of the Planck-era a second order phase transition with Planck-size space-time-energy fluctuations may have led to a precipitation of Planck-dimension real objects with masses around mP and hence a Schwarzschild radius R = 2GmP/c2. This equals twice their spatial dimension lP; hence they are black holes. They could have survived through inflation and expansion because of their extremely small cross section for the fluctuations that are supposed to cause the hypothetical Hawking decay. In the case of our galaxy they could thus be the missing WIMPS of the dark mass halo, consisting of ∼ 1050 PPMBHs – in contrast to the ∼ 1068 baryons in the stars – both bound together by gravitation with negligible other interaction between the two. They would constitute a storage of gravitational energy three orders of magnitude larger than the energy stock of H → He fusion, an energy to be released somehow when they very slowly coalesce to form big black holes.

  9. The High-Mass End of the Black Hole Mass Function: Mass Estimates in Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Bontà, E.; Ferrarese, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Miralda-Escudé, J.; Coccato, L.; Sarzi, M.; Pizzella, A.; Beifiori, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging and spectroscopic observations of three Brightest Cluster Galaxies, Abell 1836-BCG, Abell 2052-BCG, and Abell 3565-BCG, obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The data provide detailed information on the structure and mass profile of the stellar component, the dust optical depth, and the spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized gas within the innermost region of each galaxy. Dynamical models, which account for the observed stellar mass profile and include the contribution of a central supermassive black hole (SBH), are constructed to reproduce the kinematics derived from the Hα and [N II]λλ6548,6583 emission lines. Secure SBH detection with M • = 3.61+0.41 -0.50 × 109 M sun and M • = 1.34+0.21 -0.19 × 109 M sun, respectively, are obtained for Abell 1836-BCG and Abell 3565-BCG, which show regular rotation curves and strong central velocity gradients. In the case of Abell 2052-BCG, the lack of an orderly rotational motion prevents a secure determination, although an upper limit of M • lsim 4.60 × 109 M sun can be placed on the mass of the central SBH. These measurements represent an important step forward in the characterization of the high-mass end of the SBH mass function. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 279.B-5004(A).

  10. Charged rotating noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.

  11. Charged rotating noncommutative black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto, Leonardo; Nicolini, Piero

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.

  12. Charged rotating noncommutative black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Modesto, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we complete the program of the Noncomutative Geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newmann-Janis algorithm in case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.

  13. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dain, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the three parameters that characterize the Kerr black hole (mass, angular momentum and horizon area) satisfy several important inequalities. Remarkably, some of these inequalities remain valid also for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this article recent results in this subject are reviewed.

  14. Information retrieval from black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta; Padmanabhan, T.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that, when matter collapses to form a black hole, the complete information about the initial state of the matter cannot be retrieved by future asymptotic observers, through local measurements. This is contrary to the expectation from a unitary evolution in quantum theory and leads to (a version of) the black hole information paradox. Classically, nothing else, apart from mass, charge and angular momentum is expected to be revealed to such asymptotic observers after th...

  15. Are Black Holes Elementary Particles?

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Yuan K.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest conceivable elementary particles. They have a microscopic size but a macroscopic mass. Several fundamental types have been constructed with some remarkable properties. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected in Earth's atmosphere. They may also play a role as dark matter in cosmology.

  16. The High-Mass End of the Black Hole Mass Function: Mass Estimates in Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bonta', E Dalla; Corsini, E M; Miralda-Escude', J; Coccato, L; Sarzi, M; Pizzella, A; Beifiori, A

    2008-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging and spectroscopic observations of three Brightest Cluster Galaxies, Abell 1836-BCG, Abell 2052-BCG, and Abell 3565-BCG, obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The data provide detailed information on the structure and mass profile of the stellar component, the dust optical depth, and the spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized gas within the innermost region of each galaxy. Dynamical models, which account for the observed stellar mass profile and include the contribution of a central supermassive black hole (SBH), are constructed to reproduce the kinematics derived from the Halpha and [N II](lambda 6548,6583) emission lines. Secure SBH detection with M_bh=3.61(+0.41,-0.50)x10^9 M_sun and M_bh=1.34(+0.21,-0.19)x10^9 M_sun, respectively, are obtained for Abell 1836-BCG and Abell 3565-BCG, which show regular rotation curves and strong central velocity gradients. In the ...

  17. Rotating black hole and quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag 54001, Durban (South Africa)

    2016-04-15

    We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass (M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α = -e{sup 2} ≠ 0 and ω = 1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α = 0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = a{sub E}), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < a{sub E}, it describes a nonextremal black hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and no black hole for a > a{sub E}. We find that the extremal value a{sub E} is also influenced by the parameter ω and so is the ergoregion. (orig.)

  18. Phase transition in black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    The present thesis is devoted towards the study of various aspects of the phase transition phenomena occurring in black holes defined in an Anti-de-Sitter (AdS) space. Based on the fundamental principles of thermodynamics and considering a grand canonical framework we examine various aspects of the phase transition phenomena occurring in AdS black holes. We analytically check that this phase transition between the smaller and larger mass black holes obey Ehrenfest relations defined at the critical point and hence confirm a second order phase transition. This include both the rotating and charged black holes in Einstein gravity. Apart from studying these issues, based on a canonical framework, we also investigate the critical behavior in charged AdS black holes. The scaling laws for these black holes are found to be compatible with the static scaling hypothesis. Finally, based on the usual framework of AdS/CFT duality, we investigate the phase transition phenomena occurring in charged hairy black holes defined...

  19. Acceleration of Black Hole Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2012-05-01

    An alternative cosmological model called black hole universe has been recently proposed by the author. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole to the present state by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with an infinite number of layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we live, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of space-time, and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. In this study. we will analyze the acceleration of black hole universe that accretes its ambient matter in an increasing rate. We will also compare the result obtained from the black hole universe model with the measurement of type Ia supernova and the result from the big bang cosmology.

  20. The coalescence rates of double black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; Dominik, Michal; Prestwich, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We present the summary of the recent investigations of double black hole binaries in context of their formation and merger rates. In particular we discuss the spectrum of black hole masses, the formation scenarios in the local Universe and the estimates of detection rates for gravitational radiation detectors like LIGO and VIRGO. Our study is based on observed properties of known Galactic and extra-galactic stellar mass black holes and evolutionary predictions. We argue that the binary black ...

  1. The Missing Link: Bayesian Detection and Measurement of Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Graff, Philip B; Sathyaprakash, B S

    2015-01-01

    We perform Bayesian analysis of gravitational-wave signals from non-spinning, intermediate-mass black-hole binaries (IMBHBs) with observed total mass, $M_{\\mathrm{obs}}$, from $50\\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$ to $500\\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$ and mass ratio $1\\mbox{--}4$ using advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors. We employ inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform models based on the effective-one-body formalism and include subleading modes of radiation beyond the leading $(2,2)$ mode. The presence of subleading modes increases signal power for inclined binaries and allows for improved accuracy and precision in measurements of the masses as well as breaking of extrinsic parameter degeneracies. For low total masses, $M_{\\mathrm{obs}} \\lesssim 50 \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$, the observed chirp mass $\\mathcal{M}_{\\rm obs} = M_{\\mathrm{obs}}\\,\\eta^{3/5}$ ($\\eta$ being the symmetric mass ratio) is better measured. In contrast, as increasing power comes from merger and ringdown, we find that the total mass $M_{\\mathrm{obs}}$ has better relative prec...

  2. Determining Central Black Hole Masses in Distant Active Galaxies and Quasars. II. Improved Optical and UV Scaling Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Peterson, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    We present four improved empirical relationships useful for estimating the central black hole mass in nearby AGNs and distant luminous quasars alike using either optical or UV single-epoch spectroscopy. These mass-scaling relationships between line widths and luminosity are based on recently...

  3. Stellar and Black Hole Mass Densities as Empirical Tracers of Co-evolution Show Lock-step Growth since $z{\\sim}3$

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Fan, Xiaohui; Duschl, Wolfgang J.

    2016-01-01

    At redshifts beyond $z{\\sim}1$ measuring the black hole galaxy relations proves to be a difficult task. The bright light of the AGN aggravates deconvolution of black hole and galaxy properties. On the other hand high redshift data on these relations is vital to understand in what ways galaxies and black holes co-evolve and in what ways they don't. In this work we use black hole (BHMDs) and stellar mass densities (SMDs) to constrain the possible co-evolution of black holes with their host gala...

  4. Effect of spin precession on bounding the mass of the graviton using gravitational waves from massive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavridis, A.; Will, C. M.

    2010-05-01

    Observations of gravitational waves from massive binary black hole systems at cosmological distances can be used to search for a dependence of the speed of propagation of the waves on wavelength, and thereby to bound the mass of a hypothetical graviton. We study the effects of precession of the spins of the black holes and of the orbital angular momentum on the process of parameter estimation based on the method of matched filtering of gravitational-wave signals vs. theoretical template waveforms. For the proposed space interferometer LISA, we show that precession, and the accompanying modulations of the gravitational waveforms, are effective in breaking degeneracies among the parameters being estimated, and effectively restore the achievable graviton-mass bounds to levels obtainable from binary inspirals without spin. For spinning, precessing binary black hole systems of equal masses 106 Modot at 3 Gpc, the lower bounds on the graviton Compton wavelength achievable are of the order of 5 × 1016 km.

  5. Effect of spin precession on bounding the mass of the graviton using gravitational waves from massive black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of gravitational waves from massive binary black hole systems at cosmological distances can be used to search for a dependence of the speed of propagation of the waves on wavelength, and thereby to bound the mass of a hypothetical graviton. We study the effects of precession of the spins of the black holes and of the orbital angular momentum on the process of parameter estimation based on the method of matched filtering of gravitational-wave signals vs. theoretical template waveforms. For the proposed space interferometer LISA, we show that precession, and the accompanying modulations of the gravitational waveforms, are effective in breaking degeneracies among the parameters being estimated, and effectively restore the achievable graviton-mass bounds to levels obtainable from binary inspirals without spin. For spinning, precessing binary black hole systems of equal masses 106 Mo-dot at 3 Gpc, the lower bounds on the graviton Compton wavelength achievable are of the order of 5 x 1016 km.

  6. Bounding the mass of the graviton with gravitational waves: Effect of spin precessions in massive black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of gravitational waves from massive binary black-hole systems at cosmological distances can be used to search for a dependence of the speed of propagation of the waves on wavelength, and thereby to bound the mass of a hypothetical graviton. We study the effects of precessions of the spins of the black holes and of the orbital angular momentum on the process of parameter estimation based on the method of matched filtering of gravitational-wave signals vs theoretical template waveforms. For the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, we show that precessions, and the accompanying modulations of the gravitational waveforms, are effective in breaking degeneracies among the parameters being estimated, and effectively restore the achievable graviton-mass bounds to levels obtainable from binary inspirals without spin. For spinning, precessing binary black-hole systems of equal masses 106M· at 3 Gpc, the lower bounds on the graviton Compton wavelength achievable are of the order of 5x1016 km.

  7. Bounding the mass of the graviton with gravitational waves: Effect of spin precessions in massive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavridis, Adamantios; Will, Clifford M.

    2009-08-01

    Observations of gravitational waves from massive binary black-hole systems at cosmological distances can be used to search for a dependence of the speed of propagation of the waves on wavelength, and thereby to bound the mass of a hypothetical graviton. We study the effects of precessions of the spins of the black holes and of the orbital angular momentum on the process of parameter estimation based on the method of matched filtering of gravitational-wave signals vs theoretical template waveforms. For the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, we show that precessions, and the accompanying modulations of the gravitational waveforms, are effective in breaking degeneracies among the parameters being estimated, and effectively restore the achievable graviton-mass bounds to levels obtainable from binary inspirals without spin. For spinning, precessing binary black-hole systems of equal masses 106M⊙ at 3 Gpc, the lower bounds on the graviton Compton wavelength achievable are of the order of 5×1016km.

  8. (No) dynamical constraints on the mass of the black hole in two ULXs

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, T P; Goulding, A D; Swinbank, A M; Ward, M J; Goad, M R; Levan, A J

    2010-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of two Gemini campaigns to constrain the mass of the black hole in an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) via optical spectroscopy. Pilot studies of the optical counterparts of a number of ULXs revealed two candidates for further detailed study, based on the presence of a broad He II 4686 Angstrom emission line. A sequence of 10 long-slit spectra were obtained for each object, and the velocity shift of the ULX counterpart measured. Although radial velocity variations are observed, they are not sinusoidal, and no mass function is obtained. However, the broad He II line is highly variable on timescales shorter than a day. If associated with the reprocessing of X-rays in the accretion disc, its breadth implies that the disc must be close to face-on.

  9. Penrose inequalities and a positive mass theorem for charged black holes in higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Lima, Levi; Girão, Frederico; Lozório, Weslley; Silva, Juscelino

    2016-02-01

    We use the inverse mean curvature flow to establish Penrose-type inequalities for time-symmetric Einstein-Maxwell initial data sets which can be suitably embedded as a hypersurface in Euclidean space {{{R}}}n+1, n≥slant 3. In particular, we prove a positive mass theorem for this class of charged black holes. As an application, we show that the conjectured upper bound for the area in terms of the mass and the charge, which in dimension n = 3 is relevant in connection with the cosmic censorship conjecture, always holds under the natural assumption that the horizon is stable as a minimal hypersurface. The first and second authors were partially supported by CNPq/Brazil grants. The first and last authors were partially supported by a CAPES/Brazil grant.

  10. Primordial black holes with mass $10^{16}-10^{17}$ g and reionization of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Belotsky, K M

    2014-01-01

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) with mass $10^{16}-10^{17}$ g almost escape constraints from observations so could essentially contribute to dark matter density. Hawking evaporation of such PBHs produces with a steady rate $\\gamma$- and $e^{\\pm}$-radiations in MeV energy range, which can be absorbed by ordinary matter. Simplified estimates show that a small fraction of evaporated energy had to be absorbed by baryonic matter what can turn out to be enough to heat the matter so it is fully ionized at the redshift $z\\sim 5\\ldots 10$. The result is found to be close to a borderline case where the effect appears, what makes it sensitive to the approximation used. In our approximation, degree of gas ionization reaches 50-100\\% by $z\\sim 5$ for PBH mass $(3\\ldots7)\\times 10^{16}$ g with their abundance corresponding to the upper limit.

  11. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t - r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  12. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Mehdipour, S.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t — r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  13. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  14. Black holes in inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.

    1997-08-01

    We summarise recent work on the quantum production of black holes in the inflationary era. We describe, in simple terms, the Euclidean approach used, and the results obtained both for the pair creation rate and for the evolution of the black holes.

  15. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  16. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  17. The Black Hole Universe Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-06-01

    The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin

  18. Reflection from black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchiev, M Yu

    2003-01-01

    Black holes are presumed to have an ideal ability to absorb and keep matter. Whatever comes close to the event horizon, a boundary separating the inside region of a black hole from the outside world, inevitably goes in and remains inside forever. This work shows, however, that quantum corrections make possible a surprising process, reflection: a particle can bounce back from the event horizon. For low energy particles this process is efficient, black holes behave not as holes, but as mirrors, which changes our perception of their physical nature. Possible ways for observations of the reflection and its relation to the Hawking radiation process are outlined.

  19. Fluctuating Black Hole Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.

  20. On the formation of galactic black hole low-mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Jia, Kun; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-03-01

    Currently, there are 24 black hole (BH) X-ray binary systems that have been dynamically confirmed in the Galaxy. Most of them are low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) comprised of a stellar-mass BH and a low-mass donor star. Although the formation of these systems has been extensively investigated, some crucial issues remain unresolved. The most noticeable one is that, the low-mass companion has difficulties in ejecting the tightly bound envelope of the massive primary during the spiral-in process. While initially intermediate-mass binaries are more likely to survive the common envelope (CE) evolution, the resultant BH LMXBs mismatch the observations. In this paper, we use both stellar evolution and binary population synthesis to study the evolutionary history of BH LMXBs. We test various assumptions and prescriptions for the supernova mechanisms that produce BHs, the binding energy parameter, the CE efficiency and the initial mass distributions of the companion stars. We obtain the birthrate and the distributions of the donor mass, effective temperature and orbital period for the BH LMXBs in each case. By comparing the calculated results with the observations, we put useful constraints on the aforementioned parameters. In particular, we show that it is possible to form BH LMXBs with the standard CE scenario if most BHs are born through failed supernovae.

  1. Radio pulsars around intermediate mass black holes in super stellar clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Patruno, A; Faulkner, A J; Possenti, A

    2005-01-01

    We study accretion in binaries hosting an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) of 1000 solar masses, and a donor star more massive than 15 solar masses. These systems experience an active X-ray phase characterized by luminosities varying over a wide interval, from <10^36 erg/s up to a few 10^40 erg/s typical of the ultra luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Roche lobe overflow on the zero-age main sequence and donor masses above 20 solar masses can maintain a long-lived accretion phase at the level required to feed a ULX source. In wide systems, wind transfer rates are magnified by the focusing action of the IMBH yielding wind luminosities around 10^38 erg/s. These high mass-IMBH binaries can be identified as progenitors of IMBH-radio pulsar (PSR) binaries. We find that the formation of an IMBH-PSR binary does not necessarely require the transit through a ULX phase, but that a ULX can highlight a system that will evolve into an IMBH-PSR, if the mass of the donor star is constrained to lie within 15 to 30 solar ma...

  2. Antigravity and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, D

    2006-01-01

    We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.

  3. REDSHIFT 6.4 HOST GALAXIES OF 108 SOLAR MASS BLACK HOLES: LOW STAR FORMATION RATE AND DYNAMICAL MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of rest-frame far-infrared continuum and [C II] line emission in two z = 6.4 quasars with black hole masses of ≈108 M☉. CFHQS J0210–0456 is detected in the continuum with a 1.2 mm flux of 120 ± 35 μJy, whereas CFHQS J2329–0301 is undetected at a similar noise level. J2329–0301 has a star formation rate limit of ☉ yr–1, considerably below the typical value at all redshifts for this bolometric luminosity. Through comparison with hydro simulations, we speculate that this quasar is observed at a relatively rare phase where quasar feedback has effectively shut down star formation in the host galaxy. [C II] emission is also detected only in J0210–0456. The ratio of [C II] to far-infrared luminosity is similar to that of low-redshift galaxies of comparable luminosity, suggesting that the previous finding of an offset in the relationships between this ratio and far-infrared luminosity at low and high redshifts may be partially due to a selection effect due to the limited sensitivity of previous continuum data. The [C II] line of J0210–0456 is relatively narrow (FWHM = 189 ± 18 km s–1), indicating a dynamical mass substantially lower than expected from the local black hole-velocity dispersion correlation. The [C II] line is marginally resolved at 0.''7 resolution with the blue and red wings spatially offset by 0.''5 (3 kpc) and a smooth velocity gradient of 100 km s–1 across a scale of 6 kpc, possibly due to the rotation of a galaxy-wide disk. These observations are consistent with the idea that stellar mass growth lags black hole accretion for quasars at this epoch with respect to more recent times.

  4. A Search for Stellar-Mass Black Holes via Astrometric Microlensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, J R; Ofek, E O; Udalski, A; Kozlowski, S

    2016-01-01

    While dozens of stellar mass black holes have been discovered in binary systems, isolated black holes have eluded detection. Their presence can be inferred when they lens light from a background star. We attempt to detect the astrometric lensing signatures of three photometrically identified microlensing events, OGLE-2011-BLG-0022, OGLE-2011-BLG-0125, and OGLE-2012-BLG-0169 (OB110022, OB110125, and OB120169), located toward the Galactic Bulge. These events were selected because of their long durations, which statistically favors more massive lenses. Astrometric measurements were made over 1-2 years using laser-guided adaptive optics observations from the W. M. Keck Observatory. Lens model parameters were first constrained by the photometric light curves. The OB120169 light curve is well-fit by a single-lens model, while both OB110022 and OB110125 light curves favor binary-lens models. Using the photometric fits as prior information, no significant astrometric lensing signal was detected and all targets were c...

  5. Synthetic extinction maps around intermediate-mass black holes in Galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, C

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, much effort has been devoted to explain the discrepancy between the amount of intracluster medium (ICM) estimated from stellar evolution theories and that emerging from observations in globular clusters (GCs). One possible scenario is the accretion of this medium by an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) at the centre of the cluster. In this work, we aim at modelling the cluster colour-excess profile as a tracer of the ICM density, both with and without an IMBH. Comparing the profiles with observations allows us to test the existence of IMBHs and their possible role in the cleansing of the ICM. We derive the intracluster density profiles from hydrodynamical models of accretion onto a central IMBH in a GC and we determine the corresponding dust density. This model is applied to a list of 25 Galactic GCs. We find that central IMBHs decrease the ICM by several orders of magnitude. In a subset of 9 clusters, the absence of the black hole combined with a low intracluster medium temperature...

  6. Prompt emission from tidal disruptions of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laguna P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a qualitative picture of prompt emission from tidal disruptions of white dwarfs (WD by intermediate mass black holes (IMBH. The smaller size of an IMBH compared to a supermassive black hole and a smaller tidal radius of a WD disruption lead to a very fast event with high peak luminosity. Magnetic field is generated in situ following the tidal disruption, which leads to effective accretion. Since large-scale magnetic field is also produced, geometrically thick super-Eddington inflow leads to a relativistic jet. The dense jet possesses a photosphere, which emits quasi-thermal radiation in soft X-rays. The source can be classified as a long low-luminosity gamma-ray burst (ll-GRB. Tidal compression of a WD causes nuclear ignition, which is observable as an accompanying supernova. We suggest that GRB060218 and SN2006aj is such a pair of ll-GRB and supernova. We argue that in a flux-limited sample the disruptions of WDs by IMBHs are more frequent then the disruptions of other stars by IMBHs.

  7. UNDERSTANDING BLACK HOLE MASS ASSEMBLY VIA ACCRETION AND MERGERS AT LATE TIMES IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accretion is thought to primarily contribute to the mass accumulation history of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) throughout cosmic time. While this may be true at high redshifts, at lower redshifts and for the most massive black holes (BHs) mergers themselves might add significantly to the mass budget. We explore this in two disparate environments—a massive cluster and a void region. We evolve SMBHs from 4 > z > 0 using merger trees derived from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of these two regions, scaled to the observed value of the stellar mass fraction to account for overcooling. Mass gains from gas accretion proportional to bulge growth and BH-BH mergers are tracked, as are BHs that remain ''orbiting'' due to insufficient dynamical friction in a merger remnant, as well as those that are ejected due to gravitational recoil. We find that gas accretion remains the dominant source of mass accumulation in almost all SMBHs; mergers contribute 2.5% ± 0.1% for all SMBHs in the cluster and 1.0% ± 0.1% in the void since z = 4. However, mergers are significant for massive SMBHs. The fraction of mass accumulated from mergers for central BHs generally increases for larger values of the host bulge mass: in the void, the fraction is 2% at M *, bul = 1010 M ☉, increasing to 4% at M *, bul ≳ 1011 M ☉, and in the cluster it is 4% at M *, bul = 1010 M ☉ and 23% at 1012 M ☉. We also find that the total mass in orbiting SMBHs is negligible in the void, but significant in the cluster, in which a potentially detectable 40% of SMBHs and ≈8% of the total SMBH mass (where the total includes central, orbiting, and ejected SMBHs) is found orbiting at z = 0. The existence of orbiting and ejected SMBHs requires modification of the Soltan argument. We estimate this correction to the integrated accreted mass density of SMBHs to be in the range 6%-21%, with a mean value of 11% ± 3%. Quantifying the growth due to mergers at these late times, we

  8. UNDERSTANDING BLACK HOLE MASS ASSEMBLY VIA ACCRETION AND MERGERS AT LATE TIMES IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulier, Andrea; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Lackner, Claire N.; Cen, Renyue [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Natarajan, Priyamvada, E-mail: akulier@princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Accretion is thought to primarily contribute to the mass accumulation history of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) throughout cosmic time. While this may be true at high redshifts, at lower redshifts and for the most massive black holes (BHs) mergers themselves might add significantly to the mass budget. We explore this in two disparate environments—a massive cluster and a void region. We evolve SMBHs from 4 > z > 0 using merger trees derived from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of these two regions, scaled to the observed value of the stellar mass fraction to account for overcooling. Mass gains from gas accretion proportional to bulge growth and BH-BH mergers are tracked, as are BHs that remain ''orbiting'' due to insufficient dynamical friction in a merger remnant, as well as those that are ejected due to gravitational recoil. We find that gas accretion remains the dominant source of mass accumulation in almost all SMBHs; mergers contribute 2.5% ± 0.1% for all SMBHs in the cluster and 1.0% ± 0.1% in the void since z = 4. However, mergers are significant for massive SMBHs. The fraction of mass accumulated from mergers for central BHs generally increases for larger values of the host bulge mass: in the void, the fraction is 2% at M {sub *,} {sub bul} = 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, increasing to 4% at M {sub *,} {sub bul} ≳ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, and in the cluster it is 4% at M {sub *,} {sub bul} = 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and 23% at 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}. We also find that the total mass in orbiting SMBHs is negligible in the void, but significant in the cluster, in which a potentially detectable 40% of SMBHs and ≈8% of the total SMBH mass (where the total includes central, orbiting, and ejected SMBHs) is found orbiting at z = 0. The existence of orbiting and ejected SMBHs requires modification of the Soltan argument. We estimate this correction to the integrated accreted mass density of SMBHs to be in the range 6%-21%, with a mean

  9. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate. PMID:25719667

  10. An ultra-luminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z=6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of one billion solar masses ( $10^9 M_\\odot$). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than 1 billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultra-luminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z=6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z>6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Ly $\\alpha$ emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be 26 million light years, larger than found with other z>6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of $\\sim 1.2 \\times 10^{10} M_\\odo...

  11. How Much Mass Makes a Black Hole? - Astronomers Challenge Current Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, European astronomers have for the first time demonstrated that a magnetar - an unusual type of neutron star - was formed from a star with at least 40 times as much mass as the Sun. The result presents great challenges to current theories of how stars evolve, as a star as massive as this was expected to become a black hole, not a magnetar. This now raises a fundamental question: just how massive does a star really have to be to become a black hole? To reach their conclusions, the astronomers looked in detail at the extraordinary star cluster Westerlund 1 [1], located 16 000 light-years away in the southern constellation of Ara (the Altar). From previous studies (eso0510), the astronomers knew that Westerlund 1 was the closest super star cluster known, containing hundreds of very massive stars, some shining with a brilliance of almost one million suns and some two thousand times the diameter of the Sun (as large as the orbit of Saturn). "If the Sun were located at the heart of this remarkable cluster, our night sky would be full of hundreds of stars as bright as the full Moon," says Ben Ritchie, lead author of the paper reporting these results. Westerlund 1 is a fantastic stellar zoo, with a diverse and exotic population of stars. The stars in the cluster share one thing: they all have the same age, estimated at between 3.5 and 5 million years, as the cluster was formed in a single star-formation event. A magnetar (eso0831) is a type of neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field - a million billion times stronger than that of the Earth, which is formed when certain stars undergo supernova explosions. The Westerlund 1 cluster hosts one of the few magnetars known in the Milky Way. Thanks to its home in the cluster, the astronomers were able to make the remarkable deduction that this magnetar must have formed from a star at least 40 times as massive as the Sun. As all the stars in Westerlund 1 have the same age, the star that

  12. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Micu, Octavian; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-10-01

    We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (the bosons forming the black hole), and a continuous spectrum with energy $\\omega > m$ (representing the Hawking radiation and modelled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature). The $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M = N m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E > M$ at the same Hawking temperature. The partition function is then found to yield the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related with the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with $\\omega > m$ is also shown to reduce the Hawking flux and the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass.

  13. Higher-order corrections to mass-charge relation of extremal black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, Yevgeny; Motl, Luboš; Padi, Megha

    2007-12-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that the higher-derivative corrections always make extremal non-supersymmetric black holes lighter than the classical bound and self-repulsive. This hypothesis was recently formulated in the context of the so-called swampland program. One of our examples involves an extremal heterotic black hole in four dimensions. We also calculate the effect of general four-derivative terms in Maxwell-Einstein theories in D dimensions. The results are consistent with the conjecture.

  14. Higher-order corrections to mass-charge relation of extremal black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kats, Y; Padi, M; Kats, Yevgeny; Motl, Lubos; Padi, Megha

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that the higher-derivative corrections always make extremal non-supersymmetric black holes lighter than the classical bound and self-repulsive. This hypothesis was recently formulated in the context of the so-called swampland program. One of our examples involves an extremal heterotic black hole in four dimensions. We also calculate the effect of general four-derivative terms in Maxwell-Einstein theories in D dimensions. The results are consistent with the conjecture.

  15. Higher-order corrections to mass-charge relation of extremal black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Kats, Yevgeny; Motl, Lubos; Padi, Megha

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that the higher-derivative corrections always make extremal non-supersymmetric black holes lighter than the classical bound and self-repulsive. This hypothesis was recently formulated in the context of the so-called swampland program. One of our examples involves an extremal heterotic black hole in four dimensions. We also calculate the effect of general four-derivative terms in Maxwell-Einstein theories in D dimensions. The results are consistent with the conjec...

  16. Cosmic Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Eun-Joo; Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Production of high-energy gravitational objects is a common feature of gravitational theories. The primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities. Cosmic black holes can be used to probe physical properties of the very early universe which would usually require the knowledge of the theory of quantum gravity. They may be the only tool to explore thermalisation of the early universe. Whereas the creation of cosmic black ...

  17. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihajoki, P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  18. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Pihajoki, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  19. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  20. On the Formation of Galactic Black Hole Low-Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Chen; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are 24 black hole (BH) X-ray binary systems that have been dynamically confirmed in the Galaxy. Most of them are low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) comprised of a stellar-mass BH and a low-mass donor star. Although the formation of these systems has been extensively investigated, some crucial issues remain unresolved. The most noticeable one is that, the low-mass companion has difficulties in ejecting the tightly bound envelope of the massive primary during the spiral-in process. While initially intermediate-mass binaries are more likely to survive the common envelope (CE) evolution, the resultant BH LMXBs mismatch the observations. In this paper, we use both stellar evolution and binary population synthesis to study the evolutionary history of BH LMXBs. We test various assumptions and prescriptions for the supernova mechanisms that produce BHs, the binding energy parameter, the CE efficiency, and the initial mass distributions of the companion stars. We obtain the birthrate and the distribution...

  1. Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2015-07-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.

  2. The odd couple: quasars and black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Tremaine, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Quasars emit more energy than any other objects in the universe, yet are not much bigger than the solar system. We are almost certain that quasars are powered by giant black holes of up to $10^{10}$ times the mass of the Sun, and that black holes of between $10^6$ and $10^{10}$ solar masses---dead quasars---are present at the centers of most galaxies. Our own galaxy contains a black hole of $4.3\\times10^6$ solar masses. The mass of the central black hole appears to be closely related to other...

  3. THE IMPACT OF THE UNCERTAINTY IN SINGLE-EPOCH VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES ON THE OBSERVED EVOLUTION OF THE BLACK HOLE-BULGE SCALING RELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observations of the black hole (BH)-bulge scaling relations usually report positive redshift evolution, with higher redshift galaxies harboring more massive BHs than expected from the local relations. All of these studies focus on broad line quasars with BH mass estimated from virial estimators based on single-epoch spectra. Since the sample selection is largely based on quasar luminosity, the cosmic scatter in the BH-bulge relation introduces a statistical bias leading to on average more massive BHs given galaxy properties at high redshift (i.e., the Lauer et al. bias). We here emphasize a previously underappreciated statistical bias resulting from the uncertainty of single-epoch virial BH mass estimators and the shape of the underlying (true) BH mass function, which leads to on average overestimation of the true BH masses at the high-mass end. We demonstrate that the latter virial mass bias can contribute a substantial amount to the observed excess in BH mass at fixed bulge properties, comparable to the Lauer et al. bias. The virial mass bias is independent of the Lauer et al. bias; hence if both biases are at work, they can largely (or even fully) account for the observed BH mass excess at high redshift.

  4. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce

  5. Big Game Hunting in the Andromeda Galaxy: identifiying and weighing black holes in low mass X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, R.

    2004-07-01

    We have devised a new technique for identifying stellar mass black holes in low mass X-ray binaries, and have applied it to XMM-Newton observations of two X-ray sources in M31. In particular we search for low accretion rate power density spectra; these are very similar for all LMXB, whether the primary is a black hole or a neutron star. Galactic neutron star LMXB exhibit these distinctive PDS at very low luminosities ( ˜ 1036 erg s-1) while black hole LMXB can exhibit them at luminosities > 1038 erg s-1! Following the work of van der Klis (1994), we assume a maximum accretion rate (as a fraction of the Eddington limit) for low accretion rate PDS that is constant for all LMXB, and obtain an empirical value of ˜ 10% Eddington. We have so far discovered two candidate black hole binaries in M31, exhibiting low accretion rate PDS at up to 3×1038 and 5×1037 erg s-1. If we assume that they are at 5×1037 erg s-1 is likely to have a black hole primary.

  6. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  7. FORMATION OF MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN DENSE STAR CLUSTERS. II. INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND PRIMORDIAL MASS SEGREGATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promising mechanism to form intermediate-mass black holes is the runaway merger in dense star clusters, where main-sequence stars collide and form a very massive star (VMS), which then collapses to a black hole (BH). In this paper, we study the effects of primordial mass segregation and the importance of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) on the runaway growth of VMSs using a dynamical Monte Carlo code for N-body systems with N as high as 106 stars. Our code now includes an explicit treatment of all stellar collisions. We place special emphasis on the possibility of top-heavy IMFs, as observed in some very young massive clusters. We find that both primordial mass segregation and the shape of the IMF affect the rate of core collapse of star clusters and thus the time of the runaway. When we include primordial mass segregation, we generally see a decrease in core-collapse time (tcc). Although for smaller degrees of primordial mass segregation this decrease in tcc is mostly due to the change in the density profile of the cluster, for highly mass-segregated (primordial) clusters, it is the increase in the average mass in the core which reduces the central relaxation time decreasing tcc. The final mass of the VMS formed is always close to ∼10–3 of the total cluster mass, in agreement with previous studies and is reminiscent of the observed correlation between the central BH mass and the bulge mass of the galaxies. As the degree of primordial mass segregation is increased, the mass of the VMS increases at most by a factor of three. Flatter IMFs generally increase the average mass in the whole cluster, which increases tcc. For the range of IMFs investigated in this paper, this increase in tcc is to some degree balanced by stellar collisions, which accelerate core collapse. Thus, there is no significant change in tcc for the somewhat flatter global IMFs observed in very young massive clusters.

  8. Reaction of Accretion Disks to Abrupt Mass Loss During Binary Black Hole Merger

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, Sean M; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Reynolds, Christopher S; Schnittman, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    The association of an electromagnetic signal with the merger of a pair of supermassive black holes would have many important implications. For example, it would provide new information about gas and magnetic field interactions in dynamical spacetimes as well as a combination of redshift and luminosity distance that would enable precise cosmological tests. A proposal first made by Bode & Phinney (2007) is that because radiation of gravitational waves during the final inspiral and merger of the holes is abrupt and decreases the mass of the central object by a few percent, there will be waves in the disk that can steepen into shocks and thus increase the disk luminosity in a characteristic way. We evaluate this process analytically and numerically. We find that shocks only occur when the fractional mass loss exceeds the half-thickness (h/r) of the disk, hence significant energy release only occurs for geometrically thin disks which are thus at low Eddington ratios. This strongly limits the effective energy r...

  9. ESTIMATING BLACK HOLE MASSES IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI USING THE Mg II λ2800 EMISSION LINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the relationship between the linewidths of broad Mg II λ2800 and Hβ in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to refine them as tools to estimate black hole (BH) masses. We perform a detailed spectral analysis of a large sample of AGNs at intermediate redshifts selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, along with a smaller sample of archival ultraviolet spectra for nearby sources monitored with reverberation mapping (RM). Careful attention is devoted to accurate spectral decomposition, especially in the treatment of narrow-line blending and Fe II contamination. We show that, contrary to popular belief, the velocity width of Mg II tends to be smaller than that of Hβ, suggesting that the two species are not cospatial in the broad-line region. Using these findings and recently updated BH mass measurements from RM, we present a new calibration of the empirical prescriptions for estimating virial BH masses for AGNs using the broad Mg II and Hβ lines. We show that the BH masses derived from our new formalisms show subtle but important differences compared to some of the mass estimators currently used in the literature.

  10. A Uniformly Selected Sample of Low-mass Black Holes in Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xiao-Bo; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Ting-Gui; Fan, Xiaohui; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Ning

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a systematic search of low-mass black holes (BHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with broad Halpha emission lines, aiming at building a homogeneous sample that is more complete than previous ones for fainter, less highly accreting sources. For this purpose, we developed a set of elaborate, automated selection procedures and applied it uniformly to the Fourth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Special attention is given to AGN--galaxy spectral decomposition and emission-line deblending. We define a sample of 309 type 1 AGNs with BH masses in the range $8 \\times 10^4$--$2 \\times 10^6$ \\msun (with a median of $1.2 \\times 10^6$ solar mass), using the virial mass estimator based on the broad Halpha line. About half of our sample of low-mass BHs differs from that of Greene & Ho, with 61 of them discovered here for the first time. Our new sample picks up more AGNs with low accretion rates: the Eddington ratios of the present sample range from $<~0.01$ to ~1, with 30% below 0.1. ...

  11. The Black Hole Mass of NGC 4151: Comparison of Reverberation Mapping and Stellar Dynamical Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Onken, Christopher A; Peterson, Bradley M; Pogge, Richard W; Bentz, Misty C; Ferrarese, Laura; Vestergaard, Marianne; Crenshaw, D Michael; Sergeev, Sergey G; McHardy, Ian M; Merritt, David; Bower, Gary A; Heckman, Timothy M; Wandel, Amri

    2007-01-01

    We present a stellar dynamical estimate of the black hole (BH) mass in the Seyfert 1 galaxy, NGC 4151. We analyze ground-based spectroscopy as well as imaging data from the ground and space, and we construct 3-integral axisymmetric models in order to constrain the BH mass and mass-to-light ratio. The dynamical models depend on the assumed inclination of the kinematic symmetry axis of the stellar bulge. In the case where the bulge is assumed to be viewed edge-on, the kinematical data give only an upper limit to the mass of the BH of ~4e7 M_sun (1 sigma). If the bulge kinematic axis is assumed to have the same inclination as the symmetry axis of the large-scale galaxy disk (i.e., 23 degrees relative to the line of sight), a best-fit dynamical mass between 4-5e7 M_sun is obtained. However, because of the poor quality of the fit when the bulge is assumed to be inclined (as determined by the noisiness of the chi^2 surface and its minimum value), and because we lack spectroscopic data that clearly resolves the BH s...

  12. Masses and Scaling Relations for Nuclear Star Clusters, and their Coexistence with Central Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Iskren Y; Leigh, Natan; Lützgendorf, Nora; Neumayer, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Galactic nuclei typically host either a Nuclear Star Cluster (NSC, prevalent in galaxies with masses $\\lesssim 10^{10}M_\\odot$) or a Massive Black Hole (MBH, common in galaxies with masses $\\gtrsim 10^{12}M_\\odot$). In the intermediate mass range, some nuclei host both a NSC and a MBH. In this paper, we explore scaling relations between NSC mass (${\\cal M}_{\\rm NSC}$) and host galaxy total stellar mass (${\\cal M}_{\\star,\\rm gal}$) using a large sample of NSCs in late- and early-type galaxies, including a number of NSCs harboring a MBH. Such scaling relations reflect the underlying physical mechanisms driving the formation and (co)evolution of these central massive objects. We find $\\sim\\!1.5\\sigma$ significant differences between NSCs in late- and early-type galaxies in the slopes and offsets of the relations $r_{\\rm eff,NSC}$--${\\cal M}_{\\rm NSC}$, $r_{\\rm eff, NSC}$--${\\cal M}_{\\star,\\rm gal}$ and ${\\cal M}_{\\rm NSC}$--${\\cal M}_{\\star,\\rm gal}$, in the sense that $i)$ NSCs in late-types are more compact at...

  13. Surfing a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way

  14. The Properties of Low-Luminosity AGN: Variability, Accretion Rate, Black Hole Mass and Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleas, Juan; Podjed, Stephanie; Sarajedini, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from a study of ~5000 Broad-Line selected AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. Galaxy and AGN templates have been fit to the SDSS spectra to isolate the AGN component. The sources have absolute magnitudes in the range -23 variability analysis reveals that the anti-correlation between luminosity and variability amplitude continues to the faintest AGN in our sample (Gallastegui-Aizpun & Sarajedini 2014), though the underlying cause of the relation is still poorly understood. To address this, we further explore the connection between AGN luminosity and variability through measurement of the Hβ line width to determine black hole mass and accretion rate. We find that AGN with the highest variability amplitudes at a given luminosity appear to have lower accretion rates compared to low amplitude variables. We also investigate correlations with AGN color and accretion rate among these low-luminosity AGN.

  15. REVERBERATION MAPPING MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK HOLE MASSES IN SIX LOCAL SEYFERT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the final results from a high sampling rate, multi-month, spectrophotometric reverberation mapping campaign undertaken to obtain either new or improved Hβ reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have reliably measured the time delay between variations in the continuum and Hβ emission line in six local Seyfert 1 galaxies. These measurements are used to calculate the mass of the supermassive black hole at the center of each of these AGNs. We place our results in context to the most current calibration of the broad-line region (BLR) RBLR-L relationship, where our results remove outliers and reduce the scatter at the low-luminosity end of this relationship. We also present velocity-resolved Hβ time-delay measurements for our complete sample, though the clearest velocity-resolved kinematic signatures have already been published.

  16. Reverberation Mapping Measurements of Black Hole Masses in Six Local Seyfert Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Denney, K D; Pogge, R W; Adair, A; Atlee, D W; Au-Yong, K; Bentz, M C; Bird, J C; Brokofsky, D J; Chisholm, E; Comins, M L; Dietrich, M; Doroshenko, V T; Eastman, J D; Efimov, Y S; Ewald, S; Ferbey, S; Gaskell, C M; Hedrick, C H; Jackson, K; Klimanov, S A; Klimek, E S; Kruse, A K; Ladéroute, A; Lamb, J B; Leighly, K; Minezaki, T; Nazarov, S V; Onken, C A; Petersen, E A; Peterson, P; Poindexter, S; Sakata, Y; Schlesinger, K J; Sergeev, S G; Skolski, N; Stieglitz, L; Tobin, J J; Unterborn, C; Vestergaard, M; Watkins, A E; Watson, L C; Yoshii, Y

    2010-01-01

    We present the final results from a high sampling rate, multi-month, spectrophotometric reverberation mapping campaign undertaken to obtain either new or improved Hbeta reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low-luminosity AGNs. We have reliably measured thetime delay between variations in the continuum and Hbeta emission line in six local Seyfert 1 galaxies. These measurements are used to calculate the mass of the supermassive black hole at the center of each of these AGNs. We place our results in context to the most current calibration of the broad-line region (BLR) R-L relationship, where our results remove outliers and reduce the scatter at the low-luminosity end of this relationship. We also present velocity-resolved Hbeta time delay measurements for our complete sample, though the clearest velocity-resolved kinematic signatures have already been published.

  17. NO EVIDENCE FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: STRONG CONSTRAINTS FROM THE JVLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam–1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M☉. These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs ∼> 1000 M☉ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  18. Flares from Disruptions of White Dwarfs by Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Roman; Haas, R.; Bode, T.; Laguna, P.

    2011-05-01

    Tidal disruptions of white dwarfs (WDs) by intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) may produce detectable electromagnetic/gravitational wave signature. They may provide the evidence for existence of IMBHs. We simulate the disruptions in full numerical general relativity (GR) with MayaKranc + Whisky code combination for several BH spin values. We model X-ray and UV time-dependent spectra from the simulations. Direct emission from hot fallback material is substantial, when the BH spin is aligned with WD orbital angular momentum. However, the fallback material can be completely shielded by large Compton optical depth in a misaligned case. This emphasizes the importance of realistic GR simulations with misaligned spin. Properties of flares from shock breakout region depend less on spin orientation and value. We discuss the prospects of positive identifications of candidates from GALEX and other surveys.

  19. The Disk Wind Model and the Effect on the Virial Black Hole Mass Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Suk Yee

    2015-09-01

    The current 'standard quasar model' consists of a central engine, accretion disk, and jet. However, these components cannot entirely explain some quasar spectral features, specifically, the presence of broad emission lines (BELs), which are assumed to originate from high velocity gas in the broad line region (BLR). The addition of a wind to the standard model provides a mechanism to drive the outflowing gas emanated from the accretion disk. The shape of the emission line profiles in the BLR, in particular, the velocity offsets and skewness for different viewing angles, are explored. The impact on the virial black hole mass calculation due to the quasar's orientation to the observer is also tested. The geometry of the BLR is modelled by implementing the wind component or the disk wind model. While the models are dependent on the specified parameters, they are able to qualitatively reproduce the predicted features of the emission lines.

  20. Prospects for detecting dark matter with neutrino telescopes in intermediate mass black hole scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current strategies of indirect dark matter detection with neutrino telescopes are based on the search for high-energy neutrinos from the solar core or from the center of the Earth. Here, we propose a new strategy based on the detection of neutrinos from dark matter annihilations in mini-spikes around intermediate mass black holes. Neutrino fluxes, in this case, depend on the annihilation cross-section of dark matter particles, whereas solar and terrestrial fluxes are sensitive to the scattering cross-section off nucleons, a circumstance that makes the proposed search complementary to the existing ones. We discuss the prospects for detection with upcoming underwater and under-ice experiments such as ANTARES and IceCube, and show that several, up to many, sources could be detected with both experiments. A kilometer-scale telescope in the Mediterranean appears to be ideally suited for the proposed search

  1. Enhancement of the Dark Matter Positron Signal in the Intermediate Mass Black Holes Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A way to search for dark matter is to look for an excess in the cosmic positron spectrum above 1 GeV. In that context, an enhancement of the signal due to dark matter substructures is often introduced and referred to as the boost (or clumpiness) factor. Recent studies show not only that the boost factor does depend on energy, but is a statistical property of the distribution of substructures inside the Milky Way. Bertone's scenarios in which a relatively small number of intermediate-mass black holes are present in our Galaxy are investigated here. For mχ = 100 GeV, boosts of order 103 are found, with a high dispersion, especially near the source energy

  2. The Local Black Hole Mass Function Derived from the MBH-Pitch Angle and the MBH-Sersic Index Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu Pakdil, Burcin; Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    We determined the local supermassive black hole mass function (BHMF) for all galaxy types with complementing the local BHMF for spiral galaxies derived by Davis et al. (2014). We used the empirical relation between supermassive black hole mass and the Sersic index for early type (E/S0) galaxies from the same parent sample with Davis et al. (2014), which is selected from galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS) which is a very complete sample of the nearby galaxies.The observational simplicity of our approach and direct measurements from the statistically tightest correlations with black hole mass, which are the Sersic index for E/S0 galaxies and pitch angle for spiral galaxies, make it straightforward to estimate an accurate local BHMF. Integrating over the best-fitting mass function, the local mass density of SMBHs from early- and late-type galaxies combined is ρ=3.61+3.80-1.75 x105 M⊙ Mpc-3. The errors are estimated from Monte Carlo simulations which include uncertainities in the emprical relations and measurement errors in both Sersic index and Pitch angle. Assuming supermassive black holes form via baryonic accretion, we find that 0.013+0.013-0.006 per cent of baryons are contained in SMBHs at the centers of galaxies in the local universe.

  3. First Results from the Lick AGN Monitoring Project: The Mass of the Black Hole in Arp 151

    CERN Document Server

    Bentz, Misty C; Barth, Aaron J; Baliber, Nairn; Bennert, Nicola; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Gates, Elinor L; Greene, Jenny E; Hidas, Marton G; Hiner, Kyle D; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Matthew A; Minezaki, Takeo; Serduke, Frank J D; Shiode, Joshua H; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Steele, Thea N; Stern, Daniel; Street, Rachel A; Thornton, Carol E; Treu, Tommaso; Wang, Xiaofeng; Woo, Jong-Hak; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2008-01-01

    We have recently completed a 64-night spectroscopic monitoring campaign at the Lick Observatory 3-m Shane telescope with the aim of measuring the masses of the black holes in 13 nearby (z < 0.05) Seyfert 1 galaxies with expected masses in the range ~10^6-10^7 M_sun. We present here the first results from this project -- the mass of the central black hole in Arp 151. Strong variability throughout the campaign led to an exceptionally clean Hbeta lag measurement in this object of 4.25(+0.68/-0.66) days in the observed frame. Coupled with the width of the Hbeta emission line in the variable spectrum, we determine a black hole mass of (7.1 +/- 1.2)x10^6 M_sun, assuming the Onken et al. normalization for reverberation-based virial masses. We also find velocity-resolved lag information within the Hbeta emission line which clearly shows infalling gas in the Hbeta-emitting region. Further detailed analysis may lead to a full model of the geometry and kinematics of broad line region gas around the central black hole...

  4. Synthetic extinction maps around intermediate-mass black holes in Galactic globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, C.; Pellizza, L. J.

    2016-08-01

    During the last decades, much effort has been devoted to explain the discrepancy between the amount of intracluster medium (ICM) estimated from stellar evolution theories and that emerging from observations in globular clusters (GCs). One possible scenario is the accretion of this medium by an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) at the centre of the cluster. In this work, we aim at modelling the cluster colour-excess profile as a tracer of the ICM density, both with and without an IMBH. Comparing the profiles with observations allows us to test the existence of IMBHs and their possible role in the cleansing of the ICM. We derive the intracluster density profiles from hydrodynamical models of accretion on to a central IMBH in a GC and we determine the corresponding dust density. This model is applied to a list of 25 Galactic GCs. We find that central IMBHs decrease the ICM by several orders of magnitude. In a subset of nine clusters, the absence of the black hole combined with a low-ICM temperature would be at odds with present gas mass content estimations. As a result, we conclude that IMBHs are an effective cleansing mechanism of the ICM of GCs. We construct synthetic extinction maps for M 62 and ωCen, two clusters in the small subset of nine with observed 2D extinction maps. We find that under reasonable assumptions regarding the model parameters, if the gas temperature in M 62 is close to 8000 K, an IMBH needs to be invoked. Further ICM observations regarding both the gas and dust in GCs could help to settle this issue.

  5. Noncommutative Solitonic Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Chang-Young, Ee; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2012-01-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field using the Moyal product expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in the two noncommutative spatial directions. By numerical simulation we look for black hole solutions by increasing the non- commutativity parameter value starting from regular solutions with vanishing noncommutativity. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.

  6. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  7. Scalarized hairy black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn

  8. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  9. Scalarized Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  10. Massive Black Holes and Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.

  11. Weighing black holes in the universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xue-bing

    2006-01-01

    The determination of the mass of black holes in our universe is crucial to understand their physics nature but is a great challenge to scientists.In this paper Ⅰ briefly review some methods that are currently used to estimate the mass of black holes,especially those in X-ray binary systems and in galactic nuclei.Our recent progress in improving the mass estimates of supermasssive black holes in active galactic nuclei by involving some empirical relations is presented.Finally Ⅰ point out the similarities and common physics in Galactic black hole X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei,and demonstrate that the black hole mass estimation is very much helpful to understand the accretion physics around black holes.

  12. Spacetime noncommutative effect on black hole as particle accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Chikun; Liu, Changqing; Qian GUO

    2013-01-01

    We study the spacetime noncommutative effect on black hole as particle accelerators and, find that particle falling from infinity with zero velocity cannot collide with unbound energy when the noncommutative Kerr black hole is exactly extremal. Our results also show that the bigger of the spinning black hole's mass is, the higher of center of mass energy that the particles obtain. For small and medium noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole, the collision energy depends on the black holes' mass.

  13. Dynamics of Black Holes and Dark Matter in Galactic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    O'Leary, Ryan Martin; Loeb, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents theoretical studies of the dynamics of stars and stellar mass black holes around supermassive black holes. We additionally study the dynamics of dark matter in galaxy mergers. The first part of this thesis focuses on the observational signatures of cusps of stellar mass black holes that surround supermassive black holes. The second chapter shows that a cusp of stellar mass black holes in the galactic center can eject stars from the Milky Way galaxy with velocities up ...

  14. Black holes and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely accepted that the complete gravitational collapse of a body always yields a black hole, and that naked singularities are never produced (the cosmic censorship hypothesis). The local (or strong) cosmic censorship hypothesis states that singularities which are even locally naked (e.g., to an observer inside a black hole) are never produced. This dissertation studies the validity of these two conjectures. The Kerr-Newman metrics describes the black holes only when M2 greater than or equal to Q2 + P2, where M is the mass of the black hole, a = J/M its specific angular momentum, Q its electric charge, and P its magnetic charge. In the first part of this dissertation, the possibility of converting an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole (M2 = a2 + Q2 + P2) into a naked singularity by the accretion of test particles is considered. The motion of test particles is studied with a large angular momentum to energy ratio, and also test particles with a large charge to energy ratio. The final state is always found to be a black hole if the angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the black hole are all much greater than the corresponding angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the test particle. In Part II of this dissertation possible black hole interior solutions are studied. The Cauchy horizons and locally naked timelike singularities of the charged (and/or rotating) solutions are contrasted with the spacelike all-encompassing singularity of the Schwarzschild solution. It is determined which portions of the analytic extension of the Reissner-Nordstroem solution are relevant to realistic gravitational collapse

  15. A parallax distance to the microquasar GRS 1915+105 and a revised estimate of its black hole mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M. J.; McClintock, J. E.; Steiner, J. F.; Narayan, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Steeghs, D. [Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Remillard, R. A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dhawan, V., E-mail: mreid@cfa.harvard.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we have measured a trigonometric parallax for the microquasar GRS 1915+105, which contains a black hole and a K-giant companion. This yields a direct distance estimate of 8.6{sub −1.6}{sup +2.0} kpc and a revised estimate for the mass of the black hole of 12.4{sub −1.8}{sup +2.0} M {sub ☉}. GRS 1915+105 is at about the same distance as some H II regions and water masers associated with high-mass star formation in the Sagittarius spiral arm of the Galaxy. The absolute proper motion of GRS 1915+105 is –3.19 ± 0.03 mas yr{sup –1} and –6.24 ± 0.05 mas yr{sup –1} toward the east and north, respectively, which corresponds to a modest peculiar speed of 22 ± 24 km s{sup –1} at the parallax distance, suggesting that the binary did not receive a large velocity kick when the black hole formed. On one observational epoch, GRS 1915+105 displayed superluminal motion along the direction of its approaching jet. Considering previous observations of jet motions, the jet in GRS 1915+105 can be modeled with a jet inclination to the line of sight of 60° ± 5° and a variable flow speed between 0.65c and 0.81c, which possibly indicates deceleration of the jet at distances from the black hole ≳ 2000 AU. Finally, using our measurements of distance and estimates of black hole mass and inclination, we provisionally confirm our earlier result that the black hole is spinning very rapidly.

  16. A parallax distance to the microquasar GRS 1915+105 and a revised estimate of its black hole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we have measured a trigonometric parallax for the microquasar GRS 1915+105, which contains a black hole and a K-giant companion. This yields a direct distance estimate of 8.6−1.6+2.0 kpc and a revised estimate for the mass of the black hole of 12.4−1.8+2.0 M ☉. GRS 1915+105 is at about the same distance as some H II regions and water masers associated with high-mass star formation in the Sagittarius spiral arm of the Galaxy. The absolute proper motion of GRS 1915+105 is –3.19 ± 0.03 mas yr–1 and –6.24 ± 0.05 mas yr–1 toward the east and north, respectively, which corresponds to a modest peculiar speed of 22 ± 24 km s–1 at the parallax distance, suggesting that the binary did not receive a large velocity kick when the black hole formed. On one observational epoch, GRS 1915+105 displayed superluminal motion along the direction of its approaching jet. Considering previous observations of jet motions, the jet in GRS 1915+105 can be modeled with a jet inclination to the line of sight of 60° ± 5° and a variable flow speed between 0.65c and 0.81c, which possibly indicates deceleration of the jet at distances from the black hole ≳ 2000 AU. Finally, using our measurements of distance and estimates of black hole mass and inclination, we provisionally confirm our earlier result that the black hole is spinning very rapidly.

  17. Black holes evaporation and big mass particle (maximon, intermediate boson) creation in nonstationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter considers the process of creation of particles with maximally big masses (maximons, intermediate bosons) in the nonstationary Universe within the framework of neutral and charged scalar field theory. The conclusions of the matter creation model for real particles (resonances) and hypothetical particles (maximons, friedmons, intermediate bosons) are analyzed. It is determined that if the mechanism of maximon's creation exists, then these particles must be stable. The maximons could be the final states of decaying black holes. A possible mechanism of cosmic ray creation as a result of ''vacuum'' generation of known unstable particles is discussed. The limits upon the mass and the life time of intermediate bosons are calculated. It is demonstrated that the creation of masses greater than 10 GeV, and with life times less than 10-24 sec and quantity of elementary particles greater than 100 are in contradiction with the particle creation mechanism and the experimental mass density in the Universe. The formalism of the examined method and its vacuum properties are discussed in an appendix

  18. An effective selection method for low-mass active black holes and first spectroscopic identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Yasuda, Naoki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Taniguchi, Yuki; Kato, Takahiro; Jiang, Ji-an; Nagao, Tohru; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Blinnikov, Sergei; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Doi, Mamoru

    2016-04-01

    We present a new method for effectively selecting objects which may be low-mass active black holes (BHs) at galaxy centers using high-cadence optical imaging data, and our first spectroscopic identification of an active 2.7 × 106 M⊙ BH at z = 0.164. This active BH was originally selected due to its rapid optical variability, from a few hours to a day, based on Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam g-band imaging data taken with a 1 hr cadence. Broad and narrow Hα lines and many other emission ones are detected in our optical spectra taken with Subaru FOCAS, and the BH mass is measured via the broad Hα emission line width (1880 km s-1) and luminosity (4.2 × 1040 erg s-1) after careful correction to the atmospheric absorption around 7580-7720 Å. We measure the Eddington ratio and find it to be as low as 0.05, considerably smaller than those in a previous SDSS sample with similar BH mass and redshift, which indicates one of the special potentials of our Subaru survey. The g - r color and morphology of the extended component indicate that the host galaxy is a star-forming galaxy. We also show the effectiveness of our variability selection for low-mass active BHs.

  19. An effective selection method for low-mass active black holes and first spectroscopic identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Yasuda, Naoki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Taniguchi, Yuki; Kato, Takahiro; Jiang, Ji-an; Nagao, Tohru; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Blinnikov, Sergei; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Doi, Mamoru

    2016-06-01

    We present a new method for effectively selecting objects which may be low-mass active black holes (BHs) at galaxy centers using high-cadence optical imaging data, and our first spectroscopic identification of an active 2.7 × 106 M⊙ BH at z = 0.164. This active BH was originally selected due to its rapid optical variability, from a few hours to a day, based on Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam g-band imaging data taken with a 1 hr cadence. Broad and narrow Hα lines and many other emission ones are detected in our optical spectra taken with Subaru FOCAS, and the BH mass is measured via the broad Hα emission line width (1880 km s-1) and luminosity (4.2 × 1040 erg s-1) after careful correction to the atmospheric absorption around 7580-7720 Å. We measure the Eddington ratio and find it to be as low as 0.05, considerably smaller than those in a previous SDSS sample with similar BH mass and redshift, which indicates one of the special potentials of our Subaru survey. The g - r color and morphology of the extended component indicate that the host galaxy is a star-forming galaxy. We also show the effectiveness of our variability selection for low-mass active BHs.

  20. Correlations Between Supermassive Black Holes, Velocity Dispersions, and Mass Deficits in Elliptical Galaxies with Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Kormendy, John; 10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/L142

    2009-01-01

    High-dynamic-range surface photometry in a companion paper makes possible accurate measurement of the stellar light deficits L_def and mass deficits M_def associated with the cores of elliptical galaxies. We show that L_def correlates with the velocity dispersion sigma of the host galaxy bulge averaged outside the central region that may be affected by a supermassive black hole (BH). We confirm that L_def correlates with BH mass MBH. Also, the fractional light deficit L_def/L correlates with MBH/M, the ratio of BH mass to the galaxy stellar mass. All three correlations have scatter similar to or smaller than the scatter in the well known correlation between MBH and sigma. The new correlations are remarkable in view of the dichotomy between ellipticals with cores and those with central extra light. Core light deficit correlates closely with MBH and sigma, but extra light does not. This supports the suggestion that extra light Es are made in wet mergers with starbursts whereas core Es are made in dry mergers. A...